WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain association projection

  1. A whole brain volumetric approach in overweight/obese children: Examining the association with different physical fitness components and academic performance. The ActiveBrains project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Contreras-Rodriguez, Oren; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Mora-Gonzalez, Jose; Migueles, Jairo H; Henriksson, Pontus; Davis, Catherine L; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Catena, Andrés; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-10-01

    Obesity, as compared to normal weight, is associated with detectable structural differences in the brain. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has examined the association of physical fitness with gray matter volume in overweight/obese children using whole brain analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the key components of physical fitness (i.e. cardiorespiratory fitness, speed-agility and muscular fitness) and brain structural volume, and to assess whether fitness-related changes in brain volumes are related to academic performance in overweight/obese children. A total of 101 overweight/obese children aged 8-11 years were recruited from Granada, Spain. The physical fitness components were assessed following the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery. T1-weighted images were acquired with a 3.0 T S Magnetom Tim Trio system. Gray matter tissue was calculated using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). Academic performance was assessed by the Batería III Woodcock-Muñoz Tests of Achievement. All analyses were controlled for sex, peak high velocity offset, parent education, body mass index and total brain volume. The statistical threshold was calculated with AlphaSim and further Hayasaka adjusted to account for the non-isotropic smoothness of structural images. The main results showed that higher cardiorespiratory fitness was related to greater gray matter volumes (P structures; besides, some of these brain structures may be related to better academic performance. Importantly, the identified associations of fitness and gray matter volume were different for each fitness component. These findings suggest that increases in cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility may positively influence the development of distinctive brain regions and academic indicators, and thus counteract the harmful effect of overweight and obesity on brain structure during childhood. Copyright

  2. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  3. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-19

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas.

  4. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  5. Self-projection and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L; Carroll, Daniel C

    2007-02-01

    When thinking about the future or the upcoming actions of another person, we mentally project ourselves into that alternative situation. Accumulating data suggest that envisioning the future (prospection), remembering the past, conceiving the viewpoint of others (theory of mind) and possibly some forms of navigation reflect the workings of the same core brain network. These abilities emerge at a similar age and share a common functional anatomy that includes frontal and medial temporal systems that are traditionally associated with planning, episodic memory and default (passive) cognitive states. We speculate that these abilities, most often studied as distinct, rely on a common set of processes by which past experiences are used adaptively to imagine perspectives and events beyond those that emerge from the immediate environment.

  6. Brain-mapping projects using the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Mitra, Partha

    2015-04-01

    Globally, there is an increasing interest in brain-mapping projects, including the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative project in the USA, the Human Brain Project (HBP) in Europe, and the Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS) project in Japan. These projects aim to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain. Brain/MINDS is focused on structural and functional mapping of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) brain. This non-human primate has numerous advantages for brain mapping, including a well-developed frontal cortex and a compact brain size, as well as the availability of transgenic technologies. In the present review article, we discuss strategies for structural and functional mapping of the marmoset brain and the relation of the common marmoset to other animals models. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain edema associated with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bum-soo; Sarma, Dipanka; Lee, Seon-Kyu; ter Brugge, Karel G.

    2009-01-01

    Brain edema in unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is rare; this study examines (1) its frequency and clinical presentation, (2) imaging findings with emphasis on venous drainage abnormalities, and (3) implications of these findings on natural history and management. Presentation and imaging features of all unruptured brain AVMs were prospectively collected in our brain AVM database. Neurological findings, size, location, venous drainage pattern, presence of venous thrombosis, ectasia, or stenosis, and brain edema were specifically recorded. Treatment details of all patients with brain edema and their clinical and imaging follow-up were reviewed. Finally, a comparison was made between patients with and without edema. Brain edema was found in 13/329 unruptured brain AVMs (3.9%). Neurological deficit (46.2%), venous thrombosis (38.5%), venous ectasia (84.6%), stenosis (38.5%), and contrast stagnation in the draining veins (84.6%) were more frequent in patients with brain edema than without edema. Eight patients with brain edema received specific treatment (embolization = 5, surgery = 2, radiosurgery = 1). Clinical features correlated well with change in degree of edema in six. Three of five embolized patients were stable or showed improvement after the procedure. On follow-up, however, intracranial hemorrhage developed in three. Brain edema in unruptured brain AVMs is rare, 3.9% in this series. Venous outflow abnormalities are frequently associated and appear to contribute to the development of edema. Progressive nonhemorrhagic symptoms are also associated, with a possible increased risk of hemorrhage. Palliative embolization arrests the nonhemorrhagic symptoms in selected patients, although it may not have an effect on hemorrhagic risk. (orig.)

  8. Association Between Brain Activation and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2018-04-13

    The origin of the "resting-state" brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is still uncertain. Here we provide evidence for the neurovascular origins of the amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) by comparing them with task-induced blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses, which are considered a proxy for neuronal activation. Using fMRI data for 2 different tasks (Relational and Social) collected by the Human Connectome Project in 426 healthy adults, we show that ALFF and lFCD have linear associations with the BOLD response. This association was significantly attenuated by a novel task signal regression (TSR) procedure, indicating that task performance enhances lFCD and ALFF in activated regions. We also show that lFCD predicts BOLD activation patterns, as was recently shown for other functional connectivity metrics, which corroborates that resting functional connectivity architecture impacts brain activation responses. Thus, our findings indicate a common source for BOLD responses, ALFF and lFCD, which is consistent with the neurovascular origin of local hemodynamic synchrony presumably reflecting coordinated fluctuations in neuronal activity. This study also supports the development of task-evoked functional connectivity density mapping.

  9. The associative brain at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppa, A.; Quartarone, A.; Siebner, H.

    2017-01-01

    with movement disorders and other neuropsychiatric diseases. The present review covers the physiology, pharmacology, pathology and motor effects of PAS. Further sections of the review focus on new protocols of “modified PAS” and possible future application of PAS in neuromorphic circuits designed for brain...

  10. Brain Transcriptional and Epigenetic Associations with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Matthew R.; Rubin, Robert A.; Falcone, Tatiana; Ting, Angela H.; Natowicz, Marvin R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism is a common neurodevelopmental syndrome. Numerous rare genetic etiologies are reported; most cases are idiopathic. Methodology/Principal Findings To uncover important gene dysregulation in autism we analyzed carefully selected idiopathic autistic and control cerebellar and BA19 (occipital) brain tissues using high resolution whole genome gene expression and whole genome DNA methylation microarrays. No changes in DNA methylation were identified in autistic brain but gene expression abnormalities in two areas of metabolism were apparent: down-regulation of genes of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and of protein translation. We also found associations between specific behavioral domains of autism and specific brain gene expression modules related to myelin/myelination, inflammation/immune response and purinergic signaling. Conclusions/Significance This work highlights two largely unrecognized molecular pathophysiological themes in autism and suggests differing molecular bases for autism behavioral endophenotypes. PMID:22984548

  11. Data integration through brain atlasing: Human Brain Project tools and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Ingvild E; Øvsthus, Martin; Papp, Eszter A; Yates, Sharon C; Silvestri, Ludovico; Fiorilli, Julien; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Pavone, Francesco S; Puchades, Maja A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2018-04-01

    The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed. HBP will build services for spatial query and analysis of brain data comparable to current online services for geospatial data. The services will provide interactive access to a wide range of data types that have information about anatomical location tied to them. The 3D volumetric nature of the brain, however, introduces a new level of complexity that requires a range of tools for making use of and interacting with the atlases. With such new tools, neuroscience research groups will be able to connect their data to atlas space, share their data through online data systems, and search and find other relevant data through the same systems. This new approach partly replaces earlier attempts to organize research data based only on a set of semantic terminologies describing the brain and its subdivisions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  12. Research project: "Promotion of optimum brain ageing"

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Rehabilitation and Geriatrics Department of the Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) has signed a research protocol with CERN with a view to promoting better understanding of the mechanisms that trigger Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia associated with memory loss, inability to make plans and spatial disorientation. With 24 million sufferers worldwide at present, a figure that is predicted to rise to 29 million by 2020, it represents a major challenge for the coming decades. Prevention is a key factor in slowing the alarming spread of this disease. Delaying the onset of the disease could reduce the total number of cases by 50%. Why CERN? CERN is an international research organisation with a workforce that is predominantly male (a section of the population that has been little studied so far) and has a high level of education. Moreover, its pensioners are easy to reach since the majority live in the Geneva area. The aim of the study is to ev...

  13. Significance of parietal projection in radiosotope scintigraphy of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomchenkov, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the isotope scintigraphy of the brain in the parieal projection with the change of the dip angle of the gamma-chamber detector to the plane of the physiological horizontal was revealed. The observation was made on 100 patients with suspected presence of the volumetric process of the brain. Three variants of placing were studied: the parietal projection - standard (collimator plane parallel to the plane of physiological horizontal and strictly perpendicular to the sagittal plane); the placing with an angle of 30 deg between the detector plane and the physiological horizontal, opened at the front (posterio-parietal); placing with an angle of 30 deg between the detector plane and the physiological horizontal opened at the back (anterio-parietal). A comparative analysis of scintigrams with focal processes of the brain showed the largest informativeness of the proposed modification of the parietal projection in the form of a change of the dip angle of the gamma-chamber detector plane to the plane of the physiological horizontal opened at the back; this makes it possible to reveal more thoroughly the focus of the increased, pathological accumulation of the isotope in different parts of the skull, where the use of as standard placing is of small informativeness

  14. Brain edema associated with intracranial meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Hirai, Osamu

    1992-01-01

    Brain edema associated with intracranial meningiomas was investigated on 80 patients, excluding recurrent cases. Statistically significant positive correlations with the degree of edema were found with large tumors, the convexity or parasagittal locations, the venous outflow disturbance, and the evidence of cortical disruption or peritumoral enhancement visualized on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imagings. Patients with a short clinical history and with angiographic evidence of hypervascularity tended to have edema, but there was no statistical significance. It is concluded that various factors are responsible for the edema associated with meningiomas and that it would be hard to determine the most important cause, since each factor plays a part edema production, spread, and resolution. (author)

  15. Quality of Life Following Brain Injury: Perspectives from Brain Injury Association of America State Affiliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Tucker, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to examine the perspectives of brain injury professionals concerning family members' feelings about the quality of life experienced by individuals with brain injuries. Participants: participating in the study were 28 individuals in leadership positions with the state affiliates of the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA). Methods:…

  16. Visual problems associated with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2018-02-28

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its associated concussion are major causes of disability and death. All ages can be affected but children, young adults and the elderly are particularly susceptible. A decline in mortality has resulted in many more individuals living with a disability caused by TBI including those affecting vision. This review describes: (1) the major clinical and pathological features of TBI; (2) the visual signs and symptoms associated with the disorder; and (3) discusses the assessment of quality of life and visual rehabilitation of the patient. Defects in primary vision such as visual acuity and visual fields, eye movement including vergence, saccadic and smooth pursuit movements, and in more complex aspects of vision involving visual perception, motion vision ('akinopsia'), and visuo-spatial function have all been reported in TBI. Eye movement dysfunction may be an early sign of TBI. Hence, TBI can result in a variety of visual problems, many patients exhibiting multiple visual defects in combination with a decline in overall health. Patients with chronic dysfunction following TBI may require occupational, vestibular, cognitive and other forms of physical therapy. Such patients may also benefit from visual rehabilitation, including reading-related oculomotor training and the prescribing of spectacles with a variety of tints and prism combinations. © 2018 Optometry Australia.

  17. Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes

  18. Environmental impacts associated with Project Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.W.; Whicker, F.W.; Hanson, W.C.

    Project Rio Blanco, an experiment involving deep underground detonation of three 30-kton nuclear explosives designed to stimulate natural gas flow in geologic formations of low permeability, was conducted in western Colorado on 17 May 1973. Environmental impacts associated with this experiment were divided into three categories: radiation, ground motion, and conventional physical activities. Radiation and ground motion are unique to this type experiment while conventional activities would be associated with any type of resource development. The objective of observations made at Rio Blanco was to qualitatively and, where possible, quantitatively ascertain environmental impacts associated with the project. Observations indicated that ground motion and conventional activities appeared to cause the greatest impacts. Ground motion impacts were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravine and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Following the detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Animals receiving deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs and burrows. No mortality or injury was observed in any large animals. (U.S.)

  19. Brain damage in former association football players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortland, O.; Tysvaer, A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. (orig.)

  20. Peritumoral edema associated with metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirotani, Toshiki; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Shima, Katsuji; Chigasaki, Hiroo; Tajima, Atsushi; Watanabe, Satoru.

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) examinations were performed in 94 lesions of 50 patients with metastatic brain tumors. Peritumoral edema (A E ) and tumor area (A T ) were measured using the planimetric method on the CT scan films that demonstrated maximum size of the tumor. Then, the volume of the peritumoral edema (V E ) and the surface area of the tumor (S T ) were claculated from these data. Eighty-three brain lesions from lung cancers were subdivided into 49 adenocarcinomas, 11 squamous cell carcinomas, 16 small cell carcinomas and 7 large cell carcinomas. Eleven metastatic tumors from breast cancers were all adenocarcinomas. There was statistical correlation between the surface area of tumor and the volume of the peritumoral edema for the adenocarcinoma (r=0.4043, p E /S T ratios in small cell carcinomas were smaller then those in non-small cell carcinomas, when the volume of the tumor was larger than 10 mm 3 . Accordingly, we suggest that the volume of the peritumoral edema in the small cell carcinoma is generally smaller than that in others. (author)

  1. Brain activation associated with pride and shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lilian; Kaffenberger, Tina; Herwig, Uwe; Brühl, Annette B

    2014-01-01

    Self-referential emotions such as shame/guilt and pride provide evaluative information about persons themselves. In addition to emotional aspects, social and self-referential processes play a role in self-referential emotions. Prior studies have rather focused on comparing self-referential and other-referential processes of one valence, triggered mostly by external stimuli. In the current study, we aimed at investigating the valence-specific neural correlates of shame/guilt and pride, evoked by the remembrance of a corresponding autobiographical event during functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied. The task comprised a negative (shame/guilt), a positive (pride) and a neutral condition (expecting the distractor). Each condition was initiated by a simple cue, followed by the remembrance and finished by a distracting picture. Pride and shame/guilt conditions both activated typical emotion-processing circuits including the amygdala, insula and ventral striatum, as well as self-referential brain regions such as the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Comparing the two emotional conditions, emotion-processing circuits were more activated by pride than by shame, possibly due to either hedonic experiences or stronger involvement of the participants in positive self-referential emotions due to a self-positivity bias. However, the ventral striatum was similarly activated by pride and shame/guilt. In the whole-brain analysis, both self-referential emotion conditions activated medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate regions, corresponding to the self-referential aspect and the autobiographical evocation of the respective emotions. Autobiographically evoked self-referential emotions activated basic emotional as well as self-referential circuits. Except for the ventral striatum, emotional circuits were more active with pride than with shame.

  2. On brain activity mapping: insights and lessons from Brain Decoding Project to map memory patterns in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Joe Z; Li, Meng; Osan, Remus; Chen, Guifen; Lin, Longnian; Wang, Phillip Lei; Frey, Sabine; Frey, Julietta; Zhu, Dajiang; Liu, Tianming; Zhao, Fang; Kuang, Hui

    2013-09-01

    The BRAIN project recently announced by the president Obama is the reflection of unrelenting human quest for cracking the brain code, the patterns of neuronal activity that define who we are and what we are. While the Brain Activity Mapping proposal has rightly emphasized on the need to develop new technologies for measuring every spike from every neuron, it might be helpful to consider both the theoretical and experimental aspects that would accelerate our search for the organizing principles of the brain code. Here we share several insights and lessons from the similar proposal, namely, Brain Decoding Project that we initiated since 2007. We provide a specific example in our initial mapping of real-time memory traces from one part of the memory circuit, namely, the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We show how innovative behavioral tasks and appropriate mathematical analyses of large datasets can play equally, if not more, important roles in uncovering the specific-to-general feature-coding cell assembly mechanism by which episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and imagination are generated and organized. Our own experiences suggest that the bottleneck of the Brain Project is not only at merely developing additional new technologies, but also the lack of efficient avenues to disseminate cutting edge platforms and decoding expertise to neuroscience community. Therefore, we propose that in order to harness unique insights and extensive knowledge from various investigators working in diverse neuroscience subfields, ranging from perception and emotion to memory and social behaviors, the BRAIN project should create a set of International and National Brain Decoding Centers at which cutting-edge recording technologies and expertise on analyzing large datasets analyses can be made readily available to the entire community of neuroscientists who can apply and schedule to perform cutting-edge research.

  3. Deep brain stimulation, brain maps and personalized medicine: lessons from the human genome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fins, Joseph J; Shapiro, Zachary E

    2014-01-01

    Although the appellation of personalized medicine is generally attributed to advanced therapeutics in molecular medicine, deep brain stimulation (DBS) can also be so categorized. Like its medical counterpart, DBS is a highly personalized intervention that needs to be tailored to a patient's individual anatomy. And because of this, DBS like more conventional personalized medicine, can be highly specific where the object of care is an N = 1. But that is where the similarities end. Besides their differing medical and surgical provenances, these two varieties of personalized medicine have had strikingly different impacts. The molecular variant, though of a more recent vintage has thrived and is experiencing explosive growth, while DBS still struggles to find a sustainable therapeutic niche. Despite its promise, and success as a vetted treatment for drug resistant Parkinson's Disease, DBS has lagged in broadening its development, often encountering regulatory hurdles and financial barriers necessary to mount an adequate number of quality trials. In this paper we will consider why DBS-or better yet neuromodulation-has encountered these challenges and contrast this experience with the more successful advance of personalized medicine. We will suggest that personalized medicine and DBS's differential performance can be explained as a matter of timing and complexity. We believe that DBS has struggled because it has been a journey of scientific exploration conducted without a map. In contrast to molecular personalized medicine which followed the mapping of the human genome and the Human Genome Project, DBS preceded plans for the mapping of the human brain. We believe that this sequence has given personalized medicine a distinct advantage and that the fullest potential of DBS will be realized both as a cartographical or electrophysiological probe and as a modality of personalized medicine.

  4. A Brain-Computer Interface Project Applied in Computer Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Jozsef; Kovari, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Keeping up with novel methods and keeping abreast of new applications are crucial issues in engineering education. In brain research, one of the most significant research areas in recent decades, many developments have application in both modern engineering technology and education. New measurement methods in the observation of brain activity open…

  5. Methods and Management of the Healthy Brain Study: A Large Multisite Qualitative Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Friedman, Daniela B.; Mathews, Anna E.; Wilcox, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To describe processes used in the Healthy Brain project to manage data collection, coding, and data distribution in a large qualitative project, conducted by researchers at 9 universities in 9 states. Design and Methods: Project management protocols included: (a) managing audiotapes and surveys to ensure data confidentiality,…

  6. Sleep variability in adolescence is associated with altered brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Gálvan, Adriana

    2015-08-01

    Despite the known importance of sleep for brain development, and the sharp increase in poor sleep during adolescence, we know relatively little about how sleep impacts the developing brain. We present the first longitudinal study to examine how sleep during adolescence is associated with white matter integrity. We find that greater variability in sleep duration one year prior to a DTI scan is associated with lower white matter integrity above and beyond the effects of sleep duration, and variability in bedtime, whereas sleep variability a few months prior to the scan is not associated with white matter integrity. Thus, variability in sleep duration during adolescence may have long-term impairments on the developing brain. White matter integrity should be increasing during adolescence, and so sleep variability is directly at odds with normative developmental trends. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A. Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E.; Kaplan, Jonas T.; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation appr...

  8. Management of HIV-associated focal brain lesions in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. HIV-associated focal brain lesions (FBLs) are caused by opportunistic infections, neoplasms, or cerebrovascular diseases. In developed countries toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) is the most frequent cause followed by primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Guidelines based on these causes have been proposed ...

  9. Whole brain and brain regional coexpression network interactions associated with predisposition to alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Vanderlinden

    Full Text Available To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA. Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL. To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA; prefrontal cortex (PFC; ventral tegmental area (VTA; striatum (ST; hippocampus (HP; cerebellum (CB available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three "meta-modules", composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits.

  10. Kocuria varians infection associated with brain abscess: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Tai-Hsin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, established by Stackebrandt et al., previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis. Case presentation We herein report the first case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria varians, a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. Hematogenous spread is the probable pathogenesis. Conclusions This report presents a case of Kocuria varians brain abscess successfully treated with surgical excision combined with antimicrobial therapy. In addition, Vitek 2 system has been used to identify and differentiate between coagulase-negative staphylococcus.

  11. Kocuria varians infection associated with brain abscess: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Su, Shou-hsin; Cheng, Yu-Hsin; Chou, Yu-lin; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Lieu, Ann-Shung

    2010-04-27

    Kocuria, established by Stackebrandt et al., previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis. We herein report the first case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria varians, a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. Hematogenous spread is the probable pathogenesis. This report presents a case of Kocuria varians brain abscess successfully treated with surgical excision combined with antimicrobial therapy. In addition, Vitek 2 system has been used to identify and differentiate between coagulase-negative staphylococcus.

  12. Function of insulin in snail brain in associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, S; Sunada, H; Mita, K; Sakakibara, M; Lukowiak, K; Ito, E

    2015-10-01

    Insulin is well known as a hormone regulating glucose homeostasis across phyla. Although there are insulin-independent mechanisms for glucose uptake in the mammalian brain, which had contributed to a perception of the brain as an insulin-insensitive organ for decades, the finding of insulin and its receptors in the brain revolutionized the concept of insulin signaling in the brain. However, insulin's role in brain functions, such as cognition, attention, and memory, remains unknown. Studies using invertebrates with their open blood-vascular system have the promise of promoting a better understanding of the role played by insulin in mediating/modulating cognitive functions. In this review, the relationship between insulin and its impact on long-term memory (LTM) is discussed particularly in snails. The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis has the ability to undergo conditioned taste aversion (CTA), that is, it associatively learns and forms LTM not to respond with a feeding response to a food that normally elicits a robust feeding response. We show that molluscan insulin-related peptides are up-regulated in snails exhibiting CTA-LTM and play a key role in the causal neural basis of CTA-LTM. We also survey the relevant literature of the roles played by insulin in learning and memory in other phyla.

  13. Birth of projection neurons in adult avian brain may be related to perceptual or motor learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Buylla, A.; Kirn, J.R.; Nottebohm, F.

    1990-01-01

    Projection neurons that form part of the motor pathway for song control continue to be produced and to replace older projection neurons in adult canaries and zebra finches. This is shown by combining [3H]thymidine, a cell birth marker, and fluorogold, a retrogradely transported tracer of neuronal connectivity. Species and seasonal comparisons suggest that this process is related to the acquisition of perceptual or motor memories. The ability of an adult brain to produce and replace projection neurons should influence our thinking on brain repair

  14. Associative memory cells and their working principle in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Hui; Cui, Shan

    2018-01-01

    The acquisition, integration and storage of exogenous associated signals are termed as associative learning and memory. The consequences and processes of associative thinking and logical reasoning based on these stored exogenous signals can be memorized as endogenous signals, which are essential for decision making, intention, and planning. Associative memory cells recruited in these primary and secondary associative memories are presumably the foundation for the brain to fulfill cognition events and emotional reactions in life, though the plasticity of synaptic connectivity and neuronal activity has been believed to be involved in learning and memory. Current reports indicate that associative memory cells are recruited by their mutual synapse innervations among co-activated brain regions to fulfill the integration, storage and retrieval of associated signals. The activation of these associative memory cells initiates information recall in the mind, and the successful activation of their downstream neurons endorses memory presentations through behaviors and emotion reactions. In this review, we aim to draw a comprehensive diagram for associative memory cells, working principle and modulation, as well as propose their roles in cognition, emotion and behaviors. PMID:29487741

  15. Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics Brain-Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-24

    1975-76, one of these brains was hand digitized. It was then reconstructed three dimensionally, using an Evans and Sutherland Picture System 2. This...Yakovlev Collection, we use the Evans and Sutherland Picture System 2 which we have been employing for this purpose for a dozen years. Its virtue is...careful, experimentally designed new protocol (See Figure 20). Most of these heads were imaged with Computed Tomography, thanks to Clint Stiles of Picker

  16. Brain abscess associated with ethmoidal sinus osteoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Nagashima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoma of the paranasal sinus is uncommon, and the occurrence of brain abscess associated with ethmoidal osteoma is particularly rare. We report here a case of a brain abscess complicating an ethmoidal osteoma in a 68-year-old man who presented with high-grade fever and disturbance in the level of consciousness. Computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a ring-enhancing mass in the left frontal lobe with surrounding edema and a bony mass in the ethmoidal sinus. We scheduled a two-stage operation. First, emergency aspiration and drainage of the abscess via the forehead were performed to reduce the abscess volume. These were followed by a left frontal craniotomy to totally remove both the brain abscess and the bony mass. The bony mass had breached the dura mater. After removing the bony mass, we repaired the anterior skull base using a pericranial flap. Pathological findings of the bony tumor were consistent with osteoma. The postoperative course was uneventful. In the case of a huge brain abscess associated with an ethmoidal osteoma, volume reduction by drainage followed by surgical removal of both lesions may help to control infection and achieve a cure. Use of a vascularized pericranial flap is important to prevent direct communication between the paranasal sinuses and the cranial cavity.

  17. Altered caudate connectivity is associated with executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simoni, Sara; Jenkins, Peter O; Bourke, Niall J; Fleminger, Jessica J; Hellyer, Peter J; Jolly, Amy E; Patel, Maneesh C; Cole, James H; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated. We used structural and functional MRI measures of connectivity to investigate this. Corticostriatal functional connectivity in healthy individuals was initially defined using a data-driven approach. A constrained independent component analysis approach was applied in 100 healthy adult dataset from the Human Connectome Project. Diffusion tractography was also performed to generate white matter tracts. The output of this analysis was used to compare corticostriatal functional connectivity and structural integrity between groups of 42 patients with traumatic brain injury and 21 age-matched controls. Subdivisions of the caudate and putamen had distinct patterns of functional connectivity. Traumatic brain injury patients showed disruption to functional connectivity between the caudate and a distributed set of cortical regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex. Cognitive impairments in the patients were mainly seen in processing speed and executive function, as well as increased levels of apathy and fatigue. Abnormalities of caudate functional connectivity correlated with these cognitive impairments, with reductions in right caudate connectivity associated with increased executive dysfunction, information processing speed and memory impairment. Structural connectivity, measured using diffusion tensor imaging between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex was impaired and this also correlated with measures of

  18. Brain Genomics Superstruct Project initial data release with structural, functional, and behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Avram J; Hollinshead, Marisa O; O'Keefe, Timothy M; Petrov, Victor I; Fariello, Gabriele R; Wald, Lawrence L; Fischl, Bruce; Rosen, Bruce R; Mair, Ross W; Roffman, Joshua L; Smoller, Jordan W; Buckner, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the Brain Genomics Superstruct Project (GSP) is to enable large-scale exploration of the links between brain function, behavior, and ultimately genetic variation. To provide the broader scientific community data to probe these associations, a repository of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans linked to genetic information was constructed from a sample of healthy individuals. The initial release, detailed in the present manuscript, encompasses quality screened cross-sectional data from 1,570 participants ages 18 to 35 years who were scanned with MRI and completed demographic and health questionnaires. Personality and cognitive measures were obtained on a subset of participants. Each dataset contains a T1-weighted structural MRI scan and either one (n=1,570) or two (n=1,139) resting state functional MRI scans. Test-retest reliability datasets are included from 69 participants scanned within six months of their initial visit. For the majority of participants self-report behavioral and cognitive measures are included (n=926 and n=892 respectively). Analyses of data quality, structure, function, personality, and cognition are presented to demonstrate the dataset's utility.

  19. Financial literacy is associated with medial brain region functional connectivity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Fleischman, Debra A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Financial literacy refers to the ability to access and utilize financial information in ways that promote better outcomes. In old age, financial literacy has been associated with a wide range of positive characteristics; however, the neural correlates remain unclear. Recent work has suggested greater co-activity between anterior-posterior medial brain regions is associated with better brain functioning. We hypothesized financial literacy would be associated with this pattern. We assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to a posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed region of interest (ROI) in 138 participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Results revealed financial literacy was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and three regions: the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the left postcentral gyrus, and the right precuneus. Results also revealed financial literacy was associated negatively with functional connectivity between the PCC and left caudate. Post hoc analyses showed the PCC-vmPFC relationship accounted for the most variance in a regression model adjusted for all four significant functional connectivity relationships, demographic factors, and global cognition. These findings provide information on the neural mechanisms associated with financial literacy in old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain structure mediates the association between height and cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Franz, Carol E; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Lyons, Michael J; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2018-05-11

    Height and general cognitive ability are positively associated, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Both height and general cognitive ability are positively associated with brain size. Still, the neural substrate of the height-cognitive ability association is unclear. We used a sample of 515 middle-aged male twins with structural magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate whether the association between height and cognitive ability is mediated by cortical size. In addition to cortical volume, we used genetically, ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct cortical metrics of total cortical surface area and mean cortical thickness. Height was positively associated with general cognitive ability and total cortical volume and cortical surface area, but not with mean cortical thickness. Mediation models indicated that the well-replicated height-general cognitive ability association is accounted for by individual differences in total cortical volume and cortical surface area (highly heritable metrics related to global brain size), and that the genetic association between cortical surface area and general cognitive ability underlies the phenotypic height-general cognitive ability relationship.

  1. Brain anatomy alterations associated with Social Networking Site (SNS) addiction

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qinghua; Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    This study relies on knowledge regarding the neuroplasticity of dual-system components that govern addiction and excessive behavior and suggests that alterations in the grey matter volumes, i.e., brain morphology, of specific regions of interest are associated with technology-related addictions. Using voxel based morphometry (VBM) applied to structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of twenty social network site (SNS) users with varying degrees of SNS addiction, we show that SNS addic...

  2. Neurosarcoidosis associated with hypersomnolence treated with corticosteroids and brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, I.; Gray, T.A.; Moldofsky, H.; Hoffstein, V.

    1988-01-01

    Narcoleptic features developed in a young man with CNS sarcoidosis. This was associated with a structural lesion in the hypothalamus as demonstrated on CT scans of the head. The diagnosis of narcolepsy was established by compatible clinical history and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids was ineffective, but when the low-dose, whole-brain irradiation was added, complete resolution of the narcoleptic features ensued

  3. Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Hsiao, Sigmund; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yang, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the neural substrates of online gaming addiction through evaluation of the brain areas associated with the cue-induced gaming urge. Ten participants with online gaming addiction and 10 control subjects without online gaming addiction were tested. They were presented with gaming pictures and the paired mosaic pictures while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. The contrast in blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signals when viewing gaming pictures and when viewing mosaic pictures was calculated with the SPM2 software to evaluate the brain activations. Right orbitofrontal cortex, right nucleus accumbens, bilateral anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus were activated in the addicted group in contrast to the control group. The activation of the region-of-interest (ROI) defined by the above brain areas was positively correlated with self-reported gaming urge and recalling of gaming experience provoked by the WOW pictures. The results demonstrate that the neural substrate of cue-induced gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction is similar to that of the cue-induced craving in substance dependence. The above-mentioned brain regions have been reported to contribute to the craving in substance dependence, and here we show that the same areas were involved in online gaming urge/craving. Thus, the results suggest that the gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction and craving in substance dependence might share the same neurobiological mechanism.

  4. Resettlement associated with hydro projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The flow rates of Chinese rivers are subject to major seasonal fluctuations, and as a result large reservoirs have to be constructed for flood control, irrigation, and power generation. As most of the river valleys are densely populated, the relocation and resettlement of people from the reservoir areas are major but unavoidable problems to be addressed in building hydro projects in China. (author)

  5. Common genetic variations in cell cycle and DNA repair pathways associated with pediatric brain tumor susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahmideh, Maral Adel; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schüz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) is limited. Therefore, we investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified by candidate gene-association studies on adult brain tumors, and PBT risk. The study is...... cycle and DNA repair pathways variations associated with susceptibility to adult brain tumors also seem to be associated with PBT risk, suggesting pediatric and adult brain tumors might share similar etiological pathways....

  6. Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Nicole L.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Children living in poverty generally perform poorly in school, with markedly lower standardized test scores and lower educational attainment. The longer children live in poverty, the greater their academic deficits. These patterns persist to adulthood, contributing to lifetime-reduced occupational attainment. OBJECTIVE To determine whether atypical patterns of structural brain development mediate the relationship between household poverty and impaired academic performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal cohort study analyzing 823 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 389 typically developing children and adolescents aged 4 to 22 years from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development with complete sociodemographic and neuroimaging data. Data collection began in November 2001 and ended in August 2007. Participants were screened for a variety of factors suspected to adversely affect brain development, recruited at 6 data collection sites across the United States, assessed at baseline, and followed up at 24-month intervals for a total of 3 periods. Each study center used community-based sampling to reflect regional and overall US demographics of income, race, and ethnicity based on the US Department of Housing and Urban Development definitions of area income. One-quarter of sample households reported the total family income below 200% of the federal poverty level. Repeated observations were available for 301 participants. EXPOSURE Household poverty measured by family income and adjusted for family size as a percentage of the federal poverty level. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Children’s scores on cognitive and academic achievement assessments and brain tissue, including gray matter of the total brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. RESULTS Poverty is tied to structural differences in several areas of the brain associated with school readiness skills, with the largest influence

  7. Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Nicole L; Hanson, Jamie L; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2015-09-01

    Children living in poverty generally perform poorly in school, with markedly lower standardized test scores and lower educational attainment. The longer children live in poverty, the greater their academic deficits. These patterns persist to adulthood, contributing to lifetime-reduced occupational attainment. To determine whether atypical patterns of structural brain development mediate the relationship between household poverty and impaired academic performance. Longitudinal cohort study analyzing 823 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 389 typically developing children and adolescents aged 4 to 22 years from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development with complete sociodemographic and neuroimaging data. Data collection began in November 2001 and ended in August 2007. Participants were screened for a variety of factors suspected to adversely affect brain development, recruited at 6 data collection sites across the United States, assessed at baseline, and followed up at 24-month intervals for a total of 3 periods. Each study center used community-based sampling to reflect regional and overall US demographics of income, race, and ethnicity based on the US Department of Housing and Urban Development definitions of area income. One-quarter of sample households reported the total family income below 200% of the federal poverty level. Repeated observations were available for 301 participants. Household poverty measured by family income and adjusted for family size as a percentage of the federal poverty level. Children's scores on cognitive and academic achievement assessments and brain tissue, including gray matter of the total brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. Poverty is tied to structural differences in several areas of the brain associated with school readiness skills, with the largest influence observed among children from the poorest households. Regional gray matter volumes of children below 1

  8. Altered caudate connectivity is associated with executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simoni, Sara; Jenkins, Peter O; Bourke, Niall J; Fleminger, Jessica J; Jolly, Amy E; Patel, Maneesh C; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated. We used structural and functional MRI measures of connectivity to investigate this. Corticostriatal functional connectivity in healthy individuals was initially defined using a data-driven approach. A constrained independent component analysis approach was applied in 100 healthy adult dataset from the Human Connectome Project. Diffusion tractography was also performed to generate white matter tracts. The output of this analysis was used to compare corticostriatal functional connectivity and structural integrity between groups of 42 patients with traumatic brain injury and 21 age-matched controls. Subdivisions of the caudate and putamen had distinct patterns of functional connectivity. Traumatic brain injury patients showed disruption to functional connectivity between the caudate and a distributed set of cortical regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex. Cognitive impairments in the patients were mainly seen in processing speed and executive function, as well as increased levels of apathy and fatigue. Abnormalities of caudate functional connectivity correlated with these cognitive impairments, with reductions in right caudate connectivity associated with increased executive dysfunction, information processing speed and memory impairment. Structural connectivity, measured using diffusion tensor imaging between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex was impaired and this also correlated with

  9. Early Brain Injury Associated with Systemic Inflammation After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarraj, Jude; Parsha, Kaushik; Hergenroeder, Georgene; Ahn, Sungho; Chang, Tiffany R; Kim, Dong H; Choi, H Alex

    2018-04-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is defined as brain injury occurring within 72 h of aneurysmal rupture. Although EBI is the most significant predictor of outcomes after aSAH, its underlying pathophysiology is not well understood. We hypothesize that EBI after aSAH is associated with an increase in peripheral inflammation measured by cytokine expression levels and changes in associations between cytokines. aSAH patients were enrolled into a prospective observational study and were assessed for markers of EBI: global cerebral edema (GCE), subarachnoid hemorrhage early brain edema score (SEBES), and Hunt-Hess grade. Serum samples collected at ≤ 48 h of admission were analyzed using multiplex bead-based assays to determine levels of 13 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Pairwise correlation coefficients between cytokines were represented as networks. Cytokine levels and differences in correlation networks were compared between EBI groups. Of the 71 patients enrolled in the study, 17 (24%) subjects had GCE, 31 (44%) subjects had SEBES ≥ 3, and 21 (29%) had HH ≥ 4. IL-6 was elevated in groups with GCE, SEBES ≥ 3, and HH ≥ 4. MIP1β was independently associated with high-grade SEBES. Correlation network analysis suggests higher systematic inflammation in subjects with SEBES ≥ 3. EBI after SAH is associated with increased levels of specific cytokines. Peripheral levels of IL-10, IL-6, and MIP1β may be important markers of EBI. Investigating systematic correlations in addition to expression levels of individual cytokines may offer deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms related to EBI.

  10. Coping with Childbirth: Brain Structural Associations of Personal Growth Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mangelsdorf

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Major life events require psychological adaptations and can be accompanied by brain structural and functional changes. The goal of the current study was to investigate the association of personal growth initiative (PGI as a form of proactive coping strategy before childbirth, with gray matter volume after delivery. Childbirth is one of the few predictable major life events, which, while being one of the most positive experiences for many, is also accompanied by multidimensional stress for the mother. Previous research has shown that high stress is associated with reductions in gray matter volume in limbic cortices as well as the prefrontal cortex (PFC. We hypothesized that PGI before childbirth is positively related to gray matter volume after delivery, especially in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC. In a prospective study, 22 first-time mothers answered questionnaires about their PGI level 1 month before birth (T1 and 1 month after delivery (T2. Four months after giving birth, a follow-up assessment was applied with 16 of these mothers (T3. Structural brain data were acquired at both postpartal measurement occasions. Voxel-based morphometry was used to correlate prenatal PGI levels with postpartal gray matter volume. Higher PGI levels before delivery were positively associated with larger gray matter volume in the vmPFC directly after childbirth. Previous structural neuroimaging research in the context of major life events focused primarily on pathological reactions to stress (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder; PTSD. The current study gives initial indications that proactive coping may be positively associated with gray matter volume in the vmPFC, a brain region which shows volumetric reductions in PTSD patients.

  11. Prevalence of incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging: Cuban project to map the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, Gertrudis de los Angeles; Alvarez Sanchez, Marilet; Jordan Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of incidental findings in healthy subjects of the Cuban Human Brain Mapping Project sample, it was performed a retrospective descriptive study of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained from 394 healthy subjects that make up the sample of the project, between 2006-2007, with an age range of 18 to 68 years (mean 33,12), of which 269 (68,27 %) are male and 125 (31,73 %) are women. It was shown that 40,36 % had one or more anomaly in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In total, the number of incidental findings was 188, 23,6 % of which were brain findings and 24,11 % were non-brain findings, among the latter, were the sinusopathy with 20,81 % and maxillary polyps with 3,30 %. The most prevalent brain findings were: intrasellar arachnoidocele, 11,93 %, followed by the prominence of the pituitary gland, 5,84 %, ventricular asymmetry, 1,77 % and bone defects, 1,02 %. Other brain abnormalities found with very low prevalence had no pathological significance, except for two cases with brain tumor, which were immediately sent to a specialist. Incidental findings in MRI are common in the general population (40,36 %), being the sinusopathy, and intrasellar arachnoidocele the most common findings. Asymptomatic individuals who have any type of structural abnormality provide invaluable information on the prevalence of these abnormalities in a presumably healthy population, which may be used as references for epidemiological studies

  12. Descending brain neurons in larval lamprey: Spinal projection patterns and initiation of locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Albert C.; Jackson, Adam W.; Holmes, Tamra; Thurman, Suzie; Davis, G.R.; McClellan, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    In larval lamprey, partial lesions were made in the rostral spinal cord to determine which spinal tracts are important for descending activation of locomotion and to identify descending brain neurons that project in these tracts. In whole animals and in vitro brain/spinal cord preparations, brain-initiated spinal locomotor activity was present when the lateral or intermediate spinal tracts were spared but usually was abolished when the medial tracts were spared. We previously showed that descending brain neurons are located in eleven cell groups, including reticulospinal (RS) neurons in the mesenecephalic reticular nucleus (MRN) as well as the anterior (ARRN), middle (MRRN), and posterior (PRRN) rhombencephalic reticular nuclei. Other descending brain neurons are located in the diencephalic (Di) as well as the anterolateral (ALV), dorsolateral (DLV), and posterolateral (PLV) vagal groups. In the present study, the Mauthner and auxillary Mauthner cells, most neurons in the Di, ALV, DLV, and PLV cell groups, and some neurons in the ARRN and PRRN had crossed descending axons. The majority of neurons projecting in medial spinal tracts included large identified Müller cells and neurons in the Di, MRN, ALV, and DLV. Axons of individual descending brain neurons usually did not switch spinal tracts, have branches in multiple tracts, or cross the midline within the rostral cord. Most neurons that projected in the lateral/intermediate spinal tracts were in the ARRN, MRRN, and PRRN. Thus, output neurons of the locomotor command system are distributed in several reticular nuclei, whose neurons project in relatively wide areas of the cord. PMID:20510243

  13. Abstract representations of associated emotions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsuk; Schultz, Johannes; Rohe, Tim; Wallraven, Christian; Lee, Seong-Whan; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2015-04-08

    Emotions can be aroused by various kinds of stimulus modalities. Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that several brain regions represent emotions at an abstract level, i.e., independently from the sensory cues from which they are perceived (e.g., face, body, or voice stimuli). If emotions are indeed represented at such an abstract level, then these abstract representations should also be activated by the memory of an emotional event. We tested this hypothesis by asking human participants to learn associations between emotional stimuli (videos of faces or bodies) and non-emotional stimuli (fractals). After successful learning, fMRI signals were recorded during the presentations of emotional stimuli and emotion-associated fractals. We tested whether emotions could be decoded from fMRI signals evoked by the fractal stimuli using a classifier trained on the responses to the emotional stimuli (and vice versa). This was implemented as a whole-brain searchlight, multivoxel activation pattern analysis, which revealed successful emotion decoding in four brain regions: posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, MPFC, and angular gyrus. The same analysis run only on responses to emotional stimuli revealed clusters in PCC, precuneus, and MPFC. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the activation patterns revealed clear clustering of responses by emotion across stimulus types. Our results suggest that PCC, precuneus, and MPFC contain representations of emotions that can be evoked by stimuli that carry emotional information themselves or by stimuli that evoke memories of emotional stimuli, while angular gyrus is more likely to take part in emotional memory retrieval. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355655-09$15.00/0.

  14. Head First PMP A Brain-Friendly Guide to Passing the Project Management Professional Exam

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Learn the latest principles and certification objectives in The PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition, in a unique and inspiring way with Head First PMP . The second edition of this book helps you prepare for the PMP certification exam using a visually rich format designed for the way your brain works. You'll find a full-length sample exam included inside the book. More than just proof of passing a test, a PMP certification means that you have the knowledge to solve most common project problems. But studying for a difficult four-hour exam on project management isn't easy, even for experienced project

  15. The circuitry of olfactory projection neurons in the brain of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Zwaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the honeybee brain, two prominent tracts - the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tract - project from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobes, to the central brain, the mushroom bodies, and the protocerebral lobe. Intracellularly stained uniglomerular projection neurons (uPN were reconstructed, registered to the 3D honeybee standard brain atlas, and then used to derive the spatial properties and quantitative morphology of the neurons of both tracts. We evaluated putative synaptic contacts of projection neurons using confocal microscopy. Analysis of the patterns of axon terminals revealed a domain-like innervation within the mushroom body lip neuropil. Projection neurons of the lateral tract arborized more sparsely within the lips and exhibited fewer synaptic boutons, while medial tract neurons occupied broader regions in the mushroom body calyces and the protocerebral lobe. Our data show that uPNs from the medial and lateral tract innervate both the core and the cortex of the ipsilateral mushroom body lip but differ in their innervation patterns in these regions. In the mushroombody neuropil collar we found evidence for ALT boutons suggesting the collar as a multi modal input site including olfactory input similar to lip and basal ring. In addition, our data support the conclusion drawn in previous studies that reciprocal synapses exist between projection neurons, octopaminergic-, and GABAergic cells in the mushroom body calyces. For the first time, we found evidence for connections between both tracts within the antennal lobe.

  16. Multimodal Characterization of the Late Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Methodological Overview of the Late Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Brian L; Keene, C Dirk; Perl, Daniel P; Iacono, Diego; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Stewart, William; Mac Donald, Christine L; Augustinack, Jean; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Estrada, Camilo; Flannery, Elissa; Gordon, Wayne A; Grabowski, Thomas J; Hansen, Kelly; Hoffman, Jeanne; Kroenke, Christopher; Larson, Eric B; Lee, Patricia; Mareyam, Azma; McNab, Jennifer A; McPhee, Jeanne; Moreau, Allison L; Renz, Anne; Richmire, KatieRose; Stevens, Allison; Tang, Cheuk Y; Tirrell, Lee S; Trittschuh, Emily H; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Wald, Lawrence L; Wu, Ona; Yendiki, Anastasia; Young, Liza; Zöllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Crane, Paul K; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen

    2018-05-03

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a single moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Histopathological studies describe complex neurodegenerative pathologies in individuals exposed to single moderate-to-severe TBI or repetitive mild TBI, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). However, the clinicopathological links between TBI and post-traumatic neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, PD, and CTE remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the methodology of the Late Effects of TBI (LETBI) study, whose goals are to characterize chronic post-traumatic neuropathology and to identify in vivo biomarkers of post-traumatic neurodegeneration. LETBI participants undergo extensive clinical evaluation using National Institutes of Health TBI Common Data Elements, proteomic and genomic analysis, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and prospective consent for brain donation. Selected brain specimens undergo ultra-high resolution ex vivo MRI and histopathological evaluation including whole-mount analysis. Co-registration of ex vivo and in vivo MRI data enables identification of ex vivo lesions that were present during life. In vivo signatures of postmortem pathology are then correlated with cognitive and behavioral data to characterize the clinical phenotype(s) associated with pathological brain lesions. We illustrate the study methods and demonstrate proof of concept for this approach by reporting results from the first LETBI participant, who despite the presence of multiple in vivo and ex vivo pathoanatomic lesions had normal cognition and was functionally independent until her mid-80s. The LETBI project represents a multidisciplinary effort to characterize post-traumatic neuropathology and identify in vivo signatures of postmortem pathology in a prospective study.

  17. Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

  18. From brain to neuro: the brain research association and the making of British neuroscience, 1965-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Rached, Joelle M

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the short history of "neuroscience" as a discipline in its own right as opposed to the much longer past of the brain sciences. It focuses on one historical moment, the formation of the first British "neuroscience" society, the Brain Research Association (BRA), renamed in 1996 to the British Neuroscience Association (BNA). It outlines the new thinking brought about by this new science of brain, mind, and behavior, it sketches the beginnings of the BRA and the institutionalization of neuroscience in the British context, and it further explores the ambiguous relation the association had towards some of the ethical, social, and political implications of this new area of research.

  19. Transcriptional profiles of supragranular-enriched genes associate with corticocortical network architecture in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienen, Fenna M; Yeo, B T Thomas; Ge, Tian; Buckner, Randy L; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-01-26

    The human brain is patterned with disproportionately large, distributed cerebral networks that connect multiple association zones in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. The expansion of the cortical surface, along with the emergence of long-range connectivity networks, may be reflected in changes to the underlying molecular architecture. Using the Allen Institute's human brain transcriptional atlas, we demonstrate that genes particularly enriched in supragranular layers of the human cerebral cortex relative to mouse distinguish major cortical classes. The topography of transcriptional expression reflects large-scale brain network organization consistent with estimates from functional connectivity MRI and anatomical tracing in nonhuman primates. Microarray expression data for genes preferentially expressed in human upper layers (II/III), but enriched only in lower layers (V/VI) of mouse, were cross-correlated to identify molecular profiles across the cerebral cortex of postmortem human brains (n = 6). Unimodal sensory and motor zones have similar molecular profiles, despite being distributed across the cortical mantle. Sensory/motor profiles were anticorrelated with paralimbic and certain distributed association network profiles. Tests of alternative gene sets did not consistently distinguish sensory and motor regions from paralimbic and association regions: (i) genes enriched in supragranular layers in both humans and mice, (ii) genes cortically enriched in humans relative to nonhuman primates, (iii) genes related to connectivity in rodents, (iv) genes associated with human and mouse connectivity, and (v) 1,454 gene sets curated from known gene ontologies. Molecular innovations of upper cortical layers may be an important component in the evolution of long-range corticocortical projections.

  20. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Successfully Treated HIV Infection: Associations With Disease and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Rosan A.; Underwood, Jonathan; de Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A.; Cole, James H.; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Portegies, Peter; Winston, Alan; Sharp, David J.; Gisslén, Magnus; Reiss, Peter; Winston, A.; Prins, M.; Schim van der Loeff, M. F.; Schouten, J.; Schmand, B.; Geurtsen, G. J.; Sharp, D. J.; Villaudy, J.; Berkhout, B.; Gisslén, M.; Pasternak, A.; Sabin, C. A.; Guaraldi, G.; Bürkle, A.; Libert, C.; Franceschi, C.; Kalsbeek, A.; Fliers, E.; Hoeijmakers, J.; Pothof, J.; van der Valk, M.; Bisschop, P. H.; Zaheri, S.; Burger, D.; Cole, J. H.; Zikkenheiner, W.; Janssen, F. R.; Underwood, J.; Kooij, K. W.; Doyle, N.; Verbraak, F.; Demirkaya, N.; Weijer, K.; Boeser-Nunnink, B.

    2018-01-01

    Background. Brain structural abnormalities have been reported in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH) who are receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but their pathophysiology remains unclear. Methods. We investigated factors associated with brain

  1. The multiple brain abscesses associated with congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seok; Lim, Dong-Jun; Chung, Yong-Gu; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Lim, Seong-Jun; Kim, Woo-Jae; Park, Jung-Yul; Suh, Jung-Keun

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of multiple brain abscesses associated with diffuse congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Although the cases of brain abscesses associated with congenital PAVM are very rare, the brain abscess could be an initial clinical manifestation in asymptomatic PAVM as in the case presented in this report. PAVM may contribute to the development of a brain abscess by allowing easy bacterial access to systemic circulation through the right-to-left pul...

  2. Neuroscience Club in SKKK3 and SMSTMFP: The Brain Apprentice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ibrahim, Seri Dewi; Muda, Mazinah

    2015-01-01

    Sekolah Menengah Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra (SMSTMFP) and Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubang Kerian (3) (SKKK3) were selected by the Department of Neurosciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), in 2011 to be a 'school-based Neuroscience Club' via the 'Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP) - Community' project. This community project was known as "The Brain Apprentice Project". The objectives of this project were to promote science and the neurosciences beyond conventional classroom teachings whilst guiding creativity and innovation as well as to assist in the delivery of neuroscience knowledge through graduate interns as part of the cultivation of neuroscience as a fruitful future career option. All of the planned club activities moulded the students to be knowledgeable individuals with admirable leadership skills, which will help the schools produce more scientists, technocrats and professionals who can fulfil the requirements of our religion, race and nation in the future. Some of the activities carried out over the years include the "My Brain Invention Competition", "Mini Brain Bee Contest", "Recycled Melody" and "Brain Dissection". These activities educated the students well and improved their confidence levels in their communication and soft skills. The participation of the students in international-level competition, such as the "International Brain Bee", was one of the ways future professionals were created for the nation. The implementation of Neuroscience Club as one of the organisations in the school's cocurriculum was an appropriate step in transferring science and neuroscience knowledge and skills from a higher education institution, namely USM, to both of the schools, SMSTMFP and SKKK3. The club members showed great interest in all of the club's activities and their performance on the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) or Primary School Achievement Test and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) or Malaysian Certificate of Education examinations improved

  3. Brain-wide map of efferent projections from rat barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela M. Zakiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The somatotopically organized whisker barrel field of the rat primary somatosensory (S1 cortex is a commonly used model system for anatomical and physiological investigations of sensory processing. The neural connections of the barrel cortex have been extensively mapped. But most investigations have focused on connections to limited regions of the brain, and overviews in the literature of the connections across the brain thus build on a range of material from different laboratories, presented in numerous publications. Furthermore, given the limitations of the conventional journal article format, analyses and interpretations are hampered by lack of access to the underlying experimental data. New opportunities for analyses have emerged with the recent release of an online resource of experimental data consisting of collections of high-resolution images from 6 experiments in which anterograde tracers were injected in S1 whisker or forelimb representations. Building on this material, we have conducted a detailed analysis of the brain wide distribution of the efferent projections of the rat barrel cortex. We compare our findings with the available literature and reports accumulated in the Brain Architecture Management System (BAMS2 database. We report well-known and less known intracortical and subcortical projections of the barrel cortex, as well as distinct differences between S1 whisker and forelimb related projections. Our results correspond well with recently published overviews, but provide additional information about relative differences among S1 projection targets. Our approach demonstrates how collections of shared experimental image data are suitable for brain-wide analysis and interpretation of connectivity mapping data.

  4. Structural brain correlates associated with professional handball playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Langer, Nicolas; Lutz, Kai; Birrer, Karin; Mérillat, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt that good bimanual performance is very important for skilled handball playing. The control of the non-dominant hand is especially demanding since efficient catching and throwing needs both hands. We investigated training-induced structural neuroplasticity in professional handball players using several structural neuroimaging techniques and analytic approaches and also provide a review of the literature about sport-induced structural neuroplastic alterations. Structural brain adaptations were expected in regions relevant for motor and somatosensory processing such as the grey matter (GM) of the primary/secondary motor (MI/supplementary motor area, SMA) and somatosensory cortex (SI/SII), basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and in the white matter (WM) of the corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum, stronger in brain regions controlling the non-dominant left hand. Increased GM volume in handball players compared with control subjects were found in the right MI/SI, bilateral SMA/cingulate motor area, and left intraparietal sulcus. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity were increased within the right CST in handball players compared with control women. Age of handball training commencement correlated inversely with GM volume in the right and left MI/SI and years of handball training experience correlated inversely with radial diffusivity in the right CST. Subcortical structures tended to be larger in handball players. The anatomical measures of the brain regions associated with handball playing were positively correlated in handball players, but not interrelated in control women. Training-induced structural alterations were found in the somatosensory-motor network of handball players, more pronounced in the right hemisphere controlling the non-dominant left hand. Correlations between handball training-related measures and anatomical differences suggest neuroplastic adaptations rather than a genetic predisposition for a ball playing

  5. Structural brain correlates associated with professional handball playing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hänggi

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that good bimanual performance is very important for skilled handball playing. The control of the non-dominant hand is especially demanding since efficient catching and throwing needs both hands.We investigated training-induced structural neuroplasticity in professional handball players using several structural neuroimaging techniques and analytic approaches and also provide a review of the literature about sport-induced structural neuroplastic alterations. Structural brain adaptations were expected in regions relevant for motor and somatosensory processing such as the grey matter (GM of the primary/secondary motor (MI/supplementary motor area, SMA and somatosensory cortex (SI/SII, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and in the white matter (WM of the corticospinal tract (CST and corpus callosum, stronger in brain regions controlling the non-dominant left hand.Increased GM volume in handball players compared with control subjects were found in the right MI/SI, bilateral SMA/cingulate motor area, and left intraparietal sulcus. Fractional anisotropy (FA and axial diffusivity were increased within the right CST in handball players compared with control women. Age of handball training commencement correlated inversely with GM volume in the right and left MI/SI and years of handball training experience correlated inversely with radial diffusivity in the right CST. Subcortical structures tended to be larger in handball players. The anatomical measures of the brain regions associated with handball playing were positively correlated in handball players, but not interrelated in control women.Training-induced structural alterations were found in the somatosensory-motor network of handball players, more pronounced in the right hemisphere controlling the non-dominant left hand. Correlations between handball training-related measures and anatomical differences suggest neuroplastic adaptations rather than a genetic predisposition for a

  6. Prenatal methadone exposure is associated with altered neonatal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Monnelly

    Full Text Available Methadone is used for medication-assisted treatment of heroin addiction during pregnancy. The neurodevelopmental outcome of children with prenatal methadone exposure can be sub-optimal. We tested the hypothesis that brain development is altered among newborn infants whose mothers were prescribed methadone.20 methadone-exposed neonates born after 37weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA and 20 non-exposed controls underwent diffusion MRI at mean PMA of 39+2 and 41+1weeks, respectively. An age-optimized Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS pipeline was used to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA data between exposed and non-exposed neonates.Methadone-exposed neonates had decreased FA within the centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF and the internal and external capsules after adjustment for GA at MRI (p<0.05, TFCE corrected. Median FA across the white matter skeleton was 12% lower among methadone-exposed infants. Mean head circumference (HC z-scores were lower in the methadone-exposed group (−0.52 (0.99 vs 1.15 (0.84, p<0.001; after adjustment for HC z-scores, differences in FA remained in the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule and the ILF. Polydrug use among cases was common.Prenatal methadone exposure is associated with microstructural alteration in major white matter tracts, which is present at birth and is independent of head growth. Although the findings cannot be attributed to methadone per se, the data indicate that further research to determine optimal management of opioid use disorder during pregnancy is required. Future studies should evaluate childhood outcomes including infant brain development and long-term neurocognitive function. Keywords: Prenatal, Methadone, Brain, Neonate, MRI, Opioid

  7. Vasoparalysis associated with brain damage in asphyxiated term infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryds, O.; Greisen, G.; Lou, H.; Friis-Hansen, B.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of cerebral blood flow to acute changes in arterial carbon dioxide and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was determined during the first day of life in 19 severely asphyxiated term infants supported by mechanical ventilation. For comparison, 12 infants without perinatal asphyxia were also investigated. Global cerebral blood flow (CBF infinity) was determined by xenon 133 clearance two or three times within approximately 2 hours. During the cerebral blood flow measurement, the amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram and visual-evoked potential were recorded. Changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure followed adjustments of the ventilator settings, whereas MABP fluctuated spontaneously. Arterial oxygen pressure and blood glucose concentration were in the normal range. Five of the asphyxiated infants had isoelectric electroencephalograms and died subsequently with severe brain damage. They had a high CBF infinity (mean 30.6 ml/100 gm/min) and abolished carbon dioxide and MABP reactivity. Lower CBF infinity (mean 14.7 ml/100 gm/min) and abolished MABP reactivity were found in another five asphyxiated infants with burst-suppression electroencephalograms in whom computed tomographic or clinical signs of brain lesions developed. The carbon dioxide reactivity was preserved in these infants. In the remaining nine asphyxiated infants without signs of central nervous system abnormality, carbon dioxide and MABP reactivity were preserved, as was also the case in the control group. We conclude that abolished autoregulation is associated with cerebral damage in asphyxiated infants and that the combination of isoelectric electroencephalograms and cerebral hyperperfusion is an early indicator of very severe brain damage

  8. Vasoparalysis associated with brain damage in asphyxiated term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryds, O.; Greisen, G.; Lou, H.; Friis-Hansen, B. (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1990-07-01

    The relationship of cerebral blood flow to acute changes in arterial carbon dioxide and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was determined during the first day of life in 19 severely asphyxiated term infants supported by mechanical ventilation. For comparison, 12 infants without perinatal asphyxia were also investigated. Global cerebral blood flow (CBF infinity) was determined by xenon 133 clearance two or three times within approximately 2 hours. During the cerebral blood flow measurement, the amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram and visual-evoked potential were recorded. Changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure followed adjustments of the ventilator settings, whereas MABP fluctuated spontaneously. Arterial oxygen pressure and blood glucose concentration were in the normal range. Five of the asphyxiated infants had isoelectric electroencephalograms and died subsequently with severe brain damage. They had a high CBF infinity (mean 30.6 ml/100 gm/min) and abolished carbon dioxide and MABP reactivity. Lower CBF infinity (mean 14.7 ml/100 gm/min) and abolished MABP reactivity were found in another five asphyxiated infants with burst-suppression electroencephalograms in whom computed tomographic or clinical signs of brain lesions developed. The carbon dioxide reactivity was preserved in these infants. In the remaining nine asphyxiated infants without signs of central nervous system abnormality, carbon dioxide and MABP reactivity were preserved, as was also the case in the control group. We conclude that abolished autoregulation is associated with cerebral damage in asphyxiated infants and that the combination of isoelectric electroencephalograms and cerebral hyperperfusion is an early indicator of very severe brain damage.

  9. Structural Brain Correlates Associated with Professional Handball Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Langer, Nicolas; Lutz, Kai; Birrer, Karin; Mérillat, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no doubt that good bimanual performance is very important for skilled handball playing. The control of the non-dominant hand is especially demanding since efficient catching and throwing needs both hands. Methodology/Hypotheses We investigated training-induced structural neuroplasticity in professional handball players using several structural neuroimaging techniques and analytic approaches and also provide a review of the literature about sport-induced structural neuroplastic alterations. Structural brain adaptations were expected in regions relevant for motor and somatosensory processing such as the grey matter (GM) of the primary/secondary motor (MI/supplementary motor area, SMA) and somatosensory cortex (SI/SII), basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and in the white matter (WM) of the corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum, stronger in brain regions controlling the non-dominant left hand. Results Increased GM volume in handball players compared with control subjects were found in the right MI/SI, bilateral SMA/cingulate motor area, and left intraparietal sulcus. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity were increased within the right CST in handball players compared with control women. Age of handball training commencement correlated inversely with GM volume in the right and left MI/SI and years of handball training experience correlated inversely with radial diffusivity in the right CST. Subcortical structures tended to be larger in handball players. The anatomical measures of the brain regions associated with handball playing were positively correlated in handball players, but not interrelated in control women. Discussion/Conclusion Training-induced structural alterations were found in the somatosensory-motor network of handball players, more pronounced in the right hemisphere controlling the non-dominant left hand. Correlations between handball training-related measures and anatomical differences suggest neuroplastic

  10. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using brain SPECT with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Kogure, Daiji; Abe, Shine; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    2001-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic usefulness of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) with that of standard transaxial images in brain SPECT in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects consisted of 69 patients with AD and 60 patients with non-AD, including vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other dementing diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. Standard transaxial section and 3D-SSP SPECT images with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine were blindly interpreted by three examiners and were classified into the following three patterns: typical AD, atypical AD, and not indicative AD patterns. The 3D-SSP images demonstrated reductions of cerebral blood flow in the parieto-temporal association cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus more clearly and easily than the standard transaxial images. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 85% with 3D-SSP and 83% and 82% with standard transaxial section respectively. 3D-SSP was especially useful for early or atypical AD which showed no characteristic perfusion abnormalities on standard transaxial images. These results suggest that SPECT with 3D-SSP provides an sensitive as well as accurate tool for the diagnosis of AD. (author)

  11. Improved superficial brain hemorrhage visualization in susceptibility weighted images by constrained minimum intensity projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John

    2016-03-01

    Minimum intensity projection is a technique commonly used to display magnetic resonance susceptibility weighted images, allowing the observer to better visualize hemorrhages and vasculature. The technique displays the minimum intensity in a given projection within a thick slab, allowing different connectivity patterns to be easily revealed. Unfortunately, the low signal intensity of the skull within the thick slab can mask superficial tissues near the skull base and other regions. Because superficial microhemorrhages are a common feature of traumatic brain injury, this effect limits the ability to proper diagnose and follow up patients. In order to overcome this limitation, we developed a method to allow minimum intensity projection to properly display superficial tissues adjacent to the skull. Our approach is based on two brain masks, the largest of which includes extracerebral voxels. The analysis of the rind within both masks containing the actual brain boundary allows reclassification of those voxels initially missed in the smaller mask. Morphological operations are applied to guarantee accuracy and topological correctness, and the mean intensity within the mask is assigned to all outer voxels. This prevents bone from dominating superficial regions in the projection, enabling superior visualization of cortical hemorrhages and vessels.

  12. Brain structural alterations associated with young women with subthreshold depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijiang; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-05-18

    Neuroanatomical abnormalities in patients with major depression disorder (MDD) have been attracted great research attention. However, the structural alterations associated with subthreshold depression (StD) remain unclear and, therefore, require further investigation. In this study, 42 young women with StD, and 30 matched non-depressed controls (NCs) were identified based on two-time Beck Depression Inventory scores. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region of interest method were used to investigate altered gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) among a non-clinical sample of young women with StD. VBM results indicated that young women with StD showed significantly decreased GMV in the right inferior parietal lobule than NCs; increased GMV in the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus; and increased WMV in the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Together, structural alterations in specific brain regions, which are known to be involved in the fronto-limbic circuits implicated in depression may precede the occurrence of depressive episodes and influence the development of MDD.

  13. Direct cost associated with acquired brain injury in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Amy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired Brain Injury (ABI from traumatic and non traumatic causes is a leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is limited research summarizing the health system economic burden associated with ABI. The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of publicly funded health care services from the initial hospitalization to three years post-injury for individuals with traumatic (TBI and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI in Ontario Canada. Methods A population-based cohort of patients discharged from acute hospital with an ABI code in any diagnosis position in 2004 through 2007 in Ontario was identified from administrative data. Publicly funded health care utilization was obtained from several Ontario administrative healthcare databases. Patients were stratified according to traumatic and non-traumatic causes of brain injury and whether or not they were discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation center. Health system costs were calculated across a continuum of institutional and community settings for up to three years after initial discharge. The continuum of settings included acute care emergency departments inpatient rehabilitation (IR complex continuing care home care services and physician visits. All costs were calculated retrospectively assuming the government payer’s perspective. Results Direct medical costs in an ABI population are substantial with mean cost in the first year post-injury per TBI and nTBI patient being $32132 and $38018 respectively. Among both TBI and nTBI patients those discharged to IR had significantly higher treatment costs than those not discharged to IR across all institutional and community settings. This tendency remained during the entire three-year follow-up period. Annual medical costs of patients hospitalized with a brain injury in Ontario in the first follow-up year were approximately $120.7 million for TBI and $368.7 million for nTBI. Acute care cost accounted for 46

  14. Mapping remodeling of thalamocortical projections in the living reeler mouse brain by diffusion tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsan, Laura-Adela; Dávid, Csaba; Reisert, Marco; Schnell, Susanne; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Staiger, Jochen F.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in neuroscience is to accurately decipher in vivo the entire brain circuitry (connectome) at a microscopic level. Currently, the only methodology providing a global noninvasive window into structural brain connectivity is diffusion tractography. The extent to which the reconstructed pathways reflect realistic neuronal networks depends, however, on data acquisition and postprocessing factors. Through a unique combination of approaches, we designed and evaluated herein a framework for reliable fiber tracking and mapping of the living mouse brain connectome. One important wiring scheme, connecting gray matter regions and passing fiber-crossing areas, was closely examined: the lemniscal thalamocortical (TC) pathway. We quantitatively validated the TC projections inferred from in vivo tractography with correlative histological axonal tracing in the same wild-type and reeler mutant mice. We demonstrated noninvasively that changes in patterning of the cortical sheet, such as highly disorganized cortical lamination in reeler, led to spectacular compensatory remodeling of the TC pathway. PMID:23610438

  15. Human brain mass: similar body composition associations as observed across mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Thomas, Diana; Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    A classic association is the link between brain mass and body mass across mammals that has now been shown to derive from fat-free mass (FFM) and not fat mass (FM). This study aimed to establish for the first time the associations between human brain mass and body composition and to compare these relations with those established for liver as a reference organ. Subjects were 112 men and 148 women who had brain and liver mass measured by magnetic resonance imaging with FM and FFM measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Brain mass scaled to height (H) with powers of ≤0.6 in men and women; liver mass and FFM both scaled similarly as H(~2) . The fraction of FFM as brain thus scaled inversely to height (P FFM was independent of height. After controlling for age, brain, and liver mass were associated with FFM while liver was additionally associated with FM (all models P ≤ 0.01). After controlling for age and sex, FFM accounted for ~5% of the variance in brain mass while levels were substantially higher for liver mass (~60%). Brain mass was significantly larger (P FFM. As across mammals, human brain mass associates significantly, although weakly, with FFM and not FM; the fraction of FFM as brain relates inversely to height; brain differs in these relations from liver, another small high metabolic rate organ; and the sexual dimorphism in brain mass persists even after adjusting for age and FFM. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Brain potentials associated with the outcome processing in framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Feng, Yandong; Xu, Qing; Bian, Jun; Tang, Huixian

    2012-10-24

    Framing effect is a cognitive bias referring to the phenomenon that people respond differently to different but objectively equivalent descriptions of the same problem. By measuring event-related potentials, the present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the framing effect, especially how the negative and positive frames influence the outcome processing in our brain. Participants were presented directly with outcomes framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large and small group conditions, and were asked to rate the favorableness of each of them. The behavioral results showed that the framing effect occurred in both group size conditions, with more favorable evaluations associated with positive framing. Compared with outcomes in positive framing condition, a significant feedback-related negativity (FRN) effect was elicited by outcomes in negative framing condition, even though the outcomes in different conditions were objectively equivalent. The results are explained in terms of the associative model of attribute framing effect which states that attribute framing effect occurs as a result of a valence-based associative processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sincipital Encephaloceles: A Study of Associated Brain Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidhar Vedavyas Achar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associated intracranial malformations in patients with sincipital encephaloceles. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over 8 years from June 2007 to May 2015 on 28 patients. The patients were evaluated by either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging whichever was feasible. Encephaloceles were described with respect to their types, contents, and extensions. A note was made on the associated malformations with sincipital encephaloceles. Results: Fifty percent of the patients presented before the age of 3 years and both the sexes were affected equally. Nasofrontal encephalocele was the most common type seen in 13 patients (46.4%, and corpus callosal agenesis (12 patients was the most common associated malformation. Other malformations noted were arachnoid cyst (10 patients, hydrocephalus (7 patients, and agyria-pachygyria complex (2 patients. Conclusion: Capital Brain malformations are frequently encountered in children with sincipital encephaloceles. Detail radiological evaluation is necessary to plan treatment and also to prognosticate such rare malformations.

  18. Human Brain Proteome Project - 12th HUPO BPP Workshop. 26 September 2009, Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Marcus, Katrin; Lee, Bonghee; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young Mok

    2010-06-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 12th workshop in Toronto on 26 September 2009 prior to the HUPO VIII World Congress. The principal aim of this project is to obtain a better understanding of neurodiseases and ageing, with the ultimate objective of discovering prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, in addition to the development of novel diagnostic techniques and new medications. The attendees came together to discuss progress in the human clinical neuroproteomics and to define the needs and guidelines required for more advanced proteomic approaches.

  19. Brain abscesses associated with right-to-left shunts in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Kashif A; Cleveland, Kerry O; Gelfand, Michael S

    2012-04-01

    Although brain abscesses are frequently cryptogenic in origin, bacteria must reach the brain either by direct or hematogenous spread. Right-to-left shunts, caused either by intrapulmonary vascular malformations or congenital heart defects, may allow microorganisms to evade the normal host defenses in the lungs and lead to development of brain abscesses. Two patients recently presented with brain abscesses and were found to have conditions associated with right-to-left shunts. The diagnosis of brain abscess should prompt the clinician to consider right-to-left shunts as a possible predisposing condition for brain abscess.

  20. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Haijma, Sander V.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    IMPORTANCE Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time.

  1. Association between structural brain network efficiency and intelligence increases during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenis, Marinka M G; Brouwer, Rachel M; Swagerman, Suzanne C; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence represents an important period during which considerable changes in the brain take place, including increases in integrity of white matter bundles, and increasing efficiency of the structural brain network. A more efficient structural brain network has been associated with higher

  2. Brain structure and functional connectivity associated with pornography consumption: the brain on porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    Since pornography appeared on the Internet, the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of consuming visual sexual stimuli have increased and attracted millions of users. Based on the assumption that pornography consumption bears resemblance with reward-seeking behavior, novelty-seeking behavior, and addictive behavior, we hypothesized alterations of the frontostriatal network in frequent users. To determine whether frequent pornography consumption is associated with the frontostriatal network. In a study conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin, Germany, 64 healthy male adults covering a wide range of pornography consumption reported hours of pornography consumption per week. Pornography consumption was associated with neural structure, task-related activation, and functional resting-state connectivity. Gray matter volume of the brain was measured by voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity was measured on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging scans. We found a significant negative association between reported pornography hours per week and gray matter volume in the right caudate (P < .001, corrected for multiple comparisons) as well as with functional activity during a sexual cue-reactivity paradigm in the left putamen (P < .001). Functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively associated with hours of pornography consumption. The negative association of self-reported pornography consumption with the right striatum (caudate) volume, left striatum (putamen) activation during cue reactivity, and lower functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex could reflect change in neural plasticity as a consequence of an intense stimulation of the reward system, together with a lower top-down modulation of prefrontal cortical areas. Alternatively, it could be a precondition that makes pornography consumption more rewarding.

  3. Brain stem origins of spinal projections in the lizard Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruce, W L; Newman, D B

    1981-05-10

    In order to study brainstem origins of spinal projections, ten Tegu lizards (Tupinambis nigropunctatus) received complete or partial hemisections of the spinal cord at the first or second cervical segment. Their brains were processed for conventional Nissl staining. The sections were surveyed for the presence or absence of retrograde chromatolysis. Based on analysis and comparison of results from lesions in the various spinal cord funiculi, the following conclusions were reached: The interstitial nucleus projects ipsilaterally to the spinal cord via the medial longitudinal fasciculus, as does the middle reticular field of the metencephalon. The red nucleus and dorsal vagal motor nucleus both project contralaterally to the spinal cord via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus. The superior reticular field in the rostral metencephalon and the ventrolateral vestibular nucleus project ipsilaterally to the spinal cord via the ventral funiculus. The dorsolateral metencephalic nucleus and the ventral part of the inferior reticular nucleus of the myelencephalon both project ipsilaterally to the spinal cord via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus. Several brainstem nuclei in Tupinambis project bilaterally to the spinal cord. The ventrolateral metencephalic nucleus, for example, projects ipsilaterally to the cord via the medial longitudinal fasciculus and contralaterally via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus. The dorsal part of the inferior reticular nucleus projects bilaterally to the spinal cord via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus. The nucleus solitarius complex projects contralaterally via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus but ipsilaterally via the middle of the lateral funiculus. The inferior raphe nucleus projects bilaterally to the spinal cord via the middle part of the lateral funiculus. These data suggest that supraspinal projections in reptiles, especially reticulospinal systems, are more highly differentiated than previously thought

  4. Brain Activity and Functional Connectivity Associated with Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heidi; White, Matthew P; Greicius, Michael D; Waelde, Lynn C; Spiegel, David

    2017-08-01

    Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis. We selected 57 of 545 healthy subjects with very high or low hypnotizability using two hypnotizability scales. All subjects underwent four conditions in the scanner: rest, memory retrieval, and two different hypnosis experiences guided by standard pre-recorded instructions in counterbalanced order. Seeds for the ECN, SN, and DMN were left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), respectively. During hypnosis there was reduced activity in the dACC, increased functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC;ECN) and the insula in the SN, and reduced connectivity between the ECN (DLPFC) and the DMN (PCC). These changes in neural activity underlie the focused attention, enhanced somatic and emotional control, and lack of self-consciousness that characterizes hypnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Brain-to-brain coupling during handholding is associated with pain reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Pavel; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Dumas, Guillaume; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2018-03-13

    The mechanisms underlying analgesia related to social touch are not clear. While recent research highlights the role of the empathy of the observer to pain relief in the target, the contribution of social interaction to analgesia is unknown. The current study examines brain-to-brain coupling during pain with interpersonal touch and tests the involvement of interbrain synchrony in pain alleviation. Romantic partners were assigned the roles of target (pain receiver) and observer (pain observer) under pain-no-pain and touch-no-touch conditions concurrent with EEG recording. Brain-to-brain coupling in alpha-mu band (8-12 Hz) was estimated by a three-step multilevel analysis procedure based on running window circular correlation coefficient and post hoc power of the findings was calculated using simulations. Our findings indicate that hand-holding during pain administration increases brain-to-brain coupling in a network that mainly involves the central regions of the pain target and the right hemisphere of the pain observer. Moreover, brain-to-brain coupling in this network was found to correlate with analgesia magnitude and observer's empathic accuracy. These findings indicate that brain-to-brain coupling may be involved in touch-related analgesia.

  6. Project Career: A qualitative examination of five college students with traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Amanda; Sampson, Elaine; Stauffer, Callista; Leopold, Anne; Jacobs, Karen; Hendricks, Deborah J; Elias, Eileen; Chen, Hui; Rumrill, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Project Career is an interprofessional five-year development project designed to improve the employment success of undergraduate college and university students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The case study information was collected and synthesized by the project's Technology and Employment Coordinators (TECs) at each of the project's three university sites. The project's evaluation is occurring independently through JBS International, Inc. Five case studies are presented to provide an understanding of student participants' experiences within Project Career. Each case study includes background on the student, engagement with technology, vocational supports, and interactions with his/her respective TEC. A qualitative analysis from the student's case notes is provided within each case study, along with a discussion of the overall qualitative analysis. Across all five students, the theme Positive Outcomes was mentioned most often in the case notes. Of all the different type of challenges, Cognitive Challenges were most often mentioned during meetings with the TECs, followed by Psychological Challenges, Physical Challenges, Other Challenges, and Academic Challenges, respectively. Project Career is providing academic enrichment and career enhancement that may substantially improve the unsatisfactory employment outcomes that presently await students with TBI following graduation.

  7. Age-dependent association of thyroid function with brain morphology and microstructural organization : Evidence from brain imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaker, Layal; Cremers, Lotte G M; Korevaar, Tim I.M.; De Groot, Marius; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H.; Niessen, W.J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Peeters, Robin P.; Vernooij, Meike W.

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is crucial during neurodevelopment, but high levels of TH have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. No data on the association of thyroid function with brain imaging in the general population are available. We therefore investigated the association of

  8. Clustering of Whole-Brain White Matter Short Association Bundles Using HARDI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Román

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human brain connectivity is extremely complex and variable across subjects. While long association and projection bundles are stable and have been deeply studied, short association bundles present higher intersubject variability, and few studies have been carried out to adequately describe the structure, shape, and reproducibility of these bundles. However, their analysis is crucial to understand brain function and better characterize the human connectome. In this study, we propose an automatic method to identify reproducible short association bundles of the superficial white matter, based on intersubject hierarchical clustering. The method is applied to the whole brain and finds representative clusters of similar fibers belonging to a group of subjects, according to a distance metric between fibers. We experimented with both affine and non-linear registrations and, due to better reproducibility, chose the results obtained from non-linear registration. Once the clusters are calculated, our method performs automatic labeling of the most stable connections based on individual cortical parcellations. We compare results between two independent groups of subjects from a HARDI database to generate reproducible connections for the creation of an atlas. To perform a better validation of the results, we used a bagging strategy that uses pairs of groups of 27 subjects from a database of 74 subjects. The result is an atlas with 44 bundles in the left hemisphere and 49 in the right hemisphere, of which 33 bundles are found in both hemispheres. Finally, we use the atlas to automatically segment 78 new subjects from a different HARDI database and to analyze stability and lateralization results.

  9. Association of brain cancer with dental x-rays and occupation in Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, J.S.; Brownson, R.C.; Morantz, R.A.; Chin, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation of a brain cancer cluster in Missouri used two approaches to investigate associations with potential risk factors. In a case-control study in a rural town, we interviewed surrogates of cases and controls about potential risk factors. We found a statistically significant positive association of brain cancer with reported exposure to dental x-rays. Occupation was not associated with the cluster in the rural town. In a standardized proportional mortality study for the state of Missouri, we calculated the observed and expected proportion of brain cancers by occupation and industry in Missouri decedents. We found that motor vehicle manufacturers, beauty shop workers, managers and administrators, elementary school teachers, and hairdressers and cosmetologists had significantly elevated proportions of brain cancer. Brain tumors are inconsistently associated with occupation in the literature. Further study of brain cancer etiology with respect to dental x-ray exposures seems warranted

  10. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium brain gene array: two types of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B Gelman

    Full Text Available The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC performed a brain gene expression array to elucidate pathophysiologies of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.Twenty-four human subjects in four groups were examined A Uninfected controls; B HIV-1 infected subjects with no substantial neurocognitive impairment (NCI; C Infected with substantial NCI without HIV encephalitis (HIVE; D Infected with substantial NCI and HIVE. RNA from neocortex, white matter, and neostriatum was processed with the Affymetrix® array platform.With HIVE the HIV-1 RNA load in brain tissue was three log(10 units higher than other groups and over 1,900 gene probes were regulated. Interferon response genes (IFRGs, antigen presentation, complement components and CD163 antigen were strongly upregulated. In frontal neocortex downregulated neuronal pathways strongly dominated in HIVE, including GABA receptors, glutamate signaling, synaptic potentiation, axon guidance, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and 14-3-3 protein. Expression was completely different in neuropsychologically impaired subjects without HIVE. They had low brain HIV-1 loads, weak brain immune responses, lacked neuronally expressed changes in neocortex and exhibited upregulation of endothelial cell type transcripts. HIV-1-infected subjects with normal neuropsychological test results had upregulation of neuronal transcripts involved in synaptic transmission of neostriatal circuits.Two patterns of brain gene expression suggest that more than one pathophysiological process occurs in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment. Expression in HIVE suggests that lowering brain HIV-1 replication might improve NCI, whereas NCI without HIVE may not respond in kind; array results suggest that modulation of transvascular signaling is a potentially promising approach. Striking brain regional differences highlighted the likely importance of circuit level disturbances in HIV/AIDS. In

  11. Examination of corticothalamic fiber projections in United States service members with mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Faisal M.; Dennis, Emily L.; Villalon-Reina, Julio E.; Jin, Yan; Lewis, Jeffrey D.; York, Gerald E.; Thompson, Paul M.; Tate, David F.

    2017-11-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is characterized clinically by a closed head injury involving differential or rotational movement of the brain inside the skull. Over 3 million mTBIs occur annually in the United States alone. Many of the individuals who sustain an mTBI go on to recover fully, but around 20% experience persistent symptoms. These symptoms often last for many weeks to several months. The thalamus, a structure known to serve as a global networking or relay system for the rest of the brain, may play a critical role in neurorehabiliation and its integrity and connectivity after injury may also affect cognitive outcomes. To examine the thalamus, conventional tractography methods to map corticothalamic pathways with diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) lead to sparse reconstructions that may contain false positive fibers that are anatomically inaccurate. Using a specialized method to zero in on corticothalamic pathways with greater robustness, we noninvasively examined corticothalamic fiber projections using DWI, in 68 service members. We found significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter microstructural integrity, in pathways projecting to the left pre- and postcentral gyri - consistent with sensorimotor deficits often found post-mTBI. Mapping of neural circuitry in mTBI may help to further our understanding of mechanisms underlying recovery post-TBI.

  12. Bitlis Bibliophil Association and One-Book Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yücel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Bitlis Bibliophil Association and One-Book Project which was established in January of the current year by a group of volunteer including several professions such as students, librarians, sociologists, engineers, civil cervants, teachers, bankers, poets, jorunalists, accountants.

  13. Meditation is associated with increased brain network integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; van Dellen, Edwin; Pal, Prasanta; Yang, Hua; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Brewer, Judson

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to identify novel quantitative EEG measures associated with mindfulness meditation. As there is some evidence that meditation is associated with higher integration of brain networks, we focused on EEG measures of network integration. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators performed a basic meditation practice that supported effortless awareness, which is an important quality of experience related to mindfulness practices, while their EEG was recorded. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice that supported effortless awareness. Network integration was analyzed with maximum betweenness centrality and leaf fraction (which both correlate positively with network integration) as well as with diameter and average eccentricity (which both correlate negatively with network integration), based on a phase-lag index (PLI) and minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Differences between groups were assessed using repeated-measures ANOVA for the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz) and lower beta (13-20 Hz) frequency bands. Maximum betweenness centrality was significantly higher in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.012) in the alpha band. In the same frequency band, leaf fraction showed a trend toward being significantly higher in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.056), while diameter and average eccentricity were significantly lower in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.016 and P = 0.028 respectively). No significant differences between groups were observed for the theta and beta frequency bands. These results show that alpha band functional network topology is better integrated in experienced meditators than in novice meditators during meditation. This novel finding provides the rationale to investigate the temporal relation between measures of functional connectivity network integration and meditation quality, for example using

  14. Associations Between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lyden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant. The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used.

  15. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E; Kaplan, Jonas T; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation approaches. In the current study, 23 adolescents participated in two waves of a longitudinal study. Family aggression was measured when the youths were 12 years old, and structural scans were acquired an average of 4 years later. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were segmented using three different methods (manual tracing, FSL, and NeuroQuant). The segmentation estimates were compared, and linear regressions were run to assess the relationship between early family aggression exposure and all three volume segmentation estimates. Manual tracing results showed a positive relationship between family aggression and right amygdala volume, whereas FSL segmentation showed negative relationships between family aggression and both the left and right hippocampi. However, results indicate poor overlap between methods, and different associations were found between early family aggression exposure and brain volume depending on the segmentation method used.

  16. ABrIL - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab : a cloud based computation environment for cooperative neuroimaging projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves Tafula, Sérgio M; Moreira da Silva, Nádia; Rozanski, Verena E; Silva Cunha, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an increasingly multidisciplinary and highly cooperative field where neuroimaging plays an important role. Neuroimaging rapid evolution is demanding for a growing number of computing resources and skills that need to be put in place at every lab. Typically each group tries to setup their own servers and workstations to support their neuroimaging needs, having to learn from Operating System management to specific neuroscience software tools details before any results can be obtained from each setup. This setup and learning process is replicated in every lab, even if a strong collaboration among several groups is going on. In this paper we present a new cloud service model - Brain Imaging Application as a Service (BiAaaS) - and one of its implementation - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab (ABrIL) - in the form of an ubiquitous virtual desktop remote infrastructure that offers a set of neuroimaging computational services in an interactive neuroscientist-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This remote desktop has been used for several multi-institution cooperative projects with different neuroscience objectives that already achieved important results, such as the contribution to a high impact paper published in the January issue of the Neuroimage journal. The ABrIL system has shown its applicability in several neuroscience projects with a relatively low-cost, promoting truly collaborative actions and speeding up project results and their clinical applicability.

  17. Defining Optimal Brain Health in Adults: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B; Furie, Karen L; Iadecola, Costantino; Smith, Eric E; Waddy, Salina P; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Bae, Hee-Joon; Bauman, Mary Ann; Dichgans, Martin; Duncan, Pamela W; Girgus, Meighan; Howard, Virginia J; Lazar, Ronald M; Seshadri, Sudha; Testai, Fernando D; van Gaal, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Wasiak, Hank; Zerna, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive function is an important component of aging and predicts quality of life, functional independence, and risk of institutionalization. Advances in our understanding of the role of cardiovascular risks have shown them to be closely associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. Because many cardiovascular risks are modifiable, it may be possible to maintain brain health and to prevent dementia in later life. The purpose of this American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association presidential advisory is to provide an initial definition of optimal brain health in adults and guidance on how to maintain brain health. We identify metrics to define optimal brain health in adults based on inclusion of factors that could be measured, monitored, and modified. From these practical considerations, we identified 7 metrics to define optimal brain health in adults that originated from AHA's Life's Simple 7: 4 ideal health behaviors (nonsmoking, physical activity at goal levels, healthy diet consistent with current guideline levels, and body mass index brain health but recognize that the truly ideal circumstance may be uncommon because there is a continuum of brain health as demonstrated by AHA's Life's Simple 7. Therefore, there is opportunity to improve brain health through primordial prevention and other interventions. Furthermore, although cardiovascular risks align well with brain health, we acknowledge that other factors differing from those related to cardiovascular health may drive cognitive health. Defining optimal brain health in adults and its maintenance is consistent with the AHA's Strategic Impact Goal to improve cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20% and to reduce deaths resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke by 20% by the year 2020. This work in defining optimal brain health in adults serves to provide the AHA/American Stroke Association with a foundation for a new strategic direction going forward in cardiovascular health

  18. Quantitative estimation of brain atrophy and function with PET and MRI two-dimensional projection images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Reiko; Uemura, Koji; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Toyama, Hinako; Ishii, Kenji; Senda, Michio

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent of atrophy and the decline in brain function objectively and quantitatively. Two-dimensional (2D) projection images of three-dimensional (3D) transaxial images of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were made by means of the Mollweide method which keeps the area of the brain surface. A correlation image was generated between 2D projection images of MRI and cerebral blood flow (CBF) or 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images and the sulcus was extracted from the correlation image clustered by K-means method. Furthermore, the extent of atrophy was evaluated from the extracted sulcus on 2D-projection MRI and the cerebral cortical function such as blood flow or glucose metabolic rate was assessed in the cortex excluding sulcus on 2D-projection PET image, and then the relationship between the cerebral atrophy and function was evaluated. This method was applied to the two groups, the young and the aged normal subjects, and the relationship between the age and the rate of atrophy or the cerebral blood flow was investigated. This method was also applied to FDG-PET and MRI studies in the normal controls and in patients with corticobasal degeneration. The mean rate of atrophy in the aged group was found to be higher than that in the young. The mean value and the variance of the cerebral blood flow for the young are greater than those of the aged. The sulci were similarly extracted using either CBF or FDG PET images. The purposed method using 2-D projection images of MRI and PET is clinically useful for quantitative assessment of atrophic change and functional disorder of cerebral cortex. (author)

  19. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  20. Brain-predicted age in Down syndrome is associated with beta amyloid deposition and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H; Annus, Tiina; Wilson, Liam R; Remtulla, Ridhaa; Hong, Young T; Fryer, Tim D; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Smith, Robert; Menon, David K; Zaman, Shahid H; Nestor, Peter J; Holland, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are more likely to experience earlier onset of multiple facets of physiological aging. This includes brain atrophy, beta amyloid deposition, cognitive decline, and Alzheimer's disease-factors indicative of brain aging. Here, we employed a machine learning approach, using structural neuroimaging data to predict age (i.e., brain-predicted age) in people with DS (N = 46) and typically developing controls (N = 30). Chronological age was then subtracted from brain-predicted age to generate a brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD) score. DS participants also underwent [ 11 C]-PiB positron emission tomography (PET) scans to index the levels of cerebral beta amyloid deposition, and cognitive assessment. Mean brain-PAD in DS participants' was +2.49 years, significantly greater than controls (p brain-PAD was associated with the presence and the magnitude of PiB-binding and levels of cognitive performance. Our study indicates that DS is associated with premature structural brain aging, and that age-related alterations in brain structure are associated with individual differences in the rate of beta amyloid deposition and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-dependent association of thyroid function with brain morphology and microstructural organization: evidence from brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Layal; Cremers, Lotte G M; Korevaar, Tim I M; de Groot, Marius; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H; Niessen, Wiro J; Ikram, M Arfan; Peeters, Robin P; Vernooij, Meike W

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is crucial during neurodevelopment, but high levels of TH have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. No data on the association of thyroid function with brain imaging in the general population are available. We therefore investigated the association of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine (FT4) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived total intracranial volume, brain tissue volumes, and diffusion tensor imaging measures of white matter microstructure in 4683 dementia- and stroke-free participants (mean age 60.2, range 45.6-89.9 years). Higher FT4 levels were associated with larger total intracranial volumes (β = 6.73 mL, 95% confidence interval = 2.94-9.80). Higher FT4 levels were also associated with larger total brain and white matter volumes in younger individuals, but with smaller total brain and white matter volume in older individuals (p-interaction 0.02). There was a similar interaction by age for the association of FT4 with mean diffusivity on diffusion tensor imaging (p-interaction 0.026). These results are in line with differential effects of TH during neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes and can improve the understanding of the role of thyroid function in neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulatory Effect of Association of Brain Stimulation by Light and Binaural Beats in Specific Brain Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Furtado da Silva, Vernon; Velasques, Bruna Brandão; Feijó, Olavo Guimarães; Bittencourt, Juliana Marques; Ribeiro de Souza E Silva, Alair Pedro

    2017-01-01

    One of the positive effects of brain stimulation is interhemispheric modulation as shown in some scientific studies. This study examined if a type of noninvasive stimulation using binaural beats with led-lights and sound would show different modulatory effects upon Alfa and SMR brain waves of elderlies and children with some disease types. The sample included 75 individuals of both genders, being, randomly, divided in 6 groups. Groups were named elderly without dementia diagnosis (EWD), n=15, 76±8 years, elderly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (EDP), n=15, 72±7 years, elderly diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (EDA), n=15, 81±6 years. The other groups were named children with Autism (CA), n=10, 11±4 years, children with Intellectual Impairment (CII), n=10, 12 ±5 years and children with normal cognitive development (CND), n=10, 11±4 years. Instruments were the Mini Mental State Examination Test (MMSE), EEG-Neurocomputer instrument for brain waves registration, brain stimulator, Digit Span Test and a Protocol for working memory training. Data collection followed a pre and post-conjugated stimulation version. The results of the inferential statistics showed that the stimulation protocol had different effects on Alpha and SMR brain waves of the patients. Also, indicated gains in memory functions, for both, children and elderlies as related to gains in brain waves modulation. The results may receive and provide support to a range of studies examining brain modulation and synaptic plasticity. Also, it was emphasized in the results discussion that there was the possibility of the technique serving as an accessory instrument to alternative brain therapies.

  3. A novel method of quantifying brain atrophy associated with age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jason Qian

    2017-01-01

    Audiometric evaluations and mini-mental state exams were obtained in 34 subjects over the age of 80 who have had brain MRIs in the past 6 years. CSF and parenchymal brain volumes (whole brain and by lobe were obtained through a novel, fully automated algorithm. Atrophy was calculated by taking the ratio of CSF to parenchyma. High frequency hearing loss was associated with disproportional temporal lobe atrophy relative to whole brain atrophy independent of age (r = 0.471, p = 0.005. Mental state was associated with frontoparietal atrophy but not to temporal lobe atrophy, which is consistent with known results. Our method demonstrates that hearing loss is associated with temporal lobe atrophy and generalized whole brain atrophy. Our algorithm is efficient, fully automated, and able to detect significant associations in a small cohort.

  4. What makes your brain suggestible? Hypnotizability is associated with differential brain activity during attention outside hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojan, Yann; Piguet, Camille; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-08-15

    Theoretical models of hypnosis have emphasized the importance of attentional processes in accounting for hypnotic phenomena but their exact nature and brain substrates remain unresolved. Individuals vary in their susceptibility to hypnosis, a variability often attributed to differences in attentional functioning such as greater ability to filter irrelevant information and inhibit prepotent responses. However, behavioral studies of attentional performance outside the hypnotic state have provided conflicting results. We used fMRI to investigate the recruitment of attentional networks during a modified flanker task in High and Low hypnotizable participants. The task was performed in a normal (no hypnotized) state. While behavioral performance did not reliably differ between groups, components of the fronto-parietal executive network implicated in monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex; ACC), adjustment (lateral prefrontal cortex; latPFC), and implementation of attentional control (intraparietal sulcus; IPS) were differently activated depending on the hypnotizability of the subjects: the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited, whereas IPS and ACC were less recruited by High susceptible individuals compared to Low. Our results demonstrate that susceptibility to hypnosis is associated with particular executive control capabilities allowing efficient attentional focusing, and point to specific neural substrates in right prefrontal cortex. We demonstrated that outside hypnosis, low hypnotizable subjects recruited more parietal cortex and anterior cingulate regions during selective attention conditions suggesting a better detection and implementation of conflict. However, outside hypnosis the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited by highly hypnotizable subjects during selective attention conditions suggesting a better control of conflict. Furthermore, in highly hypnotizable subjects this region was more connected to the default mode network

  5. N-Terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Associations With Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI Features in Middle Age: The CARDIA Brain MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Ferguson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAs part of research on the heart–brain axis, we investigated the association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP with brain structure and function in a community-based cohort of middle-aged adults from the Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging sub-study of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study.Approach and resultsIn a cohort of 634 community-dwelling adults with a mean (range age of 50.4 (46–52 years, we examined the cross-sectional association of NT-proBNP to total, gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, abnormal WM load and WM integrity, and to cognitive function tests [the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, the Stroop test, and the Rey Auditory–Verbal Learning Test]. These associations were examined using linear regression models adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac output. Higher NT-proBNP concentration was significantly associated with smaller GM volume (β = −3.44; 95% CI = −5.32, −0.53; p = 0.003, even after additionally adjusting for cardiac output (β = −2.93; 95% CI = −5.32, −0.53; p = 0.017. Higher NT-proBNP levels were also associated with lower DSST scores. NT-proBNP was not related to WM volume, WM integrity, or abnormal WM load.ConclusionIn this middle-aged cohort, subclinical levels of NT-proBNP were related to brain function and specifically to GM and not WM measures, extending similar findings in older cohorts. Further research is warranted into biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction as a target for early markers of a brain at risk.

  6. Optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic projection neurons as an alternative for deep brain stimulation for Alzheimer's treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, James; Chen, Yuanxin; Zhao, Zhen; Li, Xuping; Xue, Zhong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2013-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the cholinergic nuclei has emerged as a powerful potential treatment for neurodegenerative disease and is currently in a clinical trial for Alzheimer's therapy. While effective in treatment for a number of conditions from depression to epilepsy, DBS remains somewhat unpredictable due to the heterogeneity of the projection neurons that are activated, including glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurons, leading to unacceptable side effects ranging from apathy to depression or even suicidal behavior. It would be highly advantageous to confine stimulation to specific populations of neurons, particularly in brain diseases involving complex network interactions such as Alzheimer's. Optogenetics, now firmly established as an effective approach to render genetically-defined populations of cells sensitive to light activation including mice expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 specifically in cholinergic neurons, provides just this opportunity. Here we characterize the light activation properties and cell density of cholinergic neurons in healthy mice and mouse models of Alzheimer's disease in order to evaluate the feasibility of using optogenetic modulation of cholinergic synaptic activity to slow or reverse neurodegeneration. This paper is one of the very first reports to suggest that, despite the anatomical depth of their cell bodies, cholinergic projection neurons provide a better target for systems level optogenetic modulation than cholinergic interneurons found in various brain regions including striatum and the cerebral cortex. Additionally, basal forebrain channelrhodopsin-expressing cholinergic neurons are shown to exhibit normal distribution at 60 days and normal light activation at 40 days, the latest timepoints observed. The data collected form the basis of ongoing computational modeling of light stimulation of entire populations of cholinergic neurons.

  7. Identification of alterations associated with age in the clustering structure of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Grover E C; Sato, Joao R; Vidal, Maciel C; Fujita, Andre

    2018-01-01

    Initial studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on the trajectories of the brain network from childhood to adulthood found evidence of functional integration and segregation over time. The comprehension of how healthy individuals' functional integration and segregation occur is crucial to enhance our understanding of possible deviations that may lead to brain disorders. Recent approaches have focused on the framework wherein the functional brain network is organized into spatially distributed modules that have been associated with specific cognitive functions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the clustering structure of brain networks evolves during development. To address this hypothesis, we defined a measure of how well a brain region is clustered (network fitness index), and developed a method to evaluate its association with age. Then, we applied this method to a functional magnetic resonance imaging data set composed of 397 males under 31 years of age collected as part of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange Consortium. As results, we identified two brain regions for which the clustering change over time, namely, the left middle temporal gyrus and the left putamen. Since the network fitness index is associated with both integration and segregation, our finding suggests that the identified brain region plays a role in the development of brain systems.

  8. Exosomal biomarkers of brain insulin resistance associated with regional atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Roger J; Mustapic, Maja; Goetzl, Edward J; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Brain insulin resistance (IR), which depends on insulin-receptor-substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated higher pSer312-IRS-1 (ineffective insulin signaling) and lower p-panTyr-IRS-1 (effective insulin signaling) in neural origin-enriched plasma exosomes of AD patients vs. Here, we hypothesized that these exosomal biomarkers associate with brain atrophy in AD. We studied 24 subjects with biomarker-supported probable AD (low CSF Aβ 42 ). Exosomes were isolated from plasma, enriched for neural origin using immunoprecipitation for L1CAM, and measured for pSer 312 - and p-panTyr-IRS-1 phosphotypes. MPRAGE images were segmented by brain tissue type and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for gray matter against pSer 312 - and p-panTyr-IRS-1 was conducted. Given the regionally variable brain expression of IRS-1, we used the Allen Brain Atlas to make spatial comparisons between VBM results and IRS-1 expression. Brain volume was positively associated with P-panTyr-IRS-1 and negatively associated with pSer 312 -IRS-1 in a strikingly similar regional pattern (bilateral parietal-occipital junction, R middle temporal gyrus). This volumetric association pattern was spatially correlated with Allen Human Brain atlas normal brain IRS-1 expression. Exosomal biomarkers of brain IR are thus associated with atrophy in AD as could be expected by their pathophysiological roles and do so in a pattern that reflects regional IRS-1 expression. Furthermore, neural-origin plasma exosomes may recover molecular signals from specific brain regions. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1933-1940, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Brain activation associated with deep brain stimulation causing dissociation in a patient with Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Ingeborg; Jacobs, Filip; Van der Linden, Chris; Caemaert, Jacques; Audenaert, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Dissociation involves a disruption in the integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment. Attempts at localizing dissociative responses have yielded contradictory results regarding brain activation, laterality, and regional involvement. Here, we used a single-day split-dose activation paradigm with single photon emission computed tomography and 99m-Tc ethylcysteinatedimer as a brain perfusion tracer in a patient with Tourette's syndrome undergoing bilateral high-frequency thalamic stimulation for the treatment of tics who developed an alternate personality state during right thalamic stimulation. We documented increased regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral prefrontal and left temporal brain areas during the alternate identity state. We conclude that our findings support the temporal lobe as well as the frontolimbic disconnection hypotheses of dissociation.

  10. Traffic pollution exposure is associated with altered brain connectivity in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jesus; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Macià, Dídac; Fenoll, Raquel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; Forns, Joan; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Capellades, Jaume; Querol, Xavier; Deus, Joan; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Children are more vulnerable to the effects of environmental elements due to their active developmental processes. Exposure to urban air pollution has been associated with poorer cognitive performance, which is thought to be a result of direct interference with brain maturation. We aimed to assess the extent of such potential effects of urban pollution on child brain maturation using general indicators of vehicle exhaust measured in the school environment and a comprehensive imaging evaluation. A group of 263 children, aged 8 to 12 years, underwent MRI to quantify regional brain volumes, tissue composition, myelination, cortical thickness, neural tract architecture, membrane metabolites, functional connectivity in major neural networks and activation/deactivation dynamics during a sensory task. A combined measurement of elemental carbon and NO2 was used as a putative marker of vehicle exhaust. Air pollution exposure was associated with brain changes of a functional nature, with no evident effect on brain anatomy, structure or membrane metabolites. Specifically, a higher content of pollutants was associated with lower functional integration and segregation in key brain networks relevant to both inner mental processes (the default mode network) and stimulus-driven mental operations. Age and performance (motor response speed) both showed the opposite effect to that of pollution, thus indicating that higher exposure is associated with slower brain maturation. In conclusion, urban air pollution appears to adversely affect brain maturation in a critical age with changes specifically concerning the functional domain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nina Møller; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll Skúli

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain tis...

  12. 78 FR 28546 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury Correction In proposed rule document 2012-29709...: The factors considered are: Structural imaging of the brain. LOC--Loss of consciousness. AOC--Alteration of consciousness/mental state. PTA--Post-traumatic amnesia. GCS--Glasgow Coma Scale. (For purposes...

  13. Associating transcription factors and conserved RNA structures with gene regulation in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Nikolai; Seemann, Stefan E.; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical subdivisions of the human brain can be associated with different neuronal functions. This functional diversification is reflected by differences in gene expression. By analyzing post-mortem gene expression data from the Allen Brain Atlas, we investigated the impact of transcription fac...

  14. Mutations in XPR1 cause primary familial brain calcification associated with altered phosphate export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Legati (Andrea); D. Giovannini (Donatella); G. Nicolas (Gaël); U. López-Sánchez (Uriel); B. Quintáns (Beatriz); J.R. Oliveira (Joao); R.L. Sears (Renee L); E.M. Ramos (Eliana Marisa); E. Spiteri (Elizabeth); M.J. Sobrido (Maria); A. Carracedo (Angel); C. Castro-Fernández (Cristina); S. Cubizolle (Stéphanie); B.L. Fogel (Brent L); C. Goizet (Cyril); J.C. Jen (Joanna C); S. Kirdlarp (Suppachok); A.E. Lang (Anthony E); Z. Miedzybrodzka (Zosia); W. Mitarnun (Witoon); M. Paucar (Martin); H.L. Paulson (Henry); J. Pariente (Jérémie); A.-C. Richard (Anne-Claire); N.S. Salins (Naomi S); S.A. Simpson (Sheila A); P. Striano (Pasquale); P. Svenningsson (Per); F. Tison (François); V.K. Unni (Vivek K); O. Vanakker (Olivier); M.W. Wessels (Marja); S. Wetchaphanphesat (Suppachok); M. Yang (Michele); F. Boller (Francois); D. Campion (Dominique); D. Hannequin (Didier); M. Sitbon (Marc); H. Geschwind; J.-L. Battini (Jean-Luc); D. Coppola (Domenico)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPrimary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurological disease characterized by calcium phosphate deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions and has thus far been associated with SLC20A2, PDGFB or PDGFRB mutations. We identified in multiple families with PFBC mutations

  15. Brain activity associated with translation from a visual to a symbolic representation in algebra and geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Waisman, Ilana; Shaul, Shelley; Leikin, Roza

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a small part of a larger interdisciplinary study that investigates brain activity (using event related potential methodology) of male adolescents when solving mathematical problems of different types. The study design links mathematics education research with neurocognitive studies. In this paper we performed a comparative analysis of brain activity associated with the translation from visual to symbolic representations of mathematical objects in algebra and geometry. Algebraic tasks require translation from graphical to symbolic representation of a function, whereas tasks in geometry require translation from a drawing of a geometric figure to a symbolic representation of its property. The findings demonstrate that electrical activity associated with the performance of geometrical tasks is stronger than that associated with solving algebraic tasks. Additionally, we found different scalp topography of the brain activity associated with algebraic and geometric tasks. Based on these results, we argue that problem solving in algebra and geometry is associated with different patterns of brain activity.

  16. An associative Brain-Computer-Interface for acute stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Susan

    2016-01-01

    An efficient innovative Brain-Computer-Interface system that empowers chronic stroke patients to control an artificial activation of their lower limb muscle through task specific motor intent has been tested in the past. In the current study it was applied to acute stroke patients. The system...

  17. Brain Activation Associated with Practiced Left Hand Mirror Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, T.; Arzouan, Y.; Karni, A.; Manor, D.

    2013-01-01

    Mirror writing occurs in healthy children, in various pathologies and occasionally in healthy adults. There are only scant experimental data on the underlying brain processes. Eight, right-handed, healthy young adults were scanned (BOLD-fMRI) before and after practicing left-hand mirror-writing (lh-MW) over seven sessions. They wrote dictated…

  18. Some environmental impacts associated with project Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.W.; Whicker, F.W.; Hanson, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco, an experiment involving deep underground detonation of three 30-kiloton nuclear explosives designed to stimulate natural gas flow in geologic formations of low permeability, was conducted in western Colorado on 17 May 1973. Environmental impacts associated with this experiment were divided into three categories: radiation, ground motion, and conventional physical activities. The objective of observations made at Rio Blanco was to qualitatively and, where possible, quantitatively ascertain environmental impacts associated with the project. Observations indicated that ground motion and conventional activities appeared to cause the greatest impacts. Ground motion impacts were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravine and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Following the detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Animals receiving deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs and burrows. No mortality or injury was observed in any large animals. Based on overall results it appears important to give adequate attention to environmental effects resulting from nuclear fracturing experiments

  19. Hyper-attenuating brain lesions on CT after ischemic stroke and thrombectomy are associated with final brain infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, F B; Castro-Afonso, L H; Nakiri, G S; Monsignore, L M; Fábio, Src; Dos Santos, A C; Pontes-Neto, O M; Abud, D G

    2017-12-01

    Purpose Hyper-attenuating lesions, or contrast staining, on a non-contrast brain computed tomography (NCCT) scan have been investigated as a predictor for hemorrhagic transformation after endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, the association of hyper-attenuating lesions and final ischemic areas are poorly investigated in this setting. The aim of the present study was to assess correlations between hyper-attenuating lesions and final brain infarcted areas after thrombectomy for AIS. Methods Data from patients with AIS of the anterior circulation who underwent endovascular treatment were retrospectively assessed. Images of the brain NCCT scans were analyzed in the first hours and late after treatment. The hyper-attenuating areas were compared to the final ischemic areas using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Results Seventy-one of the 123 patients (65.13%) treated were included. The association between the hyper-attenuating region in the post-thrombectomy CT scan and final brain ischemic area were sensitivity (58.3% to 96.9%), specificity (42.9% to 95.6%), positive predictive values (71.4% to 97.7%), negative predictive values (53.8% to 79.5%), and accuracy values (68% to 91%). The highest sensitivity values were found for the lentiform (96.9%) and caudate nuclei (80.4%) and for the internal capsule (87.5%), and the lowest values were found for the M1 (58.3%) and M6 (66.7%) cortices. Conclusions Hyper-attenuating lesions on head NCCT scans performed after endovascular treatment of AIS may predict final brain infarcted areas. The prediction appears to be higher in the deep brain regions compared with the cortical regions.

  20. Clinicopathological factors associated with survival in patients with breast cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhang, Kui; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2017-06-01

    Brain metastasis from breast cancer generally represents a catastrophic event yet demonstrates substantial biological heterogeneity. There have been limited studies solely focusing on the prognosis of patients with such metastasis. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis in 108 consecutive patients with breast cancer brain metastases between 1997 and 2012 to further define clinicopathological factors associated with early onset of brain metastasis and survival outcomes after development of them. We found that lobular carcinoma, higher clinical stages at diagnosis, and lack of coexisting bone metastasis were significantly associated with a worse brain relapse-free survival when compared with brain-only metastasis. High histologic grade, triple-negative breast cancer, and absence of visceral involvement were unfavorable prognostic factors after brain metastasis. Furthermore, high histologic grade, advanced tumor stages, and lack of coexisting bone involvement indicated a worse overall survival. Thus, the previously established prognostic factors in early stage or advanced breast cancers may not entirely apply to patients with brain metastases. Furthermore, the prognostic significance of the clinicopathological factors differed before and after a patient develops brain metastasis. This knowledge might help in establishing an algorithm to further stratify patients with breast cancer into prognostically significant categories for optimal prevention, screening, and treatment of their brain metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adult brain abscess associated with patent foramen ovale: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathopoulos Georgios T

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brain abscess results from local or metastatic septic spread to the brain. The primary infectious site is often undetected, more commonly so when it is distant. Unlike pediatric congenital heart disease, minor intracardiac right-to-left shunting due to patent foramen ovale has not been appreciated as a cause of brain abscess in adults. Here we present a case of brain abscess associated with a patent foramen ovale in a 53-year old man with dental-gingival sepsis treated in the intensive care unit. Based on this case and the relevant literature we suggest a link between a silent patent foramen ovale, paradoxic pathogen dissemination to the brain, and development of brain abscess.

  2. Intelligence is associated with the modular structure of intrinsic brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Kirsten; Ekman, Matthias; Fiebach, Christian J; Basten, Ulrike

    2017-11-22

    General intelligence is a psychological construct that captures in a single metric the overall level of behavioural and cognitive performance in an individual. While previous research has attempted to localise intelligence in circumscribed brain regions, more recent work focuses on functional interactions between regions. However, even though brain networks are characterised by substantial modularity, it is unclear whether and how the brain's modular organisation is associated with general intelligence. Modelling subject-specific brain network graphs from functional MRI resting-state data (N = 309), we found that intelligence was not associated with global modularity features (e.g., number or size of modules) or the whole-brain proportions of different node types (e.g., connector hubs or provincial hubs). In contrast, we observed characteristic associations between intelligence and node-specific measures of within- and between-module connectivity, particularly in frontal and parietal brain regions that have previously been linked to intelligence. We propose that the connectivity profile of these regions may shape intelligence-relevant aspects of information processing. Our data demonstrate that not only region-specific differences in brain structure and function, but also the network-topological embedding of fronto-parietal as well as other cortical and subcortical brain regions is related to individual differences in higher cognitive abilities, i.e., intelligence.

  3. Visceral fat is associated with brain structure independent of human immunodeficiency virus infection status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jordan E; Popov, Mikhail; Post, Wendy S; Palella, Frank J; Sacktor, Ned; Miller, Eric N; Brown, Todd T; Becker, James T

    2017-06-01

    The combined effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), obesity, and elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on brain structure are unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants, we determined associations between HIV serostatus, adiposity, and brain structure. Men (133 HIV+, 84 HIV-) in the MACS Cardiovascular 2 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-studies with CT-quantified VAT and whole brain MRI measured within 1 year were assessed. Voxel-based morphometry analyzed brain volumes. Men were stratified by elevated (eVAT, ≥100cm 2 ) or "normal" (nVAT, 25 kg/m 2 , smaller gray and white matter volumes, and larger cerebrospinal fluid volume than nVAT men. In multivariate analysis, hypertension, higher adiponectin, higher interleukin-6, age, diabetes mellitus, higher body mass index, and eVAT were associated with brain atrophy (p central nervous system effects may be amplified in this population.

  4. Known glioma risk loci are associated with glioma with a family history of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Beatrice; Dahlin, Anna M; Andersson, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    significantly associated with glioma risk, rs6010620 (ORtrend for the minor (A) allele, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25-0.61; Bonferroni adjusted ptrend , 1.7 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, as previously shown for glioma regardless of family history of brain tumours, rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with an increased risk...... family history of brain tumours, defined as having at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of brain tumour, are associated with known glioma risk loci. One thousand four hundred and thirty-one glioma cases and 2,868 cancer-free controls were identified from four case-control studies...... and two prospective cohorts from USA, Sweden and Denmark and genotyped for seven SNPs previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in case-control designed studies. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain...

  5. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Smith, Kelly E; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Jackson, Garrett J; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L; Miller, Diane B

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis associated with brain tuberculomas during pregnancy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Namani, Sadie; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Berisha, Arieta Zogaj

    2017-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis is globally highly prevalent and is commoner in resource-limited countries and in patients with immunosuppression. Central nervous system tuberculosis is one of the severest forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis during pregnancy and associated brain tuberculomas have been rarely reported. With the availability of neuroimaging at our hospital center, we present the first case of tuberculous meningoencephalitis associated with brain tuberculomas during pregnancy...

  7. Comparison of adaptive statistical iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in brain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Qingguo; Dewan, Sheilesh Kumar; Li, Ming; Li, Jianying; Mao, Dingbiao; Wang, Zhenglei; Hua, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare image quality and visualization of normal structures and lesions in brain computed tomography (CT) with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction techniques in different X-ray tube current–time products. Materials and methods: In this IRB-approved prospective study, forty patients (nineteen men, twenty-one women; mean age 69.5 ± 11.2 years) received brain scan at different tube current–time products (300 and 200 mAs) in 64-section multi-detector CT (GE, Discovery CT750 HD). Images were reconstructed with FBP and four levels of ASIR-FBP blending. Two radiologists (please note that our hospital is renowned for its geriatric medicine department, and these two radiologists are more experienced in chronic cerebral vascular disease than in neoplastic disease, so this research did not contain cerebral tumors but as a discussion) assessed all the reconstructed images for visibility of normal structures, lesion conspicuity, image contrast and diagnostic confidence in a blinded and randomized manner. Volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. All the data were analyzed by using SPSS 13.0 statistical analysis software. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the image qualities at 200 mAs with 50% ASIR blending technique and 300 mAs with FBP technique (p > .05). While between the image qualities at 200 mAs with FBP and 300 mAs with FBP technique a statistically significant difference (p < .05) was found. Conclusion: ASIR provided same image quality and diagnostic ability in brain imaging with greater than 30% dose reduction compared with FBP reconstruction technique

  8. Comparison of adaptive statistical iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in brain CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qingguo, E-mail: renqg83@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Dewan, Sheilesh Kumar, E-mail: sheilesh_d1@hotmail.com [Department of Geriatrics, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Ming, E-mail: minli77@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Jianying, E-mail: Jianying.Li@med.ge.com [CT Imaging Research Center, GE Healthcare China, Beijing (China); Mao, Dingbiao, E-mail: maodingbiao74@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wang, Zhenglei, E-mail: Williswang_doc@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Electricity Hospital, Shanghai 200050 (China); Hua, Yanqing, E-mail: cjr.huayanqing@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare image quality and visualization of normal structures and lesions in brain computed tomography (CT) with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction techniques in different X-ray tube current–time products. Materials and methods: In this IRB-approved prospective study, forty patients (nineteen men, twenty-one women; mean age 69.5 ± 11.2 years) received brain scan at different tube current–time products (300 and 200 mAs) in 64-section multi-detector CT (GE, Discovery CT750 HD). Images were reconstructed with FBP and four levels of ASIR-FBP blending. Two radiologists (please note that our hospital is renowned for its geriatric medicine department, and these two radiologists are more experienced in chronic cerebral vascular disease than in neoplastic disease, so this research did not contain cerebral tumors but as a discussion) assessed all the reconstructed images for visibility of normal structures, lesion conspicuity, image contrast and diagnostic confidence in a blinded and randomized manner. Volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. All the data were analyzed by using SPSS 13.0 statistical analysis software. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the image qualities at 200 mAs with 50% ASIR blending technique and 300 mAs with FBP technique (p > .05). While between the image qualities at 200 mAs with FBP and 300 mAs with FBP technique a statistically significant difference (p < .05) was found. Conclusion: ASIR provided same image quality and diagnostic ability in brain imaging with greater than 30% dose reduction compared with FBP reconstruction technique.

  9. Optimal spatiotemporal representation of multichannel EEG for recognition of brain states associated with distinct visual stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hramov, Alexander; Musatov, Vyacheslav Yu.; Runnova, Anastasija E.; Efremova, Tatiana Yu.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Pisarchik, Alexander N.

    2018-04-01

    In the paper we propose an approach based on artificial neural networks for recognition of different human brain states associated with distinct visual stimulus. Based on the developed numerical technique and the analysis of obtained experimental multichannel EEG data, we optimize the spatiotemporal representation of multichannel EEG to provide close to 97% accuracy in recognition of the EEG brain states during visual perception. Different interpretations of an ambiguous image produce different oscillatory patterns in the human EEG with similar features for every interpretation. Since these features are inherent to all subjects, a single artificial network can classify with high quality the associated brain states of other subjects.

  10. The association between adverse childhood experiences and adult traumatic brain injury/concussion: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zechen; Bayley, Mark T; Perrier, Laure; Dhir, Priya; Dépatie, Lana; Comper, Paul; Ruttan, Lesley; Lay, Christine; Munce, Sarah E P

    2018-01-12

    Adverse childhood experiences are significant risk factors for physical and mental illnesses in adulthood. Traumatic brain injury/concussion is a challenging condition where pre-injury factors may affect recovery. The association between childhood adversity and traumatic brain injury/concussion has not been previously reviewed. The research question addressed is: What is known from the existing literature about the association between adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury/concussion in adults? All original studies of any type published in English since 2007 on adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury/concussion outcomes were included. The literature search was conducted in multiple electronic databases. Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al.'s scoping review frameworks were used. Two reviewers independently completed screening and data abstraction. The review yielded six observational studies. Included studies were limited to incarcerated or homeless samples, and individuals at high-risk of or with mental illnesses. Across studies, methods for childhood adversity and traumatic brain injury/concussion assessment were heterogeneous. A positive association between adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury occurrence was identified. The review highlights the importance of screening and treatment of adverse childhood experiences. Future research should extend to the general population and implications on injury recovery. Implications for rehabilitation Exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with increased risk of traumatic brain injury. Specific types of adverse childhood experiences associated with risk of traumatic brain injury include childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse, household member incarceration, and household member drug abuse. Clinicians and researchers should inquire about adverse childhood experiences in all people with traumatic brain injury as pre-injury health conditions can

  11. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian U Fischer

    Full Text Available Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  12. Association of Structural Global Brain Network Properties with Intelligence in Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian U.; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60–85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience. PMID:24465994

  13. Is Traumatic and Non-Traumatic Neck Pain Associated with Brain Alterations? - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePauw, Robby; Coppieters, Iris; Meeus, Mira; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Danneels, Lieven; Cagnie, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Chronic neck pain affects 50% - 85% of people who have experienced an acute episode. This transition and the persistence of chronic complaints are believed to be mediated by brain alterations among different central mechanisms. This study aimed to systematically review and critically appraise the current existing evidence regarding structural and functional brain alterations in patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and idiopathic neck pain (INP). Additionally, associations between brain alterations and clinical symptoms reported in neck pain patients were evaluated. Systematic review. The present systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched. First, the obtained articles were screened based on title and abstract. Secondly, the screening was based on the full text. Risk of bias in included studies was investigated. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Alterations in brain morphology and function, including perfusion, neurotransmission, and blood oxygenation level dependent-signal, were demonstrated in chronic neck pain patients. There is some to moderate evidence for both structural and functional brain alterations in patients with chronic neck pain. In contrast, no evidence for structural brain alterations in acute neck pain patients was found. Only 12 articles were included, which allows only cautious conclusions to be drawn. Brain alterations were observed in both patients with chronic WAD and chronic INP. Furthermore, more evidence exists for brain alterations in chronic WAD, and different underlying mechanisms might be present in both pathologies. In addition, pain and disability were correlated with the observed brain alterations. Accordingly, morphological and functional brain alterations should be further investigated in patients with chronic WAD and chronic INP with newer and more sensitive techniques, and associative clinical measurements seem indispensable

  14. Paranormal experience and the COMT dopaminergic gene: a preliminary attempt to associate phenotype with genotype using an underlying brain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir; Hines, Terence; Fossella, John; Castro, Daniella

    2008-01-01

    Paranormal belief and suggestibility seem related. Given our recent findings outlining a putative association between suggestibility and a specific dopaminergic genetic polymorphism, we hypothesized that similar exploratory genetic data may offer supplementary insights into a similar correlation with paranormal belief. With more affordable costs and better technology in the aftermath of the human genome project, genotyping is increasingly ubiquitous. Compelling brain theories guide specific research hypotheses as scientists begin to unravel tentative relationships between phenotype and genotype. In line with a dopaminergic brain theory, we tried to correlate a specific phenotype concerning paranormal belief with a dopaminergic gene (COMT) known for its involvement in prefrontal executive cognition and for a polymorphism that is positively correlated with suggestibility. Although our preliminary findings are inconclusive, the research approach we outline should pave the road to a more scientific account of elucidating paranormal belief.

  15. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiregional Age-Associated Reduction of Brain Neuronal Reserve Without Association With Neurofibrillary Degeneration or β-Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Jerzy; Flory, Michael; Kuchna, Izabela; Nowicki, Krzysztof; Yong Ma, Shuang; Wegiel, Jarek; Badmaev, Eulalia; Silverman, Wayne P; de Leon, Mony; Reisberg, Barry; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Increase in human life expectancy has resulted in the rapid growth of the elderly population with minimal or no intellectual deterioration. The aim of this stereological study of 10 structures and 5 subdivisions with and without neurofibrillary degeneration in the brains of 28 individuals 25-102-years-old was to establish the pattern of age-associated neurodegeneration and neuronal loss in the brains of nondemented adults and elderly. The study revealed the absence of significant neuronal loss in 7 regions and topographically selective reduction of neuronal reserve over 77 years in 8 brain structures including the entorhinal cortex (EC) (-33.3%), the second layer of the EC (-54%), cornu Ammonis sector 1 (CA1) (-28.5%), amygdala, (-45.8%), thalamus (-40.5%), caudate nucleus (-35%), Purkinje cells (-48.3%), and neurons in the dentate nucleus (40.1%). A similar rate of neuronal loss in adults and elderly, without signs of accelerating neuronal loss in agers or super-agers, appears to indicate age-associated brain remodeling with significant reduction of neuronal reserve in 8 brain regions. Multivariate analysis demonstrates the absence of a significant association between neuronal loss and the severity of neurofibrillary degeneration and β-amyloidosis, and a similar rate of age-associated neuronal loss in structures with and without neurofibrillary degeneration. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Missouri Soybean Association Biodiesel Demonstration Project: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Dale [Missouri Soybean Association, Jefferson City, MO (United States); Hamilton, Jill [Sustainable Energy Strategies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2011-10-27

    The Missouri Soybean Association (MSA) and the National Biodiesel Board (NBB) partnered together to implement the MSA Biodiesel Demonstration project under a United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant. The goal of this project was to provide decision makers and fleet managers with information that could lead to the increased use of domestically produced renewable fuels and could reduce the harmful impacts of school bus diesel exhaust on children. This project was initiated in September 2004 and completed in April 2011. The project carried out a broad range of activities organized under four areas: 1. Petroleum and related industry education program for fuel suppliers; 2. Fleet evaluation program using B20 with a Missouri school district; 3. Outreach and awareness campaign for school district fleet managers; and 4. Support of ongoing B20 Fleet Evaluation Team (FET) data collection efforts with existing school districts. Technical support to the biodiesel industry was also provided through NBB’s Troubleshooting Hotline. The hotline program was established in 2008 to troubleshoot fuel quality issues and help facilitate smooth implementation of the RFS and is described in greater detail under Milestone A.1 - Promote Instruction and Guidance on Best Practices. As a result of this project’s efforts, MSA and NBB were able to successfully reach out to and support a broad spectrum of biodiesel users in Missouri and New England. The MSA Biodiesel Demonstration was funded through a FY2004 Renewable Energy Resources Congressional earmark. The initial focus of this project was to test and evaluate biodiesel blends coupled with diesel oxidation catalysts as an emissions reduction technology for school bus fleets in the United States. The project was designed to verify emissions reductions using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols, then document – with school bus fleet experience – the viability of utilizing B20 blends. The fleet experience was expected to

  18. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural brain correlates of associative memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nina; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2015-09-01

    Associative memory involves binding two or more items into a coherent memory episode. Relative to memory for single items, associative memory declines greatly in aging. However, older individuals vary substantially in their ability to memorize associative information. Although functional studies link associative memory to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), little is known about how volumetric differences in MTL and PFC might contribute to individual differences in associative memory. We investigated regional gray-matter volumes related to individual differences in associative memory in a sample of healthy older adults (n=54; age=60years). To differentiate item from associative memory, participants intentionally learned face-scene picture pairs before performing a recognition task that included single faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Gray-matter volumes were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. To examine volumetric differences specifically for associative memory, item memory was controlled for in the analyses. Behavioral results revealed large variability in associative memory that mainly originated from differences in false-alarm rates. Moreover, associative memory was independent of individuals' ability to remember single items. Older adults with better associative memory showed larger gray-matter volumes primarily in regions of the left and right lateral PFC. These findings provide evidence for the importance of PFC in intentional learning of associations, likely because of its involvement in organizational and strategic processes that distinguish older adults with good from those with poor associative memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Normal brain activation in schizophrenia patients during associative emotional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Marte; Liemburg, Edith Jantine; Kortekaas, Rudie; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Emotional deficits are among the core features of schizophrenia and both associative emotional learning and the related ability to verbalize emotions can be reduced. We investigated whether schizophrenia patients demonstrated impaired function of limbic and prefrontal areas during associative

  1. Manitoba Motor Dealers Association pilot project : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    This report described a 3-month pilot project conducted by EnerGuide for Vehicles in collaboration with the Manitoba Motor Dealers Association (MMDA) to increase dealership and consumer awareness of vehicle impacts on climate change. The project also aimed to engage MMDA's members in helping to promote and distribute information on fuel efficient vehicles and fuel efficient driving habits. Program tools in both the dealership showroom as well as service areas were used. Objectives of the project also included gaining public opinion research (POR) information regarding the impact of program tools; gaining feedback from new car dealers regarding the success of the project; gauging customer perceptions of the importance of fuel efficiency when selecting a new vehicle; determining whether or not drivers verify tire pressure on their vehicles; determining whether or not drivers incorporate energy efficient driving habits; and gauging customer perceptions regarding the importance of incorporating behaviours to improve fuel efficiency. The study used a mixed methodology of online and telephone surveys. A total of 41 dealerships participated in the project. The final sample of surveys consisted of 1926 customer records. The total overall number of completed interviews was 463. Results indicated that most dealers believed the campaign was a success, and that staff and customers learned about energy efficiency as a result of the campaign. Seventy-five per cent of dealers agreed that they would participate in future energy efficiency programs. Campaign materials and customer incentives were widely viewed as successful in raising awareness. Seven in 10 dealership customers recalled at least 1 of the promotional endeavours, and a large majority of customers indicated the information they saw at the dealership encouraged them to consider fuel efficiency when buying or maintaining a vehicle in the future. The majority of new customers considered fuel consumption to be the second

  2. Association between dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and age related changes in brain glucose metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with reductions in brain glucose metabolism in some cortical and subcortical regions, but the rate of decrease varies significantly between individuals, likely reflecting genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that the variant of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 gene (VNTR in exon 3, which has been associated with novelty seeking and sensitivity to environmental stimuli (negative and positive including the beneficial effects of physical activity on longevity, influence the effects of aging on the human brain. We used positron emission tomography (PET and [(18F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18FDG to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function under baseline conditions (no stimulation in 82 healthy individuals (age range 22-55 years. We determined their DRD4 genotype and found an interaction with age: individuals who did not carry the 7-repeat allele (7R-, n = 53 had a significant (p<0.0001 negative association between age and relative glucose metabolism (normalized to whole brain glucose metabolism in frontal (r = -0.52, temporal (r = -0.51 and striatal regions (r = -0.47, p<0.001; such that older individuals had lower metabolism than younger ones. In contrast, for carriers of the 7R allele (7R+ n = 29, these correlations with age were not significant and they only showed a positive association with cerebellar glucose metabolism (r = +0.55; p = 0.002. Regression slopes of regional brain glucose metabolism with age differed significantly between the 7R+ and 7R- groups in cerebellum, inferior temporal cortex and striatum. These results provide evidence that the DRD4 genotype might modulate the associations between regional brain glucose metabolism and age and that the carriers of the 7R allele appear to be less sensitive to the effects of age on brain glucose metabolism.

  3. Structural whole-brain covariance of the anterior and posterior hippocampus: Associations with age and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Kristin; Persson, Jonas; Stening, Eva; Herlitz, Agneta; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Söderlund, Hedvig

    2018-02-01

    The hippocampus (HC) interacts with distributed brain regions to support memory and shows significant volume reductions in aging, but little is known about age effects on hippocampal whole-brain structural covariance. It is also unclear whether the anterior and posterior HC show similar or distinct patterns of whole-brain covariance and to what extent these are related to memory functions organized along the hippocampal longitudinal axis. Using the multivariate approach partial least squares, we assessed structural whole-brain covariance of the HC in addition to regional volume, in young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 221), and assessed associations with episodic and spatial memory. Based on findings of sex differences in both memory and brain aging, we further considered sex as a potential modulating factor of age effects. There were two main covariance patterns: one capturing common anterior and posterior covariance, and one differentiating the two regions by capturing anterior-specific covariance only. These patterns were differentially related to associative memory while unrelated to measures of single-item memory and spatial memory. Although patterns were qualitatively comparable across age groups, participants' expression of both patterns decreased with age, independently of sex. The results suggest that the organization of hippocampal structural whole-brain covariance remains stable across age, but that the integrity of these networks decreases as the brain undergoes age-related alterations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W.; Weng, Timothy B.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the Default Mode Network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. PMID:26493108

  6. Involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex in time-based prospective memory task monitoring: An EEG analysis of brain sources using Independent Component and Measure Projection Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cruz

    Full Text Available Time-based prospective memory (PM, remembering to do something at a particular moment in the future, is considered to depend upon self-initiated strategic monitoring, involving a retrieval mode (sustained maintenance of the intention plus target checking (intermittent time checks. The present experiment was designed to explore what brain regions and brain activity are associated with these components of strategic monitoring in time-based PM tasks.24 participants were asked to reset a clock every four minutes, while performing a foreground ongoing word categorisation task. EEG activity was recorded and data were decomposed into source-resolved activity using Independent Component Analysis. Common brain regions across participants, associated with retrieval mode and target checking, were found using Measure Projection Analysis.Participants decreased their performance on the ongoing task when concurrently performed with the time-based PM task, reflecting an active retrieval mode that relied on withdrawal of limited resources from the ongoing task. Brain activity, with its source in or near the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, showed changes associated with an active retrieval mode including greater negative ERP deflections, decreased theta synchronization, and increased alpha suppression for events locked to the ongoing task while maintaining a time-based intention. Activity in the ACC was also associated with time-checks and found consistently across participants; however, we did not find an association with time perception processing per se.The involvement of the ACC in both aspects of time-based PM monitoring may be related to different functions that have been attributed to it: strategic control of attention during the retrieval mode (distributing attentional resources between the ongoing task and the time-based task and anticipatory/decision making processing associated with clock-checks.

  7. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and brain tumors.

  8. Contribution Of Brain Tissue Oxidative Damage In Hypothyroidism-associated Learning and Memory Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Baghcheghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a critical target organ for thyroid hormones, and modifications in memory and cognition happen with thyroid dysfunction. The exact mechanisms underlying learning and memory impairments due to hypothyroidism have not been understood yet. Therefore, this review was aimed to compress the results of previous studies which have examined the contribution of brain tissues oxidative damage in hypothyroidism-associated learning and memory impairments.

  9. Alterations of Brain Functional Architecture Associated with Psychopathic Traits in Male Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Weidan; Luo, Qiang; Jiang, Yali; Gao, Yidian; Ming, Qingsen; Yao, Shuqiao

    2017-01-01

    Psychopathic traits of conduct disorder (CD) have a core callous-unemotional (CU) component and an impulsive-antisocial component. Previous task-driven fMRI studies have suggested that psychopathic traits are associated with dysfunction of several brain areas involved in different cognitive functions (e.g., empathy, reward, and response inhibition etc.), but the relationship between psychopathic traits and intrinsic brain functional architecture has not yet been explored in CD. Using a holist...

  10. Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Kanai, Ryota; Bates, Timothy C; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individual differences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were "individualizing" (values of harm/care and fairness) and "binding" (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial pFC volume and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individual differences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions.

  11. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET findings in a patient with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Kim, Sang Jin [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Ballism is a very rare presentation in association with hyperthyroidism. We describe a 22-year-old lady with episodes of recurrent ballism and hyperthyroidism. A 22-year-old lady was admitted to Neurology department because of sudden development of vigorous involuntary movement and dysarthria. She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism at the age 12 and treated irregularly. She arrived at the emergency room because of sudden onset of involuntary movement. Computed tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain was normal. Serum levels of thyroid hormone were increased (Free T4 3.15 ng/dl; normal range 0.93-1.71 ng/dl), whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was undetectable. The thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged and exophthalmos was found. She had been given antithyroid medication from local clinic but medicated irregularly. Technetium thyroid scan reveals diffusely enlarged thyroid with increased radioactivity. Radioiodine uptake in 24 hours was 71 %. Brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD reveals asymmetrical perfusion pattern in basal ganglia. Brain PET using F-18 FDG reveals increased metabolism at both caudate nucleus and putamen. She was treated with radioiodine and involuntary movement was improved. There is only few report on ballism associated with hyperthyroidism and no report on functional brain imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET may give useful information about functional status of brain in patients with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism in case of normal anatomical finding on CT/MRI.

  12. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET findings in a patient with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Kim, Sang Jin

    2007-01-01

    Ballism is a very rare presentation in association with hyperthyroidism. We describe a 22-year-old lady with episodes of recurrent ballism and hyperthyroidism. A 22-year-old lady was admitted to Neurology department because of sudden development of vigorous involuntary movement and dysarthria. She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism at the age 12 and treated irregularly. She arrived at the emergency room because of sudden onset of involuntary movement. Computed tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain was normal. Serum levels of thyroid hormone were increased (Free T4 3.15 ng/dl; normal range 0.93-1.71 ng/dl), whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was undetectable. The thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged and exophthalmos was found. She had been given antithyroid medication from local clinic but medicated irregularly. Technetium thyroid scan reveals diffusely enlarged thyroid with increased radioactivity. Radioiodine uptake in 24 hours was 71 %. Brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD reveals asymmetrical perfusion pattern in basal ganglia. Brain PET using F-18 FDG reveals increased metabolism at both caudate nucleus and putamen. She was treated with radioiodine and involuntary movement was improved. There is only few report on ballism associated with hyperthyroidism and no report on functional brain imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET may give useful information about functional status of brain in patients with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism in case of normal anatomical finding on CT/MRI

  13. Mining for associations between text and brain activation in a functional neuroimaging database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Balslev, D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a method for mining a neuroimaging database for associations between text and brain locations. The objective is to discover association rules between words indicative of cognitive function as described in abstracts of neuroscience papers and sets of reported stereotactic Talairach...

  14. Ethnic Differences in Poststroke Quality of Life in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sarah L; Brown, Devin L; Baek, Jonggyu; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2015-10-01

    Mexican Americans (MAs) have an increased risk of stroke and experience worse poststroke disability than non-Hispanic whites, which may translate into worse poststroke quality of life (QOL). We assessed ethnic differences in poststroke QOL, as well as potential modification of associations by age, sex, and initial stroke severity. Ischemic stroke survivors were identified through the biethnic, population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Data were collected from medical records, baseline interviews, and 90-day poststroke interviews. Poststroke QOL was measured at ≈90 days by the validated short-form stroke-specific QOL in 3 domains: overall, physical, and psychosocial (range, 0-5; higher scores represent better QOL). Tobit regression was used to model associations between ethnicity and poststroke QOL scores, adjusted for demographics, clinical characteristics, and prestroke cognition and function. Among 290 eligible stroke survivors (66% MA, 34% non-Hispanic whites, median age=69 years), median scores for overall, physical, and psychosocial poststroke QOL were 3.3, 3.8, and 2.7, respectively. Poststroke QOL was lower for MAs than non-Hispanic whites both overall (mean difference, -0.30; 95% confidence interval, -0.59, -0.01) and in the physical domain (mean difference, -0.47; 95% confidence interval, -0.81, -0.14) after multivariable adjustment. No ethnic difference was found in the psychosocial domain. Age modified the associations between ethnicity and poststroke QOL such that differences were present in older but not in younger ages. Disparities exist in poststroke QOL for MAs and seem to be driven by differences in older stroke patients. Targeted interventions to improve outcomes among MA stroke survivors are urgently needed. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Structural brain abnormalities in a single gene disorder associated with epilepsy, language impairment and intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Bathelt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood speech and language deficits are highly prevalent and are a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is difficult to investigate the underlying causal pathways because many diagnostic groups have a heterogeneous aetiology. Studying disorders with a shared genetic cause and shared cognitive deficits can provide crucial insight into the cellular mechanisms and neural systems that give rise to those impairments. The current study investigated structural brain differences of individuals with mutations in ZDHHC9, which is associated with a specific neurodevelopmental phenotype including prominent speech and language impairments and intellectual disability. We used multiple structural neuroimaging methods to characterise neuroanatomy in this group, and observed bilateral reductions in cortical thickness in areas surrounding the temporo-parietal junction, parietal lobule, and inferior frontal lobe, and decreased microstructural integrity of cortical, subcortical-cortical, and interhemispheric white matter projections. These findings are compared to reports for other genetic groups and genetically heterogeneous disorders with a similar presentation. Overlap in the neuroanatomical phenotype suggests a common pathway that particularly affects the development of temporo-parietal and inferior frontal areas, and their connections.

  16. Brain responses associated with consciousness of breathlessness (air hunger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotti, M; Brannan, S; Egan, G; Shade, R; Madden, L; Abplanalp, B; Robillard, R; Lancaster, J; Zamarripa, F E; Fox, P T; Denton, D

    2001-02-13

    Little is known about the physiological mechanisms subserving the experience of air hunger and the affective control of breathing in humans. Acute hunger for air after inhalation of CO(2) was studied in nine healthy volunteers with positron emission tomography. Subjective breathlessness was manipulated while end-tidal CO(2-) was held constant. Subjects experienced a significantly greater sense of air hunger breathing through a face mask than through a mouthpiece. The statistical contrast between the two conditions delineated a distributed network of primarily limbic/paralimbic brain regions, including multiple foci in dorsal anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, insula/claustrum, amygdala/periamygdala, lingual and middle temporal gyrus, hypothalamus, pulvinar, and midbrain. This pattern of activations was confirmed by a correlational analysis with breathlessness ratings. The commonality of regions of mesencephalon, diencephalon and limbic/paralimbic areas involved in primal emotions engendered by the basic vegetative systems including hunger for air, thirst, hunger, pain, micturition, and sleep, is discussed with particular reference to the cingulate gyrus. A theory that the phylogenetic origin of consciousness came from primal emotions engendered by immediate threat to the existence of the organism is discussed along with an alternative hypothesis by Edelman that primary awareness emerged with processes of ongoing perceptual categorization giving rise to a scene [Edelman, G. M. (1992) Bright Air, Brilliant Fire (Penguin, London)].

  17. Neurobehavioral Abnormalities Associated with Executive Dysfunction after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodger Ll. Wood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article will address how anomalies of executive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI can translate into altered social behavior that has an impact on a person’s capacity to live safely and independently in the community.Method: Review of literature on executive and neurobehavioral function linked to cognitive ageing in neurologically healthy populations and late neurocognitive effects of serious TBI. Information was collated from internet searches involving MEDLINE, PubMed, PyscINFO and Google Scholar as well as the authors’ own catalogs.Conclusions: The conventional distinction between cognitive and emotional-behavioral sequelae of TBI is shown to be superficial in the light of increasing evidence that executive skills are critical for integrating and appraising environmental events in terms of cognitive, emotional and social significance. This is undertaken through multiple fronto-subcortical pathways within which it is possible to identify a predominantly dorsolateral network that subserves executive control of attention and cognition (so-called cold executive processes and orbito-frontal/ventro-medial pathways that underpin the hot executive skills that drive much of behavior in daily life. TBI frequently involves disruption to both sets of executive functions but research is increasingly demonstrating the role of hot executive deficits underpinning a wide range of neurobehavioral disorders that compromise relationships, functional independence and mental capacity in daily life.

  18. Epidermal Nevus Syndrome Associated with Brain Malformations and Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Juntendo University and Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Japan; and University of California, San Francisco, Ca, report a male infant with epidermal nevus syndrome associated with brainstem and cerebellar malformations and neonatal medulloblastoma.

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research Roadmap Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    organization of the human brain. These techniques are being applied to study brain changes through the lifespan, developmental disorders like autism , and...Individuals with a moderate TBI were over five times as likely. Animal studies suggest that TBI may disrupt brain dopamine pathways (these pathways

  20. Patient Effort in Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation: Course and Associations With Age, Brain Injury Severity, and Time Postinjury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Ronald T.; Corrigan, John D.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Bogner, Jennifer; Smout, Randall J.; Garmoe, William; Horn, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe patients' level of effort in occupational, physical, and speech therapy sessions during traumatic brain injury (TBI) inpatient rehabilitation and to evaluate how age, injury severity, cognitive impairment, and time are associated with effort. Design Prospective, multicenter, longitudinal cohort study. Setting Acute TBI rehabilitation programs. Participants Patients (N=1946) receiving 138,555 therapy sessions. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Effort in rehabilitation sessions rated on the Rehabilitation Intensity of Therapy Scale, FIM, Comprehensive Severity Index brain injury severity score, posttraumatic amnesia (PTA), and Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS). Results The Rehabilitation Intensity of Therapy Scale effort ratings in individual therapy sessions closely conformed to a normative distribution for all 3 disciplines. Mean Rehabilitation Intensity of Therapy Scale ratings for patients' therapy sessions were higher in the discharge week than in the admission week (Prehabilitation, differences in effort ratings (Pcognitive scores and over time. In linear mixed-effects modeling, age and Comprehensive Severity Index brain injury severity score at admission, days from injury to rehabilitation admission, days from admission, and daily ratings of PTA and ABS score were predictors of level of effort (Prehabilitation setting using the Rehabilitation Intensity of Therapy Scale. Patients who sustain TBI show varying levels of effort in rehabilitation therapy sessions, with effort tending to increase over the stay. PTA and agitated behavior are primary risk factors that substantially reduce patient effort in therapies. PMID:26212400

  1. Adeno-associated virus vector-mediated transduction in the cat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vite, Charles H; Passini, Marco A; Haskins, Mark E; Wolfe, John H

    2003-10-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are capable of delivering a therapeutic gene to the mouse brain that can result in long-term and widespread protein production. However, the human infant brain is more than 1000 times larger than the mouse brain, which will make the treatment of global neurometabolic disorders in children more difficult. In this study, we evaluated the ability of three AAV serotypes (1,2, and 5) to transduce cells in the cat brain as a model of a large mammalian brain. The human lysosomal enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) was used as a reporter gene, because it can be distinguished from feline GUSB by heat stability. The vectors were injected into the cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, thalamus, corona radiata, internal capsule, and centrum semiovale of 8-week-old cats. The brains were evaluated for gene expression using in situ hybridization and enzyme histochemistry 10 weeks after surgery. The AAV2 vector was capable of transducing cells in the gray matter, while the AAV1 vector resulted in greater transduction of the gray matter than AAV2 as well as transduction of the white matter. AAV5 did not result in detectable transduction in the cat brain.

  2. Potential effect of skull thickening on the associations between cognition and brain atrophy in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribisala, Benjamin Segun; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Murray, Catherine; Penke, Lars; Gow, Alan; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    intracranial volume (ICV) is commonly used as a marker of premorbid brain size in neuroimaging studies as it is thought to remain fixed throughout adulthood. However, inner skull table thickening would encroach on ICV and could mask actual brain atrophy. we investigated the effect that thickening might have on the associations between brain atrophy and cognition. the sample comprised 57 non-demented older adults who underwent structural brain MRI at mean age 72.7 ± 0.7 years and were assessed on cognitive ability at mean age 11 and 73 years. Principal component analysis was used to derive factors of general cognitive ability (g), information processing speed and memory from the recorded cognitive ability data. The total brain tissue volume and ICV with (estimated original ICV) and without (current ICV) adjusting for the effects of inner table skull thickening were measured. General linear modelling was used to test for associations. all cognitive ability variables were significantly (P skull thickening (g: η(2) = 0.177, speed: η(2) = 0.264 and memory: η(2) = 0.132). After accounting for skull thickening, only speed was significantly associated with percentage total brain volume in ICV (η(2) = 0.085, P = 0.034), not g or memory. not accounting for skull thickening when computing ICV can distort the association between brain atrophy and cognitive ability in old age. Larger samples are required to determine the true effect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Structural covariance of brain region volumes is associated with both structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Yohan; Fernandes, Darren J; French, Leon; Ellegood, Jacob; Cahill, Lindsay S; Vousden, Dulcie A; Spencer Noakes, Leigh; Scholz, Jan; van Eede, Matthijs C; Nieman, Brian J; Sled, John G; Lerch, Jason P

    2018-05-18

    An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI. We then used a seed-based approach and determined, for 108 different seed regions across the brain and using mouse gene expression and connectivity data from the Allen Institute for Brain Science, the variation in structural covariance data that could be explained by distance to seed, transcriptomic similarity to seed, and connectivity to seed. We found that overall, correlations in structure volumes hierarchically clustered into distinct anatomical systems, similar to findings from other studies and similar to other types of networks in the brain, including structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity networks. Across seeds, this structural covariance was significantly explained by distance (17% of the variation, up to a maximum of 49% for structural covariance to the visceral area of the cortex), transcriptomic similarity (13% of the variation, up to maximum of 28% for structural covariance to the primary visual area) and connectivity (15% of the variation, up to a maximum of 36% for structural covariance to the intermediate reticular nucleus in the medulla) of covarying structures. Together, distance, connectivity, and transcriptomic similarity explained 37% of structural covariance, up to a maximum of 63% for structural covariance to the

  4. Convection Enhanced Delivery of Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus into the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kevin R; Gordon, Marcia N

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has become an extremely useful tool for the study of gene over expression or knockdown in the central nervous system of experimental animals. One disadvantage of intracranial injections of rAAV vectors into the brain parenchyma has been restricted distribution to relatively small volumes of the brain. Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is a method for delivery of clinically relevant amounts of therapeutic agents to large areas of the brain in a direct intracranial injection procedure. CED uses bulk flow to increase the hydrostatic pressure and thus improve volume distribution. The CED method has shown robust gene transfer and increased distribution within the CNS and can be successfully used for different serotypes of rAAV for increased transduction of the mouse CNS. This chapter details the surgical injection of rAAV by CED into a mouse brain.

  5. Schizophrenia symptomatic associations with diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy of brain: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Cao, Ding; Liang, Xiumei; Zhao, Jiannong

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have examined the relationships between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-measured fractional anisotropy (FA) and the symptoms of schizophrenia, but results vary across the studies. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis of correlation coefficients reported by relevant studies to evaluate the correlative relationships between FA of various parts of the brain and schizophrenia symptomatic assessments. Literature was searched in several electronic databases, and study selection was based on précised eligibility criteria. Correlation coefficients between FA of a part of the brain and schizophrenia symptom were first converted into Fisher's z-scores for meta-analyses, and then overall effect sizes were back transformed to correlation coefficients. Thirty-three studies (1121 schizophrenia patients; age 32.66 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.19, 35.13]; 65.95 % [57.63, 74.28] males) were included in this meta-analysis. Age was inversely associated with brain FA (z-scores [95% CI] -0.23 [-0.14, -0.32]; p ˂ 0.00001). Brain FA of various areas was inversely associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia (z-score -0.30 [-0.23, -0.36]; p ˂ 0.00001) but was positively associated with positive symptoms of schizophrenia (z-score 0.16 [0.04, 0.27]; p = 0.007) and general psychopathology of schizophrenia (z-score 0.26 [0.15, 0.37]; p = 0.00001). Although, DTI-measured brain FA is found to be inversely associated with negative symptoms and positively associated with positive symptoms and general psychopathology of schizophrenia, the effect sizes of these correlations are low and may not be clinically significant. Moreover, brain FA was also negatively associated with age of patients.

  6. Schizophrenia symptomatic associations with diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy of brain: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu; Cao, Ding; Liang, Xiumei; Zhao, Jiannong

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have examined the relationships between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-measured fractional anisotropy (FA) and the symptoms of schizophrenia, but results vary across the studies. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis of correlation coefficients reported by relevant studies to evaluate the correlative relationships between FA of various parts of the brain and schizophrenia symptomatic assessments. Literature was searched in several electronic databases, and study selection was based on precised eligibility criteria. Correlation coefficients between FA of a part of the brain and schizophrenia symptom were first converted into Fisher's z-scores for meta-analyses, and then overall effect sizes were back transformed to correlation coefficients. Thirty-three studies (1121 schizophrenia patients; age 32.66 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.19, 35.13]; 65.95 % [57.63, 74.28] males) were included in this meta-analysis. Age was inversely associated with brain FA (z-scores [95% CI] -0.23 [-0.14, -0.32]; p %<0.00001). Brain FA of various areas was inversely associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia (z-score -0.30 [-0.23, -0.36]; p %<0.00001) but was positively associated with positive symptoms of schizophrenia (z-score 0.16 [0.04, 0.27]; p = 0.007) and general psychopathology of schizophrenia (z-score 0.26 [0.15, 0.37]; p = 0.00001). Although, DTI-measured brain FA is found to be inversely associated with negative symptoms and positively associated with positive symptoms and general psychopathology of schizophrenia, the effect sizes of these correlations are low and may not be clinically significant. Moreover, brain FA was also negatively associated with age of patients. (orig.)

  7. Schizophrenia symptomatic associations with diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy of brain: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xu [Chongqing Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing (China); Fifth People' s Hospital of Chongqing, Department of Medical Imaging, Chongqing (China); Cao, Ding [Chongqing Medical University, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing (China); Liang, Xiumei [Fifth People' s Hospital of Chongqing, Department of Medical Imaging, Chongqing (China); Zhao, Jiannong [Chongqing Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing (China)

    2017-07-15

    Several studies have examined the relationships between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-measured fractional anisotropy (FA) and the symptoms of schizophrenia, but results vary across the studies. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis of correlation coefficients reported by relevant studies to evaluate the correlative relationships between FA of various parts of the brain and schizophrenia symptomatic assessments. Literature was searched in several electronic databases, and study selection was based on precised eligibility criteria. Correlation coefficients between FA of a part of the brain and schizophrenia symptom were first converted into Fisher's z-scores for meta-analyses, and then overall effect sizes were back transformed to correlation coefficients. Thirty-three studies (1121 schizophrenia patients; age 32.66 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.19, 35.13]; 65.95 % [57.63, 74.28] males) were included in this meta-analysis. Age was inversely associated with brain FA (z-scores [95% CI] -0.23 [-0.14, -0.32]; p %<0.00001). Brain FA of various areas was inversely associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia (z-score -0.30 [-0.23, -0.36]; p %<0.00001) but was positively associated with positive symptoms of schizophrenia (z-score 0.16 [0.04, 0.27]; p = 0.007) and general psychopathology of schizophrenia (z-score 0.26 [0.15, 0.37]; p = 0.00001). Although, DTI-measured brain FA is found to be inversely associated with negative symptoms and positively associated with positive symptoms and general psychopathology of schizophrenia, the effect sizes of these correlations are low and may not be clinically significant. Moreover, brain FA was also negatively associated with age of patients. (orig.)

  8. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Ali [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Katz, Mindy J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Michael L. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center and Departments of Radiology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, The Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Richard B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Verghese, Joe [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Division of Cognitive and Motor Aging, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  9. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Michael L.; Lipton, Richard B.; Verghese, Joe

    2015-01-01

    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  10. Divergent projections of catecholaminergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract to limbic forebrain and medullary autonomic brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2006-10-30

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a critical structure involved in coordinating autonomic and visceral activities. Previous independent studies have demonstrated efferent projections from the NTS to the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in rat brain. To further characterize the neural circuitry originating from the NTS with postsynaptic targets in the amygdala and medullary autonomic targets, distinct green or red fluorescent latex microspheres were injected into the PGi and the CNA, respectively, of the same rat. Thirty-micron thick tissue sections through the lower brainstem and forebrain were collected. Every fourth section through the NTS region was processed for immunocytochemical detection of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of catecholaminergic neurons. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the PGi or CNA were distributed throughout the rostro-caudal segments of the NTS. However, the majority of neurons containing both retrograde tracers were distributed within the caudal third of the NTS. Cell counts revealed that approximately 27% of neurons projecting to the CNA in the NTS sent collateralized projections to the PGi while approximately 16% of neurons projecting to the PGi sent collateralized projections to the CNA. Interestingly, more than half of the PGi and CNA-projecting neurons in the NTS expressed TH immunoreactivity. These data indicate that catecholaminergic neurons in the NTS are poised to simultaneously coordinate activities in limbic and medullary autonomic brain regions.

  11. Deep Brain Stimulation for Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Garcia-Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is usually associated with dystonia, which is typically severe and progressive over time. Pallidal stimulation (GPi DBS has been carried out in selected cases of PKAN with drug-resistant dystonia with variable results. We report a 30-month follow-up study of a 30-year-old woman with PKAN-related dystonia treated with GPi DBS. Postoperatively, the benefit quickly became evident, as the patient exhibited a marked improvement in her dystonia, including her writing difficulty. This result has been maintained up to the present. GPi DBS should be considered in dystonic PKAN patients provided fixed contractures and/or pyramidal symptoms are not present.

  12. Psychoacoustic Tinnitus Loudness and Tinnitus-Related Distress Show Different Associations with Oscillatory Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenhol, Tobias; Wallhäusser-Franke, Elisabeth; Delb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background The phantom auditory perception of subjective tinnitus is associated with aberrant brain activity as evidenced by magneto- and electroencephalographic studies. We tested the hypotheses (1) that psychoacoustically measured tinnitus loudness is related to gamma oscillatory band power, and (2) that tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress are related to distinct brain activity patterns as suggested by the distinction between loudness and distress experienced by tinnitus patients. Furthermore, we explored (3) how hearing impairment, minimum masking level, and (4) psychological comorbidities are related to spontaneous oscillatory brain activity in tinnitus patients. Methods and Findings Resting state oscillatory brain activity recorded electroencephalographically from 46 male tinnitus patients showed a positive correlation between gamma band oscillations and psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness determined with the reconstructed tinnitus sound, but not with the other psychoacoustic loudness measures that were used. Tinnitus-related distress did also correlate with delta band activity, but at electrode positions different from those associated with tinnitus loudness. Furthermore, highly distressed tinnitus patients exhibited a higher level of theta band activity. Moreover, mean hearing loss between 0.125 kHz and 16 kHz was associated with a decrease in gamma activity, whereas minimum masking levels correlated positively with delta band power. In contrast, psychological comorbidities did not express significant correlations with oscillatory brain activity. Conclusion Different clinically relevant tinnitus characteristics show distinctive associations with spontaneous brain oscillatory power. Results support hypothesis (1), but exclusively for the tinnitus loudness derived from matching to the reconstructed tinnitus sound. This suggests to preferably use the reconstructed tinnitus spectrum to determine psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness. Results also support

  13. Brain Activation during Associative Short-Term Memory Maintenance is Not Predictive for Subsequent Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eBergmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance on working memory (WM tasks may partially be supported by long-term memory (LTM processing. Hence, brain activation recently being implicated in WM may actually have been driven by (incidental LTM formation. We examined which brain regions actually support successful WM processing, rather than being confounded by LTM processes, during the maintenance and probe phase of a WM task. We administered a four-pair (faces and houses associative delayed-match-to-sample (WM task using event-related fMRI and a subsequent associative recognition LTM task, using the same stimuli. This enabled us to analyze subsequent memory effects for both the WM and the LTM test by contrasting correctly recognized pairs with incorrect pairs for either task. Critically, with respect to the subsequent WM effect, we computed this analysis exclusively for trials that were forgotten in the subsequent LTM recognition task. Hence, brain activity associated with successful WM processing was less likely to be confounded by incidental LTM formation. The subsequent LTM effect, in contrast, was analyzed exclusively for pairs that previously had been correctly recognized in the WM task, disclosing brain regions involved in successful LTM formation after successful WM processing. Results for the subsequent WM effect showed no significantly activated brain areas for WM maintenance, possibly due to an insensitivity of fMRI to mechanisms underlying active WM maintenance. In contrast, a correct decision at WM probe was linked to activation in the retrieval success network (anterior and posterior midline brain structures. The subsequent LTM analyses revealed greater activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex in the early phase of the maintenance stage. No supra-threshold activation was found during the WM probe. Together, we obtained clearer insights in which brain regions support successful WM and LTM without the potential confound of the

  14. Brain activation during associative short-term memory maintenance is not predictive for subsequent retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Heiko C; Daselaar, Sander M; Beul, Sarah F; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    Performance on working memory (WM) tasks may partially be supported by long-term memory (LTM) processing. Hence, brain activation recently being implicated in WM may actually have been driven by (incidental) LTM formation. We examined which brain regions actually support successful WM processing, rather than being confounded by LTM processes, during the maintenance and probe phase of a WM task. We administered a four-pair (faces and houses) associative delayed-match-to-sample (WM) task using event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and a subsequent associative recognition LTM task, using the same stimuli. This enabled us to analyze subsequent memory effects for both the WM and the LTM test by contrasting correctly recognized pairs with incorrect pairs for either task. Critically, with respect to the subsequent WM effect, we computed this analysis exclusively for trials that were forgotten in the subsequent LTM recognition task. Hence, brain activity associated with successful WM processing was less likely to be confounded by incidental LTM formation. The subsequent LTM effect, in contrast, was analyzed exclusively for pairs that previously had been correctly recognized in the WM task, disclosing brain regions involved in successful LTM formation after successful WM processing. Results for the subsequent WM effect showed no significantly activated brain areas for WM maintenance, possibly due to an insensitivity of fMRI to mechanisms underlying active WM maintenance. In contrast, a correct decision at WM probe was linked to activation in the "retrieval success network" (anterior and posterior midline brain structures). The subsequent LTM analyses revealed greater activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex in the early phase of the maintenance stage. No supra-threshold activation was found during the WM probe. Together, we obtained clearer insights in which brain regions support successful WM and LTM without the potential confound of

  15. 3 dimensional modelling of early human brain development using optical projection tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachan Tom

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As development proceeds the human embryo attains an ever more complex three dimensional (3D structure. Analyzing the gene expression patterns that underlie these changes and interpreting their significance depends on identifying the anatomical structures to which they map and following these patterns in developing 3D structures over time. The difficulty of this task greatly increases as more gene expression patterns are added, particularly in organs with complex 3D structures such as the brain. Optical Projection Tomography (OPT is a new technology which has been developed for rapidly generating digital 3D models of intact specimens. We have assessed the resolution of unstained neuronal structures within a Carnegie Stage (CS17 OPT model and tested its use as a framework onto which anatomical structures can be defined and gene expression data mapped. Results Resolution of the OPT models was assessed by comparison of digital sections with physical sections stained, either with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E or by immunocytochemistry for GAP43 or PAX6, to identify specific anatomical features. Despite the 3D models being of unstained tissue, peripheral nervous system structures from the trigeminal ganglion (~300 μm by ~150 μm to the rootlets of cranial nerve XII (~20 μm in diameter were clearly identifiable, as were structures in the developing neural tube such as the zona limitans intrathalamica (core is ~30 μm thick. Fourteen anatomical domains have been identified and visualised within the CS17 model. Two 3D gene expression domains, known to be defined by Pax6 expression in the mouse, were clearly visible when PAX6 data from 2D sections were mapped to the CS17 model. The feasibility of applying the OPT technology to all stages from CS12 to CS23, which encompasses the major period of organogenesis for the human developing central nervous system, was successfully demonstrated. Conclusion In the CS17 model considerable detail

  16. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J M; Ramsey, N; Rutten, G J

    2015-12-01

    Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MRI can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on the ratio between left and right brain activity in a specific region associated with language. Nearly all fMRI language studies show language-related activity in both hemispheres, and as a result the LI shows a large range of values. The clinical significance of the variation in language laterality as measured with the LI is still under debate. In this study, we tested two hypotheses in relation to the LI, measured in Broca's region, and it's right hemisphere homologue: 1: the level of activity in Broca's and it's right hemisphere homologue is mirrored for subjects with an equal but opposite LI; 2: the whole brain language activation pattern differs between subjects with an equal but opposite LI. One hundred sixty-three glioma and meningioma patients performed a verb generation task as part of a standard clinical protocol. We calculated the LI in the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis and pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, referred to as Broca's region from here on. In our database, 21 patients showed right lateralized activity, with a moderate average level (-0.32). A second group of 21 patients was selected from the remaining group, for equal but opposite LI (0.32). We compared the level and distribution of activity associated with language production in the left and right hemisphere in these two groups. Patients with left sided laterality showed a significantly higher level of activity in Broca's region than the patients with right sided laterality. However, both groups showed no difference in level of activity in Broca's homologue region in the right hemisphere. Also, we did not see any difference in the pattern of activity between patients with left

  17. Face-name association learning and brain structural substrates in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitel, Anne-Lise; Chanraud, Sandra; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-07-01

    Associative learning is required for face-name association and is impaired in alcoholism, but the cognitive processes and brain structural components underlying this deficit remain unclear. It is also unknown whether prompting alcoholics to implement a deep level of processing during face-name encoding would enhance performance. Abstinent alcoholics and controls performed a levels-of-processing face-name learning task. Participants indicated whether the face was that of an honest person (deep encoding) or that of a man (shallow encoding). Retrieval was examined using an associative (face-name) recognition task and a single-item (face or name only) recognition task. Participants also underwent 3T structural MRI. Compared with controls, alcoholics had poorer associative and single-item learning and performed at similar levels. Level of processing at encoding had little effect on recognition performance but affected reaction time (RT). Correlations with brain volumes were generally modest and based primarily on RT in alcoholics, where the deeper the processing at encoding, the more restricted the correlations with brain volumes. In alcoholics, longer control task RTs correlated modestly with smaller tissue volumes across several anterior to posterior brain regions; shallow encoding correlated with calcarine and striatal volumes; deep encoding correlated with precuneus and parietal volumes; and associative recognition RT correlated with cerebellar volumes. In controls, poorer associative recognition with deep encoding correlated significantly with smaller volumes of frontal and striatal structures. Despite prompting, alcoholics did not take advantage of encoding memoranda at a deep level to enhance face-name recognition accuracy. Nonetheless, conditions of deeper encoding resulted in faster RTs and more specific relations with regional brain volumes than did shallow encoding. The normal relation between associative recognition and corticostriatal volumes was not

  18. The Role of Insula-Associated Brain Network in Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ruixue

    2013-01-01

    The insula is believed to be associated with touch-evoked effects. In this work, functional MRI was applied to investigate the network model of insula function when 20 normal subjects received tactile stimulation over segregated areas. Data analysis was performed with SPM8 and Conn toolbox. Activations in the contralateral posterior insula were consistently revealed for all stimulation areas, with the overlap located in area Ig2. The area Ig2 was then used as the seed to estimate the insula-associated network. The right insula, left superior parietal lobule, left superior temporal gyrus, and left inferior parietal cortex showed significant functional connectivity with the seed region for all stimulation conditions. Connectivity maps of most stimulation conditions were mainly distributed in the bilateral insula, inferior parietal cortex, and secondary somatosensory cortex. Post hoc ROI-to-ROI analysis and graph theoretical analysis showed that there were higher correlations between the left insula and the right insula, left inferior parietal cortex and right OP1 for all networks and that the global efficiency was more sensitive than the local efficiency to detect differences between notes in a network. These results suggest that the posterior insula serves as a hub to functionally connect other regions in the detected network and may integrate information from these regions. PMID:23936840

  19. Association between the Brain Laterality, Gender and Birth Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Baghdasarians

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: in recent years different hypotheses with respect to the formation of cerebral laterality were proposed. Some of the researchers claim that cerebral dominance and laterality are determined by genetic factors, just as the case with eye color and blood type. However, another group states that in addition to genetic factors, environmental factors, too, have a remarkable role in hemispheric dominance and lateral dominance. Hence, the present research was designed to study the relationship between 1- lateral dominance and birth season 2- lateral dominance and gender. "n "nMethod:1355(girls and boys fifth graders from the 19 educational regions of Tehran were selected using multi stage cluster sampling in the 2003-2004 school year. Coren lateral preference and personal information questionnaire were applied. "nResults:The following results were obtained at the level of ل=0.05 and probability of 95%. There were significant association between lateral dominance and birth season, between lateral dominance and gender, between ambidexterity and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and birth season, between dexterality and gender, between ambidexterity and gender, between genetic sinistrality and gender. There were no significant associations between dexterality and birth season, genetic sinistrality and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and gender. "nConclusion: The gestational environmental factors can have significant effect on the formation of lateral dominance and cerebral laterality.

  20. Automatic detection of the hippocampal region associated with Alzheimer's disease from microscopic images of mice brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaidhani, Tahseen; Hawkes, Cheryl; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2016-05-01

    The hippocampus is the region of the brain that is primarily associated with memory and spatial navigation. It is one of the first brain regions to be damaged when a person suffers from Alzheimer's disease. Recent research in this field has focussed on the assessment of damage to different blood vessels within the hippocampal region from a high throughput brain microscopic images. The ultimate aim of our research is the creation of an automatic system to count and classify different blood vessels such as capillaries, veins, and arteries in the hippocampus region. This work should provide biologists with efficient and accurate tools in their investigation of the causes of Alzheimer's disease. Locating the boundary of the Region of Interest in the hippocampus from microscopic images of mice brain is the first essential stage towards developing such a system. This task benefits from the variation in colour channels and texture between the two sides of the hippocampus and the boundary region. Accordingly, the developed initial step of our research to locating the hippocampus edge uses a colour-based segmentation of the brain image followed by Hough transforms on the colour channel that isolate the hippocampus region. The output is then used to split the brain image into two sides of the detected section of the boundary: the inside region and the outside region. Experimental results on a sufficiently number of microscopic images demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed solution.

  1. Communication and quality of life outcomes in people with acquired brain injury following project-based treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Behn, N.

    2016-01-01

    Communication impairments are common following acquired brain injury (ABI) and have a significant impact on a person’s quality of life (QOL) post-injury. While some treatments have improved communication skills, few have measured QOL, and even fewer have shown improved QOL for people with ABI following communication-based treatments. Project-based treatment is an alternative treatment approach that could have an impact on communication skills and QOL for people with ABI who are long-term post...

  2. FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Baixiao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that the primary acupuncture effects are mediated by the central nervous system. However, specific brain networks underpinning these effects remain unclear. Results In the present study using fMRI, we employed a within-condition interregional covariance analysis method to investigate functional connectivity of brain networks involved in acupuncture. The fMRI experiment was performed before, during and after acupuncture manipulations on healthy volunteers at an acupuncture point, which was previously implicated in a neural pathway for pain modulation. We first identified significant fMRI signal changes during acupuncture stimulation in the left amygdala, which was subsequently selected as a functional reference for connectivity analyses. Our results have demonstrated that there is a brain network associated with the amygdala during a resting condition. This network encompasses the brain structures that are implicated in both pain sensation and pain modulation. We also found that such a pain-related network could be modulated by both verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture. Furthermore, compared with a sham acupuncture, the verum acupuncture induced a higher level of correlations among the amygdala-associated network. Conclusion Our findings indicate that acupuncture may change this amygdala-specific brain network into a functional state that underlies pain perception and pain modulation.

  3. MRI brain findings in ephedrone encephalopathy associated with manganese abuse: Single-center perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poniatowska, Renata; Lusawa, Małgorzata; Skierczyńska, Agnieszka; Makowicz, Grzegorz; Habrat, Bogusław; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Halina

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a well-known toxic agent causing symptoms of parkinsonism in employees of certain branches of industry. Home production of a psychostimulant ephedrone (methcathinone), involving the use of potassium permanganate, became a new cause of intoxications in Poland. This article presents clinical symptoms, initial brain MRI findings and characteristics of changes observed in follow-up examinations in 4 patients with manganese intoxication associated with intravenous administration of ephedrone. All patients in our case series presented symptoms of parkinsonism. T1-WI MRI revealed high intensity signal in globi pallidi in all patients; hyperintense lesions in midbrain were observed in three patients, while lesions located in cerebellar hemispheres and pituitary gland in just one patient. The reduction of signal intensity in the affected brain structures was observed in follow-up studies, with no significant improvement in clinical symptoms. Brain MRI is helpful in the assessment of distribution as well as dynamics of changes in ephedrone encephalopathy. Regression of signal intensity changes visible in brain MRI is not associated with clinical condition improvement. Although brain MRI findings are not characteristic for ephedrone encephalopathy, they may contribute to diagnosing this condition

  4. Association Between Nonparenting Adult’s Attachment Patterns and Brain Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Lyn Letourneau RN, PhD, FCAHS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nursing has a long history of attending to the importance of early attachment experiences to later development. Attachment strategies formed in infancy and early childhood can have lifelong effects on an individual’s behavior and health. Advances in neuroimaging technology allow us to understand how these early experiences map onto the structure and function of the brain and ultimately behavior and health. Previous reviews have discussed the findings of studies observing correlations between attachment strategy and neural function and structure in romantic partners and parents, but far less has been said about nonparenting adults. This article reviews the relationship between attachment strategies developed in childhood and brain structure and function in nonparenting adults. A total of 14 studies met inclusion criteria. Results showed adult attachment patterns of nonparenting adults are pervasively correlated with brain structure and function, with most associations observed in executive regions, followed by affective and reward processing. Notably, no studies found associations between attachment pattern and stress response, in contrast with studies of mothers. These brain regions are linked to the many behavioral, mood and substance abuse disorders observed in adults with insecure attachment patterns. Nurses can use these findings to help prevent, assess and address these health risks in nonparenting adults, as well as provide the brain-based evidence to support the utility of nursing interventions designed to further promote healthy parent–child relationships and secure parent–child attachment.

  5. Validation of new 3D post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections of MR angiography acquisitions in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, H; Verbeeck, R; Vandermeulen, D; Suetens, P; Wilms, G; Maaly, M; Marchal, G; Baert, A L [Louvain Univ. (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a new post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections (mip) of intracranial MR angiography acquisitions. The core of the post processing procedure is a new brain segmentation algorithm. Two seed areas, background and brain, are automatically detected. A 3D region grower then grows both regions towards each other and this preferentially towards white regions. In this way, the skin gets included into the final `background region` whereas cortical blood vessels and all brain tissues are included in the `brain region`. The latter region is then used for mip. The algorithm runs less than 30 minutes on a full dataset on a Unix workstation. Images from different acquisition strategies including multiple overlapping thin slab acquisition, magnetization transfer (MT) MRA, Gd-DTPA enhanced MRA, normal and high resolution acquisitions and acquisitions from mid field and high field systems were filtered. A series of contrast enhanced MRA acquisitions obtained with identical parameters was filtered to study the robustness of the filter parameters. In all cases, only a minimal manual interaction was necessary to segment the brain. The quality of the mip was significantly improved, especially in post Gd-DTPA acquisitions or using MT, due to the absence of high intensity signals of skin, sinuses and eyes that otherwise superimpose on the angiograms. It is concluded that the filter is a robust technique to improve the quality of MR angiograms.

  6. Validation of new 3D post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections of MR angiography acquisitions in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosmans, H.; Verbeeck, R.; Vandermeulen, D.; Suetens, P.; Wilms, G.; Maaly, M.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a new post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections (mip) of intracranial MR angiography acquisitions. The core of the post processing procedure is a new brain segmentation algorithm. Two seed areas, background and brain, are automatically detected. A 3D region grower then grows both regions towards each other and this preferentially towards white regions. In this way, the skin gets included into the final 'background region' whereas cortical blood vessels and all brain tissues are included in the 'brain region'. The latter region is then used for mip. The algorithm runs less than 30 minutes on a full dataset on a Unix workstation. Images from different acquisition strategies including multiple overlapping thin slab acquisition, magnetization transfer (MT) MRA, Gd-DTPA enhanced MRA, normal and high resolution acquisitions and acquisitions from mid field and high field systems were filtered. A series of contrast enhanced MRA acquisitions obtained with identical parameters was filtered to study the robustness of the filter parameters. In all cases, only a minimal manual interaction was necessary to segment the brain. The quality of the mip was significantly improved, especially in post Gd-DTPA acquisitions or using MT, due to the absence of high intensity signals of skin, sinuses and eyes that otherwise superimpose on the angiograms. It is concluded that the filter is a robust technique to improve the quality of MR angiograms

  7. Assessing brain activations associated with emotional regulation during virtual reality mood induction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, A.; Rey, B.; Clemente, M.; Wrzesien, M.; Alcañiz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional regulation strategies are used by people to influence their emotional responses to external or internal emotional stimuli. The aim of this study is to evaluate the brain activations that are associated with the application of two different emotional regulation strategies (cognitive

  8. 77 FR 73366 - Secondary Service Connection for Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... mental ``disabilities'' for VA compensation purposes. However, the behavioral, social, and occupational... Diagnosable Illnesses Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM), Gulf War and Health, Volume 7: Long-Term Consequences of Traumatic...

  9. Prevalence and association of oral candidiasis with dysphagia in individuals with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Kothari, Mohit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of oral candidiasis (OC) in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) and to evaluate the association of OC with improvement in dysphagia. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Methods: Individuals with ABI admitted to rehabilitation were recruited over...

  10. Human obesity associated with an intronic SNP in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 ...

  11. Perspectives on Treatment for Communication Deficits Associated with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the current treatment research for communication (prosodic, discourse, and pragmatic) deficits associated with right hemisphere brain damage and to provide suggestions for treatment selection given the paucity of evidence specifically for this population. Method: The discussion covers (a) clinical decision processes and…

  12. [Hypoxic brain injuries notified to the Danish Patient Insurance Association during 1992-2004. Secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.; Hedegaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the files of the Danish Patient Insurance Association for newborns suffering from hypoxic brain injuries. From 1992 to 2004, a total of 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic injury were registered. Thirty-eight newborns died and the majority of the 89 surviving children...

  13. PET brain imaging in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Jaime H. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Department of Infection and Global Health, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, HIV Department, Brighton (United Kingdom); Ridha, Basil [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Neurology Department, Brighton (United Kingdom); Gilleece, Yvonne; Amlani, Aliza [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, HIV Department, Brighton (United Kingdom); Thorburn, Patrick; Dizdarevic, Sabina [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Imaging and Nuclear Medicine Department, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Science Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has lead to a significant reduction in the prevalence and incidence of central nervous system (CNS) HIV-associated brain disease, particularly CNS opportunistic infections and HIV encephalitis. Despite this, cognitive deficits in people living with HIV, also known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have become more prevalent in recent years. The pathogenesis of HAND is likely to be multifactorial, however recent evidence suggests that brain microglial activation is the most likely pathogenic mechanism. Recent developments in positron emission tomography (PET) brain neuroimaging using novel brain radioligands targeting a variety of physiological changes in the brains of HIV-positive individuals have improved our understanding of the mechanisms associated with the development of HAND. This review will highlight recent PET brain neuroimaging studies in the cART era, focusing on physiological and neurochemical changes associated with HAND in people living with HIV. (orig.)

  14. PET brain imaging in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Jaime H.; Ridha, Basil; Gilleece, Yvonne; Amlani, Aliza; Thorburn, Patrick; Dizdarevic, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has lead to a significant reduction in the prevalence and incidence of central nervous system (CNS) HIV-associated brain disease, particularly CNS opportunistic infections and HIV encephalitis. Despite this, cognitive deficits in people living with HIV, also known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have become more prevalent in recent years. The pathogenesis of HAND is likely to be multifactorial, however recent evidence suggests that brain microglial activation is the most likely pathogenic mechanism. Recent developments in positron emission tomography (PET) brain neuroimaging using novel brain radioligands targeting a variety of physiological changes in the brains of HIV-positive individuals have improved our understanding of the mechanisms associated with the development of HAND. This review will highlight recent PET brain neuroimaging studies in the cART era, focusing on physiological and neurochemical changes associated with HAND in people living with HIV. (orig.)

  15. Patient Effort in Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation: Course and Associations With Age, Brain Injury Severity, and Time Postinjury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Ronald T; Corrigan, John D; Dijkers, Marcel P; Barrett, Ryan S; Bogner, Jennifer; Smout, Randall J; Garmoe, William; Horn, Susan D

    2015-08-01

    To describe patients' level of effort in occupational, physical, and speech therapy sessions during traumatic brain injury (TBI) inpatient rehabilitation and to evaluate how age, injury severity, cognitive impairment, and time are associated with effort. Prospective, multicenter, longitudinal cohort study. Acute TBI rehabilitation programs. Patients (N=1946) receiving 138,555 therapy sessions. Not applicable. Effort in rehabilitation sessions rated on the Rehabilitation Intensity of Therapy Scale, FIM, Comprehensive Severity Index brain injury severity score, posttraumatic amnesia (PTA), and Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS). The Rehabilitation Intensity of Therapy Scale effort ratings in individual therapy sessions closely conformed to a normative distribution for all 3 disciplines. Mean Rehabilitation Intensity of Therapy Scale ratings for patients' therapy sessions were higher in the discharge week than in the admission week (Prehabilitation, differences in effort ratings (Prehabilitation admission, days from admission, and daily ratings of PTA and ABS score were predictors of level of effort (Prehabilitation setting using the Rehabilitation Intensity of Therapy Scale. Patients who sustain TBI show varying levels of effort in rehabilitation therapy sessions, with effort tending to increase over the stay. PTA and agitated behavior are primary risk factors that substantially reduce patient effort in therapies. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Basal ganglia germinoma in children with associated ipsilateral cerebral and brain stem hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozelame, Rodrigo V.; Shroff, Manohar; Wood, Bradley; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Drake, James M.; Hawkins, Cynthia; Blaser, Susan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    Germinoma is the most common and least-malignant intracranial germ cell tumor, usually found in the midline. Germinoma that arises in the basal ganglia, called ectopic germinoma, is a rare and well-documented entity representing 5% to 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The association of cerebral and/or brain stem atrophy with basal ganglia germinoma on CT and MRI is found in 33% of the cases. To review the literature and describe the CT and MRI findings of basal ganglia germinoma in children, known as ectopic germinoma, with associated ipsilateral cerebral and brain stem hemiatrophy. Three brain CT and six brain MRI studies performed in four children at two institutions were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were male (case 1, 14 years; case 2, 13 years; case 3, 9 years; case 4, 13 years), with pathologically proved germinoma arising in the basal ganglia, and associated ipsilateral cerebral and/or brain stem hemiatrophy on the first imaging study. It is important to note that three of these children presented with cognitive decline, psychosis and slowly progressive hemiparesis as their indication for imaging. Imaging results on initial scans were varied. In all patients, the initial study showed ipsilateral cerebral and/or brain stem hemiatrophy, representing Wallerian degeneration. All patients who underwent CT imaging presented with a hyperdense or calcified lesion in the basal ganglia on unenhanced scans. Only one of these lesions had a mass effect on the surrounding structures. In one of these patients a large, complex, heterogeneous mass appeared 15 months later. Initial MR showed focal or diffusely increased T2 signal in two cases and heterogeneous signal in the other two. (orig.)

  17. Basal ganglia germinoma in children with associated ipsilateral cerebral and brain stem hemiatrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozelame, Rodrigo V.; Shroff, Manohar; Wood, Bradley; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Drake, James M.; Hawkins, Cynthia; Blaser, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Germinoma is the most common and least-malignant intracranial germ cell tumor, usually found in the midline. Germinoma that arises in the basal ganglia, called ectopic germinoma, is a rare and well-documented entity representing 5% to 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The association of cerebral and/or brain stem atrophy with basal ganglia germinoma on CT and MRI is found in 33% of the cases. To review the literature and describe the CT and MRI findings of basal ganglia germinoma in children, known as ectopic germinoma, with associated ipsilateral cerebral and brain stem hemiatrophy. Three brain CT and six brain MRI studies performed in four children at two institutions were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were male (case 1, 14 years; case 2, 13 years; case 3, 9 years; case 4, 13 years), with pathologically proved germinoma arising in the basal ganglia, and associated ipsilateral cerebral and/or brain stem hemiatrophy on the first imaging study. It is important to note that three of these children presented with cognitive decline, psychosis and slowly progressive hemiparesis as their indication for imaging. Imaging results on initial scans were varied. In all patients, the initial study showed ipsilateral cerebral and/or brain stem hemiatrophy, representing Wallerian degeneration. All patients who underwent CT imaging presented with a hyperdense or calcified lesion in the basal ganglia on unenhanced scans. Only one of these lesions had a mass effect on the surrounding structures. In one of these patients a large, complex, heterogeneous mass appeared 15 months later. Initial MR showed focal or diffusely increased T2 signal in two cases and heterogeneous signal in the other two. (orig.)

  18. Elevated Body Mass Index is Associated with Increased Integration and Reduced Cohesion of Sensory-Driven and Internally Guided Resting-State Functional Brain Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; Rasgon, Natalie; McEwen, Bruce S; Micali, Nadia; Frangou, Sophia

    2018-03-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased multi-morbidity and mortality. The investigation of the relationship between BMI and brain organization has the potential to provide new insights relevant to clinical and policy strategies for weight control. Here, we quantified the association between increasing BMI and the functional organization of resting-state brain networks in a sample of 496 healthy individuals that were studied as part of the Human Connectome Project. We demonstrated that higher BMI was associated with changes in the functional connectivity of the default-mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), sensorimotor network (SMN), visual network (VN), and their constituent modules. In siblings discordant for obesity, we showed that person-specific factors contributing to obesity are linked to reduced cohesiveness of the sensory networks (SMN and VN). We conclude that higher BMI is associated with widespread alterations in brain networks that balance sensory-driven (SMN, VN) and internally guided (DMN, CEN) states which may augment sensory-driven behavior leading to overeating and subsequent weight gain. Our results provide a neurobiological context for understanding the association between BMI and brain functional organization while accounting for familial and person-specific influences. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Intrinsic brain subsystem associated with dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jizheng; Li, Mintong; Zhang, Yi; Song, Huaibo; von Deneen, Karen M; Shi, Yinggang; Liu, Yijun; He, Dongjian

    2017-02-01

    Eating behaviors are closely related to body weight, and eating traits are depicted in three dimensions: dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. The current study aims to explore whether these aspects of eating behaviors are related to intrinsic brain activation, and to further investigate the relationship between the brain activation relating to these eating traits and body weight, as well as the link between function connectivity (FC) of the correlative brain regions and body weight. Our results demonstrated positive associations between dietary restraint and baseline activation of the frontal and the temporal regions (i.e., food reward encoding) and the limbic regions (i.e., homeostatic control, including the hypothalamus). Disinhibition was positively associated with the activation of the frontal motivational system (i.e., OFC) and the premotor cortex. Hunger was positively related to extensive activations in the prefrontal, temporal, and limbic, as well as in the cerebellum. Within the brain regions relating to dietary restraint, weight status was negatively correlated with FC of the left middle temporal gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus, and was positively associated with the FC of regions in the anterior temporal gyrus and fusiform visual cortex. Weight status was positively associated with the FC within regions in the prefrontal motor cortex and the right ACC serving inhibition, and was negatively related with the FC of regions in the frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits responding to hunger control. Our data depicted an association between intrinsic brain activation and dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, and presented the links of their activations and FCs with weight status.

  20. Early adverse life events are associated with altered brain network architecture in a sex- dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early adverse life events (EALs increase the risk for chronic medical and psychiatric disorders by altering early neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine associations between EALs and network properties of core brain regions in the emotion regulation and salience networks, and to test the influence of sex on these associations. Methods: Resting-state functional and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging were obtained in healthy individuals (61 men, 63 women. Functional and anatomical network properties of centrality and segregation were calculated for the core regions of the two networks using graph theory. Moderator analyses were applied to test hypotheses. Results: The type of adversity experienced influences brain wiring differently, as higher general EALs were associated with decreased functional and anatomical centrality in salience and emotion regulation regions, while physical and emotional EALs were associated with increased anatomical centrality and segregation in emotion regulation regions. Sex moderated the associations between EALs and measures of centrality; with decreased centrality of salience and emotion regulation regions with increased general EALs in females, and increased centrality in salience regions with higher physical and emotional EALs in males. Increased segregation of salience regions was associated with increased general EALs in males. Centrality of the amygdala was associated with physical symptoms, and segregation of salience regions was correlated with higher somatization in men only. Conclusions: Emotion regulation and salience regions are susceptible to topological brain restructuring associated with EALs. The male and female brains appear to be differently affected by specific types of EALs. Keywords: Early adverse traumatic life events, Centrality, Segregation, Network metrics, Moderating effects of sex, Emotion regulation network, Salience network

  1. PET Imaging of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Whiplash Associated Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Vállez García, David

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of brain injury in our society with 235 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the European Union and about 500 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the United States. About 80% of all these events are accounted for as mild cases. At the same time, whiplash-associated disorder is one of the most frequent consequences of motor vehicle related accidents affecting about 300 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the United States and Western European countrie...

  2. Efficient neuroplasticity induction in chronic stroke patients by an associative brain-computer interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Jiang, Ning; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have the potential to improve functionality in chronic stoke patients when applied over a large number of sessions. Here, we evaluate the effect and the underlying mechanisms of three BCI training sessions in a double-blind-sham-controlled design. The applied BCI......-associative group. Fugl-Meyer motor scores (0.8±0.46 point difference p=0.01), foot (but not finger) tapping frequency, and 10-m walking speed improved significantly for the BCIassociative group, indicating clinically relevant improvements. For the BCI as applied here, the precise coupling between the brain command...

  3. Age-associated changes in rich-club organisation in autistic and neurotypical human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2015-11-05

    Macroscopic structural networks in the human brain have a rich-club architecture comprising both highly inter-connected central regions and sparsely connected peripheral regions. Recent studies show that disruption of this functionally efficient organisation is associated with several psychiatric disorders. However, despite increasing attention to this network property, whether age-associated changes in rich-club organisation occur during human adolescence remains unclear. Here, analysing a publicly shared diffusion tensor imaging dataset, we found that, during adolescence, brains of typically developing (TD) individuals showed increases in rich-club organisation and inferred network functionality, whereas individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) did not. These differences between TD and ASD groups were statistically significant for both structural and functional properties. Moreover, this typical age-related changes in rich-club organisation were characterised by progressive involvement of the right anterior insula. In contrast, in ASD individuals, did not show typical increases in grey matter volume, and this relative anatomical immaturity was correlated with the severity of ASD social symptoms. These results provide evidence that rich-club architecture is one of the bases of functionally efficient brain networks underpinning complex cognitive functions in adult human brains. Furthermore, our findings suggest that immature rich-club organisation might be associated with some neurodevelopmental disorders.

  4. Associations between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and brain function during probabilistic learning in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Thomas M; Ihssen, Niklas; Brindley, Lisa M; Tansey, Katherine E; Mantripragada, Kiran; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Linden, David E J

    2016-02-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia liability can be explained by additive genetic factors. Risk profile scores (RPS) directly index risk using a summated total of common risk variants weighted by their effect. Previous studies suggest that schizophrenia RPS predict alterations to neural networks that support working memory and verbal fluency. In this study, we apply schizophrenia RPS to fMRI data to elucidate the effects of polygenic risk on functional brain networks during a probabilistic-learning neuroimaging paradigm. The neural networks recruited during this paradigm have previously been shown to be altered to unmedicated schizophrenia patients and relatives of schizophrenia patients, which may reflect genetic susceptibility. We created schizophrenia RPS using summary data from the Psychiatric Genetic Consortium (Schizophrenia Working Group) for 83 healthy individuals and explore associations between schizophrenia RPS and blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD) during periods of choice behavior (switch-stay) and reflection upon choice outcome (reward-punishment). We show that schizophrenia RPS is associated with alterations in the frontal pole (PWHOLE-BRAIN-CORRECTED  = 0.048) and the ventral striatum (PROI-CORRECTED  = 0.036), during choice behavior, but not choice outcome. We suggest that the common risk variants that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia can be associated with alterations in the neural circuitry that support the processing of changing reward contingencies. Hum Brain Mapp 37:491-500, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Enhanced inter-subject brain computer interface with associative sensorimotor oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Simanto; Ahmed, Khawza I; Mostafa, Raqibul; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios

    2017-02-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) captures electrophysiological signatures of cortical events from the scalp with high-dimensional electrode montages. Usually, excessive sources produce outliers and potentially affect the actual event related sources. Besides, EEG manifests inherent inter-subject variability of the brain dynamics, at the resting state and/or under the performance of task(s), caused probably due to the instantaneous fluctuation of psychophysiological states. A wavelet coherence (WC) analysis for optimally selecting associative inter-subject channels is proposed here and is being used to boost performances of motor imagery (MI)-based inter-subject brain computer interface (BCI). The underlying hypothesis is that optimally associative inter-subject channels can reduce the effects of outliers and, thus, eliminate dissimilar cortical patterns. The proposed approach has been tested on the dataset IVa from BCI competition III, including EEG data acquired from five healthy subjects who were given visual cues to perform 280 trials of MI for the right hand and right foot. Experimental results have shown increased classification accuracy (81.79%) using the WC-based selected 16 channels compared to the one (56.79%) achieved using all the available 118 channels. The associative channels lie mostly around the sensorimotor regions of the brain, reinforced by the previous literature, describing spatial brain dynamics during sensorimotor oscillations. Apparently, the proposed approach paves the way for optimised EEG channel selection that could boost further the efficiency and real-time performance of BCI systems.

  6. Alterations of Brain Functional Architecture Associated with Psychopathic Traits in Male Adolescents with Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Weidan; Luo, Qiang; Jiang, Yali; Gao, Yidian; Ming, Qingsen; Yao, Shuqiao

    2017-09-12

    Psychopathic traits of conduct disorder (CD) have a core callous-unemotional (CU) component and an impulsive-antisocial component. Previous task-driven fMRI studies have suggested that psychopathic traits are associated with dysfunction of several brain areas involved in different cognitive functions (e.g., empathy, reward, and response inhibition etc.), but the relationship between psychopathic traits and intrinsic brain functional architecture has not yet been explored in CD. Using a holistic brain-wide functional connectivity analysis, this study delineated the alterations in brain functional networks in patients with conduct disorder. Compared with matched healthy controls, we found decreased anti-synchronization between the fronto-parietal network (FPN) and default mode network (DMN), and increased intra-network synchronization within the frontothalamic-basal ganglia, right frontoparietal, and temporal/limbic/visual networks in CD patients. Correlation analysis showed that the weakened FPN-DMN interaction was associated with CU traits, while the heightened intra-network functional connectivity was related to impulsivity traits in CD patients. Our findings suggest that decoupling of cognitive control (FPN) with social understanding of others (DMN) is associated with the CU traits, and hyper-functions of the reward and motor inhibition systems elevate impulsiveness in CD.

  7. Financial Exploitation Is Associated With Structural and Functional Brain Differences in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Cassidy, Benjamin N; Darboh, Bri S; DuPre, Elizabeth; Lockrow, Amber W; Setton, Roni; Turner, Gary R

    2017-10-01

    Age-related brain changes leading to altered socioemotional functioning may increase vulnerability to financial exploitation. If confirmed, this would suggest a novel mechanism leading to heightened financial exploitation risk in older adults. Development of predictive neural markers could facilitate increased vigilance and prevention. In this preliminary study, we sought to identify structural and functional brain differences associated with financial exploitation in older adults. Financially exploited older adults (n = 13, 7 female) and a matched cohort of older adults who had been exposed to, but avoided, a potentially exploitative situation (n = 13, 7 female) were evaluated. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we examined cortical thickness and resting state functional connectivity. Behavioral data were collected using standardized cognitive assessments, self-report measures of mood and social functioning. The exploited group showed cortical thinning in anterior insula and posterior superior temporal cortices, regions associated with processing affective and social information, respectively. Functional connectivity encompassing these regions, within default and salience networks, was reduced, while between network connectivity was increased. Self-reported anger and hostility was higher for the exploited group. We observed financial exploitation associated with brain differences in regions involved in socioemotional functioning. These exploratory and preliminary findings suggest that alterations in brain regions implicated in socioemotional functioning may be a marker of financial exploitation risk. Large-scale, prospective studies are necessary to validate this neural mechanism, and develop predictive markers for use in clinical practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  8. Association between postgraduate year 2 residency program characteristics and primary project publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Joseph M; Shafeeq, Hira; Hammond, Drayton A; Li, Chenghui; Devlin, John W

    2018-03-15

    The association among residency program and research mentor characteristics, program director perceptions, and the publication of the primary research project for postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) graduates was assessed. Using a validated electronic survey, residency program directors (RPDs) of critical care PGY2 graduates were asked about primary research project publication success, program and research project mentor characteristics, and RPDs' perceptions surrounding project completion. All 55 RPDs surveyed responded; 44 (79%) reported being a research project mentor. PGY2 research project publications in 2011 and 2012 totaled 26 (37%) and 27 (35%), respectively. A significant relationship existed between research project publication and the number of residents in the program ( p project publication is important to their employer ( p projects versus no publications included the number of graduates in the PGY2 program (odds ratio [OR], 5.6; p project publication (OR, 10.2; p project versus no research projects was also independently associated with the RPD's perception that the employer valued research project publication (OR, 5.1; p = 0.04). A survey of RPDs of critical care PGY2 residents found that the number of PGY2 residents, the number of publications by the least experienced research mentor, and the perception that publishing the residents' research projects is important to the employer were independently associated with publication rates of residency research projects. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Rectal Cancer Project of the Spanish Association of Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ortiz Hurtado

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: This project shows that the results obtained in Scandinavia have been reproduced in a larger population in Spain applying a similar methodology focused on the spread of competence and auditing of results.

  10. A DTI-based tractography study of effects on brain structure associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul A.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; van der Kouwe, André; Molteno, Christopher D.; Chen, Gang; Wintermark, Pia; Alhamud, Alkathafi; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have severe, long-term consequences for brain and behavioral development already detectable in infancy and childhood. Resulting features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include cognitive and behavioral effects, as well as facial anomalies and growth deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to analyze white matter development in 11 newborns (age since conception <45 weeks) whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy. Comparisons were made with 9 age-matched controls born to abstainers or light drinkers from the same Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) community near Cape Town, South Africa. DTI parameters, T1 relaxation time, proton density and volumes were used to quantify and investigate group differences in white matter (WM) in the newborn brains. Probabilistic tractography was used to estimate and to delineate similar tract locations among the subjects for transcallosal pathways, cortico-spinal projection fibers and cortico-cortical association fibers. In each of these WM networks, the axial diffusivity AD was the parameter that showed the strongest association with maternal drinking. The strongest relations were observed in medial and inferior WM, regions in which the myelination process typically begins. In contrast to studies of older individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, FA did not exhibit a consistent and significant relation with alcohol exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first DTI-tractography study of prenatally alcohol exposed newborns. PMID:25182535

  11. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nina M; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll S; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain tissue sections from seven pigs were examined histopathologically i.e. two pigs with epileptic seizures and T. solium cysts, four pigs without seizures but with cysts, and one non-infected control pig. Pigs with epileptic seizures had a larger amount of collagen in their brain tissue, showing as large fibrotic scars and moderate amount of collagen deposited around cysts, compared to pigs without seizures and the negative control pig. Our results indicate that collagen is likely to play a considerable part in the pathogenesis of seizures in T. solium neurocysticercosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A human-specific de novo protein-coding gene associated with human brain functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether any human-specific new genes may be associated with human brain functions, we computationally screened the genetic vulnerable factors identified through Genome-Wide Association Studies and linkage analyses of nicotine addiction and found one human-specific de novo protein-coding gene, FLJ33706 (alternative gene symbol C20orf203. Cross-species analysis revealed interesting evolutionary paths of how this gene had originated from noncoding DNA sequences: insertion of repeat elements especially Alu contributed to the formation of the first coding exon and six standard splice junctions on the branch leading to humans and chimpanzees, and two subsequent substitutions in the human lineage escaped two stop codons and created an open reading frame of 194 amino acids. We experimentally verified FLJ33706's mRNA and protein expression in the brain. Real-Time PCR in multiple tissues demonstrated that FLJ33706 was most abundantly expressed in brain. Human polymorphism data suggested that FLJ33706 encodes a protein under purifying selection. A specifically designed antibody detected its protein expression across human cortex, cerebellum and midbrain. Immunohistochemistry study in normal human brain cortex revealed the localization of FLJ33706 protein in neurons. Elevated expressions of FLJ33706 were detected in Alzheimer's brain samples, suggesting the role of this novel gene in human-specific pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. FLJ33706 provided the strongest evidence so far that human-specific de novo genes can have protein-coding potential and differential protein expression, and be involved in human brain functions.

  13. Association of the interleukin 1 beta gene and brain spontaneous activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Liying

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The inflammatory response has been associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the rs1143627 polymorphism of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β gene moderates functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-measured brain regional activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Eighty older participants (47 with aMCI and 33 healthy controls were recruited for this study. All of the participants were genotyped for variant rs1143627 in the IL1B gene and were scanned using resting-state fMRI. Brain activity was assessed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF. Results aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions, including decreases in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior temporal lobe and the middle temporal lobe, and increases in the occipital cortex (calcarine, parietal cortex (Pcu and cerebellar cortex. The regions associated with an interaction of group X genotypes of rs1143627 C/T were the parietal cortex (left Pcu, frontal cortex (left superior, middle, and medial gyrus, right anterior cingulum, occipital cortex (left middle lobe, left cuneus and the bilateral posterior lobes of the cerebellum. Regarding the behavioral significance, there were significant correlations between ALFF in different regions of the brain and with the cognitive scores of each genotype group. Conclusions The present study provided evidence that aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions. Specifically, the rs1143627 C/T polymorphism of the IL1B gene may modulate regional spontaneous brain activity in aMCI patients.

  14. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  15. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents

  16. Associative memory cells and their working principle in the brain [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition, integration and storage of exogenous associated signals are termed as associative learning and memory. The consequences and processes of associative thinking and logical reasoning based on these stored exogenous signals can be memorized as endogenous signals, which are essential for decision making, intention, and planning. Associative memory cells recruited in these primary and secondary associative memories are presumably the foundation for the brain to fulfill cognition events and emotional reactions in life, though the plasticity of synaptic connectivity and neuronal activity has been believed to be involved in learning and memory. Current reports indicate that associative memory cells are recruited by their mutual synapse innervations among co-activated brain regions to fulfill the integration, storage and retrieval of associated signals. The activation of these associative memory cells initiates information recall in the mind, and the successful activation of their downstream neurons endorses memory presentations through behaviors and emotion reactions. In this review, we aim to draw a comprehensive diagram for associative memory cells, working principle and modulation, as well as propose their roles in cognition, emotion and behaviors.

  17. The association between poor sleep quality and global cortical atrophy is related to age. Results from the Atahualpa Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Del Brutto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-dwellers aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Atahualpa Project underwent brain MRI and were interviewed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Of 290 participants, 94 (32% had poor sleep quality and 143 (49% had global cortical atrophy (GCA. In a logistic regression model (adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factor, severe edentulism, symptoms of depression, the MoCA score, and neuroimaging signatures of cerebrovascular damage, poor sleep quality was associated with GCA (p=0.004. A multivariate probability model showed that the probability of moderate-to-severe GCA significantly increased in individuals with poor sleep quality aged ≥67 years. This study provides evidence for an association between poor sleep quality and GCA in older adults and the important interaction of age in this association.

  18. Different patterns of longitudinal brain and spinal cord changes and their associations with disability progression in NMO and MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Liu, Zheng; Dong, Huiqing; Weiler, Florian; Hahn, Horst K; Shi, Fu-Dong; Butzkueven, Helmut; Barkhof, Frederik; Li, Kuncheng

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the longitudinal spinal cord and brain changes in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) and their associations with disability progression. We recruited 28 NMO, 22 MS, and 20 healthy controls (HC), who underwent both spinal cord and brain MRI at baseline. Twenty-five NMO and 20 MS completed 1-year follow-up. Baseline spinal cord and brain lesion loads, mean upper cervical cord area (MUCCA), brain, and thalamus volume and their changes during a 1-year follow-up were measured and compared between groups. All the measurements were also compared between progressive and non-progressive groups in NMO and MS. MUCCA decreased significantly during the 1-year follow-up in NMO not in MS. Percentage brain volume changes (PBVC) and thalamus volume changes in MS were significantly higher than NMO. MUCCA changes were significantly different between progressive and non-progressive groups in NMO, while baseline brain lesion volume and PBVC were associated with disability progression in MS. MUCCA changes during 1-year follow-up showed association with clinical disability in NMO. Spinal cord atrophy changes were associated with disability progression in NMO, while baseline brain lesion load and whole brain atrophy changes were related to disability progression in MS. • Spinal cord atrophy progression was observed in NMO. • Spinal cord atrophy changes were associated with disability progression in NMO. • Brain lesion and atrophy were related to disability progression in MS.

  19. Congenital Retinal Macrovessel and the Association of Retinal Venous Malformations With Venous Malformations of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichi, Francesco; Freund, K Bailey; Ciardella, Antonio; Morara, Mariachiara; Abboud, Emad B; Ghazi, Nicola; Dackiw, Christine; Choudhry, Netan; Souza, Eduardo Cunha; Cunha, Leonardo Provetti; Arevalo, J Fernando; Liu, T Y Alvin; Wenick, Adam; He, Lingmin; Villarreal, Guadalupe; Neri, Piergiorgio; Sarraf, David

    2018-04-01

    Congenital retinal macrovessel (CRM) is a rarely reported venous malformation of the retina that is associated with venous anomalies of the brain. To study the multimodal imaging findings of a series of eyes with congenital retinal macrovessel and describe the systemic associations. In this cross-sectional multicenter study, medical records were retrospectively reviewed from 7 different retina clinics worldwide over a 10-year period (2007-2017). Patients with CRM, defined as an abnormal, large, macular vessel with a vascular distribution above and below the horizontal raphe, were identified. Data were analyzed from December 2016 to August 2017. Clinical information and multimodal retinal imaging findings were collected and studied. Pertinent systemic information, including brain magnetic resonance imaging findings, was also noted if available. Of the 49 included patients, 32 (65%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at onset was 44.0 (20.9) years. A total of 49 eyes from 49 patients were studied. Macrovessel was unilateral in all patients. Color fundus photography illustrated a large aberrant dilated and tortuous retinal vein in all patients. Early-phase frames of fluorescein angiography further confirmed the venous nature of the macrovessel in 40 of 40 eyes. Optical coherence tomography angiography, available in 17 eyes (35%), displayed microvascular capillary abnormalities around the CRM, which were more evident in the deep capillary plexus. Of the 49 patients with CRM, 39 (80%) did not illustrate any evidence of ophthalmic complications. Ten patients (20%) presented with retinal complications, typically an incidental association with CRM. Twelve patients (24%) were noted to have venous malformations of the brain with associated magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, location of the venous anomaly in the brain was ipsilateral to the CRM in 10 patients (83%) and contralateral in 2 patients (17%), mainly located in the frontal lobe in 9 patients (75%). Our study has

  20. Death following traumatic brain injury in Drosophila is associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J; Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Rimkus, Stacey A; Fischer, Julie A; Kaur, Gulpreet; Seppala, Jocelyn M; Swanson, Laura C; Zajac, Jocelyn E; Ganetzky, Barry; Wassarman, David A

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Unfavorable TBI outcomes result from primary mechanical injuries to the brain and ensuing secondary non-mechanical injuries that are not limited to the brain. Our genome-wide association study of Drosophila melanogaster revealed that the probability of death following TBI is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in tissue barrier function and glucose homeostasis. We found that TBI causes intestinal and blood–brain barrier dysfunction and that intestinal barrier dysfunction is highly correlated with the probability of death. Furthermore, we found that ingestion of glucose after a primary injury increases the probability of death through a secondary injury mechanism that exacerbates intestinal barrier dysfunction. Our results indicate that natural variation in the probability of death following TBI is due in part to genetic differences that affect intestinal barrier dysfunction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04790.001 PMID:25742603

  1. Eye tracking detects disconjugate eye movements associated with structural traumatic brain injury and concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, Uzma; Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

    2015-04-15

    Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200 sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury.

  2. Association of BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Brain BDNF levels with Major Depression and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mariam M; Underwood, Mark D; Huang, Yung-Yu; Hsiung, Shu-Chi; Liu, Yan; Simpson, Norman R; Bakalian, Mihran J; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Arango, Victoria; Mann, J John

    2018-02-08

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide. Both are partly caused by early life adversity (ELA) and ELA reduces BDNF protein levels. This study examines the association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and brain BDNF levels with depression and suicide. We hypothesized that both MDD and ELA would be associated with the Met allele and lower brain BDNF levels. Such an association would be consistent with low BDNF mediating the effect of ELA on adulthood suicide and MDD. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was genotyped in postmortem brains of 37 suicide decedents and 53 non-suicides. Additionally, BDNF protein levels were determined by Western blot in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9; BA9), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA24), caudal brainstem and rostral brainstem. The relationships between these measures and MDD, death by suicide and reported ELA were examined. Subjects with the Met allele had an increased risk for depression. Depressed patients also have lower BDNF levels in ACC and caudal brainstem compared with non-depressed subjects. No effect of history of suicide death or ELA was observed with genotype, but lower BDNF levels in ACC were found in subjects who had been exposed to ELA and/or died by suicide compared to non-suicide decedents and no reported ELA. This study provides further evidence implicating low brain BDNF and the BDNF Met allele in major depression risk. Future studies should seek to determine how altered BDNF expression contributes to depression and suicide. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  3. Brain structure-function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Scott C; Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I; Glahn, David C; Thompson, Paul M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-07-01

    Recent theories regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggest contributions of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. While structural neuroimaging studies indicate disease-associated neuroanatomical alterations, the behavioural correlates of these alterations have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder to: (i) characterize neurobehavioural correlates of neuroanatomical measures implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder; (ii) identify brain-behaviour associations that differ between diagnostic groups; (iii) identify neurocognitive traits that show evidence of accelerated ageing specifically in subjects with bipolar disorder; and (iv) identify brain-behaviour correlations that differ across the age span. Structural neuroimages and multi-dimensional assessments of temperament and neurocognition were acquired from 527 (153 bipolar disorder and 374 non-bipolar disorder) adults aged 18-87 years in 26 families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. We used linear regression models to identify significant brain-behaviour associations and test whether brain-behaviour relationships differed: (i) between diagnostic groups; and (ii) as a function of age. We found that total cortical and ventricular volume had the greatest number of significant behavioural associations, and included correlations with measures from multiple cognitive domains, particularly declarative and working memory and executive function. Cortical thickness measures, in contrast, showed more specific associations with declarative memory, letter fluency and processing speed tasks. While the majority of brain-behaviour relationships were similar across diagnostic groups, increased cortical thickness in ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortical regions was associated with better declarative memory only in bipolar disorder subjects, and not in non-bipolar disorder family

  4. Sex differences in associations of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin with resting-state functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Yao, Li; Keedy, Sarah K; Reilly, James L; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Carter, C Sue; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Drogos, Lauren L; Tamminga, Carol A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Clementz, Brett A; Hill, Scot K; Liao, Wei; Ji, Gong-Jun; Lui, Su; Sweeney, John A

    2017-01-02

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert robust and sexually dimorphic influences on cognition and emotion. How these hormones regulate relevant functional brain systems is not well understood. OT and AVP serum concentrations were assayed in 60 healthy individuals (36 women). Brain functional networks assessed with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were constructed with graph theory-based approaches that characterize brain networks as connected nodes. Sex differences were demonstrated in rs-fMRI. Men showed higher nodal degree (connectedness) and efficiency (information propagation capacity) in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) and higher nodal degree in left rolandic operculum. Women showed higher nodal betweenness (being part of paths between nodes) in right putamen and left inferior parietal gyrus (IPG). Higher hormone levels were associated with less intrinsic connectivity. In men, higher AVP was associated with lower nodal degree and efficiency in left IFG (pars orbitalis) and left STG and less efficiency in left IFG (pars triangularis). In women, higher AVP was associated with lower betweenness in left IPG, and higher OT was associated with lower nodal degree in left IFG (pars orbitalis). Hormones differentially correlate with brain networks that are important for emotion processing and cognition in men and women. AVP in men and OT in women may regulate orbital frontal cortex connectivity, which is important in emotion processing. Hormone associations with STG and pars triangularis in men and parietal cortex in women may account for well-established sex differences in verbal and visuospatial abilities, respectively. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. From "Where" to "What": Distributed Representations of Brand Associations in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ping; Nelson, Leif D; Hsu, Ming

    2015-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the notion that there exists a set of human-like characteristics associated with brands, referred to as brand personality. Here we combine newly available machine learning techniques with functional neuroimaging data to characterize the set of processes that give rise to these associations. We show that brand personality traits can be captured by the weighted activity across a widely distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in reasoning, imagery, and affective processing. That is, as opposed to being constructed via reflective processes, brand personality traits appear to exist a priori inside the minds of consumers, such that we were able to predict what brand a person is thinking about based solely on the relationship between brand personality associations and brain activity. These findings represent an important advance in the application of neuroscientific methods to consumer research, moving from work focused on cataloguing brain regions associated with marketing stimuli to testing and refining mental constructs central to theories of consumer behavior.

  6. 5-HTTLPR moderates the association between interdependence and brain responses to mortality threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyang; Yu, Dian; Han, Shihui

    2017-12-01

    While behavioral research suggests an association between cultural worldview and decreased anxiety of death, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. Using functional MRI, we investigated whether and how the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which has been associated with mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, moderates the associations between a cultural trait (i.e., interdependence) and self-report of death anxiety/depression and between interdependence and brain responses to mortality threats. Long/long and short/short allele carriers of the 5-HTTLPR were scanned using fMRI while they performed a one-back task on death-related, death-unrelated negative, and neutral words. Participants' interdependence and death anxiety/depression were assessed using questionnaires after scanning. We found that participants who assessed themselves with greater interdependence reported lower death anxiety/depression and showed decreased neural response to death-related words in emotion-related brain regions including the anterior cingulate, putamen, and thalamus. However, these results were evident in long/long allele carriers of the 5-HTTLPR but not in short/short allele carriers who even showed positive associations between interdependence and neural activities in the anterior cingulate, putamen and thalamus in response to death-related words. Our findings suggest candidate mechanisms for explaining the complex relationship between genotype, cultural traits, and mental/neural responses to mortality threats. Hum Brain Mapp 38:6157-6171, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Projected Lifetime Healthcare Costs Associated with HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Miners, Alec; Smith, Colette J

    2015-01-01

    computer simulation model to project the distribution of lifetime outcomes and costs of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) infected with HIV in 2013 aged 30, over 10,000 simulations. We assumed a resource-rich setting with no loss to follow-up, and that standards and costs of healthcare management remain...

  8. Association of Perivascular Localization of Aquaporin-4 With Cognition and Alzheimer Disease in Aging Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppenfeld, Douglas M; Simon, Matthew; Haswell, J Douglas; D'Abreo, Daryl; Murchison, Charles; Quinn, Joseph F; Grafe, Marjorie R; Woltjer, Randall L; Kaye, Jeffrey; Iliff, Jeffrey J

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD), are common within the aging population, yet the factors that render the aging brain vulnerable to these processes are unknown. Perivascular localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid-β, through the brainwide network of perivascular pathways termed the glymphatic system, which may be compromised in the aging brain. To determine whether alterations in AQP4 expression or loss of perivascular AQP4 localization are features of the aging human brain and to define their association with AD pathology. Expression of AQP4 was analyzed in postmortem frontal cortex of cognitively healthy and histopathologically confirmed individuals with AD by Western blot or immunofluorescence for AQP4, amyloid-β 1-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Postmortem tissue and clinical data were provided by the Oregon Health and Science University Layton Aging and Alzheimer Disease Center and Oregon Brain Bank. Postmortem tissue from 79 individuals was evaluated, including cognitively intact "young" individuals aged younger than 60 years (range, 33-57 years), cognitively intact "aged" individuals aged older than 60 years (range, 61-96 years) with no known neurological disease, and individuals older than 60 years (range, 61-105 years) of age with a clinical history of AD confirmed by histopathological evaluation. Forty-eight patient samples (10 young, 20 aged, and 18 with AD) underwent histological analysis. Sixty patient samples underwent Western blot analysis (15 young, 24 aged, and 21 with AD). Expression of AQP4 protein, AQP4 immunoreactivity, and perivascular AQP4 localization in the frontal cortex were evaluated. Expression of AQP4 was associated with advancing age among all individuals (R2 = 0.17; P = .003). Perivascular AQP4 localization was significantly associated with AD status independent of age (OR, 11.7 per 10% increase in localization; z

  9. Preliminary results of BRAVO project: brain computer interfaces for Robotic enhanced Action in Visuo-motOr tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Massimo; Frisoli, Antonio; Fontana, Marco; Loconsole, Claudio; Leonardis, Daniele; Troncossi, Marco; Foumashi, Mohammad Mozaffari; Parenti-Castelli, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of the project BRAVO (Brain computer interfaces for Robotic enhanced Action in Visuo-motOr tasks). The objective of this project is to define a new approach to the development of assistive and rehabilitative robots for motor impaired users to perform complex visuomotor tasks that require a sequence of reaches, grasps and manipulations of objects. BRAVO aims at developing new robotic interfaces and HW/SW architectures for rehabilitation and regain/restoration of motor function in patients with upper limb sensorimotor impairment through extensive rehabilitation therapy and active assistance in the execution of Activities of Daily Living. The final system developed within this project will include a robotic arm exoskeleton and a hand orthosis that will be integrated together for providing force assistance. The main novelty that BRAVO introduces is the control of the robotic assistive device through the active prediction of intention/action. The system will actually integrate the information about the movement carried out by the user with a prediction of the performed action through an interpretation of current gaze of the user (measured through eye-tracking), brain activation (measured through BCI) and force sensor measurements. © 2011 IEEE

  10. The effect of criticism on functional brain connectivity and associations with neuroticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Nadine Servaas

    Full Text Available Neuroticism is a robust personality trait that constitutes a risk factor for psychopathology, especially anxiety disorders and depression. High neurotic individuals tend to be more self-critical and are overly sensitive to criticism by others. Hence, we used a novel resting-state paradigm to investigate the effect of criticism on functional brain connectivity and associations with neuroticism. Forty-eight participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R to assess neuroticism. Next, we recorded resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI during two sessions. We manipulated the second session before scanning by presenting three standardized critical remarks through headphones, in which the subject was urged to please lie still in the scanner. A seed-based functional connectivity method and subsequent clustering were used to analyse the resting state data. Based on the reviewed literature related to criticism, we selected brain regions associated with self-reflective processing and stress-regulation as regions of interest. The findings showed enhanced functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in emotion processing and social cognition during the processing of criticism. Concurrently, functional connectivity was reduced between these clusters and brain structures related to the default mode network and higher-order cognitive control. Furthermore, individuals scoring higher on neuroticism showed altered functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in the appraisal, expression and regulation of negative emotions. These results may suggest that the criticized person is attempting to understand the beliefs, perceptions and feelings of the critic in order to facilitate flexible and adaptive social behavior. Furthermore, multiple aspects of emotion processing were found to be affected in individuals scoring higher on neuroticism during

  11. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated change...

  12. Mine subsidence control projects associated with solid waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Pennsylvania environmental regulations require applicant's for solid waste disposal permits to provide information regarding the extent of deep mining under the proposed site, evaluations of the maximum subsidence potential, and designs of measures to mitigate potential subsidence impact on the facility. This paper presents three case histories of deep mine subsidence control projects at solid waste disposal facilities. Each case history presents site specific mine grouting project data summaries which include evaluations of the subsurface conditions from drilling, mine void volume calculations, grout mix designs, grouting procedures and techniques, as well as grout coverage and extent of mine void filling evaluations. The case studies described utilized basic gravity grouting techniques to fill the mine voids and fractured strata over the collapsed portions of the deep mines. Grout mixtures were designed to achieve compressive strengths suitable for preventing future mine subsidence while maintaining high flow characteristics to penetrate fractured strata. Verification drilling and coring was performed in the grouted areas to determine the extent of grout coverage and obtain samples of the in-place grout for compression testing. The case histories presented in this report demonstrate an efficient and cost effective technique for mine subsidence control projects

  13. Obesity Associated Cerebral Gray and White Matter Alterations Are Interrelated in the Female Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Mueller

    Full Text Available Obesity is known to affect the brain's gray matter (GM and white matter (WM structure but the interrelationship of such changes remains unclear. Here we used T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in combination with voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS to assess the relationship between obesity-associated alterations of gray matter density (GMD and anisotropic water diffusion in WM, respectively. In a small cohort of lean to obese women, we confirmed previous reports of obesity-associated alterations of GMD in brain regions involved in executive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC and habit learning (i.e., dorsal striatum. Gray matter density alterations of the DLPFC were negatively correlated with radial diffusivity in the entire corpus callosum. Within the genu of the corpus callosum we found a positive correlation with axial diffusivity. In posterior region and inferior areas of the body of the corpus callosum, axial diffusivity correlated negatively with altered GMD in the dorsal striatum. These findings suggest that, in women, obesity-related alterations of GMD in brain regions involved in executive control and habit learning might relate to alterations of associated WM fiber bundles within the corpus callosum.

  14. Childhood obstructive sleep apnea associates with neuropsychological deficits and neuronal brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Halbower

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with neuropsychological deficits of memory, learning, and executive function. There is no evidence of neuronal brain injury in children with OSA. We hypothesized that childhood OSA is associated with neuropsychological performance dysfunction, and with neuronal metabolite alterations in the brain, indicative of neuronal injury in areas corresponding to neuropsychological function.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 31 children (19 with OSA and 12 healthy controls, aged 6-16 y group-matched by age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Participants underwent polysomnography and neuropsychological assessments. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was performed on a subset of children with OSA and on matched controls. Neuropsychological test scores and mean neuronal metabolite ratios of target brain areas were compared. Relative to controls, children with severe OSA had significant deficits in IQ and executive functions (verbal working memory and verbal fluency. Children with OSA demonstrated decreases of the mean neuronal metabolite ratio N-acetyl aspartate/choline in the left hippocampus (controls: 1.29, standard deviation [SD] 0.21; OSA: 0.91, SD 0.05; p = 0.001 and right frontal cortex (controls: 2.2, SD 0.4; OSA: 1.6, SD 0.4; p = 0.03.Childhood OSA is associated with deficits of IQ and executive function and also with possible neuronal injury in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. We speculate that untreated childhood OSA could permanently alter a developing child's cognitive potential.

  15. High frequency of silent brain infarcts associated with cognitive deficits in an economically disadvantaged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarzoni, Paula; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline H; Duran, Fabio L S; Leite, Claudia C; Wajngarten, Mauricio; Scazufca, Marcia; Menezes, Paulo R; Lotufo, Paulo A; Alves, Tania C T F; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2017-08-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed to assess the presence of silent brain vascular lesions in a sample of apparently healthy elderly individuals who were recruited from an economically disadvantaged urban region (São Paulo, Brazil). We also wished to investigate whether the findings were associated with worse cognitive performance. A sample of 250 elderly subjects (66-75 years) without dementia or neuropsychiatric disorders were recruited from predefined census sectors of an economically disadvantaged area of Sao Paulo and received structural magnetic resonance imaging scans and cognitive testing. A high proportion of individuals had very low levels of education (4 years or less, n=185; 21 with no formal education). The prevalence of at least one silent vascular-related cortical or subcortical lesion was 22.8% (95% confidence interval, 17.7-28.5), and the basal ganglia was the most frequently affected site (63.14% of cases). The subgroup with brain infarcts presented significantly lower levels of education than the subgroup with no brain lesions as well as significantly worse current performance in cognitive test domains, including memory and attention (pcognitive deficits, and in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging data, this cognitive impairment may be considered simply related to ageing. Emphatic attention should be paid to potentially deleterious effects of vascular brain lesions in poorly educated elderly individuals from economically disadvantaged environments.

  16. Brain structural changes associated with chronicity and antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomelleri, Luisa; Jogia, Jigar; Perlini, Cinzia; Bellani, Marcella; Ferro, Adele; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Tansella, Michele; Frangou, Sophia; Brambilla, Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest a life-long impact of disease related mechanisms on brain structure in schizophrenia which may be modified by antipsychotic treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia the effect of illness duration and antipsychotic treatment on brain structure. Seventy-one schizophrenic patients and 79 age and gender matched healthy participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All images were processed with voxel based morphometry, using SPM5. Compared to healthy participants, patients showed decrements in gray matter volume in the left medial and left inferior frontal gyrus. In addition, duration of illness was negatively associated with gray matter volume in prefrontal regions bilaterally, in the temporal pole on the left and the caudal superior temporal gyrus on the right. Cumulative exposure to antipsychotics correlated positively with gray matter volumes in the cingulate gyrus for typical agents and in the thalamus for atypical drugs. These findings (a) indicate that structural abnormalities in prefrontal and temporal cortices in schizophrenia are progressive and, (b) suggest that antipsychotic medication has a significant impact on brain morphology.

  17. Project Career: An individualized postsecondary approach to promoting independence, functioning, and employment success among students with traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Deborah; Elias, Eileen; Rumrill, Phillip; Hendricks, Deborah J; Jacobs, Karen; Leopold, Anne; Nardone, Amanda; Sampson, Elaine; Scherer, Marcia; Gee Cormier, Aundrea; Taylor, Aiyana; DeLatte, Caitlin

    2017-09-14

    Project Career is a five-year interdisciplinary demonstration project funded by NIDILRR. It provides technology-driven supports, merging Cognitive Support Technology (CST) evidence-based practices and rehabilitation counseling, to improve postsecondary and employment outcomes for veteran and civilian undergraduate students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Provide a technology-driven individualized support program to improve career and employment outcomes for students with TBI. Project staff provide assessments of students' needs relative to assistive technology, academic achievement, and career preparation; provide CST training to 150 students; match students with mentors; provide vocational case management; deliver job development and placement assistance; and maintain an electronic portal regarding accommodation and career resources. Participating students receive cognitive support technology training, academic enrichment, and career preparatory assistance from trained professionals at three implementation sites. Staff address cognitive challenges using the 'Matching Person with Technology' assessment to accommodate CST use (iPad and selected applications (apps)). JBS International (JBS) provides the project's evaluation. To date, 117 students participate with 63% report improved life quality and 75% report improved academic performance. Project Career provides a national model based on best practices for enabling postsecondary students with TBI to attain academic, employment, and career goals.

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased lesion burden and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Natalie; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Hagemeier, Jesper; Kennedy, Cheryl; Melia, Rebecca; Carl, Ellen; Ramasamy, Deepa P; Cherneva, Mariya; Durfee, Jacqueline; Bergsland, Niels; Dwyer, Michael G; Kolb, Channa; Hojnacki, David; Ramanathan, Murali; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors have been associated with changes in clinical outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the frequency of CV risks in patients with MS and their association with MRI outcomes. In a prospective study, 326 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 163 patients with progressive MS, 61 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and 175 healthy controls (HCs) were screened for CV risks and scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. Examined CV risks included hypertension, heart disease, smoking, overweight/obesity and type 1 diabetes. MRI measures assessed lesion volumes (LVs) and brain atrophy. Association between individual or multiple CV risks and MRI outcomes was examined adjusting for age, sex, race, disease duration and treatment status. Patients with MS showed increased frequency of smoking (51.7% vs 36.5%, p = 0.001) and hypertension (33.9% vs 24.7%, p=0.035) compared with HCs. In total, 49.9% of patients with MS and 36% of HCs showed ≥ 2 CV risks (p = 0.003), while the frequency of ≥ 3 CV risks was 18.8% in the MS group and 8.6% in the HCs group (p = 0.002). In patients with MS, hypertension and heart disease were associated with decreased grey matter (GM) and cortical volumes (p < 0.05), while overweight/obesity was associated with increased T1-LV (p < 0.39) and smoking with decreased whole brain volume (p = 0.049). Increased lateral ventricle volume was associated with heart disease (p = 0.029) in CIS. Patients with MS with one or more CV risks showed increased lesion burden and more advanced brain atrophy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Project management plan for the gunite and associated tanks treatability studies project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Studies Project satisfies the requirements of the program management plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program as established in the Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program. This plan is a subtier of several other ER documents designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1 requirement for major systems acquisitions. This project management plan identifies the major activities of the GAAT Treatability Studies Project; establishes performance criteria; discusses the roles and responsibilities of the organizations that will perform the work; and summarizes the work breakdown structure, schedule, milestones, and cost estimate for the project

  20. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J. M.; Ramsey, N.; Rutten, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MM can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on

  1. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Successfully Treated HIV Infection: Associations With Disease and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zoest, Rosan A; Underwood, Jonathan; De Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A; Cole, James H; Wit, Ferdinand W; Caan, Matthan W A; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Majoie, Charles B L M; Portegies, Peter; Winston, Alan; Sharp, David J; Gisslén, Magnus; Reiss, Peter

    2017-12-27

    Brain structural abnormalities have been reported in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH) who are receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but their pathophysiology remains unclear. We investigated factors associated with brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure (fractional anisotropy) in 134 PLWH receiving suppressive cART and 79 comparable HIV-negative controls, aged ≥45 years, from the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS cohort, using multimodal neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Compared with controls, PLWH had lower gray matter volumes (-13.7 mL; 95% confidence interval, -25.1 to -2.2) and fractional anisotropy (-0.0073; 95% confidence interval, -.012 to -.0024), with the largest differences observed in those with prior clinical AIDS. Hypertension and the soluble CD14 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid were associated with lower fractional anisotropy. These associations were independent of HIV serostatus (Pinteraction = .32 and Pinteraction = .59, respectively) and did not explain the greater abnormalities in brain structure in relation to HIV infection. The presence of lower gray matter volumes and more white matter microstructural abnormalities in well-treated PLWH partly reflect a combination of historical effects of AIDS, as well as the more general influence of systemic factors, such as hypertension and ongoing neuroinflammation. Additional mechanisms explaining the accentuation of brain structure abnormalities in treated HIV infection remain to be identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 77 FR 13578 - Disability and Rehabilitation Research Project; Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... medical care, those seen only in private doctors' offices, or those treated in military or veteran health... Veterans Brain Injury Center, 2011b). Common disabilities resulting from TBI include problems with cognition, sensory processing, communication, and behavioral or mental health; and some TBI survivors...

  3. Demographic and angioarchitectural features associated with seizures presentation in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogwale Samson Motebejane, MBChB, Mmed Neurosurg (UKZN, FC Neurosurg (SA

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Improved knowledge of specific morphological factors associated with brain AVM epilepsy could aid in the formulation of appropriate therapeutic strategies for control and/or cure of these brain AVM-associated seizures.

  4. Association Between Motor Symptoms and Brain Metabolism in Early Huntington Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaura, Véronique; Lavisse, Sonia; Payoux, Pierre; Goldman, Serge; Verny, Christophe; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Damier, Philippe; Supiot, Frédéric; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Remy, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Brain hypometabolism is associated with the clinical consequences of the degenerative process, but little is known about regional hypermetabolism, sometimes observed in the brain of patients with clinically manifest Huntington disease (HD). Studying the role of regional hypermetabolism is needed to better understand its interaction with the motor symptoms of the disease. To investigate the association between brain hypometabolism and hypermetabolism with motor scores of patients with early HD. This study started in 2001, and analysis was completed in 2016. Sixty symptomatic patients with HD and 15 healthy age-matched control individuals underwent positron emission tomography to measure cerebral metabolism in this cross-sectional study. They also underwent the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale motor test, and 2 subscores were extracted: (1) a hyperkinetic score, combining dystonia and chorea, and (2) a hypokinetic score, combining bradykinesia and rigidity. Statistical parametric mapping software (SPM5) was used to identify all hypo- and hypermetabolic regions in patients with HD relative to control individuals. Correlation analyses (P motor subscores and brain metabolic values were performed for regions with significant hypometabolism and hypermetabolism. Among 60 patients with HD, 22 were women (36.7%), and the mean (SD) age was 44.6 (7.6) years. Of the 15 control individuals, 7 were women (46.7%), and the mean (SD) age was 42.2 (7.3) years. In statistical parametric mapping, striatal hypometabolism was significantly correlated with the severity of all motor scores. Hypermetabolism was negatively correlated only with hypokinetic scores in the cuneus (z score = 3.95, P motor scores were associated with higher metabolic values in the inferior parietal lobule, anterior cingulate, inferior temporal lobule, the dentate nucleus, and the cerebellar lobules IV/V, VI, and VIII bilaterally corresponding to the motor regions of the cerebellum (z score = 3

  5. Reversal of functional changes in the brain associated with obstructive sleep apnoea following 6 months of CPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania H. Fatouleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is associated with an increase in the number of bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, leading to neurogenic hypertension. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is the most effective and widely used treatment for preventing collapse of the upper airway in OSA. In addition to improving sleep, CPAP decreases daytime MSNA towards control levels. It remains unknown how this restoration of MSNA occurs, in particular whether CPAP treatment results in a simple readjustment in activity of those brain regions responsible for the initial increase in MSNA or whether other brain regions are recruited to over-ride aberrant brain activity. By recording MSNA concurrently with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we aimed to assess brain activity associated with each individual subject's patterns of MSNA prior to and following 6 months of CPAP treatment. Spontaneous fluctuations in MSNA were recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the common peroneal nerve in 13 newly diagnosed patients with OSA before and after 6 months of treatment with CPAP and in 15 healthy control subjects while lying in a 3 T MRI scanner. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD contrast gradient echo, echo-planar images were continuously collected in a 4 s ON, 4 s OFF (200 volumes sampling protocol. MSNA was significantly elevated in newly diagnosed OSA patients compared to control subjects (55 ± 4 vs 26 ± 2 bursts/min. Fluctuations in BOLD signal intensity in multiple regions covaried with the intensity of the concurrently recorded bursts of MSNA. There was a significant fall in MSNA after 6 months of CPAP (39 ± 2 bursts/min. The reduction in resting MSNA was coupled with significant falls in signal intensity in precuneus bilaterally, the left and right insula, right medial prefrontal cortex, right anterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampus and the left and right retrosplenial cortices. These data support

  6. Reversal of functional changes in the brain associated with obstructive sleep apnoea following 6 months of CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouleh, Rania H; Lundblad, Linda C; Macey, Paul M; McKenzie, David K; Henderson, Luke A; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with an increase in the number of bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to neurogenic hypertension. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective and widely used treatment for preventing collapse of the upper airway in OSA. In addition to improving sleep, CPAP decreases daytime MSNA towards control levels. It remains unknown how this restoration of MSNA occurs, in particular whether CPAP treatment results in a simple readjustment in activity of those brain regions responsible for the initial increase in MSNA or whether other brain regions are recruited to over-ride aberrant brain activity. By recording MSNA concurrently with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we aimed to assess brain activity associated with each individual subject's patterns of MSNA prior to and following 6 months of CPAP treatment. Spontaneous fluctuations in MSNA were recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the common peroneal nerve in 13 newly diagnosed patients with OSA before and after 6 months of treatment with CPAP and in 15 healthy control subjects while lying in a 3 T MRI scanner. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast gradient echo, echo-planar images were continuously collected in a 4 s ON, 4 s OFF (200 volumes) sampling protocol. MSNA was significantly elevated in newly diagnosed OSA patients compared to control subjects (55 ± 4 vs 26 ± 2 bursts/min). Fluctuations in BOLD signal intensity in multiple regions covaried with the intensity of the concurrently recorded bursts of MSNA. There was a significant fall in MSNA after 6 months of CPAP (39 ± 2 bursts/min). The reduction in resting MSNA was coupled with significant falls in signal intensity in precuneus bilaterally, the left and right insula, right medial prefrontal cortex, right anterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampus and the left and right retrosplenial cortices. These data support our contention that

  7. Guiding transcranial brain stimulation by EEG/MEG to interact with ongoing brain activity and associated functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thut, Gregor; Bergmann, Til Ole; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    of NTBS with respect to the ongoing brain activity. Temporal patterns of ongoing neuronal activity, in particular brain oscillations and their fluctuations, can be traced with electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), to guide the timing as well as the stimulation settings of NTBS. These novel, online...... and offline EEG/MEG-guided NTBS-approaches are tailored to specifically interact with the underlying brain activity. Online EEG/MEG has been used to guide the timing of NTBS (i.e., when to stimulate): by taking into account instantaneous phase or power of oscillatory brain activity, NTBS can be aligned......Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques have a wide range of applications but also suffer from a number of limitations mainly related to poor specificity of intervention and variable effect size. These limitations motivated recent efforts to focus on the temporal dimension...

  8. Distracted Driving and Associated Crash Risks : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Factors aff ecting the : cognitive tasks : associated with : driving are becoming : increasingly critical to : the overall roadway : safety performance. : Therefore, more research is needed in order to understand the complexity and : impact of distra...

  9. Different patterns of longitudinal brain and spinal cord changes and their associations with disability progression in NMO and MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou [Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Lab of MRI and Brain Informatics, Beijing (China); VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin (China); Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong [Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Liu, Zheng; Dong, Huiqing [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing (China); Weiler, Florian; Hahn, Horst K. [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Shi, Fu-Dong [Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Parkville (Australia); Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UCL, Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Li, Kuncheng [Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Lab of MRI and Brain Informatics, Beijing (China)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the longitudinal spinal cord and brain changes in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) and their associations with disability progression. We recruited 28 NMO, 22 MS, and 20 healthy controls (HC), who underwent both spinal cord and brain MRI at baseline. Twenty-five NMO and 20 MS completed 1-year follow-up. Baseline spinal cord and brain lesion loads, mean upper cervical cord area (MUCCA), brain, and thalamus volume and their changes during a 1-year follow-up were measured and compared between groups. All the measurements were also compared between progressive and non-progressive groups in NMO and MS. MUCCA decreased significantly during the 1-year follow-up in NMO not in MS. Percentage brain volume changes (PBVC) and thalamus volume changes in MS were significantly higher than NMO. MUCCA changes were significantly different between progressive and non-progressive groups in NMO, while baseline brain lesion volume and PBVC were associated with disability progression in MS. MUCCA changes during 1-year follow-up showed association with clinical disability in NMO. Spinal cord atrophy changes were associated with disability progression in NMO, while baseline brain lesion load and whole brain atrophy changes were related to disability progression in MS. (orig.)

  10. Different patterns of longitudinal brain and spinal cord changes and their associations with disability progression in NMO and MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Liu, Zheng; Dong, Huiqing; Weiler, Florian; Hahn, Horst K.; Shi, Fu-Dong; Butzkueven, Helmut; Barkhof, Frederik; Li, Kuncheng

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the longitudinal spinal cord and brain changes in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) and their associations with disability progression. We recruited 28 NMO, 22 MS, and 20 healthy controls (HC), who underwent both spinal cord and brain MRI at baseline. Twenty-five NMO and 20 MS completed 1-year follow-up. Baseline spinal cord and brain lesion loads, mean upper cervical cord area (MUCCA), brain, and thalamus volume and their changes during a 1-year follow-up were measured and compared between groups. All the measurements were also compared between progressive and non-progressive groups in NMO and MS. MUCCA decreased significantly during the 1-year follow-up in NMO not in MS. Percentage brain volume changes (PBVC) and thalamus volume changes in MS were significantly higher than NMO. MUCCA changes were significantly different between progressive and non-progressive groups in NMO, while baseline brain lesion volume and PBVC were associated with disability progression in MS. MUCCA changes during 1-year follow-up showed association with clinical disability in NMO. Spinal cord atrophy changes were associated with disability progression in NMO, while baseline brain lesion load and whole brain atrophy changes were related to disability progression in MS. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of 127 peripartum hypoxic brain injuries from closed claims registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.; Hedegaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    : The authors retrospectively investigated peripartum hypoxic brain injuries registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association. RESULTS: From 1992 to 2004, 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic brain injuries were registered and subsequently analysed. Thirty-eight newborns died, and a majority...

  12. Association Between Brain Gene Expression, DNA Methylation, and Alteration of Ex Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Transverse Relaxation in Late-Life Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Dawe, Robert J; Boyle, Patricia A; Gaiteri, Chris; Yang, Jingyun; Buchman, Aron S; Schneider, Julie A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; De Jager, Philip L; Bennett, David A

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation is associated with late-life cognitive decline even after controlling for common neuropathologic conditions. However, the underlying neurobiology of this association is unknown. To investigate the association between brain gene expression, DNA methylation, and alteration of magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation in late-life cognitive decline. Data came from 2 community-based longitudinal cohort studies of aging and dementia, the Religious Orders Study, which began in 1993, and the Rush Memory and Aging Project, which began in 1997. All participants agreed to undergo annual clinical evaluations and to donate their brains after death. By October 24, 2016, a total of 1358 individuals had died and had brain autopsies that were approved by board-certified neuropathologists. Of those, 552 had undergone ex vivo imaging. The gene expression analysis was limited to 174 individuals with both imaging and brain RNA sequencing data. The DNA methylation analysis was limited to 225 individuals with both imaging and brain methylation data. Maps of ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation were generated using fast spin echo imaging. The target was a composite measure of the transverse relaxation rate (R2) that was associated with cognitive decline after controlling for common neuropathologic conditions. Next-generation RNA sequencing and DNA methylation data were generated using frozen tissue from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Genome-wide association analysis was used to investigate gene expression and, separately, DNA methylation for signals associated with the R2 measure. Of the 552 individuals with ex vivo imaging data, 394 were women and 158 were men, and the mean (SD) age at death was 90.4 (6.0) years. Four co-expressed genes (PADI2 [Ensembl ENSG00000117115], ZNF385A [Ensembl ENSG00000161642], PSD2 [Ensembl ENSG00000146005], and A2ML1 [Ensembl ENSG00000166535]) were

  13. Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake on FDG PET are associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyun Yeol; Jun, Sung Min; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake are sometimes observed on fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We investigated the potential clinical significance of this uptake pattern related to metabolic syndrome (MS). We retrospectively reviewed data from 264 consecutive males who had undergone general health check-ups, including FDG PET/CT scans. After an overnight fast, the men had their peripheral blood drawn and the levels of various laboratory parameters measured; an FDG PET/CT scan was performed on the same day. We measured the maximum standardized uptake values of the brain and liver from regions of interest manually placed over the frontal cortex at the level of the centrum semiovale and the right lobe of the liver parenchyma, respectively. Fasting blood glucose (FBG; odds ratio [OR] = 1.063, p < 0.001) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; OR = 3.634, p = 0.010) were the strongest predictive factors for low brain FDG uptake, whereas waist circumference (OR = 1.200, p < 0.001) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (OR = 1.012, p = 0.001) were the strongest predictive factors for high liver uptake. Eleven subjects (4.2%) showed concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake, and all but one of these subjects (90.9%) had MS. Systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, FBG, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance (measured by homeostasis model assessment), insulin, HbA1c, and body mass index were higher in subjects with this FDG uptake pattern than in those without (all, p < 0.001). Concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake were closely associated with MS. Moreover, subjects with this pattern had higher values for various cardiovascular risk factors than did those without

  14. Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake on FDG PET are associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Yeol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Sung Min [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake are sometimes observed on fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We investigated the potential clinical significance of this uptake pattern related to metabolic syndrome (MS). We retrospectively reviewed data from 264 consecutive males who had undergone general health check-ups, including FDG PET/CT scans. After an overnight fast, the men had their peripheral blood drawn and the levels of various laboratory parameters measured; an FDG PET/CT scan was performed on the same day. We measured the maximum standardized uptake values of the brain and liver from regions of interest manually placed over the frontal cortex at the level of the centrum semiovale and the right lobe of the liver parenchyma, respectively. Fasting blood glucose (FBG; odds ratio [OR] = 1.063, p < 0.001) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; OR = 3.634, p = 0.010) were the strongest predictive factors for low brain FDG uptake, whereas waist circumference (OR = 1.200, p < 0.001) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (OR = 1.012, p = 0.001) were the strongest predictive factors for high liver uptake. Eleven subjects (4.2%) showed concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake, and all but one of these subjects (90.9%) had MS. Systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, FBG, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance (measured by homeostasis model assessment), insulin, HbA1c, and body mass index were higher in subjects with this FDG uptake pattern than in those without (all, p < 0.001). Concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake were closely associated with MS. Moreover, subjects with this pattern had higher values for various cardiovascular risk factors than did those without.

  15. Oxidative Glial Cell Damage Associated with White Matter Lesions in the Aging Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashhadi, Sufana; Simpson, Julie E; Heath, Paul R; Dickman, Mark; Forster, Gillian; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are common in brain aging and are associated with dementia. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative DNA damage and occur in WML and in apparently normal white matter in cases with lesions. Tissue from WML and control white matter from brains with lesions (controls lesional) and without lesions (controls non-lesional) were obtained, using post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging-guided sampling, from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Oxidative damage was assessed by immunohistochemistry to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxoguanosine (8-OHdG) and Western blotting for malondialdehyde. DNA response was assessed by phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), p53, senescence markers and by quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) panel for candidate DNA damage-associated genes. 8-OHdG was expressed in glia and endothelium, with increased expression in both WML and controls lesional compared with controls non-lesional (P glial dysfunction. Their expression in apparently normal white matter in cases with WML suggests that white matter dysfunction is not restricted to lesions. The role of this field-effect lesion pathogenesis and cognitive impairment are areas to be defined. © 2014 The Authors. Brain Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Neuropathology.

  16. Brain-like associative learning using a nanoscale non-volatile phase change synaptic device array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukru Burc Eryilmaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience together with nanoscale electronic device technology have resulted in huge interests in realizing brain-like computing hardwares using emerging nanoscale memory devices as synaptic elements. Although there has been experimental work that demonstrated the operation of nanoscale synaptic element at the single device level, network level studies have been limited to simulations. In this work, we demonstrate, using experiments, array level associative learning using phase change synaptic devices connected in a grid like configuration similar to the organization of the biological brain. Implementing Hebbian learning with phase change memory cells, the synaptic grid was able to store presented patterns and recall missing patterns in an associative brain-like fashion. We found that the system is robust to device variations, and large variations in cell resistance states can be accommodated by increasing the number of training epochs. We illustrated the tradeoff between variation tolerance of the network and the overall energy consumption, and found that energy consumption is decreased significantly for lower variation tolerance.

  17. Increased determinism in brain electrical activity occurs in association with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, Simona; Minagar, Alireza; Chesson, Andrew L; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Increased determinism (decreased complexity) of brain electrical activity has been associated with some brain diseases. Our objective was to determine whether a similar association occurred for multiple sclerosis (MS). Ten subjects with a relapsing-remitting course of MS who were in remission were studied; the controls were age- and gender-matched clinically normal subjects. Recurrence plots were calculated using representative electroencephalogram (EEG) epochs (1-7 seconds) from six derivations; the plots were quantified using the nonlinear variables percent recurrence (%R) and percent determinism (%D). The results were averaged over all derivations for each participant, and the means were compared between the groups. As a linear control procedure the groups were also compared using spectral analysis. The mean±SD of %R for the MS subjects was 6·6±1·3%, compared with 5·1±1·3% in the normal group (P = 0·017), indicating that brain activity in the subjects with MS was less complex, as hypothesized. The groups were not distinguishable using %D or spectral analysis. Taken together with our earlier report that %R could be used to discriminate between MS and normal subjects based on the ability to exhibit evoked potentials, the evidence suggests that complexity analysis of the EEG has potential for development as a diagnostic test for MS.

  18. Analyzing the association between functional connectivity of the brain and intellectual performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Gustavo S. P.; Santos Neto, Gérson S.; Rosset, Sara R. E.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Salmon, Carlos E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of functional connectivity support the hypothesis that the brain is composed of distinct networks with anatomically separated nodes but common functionality. A few studies have suggested that intellectual performance may be associated with greater functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and enhanced global efficiency. In this fMRI study, we performed an exploratory analysis of the relationship between the brain's functional connectivity and intelligence scores derived from the Portuguese language version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) in a sample of 29 people, born and raised in Brazil. We examined functional connectivity between 82 regions, including graph theoretic properties of the overall network. Some previous findings were extended to the Portuguese-speaking population, specifically the presence of small-world organization of the brain and relationships of intelligence with connectivity of frontal, pre-central, parietal, occipital, fusiform and supramarginal gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Verbal comprehension was associated with global network efficiency, a new finding. PMID:25713528

  19. Analyzing the association between functional connectivity of the brain and intellectual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Santo Pedro Pamplona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of functional connectivity support the hypothesis that the brain is composed of distinct networks with anatomically separated nodes but common functionality. A few studies have suggested that intellectual performance may be associated with greater functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and enhanced global efficiency. In this fMRI study, we performed an exploratory analysis of the relationship between the brain's functional connectivity and intelligence scores derived from the Portuguese language version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III in a sample of 29 people, born and raised in Brazil. We examined functional connectivity between 82 regions, including graph theoretic properties of the overall network. Some previous findings were extended to the Portuguese-speaking population, specifically the presence of small-world organization of the brain and relationships of intelligence with connectivity of frontal, pre-central, parietal, occipital, fusiform and supramarginal gyrus and caudate nucleus. Verbal comprehension was associated with global network efficiency, a new finding.

  20. Plasmalemmal Vesicle Associated Protein-1 (PV-1 is a marker of blood-brain barrier disruption in rodent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarina S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein-1 (PV-1 is selectively expressed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells derived from clinical specimens of primary and secondary malignant brain tumors, cerebral ischemia, and other central nervous system (CNS diseases associated with blood-brain barrier breakdown. In this study, we characterize the murine CNS expression pattern of PV-1 to determine whether localized PV-1 induction is conserved across species and disease state. Results We demonstrate that PV-1 is selectively upregulated in mouse blood vessels recruited by brain tumor xenografts at the RNA and protein levels, but is not detected in non-neoplastic brain. Additionally, PV-1 is induced in a mouse model of acute ischemia. Expression is confined to the cerebovasculature within the region of infarct and is temporally regulated. Conclusion Our results confirm that PV-1 is preferentially induced in the endothelium of mouse brain tumors and acute ischemic brain tissue and corresponds to blood-brain barrier disruption in a fashion analogous to human patients. Characterization of PV-1 expression in mouse brain is the first step towards development of rodent models for testing anti-edema and anti-angiogenesis therapeutic strategies based on this molecule.

  1. Increased resistin in brain dead organ donors is associated with delayed graft function after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Resistin increases during several inflammatory diseases and after intracerebral bleeding or head trauma. Resistin activates the endothelium and may initiate an inflammatory response. No data are available on resistin in brain dead donors (DBD) that regularly manifest a pronounced inflammatory state. Methods We analyzed plasma resistin in 63 DBDs and correlated results with donor variables and the postoperative course following kidney transplantation using organs from these donors. Endocan and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were also studied. Twenty-six live kidney donors (LD) and the corresponding kidney transplantations were used as controls. Results DBDs had higher resistin (median/range 30.75 ng/ml, 5.41–173.6) than LD (7.71 ng/ml, 2.41–15.74, p organ retrieval are associated with DGF after kidney transplantation. The resistin increase seems related to the inflammatory state after brain death but not to the cause of death. PMID:24070260

  2. Polycystic brain (cerebrum polycystica vera) associated with ectodermal dysplasia: a new neurocutaneous syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R.N. (Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey))

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents a unique case of true polycystic brain in which multiple cysts of curvilinear, round, oval, or layered configuration occurred. These apparently represented extremely dilated Virchow-Robin spaces: the perivascular spaces lined by ependymal/leptomeningeal cells. Irregular retinal pigment epithelium was also evident. In addition, the patient showed ectodermal dysplasia manifesting as thin hair, dystrophic nails, and dental abnormalities. A common ectodermal origin for the brain cysts and the ectodermal changes is proposed, as it is known that the central nervous system (including the ependymal/leptomeningeal cells and the retinal cells), the epidermis (including hair and nails), and the enamel of the teeth have the same origin - the embryonic ectoderm. This association appears to be a new, distinct neurocutaneous syndrome. (orig.)

  3. The association of functional oral intake and pneumonia in patients with severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Larsen, Klaus; Engberg, Aase Worså

    Abstract Objective(s): This study investigates the incidence and onset time of pneumonia for patients with severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in the early phase of rehabilitation, and identifies parameters associated with the risk of pneumonia. Design: Observational retrospective cohort study....... Setting: A subacute rehabilitation department, university hospital, Denmark. Participants: One-hundred and seventy-three patients aged 16-65 years with severe TBI admitted over a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the Brain Injury Unit (BIU) as soon as they ventilate spontaneously. Intervention......: None Main Outcome Measure(s): Pneumonia. Results: Twenty-seven percent (27%) of the patients admitted to the BIU were in treatment for pneumonia and 12% developed pneumonia during rehabilitation, all but one within 19 days of admission. Of these patients, 81% received nothing by mouth. Three factors...

  4. Polycystic brain (cerebrum polycystica vera) associated with ectodermal dysplasia: a new neurocutaneous syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a unique case of true polycystic brain in which multiple cysts of curvilinear, round, oval, or layered configuration occurred. These apparently represented extremely dilated Virchow-Robin spaces: the perivascular spaces lined by ependymal/leptomeningeal cells. Irregular retinal pigment epithelium was also evident. In addition, the patient showed ectodermal dysplasia manifesting as thin hair, dystrophic nails, and dental abnormalities. A common ectodermal origin for the brain cysts and the ectodermal changes is proposed, as it is known that the central nervous system (including the ependymal/leptomeningeal cells and the retinal cells), the epidermis (including hair and nails), and the enamel of the teeth have the same origin - the embryonic ectoderm. This association appears to be a new, distinct neurocutaneous syndrome. (orig.)

  5. An Aminopyridazine Inhibitor of Death Associated Protein Kinase Attenuates Hypoxia-Ischemia Induced Brain Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velentza, A.V.; Wainwright, M.S.; Zasadzki, M.; Mirzoeva, S.; Haiech, J.; Focia, P.J.; Egli, M.; Watterson, D.M.

    2010-03-08

    Death associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a calcium and calmodulin regulated enzyme that functions early in eukaryotic programmed cell death, or apoptosis. To validate DAPK as a potential drug discovery target for acute brain injury, the first small molecule DAPK inhibitor was synthesized and tested in vivo. A single injection of the aminopyridazine-based inhibitor administered 6 h after injury attenuated brain tissue or neuronal biomarker loss measured, respectively, 1 week and 3 days later. Because aminopyridazine is a privileged structure in neuropharmacology, we determined the high-resolution crystal structure of a binary complex between the kinase domain and a molecular fragment of the DAPK inhibitor. The co-crystal structure describes a structural basis for interaction and provides a firm foundation for structure-assisted design of lead compounds with appropriate molecular properties for future drug development.

  6. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brandon L.; Simon, Jeremy M.; McCoy, Eric S.; Salazar, Gabriela; Fragola, Giulia; Zylka, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors, including pesticides, have been linked to autism and neurodegeneration risk using retrospective epidemiological studies. Here we sought to prospectively identify chemicals that share transcriptomic signatures with neurological disorders, by exposing mouse cortical neuron-enriched cultures to hundreds of chemicals commonly found in the environment and on food. We find that rotenone, a pesticide associated with Parkinson's disease risk, and certain fungicides, including pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone, produce transcriptional changes in vitro that are similar to those seen in brain samples from humans with autism, advanced age and neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease). These chemicals stimulate free radical production and disrupt microtubules in neurons, effects that can be reduced by pretreating with a microtubule stabilizer, an antioxidant, or with sulforaphane. Our study provides an approach to prospectively identify environmental chemicals that transcriptionally mimic autism and other brain disorders. PMID:27029645

  7. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Haijma, Sander V; Schnack, Hugo G; Cahn, Wiepke; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2015-08-01

    Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time. Case-control longitudinal study at the Department of Psychiatry at the University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, comparing patients with schizophrenia and healthy control participants between September 22, 2004, and April 17, 2008. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and IQ scores were obtained at baseline and the 3-year follow-up. Participants included 84 patients with schizophrenia (mean illness duration, 4.35 years) and 116 age-matched healthy control participants. Associations between changes in IQ and the total brain, cerebral gray matter, cerebral white matter, lateral ventricular, third ventricles, cortical, and subcortical volumes; cortical thickness; and cortical surface area. Cerebral gray matter volume (P = .006) and cortical volume (P = .03) and thickness (P = .02) decreased more in patients with schizophrenia across time compared with control participants. Patients showed additional loss in cortical volume and thickness of the right supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, left supramarginal, left postcentral, and occipital regions (P values were between IQ increased similarly in patients with schizophrenia and control participants, changes in IQ were negatively correlated with changes in lateral ventricular volume (P = .05) and positively correlated with changes in cortical volume (P = .007) and thickness (P = .004) only in patients with schizophrenia. Positive correlations between changes in IQ and cortical volume and thickness were found globally and in widespread regions across frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices (P values were between <.001 and .03 after clusterwise correction). These findings were independent of symptom

  8. Project Career: Perceived benefits of iPad apps among college students with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K; Leopold, A; Hendricks, D J; Sampson, E; Nardone, A; Lopez, K B; Rumrill, P; Stauffer, C; Elias, E; Scherer, M; Dembe, J

    2017-09-14

    Project Career is an interprofessional five-year development project designed to improve academic and employment success of undergraduate students with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) at two- and four-year colleges and universities. Students receive technology in the form of iPad applications ("apps") to support them in and out of the classroom. To assess participants' perspectives on technology at baseline and perceived benefit of apps after 6 and 12 months of use. This article address a component of a larger study. Participants included 50 college-aged students with traumatic brain injuries. Statistical analysis included data from two Matching Person and Technology (MPT) assessment forms, including the Survey of Technology Use at baseline and the Assistive Technology Use Follow-Up Survey: Apps Currently Using, administered at 6- and 12-months re-evaluation. Analyses included frequencies and descriptives. Average scores at baseline indicated positive perspectives on technology. At 6 months, quality of life (67%) and academics (76%) improved moderately or more from the use of iPad apps. At 12 months, quality of life (65%) and academics (82%) improved moderately or more from the use of iPad apps. Students with a TBI have positive perspectives on technology use. The results on perceived benefit of apps indicated that students with a TBI (including civilians and veterans) report that the apps help them perform in daily life and academic settings.

  9. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis associated with brain tuberculomas during pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Berisha, Arieta Zogaj

    2017-06-29

    Tuberculous meningitis is globally highly prevalent and is commoner in resource-limited countries and in patients with immunosuppression. Central nervous system tuberculosis is one of the severest forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis during pregnancy and associated brain tuberculomas have been rarely reported. With the availability of neuroimaging at our hospital center, we present the first case of tuberculous meningoencephalitis associated with brain tuberculomas during pregnancy. In this case report we present a 25-year-old, Albanian, pregnant woman living in an urban area in Kosovo, who at 24 weeks of twin pregnancy manifested signs and symptoms of meningoencephalitis with decreased level of consciousness, hemiparesis, and generalized recurrent seizures. Based on medical history, origin from a region of high prevalence of tuberculosis, clinical presentation, especially neurological examination, cytobiochemical changes in cerebrospinal fluid (mild mononuclear pleocytosis with decreased level of glucose and elevated proteins), and elevated level of interferon-gamma release assay in cerebrospinal fluid, antituberculous therapy was initiated on the fourth day of admission. After 3 weeks of treatment, at 27 weeks of pregnancy, she had a preterm delivery and both twins, with low birthweight, died after 24 and 72 hours. Although findings on chest radiography were normal, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of meningoencephalitis and multiple intracerebral tuberculomas, while Koch's bacillus was isolated from urine cultures. On long-term follow-up after delivery, she was cured with no sequelae and became pregnant again without any additional complications. In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, screening for central nervous system tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of meningitis in pregnancy. Cerebral imaging is essential to establish the diagnosis of brain tuberculomas in such a case of suspected tuberculous

  10. Morphology of subcortical brain nuclei is associated with autonomic function in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffle, James K; Coen, Steven J; Giampietro, Vincent; Williams, Steven C R; Apkarian, A Vania; Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

    2018-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a brain body interface which serves to maintain homeostasis by influencing a plethora of physiological processes, including metabolism, cardiorespiratory regulation and nociception. Accumulating evidence suggests that ANS function is disturbed in numerous prevalent clinical disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. While the brain is a central hub for regulating autonomic function, the association between resting autonomic activity and subcortical morphology has not been comprehensively studied and thus was our aim. In 27 healthy subjects [14 male and 13 female; mean age 30 years (range 22-53 years)], we quantified resting ANS function using validated indices of cardiac sympathetic index (CSI) and parasympathetic cardiac vagal tone (CVT). High resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired, and differences in subcortical nuclei shape, that is, 'deformation', contingent on resting ANS activity were investigated. CSI positively correlated with outward deformation of the brainstem, right nucleus accumbens, right amygdala and bilateral pallidum (all thresholded to corrected P right amygdala and pallidum (all thresholded to corrected P Left and right putamen volume positively correlated with CVT (r = 0.62, P = 0.0047 and r = 0.59, P = 0.008, respectively), as did the brainstem (r = 0.46, P = 0.049). These data provide novel evidence that resting autonomic state is associated with differences in the shape and volume of subcortical nuclei. Thus, subcortical morphological brain differences in various disorders may partly be attributable to perturbation in autonomic function. Further work is warranted to investigate these findings in clinical populations. Hum Brain Mapp 39:381-392, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Alterations in Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Possible Association with Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junkai; Fan, Yunli; Dong, Yue; Ma, Mengying; Ma, Yi; Dong, Yuru; Niu, Yajuan; Jiang, Yin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Zhiyan; Wu, Liuzhen; Sun, Hongqiang; Cui, Cailian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have documented that heightened impulsivity likely contributes to the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorders. However, there is still a lack of studies that comprehensively detected the brain changes associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol addicts. This study was designed to investigate the alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol dependent patients. Brain structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data as well as impulsive behavior data were collected from 20 alcohol dependent patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls respectively. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the differences of grey matter volume, and tract-based spatial statistics was used to detect abnormal white matter regions between alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls. The alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in alcohol dependent patients were examined using selected brain areas with gray matter deficits as seed regions. Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependent patients had significantly reduced gray matter volume in the mesocorticolimbic system including the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the putamen, decreased fractional anisotropy in the regions connecting the damaged grey matter areas driven by higher radial diffusivity value in the same areas and decreased resting-state functional connectivity within the reward network. Moreover, the gray matter volume of the left medial prefrontal cortex exhibited negative correlations with various impulse indices. These findings suggest that chronic alcohol dependence could cause a complex neural changes linked to abnormal impulsivity.

  12. Associative learning in humans--conditioning of sensory-evoked brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrandies, W; Jedynak, A

    2000-01-01

    A classical conditioning paradigm was employed in two experiments performed on 35 human volunteers. In nine subjects, the presentation of Landolt rings (conditioned stimuli, CS + ) was paired with an electric stimulus (unconditioned stimuli, UCS) applied to the left median nerve. Neutral visual control stimuli were full circles (CS -) that were not paired with the UCS. The skin conductance response (SCR) was determined in a time interval of 5 s after onset of the visual stimuli, and it was measured in the acquisition and test phase. Associative learning was reflected by a SCR occurring selectively with CS +. The same experiment was repeated with another group of 26 adults while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 30 electrodes. For each subject, mean evoked potentials were computed. In 13 of the subjects, a conditioning paradigm was followed while the other subjects served as the control group (non-contingent stimulation). There were somatosensory and visual brain activity evoked by the stimuli. Conditioned components were identified by computing cross-correlation between evoked somatosensory components and the averaged EEG. In the visual evoked brain activity, three components with mean latencies of 105.4, 183.2, and 360.3 ms were analyzed. Somatosensory stimuli were followed by major components that occurred at mean latencies of 48.8, 132.5, 219.7, 294.8, and 374.2 ms latency after the shock. All components were analyzed in terms of latency, field strength, and topographic characteristics, and were compared between groups and experimental conditions. Both visual and somatosensory brain activity was significantly affected by classical conditioning. Our data illustrate how associative learning affects the topography of brain electrical activity elicited by presentation of conditioned visual stimuli.

  13. Brain Connectivity Alterations Are Associated with the Development of Dementia in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Josie-Anne; McIntosh, Anthony R; Postuma, Ronald B; Kovacevic, Natasha; Latreille, Véronique; Panisset, Michel; Chouinard, Sylvain; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Dementia affects a high proportion of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and poses a burden on caregivers and healthcare services. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a common nonevasive and nonexpensive technique that can easily be used in clinical settings to identify brain functional abnormalities. Only few studies had identified EEG abnormalities that can predict PD patients at higher risk for dementia. Brain connectivity EEG measures, such as multiscale entropy (MSE) and phase-locking value (PLV) analyses, may be more informative and sensitive to brain alterations leading to dementia than previously used methods. This study followed 62 dementia-free PD patients for a mean of 3.4 years to identify cerebral alterations that are associated with dementia. Baseline resting state EEG of patients who developed dementia (N = 18) was compared to those of patients who remained dementia-free (N = 44) and of 37 healthy subjects. MSE and PLV analyses were performed. Partial least squares statistical analysis revealed group differences associated with the development of dementia. Patients who developed dementia showed higher signal complexity and lower PLVs in low frequencies (mainly in delta frequency) than patients who remained dementia-free and controls. Conversely, both patient groups showed lower signal variability and higher PLVs in high frequencies (mainly in gamma frequency) compared to controls, with the strongest effect in patients who developed dementia. These findings suggest that specific disruptions of brain communication can be measured before PD patients develop dementia, providing a new potential marker to identify patients at highest risk of developing dementia and who are the best candidates for neuroprotective trials.

  14. Association between right-to-left shunts and brain lesions in sport divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerriets, Tibo; Tetzlaff, Kay; Hutzelmann, Alfred; Liceni, Thomas; Kopiske, Gerrit; Struck, Niklas; Reuter, Michael; Kaps, Manfred

    2003-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that healthy sport divers may develop clinically silent brain damage, based on the association between a finding of multiple brain lesions on MRI and the presence of right-to-left shunt, a pathway for venous gas bubbles to enter the arterial system. We performed echocontrast transcranial Doppler sonography in 42 sport divers to determine the presence of a right-to-left shunt. Cranial MRI was carried out using a 1.5 T magnet. A lesion was counted if it was hyperintense on both T2-weighted and T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences. To test the hypothesis that the occurrence of postdive arterial gas emboli is related to brain lesions on MRI, we measured postdive intravascular bubbles in a subset of 15 divers 30 min after open water scuba dives. Echocontrast transcranial Doppler sonography revealed a right-to-left shunt in 16 of the divers (38%). Only one hyperintensive lesion of the central white matter was found and that was in a diver with no evidence of a right-to-left shunt. Postdive arterial gas emboli were detected in 3 out of 15 divers; they had a right-to-left shunt, but no pathologic findings on cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Our data support the theory that right-to-left shunts can serve as a pathway for venous gas bubbles into the arterial circulation. However, we could not confirm an association between brain lesions and the presence of a right-to-left shunt in sport divers.

  15. Leptin is associated with exaggerated brain reward and emotion responses to food images in adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Lacadie, Cheryl; Seo, Dongju; Kubat, Jessica; Van Name, Michelle A; Giannini, Cosimo; Savoye, Mary; Constable, R Todd; Sherwin, Robert S; Caprio, Sonia; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-11-01

    In the U.S., an astonishing 12.5 million children and adolescents are now obese, predisposing 17% of our nation's youth to metabolic complications of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Adolescent obesity has tripled over the last three decades in the setting of food advertising directed at children. Obese adults exhibit increased brain responses to food images in motivation-reward pathways. These neural alterations may be attributed to obesity-related metabolic changes, which promote food craving and high-calorie food (HCF) consumption. It is not known whether these metabolic changes affect neural responses in the adolescent brain during a crucial period for establishing healthy eating behaviors. Twenty-five obese (BMI 34.4 kg/m2, age 15.7 years) and fifteen lean (BMI 20.96 kg/m2, age 15.5 years) adolescents underwent functional MRI during exposure to HCF, low-calorie food (LCF), and nonfood (NF) visual stimuli 2 h after isocaloric meal consumption. Brain responses to HCF relative to NF cues increased in obese versus lean adolescents in striatal-limbic regions (i.e., putamen/caudate, insula, amygdala) (P < 0.05, family-wise error [FWE]), involved in motivation-reward and emotion processing. Higher endogenous leptin levels correlated with increased neural activation to HCF images in all subjects (P < 0.05, FWE). This significant association between higher circulating leptin and hyperresponsiveness of brain motivation-reward regions to HCF images suggests that dysfunctional leptin signaling may contribute to the risk of overconsumption of these foods, thus further predisposing adolescents to the development of obesity and T2D. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. A National Association: Our Growth, Organizational Development and Special Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Charles M.

    The establishment of a unified voice, the development of a learned society, and the democratization of the National Art Education Association's (NAEA) governance are the three most significant changes that have occurred in the development of the NAEA since its establishment in 1947. During NAEA's foundational years, 1947-1958, many important…

  17. Factors Associated With Proximal Intracranial Aneurysms to Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael Kerin; Alsahli, Khalid; Wiedmann, Markus; Assaad, Nazih N; Heller, Gillian Z

    2016-06-01

    The risk of hemorrhage from a brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is increased when an associated proximal intracranial aneurysm (APIA) is present. Identifying factors that are associated with APIA may influence the prediction of hemorrhage in patients with bAVM. To identify patient- and bAVM-specific factors associated with APIA. We analyzed a prospective database of bAVMs for factors associated with the presence of APIA. Factors analyzed included age, sex, bAVM size, aneurysm size, circulation contributing to the bAVM, location of the aneurysm, deep venous drainage, and Spetzler-Ponce categories. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify an association with APIA. Of 753 cases of bAVM with complete angiographic surveillance, 67 (9%) were found to have APIA. Older age (continuous variable; odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.05) and posterior circulation supply to the bAVM (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.99) were factors associated with increased detection of APIA. The association of posterior circulation-supplied bAVM was not due to infratentorial bAVM location because 72% of posterior circulation APIAs were supplying supratentorial bAVM. APIAs appear to develop with time, as evident from the increased age for those with APIAs. Furthermore, they were more likely present in bAVMs supplied by the posterior circulation. This may be due to a difference in hemodynamic stress. APIA, associated proximal intracranial aneurysmbAVM, brain arteriovenous malformationDSA, digital subtraction angiographySMG, Spetzler-Martin gradeSPC, Spetzler-Ponce category.

  18. Resilience of developing brain networks to interictal epileptiform discharges is associated with cognitive outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, George M; Cassel, Daniel; Morgan, Benjamin R; Smith, Mary Lou; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Ochi, Ayako; Taylor, Margot; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter; Doesburg, Sam

    2014-10-01

    The effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on neurocognitive development in children with medically-intractable epilepsy are poorly understood. Such discharges may have a deleterious effect on the brain's intrinsic connectivity networks, which reflect the organization of functional networks at rest, and in turn on neurocognitive development. Using a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging-magnetoencephalography approach, we examine the effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on intrinsic connectivity networks and neurocognitive outcome. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the location of regions comprising various intrinsic connectivity networks in 26 children (7-17 years), and magnetoencephalography data were reconstructed from these locations. Inter-regional phase synchronization was then calculated across interictal epileptiform discharges and graph theoretical analysis was applied to measure event-related changes in network topology in the peri-discharge period. The magnitude of change in network topology (network resilience/vulnerability) to interictal epileptiform discharges was associated with neurocognitive outcomes and functional magnetic resonance imaging networks using dual regression. Three main findings are reported: (i) large-scale network changes precede and follow interictal epileptiform discharges; (ii) the resilience of network topologies to interictal discharges is associated with stronger resting-state network connectivity; and (iii) vulnerability to interictal discharges is associated with worse neurocognitive outcomes. By combining the spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging with the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography, we describe the effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on neurophysiological synchrony in intrinsic connectivity networks and establish the impact of interictal disruption of functional networks on cognitive outcome in children with epilepsy. The

  19. Chronological age and its impact on associative learning proficiency and brain structure in middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Bellani, Marcella; Ahmed, Rizwan; Dusi, Nicola; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Perlini, Cinzia; Marinelli, Veronica; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Ruggeri, Mirella; Bambilla, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The rate of biological change in middle-adulthood is relatively under-studied. Here, we used behavioral testing in conjunction with structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of chronological age on associative learning proficiency and on brain regions that previous functional MRI studies have closely related to the domain of associative learning. Participants (n=66) completed a previously established associative learning paradigm, and consented to be scanned using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related effects were investigated both across sub-groups in the sample (younger vs. older) and across the entire sample (using regression approaches). Chronological age had substantial effects on learning proficiency (independent of IQ and Education Level), with older adults showing a decrement compared to younger adults. In addition, decreases in estimated gray matter volume were observed in multiple brain regions including the hippocampus and the dorsal prefrontal cortex, both of which are strongly implicated in associative learning. The results suggest that middle adulthood may be a more dynamic period of life-span change than previously believed. The conjunctive application of narrowly focused tasks, with conjointly acquired structural MRI data may allow us to enrich the search for, and the interpretation of, age-related changes in cross-sectional samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between cognitive impairments and obsessive-compulsive spectrum presentations following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydon-Grange, Michelle; Coetzer, Rudi

    2017-01-02

    This study examined the association between self-reported obsessive-compulsive spectrum symptomatology and cognitive performance in a sample of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty-four adults with a moderate-severe TBI accessing a community brain injury rehabilitation service were recruited. Age ranged between 19 and 69 years. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing memory, executive functioning, and speed of information processing. Self-report questionnaires assessing obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits were also completed. Correlational analyses revealed that deficits in cognitive flexibility were associated with greater self-reported OC symptomatology and severity. Greater OC symptom severity was significantly related to poorer performance on a visual memory task. Verbal memory and speed of information processing impairments were unrelated to OC symptoms. Performance on tasks of memory, executive functioning, and speed of information processing were not associated with OCPD traits. Overall, results indicate that greater OC symptomatology and severity were associated with specific neuropsychological functions (i.e., cognitive flexibility, visual memory). OCPD personality traits were unrelated to cognitive performance. Further research is needed to examine the potential causal relationship and longer-term interactions between cognitive sequelae and obsessive-compulsive spectrum presentations post-TBI.

  1. Age-related reduction of adaptive brain response during semantic integration is associated with gray matter reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    Full Text Available While aging is associated with increased knowledge, it is also associated with decreased semantic integration. To investigate brain activation changes during semantic integration, a sample of forty-eight 25-75 year-old adults read sentences with high cloze (HC and low cloze (LC probability while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Significant age-related reduction of cloze effect (LC vs. HC was found in several regions, especially the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, which play an important role in semantic integration. Moreover, when accounting for global gray matter volume reduction, the age-cloze correlation in the left MFG and right IFG was absent. The results suggest that brain structural atrophy may disrupt brain response in aging brains, which then show less brain engagement in semantic integration.

  2. Low fetal hemoglobin percentage is associated with silent brain lesions in adults with homozygous sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Calvet, David; Tuilier, Titien; Mélé, Nicolas; Turc, Guillaume; Habibi, Anoosha; Abdallah, Nassim Ait; Majhadi, Loubna; Hemery, François; Edjlali, Myriam; Galacteros, Frédéric; Bartolucci, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Low %HbF is independently associated with silent WMCs on brain imaging in adults with SCD.Our results highlight the potential use of therapeutic strategies inducing HbF expression in SCD patients with silent white matter changes.

  3. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ''environmental impact statement'' is not required

  4. Sport-related structural brain injury associated with arachnoid cysts: a systematic review and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Prather, Colin T; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K; Bonfield, Christopher M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are congenital lesions bordered by an arachnoid membrane. Researchers have postulated that individuals with an AC demonstrate a higher rate of structural brain injury after trauma. Given the potential neurological consequences of a structural brain injury requiring neurosurgical intervention, the authors sought to perform a systematic review of sport-related structural-brain injury associated with ACs with a corresponding quantitative analysis. METHODS Titles and abstracts were searched systematically across the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed case reports, case series, or observational studies that reported a structural brain injury due to a sport or recreational activity (hereafter referred to as sport-related) with an associated AC were included. Patients were excluded if they did not have an AC, suffered a concussion without structural brain injury, or sustained the injury during a non-sport-related activity (e.g., fall, motor vehicle collision). Descriptive statistical analysis and time to presentation data were summarized. Univariate logistic regression models to assess predictors of neurological deficit, open craniotomy, and cystoperitoneal shunt were completed. RESULTS After an initial search of 994 original articles, 52 studies were found that reported 65 cases of sport-related structural brain injury associated with an AC. The median age at presentation was 16 years (range 4-75 years). Headache was the most common presenting symptom (98%), followed by nausea and vomiting in 49%. Thirteen patients (21%) presented with a neurological deficit, most commonly hemiparesis. Open craniotomy was the most common form of treatment (49%). Bur holes and cyst fenestration were performed in 29 (45%) and 31 (48%) patients, respectively. Seven patients (11%) received

  5. Role of Positive Parenting in the Association Between Neighborhood Social Disadvantage and Brain Development Across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Pantelis, Christos; Sheeber, Lisa; Byrne, Michelle L; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-08-01

    The negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on lifelong functioning are pronounced, with some evidence suggesting that these effects are mediated by changes in brain development. To our knowledge, no research has investigated whether parenting might buffer these negative effects. To establish whether positive parenting behaviors moderate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on brain development and adaptive functioning in adolescents. In this longitudinal study of adolescents from schools in Melbourne, Australia, data were collected at 3 assessments between 2004 and 2012. Data were analyzed between August 2016 and April 2017. Both family (parental income-to-needs, occupation, and education level) and neighborhood measures of socioeconomic disadvantage were assessed. Positive maternal parenting behaviors were observed during interactions in early adolescence. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 times (early, middle, and late adolescence) from ages 11 to 20 years. Global and academic functioning was assessed during late adolescence. We used linear mixed models to examine the effect of family and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage as well as the moderating effect of positive parenting on adolescent brain development. We used mediation models to examine whether brain developmental trajectories predicted functional outcomes during late adolescence. Of the included 166 adolescents, 86 (51.8%) were male. We found that neighborhood, but not family, socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with altered brain development from early (mean [SD] age, 12.79 [0.425] years) to late (mean [SD] age, 19.08 [0.460] years) adolescence, predominantly in the temporal lobes (temporal cortex: random field theory corrected; left amygdala: B, -0.237; P development of dorsal frontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortices as well as the effects of family disadvantage on the development of the amygdala (occupation: B, 0.382; P = .004; income-to-needs: B, 27

  6. Cubic Plus Association Equation of State for Flow Assurance Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Leticia Cotia; Abunahman, Samir Silva; Tavares, Frederico Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors such as methanol, ethanol, (mono) ethylene glycol (MEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) are widely used in the oil and gas industry. On modeling these compounds, we show here how the CPA equation of state was implemented in an in-house process simulator as an in......-built model: To validate the implementation, we show calulations for binary systems containing hydrate inhibitors and water or hydrocarbons using the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of states, also comparing against experimental data. For streams containing natural gas...

  7. Structural Changes after Videogame Practice Related to a Brain Network Associated with Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Solana, Ana Beatriz; Burgaleta, Miguel; Roman, Francisco J.; Privado, Jesus; Escorial, Sergio; Martinez, Kenia; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Alfayate, Eva; Garcia, Felipe; Lepage, Claude; Hernandez-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Karama, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    Here gray and white matter changes after four weeks of videogame practice were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), cortical surface and cortical thickness indices, and white matter integrity computed from several projection, commissural, and association tracts relevant to cognition. Beginning with a sample of one hundred young…

  8. Beneficial Roles of Emotion in Decision Making: Functional Association of Brain and Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Ohira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Though traditional microeconomics has supposed that human decisions are based on logical and exact computation of cost-benefit balances or efficacies, studies in behavioral economics have shown that humans sometimes make seemingly irrational decisions driven by emotions. In our everyday situations, factors related to decisions are complex and which alternative will be the most beneficial is uncertain. In such cases, emotions have been thought adaptive because they can quickly reduce negative alternatives and facilitate fast and effective decision making. Some theorists argued that one of important sources of such emotional drives affecting decision making is bodily responses that are represented in brain regions (Craig, 2009; Damasio, 1994. In this article, empirical evidence for the functional associations of the brain and body accompanying decision making will be shown as follows. (1 Heart rate responses and concentration of inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 can predict acceptance or rejection of an unfair offer in an economical negotiation game, the Ultimatum Game. Activation of the anterior insula mediates relationship between bodily states and decision making. (2 Sympathetic responses reflected by secretion of adrenaline are represented in brain regions such as the midbrain, anterior cingulate cortex, and anterior insula, and furthermore can determine exploration of decision making in a situation where an action-outcome contingency is stochastic and unstable. These findings suggest beneficial roles of emotion and bodily responses in decision making.

  9. Structural brain aberrations associated with the dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J K; Frewen, P; Theberge, J; Lanius, R A

    2016-03-01

    One factor potentially contributing to the heterogeneity of previous results on structural grey matter alterations in adult participants suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the varying levels of dissociative symptomatology. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether the recently defined dissociative subtype of PTSD characterized by symptoms of depersonalization and derealization is characterized by specific differences in volumetric brain morphology. Whole-brain MRI data were acquired for 59 patients with PTSD. Voxel-based morphometry was carried out to test for group differences between patients classified as belonging (n = 15) vs. not belonging (n = 44) to the dissociative subtype of PTSD. The correlation between dissociation (depersonalization/derealization) severity and grey matter volume was computed. Patients with PTSD classified as belonging to the dissociative subtype exhibited greater grey matter volume in the right precentral and fusiform gyri as well as less volume in the right inferior temporal gyrus. Greater dissociation severity was associated with greater volume in the right middle frontal gyrus. The results of this first whole-brain investigation of specific grey matter volume in dissociative subtype PTSD indentified structural aberrations in regions subserving the processing and regulation of emotional arousal. These might constitute characteristic biomarkers for the dissociative subtype PTSD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Tight junctions at the blood brain barrier: physiological architecture and disease-associated dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luissint Anny-Claude

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Blood–brain barrier (BBB, present at the level of the endothelium of cerebral blood vessels, selectively restricts the blood-to-brain paracellular diffusion of compounds; it is mandatory for cerebral homeostasis and proper neuronal function. The barrier properties of these specialized endothelial cells notably depend on tight junctions (TJs between adjacent cells: TJs are dynamic structures consisting of a number of transmembrane and membrane-associated cytoplasmic proteins, which are assembled in a multimolecular complex and acting as a platform for intracellular signaling. Although the structural composition of these complexes has been well described in the recent years, our knowledge about their functional regulation still remains fragmentary. Importantly, pericytes, embedded in the vascular basement membrane, and perivascular microglial cells, astrocytes and neurons contribute to the regulation of endothelial TJs and BBB function, altogether constituting the so-called neurovascular unit. The present review summarizes our current understanding of the structure and functional regulation of endothelial TJs at the BBB. Accumulating evidence points to a correlation between BBB dysfunction, alteration of TJ complexes and progression of a variety of CNS diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and brain tumors, as well as neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Understanding how TJ integrity is controlled may thus help improve drug delivery across the BBB and the design of therapeutic strategies for neurological disorders.

  11. Age-Modulated Associations between KIBRA, Brain Volume, and Verbal Memory among Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Stickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource modulation hypothesis suggests that the influence of genes on cognitive functioning increases with age. The KIBRA single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145, associated with episodic memory and working memory, has been suggested to follow such a pattern, but few studies have tested this assertion directly. The present study investigated the relationship between KIBRA alleles (T carriers vs. CC homozygotes, cognitive performance, and brain volumes in three groups of cognitively healthy adults—middle aged (ages 52–64, n = 38, young old (ages 65–72, n = 45, and older old (ages 73–92, n = 62—who were carefully matched on potentially confounding variables including apolipoprotein ε4 status and hypertension. Consistent with our prediction, T carriers maintained verbal memory performance with increasing age while CC homozygotes declined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance images showed an advantage for T carriers in frontal white matter volume that increased with age. Focusing on the older old group, this advantage for T carriers was also evident in left lingual gyrus gray matter and several additional frontal white matter regions. Contrary to expectations, neither KIBRA nor the interaction between KIBRA and age predicted hippocampal volumes. None of the brain regions investigated showed a CC homozygote advantage. Taken together, these data suggest that KIBRA results in decreased verbal memory performance and lower brain volumes in CC homozygotes compared to T carriers, particularly among the oldest old, consistent with the resource modulation hypothesis.

  12. Alexithymia is associated with attenuated automatic brain response to facial emotion in clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Kugel, Harald; Rufer, Michael; Redlich, Ronny; Dohm, Katharina; Grotegerd, Dominik; Zaremba, Dario; Dannlowski, Udo

    2016-02-04

    Alexithymia is a clinically relevant personality trait related to difficulties in recognizing and describing emotions. Previous studies examining the neural correlates of alexithymia have shown mainly decreased response of several brain areas during emotion processing in healthy samples and patients suffering from autism or post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present study, we examined the effect of alexithymia on automatic brain reactivity to negative and positive facial expressions in clinical depression. Brain activation in response to sad, happy, neutral, and no facial expression (presented for 33 ms and masked by neutral faces) was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T in 26 alexithymic and 26 non-alexithymic patients with major depression. Alexithymic patients manifested less activation in response to masked sad and happy (compared to neutral) faces in right frontal regions and right caudate nuclei than non-alexithymic patients. Our neuroimaging study provides evidence that the personality trait alexithymia has a modulating effect on automatic emotion processing in clinical depression. Our findings support the idea that alexithymia could be associated with functional deficits of the right hemisphere. Future research on the neural substrates of emotion processing in depression should assess and control alexithymia in their analyses.

  13. Intrinsic spontaneous brain activity predicts individual variability in associative memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Li, Rui; Xiao, Fengqiu; He, Rongqiao; Zhang, Shouzi; Li, Juan

    2018-04-19

    Older adults demonstrate notable individual differences in associative memory. Here, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) was used to investigate whether intrinsic brain activity at rest could predict individual differences in associative memory among cognitively healthy older adults. Regional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) analysis and a correlation-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) approach were used to analyze data acquired from 102 cognitively normal elderly who completed the paired-associative learning test (PALT) and underwent fMRI scans. Participants were divided into two groups based on the retrospective self-reports on whether or not they utilized encoding strategies during the PALT. The behavioral results revealed better associative memory performance in the participants who reported utilizing memory strategies compared with participants who reported not doing so. The fMRI results showed that higher associative memory performance was associated with greater functional connectivity between the right superior frontal gyrus and the right posterior cerebellum lobe in the strategy group. The regional ALFF values in the right superior frontal gyrus were linked to associative memory performance in the no-strategy group. These findings suggest that the regional spontaneous fluctuations and functional connectivity during rest may subserve the individual differences in the associative memory in older adults, and that this is modulated by self-initiated memory strategy use. © 2018 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Brain Activity Associated With Attention Deficits Following Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, Slim; Cheung, Yin T; Scoggins, Matthew A; Zou, Ping; Sabin, Noah D; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Ogg, Robert J; Krull, Kevin R

    2018-05-21

    The impact of contemporary chemotherapy treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on central nervous system activity is not fully appreciated. Neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were obtained in 165 survivors five or more years postdiagnosis (average age = 14.4 years, 7.7 years from diagnosis, 51.5% males). Chemotherapy exposure was measured as serum concentration of methotrexate following high-dose intravenous injection. Neurocognitive testing included measures of attention and executive function. fMRI was obtained during completion of two tasks, the continuous performance task (CPT) and the attention network task (ANT). Image analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping software, with contrasts targeting sustained attention, alerting, orienting, and conflict. All statistical tests were two-sided. Compared with population norms, survivors demonstrated impairment on number-letter switching (P < .001, a measure of cognitive flexibility), which was associated with treatment intensity (P = .048). Task performance during fMRI was associated with neurocognitive dysfunction across multiple tasks. Regional brain activation was lower in survivors diagnosed at younger ages for the CPT (bilateral parietal and temporal lobes) and the ANT (left parietal and right hippocampus). With higher serum methotrexate exposure, CPT activation decreased in the right temporal and bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, but ANT alerting activation increased in the ventral frontal, insula, caudate, and anterior cingulate. Brain activation during attention and executive function tasks was associated with serum methotrexate exposure and age at diagnosis. These findings provide evidence for compromised and compensatory changes in regional brain function that may help clarify the neural substrates of cognitive deficits in acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors.

  15. Associations between subjective sleep quality and brain volume in Gulf War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Mohlenhoff, Brian S; Weiner, Michael W; Neylan, Thomas C

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether subjective sleep quality is associated with brain volume independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Cross-sectional. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center. One hundred forty-four Gulf War Veterans (mean age 45 years; range: 31-70 years; 14% female). None. Total cortical, lobar gray matter, and hippocampal volumes were quantified from 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance images using Freesurfer version 4.5. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the association of sleep quality with total and regional brain volumes. The global PSQI score was positively correlated with lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and current depressive symptoms (P sleep quality. Poorer subjective sleep quality was associated with reduced total cortical and regional frontal lobe volumes independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Future work will be needed to examine if effective treatment of disturbed sleep leads to improved structural and functional integrity of the frontal lobes.

  16. Identifying Associations Between Brain Imaging Phenotypes and Genetic Factors via A Novel Structured SCCA Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Zhang, Tuo; Liu, Kefei; Yan, Jingwen; Yao, Xiaohui; Risacher, Shannon L; Saykin, Andrew J; Han, Junwei; Guo, Lei; Shen, Li

    2017-06-01

    Brain imaging genetics attracts more and more attention since it can reveal associations between genetic factors and the structures or functions of human brain. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) is a powerful bi-multivariate association identification technique in imaging genetics. There have been many SCCA methods which could capture different types of structured imaging genetic relationships. These methods either use the group lasso to recover the group structure, or employ the graph/network guided fused lasso to find out the network structure. However, the group lasso methods have limitation in generalization because of the incomplete or unavailable prior knowledge in real world. The graph/network guided methods are sensitive to the sign of the sample correlation which may be incorrectly estimated. We introduce a new SCCA model using a novel graph guided pairwise group lasso penalty, and propose an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method has a strong upper bound for the grouping effect for both positively and negatively correlated variables. We show that our method performs better than or equally to two state-of-the-art SCCA methods on both synthetic and real neuroimaging genetics data. In particular, our method identifies stronger canonical correlations and captures better canonical loading profiles, showing its promise for revealing biologically meaningful imaging genetic associations.

  17. The development of brain systems associated with successful memory retrieval of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofen, Noa; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Schuil, Karen D I; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2012-07-18

    Neuroanatomical and psychological evidence suggests prolonged maturation of declarative memory systems in the human brain from childhood into young adulthood. Here, we examine functional brain development during successful memory retrieval of scenes in children, adolescents, and young adults ages 8-21 via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Recognition memory improved with age, specifically for accurate identification of studied scenes (hits). Successful retrieval (correct old-new decisions for studied vs unstudied scenes) was associated with activations in frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. Activations associated with successful retrieval increased with age in left parietal cortex (BA7), bilateral prefrontal, and bilateral caudate regions. In contrast, activations associated with successful retrieval did not change with age in the MTL. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that there were, however, age-relate changes in differential connectivity for successful retrieval between MTL and prefrontal regions. These results suggest that neocortical regions related to attentional or strategic control show the greatest developmental changes for memory retrieval of scenes. Furthermore, these results suggest that functional interactions between MTL and prefrontal regions during memory retrieval also develop into young adulthood. The developmental increase of memory-related activations in frontal and parietal regions for retrieval of scenes and the absence of such an increase in MTL regions parallels what has been observed for memory encoding of scenes.

  18. Different brain structures associated with artistic and scientific creativity: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoguo; Cao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qunlin; Zhuang, Kaixiang; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-02-21

    Creativity is the ability to produce original and valuable ideas or behaviors. In real life, artistic and scientific creativity promoted the development of human civilization; however, to date, no studies have systematically investigated differences in the brain structures responsible for artistic and scientific creativity in a large sample. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study identified differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV) across the brain between artistic and scientific creativity (assessed by the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) in 356 young, healthy subjects. The results showed that artistic creativity was significantly negatively associated with the regional GMV of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In contrast, scientific creativity was significantly positively correlated with the regional GMV of the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG). Overall, artistic creativity was associated with the salience network (SN), whereas scientific creativity was associated with the executive attention network and semantic processing. These results may provide an effective marker that can be used to predict and evaluate individuals' creative performance in the fields of science and art.

  19. Abnormal metabolic brain network associated with Parkinson's disease: replication on a new European sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomse, Petra; Jensterle, Luka; Grmek, Marko; Zaletel, Katja; Pirtosek, Zvezdan; Trost, Maja; Dhawan, Vijay; Peng, Shichun; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the specific metabolic brain pattern characteristic for Parkinson's disease (PD): Parkinson's disease-related pattern (PDRP), using network analysis of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) brain images in a cohort of Slovenian PD patients. Twenty PD patients (age 70.1 ± 7.8 years, Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Motor Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS-III) 38.3 ± 12.2; disease duration 4.3 ± 4.1 years) and 20 age-matched normal controls (NCs) underwent FDG-PET brain imaging. An automatic voxel-based scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA) was applied to these scans for PDRP-Slovenia identification. The pattern was characterized by relative hypermetabolism in pallidum, putamen, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum associated with hypometabolism in sensorimotor cortex, posterior parietal, occipital, and frontal cortices. The expression of PDRP-Slovenia discriminated PD patients from NCs (p < 0.0001) and correlated positively with patients' clinical score (MDS-UPDRS-III, p = 0.03). Additionally, its topography agrees well with the original PDRP (p < 0.001) identified in American cohort of PD patients. We validated the PDRP-Slovenia expression on additional FDG-PET scans of 20 PD patients, 20 NCs, and 25 patients with atypical parkinsonism (AP). We confirmed that the expression of PDRP-Slovenia manifests good diagnostic accuracy with specificity and sensitivity of 85-90% at optimal pattern expression cutoff for discrimination of PD patients and NCs and is not expressed in AP. PDRP-Slovenia proves to be a robust and reproducible functional imaging biomarker independent of patient population. It accurately differentiates PD patients from NCs and AP and correlates well with the clinical measure of PD progression. (orig.)

  20. Leptin Receptor Deficiency is Associated With Upregulation of Cannabinoid 1 Receptors in Limbic Brain Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    THANOS, PANAYOTIS K.; RAMALHETE, ROBERTO C.; MICHAELIDES, MICHAEL; PIYIS, YIANNI K.; WANG, GENE-JACK; VOLKOW, NORA D.

    2009-01-01

    Leptin receptor dysfunction results in overeating and obesity. Leptin regulates hypothalamic signaling that underlies the motivation to hyperphagia, but the interaction between leptin and cannabinoid signaling is poorly understood. We evaluated the role of cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1R) in overeating and the effects of food deprivation on CB1R in the brain. One-month-old Zucker rats were divided into unrestricted and restricted (fed 70% of unrestricted rats) diet groups and maintained until adulthood (4 months). Levels of relative binding sites of CB1R (CB1R binding levels) were assessed using [3H] SR141716A in vitro autoradiography. These levels were higher (except cerebellum and hypothalamus) at 4 months than at 1 month of age. One month CB1R binding levels for most brain regions did not differ between Ob and Lean (Le) rats (except in frontal and cingulate cortices in Le and in the hypothalamus in Ob). Four month Ob rats had higher CB1R binding levels than Le in most brain regions and food restriction was associated with higher CB1R levels in all brain regions in Ob, but not in Le rats. CB1R binding levels increased between adolescence and young adulthood which we believe was influenced by leptin and food availability. The high levels of CB1R in Ob rats suggest that leptin's inhibition of food-intake is in part mediated by downregulation of CB1R and that leptin interferes with CB1R upregulation under food-deprivation conditions. These results are consistent with prior findings showing increased levels of endogenous cannabinoids in the Ob rats corroborating the regulation of cannabinoid signaling by leptin. PMID:18563836

  1. BDNF val66met modulates the association between childhood trauma, cognitive and brain abnormalities in psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Haukvik, Unn K; Djurovic, Srdjan; Bergmann, Ørjan; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Tesli, Martin S; Hellvin, Tone; Steen, Nils Eiel; Agartz, Ingrid; Lorentzen, Steinar; Sundet, Kjetil; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2013-10-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for brain development and plasticity, and here we tested if the functional BDNF val66met variant modulates the association between high levels of childhood abuse, cognitive function, and brain abnormalities in psychoses. 249 patients with a broad DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder were consecutively recruited to the TOP research study (mean±age: 30.7±10.9; gender: 49% males). History of childhood trauma was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed through a standardized neuropsychological test battery. BDNF val66met was genotyped using standardized procedures. A sub-sample of n=106 Caucasians with a broad DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder (mean±age: 32.67±10.85; 49% males) had data on sMRI. Carriers of the Methionine (met) allele exposed to high level of childhood abuse demonstrated significantly poorer cognitive functioning compared to homozygotic Valine (val/val) carriers. Taking in consideration multiple testing, using a more conservative p value, this was still shown for physical abuse and emotional abuse, as well as a trend level for sexual abuse. Further, met carriers exposed to high level of childhood sexual abuse showed reduced right hippocampal volume (r(2)=0.43; p=0.008), and larger right and left lateral ventricles (r(2)=0.37; p=0.002, and r(2)=0.27; p=0.009, respectively). Our findings were independent of age, gender, diagnosis and intracranial volume. Our data demonstrate that in patients with psychoses, met carriers of the BDNF val66met with high level of childhood abuse have more cognitive and brain abnormalities than all other groups. © 2013.

  2. Brain regions associated with the acquisition of conditioned place preference for cocaine vs. social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rawas, Rana; Klement, Sabine; Kummer, Kai K; Fritz, Michael; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Positive social interaction could play an essential role in switching the preference of the substance dependent individual away from drug related activities. We have previously shown that conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine at the dose of 15 mg/kg and CPP for four 15-min episodes of social interaction were equally strong when rats were concurrently conditioned for place preference by pairing cocaine with one compartment and social interaction with the other. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of brain regions related to the reward circuitry after acquisition/expression of cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP. Our findings indicate that cocaine CPP and social interaction CPP activated almost the same brain regions. However, the granular insular cortex and the dorsal part of the agranular insular cortex were more activated after cocaine CPP, whereas the prelimbic cortex and the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens were more activated after social interaction CPP. These results suggest that the insular cortex appears to be potently activated after drug conditioning learning while activation of the prelimbic cortex-nucleus accumbens core projection seems to be preferentially involved in the conditioning to non-drug stimuli such as social interaction.

  3. A World of Learning: Practical Manual. Enhancing the Multiplier Effect of the Associated Schools Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This manual presents the major lessons learned about how national authorities, individual institutions, and individual educators can work to increase the impact of the Associated Schools Project (ASP) schools and spread it to other parts of the educational system. ASP is a project of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural…

  4. Association of change in brain structure to objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Koster, A; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n = 352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline.......0007). These data suggest that objectively measured PA and SB late in life are associated with current and prior cross-sectional measures of brain atrophy, and that change over time is associated with PA and SB in expected directions. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n = 352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline...

  5. Head First PMP A Brain-Friendly Guide to Passing the Project Management Professional Exam

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Media Reviews "I have been doing project management for over 30 years and am considered a subject matter expert in the PMBOK(r) Guide -Third Edition primarily because I am the Project Manager who led the team that developed this edition. As a consultant I was hired to review and evaluate eight of the top selling PMP Exam Preparation books for their accuracy in following the PMBOK® Guide - Third Edition. I have developed and taught a PMP Exam Prep course for a leading R.E.P., and taught PMP Exam preparation classes for PMI Chapters. I can honestly say that Head First PMP is by far the best P

  6. Brain norepinephrine identified by mass spectrometry is associated with reproductive status of females of the linden bug Pyrrhocoris apterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvalová, D.; Zdechovanová, Lenka; Vaněčková, Hana; Hodková, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 1 (2014), s. 70-75 ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1612 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adult diapause * brain complex * dopamine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1096495913001796

  7. Current self-reported symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are associated with total brain volume in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hoogman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the association between total brain volume, assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, and current number of self-reported ADHD symptoms was studied. The results showed an association between these self-reported ADHD symptoms and total brain volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the symptom domain of inattention had the strongest association with total brain volume. In addition, the threshold for impairment coincides with the threshold for brain volume reduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding improves our understanding of the biological substrates of self-reported ADHD symptoms, and suggests total brain volume as a target intermediate phenotype for future gene-finding in ADHD.

  8. White matter integrity in brain networks relevant to anxiety and depression: evidence from the human connectome project dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Nele A J; Mueller, Sven C

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and depression are associated with altered communication within global brain networks and between these networks and the amygdala. Functional connectivity studies demonstrate an effect of anxiety and depression on four critical brain networks involved in top-down attentional control (fronto-parietal network; FPN), salience detection and error monitoring (cingulo-opercular network; CON), bottom-up stimulus-driven attention (ventral attention network; VAN), and default mode (default mode network; DMN). However, structural evidence on the white matter (WM) connections within these networks and between these networks and the amygdala is lacking. The current study in a large healthy sample (n = 483) observed that higher trait anxiety-depression predicted lower WM integrity in the connections between amygdala and specific regions of the FPN, CON, VAN, and DMN. We discuss the possible consequences of these anatomical alterations for cognitive-affective functioning and underscore the need for further theory-driven research on individual differences in anxiety and depression on brain structure.

  9. Exploring associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological functioning and driver behaviour after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rike, Per-Ola; Johansen, Hans J; Ulleberg, Pål; Lundqvist, Anna; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this prospective one-year follow-up study was to explore the associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological tests as well as baseline and follow-up ratings of driver behaviour. The participants were a cohort of subjects with stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were found fit to drive after a multi-disciplinary driver assessment (baseline). Baseline measures included neuropsychological tests and ratings of self-regulatory mechanisms, i.e., executive functions (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version; BRIEF-A) and impulsive personality traits (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale). The participants rated pre-injury driving behaviour on the Driver Behaviour Qestionnaire (DBQ) retrospectively at baseline and after one year of post-injury driving (follow-up). Better performance on neuropsychological tests was significantly associated with more post-injury DBQ Violations. The BRIEF-A main indexes were significantly associated with baseline and follow-up ratings of DBQ Mistakes and follow-up DBQ Inattention. UPPS (lack of) Perseverance was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inattention, whereas UPPS Urgency was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inexperience and post-injury DBQ Mistakes. There were no significant changes in DBQ ratings from baseline (pre-injury) to follow-up (post-injury). It was concluded that neuropsychological functioning and self-regulatory mechanisms are related to driver behaviour. Some aspects of driver behaviour do not necessarily change after brain injury, reflecting the influence of premorbid driving behaviour or impaired awareness of deficits on post-injury driving behaviour. Further evidence is required to predict the role of self-regulatory mechanisms on driver behaviour and crashes or near misses.

  10. PROJECTION EFFECTS IN CORONAL DIMMINGS AND ASSOCIATED EUV WAVE EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissauer, K.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Vanninathan, K. [IGAM/Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Magdalenić, J., E-mail: karin.dissauer@uni-graz.at [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence-SIDC, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Av. Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-10-20

    We investigate the high-speed ( v > 1000 km s{sup −1}) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave associated with an X1.2 flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from NOAA active region 11283 on 2011 September 6 (SOL2011-09-06T22:12). This EUV wave features peculiar on-disk signatures; in particular, we observe an intermittent “disappearance” of the front for 120 s in Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/AIA 171, 193, 211 Å data, whereas the 335 Å filter, sensitive to hotter plasmas ( T ∼ 2.5 MK), shows a continuous evolution of the wave front. The eruption was also accompanied by localized coronal dimming regions. We exploit the multi-point quadrature position of SDO and STEREO-A , to make a thorough analysis of the EUV wave evolution, with respect to its kinematics and amplitude evolution and reconstruct the SDO line-of-sight (LOS) direction of the identified coronal dimming regions in STEREO-A . We show that the observed intensities of the dimming regions in SDO /AIA depend on the structures that are lying along their LOS and are the combination of their individual intensities, e.g., the expanding CME body, the enhanced EUV wave, and the CME front. In this context, we conclude that the intermittent disappearance of the EUV wave in the AIA 171, 193, and 211 Å filters, which are channels sensitive to plasma with temperatures below ∼2 MK is also caused by such LOS integration effects. These observations clearly demonstrate that single-view image data provide us with limited insight to correctly interpret coronal features.

  11. Altered brain morphometry in carpal tunnel syndrome is associated with median nerve pathology☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Sheehan, James; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R.; Audette, Joseph; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Objective Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common median nerve entrapment neuropathy characterized by pain, paresthesias, diminished peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and maladaptive functional brain neuroplasticity. We evaluated structural reorganization in brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) and whether such plasticity is linked to altered median nerve function in CTS. Methods We performed NCV testing, T1-weighted structural MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 28 CTS and 28 age-matched healthy controls (HC). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) contrasted regional GM volume for CTS versus HC. Significant clusters were correlated with clinical metrics and served as seeds to define associated WM tracts using DTI data and probabilistic tractography. Within these WM tracts, fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were evaluated for group differences and correlations with clinical metrics. Results For CTS subjects, GM volume was significantly reduced in contralesional S1 (hand-area), pulvinar and frontal pole. GM volume in contralesional S1 correlated with median NCV. NCV was also correlated with RD and was negatively correlated with FA within U-fiber cortico-cortical association tracts identified from the contralesional S1 VBM seed. Conclusions Our study identified clear morphometric changes in the CTS brain. This central morphometric change is likely secondary to peripheral nerve pathology and altered somatosensory afference. Enhanced axonal coherence and myelination within cortico-cortical tracts connecting primary somatosensory and motor areas may accompany peripheral nerve deafferentation. As structural plasticity was correlated with NCV and not symptomatology, the former may be a better determinant of appropriate clinical intervention for CTS, including surgery. PMID:23799199

  12. A novel syndrome of lethal familial hyperekplexia associated with brain malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidahmed Mohammed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperekplexia (HPX is a rare non-epileptic disorder manifesting immediately after birth with exaggerated persistent startle reaction to unexpected auditory, somatosensory and visual stimuli, and non-habituating generalized flexor spasm in response to tapping of the nasal bridge (glabellar tap which forms its clinical hallmark. The course of the disease is usually benign with spontaneous amelioration with age. The disorder results from aberrant glycinergic neurotransmission, and several mutations were reported in the genes encoding glycine receptor (GlyR α1 and β subunits, glycine transporter GlyT2 as well as two other proteins involved in glycinergic neurotransmission gephyrin and collybistin. Methods The phenotype of six newborns, belonging to Saudi Arabian kindred with close consanguineous marriages, who presented with hyperekplexia associated with severe brain malformation, is described. DNA samples were available from two patients, and homozygosity scan to determine overlap with known hyperkplexia genes was performed. Results The kindred consisted of two brothers married to their cousin sisters, each with three affected children who presented antenatally with excessive fetal movements. Postnatally, they were found to have microcephaly, severe hyperekplexia and gross brain malformation characterized by severe simplified gyral pattern and cerebellar underdevelopment. The EEG was normal and they responded to clonazepam. All of the six patients died within six weeks. Laboratory investigations, including metabolic screen, were unremarkable. None of the known hyperkplexia genes were present within the overlapping regions of homozygosity between the two patients for whom DNA samples were available. Conclusions We present these cases as a novel syndrome of lethal familial autosomal recessive hyperekplexia associated with microcephaly and severe brain malformation.

  13. Low-frequency connectivity is associated with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Dunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI occurs from a closed-head impact. Often referred to as concussion, about 20% of cases complain of secondary psychological sequelae, such as disorders of attention and memory. Known as post-concussive symptoms (PCS, these problems can severely disrupt the patient's quality of life. Changes in local spectral power, particularly low-frequency amplitude increases and/or peak alpha slowing have been reported in mTBI, but large-scale connectivity metrics based on inter-regional amplitude correlations relevant for integration and segregation in functional brain networks, and their association with disorders in cognition and behaviour, remain relatively unexplored. Here, we used non-invasive neuroimaging with magnetoencephalography to examine functional connectivity in a resting-state protocol in a group with mTBI (n = 20, and a control group (n = 21. We observed a trend for atypical slow-wave power changes in subcortical, temporal and parietal regions in mTBI, as well as significant long-range increases in amplitude envelope correlations among deep-source, temporal, and frontal regions in the delta, theta, and alpha bands. Subsequently, we conducted an exploratory analysis of patterns of connectivity most associated with variability in secondary symptoms of mTBI, including inattention, anxiety, and depression. Differential patterns of altered resting state neurophysiological network connectivity were found across frequency bands. This indicated that multiple network and frequency specific alterations in large scale brain connectivity may contribute to overlapping cognitive sequelae in mTBI. In conclusion, we show that local spectral power content can be supplemented with measures of correlations in amplitude to define general networks that are atypical in mTBI, and suggest that certain cognitive difficulties are mediated by disturbances in a variety of alterations in network interactions which are differentially

  14. Effects of Ecballium elaterium on brain in a rat model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Demet; Ekinci, Aysun; Arici, Akgul; Bozdemir, Eda; Akil, Esref; Ozdemir, Hasan Huseyin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite recent advances in antibiotic therapy, sepsis remains a major clinical challenge in intensive care units. Here we examined the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Ecballium elaterium (EE) on brain, and explored its therapeutic potential in an animal model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) [induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)]. Thirty rats were divided into three groups of 10 each: control, sepsis, and treatment. Rats were subjected to CLP except for the control group, which underwent laparatomy only. The treatment group received 2.5 mg/kg EE while the sepsis group was administered by saline. Twenty-four hours after laparotomy, animals were sacrificied and the brains were removed. Brain homogenates were prepared to assess interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS). Brain tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) to semi-quantitatively examine the histopathologic changes such as neuron degeneration, pericellular/perivascular edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the cerebral cortex. We found a statistically significant reduction in brain tissue homogenate levels of TNF-α 59.5 ± 8.4/50.2 ± 6.2 (p = 0.007) and TOS 99.3 ± 16.9/82.3 ± 7.8 (p = 0.01) in rats treated with EE; although interleukin 6 levels were increased in the treatment group compared to the sepsis group, this was not statistically significant. Neuronal damage (p = 0.00), pericellular/perivascular edema and inflammatory cell infiltration (p = 0.001) were also significantly lower in the treatment group compared to those in the sepsis group. These data suggest that Ecballium elaterium contains some components that exert protective effects against SAE in part by attenuating accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines, which may be important contributors to its anti-inflammatory effects during sepsis. PMID:28859554

  15. Brain activations to emotional pictures are differentially associated with valence and arousal ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the neural responses triggered by emotional pictures, but the specificity of the involved structures such as the amygdala or the ventral striatum is still under debate. Furthermore, only few studies examined the association of stimuli’s valence and arousal and the underlying brain responses. Therefore, we investigated brain responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging of 17 healthy subjects to pleasant and unpleasant affective pictures with comparable arousal levels and afterwards assessed ratings of valence and arousal. As expected, unpleasant pictures strongly activated the right and left amygdala, the right hippocampus, and the medial occipital lobe, whereas pleasant pictures elicited significant activations in left occipital regions, and in parts of the medial temporal lobe. The direct comparison of unpleasant and pleasant pictures which were comparable in arousal clearly indicated stronger amygdala activation in response to the unpleasant pictures. Most important, correlational analyses revealed on the one hand that the arousal of unpleasant pictures was significantly associated with activations in the right amygdala and the left caudate body. On the other hand, valence of pleasant pictures was significantly correlated with activations in the right caudate head, extending to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. These findings support the notion that the amygdala is primarily involved in processing of unpleasant stimuli, and the stronger the more arousing the stimuli are, whereas reward-related structures like the NAcc primarily responds to pleasant stimuli, the stronger the more positive the valence of these stimuli is.

  16. Social anxiety following traumatic brain injury: an exploration of associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvis, William; Simpson, Jane; Hampson, Natalie

    2018-06-01

    Social anxiety (SA) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has the potential to affect an individual's general psychological well-being and social functioning, however little research has explored factors associated with its development. The present study used hierarchical multiple regression to investigate the demographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with SA following TBI. A sample of 85 people who experienced TBI were recruited through social media websites and brain injury services across the North-West of England. The overall combined biopsychosocial model was significant, explaining 52-54.3% of the variance in SA (across five imputations of missing data). The addition of psychological variables (self-esteem, locus of control, self-efficacy) made a significant contribution to the overall model, accounting for an additional 12.2-13% of variance in SA above that explained by demographic and clinical variables. Perceived stigma was the only significant independent predictor of SA (B = .274, p = .005). The findings suggest that psychological variables are important in the development of SA following TBI and must be considered alongside clinical factors. Furthermore, the significant role of stigma highlights the need for intervention at both an individualised and societal level.

  17. Targeted disruption of the blood-brain barrier with focused ultrasound: association with cavitation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDannold, N; Vykhodtseva, N; Hynynen, K

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic emission was monitored during focused ultrasound exposures in conjunction with an ultrasound contrast agent (Optison (registered) ) in order to determine if cavitation activity is associated with the induction of blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD). Thirty-four locations were sonicated (frequency: 260 kHz) at targets 10 mm deep in rabbit brain (N = 9). The sonications were applied at peak pressure amplitudes ranging from 0.11 to 0.57 MPa (burst length: 10 ms; repetition frequency of 1 Hz; duration: 20 s). Acoustic emission was recorded with a focused passive cavitation detector. This emission was recorded at each location during sonications with and without Optison (registered) . Detectable wideband acoustic emission was observed only at 0.40 and 0.57 MPa. BBBD was observed in contrast MRI after sonication at 0.29-0.57 MPa. The appearance of small regions of extravasated erythrocytes appeared to be associated with this wideband emission signal. The results thus suggest that BBBD resulting from focused ultrasound pulses in the presence of Optison (registered) can occur without indicators for inertial cavitation in vivo, wideband emission and extravasation. If inertial cavitation is not responsible for the BBBD, other ultrasound/microbubble interactions are likely the source. A significant increase in the emission signal due to Optison (registered) at the second and third harmonics of the ultrasound driving frequency was found to correlate with BBBD and might be useful as an online method to indicate when the disruption occurs

  18. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted. PMID:28207882

  19. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten; Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted.

  20. The prefrontal cortex in the Göttingen minipig brain defined by neural projection criteria and cytoarchitecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsing, J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Dyrby, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to delineate the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the Gottingen minipig brain the distribution of reciprocal thalamocortical projections was investigated using anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques and evaluated in relation to the specific cytoarchitectonic organization. Tracers...... the medial and rostral pole of the frontal lobe as well as the anterior cingulate, anterior insular and dorsomedial frontal cortices. Subsequently, the reciprocity and specificity of these connections were tested from injections into the traced frontal cortices indicating that the PFC has cortical...... connections to different parts of the MD nucleus. Although the granular layer IV, characteristic of primate PFC could not be identified, both cytoarchitectonic and connectional data suggests that the Gottingen minipig has a structurally divided prefrontal cortex. Stereological estimates of PFC volume showed...

  1. The Neurona at Home project: Simulating a large-scale cellular automata brain in a distributed computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, L.; Villanueva-Oller, J.; Moraño, J. A.; Villanueva, R.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) has become the standard open source solution for grid computing in the Internet. Volunteers use their computers to complete an small part of the task assigned by a dedicated server. We have developed a BOINC project called Neurona@Home whose objective is to simulate a cellular automata random network with, at least, one million neurons. We consider a cellular automata version of the integrate-and-fire model in which excitatory and inhibitory nodes can activate or deactivate neighbor nodes according to a set of probabilistic rules. Our aim is to determine the phase diagram of the model and its behaviour and to compare it with the electroencephalographic signals measured in real brains.

  2. Different populations of prostaglandin EP3 receptor-expressing preoptic neurons project to two fever-mediating sympathoexcitatory brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Nakamura, K; Morrison, S F

    2009-06-30

    The central mechanism of fever induction is triggered by an action of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) on neurons in the preoptic area (POA) through the EP3 subtype of prostaglandin E receptor. EP3 receptor (EP3R)-expressing POA neurons project directly to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and to the rostral raphe pallidus nucleus (rRPa), key sites for the control of thermoregulatory effectors. Based on physiological findings, we hypothesize that the febrile responses in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and those in cutaneous vasoconstrictors are controlled independently by separate neuronal pathways: PGE(2) pyrogenic signaling is transmitted from EP3R-expressing POA neurons via a projection to the DMH to activate BAT thermogenesis and via another projection to the rRPa to increase cutaneous vasoconstriction. In this case, DMH-projecting and rRPa-projecting neurons would constitute segregated populations within the EP3R-expressing neuronal group in the POA. Here, we sought direct anatomical evidence to test this hypothesis with a double-tracing experiment in which two types of the retrograde tracer, cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb), conjugated with different fluorophores were injected into the DMH and the rRPa of rats and the resulting retrogradely labeled populations of EP3R-immunoreactive neurons in the POA were identified with confocal microscopy. We found substantial numbers of EP3R-immunoreactive neurons in both the DMH-projecting and the rRPa-projecting populations. However, very few EP3R-immunoreactive POA neurons were labeled with both the CTb from the DMH and that from the rRPa, although a substantial number of neurons that were not immunoreactive for EP3R were double-labeled with both CTbs. The paucity of the EP3R-expressing neurons that send collaterals to both the DMH and the rRPa suggests that pyrogenic signals are sent independently to these caudal brain regions from the POA and that such pyrogenic outputs from the POA reflect different control mechanisms for BAT

  3. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, Ayyappan; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Thanseem, Ismail; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Miyachi, Taishi; Yamada, Satoru; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Matsumoto, Kaori; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2012-11-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC

  4. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Ayyappan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG, motor cortex (MC and thalamus (THL from autism patients (n=8 and controls (n=10 were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA. Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2, neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27 showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066 and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990 showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The

  5. A Genome-Wide Association Study Suggests Novel Loci Associated with a Schizophrenia-Related Brain-Based Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Hass

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia and their siblings typically show subtle changes of brain structures, such as a reduction of hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume is heritable, may explain a variety of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and is thus considered an intermediate phenotype for this mental illness. The aim of our analyses was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP related to hippocampal volume without making prior assumptions about possible candidate genes. In this study, we combined genetics, imaging and neuropsychological data obtained from the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study of schizophrenia (n = 328. A total of 743,591 SNPs were tested for association with hippocampal volume in a genome-wide association study. Gene expression profiles of human hippocampal tissue were investigated for gene regions of significantly associated SNPs. None of the genetic markers reached genome-wide significance. However, six highly correlated SNPs (rs4808611, rs35686037, rs12982178, rs1042178, rs10406920, rs8170 on chromosome 19p13.11, located within or in close proximity to the genes NR2F6, USHBP1, and BABAM1, as well as four SNPs in three other genomic regions (chromosome 1, 2 and 10 had p-values between 6.75×10(-6 and 8.3×10(-7. Using existing data of a very recently published GWAS of hippocampal volume and additional data of a multicentre study in a large cohort of adolescents of European ancestry, we found supporting evidence for our results. Furthermore, allelic differences in rs4808611 and rs8170 were highly associated with differential mRNA expression in the cis-acting region. Associations with memory functioning indicate a possible functional importance of the identified risk variants. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of a brain structure closely linked to schizophrenia. In silico replication, mRNA expression and cognitive data provide additional support for the relevance of our findings

  6. Facial Emotion Recognition Impairments are Associated with Brain Volume Abnormalities in Individuals with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Uraina S.; Walker, Keenan A.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Devlin, Kathryn N.; Folkers, Anna M.; Pina, Mathew M.; Tashima, Karen T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV− associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities. PMID:25744868

  7. Endophenotypes of Dementia Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Retired Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    depression , anxiety, and  Parkinsonism compared to veterans with cognitive impairment/ dementia  who have not  experienced a TBI, and 2) veterans with TBI...Award Number:  W81XWH‐12‐1‐0581  TITLE:   Endophenotypes of  Dementia  Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Retired Military  Personnel  PRINCIPAL...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sept 2013– 29 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Endophenotypes of  Dementia  Associated with

  8. Brain cavernomas associated with en coup de sabre linear scleroderma: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxer Ronald M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linear scleroderma is a form of localized scleroderma that primarily affects the pediatric population. When it occurs on the scalp or forehead, it is termed "en coup de sabre". In the en coup de sabre subtype, many extracutaneous associations, mostly neurological, have been described. A patient with linear scleroderma en coup de sabre was noted to have ipsilateral brain cavernomas by magnetic resonance imaging. Using a worldwide pediatric rheumatology electronic list-serve, another patient with the same 2 conditions was identified. These two patients are reported in this study. Consideration of neuroimaging studies to disclose abnormal findings in patients with linear scleroderma en coup de sabre is important for potentially preventing and treating neurological manifestations associated with this condition.

  9. Obesity is associated with high serotonin 4 receptor availability in the brain reward circuitry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, M. E.; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, K.

    2012-01-01

    in food intake, and that pharmacological or genetic manipulation of the receptor in reward-related brain areas alters food intake.Here, we used positron emission tomography in humans to examine the association between cerebral 5-HT4Rs and common obesity.We found in humans a strong positive association......The neurobiology underlying obesity is not fully understood. The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is established as a satiety-generating signal, but its rewarding role in feeding is less well elucidated. From animal experiments there is now evidence that the 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) is involved......'s food intake. They also suggest that pharmacological stimulation of the cerebral 5-HT4R may reduce reward-related overeating in humans....

  10. The Impact of Childhood Trauma on Brain Development: A Literature Review and Supporting Handouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirouac, Samantha; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on the brain and how trauma impacts brain development, structures, and functioning. A basic exploration of childhood trauma is outlined in this project, as it is essential in making associations and connections to brain development. Childhood trauma is processed in the…

  11. THE ROLE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN (MRP) IN THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER AND OPIOID ANALGESIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wendy; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2013-01-01

    The blood brain barrier protects the brain from circulating compounds and drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is involved with the barrier, both preventing the influx of agent from the blood into the brain and facilitating the efflux of compounds from the brain into the blood, raising the possibility of a similar role for other transporters. Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), a 190 kDa protein similar to Pgp is also ABC transport that has been implicated in the blood brain barrier. The current study explores its role in opioid action. Immunohistochemically, it is localized in the choroid plexus in ratsand can be selectively downregulated by antisense treatment at both the level of mRNA, as shown by RT-PCR, and protein, as demonstrated immunohistochemically. Behaviorally, downregulation of MRP significantly enhances the analgesic potency of systemic morphine in MRP knockout mice and in antisense-treated rats by lowering the blood brain barrier. Following intracerebroventricular administration, a number of compounds, including some opioids, are rapidly secreted from the brain into the blood where they contribute to the overall analgesic effects by activating peripheral systems. MRP plays a role in this efflux. Downregulating MRP expression leads to a corresponding decrease in the transport and a diminished analgesic response from opioids administered intracerebroventricularly. Thus, the transporter protein MRP plays a role in maintaining the blood-brain barrier and modulates the activity of opioids. PMID:23508590

  12. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders. PMID:23838831

  13. Implementation of Neurocritical Care Is Associated With Improved Outcomes in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Mypinder S; Gooderham, Peter; Toyota, Brian; Kherzi, Navid; Hu, Vivien; Dhingra, Vinay K; Hameed, Morad S; Chittock, Dean R; Griesdale, Donald E

    2017-07-01

    Background Traditionally, the delivery of dedicated neurocritical care (NCC) occurs in distinct NCC units and is associated with improved outcomes. Institution-specific logistical challenges pose barriers to the development of distinct NCC units; therefore, we developed a consultancy NCC service coupled with the implementation of invasive multimodal neuromonitoring, within a medical-surgical intensive care unit. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a consultancy NCC program on neurologic outcomes in severe traumatic brain injury patients. We conducted a single-center quasi-experimental uncontrolled pre- and post-NCC study in severe traumatic brain injury patients (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8). The NCC program includes consultation with a neurointensivist and neurosurgeon and multimodal neuromonitoring. Demographic, injury severity metrics, neurophysiologic data, and therapeutic interventions were collected. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 6 months was the primary outcome. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to model the association between NCC implementation and GOS at 6 months. A total of 113 patients were identified: 76 pre-NCC and 37 post-NCC. Mean age was 39 years (standard deviation [SD], 2) and 87 of 113 (77%) patients were male. Median admission motor score was 3 (interquartile ratio, 1-4). Daily mean arterial pressure was higher (95 mmHg [SD, 10]) versus (88 mmHg [SD, 10], p<0.001) and daily mean core body temperature was lower (36.6°C [SD, 0.90]) versus (37.2°C [SD, 1.0], p=0.001) post-NCC compared with pre-NCC, respectively. Multivariable regression modelling revealed the NCC program was associated with a 2.5 increased odds (odds ratios, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.3; p=0.022) of improved 6-month GOS. Implementation of a NCC program is associated with improved 6 month GOS in severe TBI patients.

  14. Role of Sertraline in insomnia associated with post traumatic brain injury (TBI depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of disability (1, 2. Sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, are very common following traumatic brain injury and have been reported in frequencies from 40% (3 to as high as 84% (4. Sleep disruption can be related to the TBI itself but may also be secondary to neuropsychiatric (e.g., depression or neuromuscular (e.g., pain conditions associated with TBI or to the pharmacological management of the injury and its consequences. Post-TBI insomnia has been associated with numerous negative outcomes including daytime fatigue, tiredness, difficulty functioning: impaired performance at work, memory problems, mood problems, greater functional disability, reduced participation in activities of daily living, less social and recreational activity, less employment potential, increased caregiver burden, greater sexual dysfunction, and also lower ratings of health, poor subjective wellbeing. These negative consequences can hamper the person’s reintegration into the community, adjustment after injury, and overall QOL. (5 The connection between depression and insomnia has not been investigated within the post TBI population to a great extent. For the general population, clinically significant insomnia is often associated with the presence of an emotional disorder (6. Fichtenberg et al. (2002 (7, in his study established that the strongest relationship with the diagnosis of insomnia belonged to depression. Given the high prevalence of depression during the first 2 years following TBI (8, a link between depression and insomnia among TBI patients makes innate sense. The present study aims at assessing role of sertralline in post TBI insomnia associated with depression.

  15. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Munck, Petriina; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  16. Cerebral Taurine Levels are Associated with Brain Edema and Delayed Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois; Ferger, Boris; Beer, Ronny; Sohm, Florian; Broessner, Gregor; Hackl, Werner; Rhomberg, Paul; Lackner, Peter; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral edema and delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) are common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and associated with poor functional outcome. Experimental data suggest that the amino acid taurine is released into the brain extracellular space secondary to cytotoxic edema and brain tissue hypoxia, and therefore may serve as a biomarker for secondary brain injury after aSAH. On the other hand, neuroprotective mechanisms of taurine treatment have been described in the experimental setting. We analyzed cerebral taurine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography in the brain extracellular fluid of 25 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring including cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Patient characteristics and clinical course were prospectively recorded. Associations with CMD-taurine levels were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with an autoregressive process to handle repeated observations within subjects. CMD-taurine levels were highest in the first days after aSAH (11.2 ± 3.2 µM/l) and significantly decreased over time (p taurine levels compared to those without (Wald = 7.3, df = 1, p taurine supplementation and brain extracellular taurine (p = 0.6). Moreover, a significant correlation with brain extracellular glutamate (r = 0.82, p taurine levels were found in patients with brain edema or DCI after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its value as a potential biomarker deserves further investigation.

  17. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Munck, Petriina; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2011-08-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children.

  18. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  19. Projections of Pain: Neonatal pain, what remains in the brain after the wheels of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. van den Bosch (Gerbrich)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) has defined ’pain’ as ‘An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage’ with the note that ‘Pain is always subjective.

  20. Mild traumatic brain injury is associated with reduced cortical thickness in those at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark W; Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Verfaellie, Mieke; Hayes, Scott M; Reagan, Andrew; Salat, David H; Wolf, Erika J; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; Miller, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses. Whole-genome polygenic risk scores for the development of Alzheimer's disease were calculated using summary statistics from the largest Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study to date. Results showed that mild traumatic brain injury moderated the relationship between genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and cortical thickness, such that individuals with mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk showed reduced cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable regions. Among males with mild traumatic brain injury, high genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease was associated with cortical thinning as a function of time since injury. A moderated mediation analysis showed that mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk indirectly influenced episodic memory performance through cortical thickness, suggesting that cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable brain regions is a mechanism for reduced memory performance. Finally, analyses that examined the apolipoprotein E4 allele, post-traumatic stress disorder, and genetic risk for schizophrenia and depression confirmed the specificity of the Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk finding. These results provide evidence that mild traumatic brain injury is associated with greater neurodegeneration and reduced memory performance

  1. Amygdaloid projections to the ventral striatum in mice: direct and indirect chemosensory inputs to the brain reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novejarque, Amparo; Gutiérrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Rodents constitute good models for studying the neural basis of sociosexual behavior. Recent findings in mice have revealed the molecular identity of the some pheromonal molecules triggering intersexual attraction. However, the neural pathways mediating this basic sociosexual behavior remain elusive. Since previous work indicates that the dopaminergic tegmento-striatal pathway is not involved in pheromone reward, the present report explores alternative pathways linking the vomeronasal system with the tegmento-striatal system (the limbic basal ganglia) by means of tract-tracing experiments studying direct and indirect projections from the chemosensory amygdala to the ventral striato-pallidum. Amygdaloid projections to the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and adjoining structures are studied by analyzing the retrograde transport in the amygdala from dextran amine and fluorogold injections in the ventral striatum, as well as the anterograde labeling found in the ventral striato-pallidum after dextran amine injections in the amygdala. This combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing experiments reveals direct projections from the vomeronasal cortex to the ventral striato-pallidum, as well as indirect projections through different nuclei of the basolateral amygdala. Direct projections innervate mainly the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja, whereas indirect projections are more widespread and reach the same structures and the shell and core of nucleus accumbens. These pathways are likely to mediate innate responses to pheromones (direct projections) and conditioned responses to associated chemosensory and non-chemosensory stimuli (indirect projections). Comparative studies indicate that similar connections are present in all the studied amniote vertebrates and might constitute the basic circuitry for emotional responses to conspecifics in most vertebrates, including humans.

  2. [Review and analysis of the review results of Taiwan nurses association nursing projects (2011~2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chih; Huang, Kuang-Chi; Huang, Jui-Lan; Lee, Tso-Ying

    2015-04-01

    Nursing projects are a key part of N4 professional competency training for nursing personnel. Low passage rates for these projects have been shown to negatively affect the intent of nursing personnel to advance further in the nursing ladder system. This study analyzes the scores for nursing projects between 2011 and 2013, the passage rate for these projects, and the differences in passage rates between different types of projects. This retrospective and descriptive study collected data on nursing projects conducted under the auspices of the Taiwan Nurses Association between 2011 and 2013. Furthermore, the comments of reviewers on 100 nursing projects were randomly selected and subjected to content analysis. A total of 3,359 nursing projects were examined. Eliminating unqualified nursing projects left a total of 3,246 projects for the dataset. A total of 1,099 projects were scored with passing grades, giving a passing rate of 33.9%. The authors of these passing projects worked primarily in northern Taiwan, worked in medical centers, and worked in intensive care departments. The projects submitted by authors in central Taiwan had the highest average score and passing rate, while those living in offshore islands had the lowest average score and passing rate. Most of the project topics belonged to the category: "improvement of nursing service skills or quality" (77.3%). Items with the lowest scores were: validation of questions, analysis of the current situation, and evaluation of results. The topics of nursing projects did not relate significantly to passing rate. However, years of experience, geographic location of hospital, level of institution, and department each had a statistically significant impact on the passage rate. A content analysis of reviewer comments was used to extract common problems. Most of the positive comments were related to the category of "literature review and reference", while most of the negative comments were related to the categories of

  3. The influence of age and mild cognitive impairment on associative memory performance and underlying brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oedekoven, Christiane S H; Jansen, Andreas; Keidel, James L; Kircher, Tilo; Leube, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Associative memory is essential to everyday activities, such as the binding of faces and corresponding names to form single bits of information. However, this ability often becomes impaired with increasing age. The most important neural substrate of associative memory is the hippocampus, a structure crucially implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main aim of this study was to compare neural correlates of associative memory in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an at-risk state for AD. We used fMRI to investigate differences in brain activation and connectivity between young controls (n = 20), elderly controls (n = 32) and MCI patients (n = 21) during associative memory retrieval. We observed lower hippocampal activation in MCI patients than control groups during a face-name recognition task, and the magnitude of this decrement was correlated with lower associative memory performance. Further, increased activation in precentral regions in all older adults indicated a stronger involvement of the task positive network (TPN) with age. Finally, functional connectivity analysis revealed a stronger link of hippocampal and striatal components in older adults in comparison to young controls, regardless of memory impairment. In elderly controls, this went hand-in-hand with a stronger activation of striatal areas. Increased TPN activation may be linked to greater reliance on cognitive control in both older groups, while increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the striatum may suggest dedifferentiation, especially in elderly controls.

  4. Replication Study of Polymorphisms Associated With Brain Arteriovenous Malformation in a Population From South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscatto, André Cerutti; Ludwig, Fernanda S; Matte, Ursula S; Mota, Simone; Stefani, Marco A

    2016-02-24

    The aim of this study was to reproducibly determine if any of the polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility to brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) or the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) presentation. We recruited 63 BAVM patients and 96 controls. The polymorphisms selected for evaluation were apolipoprotein E (APOE), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF 238G>A - rs361525), interleukin 1 beta (IL1B 511C>T - rs16944 and IL1B -31T>C - rs1143627), activin-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1 IVS3-35A>G - rs2071219), endoglin (ENG 207G>A - rs11545664), and interleukin 6 (IL6 174G>C - rs1800795). In the single analysis, we observed statistically significant differences in the allele distributions for IL1B -31T>C (rs1143627) between the BAVM patients and control subjects (P = 0.02). There was a trend toward significance for the association between the IL1B 511C>T (rs16944) allele and BAVM risk (P = 0.07). In further logistic regression analysis, no polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of BAVM. No polymorphisms were associated with hemorrhage presentation according to both single and multivariable analyses. In our sample from a south Brazil population, we found no association between the risks of BAVM and ICH presentation with any of the selected polymorphisms.

  5. Identifying factors associated with perceived success in the transition from hospital to home after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalder, Emily; Fleming, Jennifer; Foster, Michele; Cornwell, Petrea; Shields, Cassandra; Khan, Asad

    2012-01-01

    : To identify the factors associated with perceived success of the transition from hospital to home after traumatic brain injury (TBI). : Prospective longitudinal cohort design with data collection at discharge and 1, 3, and 6 months postdischarge. : A total of 127 individuals with TBI discharged to the community and 83 significant others. : An analog scale (0-100) of perceived success of the transition from hospital to home rated by individuals and significant others; Sentinel Events Questionnaire; EuroQol Group Quality-of-Life measure visual analog scale; Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale; Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4; short form of the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales; Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors; and Caregiver Strain Index. : Greater perceived success of transition for individuals with a TBI was associated with higher levels of health-related quality of life, level of community integration, and more severe injury. Among survivors, sentinel events such as returning to work and independent community access and changing living situation were associated with greater perceived success; financial strain and difficulty accessing therapy services were associated with less success. Among significant others, lower ratings of transition success were associated with higher significant other stress levels as well as lower levels of community integration and changes in the living situation of the individual with TBI. : A combination of sentinel events and personal and environmental factors influences the perceptions of individuals and their families regarding the success of the transition from hospital to home.

  6. Biological Signatures of Brain Damage Associated with High Serum Ferritin Levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Thrombolytic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Millán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Increased body iron stores have been related to greater oxidative stress and brain injury in clinical and experimental cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. We aimed to investigate the biological signatures of excitotoxicity, inflammation and blood brain barrier disruption potentially associated with high serum ferritin levels-related damage in acute stroke patients treated with i.v. t-PA.

  7. Brain Structures Associated with Internet Addiction Tendency in Adolescent Online Game Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Internet, an increasing number of adolescents play online game excessively, which leads to adverse effects on individuals and society. Previous studies have demonstrated altered gray-matter volume (GMV in individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD, but the relationship between the tendency to IGD and the GMV across whole brain is still unclear in adolescents. In the present study, anatomical imaging with high resolution was performed on 67 male adolescents who played online game; and Young’s Internet addiction test (IAT was conducted to test the tendency to IGD. FMRIB Software Library (FSL was used to calculate the voxel-based correlations between the GMV and the IAT score after controlling for the age and years of education. The GMVs of the bilateral postcentral gyri (postCG, the bilateral precentral gyri (preCG, the right precuneus, the left posterior midcingulate cortex (pMCC, the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL, and the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG were negatively correlated with the IAT score. The correlation still existed between the IAT score and the GMVs of the bilateral postCG, the left preCG, the left pMCC, and the right MFG after controlling for the total time of playing online game. When the participants were divided into two groups according to the IAT score, the GMVs of these IAT-related brain regions were lower in high IAT score subgroup (IAT score >50 than in low IAT score subgroup (IAT score ≤50. Our results suggested that the GMVs of brain regions involved in sensorimotor process and cognitive control were associated with the IGD tendency. These findings may lead to new targets for preventing and treating the IGD.

  8. Maternal insulin sensitivity is associated with oral glucose-induced changes in fetal brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Katarzyna; Schleger, Franziska; Ketterer, Caroline; Fritsche, Louise; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Hennige, Anita; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Fetal programming plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal metabolic changes during OGTT influence fetal brain activity. Thirteen healthy pregnant women underwent an OGTT (75 g). Insulin sensitivity was determined by glucose and insulin measurements at 0, 60 and 120 min. At each time point, fetal auditory evoked fields were recorded with a fetal magnetoencephalographic device and response latencies were determined. Maternal insulin increased from a fasting level of 67 ± 25 pmol/l (mean ± SD) to 918 ± 492 pmol/l 60 min after glucose ingestion and glucose levels increased from 4.4 ± 0.3 to 7.4 ± 1.1 mmol/l. Over the same time period, fetal response latencies decreased from 297 ± 99 to 235 ± 84 ms (p = 0.01) and then remained stable until 120 min (235 ± 84 vs 251 ± 91 ms, p = 0.39). There was a negative correlation between maternal insulin sensitivity and fetal response latencies 60 min after glucose ingestion (r = 0.68, p = 0.02). After a median split of the group based on maternal insulin sensitivity, fetuses of insulin-resistant mothers showed a slower response to auditory stimuli (283 ± 79 ms) than those of insulin-sensitive mothers (178 ± 46 ms, p = 0.03). Lower maternal insulin sensitivity is associated with slower fetal brain responses. These findings provide the first evidence of a direct effect of maternal metabolism on fetal brain activity and suggest that central insulin resistance may be programmed during fetal development.

  9. Brain Structures Associated with Internet Addiction Tendency in Adolescent Online Game Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Nannan; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Xin; Qi, Xin; Du, Guijin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2018-01-01

    With the development of the Internet, an increasing number of adolescents play online game excessively, which leads to adverse effects on individuals and society. Previous studies have demonstrated altered gray-matter volume (GMV) in individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD), but the relationship between the tendency to IGD and the GMV across whole brain is still unclear in adolescents. In the present study, anatomical imaging with high resolution was performed on 67 male adolescents who played online game; and Young's Internet addiction test (IAT) was conducted to test the tendency to IGD. FMRIB Software Library (FSL) was used to calculate the voxel-based correlations between the GMV and the IAT score after controlling for the age and years of education. The GMVs of the bilateral postcentral gyri (postCG), the bilateral precentral gyri (preCG), the right precuneus, the left posterior midcingulate cortex (pMCC), the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL), and the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) were negatively correlated with the IAT score. The correlation still existed between the IAT score and the GMVs of the bilateral postCG, the left preCG, the left pMCC, and the right MFG after controlling for the total time of playing online game. When the participants were divided into two groups according to the IAT score, the GMVs of these IAT-related brain regions were lower in high IAT score subgroup (IAT score >50) than in low IAT score subgroup (IAT score ≤50). Our results suggested that the GMVs of brain regions involved in sensorimotor process and cognitive control were associated with the IGD tendency. These findings may lead to new targets for preventing and treating the IGD.

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome in female patients is associated with alterations in structural brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Jennifer S; Dinov, Ivo D; Jiang, Zhiguo; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Zamanyan, Alen; Shi, Yonggang; Hong, Jui-Yang; Gupta, Arpana; Tillisch, Kirsten; Ebrat, Bahar; Hobel, Sam; Gutman, Boris A; Joshi, Shantanu; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Mayer, Emeran A

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in gray matter (GM) density/volume and cortical thickness (CT) have been demonstrated in small and heterogeneous samples of subjects with differing chronic pain syndromes, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Aggregating across 7 structural neuroimaging studies conducted at University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA, between August 2006 and April 2011, we examined group differences in regional GM volume in 201 predominantly premenopausal female subjects (82 IBS, mean age: 32±10 SD, 119 healthy controls [HCs], 30±10 SD). Applying graph theoretical methods and controlling for total brain volume, global and regional properties of large-scale structural brain networks were compared between the group with IBS and the HC group. Relative to HCs, the IBS group had lower volumes in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral insula, bilateral amygdala, bilateral hippocampus, bilateral middle orbital frontal gyrus, left cingulate, left gyrus rectus, brainstem, and left putamen. Higher volume was found in the left postcentral gyrus. Group differences were no longer significant for most regions when controlling for the Early Trauma Inventory global score, with the exception of the right amygdala and the left postcentral gyrus. No group differences were found for measures of global and local network organization. Compared to HCs, in patients with IBS, the right cingulate gyrus and right thalamus were identified as being significantly more critical for information flow. Regions involved in endogenous pain modulation and central sensory amplification were identified as network hubs in IBS. Overall, evidence for central alterations in patients with IBS was found in the form of regional GM volume differences and altered global and regional properties of brain volumetric networks. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Pilot Project of Early Integrated Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Kwaon Lui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Document acute neurosurgical and rehabilitation parameters of patients of all traumatic brain injury (TBI severities and determine whether early screening along with very early integrated TBI rehabilitation changes functional outcomes. Methods. Prospective study involving all patients with TBI admitted to a neurosurgical department of a tertiary hospital. They were assessed within 72 hours of admission by the rehabilitation team and received twice weekly rehabilitation reviews. Patients with further rehabilitation needs were then transferred to the attached acute inpatient TBI rehabilitation unit (TREATS and their functional outcomes were compared against a historical group of patients. Demographic variables, acute neurosurgical characteristics, medical complications, and rehabilitation outcomes were recorded. Results. There were 298 patients screened with an average age of 61.8±19.1 years. The most common etiology was falls (77.5%. Most patients were discharged home directly (67.4% and 22.8% of patients were in TREATS. The TREATS group functionally improved (P<0.001. Regression analysis showed by the intervention of TREATS, that there was a statistically significant FIM functional gain of 18.445 points (95% CI −30.388 to −0.6502, P=0.03. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated important epidemiological data on an unselected cohort of patients with TBI in Singapore and functional improvement in patients who further received inpatient rehabilitation.

  12. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection of brain perfusion SPECT improves diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is diagnosed by either inspection of the brain perfusion SPECT, or three-dimensional stereotactic surface display (3D-SSP). The purpose was to compare diagnostic performances of these methods. Sixteen nuclear medicine physicians independently interpreted 99m Tc-ECD SPECT in one session and SPECT with 3D-SSP in another session without clinical information for 50 studies of AD patients and 40 studies of healthy volunteers. Probabilities of AD were reported according to a subjective scale from 0% (normal) to 100% (definite AD). Receiver operating characteristics curves were generated to calculate areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (Az's) for the inspection as well as for an automated diagnosis based on a mean Z value in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri in a 3D-SSP template. Mean Az for visual interpretation of SPECT alone (0.679±0.058) was significantly smaller than that for visual interpretation of both SPECT and 3D-SSP (0.778±0.060). Az for the automated diagnosis (0.883±0.037) was significantly greater than that for both modes of visual interpretation. 3D-SSP enhanced performance of the nuclear medicine physicians inspecting SPECT. Performance of the automated diagnosis exceeded that of the physicians inspecting SPECT with and without 3D-SSP. (author)

  13. Known glioma risk loci are associated with glioma with a family history of brain tumours -- a case-control gene association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Beatrice; Dahlin, Anna M; Andersson, Ulrika; Wang, Zhaoming; Henriksson, Roger; Hallmans, Göran; Bondy, Melissa L; Johansen, Christoffer; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Kitahara, Cari M; Wang, Sophia S; Ruder, Avima M; Carreón, Tania; Butler, Mary Ann; Inskip, Peter D; Purdue, Mark; Hsing, Ann W; Mechanic, Leah; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Yeager, Meredith; Linet, Martha; Chanock, Stephen J; Hartge, Patricia; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2013-05-15

    Familial cancer can be used to leverage genetic association studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have reported independent associations between seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether glioma cases with a positive family history of brain tumours, defined as having at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of brain tumour, are associated with known glioma risk loci. One thousand four hundred and thirty-one glioma cases and 2,868 cancer-free controls were identified from four case-control studies and two prospective cohorts from USA, Sweden and Denmark and genotyped for seven SNPs previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in case-control designed studies. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours (n = 104) and control subjects free of glioma at baseline, three of seven SNPs were associated with glioma risk: rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT), rs4977756 (9p21.3, CDKN2A-CDKN2B) and rs6010620 (20q13.33, RTEL1). After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, only one marker was statistically significantly associated with glioma risk, rs6010620 (ORtrend for the minor (A) allele, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25-0.61; Bonferroni adjusted ptrend , 1.7 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, as previously shown for glioma regardless of family history of brain tumours, rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with an increased risk of glioma when restricting to cases with family history of brain tumours. These findings require confirmation in further studies with a larger number of glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  14. Assessment of intracranial vessels in association with carotid atherosclerosis and brain vascular lesions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Csaba; Kardos, Zsófia; Sepsi, Mariann; Sas, Attila; Kostyál, László; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Hodosi, Katalin; Kerekes, György; Tamási, László; Valikovics, Attila; Bereczki, Dániel; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2017-09-26

    Stroke has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assessed patients with RA and healthy control subjects by transcranial Doppler (TCD), carotid ultrasonography and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Altogether, 41 female patients with RA undergoing methotrexate (MTX) or biologic treatment and 60 age-matched control subjects underwent TCD assessment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and basilar artery. Pulsatility index (PI), resistivity (resistance) index (RI) and circulatory reserve capacity (CRC) were determined at rest (r) and after apnoea (a) and hyperventilation (h). The presence of carotid plaques and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were also determined. Intracerebral vascular lesions were investigated by brain MRI. MCA PI and RI values at rest and after apnoea were significantly increased in the total and MTX-treated RA populations vs control subjects. MCA CRC was also impaired, and basilar artery PI was higher in RA. More patients with RA had carotid plaques and increased cIMT. Linear regression analysis revealed that left PI(r) and RI(r) correlated with disease duration and that left PI(r), RI(r), PI(a), PI(h) and basilar PI correlated with disease activity. Right CRC inversely correlated with 28-joint Disease Activity Score. Disease activity was an independent determinant of left PI(a) and right CRC. Compared with long-term MTX treatment alone, the use of biologics in combination with MTX was associated with less impaired cerebral circulation. Impaired cerebral circulation was also associated with measures of carotid atherosclerosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show increased distal MCA and basilar artery occlusion in RA as determined by TCD. Patients with RA also had CRC defects. We also confirmed increased carotid plaque formation and increased cIMT. Biologics may beneficially influence some parameters in the intracranial vessels.

  15. Mesh association by projection along smoothed-normal-vector fields:association of closed manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, van E.H.

    2008-01-01

    The necessity to associate two geometrically distinct meshes arises in many engineering applications. Current mesh-association algorithms have generally been developed for piecewise-linear geometry approximations, and their extension to the high-order geometry representations corresponding to

  16. Projections of Pain: Neonatal pain, what remains in the brain after the wheels of time

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Gerbrich

    2014-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) has defined ’pain’ as ‘An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage’ with the note that ‘Pain is always subjective. Each individual learns the application of the word through experiences related to injury in early life’. Unfortunately some individuals experience pain from injuries in very early life, such as preterm born ...

  17. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N Wong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59-80 years. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA, thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function.

  18. Mesh Association by Projection along Smoothed-Normal-Vector Fields : Association of Closed Manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Brummelen, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    The necessity to associate two geometrically distinct meshes arises in many engineering applications. Current mesh-association algorithms are generally unsuitable for the high-order geometry representations associated with high-order finite-element discretizations. In the present work we therefore

  19. Aberrant brain-stem morphometry associated with sleep disturbance in drug-naïve subjects with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ji Han Lee,1 Won Sang Jung,2 Woo Hee Choi,3 Hyun Kook Lim4 1Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, Saint Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea Objective: Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD.Materials and methods: In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale. We employed magnetic resonance imaging-based automated segmentation tools to examine the relationship between sleep disturbances and changes in brain stem morphology.Results: Analyses of the data from AD subjects revealed significant correlations between the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep-subscale scores and structural alterations in the left posterior lateral region of the brain stem, as well as normalized brain stem volumes. In addition, significant group differences in posterior brain stem morphology were observed between the AD group and the control group.Conclusion: This study is the first to analyze an association between sleep disturbances and brain stem morphology in AD. In line with previous findings, this study lends support to the possibility that brain stem structural abnormalities might be important neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances associated with AD. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, sleep, brain stem, MRI, shape analysis

  20. Brain regions associated with Anhedonia in healthy adults: a PET correlation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Chul; Chun, Ji Won; Kim, Jae Jin; Park, Hae Jeong; Lee, Jong Doo; Seok, Jeong Ho

    2005-01-01

    Anhedonia has been proposed to be the result of a basic neurophysiologic dysfunction and a vulnerability marker that precede and contribute to the liability of developing schizophrenia. We hypothesized that anhedonia, as a construct reflecting the decreased capacity to experience pleasure, should be associated with decreased positive hedonic affect trait. This study examined the relationship between anhedonia and positive hedonic affect trait and searched for the brain regions which correlate with anhedonia in normal subjects. Using 18 F-FDG PET scan, we investigated the brain activity of twenty one subjects during resting state. Questionnaires were administrated after the scan in order to assess the self-rated individual differences in physical/social anhedonia and positive/negative affect traits. Negative correlation between physical anhedonia score and positive affect trait score was significant (Pearson coefficient=-0.440, ρ <0.05). The subjects' physical and social anhedonia scores showed positive correlation with metabolic rates in the cerebellum and negative correlation with metabolic rates in the inferior temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. In addition, the positive affect trait score positively correlated with various areas, most prominent with the inferior temporal gyrus. These results suggest that neural substrates, such as the inferior temporal gyrus and prefrontal-cerebellar circuit, which dysfunction has been proposed to be involved with the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, may also play a significant role in the liability of affective deficits like anhedonia

  1. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Reveals an Association between Brain Iron Load and Depression Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Yao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have detected abnormal serum ferritin levels in patients with depression; however, the results have been inconsistent. This study used quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM for the first time to examine brain iron concentration in depressed patients and evaluated whether it is related to severity. We included three groups of age- and gender-matched participants: 30 patients with mild-moderate depression (MD, 14 patients with major depression disorder (MDD and 20 control subjects. All participants underwent MR scans with a 3D gradient-echo sequence reconstructing for QSM and performed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS test. In MDD, the susceptibility value in the bilateral putamen was significantly increased compared with MD or control subjects. In addition, a significant difference was also observed in the left thalamus in MDD patients compared with controls. However, the susceptibility values did not differ between MD patients and controls. The susceptibility values positively correlated with the severity of depression as indicated by the HDRS scores. Our results provide evidence that brain iron deposition may be associated with depression and may even be a biomarker for investigating the pathophysiological mechanism of depression.

  2. Brain regions associated with Anhedonia in healthy adults: a PET correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Chul; Chun, Ji Won; Kim, Jae Jin; Park, Hae Jeong; Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Jeong Ho [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    Anhedonia has been proposed to be the result of a basic neurophysiologic dysfunction and a vulnerability marker that precede and contribute to the liability of developing schizophrenia. We hypothesized that anhedonia, as a construct reflecting the decreased capacity to experience pleasure, should be associated with decreased positive hedonic affect trait. This study examined the relationship between anhedonia and positive hedonic affect trait and searched for the brain regions which correlate with anhedonia in normal subjects. Using {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan, we investigated the brain activity of twenty one subjects during resting state. Questionnaires were administrated after the scan in order to assess the self-rated individual differences in physical/social anhedonia and positive/negative affect traits. Negative correlation between physical anhedonia score and positive affect trait score was significant (Pearson coefficient=-0.440, {rho} <0.05). The subjects' physical and social anhedonia scores showed positive correlation with metabolic rates in the cerebellum and negative correlation with metabolic rates in the inferior temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. In addition, the positive affect trait score positively correlated with various areas, most prominent with the inferior temporal gyrus. These results suggest that neural substrates, such as the inferior temporal gyrus and prefrontal-cerebellar circuit, which dysfunction has been proposed to be involved with the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, may also play a significant role in the liability of affective deficits like anhedonia.

  3. Association of obesity with cognitive function and brain structure in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Ota, Miho; Matsuo, Junko; Ishida, Ikki; Hiraishi, Moeko; Yoshida, Sumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Sato, Noriko; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Obesity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), which prompted us to examine the possible association of obesity with cognitive function and brain structure in patients with MDD. Three hundred and seven patients with MDD and 294 healthy participants, matched for age, sex, ethnicity (Japanese), and handedness (right) were recruited for the study. Cognitive function was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Gray and white matter structures were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging in a subsample of patients (n = 114) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained using a 1.5 T MRI system. Verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, attention, executive function, and BACS composite scores were lower for the MDD patients than for the healthy participants (p function, and BACS composite scores were lower in obese patients (body mass index ≥ 30, n = 17) than in non-obese patients (n = 290, p left optic radiation were reduced in obese patients (n = 7) compared with non-obese patients (n = 107, p function, reduced gray matter volume, and impaired white matter integrity in cognition-related brain areas in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-07-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Brain Activities Associated with Graphic Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activities that are associated with graphic emoticons by using functional MRI (fMRI). We use various types of faces from abstract to photorealistic in computer network applications. A graphics emoticon is an abstract face in communication over computer network. In this research, we created various graphic emoticons for the fMRI study and the graphic emoticons were classified according to friendliness and level of arousal. We investigated the brain activities of participants who were required to evaluate the emotional valence of the graphic emoticons (happy or sad). The experimental results showed that not only the right inferior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus, but also the inferior and middle temporal gyrus and the fusiform gyrus, were found to be activated during the experiment. Forthermore, it is possible that the activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus is related to the type of abstract face. Since the inferior and middle temporal gyrus were activated, even though the graphic emoticons are static, we may perceive graphic emoticons as dynamic and living agents. Moreover, it is believed that text and graphics emoticons play an important role in enriching communication among users.

  6. Exenatide Regulates Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Brain Areas Associated With Glucose Homeostasis and Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Iozzo, Patricia; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Lancaster, Jack; Ciociaro, Demetrio; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Tripathy, Devjit; Triplitt, Curtis; Fox, Peter; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) have been found in the brain, but whether GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) influence brain glucose metabolism is currently unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a single injection of the GLP-1RA exenatide on cerebral and peripheral glucose metabolism in response to a glucose load. In 15 male subjects with HbA1c of 5.7 ± 0.1%, fasting glucose of 114 ± 3 mg/dL, and 2-h glucose of 177 ± 11 mg/dL, exenatide (5 μg) or placebo was injected in double-blind, randomized fashion subcutaneously 30 min before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglu) was measured by positron emission tomography after an injection of [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose before the OGTT, and the rate of glucose absorption (RaO) and disposal was assessed using stable isotope tracers. Exenatide reduced RaO0-60 min (4.6 ± 1.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.7 μmol/min ⋅ kg) and decreased the rise in mean glucose0-60 min (107 ± 6 vs. 138 ± 8 mg/dL) and insulin0-60 min (17.3 ± 3.1 vs. 24.7 ± 3.8 mU/L). Exenatide increased CMRglu in areas of the brain related to glucose homeostasis, appetite, and food reward, despite lower plasma insulin concentrations, but reduced glucose uptake in the hypothalamus. Decreased RaO0-60 min after exenatide was inversely correlated to CMRglu. In conclusion, these results demonstrate, for the first time in man, a major effect of a GLP-1RA on regulation of brain glucose metabolism in the absorptive state. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. Problem-Solving After Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence: Associations With Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy E; Fulks, Lauren E; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O; Kurowski, Brad G

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association of problem-solving with functioning in youth with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional evaluation of pretreatment data from a randomized controlled trial. Four children's hospitals and 1 general hospital, with level 1 trauma units. Youth, ages 11 to 18 years, who sustained moderate or severe TBI in the last 18 months (N=153). Problem-solving skills were assessed using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) and the Dodge Social Information Processing Short Stories. Everyday functioning was assessed based on a structured clinical interview using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and via adolescent ratings on the Youth Self Report (YSR). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations among measures. The TBI group endorsed lower levels of maladaptive problem-solving (negative problem orientation, careless/impulsive responding, and avoidant style) and lower levels of rational problem-solving, resulting in higher total problem-solving scores for the TBI group compared with a normative sample (Pproblem-solving composites were associated with overall functioning on the CAFAS, only maladaptive problem-solving (PProblem-solving after TBI differs from normative samples and is associated with functional impairments. The relation of problem-solving deficits after TBI with global functioning merits further investigation, with consideration of the potential effects of problem-solving interventions on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinct brain metabolic patterns separately associated with cognition, motor function, and aging in Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ji Hyun; Katako, Audrey; Aljuaid, Maram; Goertzen, Andrew L; Borys, Andrew; Hobson, Douglas E; Kim, Seok Min; Lee, Chong Sik

    2017-12-01

    We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis. A multivariate network analysis then revealed 3 metabolic patterns that are separately associated with cognitive performance (p = 0.042), age (p = 0.042), and motor symptom severity (p = 0.039). The age-related pattern's association with aging was replicated in healthy controls (p = 0.047) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.002). The cognition-related pattern's association with cognitive performance was observed, with a trend-level of correlation, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (p = 0.084) but not in patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.974). We found no association with fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane and Pittsburgh compound-B positron emission tomography with patients' cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hippocampal Sclerosis of Aging, a Common Alzheimer's Disease 'Mimic': Risk Genotypes are Associated with Brain Atrophy Outside the Temporal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Saykin, Andrew J; Nelson, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a common brain disease in older adults with a clinical course that is similar to Alzheimer's disease. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously shown association with HS-Aging. The present study investigated structural brain changes associated with these SNPs using surface-based analysis. Participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort (ADNI; n = 1,239), with both MRI scans and genotype data, were used to assess the association between brain atrophy and previously identified HS-Aging risk SNPs in the following genes: GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, and KCNMB2 (minor allele frequency for each is >30%). A fifth SNP (near the ABCC9 gene) was evaluated in post-hoc analysis. The GRN risk SNP (rs5848_T) was associated with a pattern of atrophy in the dorsomedial frontal lobes bilaterally, remarkable since GRN is a risk factor for frontotemporal dementia. The ABCC9 risk SNP (rs704180_A) was associated with multifocal atrophy whereas a SNP (rs7488080_A) nearby (∼50 kb upstream) ABCC9 was associated with atrophy in the right entorhinal cortex. Neither TMEM106B (rs1990622_T), KCNMB2 (rs9637454_A), nor any of the non-risk alleles were associated with brain atrophy. When all four previously identified HS-Aging risk SNPs were summed into a polygenic risk score, there was a pattern of associated multifocal brain atrophy in a predominately frontal pattern. We conclude that common SNPs previously linked to HS-Aging pathology were associated with a distinct pattern of anterior cortical atrophy. Genetic variation associated with HS-Aging pathology may represent a non-Alzheimer's disease contribution to atrophy outside of the hippocampus in older adults.

  10. Theranostic quantum dots for crossing blood–brain barrier in vitro and providing therapy of HIV-associated encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaixia; Mahajan, Supriya; Roy, Indrajit; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2013-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a complex physiological checkpoint that restricts the free diffusion of circulating molecules from the blood into the central nervous system. Delivering of drugs and other active agents across the BBB is one of the major technical challenges faced by scientists and medical practitioners. Therefore, development of novel methodologies to address this challenge holds the key for both the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases, such as HIV-associated encephalopathy. Bioconjugated quantum dots (QDs) are excellent fluorescent probes and nano-vectors, being designed to transverse across the BBB and visualize drug delivery inside the brain. This paper discusses the use of functionalized QDs for crossing the blood–brain barrier and treating brain disease. We highlight the guidelines for using in vitro BBB models for brain disease studies. The theranostic QDs offers a strategy to significantly improve the effective dosages of drugs to transverse across the BBB and orientate to the targets inside the brain. PMID:24298256

  11. Prevalence and association of oral candidiasis with dysphagia in individuals with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Kothari, Mohit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of oral candidiasis (OC) in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) and to evaluate the association of OC with improvement in dysphagia. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Methods: Individuals with ABI admitted to rehabilitation were recruited over...... a one-year period (n=206 (59% with dysphagia). OC-data were collected by clinical examinations and verified by cultivation/microscopy in every 3 weeks during first 10 weeks of admission. . Dysphagia improvement was defined by: 1) first positive change in food consistency, 2) initiation of at least soft....... The OC prevalence was 24.8% at one week after admission and reduced to 10.1% ten weeks after admission. Adjusted hazard ratios for improvement in dysphagia were 0.64-0.77 in OC compared to without OC, though not statistically significant. Conclusion: Prevalence of OC was high at admission but reduced...

  12. Prevalence and association of oral candidiasis with dysphagia in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Kothari, Mohit

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of oral candidiasis (OC) in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) and to evaluate the association of OC with improvement in dysphagia. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Methods: Individuals with ABI admitted to a rehabilitation centre were...... recruited over a one-year period. OC-data were collected by clinical examinations and verified by cultivation/microscopy in every 3 weeks during first 10 weeks of admission. Data on dysphagia were collected through medical record reviews. Dysphagia improvement was defined by: 1) First positive change.......7%, respectively. The OC prevalence was 24.8% after one week of admission and reduced to 10.1% after ten weeks of admission. Adjusted hazard ratios for improvement in dysphagia were 0.64-0.77 in OC compared to without OC, though not statistically significant. Conclusion: Prevalence of OC was high at admission...

  13. Plasma concentration of prolactin, testosterone might be associated with brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Younghee; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Ji-Woong; Choi, Jeewook

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have showed that excess or lack of sexual hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, induced the sexual dysfunction in humans. Little, however, is known about the role of sexual hormones showing normal range in, especially, the basal state unexposed to any sexual stimulation. We hypothesized sexual hormones in the basal state may affect sexual behavior. We investigated the association of the sexual hormones level in the basal hormonal state before visual sexual stimulation with the sexual response-related brain activity during the stimulation. Twelve heterosexual men were recorded the functional MRI signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Both plasma prolacitn and testosterone concentrations were measured before functional MR scanning. A voxel wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of sexual hormones in basal state and brain activity elicited by ERO minus HA, not food minus nature, contrast. The plasma concentration of prolactin in basal state showed positive association with the activity of the brain involving cognitive component of sexual behavior including the left middle frontal gyrus, paracingulate/superior frontal/anterior cingulate gyri, bilateral parietal lobule, right angular, bilateral precuneus and right cerebellum. Testosterone in basal state was positively associated with the brain activity of the bilateral supplementary motor area which related with motivational component of sexual behavior. Our results suggested sexual hormones in basal state may have their specific target regions or network associated with sexual response.

  14. Statistical testing and power analysis for brain-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weikang; Wan, Lin; Lu, Wenlian; Ma, Liang; Cheng, Fan; Cheng, Wei; Grünewald, Stefan; Feng, Jianfeng

    2018-04-05

    The identification of connexel-wise associations, which involves examining functional connectivities between pairwise voxels across the whole brain, is both statistically and computationally challenging. Although such a connexel-wise methodology has recently been adopted by brain-wide association studies (BWAS) to identify connectivity changes in several mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism and depression, the multiple correction and power analysis methods designed specifically for connexel-wise analysis are still lacking. Therefore, we herein report the development of a rigorous statistical framework for connexel-wise significance testing based on the Gaussian random field theory. It includes controlling the family-wise error rate (FWER) of multiple hypothesis testings using topological inference methods, and calculating power and sample size for a connexel-wise study. Our theoretical framework can control the false-positive rate accurately, as validated empirically using two resting-state fMRI datasets. Compared with Bonferroni correction and false discovery rate (FDR), it can reduce false-positive rate and increase statistical power by appropriately utilizing the spatial information of fMRI data. Importantly, our method bypasses the need of non-parametric permutation to correct for multiple comparison, thus, it can efficiently tackle large datasets with high resolution fMRI images. The utility of our method is shown in a case-control study. Our approach can identify altered functional connectivities in a major depression disorder dataset, whereas existing methods fail. A software package is available at https://github.com/weikanggong/BWAS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adversity and Resilience Are Associated with Outcome after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Military Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew W; Cooper, Douglas B; Lu, Lisa H; Iverson, Grant L; Kennedy, Jan E

    2018-05-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the associations between resilience, adversity, post-concussion symptoms, and post-traumatic stress symptom reporting after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We hypothesized that resilience would be associated with less symptom reporting, and adversity would be associated with greater symptom reporting. This was a cross-sectional study of retrospective data collected for an ongoing TBI repository. United States military service members who screened positive for mTBI during a primary care visit completed the Trauma History Screen (THS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Data collected from February 2015 to August 2016 were used for the present study. Only participants with complete data for the above measures were included, yielding a sample size of 165 participants. Adversity (THS) and resilience (CD-RISC) scores were each correlated significantly with post-concussion (NSI) and traumatic stress (PCL-C) total and subscale scores in the hypothesized direction. Interactions between adversity and resilience were absent for all measures except the NSI sensory subscale. Four traumatic event types were significantly associated positively with most NSI and PCL-C total and subscale scores, but the age at which traumatic events were first experienced showed few and mixed significant associations. In conclusion, resilience and adversity were significantly associated with symptom endorsement after mTBI. Screening for cumulative adversity may identify individuals at greater risk of developing persistent post-concussion symptoms and/or PTSD, and interventions that increase resilience may reduce symptom severity.

  16. HTLV-I associated myelopathy with multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuo; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Shirou; Tarui, Seiichiro

    1988-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of urinary incontinence and gait disturbance, both of which had progressed slowly without any sign of remission. Family history was not contributory. Neurologically, extreme spasticity was recoginized in the lower limbs. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally. Flower-like atypical lymphocytes were seen in blood. Positive anti-HTLV-I antibody was confirmed in serum and spinal fluid by western blot. She was diagnosed as having HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). CT reveald calcification in bilateral globus pallidus, and MRI revealed multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem, but no spinal cord lesion was detectable. Electrophysiologically, brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) suggested the presence of bilateral brain stem lesions. Neither median nor posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked, a finding suggesting the existence of spinal cord lesion. In this case, the lesion was not confined to spinal cord, it was also observed in brain stem and cerebral white matter. Such distinct lesions in cerebral white matter and brain stem have not been reported in patients with HAM. It is suggested that HTLV-I is probably associated with cerebral white matter and brain stem.

  17. Association between resting-state brain network topological organization and creative ability: Evidence from a multiple linear regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Bingqing; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Li, Junchao; Cai, Yuxuan; Gao, Mengxia; Gao, Zhenni; Chang, Song; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated a tight linkage between resting-state functional connectivity of the human brain and creative ability. This study aimed to further investigate the association between the topological organization of resting-state brain networks and creativity. Therefore, we acquired resting-state fMRI data from 22 high-creativity participants and 22 low-creativity participants (as determined by their Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking scores). We then constructed functional brain networks for each participant and assessed group differences in network topological properties before exploring the relationships between respective network topological properties and creative ability. We identified an optimized organization of intrinsic brain networks in both groups. However, compared with low-creativity participants, high-creativity participants exhibited increased global efficiency and substantially decreased path length, suggesting increased efficiency of information transmission across brain networks in creative individuals. Using a multiple linear regression model, we further demonstrated that regional functional integration properties (i.e., the betweenness centrality and global efficiency) of brain networks, particularly the default mode network (DMN) and sensorimotor network (SMN), significantly predicted the individual differences in creative ability. Furthermore, the associations between network regional properties and creative performance were creativity-level dependent, where the difference in the resource control component may be important in explaining individual difference in creative performance. These findings provide novel insights into the neural substrate of creativity and may facilitate objective identification of creative ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Decomposition of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Using Oblique Subspace Projections: Applications in Brain Hemodynamic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Caicedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical data is comprised by a large number of synchronously collected biomedical signals that are measured at different locations. Deciphering the interrelationships of these signals can yield important information about their dependence providing some useful clinical diagnostic data. For instance, by computing the coupling between Near-Infrared Spectroscopy signals (NIRS and systemic variables the status of the hemodynamic regulation mechanisms can be assessed. In this paper we introduce an algorithm for the decomposition of NIRS signals into additive components. The algorithm, SIgnal DEcomposition base on Obliques Subspace Projections (SIDE-ObSP, assumes that the measured NIRS signal is a linear combination of the systemic measurements, following the linear regression model y = Ax + _. SIDE-ObSP decomposes the output such that, each component in the decomposition represents the sole linear influence of one corresponding regressor variable. This decomposition scheme aims at providing a better understanding of the relation between NIRS and systemic variables, and to provide a framework for the clinical interpretation of regression algorithms, thereby, facilitating their introduction into clinical practice. SIDE-ObSP combines oblique subspace projections (ObSP with the structure of a mean average system in order to define adequate signal subspaces. To guarantee smoothness in the estimated regression parameters, as observed in normal physiological processes, we impose a Tikhonov regularization using a matrix differential operator. We evaluate the performance of SIDE-ObSP by using a synthetic dataset, and present two case studies in the field of cerebral hemodynamics monitoring using NIRS. In addition, we compare the performance of this method with other system identification techniques. In the first case study data from 20 neonates during the first three days of life was used, here SIDE-ObSP decoupled the influence of changes in arterial oxygen

  19. Decomposition of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Using Oblique Subspace Projections: Applications in Brain Hemodynamic Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Alexander; Varon, Carolina; Hunyadi, Borbala; Papademetriou, Maria; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data is comprised by a large number of synchronously collected biomedical signals that are measured at different locations. Deciphering the interrelationships of these signals can yield important information about their dependence providing some useful clinical diagnostic data. For instance, by computing the coupling between Near-Infrared Spectroscopy signals (NIRS) and systemic variables the status of the hemodynamic regulation mechanisms can be assessed. In this paper we introduce an algorithm for the decomposition of NIRS signals into additive components. The algorithm, SIgnal DEcomposition base on Obliques Subspace Projections (SIDE-ObSP), assumes that the measured NIRS signal is a linear combination of the systemic measurements, following the linear regression model y = Ax + ϵ . SIDE-ObSP decomposes the output such that, each component in the decomposition represents the sole linear influence of one corresponding regressor variable. This decomposition scheme aims at providing a better understanding of the relation between NIRS and systemic variables, and to provide a framework for the clinical interpretation of regression algorithms, thereby, facilitating their introduction into clinical practice. SIDE-ObSP combines oblique subspace projections (ObSP) with the structure of a mean average system in order to define adequate signal subspaces. To guarantee smoothness in the estimated regression parameters, as observed in normal physiological processes, we impose a Tikhonov regularization using a matrix differential operator. We evaluate the performance of SIDE-ObSP by using a synthetic dataset, and present two case studies in the field of cerebral hemodynamics monitoring using NIRS. In addition, we compare the performance of this method with other system identification techniques. In the first case study data from 20 neonates during the first 3 days of life was used, here SIDE-ObSP decoupled the influence of changes in arterial oxygen saturation from the

  20. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in rats are associated with altered brain glycogen and amino-acid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle M; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Schousboe, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions; however, scarce information about how these metabolic syndromes influence brain energy and neurotransmitter homeostasis exist. The objective of this study was to elucidate how brain glycogen and neurotransmitter homeostasis are affected...... by these conditions. [1-(13)C]glucose was administered to Zucker obese (ZO) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Sprague-Dawley (SprD), Zucker lean (ZL), and ZDF lean rats were used as controls. Several brain regions were analyzed for glycogen levels along with (13)C-labeling and content of glutamate, glutamine...... of glutamine and glutamate were decreased in the cerebellum of the ZO and the ZDF rats. Glycogen levels were also lower in this region. These results suggest that the obese and type 2 diabetic models were associated with lower brain glucose metabolism. Glucose metabolism through the TCA cycle was more...

  1. Final Report on LDRD project 130784 : functional brain imaging by tunable multi-spectral Event-Related Optical Signal (EROS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Spahn, Olga Blum; Hsu, Alan Yuan-Chun

    2009-09-01

    Functional brain imaging is of great interest for understanding correlations between specific cognitive processes and underlying neural activity. This understanding can provide the foundation for developing enhanced human-machine interfaces, decision aides, and enhanced cognition at the physiological level. The functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based event-related optical signal (EROS) technique can provide direct, high-fidelity measures of temporal and spatial characteristics of neural networks underlying cognitive behavior. However, current EROS systems are hampered by poor signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and depth of measure, limiting areas of the brain and associated cognitive processes that can be investigated. We propose to investigate a flexible, tunable, multi-spectral fNIRS EROS system which will provide up to 10x greater SNR as well as improved spatial and temporal resolution through significant improvements in electronics, optoelectronics and optics, as well as contribute to the physiological foundation of higher-order cognitive processes and provide the technical foundation for miniaturized portable neuroimaging systems.

  2. Brain structure–function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K.; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C.; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M.; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B.; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A.; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I.; Glahn, David C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I.; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2015-01-01

    -bipolar disorder family members. Additionally, while age had a relatively strong impact on all neurocognitive traits, the effects of age on cognition did not differ between diagnostic groups. Most brain–behaviour associations were also similar across the age range, with the exception of cortical and ventricular volume and lingual gyrus thickness, which showed weak correlations with verbal fluency and inhibitory control at younger ages that increased in magnitude in older subjects, regardless of diagnosis. Findings indicate that neuroanatomical traits potentially impacted by bipolar disorder are significantly associated with multiple neurobehavioural domains. Structure–function relationships are generally preserved across diagnostic groups, with the notable exception of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal association cortex, volumetric increases in which may be associated with cognitive resilience specifically in individuals with bipolar disorder. Although age impacted all neurobehavioural traits, we did not find any evidence of accelerated cognitive decline specific to bipolar disorder subjects. Regardless of diagnosis, greater global brain volume may represent a protective factor for the effects of ageing on executive functioning. PMID:25943422

  3. Established liked versus disliked brands: Brain activity, implicit associations and explicit responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon S. Bosshard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ attitudes towards established brands were tested using implicit and explicit measures. In particular, late positive potential (LPP effects were assessed as an implicit neurophysiological measure of motivational significance. The Implicit Association Test (IAT was used as an implicit behavioural measure of valence-related aspects (affective content of brand attitude. We constructed individualised stimulus lists of liked and disliked brand types from participants’ subjective pre-assessment. Participants then re-rated these visually presented brands whilst brain potential changes were recorded via electroencephalography (EEG. First, self-report measures during the test confirmed pre-assessed attitudes underlining consistent explicit rating performance. Second, liked brands elicited significantly more positive going waveforms (LPPs than disliked brands over right parietal cortical areas starting at about 800 ms post stimulus onset (reaching statistical significance at around 1,000 ms and lasting until the end of the recording epoch (2,000 ms. In accordance to the literature, this finding is interpreted as reflecting positive affect-related motivational aspects of liked brands. Finally, the IAT revealed that both liked and disliked brands indeed are associated with affect-related valence. The increased levels of motivation associated with liked brands is interpreted as potentially reflecting increased purchasing intention, but this is of course only speculation at this stage.

  4. Brain Graph Topology Changes Associated with Anti-Epileptic Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harvey S.; Chiang, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neuroimaging studies of functional connectivity using graph theory have furthered our understanding of the network structure in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Brain network effects of anti-epileptic drugs could influence such studies, but have not been systematically studied. Resting-state functional MRI was analyzed in 25 patients with TLE using graph theory analysis. Patients were divided into two groups based on anti-epileptic medication use: those taking carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine (CBZ/OXC) (n=9) and those not taking CBZ/OXC (n=16) as a part of their medication regimen. The following graph topology metrics were analyzed: global efficiency, betweenness centrality (BC), clustering coefficient, and small-world index. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association of CBZ/OXC with graph topology. The two groups did not differ from each other based on epilepsy characteristics. Use of CBZ/OXC was associated with a lower BC. Longer epilepsy duration was also associated with a lower BC. These findings can inform graph theory-based studies in patients with TLE. The changes observed are discussed in relation to the anti-epileptic mechanism of action and adverse effects of CBZ/OXC. PMID:25492633

  5. Repeated sessions of noninvasive brain DC stimulation is associated with motor function improvement in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Paulo S; Nunes, Alice; Rigonatti, Sergio P; Nitsche, Michael A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fregni, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that a simple technique of noninvasive brain stimulation - transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - is associated with a significant motor function improvement in stroke patients. We tested the motor performance improvement in stroke patients following 4 weekly sessions of sham, anodal- and cathodal tDCS (experiment 1) and the effects of 5 consecutive daily sessions of cathodal tDCS (experiment 2). A blinded rater evaluated motor function using the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. There was a significant main effect of stimulation condition (p=0.009) in experiment 1. Furthermore there was a significant motor function improvement after either cathodal tDCS of the unaffected hemisphere (p=0.016) or anodal tDCS of the affected hemisphere (p=0.046) when compared to sham tDCS. There was no cumulative effect associated with weekly sessions of tDCS, however consecutive daily sessions of tDCS (experiment 2) were associated with a significant effect on time (pmotor function improvement in stroke patients; and support that consecutive daily sessions of tDCS might increase its behavioral effects. Because the technique of tDCS is simple, safe and non-expensive; our findings support further research on the use of this technique for the rehabilitation of patients with stroke.

  6. Convergent thinking and traumatic brain injury: an investigation of performance on the remote associate test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Arianna; Reber, Justin; Patel, Nirav N; Duff, Melissa C

    2018-06-08

    While deficits in several cognitive domains following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been well documented, little is known about the impact of TBI on creativity. In the current study, our goal is to determine whether convergent problem solving, which contributes to creative thinking, is impaired following TBI. We administered a test of convergent problem solving, the Remote Associate Task (RAT), as well as a battery of neuropsychological tests, to 29 individuals with TBI and 20 healthy comparisons. A mixed-effect regression analysis revealed that individuals with TBI were significantly less likely to produce a correct response, although on average they attempted to respond to the same number of items. Moreover, we found that the TBI (but not the comparison) group's performance on the RAT was significantly and positively associated with verbal learning and memory, providing further evidence supporting the association between declarative memory and creative convergent thinking. In summary, our findings reveal that convergent thinking can be compromised by moderate-to-severe TBI, furthering our understanding of the higher-level cognitive sequelae of TBI.

  7. Structural and Functional Connectivity Changes in the Brain Associated with Shyness but Not with Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qizhu; Chen, Taolin; Lama, Sunima; Cheng, Bochao; Li, Shiguang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Gong, Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Shyness and social anxiety are correlated to some extent and both are associated with hyper-responsivity to social stimuli in the frontal cortex and limbic system. However to date no studies have investigated whether common structural and functional connectivity differences in the brain may contribute to these traits. We addressed this issue in a cohort of 61 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were first assessed for their levels of shyness (Cheek and Buss Shyness scale) and social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety scale) and trait anxiety. They were then given MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry and seed-based, resting-state functional connectivity analysis investigated correlations with shyness and anxiety scores. Shyness scores were positively correlated with gray matter density in the cerebellum, bilateral superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal gyri and right insula. Functional connectivity correlations with shyness were found between the superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal gyri, between the insula and precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, and between the cerebellum and precuneus. Additional correlations were found for amygdala connectivity with the medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, despite the absence of any structural correlation. By contrast no structural or functional connectivity measures correlated with social or trait anxiety. Our findings show that shyness is specifically associated with structural and functional connectivity changes in cortical and limbic regions involved with processing social stimuli. These associations are not found with social or trait anxiety in healthy subjects despite some behavioral correlations with shyness. PMID:23675458

  8. Delineating SPTAN1 associated phenotypes: from isolated epilepsy to encephalopathy with progressive brain atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Harms, Frederike L; Parrini, Elena; Montomoli, Martino; Mütze, Ulrike; Helbig, Katherine L; Polster, Tilman; Albrecht, Beate; Bernbeck, Ulrich; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Biskup, Saskia; Burglen, Lydie; Denecke, Jonas; Heron, Bénédicte; Heyne, Henrike O; Hoffmann, Georg F; Hornemann, Frauke; Matsushige, Takeshi; Matsuura, Ryuki; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Korenke, G Christoph; Kuechler, Alma; Lämmer, Constanze; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Mignot, Cyril; Ruf, Susanne; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Stamberger, Hannah; Pisano, Tiziana; Tohyama, Jun; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Werckx, Wendy; Wickert, Julia; Mari, Francesco; Verbeek, Nienke E; Møller, Rikke S; Koeleman, Bobby; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Dobyns, William B; Battaglia, Domenica; Lemke, Johannes R; Kutsche, Kerstin; Guerrini, Renzo

    2017-09-01

    De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutations. Using different molecular genetic techniques, we identified 20 patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic SPTAN1 variant and reviewed their clinical, genetic and imaging data. SPTAN1 de novo alterations included seven unique missense variants and nine in-frame deletions/duplications of which 12 were novel. The recurrent three-amino acid duplication p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) occurred in five patients. Our patient cohort exhibited a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, comprising six patients with mild to moderate intellectual disability, with or without epilepsy and behavioural disorders, and 14 patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathy, of which 13 had severe neurodevelopmental impairment and four died in early childhood. Imaging studies suggested that the severity of neurological impairment and epilepsy correlates with that of structural abnormalities as well as the mutation type and location. Out of seven patients harbouring mutations outside the α/β spectrin heterodimerization domain, four had normal brain imaging and three exhibited moderately progressive brain and/or cerebellar atrophy. Twelve of 13 patients with mutations located within the spectrin heterodimer contact site exhibited severe and progressive brain, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, with hypomyelination in most. We used fibroblasts from five patients to study spectrin aggregate formation by Triton-X extraction and immunocytochemistry followed by fluorescence microscopy. αII/βII aggregates and αII spectrin in the insoluble protein fraction were observed in fibroblasts derived from patients with the mutations p.(Glu2207del), p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) and p.(Arg2308_Met2309dup

  9. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibzadeh, F; Verhaart, R F; Rijnen, Z; Franckena, M; Van Rhoon, G C; Paulides, M M; Verduijn, G M; Fortunati, V

    2015-01-01

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H and N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H and N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR 10g ) in the brains of 16 selected H and N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR 10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF. (paper)

  10. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Shantanu; Basu, Amrita; Kumaran, Senthil S; Khushu, Subash

    2010-01-01

    Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in normal human subjects. Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2*-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90°) with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s) with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2) with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001) revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG), superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG), anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001) revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar–occipital–fusiform–thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these areas facilitate language comprehension by activating a semantic

  11. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Shantanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. Aim: The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in normal human subjects. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2FNx01-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90º with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2 with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Results: Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG, superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG, anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Conclusions: Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar-occipital-fusiform-thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these

  12. Normalization of coagulopathy is associated with improved outcome after isolated traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel S; Mitra, Biswadev; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-07-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) has been reported in the setting of isolated traumatic brain injury (iTBI) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of procoagulant agents administered to patients with ATC and iTBI during resuscitation, hypothesizing that timely normalization of coagulopathy may be associated with a decrease in mortality. A retrospective review of the Alfred Hospital trauma registry, Australia, was conducted and patients with iTBI (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] ⩾3 and all other body AIS normalized ratio ⩾1.3) were selected for analysis. Data on procoagulant agents used (fresh frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, prothrombin complex concentrates, tranexamic acid, vitamin K) were extracted. Among patients who had achieved normalization of INR or survived beyond 24hours and were not taking oral anticoagulants, the association of normalization of INR and death at hospital discharge was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There were 157 patients with ATC of whom 68 (43.3%) received procoagulant products within 24hours of presentation. The median time to delivery of first products was 182.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 115-375) minutes, and following administration of coagulants, time to normalization of INR was 605 (IQR 274-1146) minutes. Normalization of INR was independently associated with significantly lower mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.10; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38). Normalization of INR was associated with improved mortality in patients with ATC in the setting of iTBI. As there was a substantial time lag between delivery of products and eventual normalization of coagulation, specific management of coagulopathy should be implemented as early as possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Polygenic Risk Score of glutamatergic SNPs associated with schizophrenia predicts attentional behavior and related brain activity in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Antonio; Taurisano, Paolo; Fanelli, Giuseppe; Attrotto, Mariateresa; Torretta, Silvia; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Miccolis, Grazia; Pergola, Giulio; Ursini, Gianluca; Maddalena, Giancarlo; Romano, Raffaella; Masellis, Rita; Di Carlo, Pasquale; Pignataro, Patrizia; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    Multiple genetic variations impact on risk for schizophrenia. Recent analyses by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC2) identified 128 SNPs genome-wide associated with the disorder. Furthermore, attention and working memory deficits are core features of schizophrenia, are heritable and have been associated with variation in glutamatergic neurotransmission. Based on this evidence, in a sample of healthy volunteers, we used SNPs associated with schizophrenia in PGC2 to construct a Polygenic-Risk-Score (PRS) reflecting the cumulative risk for schizophrenia, along with a Polygenic-Risk-Score including only SNPs related to genes implicated in glutamatergic signaling (Glu-PRS). We performed Factor Analysis for dimension reduction of indices of cognitive performance. Furthermore, both PRS and Glu-PRS were used as predictors of cognitive functioning in the domains of Attention, Speed of Processing and Working Memory. The association of the Glu-PRS on brain activity during the Variable Attention Control (VAC) task was also explored. Finally, in a second independent sample of healthy volunteers we sought to confirm the association between the Glu-PRS and both performance in the domain of Attention and brain activity during the VAC.We found that performance in Speed of Processing and Working Memory was not associated with any of the Polygenic-Risk-Scores. The Glu-PRS, but not the PRS was associated with Attention and brain activity during the VAC. The specific effects of Glu-PRS on Attention and brain activity during the VAC were also confirmed in the replication sample.Our results suggest a pathway specificity in the relationship between genetic risk for schizophrenia, the associated cognitive dysfunction and related brain processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Projections to early visual areas V1 and V2 in the calcarine fissure from parietal association areas in the macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eBorra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-extrastriate projections to area V1 in monkeys, now demonstrated by several anatomical studies, are potential substrates of physiologically documented multisensory effects in primary sensory areas. The full network of projections among association and primary areas, however, is likely to be complex and is still only partially understood. In the present report, we used the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine to investigate projections to areas V1 and V2 from subdivisions of the parietal association cortex in macaque. Parietal cortex was chosen to allow comparisons between projections from this higher association area and from other previously reported areas. In addition, we were interested in further elucidating pathways to areas V1 and V2 from parietal areas, as potentially contributing to attention and active vision. Of eight cases, three brains had projections only to area V2, and the five others projected to both areas V1 and V2. Terminations in area V1 were sparse. These were located in supragranular layers I, II, upper III; occasionally in IVB; and in layer VI. Terminations in V2 were denser, and slightly more prevalent in the supragranular layers. For both areas, terminations were in the calcarine region, corresponding to the representation of the peripheral visual field. By reconstructions of single axons, we demonstrated that four of nine axons had collaterals, either to V1 and V2 (n=1 or to area V1 and a ventral area likely to be TEO (n=3. In area V1, axons extended divergently in layer VI as well as layer I. Overall, these and previous results suggest a nested connectivity architecture, consisting of multiple direct and indirect recurrent projections from association areas to area V1. Terminations in area V1 are not abundant, but could be potentiated by the network of indirect connections.

  15. Physical fitness and psychological health in overweight/obese children: A cross-sectional study from the ActiveBrains project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ayllon, M; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Esteban-Cornejo, I; Migueles, J H; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Henriksson, P; Martín-Matillas, M; Mena-Molina, A; Molina-García, P; Estévez-López, F; Enriquez, G M; Perales, J C; Ruiz, J R; Catena, A; Ortega, F B

    2018-02-01

    To examine the associations of physical fitness (i.e. cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and speed/agility) with psychological distress and psychological well-being in overweight/obese pre-adolescent children. 110 overweight/obese children (10.0±1.1years old, 61 boys) from the ActiveBrains project (http://profith.ugr.es/activebrains) participated in this cross-sectional study. Physical fitness was evaluated by the ALPHA battery test. Cardiorespiratory fitness was additionally evaluated by a maximal incremental treadmill. Stress was assessed by the Children's Daily Stress Inventory, anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, depression by the Children Depression Inventory, positive affect and negative affect by the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, happiness by the Subjective Happiness Scale, optimism by the Life Orientation Test, and self-esteem by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem questionnaire. Linear regression adjusted for sex and peak height velocity was used to examine associations. Absolute upper-body muscular strength was negatively associated with stress and negative affect (β=-0.246, p=0.047; β=-0.329, p=0.010, respectively). Furthermore, absolute lower-body muscular strength was negatively associated with negative affect (β=-0.301, p=0.029). Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed by the last completed lap, and relative upper-body muscular strength were positively associated with optimism (β=0.220, p=0.042; β=0.240, p=0.017, respectively). Finally, absolute upper-body muscular strength was positively associated with self-esteem (β=0.362, p=0.003) independently of sex and weight status (p for interactions >0.3), and absolute lower-body muscular strength was also positively associated with self-esteem (β=0.352, p=0.008). Muscular strength was associated with psychological distress (i.e. stress and negative affect) and psychological well-being (i.e. optimism and self-esteem) as well as cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with

  16. Brain activity and functional coupling changes associated with self-reference effect during both encoding and retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja Morel

    Full Text Available Information that is processed with reference to oneself, i.e. Self-Referential Processing (SRP, is generally associated with better remembering compared to information processed in a condition not related to oneself. This positive effect of the self on subsequent memory performance is called as Self-Reference Effect (SRE. The neural basis of SRE is still poorly understood. The main goal of the present work was thus to highlight brain changes associated with SRE in terms of activity and functional coupling and during both encoding and retrieval so as to assess the relative contribution of both processes to SRE. For this purpose, we used an fMRI event-related self-referential paradigm in 30 healthy young subjects and measured brain activity during both encoding and retrieval of self-relevant information compared to a semantic control condition. We found that SRE was associated with brain changes during the encoding phase only, including both greater activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and greater functional coupling between these brain regions and the posterior cingulate cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of brain regions involved in both SRP and episodic memory and the relevance of the communication between these regions during the encoding process as the neural substrates of SRE. This is consistent with the idea that SRE reflects a positive effect of the reactivation of self-related memories on the encoding of new information in episodic memory.

  17. German validation of Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) assessment and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Real, Ruben G L; Sasse, Nadine; Wilson, Lindsay; Otto, Christiane; Mullins, Ryan; Behr, Robert; Deinsberger, Wolfgang; Martinez-Olivera, Ramon; Puschendorf, Wolfgang; Petereit, Werner; Rohde, Veit; Schmidt, Holger; Sehmisch, Stephan; Stürmer, Klaus Michael; von Wild, Klaus; Gibbons, Henning

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are still poorly understood, and no TBI-specific instrument has hitherto been available. This paper describes in detail the psychometrics and validity of the German version of an internationally developed, self-rated HRQoL tool after TBI-the QOLIBRI (Quality of Life after Brain Injury). Factors associated with HRQoL, such as the impact of cognitive status and awareness, are specifically reported. One-hundred seventy-two participants after TBI were recruited from the records of acute clinics, most of whom having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 24-hour worst score and a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) score. Participants had severe (24%), moderate (11%) and mild (56%) injuries as assessed on the GCS, 3 months to 15 years post-injury. The QOLIBRI uses 37 items to measure "satisfaction" in the areas of "Cognition", "Self", "Daily Life and Autonomy", and "Social Relationships", and "feeling bothered" by "Emotions"and "Physical Problems". The scales meet standard psychometric criteria (α = .84 to .96; intra-class correlation-ICC = .72 to .91). ICCs (0.68 to 0.90) and αs (.83 to .96) were also good in a subgroup of participants with lower cognitive performance. The six-subscale structure of the international sample was reproduced for the German version using confirmatory factor analyses and Rasch analysis. Scale validity was supported by systematic relationships observed between the QOLIBRI and the GOSE, Patient Competency Rating Scale for Neurorehabilitation (PCRS-NR), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Short Form 36 (SF-36), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The German QOLIBRI contains novel information not provided by other currently available measures and has good psychometric criteria. It is potentially useful for clinicians and researchers, in post-acute and rehabilitation studies, on a group and individual level.

  18. German validation of Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI assessment and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole von Steinbüchel

    Full Text Available The consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI for health-related quality of life (HRQoL are still poorly understood, and no TBI-specific instrument has hitherto been available. This paper describes in detail the psychometrics and validity of the German version of an internationally developed, self-rated HRQoL tool after TBI-the QOLIBRI (Quality of Life after Brain Injury. Factors associated with HRQoL, such as the impact of cognitive status and awareness, are specifically reported. One-hundred seventy-two participants after TBI were recruited from the records of acute clinics, most of whom having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS 24-hour worst score and a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE score. Participants had severe (24%, moderate (11% and mild (56% injuries as assessed on the GCS, 3 months to 15 years post-injury. The QOLIBRI uses 37 items to measure "satisfaction" in the areas of "Cognition", "Self", "Daily Life and Autonomy", and "Social Relationships", and "feeling bothered" by "Emotions"and "Physical Problems". The scales meet standard psychometric criteria (α = .84 to .96; intra-class correlation-ICC = .72 to .91. ICCs (0.68 to 0.90 and αs (.83 to .96 were also good in a subgroup of participants with lower cognitive performance. The six-subscale structure of the international sample was reproduced for the German version using confirmatory factor analyses and Rasch analysis. Scale validity was supported by systematic relationships observed between the QOLIBRI and the GOSE, Patient Competency Rating Scale for Neurorehabilitation (PCRS-NR, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Profile of Mood States (POMS, Short Form 36 (SF-36, and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. The German QOLIBRI contains novel information not provided by other currently available measures and has good psychometric criteria. It is potentially useful for clinicians and researchers, in post-acute and rehabilitation studies, on a group and individual level.

  19. Effects of reward and punishment on brain activations associated with inhibitory control in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijten, Maartje; O'Connor, David A; Rossiter, Sarah; Franken, Ingmar H A; Hester, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Susceptibility to use of addictive substances may result, in part, from a greater preference for an immediate small reward relative to a larger delayed reward or relative insensitivity to punishment. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the neural basis of inhibiting an immediately rewarding stimulus to obtain a larger delayed reward in smokers. We also investigated whether punishment could modulate inhibitory control. The Monetary Incentive Go/NoGo (MI-Go/NoGo) task was administered that provided three types of reward outcomes contingent upon inhibitory control performance over rewarding stimuli: inhibition failure was either followed by no monetary reward (neutral condition), a small monetary reward with immediate feedback (reward condition) or immediate monetary punishment (punishment condition). In the reward and punishment conditions, successful inhibitory control resulted in larger delayed rewards. Community sample of smokers in the Melbourne (Australia) area. Nineteen smokers were compared with 17 demographically matched non-smoking controls. Accuracy, reaction times and brain activation associated with the MI-Go/NoGo task. Smokers showed hyperactivation in the right insula (P rewarding stimulus to obtain a larger delayed reward, and during inhibition of neutral stimuli. Group differences in brain activity were not significant in the punishment condition in the right insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, most probably as a result of increased activation in non-smoking controls. Compared with non-smokers, smokers showed increased neural activation when resisting immediately rewarding stimuli and may be less sensitive to punishment as a strategy to increase control over rewarding stimuli. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Prehospital plasma resuscitation associated with improved neurologic outcomes after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Matthew C; Thiels, Cornelius A; Aho, Johnathon M; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Zielinski, Martin D; Stubbs, James A; Jenkins, Donald H; Zietlow, Scott P

    2017-09-01

    Trauma-related hypotension and coagulopathy worsen secondary brain injury in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Early damage control resuscitation with blood products may mitigate hypotension and coagulopathy. Preliminary data suggest resuscitation with plasma in large animals improves neurologic function after TBI; however, data in humans are lacking. We retrospectively identified all patients with multiple injuries age >15 years with head injuries undergoing prehospital resuscitation with blood products at a single Level I trauma center from January 2002 to December 2013. Inclusion criteria were prehospital resuscitation with either packed red blood cells (pRBCs) or thawed plasma as sole colloid resuscitation. Patients who died in hospital and those using anticoagulants were excluded. Primary outcomes were Glasgow Outcomes Score Extended (GOSE) and Disability Rating Score (DRS) at dismissal and during follow-up. Of 76 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 53% (n = 40) received prehospital pRBCs and 47% (n = 36) received thawed plasma. Age, gender, injury severity or TBI severity, arrival laboratory values, and number of prehospital units were similar (all p > 0.05). Patients who received thawed plasma had an improved neurologic outcome compared to those receiving pRBCs (median GOSE 7 [7-8] vs. 5.5 [3-7], p plasma had improved functionality compared to pRBCs (median DRS 2 [1-3.5] vs. 9 [3-13], p plasma compared to pRBCs by both median GOSE (8 [7-8] vs. 6 [6-7], p plasma is associated with improved neurologic and functional outcomes at discharge and during follow-up compared to pRBCs alone. These preliminary data support the further investigation and use of plasma in the resuscitation of critically injured TBI patients. Therapeutic, level V.

  1. A Social Network Approach Reveals Associations between Mouse Social Dominance and Brain Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Nina; Franks, Becca; Lim, Sean; Curley, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling complex social behavior in the laboratory is challenging and requires analyses of dyadic interactions occurring over time in a physically and socially complex environment. In the current study, we approached the analyses of complex social interactions in group-housed male CD1 mice living in a large vivarium. Intensive observations of social interactions during a 3-week period indicated that male mice form a highly linear and steep dominance hierarchy that is maintained by fighting and chasing behaviors. Individual animals were classified as dominant, sub-dominant or subordinate according to their David’s Scores and I& SI ranking. Using a novel dynamic temporal Glicko rating method, we ascertained that the dominance hierarchy was stable across time. Using social network analyses, we characterized the behavior of individuals within 66 unique relationships in the social group. We identified two individual network metrics, Kleinberg’s Hub Centrality and Bonacich’s Power Centrality, as accurate predictors of individual dominance and power. Comparing across behaviors, we establish that agonistic, grooming and sniffing social networks possess their own distinctive characteristics in terms of density, average path length, reciprocity out-degree centralization and out-closeness centralization. Though grooming ties between individuals were largely independent of other social networks, sniffing relationships were highly predictive of the directionality of agonistic relationships. Individual variation in dominance status was associated with brain gene expression, with more dominant individuals having higher levels of corticotropin releasing factor mRNA in the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala and the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, as well as higher levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. This study demonstrates the potential and significance of combining complex social housing and intensive

  2. A Social Network Approach Reveals Associations between Mouse Social Dominance and Brain Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina So

    Full Text Available Modelling complex social behavior in the laboratory is challenging and requires analyses of dyadic interactions occurring over time in a physically and socially complex environment. In the current study, we approached the analyses of complex social interactions in group-housed male CD1 mice living in a large vivarium. Intensive observations of social interactions during a 3-week period indicated that male mice form a highly linear and steep dominance hierarchy that is maintained by fighting and chasing behaviors. Individual animals were classified as dominant, sub-dominant or subordinate according to their David's Scores and I& SI ranking. Using a novel dynamic temporal Glicko rating method, we ascertained that the dominance hierarchy was stable across time. Using social network analyses, we characterized the behavior of individuals within 66 unique relationships in the social group. We identified two individual network metrics, Kleinberg's Hub Centrality and Bonacich's Power Centrality, as accurate predictors of individual dominance and power. Comparing across behaviors, we establish that agonistic, grooming and sniffing social networks possess their own distinctive characteristics in terms of density, average path length, reciprocity out-degree centralization and out-closeness centralization. Though grooming ties between individuals were largely independent of other social networks, sniffing relationships were highly predictive of the directionality of agonistic relationships. Individual variation in dominance status was associated with brain gene expression, with more dominant individuals having higher levels of corticotropin releasing factor mRNA in the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala and the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, as well as higher levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. This study demonstrates the potential and significance of combining complex social housing

  3. General, crystallized and fluid intelligence are not associated with functional global network efficiency: A replication study with the human connectome project 1200 data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschwitz, J D; Waller, L; Daedelow, L S; Walter, H; Veer, I M

    2018-05-01

    One hallmark example of a link between global topological network properties of complex functional brain connectivity and cognitive performance is the finding that general intelligence may depend on the efficiency of the brain's intrinsic functional network architecture. However, although this association has been featured prominently over the course of the last decade, the empirical basis for this broad association of general intelligence and global functional network efficiency is quite limited. In the current study, we set out to replicate the previously reported association between general intelligence and global functional network efficiency using the large sample size and high quality data of the Human Connectome Project, and extended the original study by testing for separate association of crystallized and fluid intelligence with global efficiency, characteristic path length, and global clustering coefficient. We were unable to provide evidence for the proposed association between general intelligence and functional brain network efficiency, as was demonstrated by van den Heuvel et al. (2009), or for any other association with the global network measures employed. More specifically, across multiple network definition schemes, ranging from voxel-level networks to networks of only 100 nodes, no robust associations and only very weak non-significant effects with a maximal R 2 of 0.01 could be observed. Notably, the strongest (non-significant) effects were observed in voxel-level networks. We discuss the possibility that the low power of previous studies and publication bias may have led to false positive results fostering the widely accepted notion of general intelligence being associated to functional global network efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal Inflammation Contributes to Brain Overgrowth and Autism-Associated Behaviors through Altered Redox Signaling in Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janel E. Le Belle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A period of mild brain overgrowth with an unknown etiology has been identified as one of the most common phenotypes in autism. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal inflammation during critical periods of embryonic development can cause brain overgrowth and autism-associated behaviors as a result of altered neural stem cell function. Pregnant mice treated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide at embryonic day 9 had offspring with brain overgrowth, with a more pronounced effect in PTEN heterozygotes. Exposure to maternal inflammation also enhanced NADPH oxidase (NOX-PI3K pathway signaling, stimulated the hyperproliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells, increased forebrain microglia, and produced abnormal autism-associated behaviors in affected pups. Our evidence supports the idea that a prenatal neuroinflammatory dysregulation in neural stem cell redox signaling can act in concert with underlying genetic susceptibilities to affect cellular responses to environmentally altered cellular levels of reactive oxygen species.

  5. Predictive and associated factors of psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Kate Rachel; Ponsford, Jennie Louise; Johnston, Lisa; Schönberger, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common and often debilitating following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is little consensus within the literature regarding the risk factors for post-injury psychiatric disorders. A 1-year prospective study was conducted to examine which pre-injury, injury-related, and concurrent factors were associated with experiencing a psychiatric disorder, diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, at 1 year post-injury. Participants were 122 adults with TBI and 88 proxy informants. Psychiatric disorders were common both pre-injury (54.1%) and at 12 months post-injury (45.9%). Results of regression analyses indicated individuals without a pre-injury psychiatric disorder or psychiatric symptomatology in the acute post-injury period were less likely to have a psychiatric disorder at 12 months post-injury. These findings confirm the importance of pre-injury history for the prediction of post-injury psychiatric disorders. Limb injury also emerged as a useful early indicator of later psychiatric disorder. Post-injury psychiatric disorders were associated with concurrent unemployment, pain, poor quality of life, and use of unproductive coping skills. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Brain mechanisms associated with internally directed attention and self-generated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Beaty, Roger E; Fink, Andreas; Koschutnig, Karl; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2016-03-10

    Internal cognition like imagination and prospection require sustained internally directed attention and involve self-generated thought. This fMRI study aimed to disentangle the brain mechanisms associated with attention-specific and task-specific processes during internally directed cognition. The direction of attention was manipulated by either keeping a relevant stimulus visible throughout the task, or by masking it, so that the task had to be performed "in the mind's eye". The level of self-directed thought was additionally varied between a convergent and a divergent thinking task. Internally directed attention was associated with increased activation in the right anterior inferior parietal lobe (aIPL), bilateral lingual gyrus and the cuneus, as well as with extended deactivations of superior parietal and occipital regions representing parts of the dorsal attention network. The right aIPL further showed increased connectivity with occipital regions suggesting an active top-down mechanism for shielding ongoing internal processes from potentially distracting sensory stimulation in terms of perceptual decoupling. Activation of the default network was not related to internally directed attention per se, but rather to a higher level of self-generated thought. The findings hence shed further light on the roles of inferior and superior parietal cortex for internally directed cognition.

  7. Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae, Chorogi) Protects against Learning and Memory Dysfunction Associated with Ischemic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shinichi; Tsujita, Tsukasa; Ono, Akiko; Miyagi, Kei; Mori, Takaharu; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae; Chinese artichoke, a tuber), "chorogi" in Japanese, has been extensively used in folk medicine, and has a number of pharmacological properties, including antioxidative activity. However, few studies have examined the neuroprotective effects of S. sieboldii tuber extract (chorogi extract), and it remains unknown whether the extract can alleviate learning and memory dysfunction associated with vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of chorogi extract, and examined its protection against learning and memory dysfunction using Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (ginkgo extract) as a positive control. Mice were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 30 min. Oral administration of chorogi extract or ginkgo extract significantly reduced post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage including memory impairment on day 3 after BCAO, compared with the vehicle-treated group. Neither herbal medicine affected locomotor activity. Furthermore, neither significantly alleviated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment. In primary neurons, neuronal survival rate was significantly reduced by hydrogen peroxide treatment. This hydrogen peroxide-induced neurotoxicity was significantly suppressed by chorogi extract and ginkgo extract. Taken together, our findings suggest that chorogi extract as well as ginkgo extract can protect against learning and memory dysfunction associated with ischemic brain injury through an antioxidative mechanism.

  8. Association of Cognitive Abilities and Brain Lateralization among Primary School Children in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Y. Al-Hashel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many studies have explored the cognitive variation between left- and right-handed individuals; however, the differences remain poorly understood. Aim of the Work. To assess the association between brain lateralization indicated by handedness and cognitive abilities. Material and Methods. A total of 217 students aged between 7 and 10 years of both genders were identified for the study. Males and females were equally distributed. All left-handed students were chosen. An equal group with right-handed students was randomly selected. Handedness was assessed using traditional writing hand approach as well as the WatHand Cabient Test and the Grooved Pegboard Test. Cognition was measured using Cambridge University’s CANTAB eclipse cognitive battery. Pearson Correlation Coefficient Test “r” was calculated to measure the strength of association between quantitative data. Results. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities (p=0.011, r=0.253, visual memory (p=0.034, r=0.205, and better scores in reaction time tests which incorporated elements of visual memory (p=0.004, r=-0.271. Left-handed children proved to have better simple reaction times (p=0.036, r=0.201. Conclusion. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities and left-handed children have better simple reaction times.

  9. Syncope Associated with Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in a Patient with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Aygun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In advanced Parkinson's disease (PD, deep brain stimulation (DBS may be an alternative option for the treatment of motor symptoms. Side effects associated with subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS in patients with PD are emerging as the most frequent sensory and motor symptoms. DBS-related syncope is reported as extremely rare. We wanted to discuss the mechanisms of syncope associated with STN DBS in a patient with Parkinson's disease. Case report. Sixty-three-year-old female patient is followed up with diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease for 6 years in our clinic. The patient has undergone STN DBS due to painful dystonia and drug resistant tremor. During the operation, when the left STN was stimulated at 5 milliampere (mAmp, the patient developed presyncopal symptoms. However, when the stimulation was stopped symptoms improved. During the early period after the operation, when the right STN was stimulated at 1.3 millivolts (mV, she developed the pre-yncopal symptoms and then syncope. Our case shows that STN DBS may lead to directly autonomic symptoms resulting in syncope during stimulation-on (stim-on.

  10. Human Obesity Associated with an Intronic SNP in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyang Mou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 BDNF SNPs. We observed that the minor C allele of rs12291063 is associated with lower human ventromedial hypothalamic BDNF expression (p < 0.001 and greater adiposity in both adult and pediatric cohorts (p values < 0.05. We further demonstrated that the major T allele for rs12291063 possesses a binding capacity for the transcriptional regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B, knockdown of which disrupts transactivation by the T allele. Binding and transactivation functions are both disrupted by substituting C for T. These findings provide a rationale for BDNF augmentation as a targeted treatment for obesity in individuals who have the rs12291063 CC genotype.

  11. Accurate classification of brain gliomas by discriminate dictionary learning based on projective dictionary pair learning of proton magnetic resonance spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebileje, Sikiru Afolabi; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Aiyelabegan, Hammed Tanimowo; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza

    2017-04-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful noninvasive technique that complements the structural images of cMRI, which aids biomedical and clinical researches, by identifying and visualizing the compositions of various metabolites within the tissues of interest. However, accurate classification of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is still a challenging issue in clinics due to low signal-to-noise ratio, overlapping peaks of metabolites, and the presence of background macromolecules. This paper evaluates the performance of a discriminate dictionary learning classifiers based on projective dictionary pair learning method for brain gliomas proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra classification task, and the result were compared with the sub-dictionary learning methods. The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy data contain a total of 150 spectra (74 healthy, 23 grade II, 23 grade III, and 30 grade IV) from two databases. The datasets from both databases were first coupled together, followed by column normalization. The Kennard-Stone algorithm was used to split the datasets into its training and test sets. Performance comparison based on the overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision was conducted. Based on the overall accuracy of our classification scheme, the dictionary pair learning method was found to outperform the sub-dictionary learning methods 97.78% compared with 68.89%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Multimodal e-Health Services for Smoking Cessation and Public Health: The SmokeFreeBrain Project Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos; Spachos, Dimitris; Billis, Antonis

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the largest avoidable cause of preventable morbidity worldwide. It causes most of the cases of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contributes to the development of other lung diseases. SmokeFreeBrain aims to address the effectiveness of a multi-level variety of interventions aiming at smoking cessation in high risk target groups within High Middle Income Countries (HMIC) such as unemployed young adults, COPD and asthma patients, and within the general population in Low-Middle Income Countries (LMIC). The project addresses existing approaches aimed to prevent lung diseases caused by tobacco while developing new treatments and evaluating: (i) Public Service Announcement (PSA) against smoking, (ii) the use of electronic cigarettes, (iii) neurofeedback protocols against smoking addiction, (iv) a specifically developed intervention protocol based on behavioral therapy, social media/mobile apps and short text messages (sms) and (v) pharmacologic interventions. Emphasis in this paper, however, is placed on the e-heath, m-health, open (big) data, mobile game and neuroscientific challenges and developments upon facilitating the aforementioned interventions.

  13. Modeling cognitive reserve in healthy middle-aged and older adults: the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David D; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Vickers, James C

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a protective factor that supports cognition by increasing the resilience of an individual's cognitive function to the deleterious effects of cerebral lesions. A single environmental proxy indicator is often used to estimate CR (e.g. education), possibly resulting in a loss of the accuracy and predictive power of the investigation. Furthermore, while estimates of an individual's prior CR can be made, no operational measure exists to estimate dynamic change in CR resulting from exposure to new life experiences. We aimed to develop two latent measures of CR through factor analysis: prior and current, in a sample of 467 healthy older adults. The prior CR measure combined proxy measures traditionally associated with CR, while the current CR measure combined variables that had the potential to reflect dynamic change in CR due to new life experiences. Our main finding was that the analyses uncovered latent variables in hypothesized prior and current models of CR. The prior CR model supports multivariate estimation of pre-existing CR and may be applied to more accurately estimate CR in the absence of neuropathological data. The current CR model may be applied to evaluate and explore the potential benefits of CR-based interventions prior to dementia onset.

  14. Combined glutamate and glutamine levels in pain-processing brain regions are associated with individual pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Schweizer, Lauren M; Witte, Vanessa; Harris, Richard E; Bingel, Ulrike; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the living human brain and pain sensitivity is unknown. Combined glutamine/glutamate (Glx), as well as GABA levels can be measured in vivo with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed at determining whether Glx and/or GABA levels in pain-related brain regions are associated with individual differences in pain sensitivity. Experimental heat, cold, and mechanical pain thresholds were obtained from 39 healthy, drug-free individuals (25 men) according to the quantitative sensory testing protocol and summarized into 1 composite measure of pain sensitivity. The Glx levels were measured using point-resolved spectroscopy at 3 T, within a network of pain-associated brain regions comprising the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, the mid-cingulate cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the thalamus. GABA levels were measured using GABA-edited spectroscopy (Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy) within the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the mid-cingulate cortex. Glx and/or GABA levels correlated positively across all brain regions. Gender, weekly alcohol consumption, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with Glx and/or GABA levels. A linear regression analysis including all these factors indicated that Glx levels pooled across pain-related brain regions were positively associated with pain sensitivity, whereas no appreciable relationship with GABA was found. In sum, we show that the levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and its precursor glutamine across pain-related brain regions are positively correlated with individual pain sensitivity. Future studies will have to determine whether our findings also apply to clinical populations.

  15. Summative and Formative Evaluations, National Skill Standards Project. Prepared for the National Grocers Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Michael S.

    In 1993-1996, the Grocers Research and Educational Foundation of the National Grocers Association developed entry-level skill standards for the food marketing industry. A coalition formed early in the project directed the skill standard development process and solicited input from major organizations involved in the industry. The validity of the…

  16. The Final Year Project (FYP) in Social Sciences: Establishment of Its Associated Competences and Evaluation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Joan; Escofet, Anna; Martinez, Francesc; Ventura, Javier; Vlachopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the fundamental characteristics of the Final Year Project (FYP), its associated competences and some evaluation standards that derived from a research conducted by the regional government of Catalonia (Spain) and the Catalan University Quality Assurance Agency. More analytically, the paper begins with the definition of the…

  17. Maternal Pseudo-Bartter Syndrome Associated with Severe Perinatal Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Shrenik; Ibrahim, Thowfique; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel

    2017-09-15

    Maternal electrolyte imbalance is rarely reported as causative factor of severe perinatal brain injury. This case outlines a unique maternal and neonatal pseudo-Bartter syndrome presented with metabolic alkalosis and hypochloremia due to maternal severe vomiting. Neonatal MRI brain revealed extensive brain hemorrhages with porencephalic cysts. Subsequent investigation workup points towards maternal severe metabolic alkalosis as its cause. Careful medical attention should be paid to pregnant women with excessive vomiting to ensure a healthy outcome for both the mother and the baby.

  18. Training of verbal creativity modulates brain activity in regions associated with language‐ and memory‐related demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Koschutnig, Karl; Pirker, Eva; Berger, Elisabeth; Meister, Sabrina; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study was designed to investigate changes in functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation as a result of a computerized, 3‐week verbal creativity training. The training was composed of various verbal divergent thinking exercises requiring participants to train approximately 20 min per day. Fifty‐three participants were tested three times (psychometric tests and fMRI assessment) with an intertest‐interval of 4 weeks each. Participants were randomly assigned to two different training groups, which received the training time‐delayed: The first training group was trained between the first and the second test, while the second group accomplished the training between the second and the third test session. At the behavioral level, only one training group showed improvements in different facets of verbal creativity right after the training. Yet, functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation were strikingly similar across both training groups. Whole‐brain voxel‐wise analyses (along with supplementary region of interest analyses) revealed that the training was associated with activity changes in well‐known creativity‐related brain regions such as the left inferior parietal cortex and the left middle temporal gyrus, which have been shown as being particularly sensitive to the originality facet of creativity in previous research. Taken together, this study demonstrates that continuous engagement in a specific complex cognitive task like divergent thinking is associated with reliable changes of activity patterns in relevant brain areas, suggesting more effective search, retrieval, and integration from internal memory representations as a result of the training. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4104–4115, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26178653

  19. The two-pore domain K+ channel TASK-1 is closely associated with brain barriers and meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjhan, Refik; Pow, David V; Noakes, Peter G; Bellingham, Mark C

    2010-12-01

    Impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and brain-CSF barrier has been implicated in neuropathology of several brain disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral edema, multiple sclerosis, neural inflammation, ischemia and stroke. Two-pore domain weakly inward rectifying K+ channel (TWIK)-related acid-sensitive potassium (TASK)-1 channels (K2p3.1; KCNK3) are among the targets that contribute to the development of these pathologies. For example TASK-1 activity is inhibited by acidification, ischemia, hypoxia and several signaling molecules released under pathologic conditions. We have used immuno-histochemistry to examine the distribution of the TASK-1 protein in structures associated with the BBB, blood-CSF barrier, brain-CSF barrier, and in the meninges of adult rat. Dense TASK-1 immuno-reactivity (TASK-1-IR) was observed in ependymal cells lining the fourth ventricle at the brain-CSF interface, in glial cells that ensheath the walls of blood vessels at the glio-vascular interface, and in the meninges. In these structures, TASK-1-IR often co-localized with glial fibrillary associated protein (GFAP) or vimentin. This study provides anatomical evidence for localization of TASK-1 K+ channels in cells that segregate distinct fluid compartments within and surrounding the brain. We suggest that TASK-1 channels, in coordination with other ion channels (e.g., aquaporins and chloride channels) and transporters (e.g., Na+-K+-ATPase and Na+-K+-2Cl⁻ and by virtue of its heterogeneous distribution, may differentially contribute to the varying levels of K+ vital for cellular function in these compartments. Our findings are likely to be relevant to recently reported roles of TASK-1 in cerebral ischemia, stroke and inflammatory brain disorders.

  20. Hypometabolism in Posterior and Temporal Areas of the Brain is Associated with Cognitive Decline in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tard, Céline; Demailly, Franck; Delval, Arnaud; Semah, Franck; Defebvre, Luc; Dujardin, Kathy; Moreau, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Brain metabolic profiles of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and cognitive impairment or dementia are now available. It would be useful if data on brain metabolism were also predictive of the risk of a pejorative cognitive evolution - especially in the multidisciplinary management of advanced PD patients. The primary objective was to determine whether a specific brain metabolic pattern is associated with cognitive decline in PD. Sixteen advanced PD patients were screened for the absence of cognitive impairment (according to the Mattis dementia rating scale, MDRS) and underwent [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain imaging in the "off drug" state. The MDRS was scored again about two years later, categorizing patients as having significant cognitive decline (decliners) or not (stables). The two groups were then compared in terms of their brain metabolism at inclusion. There were six decliners and ten stables. Significant hypometabolism in the two precunei (Brodmann area (BA) 31), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA21) and the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) was found in the decliner group compared withthe stables. In advanced PD, a particular metabolic pattern may be associated with the onset of significant cognitive decline.

  1. Genome-wide association studies of mri-defined brain infarcts: Meta-analysis from the charge consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Debette (Stéphanie); J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Fornage (Myriam); H.A. Schmid (Herbert); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); S. Sigurdsson (Stefan); G. Heiss (Gerardo); M.V. Struchalin (Maksim); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); A. van der Lugt (Aad); C. DeCarli (Charles); T. Lumley (Thomas); D.S. Knopman (David); C. Enzinger (Christian); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); C. Dufouil (Carole); D.J. Catellier (Diane); F. Fazekas (Franz); T. Aspelund (Thor); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); A. Beiser (Alexa); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); C. Tzourio (Christophe); D.K. Shibata (Dean); M. Tscherner (Maria); T.B. Harris (Tamara); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); L.D. Atwood (Larry); K. Rice (Kenneth); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); M.A. van Buchem (Mark); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Kelly-Hayes (Margaret); M. Cushman (Mary Ann); Y. Zhu (Yicheng); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); J.R. Romero (Jose Rafael); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); L.J. Launer (Lenore); W.T. Longstreth Jr

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Purpose-Previous studies examining genetic associations with MRI-defined brain infarct have yielded inconsistent findings. We investigated genetic variation underlying covert MRI infarct in persons without histories of transient ischemic attack or stroke. We performed

  2. Computerized tomography of the brain and associated risk factors in 240 patients iwth reversible cerebral ischemic attacks (RIAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzao, L.; Fantozzi, L.M.; Carolei, A.; Pappata, S.; Vesentini, G.; Allori, L.; Rasura, M.; Fieschi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency and distribution of focal low density cerebral ischemic lesions in RIA patients with regard to factors as age at onset, number and temporal profile of the reversible cerebral ischemic events on admission, presence of associated medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, have been investigated with computerized tomography of the brain. (author). 7 refs.; 1 tab

  3. Variation of the gene coding for DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B) and brain connectivity during associative emotional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, Branislava; Swart, Marte; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Langers, Dave R. M.; Kema, Ido P.; Aleman, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Associative emotional learning, which is important for the social emotional functioning of individuals and is often impaired in psychiatric illnesses, is in part mediated by dopamine and glutamate pathways in the brain. The protein DARPP-32 is involved in the regulation of dopaminergic and

  4. Angioarchitectural characteristics associated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in supratentorial brain arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jianwei, E-mail: swordman_pan@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Feng, Lei, E-mail: lei_feng66@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Vinuela, Fernando, E-mail: fvinuela@mednet.ucla.edu [Interventional Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiological Sciences, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); He, Hongwei, E-mail: ttyyhhw@126.com [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Beijing 100050 (China); Wu, Zhongxue, E-mail: 252694812@qq.com [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Beijing 100050 (China); Zhan, Renya, E-mail: neurovasword@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: The difference in arterial supply, venous drainage, functional localization in supratentorial and infratentorial compartments may contribute to the conflicting results about risk factors for hemorrhage in published case series of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM). Further investigation focused on an individual brain compartment is thus necessary. This retrospective study aims to identify angioarchitectural characteristics associated with the initial hemorrhagic event of supratentorial bAVMs. Materials and methods: The clinical and angiographic features of 152 consecutive patients with supratentorial bAVMs who presented to our hospital from 2005 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All these patients had new diagnosis of bAVM. Univariate (χ{sup 2} test) and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the angiographic features in patients with and without initial hemorrhagic presentations. A probability value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant in each analysis. Results: In 152 patients with supratentorial AVMs, 70.6% of deep and 52.5% of superficial sbAVMs presented with hemorrhage. The deep location was correlated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in univariate analysis (χ{sup 2} = 3.499, p = 0.046) but not in the multivariate model (p = 0.144). There were 44 sbAVMs with perforating feeders, 39 (88.6%) of which bled at a significantly higher rate than those with terminal feeders (χ{sup 2} = 25.904, p = 0.000). 87.5% (21/24) of exclusive deep venous drainage presented with hemorrhage, a significantly higher rate than those of the other type of venous drainage (χ{sup 2} = 11.099, p = 0.004). All 10 patients with both perforating feeders and exclusive deep draining vein presented with initial hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic presentation was correlated with perforating feeders (p = 0.000) and exclusive deep draining vein (p = 0.007) in multivariate analysis as well. Conclusions: Supratentorial bAVMs with perforating feeders

  5. Angioarchitectural characteristics associated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in supratentorial brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jianwei; Feng, Lei; Vinuela, Fernando; He, Hongwei; Wu, Zhongxue; Zhan, Renya

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The difference in arterial supply, venous drainage, functional localization in supratentorial and infratentorial compartments may contribute to the conflicting results about risk factors for hemorrhage in published case series of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM). Further investigation focused on an individual brain compartment is thus necessary. This retrospective study aims to identify angioarchitectural characteristics associated with the initial hemorrhagic event of supratentorial bAVMs. Materials and methods: The clinical and angiographic features of 152 consecutive patients with supratentorial bAVMs who presented to our hospital from 2005 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All these patients had new diagnosis of bAVM. Univariate (χ 2 test) and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the angiographic features in patients with and without initial hemorrhagic presentations. A probability value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant in each analysis. Results: In 152 patients with supratentorial AVMs, 70.6% of deep and 52.5% of superficial sbAVMs presented with hemorrhage. The deep location was correlated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in univariate analysis (χ 2 = 3.499, p = 0.046) but not in the multivariate model (p = 0.144). There were 44 sbAVMs with perforating feeders, 39 (88.6%) of which bled at a significantly higher rate than those with terminal feeders (χ 2 = 25.904, p = 0.000). 87.5% (21/24) of exclusive deep venous drainage presented with hemorrhage, a significantly higher rate than those of the other type of venous drainage (χ 2 = 11.099, p = 0.004). All 10 patients with both perforating feeders and exclusive deep draining vein presented with initial hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic presentation was correlated with perforating feeders (p = 0.000) and exclusive deep draining vein (p = 0.007) in multivariate analysis as well. Conclusions: Supratentorial bAVMs with perforating feeders and deep venous

  6. Elevated endogenous erythropoietin concentrations are associated with increased risk of brain damage in extremely preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Korzeniewski

    Full Text Available We sought to determine, in very preterm infants, whether elevated perinatal erythropoietin (EPO concentrations are associated with increased risks of indicators of brain damage, and whether this risk differs by the co-occurrence or absence of intermittent or sustained systemic inflammation (ISSI.Protein concentrations were measured in blood collected from 786 infants born before the 28th week of gestation. EPO was measured on postnatal day 14, and 25 inflammation-related proteins were measured weekly during the first 2 postnatal weeks. We defined ISSI as a concentration in the top quartile of each of 25 inflammation-related proteins on two separate days a week apart. Hypererythropoietinemia (hyperEPO was defined as the highest quartile for gestational age on postnatal day 14. Using logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models, we compared risks of brain damage among neonates with hyperEPO only, ISSI only, and hyperEPO+ISSI, to those who had neither hyperEPO nor ISSI, adjusting for gestational age.Newborns with hyperEPO, regardless of ISSI, were more than twice as likely as those without to have very low (< 55 Mental (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5-3.5 and/or Psychomotor (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.6-3.7 Development Indices (MDI, PDI, and microcephaly at age two years (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.5-3.8. Newborns with both hyperEPO and ISSI had significantly increased risks of ventriculomegaly, hemiparetic cerebral palsy, microcephaly, and MDI and PDI < 55 (ORs ranged from 2.2-6.3, but not hypoechoic lesions or other forms of cerebral palsy, relative to newborns with neither hyperEPO nor ISSI.hyperEPO, regardless of ISSI, is associated with elevated risks of very low MDI and PDI, and microcephaly, but not with any form of cerebral palsy. Children with both hyperEPO and ISSI are at higher risk than others of very low MDI and PDI, ventriculomegaly, hemiparetic cerebral palsy, and microcephaly.

  7. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Li, Yadan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain responses to audiovisual speech mismatch in infants are associated with individual differences in looking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnerenko, Elena; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Ballieux, Haiko; Ribeiro, Helena; Potton, Anita; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Moore, Derek G

    2013-11-01

    Research on audiovisual speech integration has reported high levels of individual variability, especially among young infants. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this variability results from individual differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech processing during infancy. A developmental shift in selective attention to audiovisual speech has been demonstrated between 6 and 9 months with an increase in the time spent looking to articulating mouths as compared to eyes (Lewkowicz & Hansen-Tift. (2012) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 1431-1436; Tomalski et al. (2012) Eur. J. Dev. Psychol., 1-14). In the present study we tested whether these changes in behavioural maturational level are associated with differences in brain responses to audiovisual speech across this age range. We measured high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to videos of audiovisually matching and mismatched syllables /ba/ and /ga/, and subsequently examined visual scanning of the same stimuli with eye-tracking. There were no clear age-specific changes in ERPs, but the amplitude of audiovisual mismatch response (AVMMR) to the combination of visual /ba/ and auditory /ga/ was strongly negatively associated with looking time to the mouth in the same condition. These results have significant implications for our understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in infants, suggesting that they are not strictly related to chronological age but instead associated with the maturation of looking behaviour, and develop at individual rates in the second half of the first year of life. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Associations between executive functioning, coping, and psychosocial functioning after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters Gregório, Gisela; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Smeets, Sanne M J; Jonker, Frank; Pouwels, Climmy G J G; Verhey, Frans R; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2015-09-01

    To examine the relationships between executive functioning, coping, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in individuals with neuropsychiatric symptoms after acquired brain injury (ABI). Cross-sectional study. Individuals (n = 93) in the post-acute and chronic phase (>3 months) after ABI and their significant others (N = 58) were recruited from outpatient clinics of four mental health centres in the Netherlands. Outcome measures were the Trail Making Test, Stroop Colour Word Test, Frontal Systems Behavioural Scale, Utrecht Coping List, Patient Health Questionnaire, and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire. Data were analysed with multiple regression analyses. Self-reported executive dysfunction was associated with greater use of passive coping styles (β = .37, p executive functioning (β = -.94, p executive functioning tests were not associated with coping, depressive symptoms, or quality of life. For clinicians, these data indicate that individuals who report greater difficulties with executive functioning after ABI are inclined to use maladaptive passive coping styles, which should be targeted in treatment. In comparison, individuals who report greater difficulties with executive functioning should not be prompted to use problem-focused coping styles. These individuals may benefit from other coping styles, such as the use of seeking social support or acceptance of problems. Coping influences the association between executive functioning and quality of life. Individuals who report difficulties with executive functioning after ABI may be inclined to use passive coping styles, which are maladaptive. Problem-focused coping strategies may be more useful for individuals who have strong executive abilities. This study was a cross-sectional study; thus, a cause-and-effect relationship could not be established between executive functioning, coping, and psychosocial functioning. As this research was part of standard clinical care, non-traditional tests for executive

  10. Probiotics Improve Inflammation-Associated Sickness Behavior by Altering Communication between the Peripheral Immune System and the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Charlotte; Ronaghan, Natalie; Zaheer, Raza; Dicay, Michael; Le, Tai; MacNaughton, Wallace K; Surrette, Michael G; Swain, Mark G

    2015-07-29

    Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic liver disease) commonly develop debilitating symptoms (i.e., sickness behaviors) that arise from changes in brain function. The microbiota-gut-brain axis alters brain function and probiotic ingestion can influence behavior. However, how probiotics do this remains unclear. We have previously described a novel periphery-to-brain communication pathway in the setting of peripheral organ inflammation whereby monocytes are recruited to the brain in response to systemic TNF-α signaling, leading to microglial activation and subsequently driving sickness behavior development. Therefore, we investigated whether probiotic ingestion (i.e., probiotic mixture VSL#3) alters this periphery-to-brain communication pathway, thereby reducing subsequent sickness behavior development. Using a well characterized mouse model of liver inflammation, we now show that probiotic (VSL#3) treatment attenuates sickness behavior development in mice with liver inflammation without affecting disease severity, gut microbiota composition, or gut permeability. Attenuation of sickness behavior development was associated with reductions in microglial activation and cerebral monocyte infiltration. These events were paralleled by changes in markers of systemic immune activation, including decreased circulating TNF-α levels. Our observations highlight a novel pathway through which probiotics mediate cerebral changes and alter behavior. These findings allow for the potential development of novel therapeutic interventions targeted at the gut microbiome to treat inflammation-associated sickness behaviors in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases. This research shows that probiotics, when eaten, can improve the abnormal behaviors (including social withdrawal and immobility) that are commonly associated with inflammation. Probiotics are able to cause this effect within the body by changing how

  11. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  12. Age-related reduction of adaptive brain response during semantic integration is associated with gray matter reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zude; Yang, Fengjun; Li, Dongning; Zhou, Lianjun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    While aging is associated with increased knowledge, it is also associated with decreased semantic integration. To investigate brain activation changes during semantic integration, a sample of forty-eight 25-75 year-old adults read sentences with high cloze (HC) and low cloze (LC) probability while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Significant age-related reduction of cloze effect (LC vs. HC) was found in several regions, especially the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and ri...

  13. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain...... fitness (CRF), anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP), serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were...

  14. Rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants : Classification and association with brain injury and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeke, Lauren C; van Ooijen, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; van Huffelen, Alexander C.; van Haastert, Ingrid C; van Stam, Carolien; Benders, Manon J; Toet, Mona C; Hellström-Westas, Lena; de Vries, Linda S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Classify rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants and relate these to brain injury and outcome. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 77 infants born <28 weeks gestational age (GA) who had a 2-channel EEG during the first 72 h after birth. Patterns detected by the BrainZ seizure

  15. PET Imaging of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Whiplash Associated Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez García, David

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of brain injury in our society with 235 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the European Union and about 500 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the United States. About 80% of all these events are accounted for as mild cases. At the same time,

  16. A study of brain networks associated with swallowing using graph-theoretical approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Luan

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity between brain regions during swallowing tasks is still not well understood. Understanding these complex interactions is of great interest from both a scientific and a clinical perspective. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was utilized to study brain functional networks during voluntary saliva swallowing in twenty-two adult healthy subjects (all females, [Formula: see text] years of age. To construct these functional connections, we computed mean partial correlation matrices over ninety brain regions for each participant. Two regions were determined to be functionally connected if their correlation was above a certain threshold. These correlation matrices were then analyzed using graph-theoretical approaches. In particular, we considered several network measures for the whole brain and for swallowing-related brain regions. The results have shown that significant pairwise functional connections were, mostly, either local and intra-hemispheric or symmetrically inter-hemispheric. Furthermore, we showed that all human brain functional network, although varying in some degree, had typical small-world properties as compared to regular networks and random networks. These properties allow information transfer within the network at a relatively high efficiency. Swallowing-related brain regions also had higher values for some of the network measures in comparison to when these measures were calculated for the whole brain. The current results warrant further investigation of graph-theoretical approaches as a potential tool for understanding the neural basis of dysphagia.

  17. Symptom dimensions are associated with progressive brain volume changes in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, G.; Derks, E. M.; van Haren, N. E. M.; Schnack, H. G.; Hulshoff Pol, H. E.; Kahn, R. S.; Cahn, W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is considerable variation in progressive brain volume changes in schizophrenia. Whether this is related to the clinical heterogeneity that characterizes the illness remains to be determined. This study examines the relationship between change in brain volume over time and

  18. Association Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Active-Duty Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) has been difficult to determine because of the prevalence of...Qualification Test; CAPS, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; PTSD , posttraumatic stress disorder ; TBI, traumatic brain injury. a For the zeromodel, base...New onset and persistent symptoms of post - traumatic stress disorder self reported after deployment and combat exposures. BMJ.

  19. A National Implementation Project to Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Greene, M Todd; Meddings, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L; McNamara, Sara E; Trautner, Barbara W; Ratz, David; Stone, Nimalie D; Min, Lillian; Schweon, Steven J; Rolle, Andrew J; Olmsted, Russell N; Burwen, Dale R; Battles, James; Edson, Barbara; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-08-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) in nursing home residents is a common cause of sepsis, hospital admission, and antimicrobial use leading to colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms. To develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to reduce catheter-associated UTI. A large-scale prospective implementation project was conducted in community-based nursing homes participating in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Long-Term Care. Nursing homes across 48 states, Washington DC, and Puerto Rico participated. Implementation of the project was conducted between March 1, 2014, and August 31, 2016. The project was implemented over 12-month cohorts and included a technical bundle: catheter removal, aseptic insertion, using regular assessments, training for catheter care, and incontinence care planning, as well as a socioadaptive bundle emphasizing leadership, resident and family engagement, and effective communication. Urinary catheter use and catheter-associated UTI rates using National Healthcare Safety Network definitions were collected. Facility-level urine culture order rates were also obtained. Random-effects negative binomial regression models were used to examine changes in catheter-associated UTI, catheter utilization, and urine cultures and adjusted for covariates including ownership, bed size, provision of subacute care, 5-star rating, presence of an infection control committee, and an infection preventionist. In 4 cohorts over 30 months, 568 community-based nursing homes were recruited; 404 met inclusion criteria for analysis. The unadjusted catheter-associated UTI rates decreased from 6.78 to 2.63 infections per 1000 catheter-days. With use of the regression model and adjustment for facility characteristics, the rates decreased from 6.42 to 3.33 (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.36-0.58; P project. Catheter utilization remained unchanged (4.50 at baseline, 4.45 at conclusion of project; IRR, 0

  20. Gunite and associated tanks remediation project recycling and waste minimization effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Saunders, A.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated clean up of legacy waste resulting from the Manhattan Project. The gunite and associated tanks project has taken an active pollution prevention role by successfully recycling eight tons of scrap metal, reusing contaminated soil in the Area of Contamination, using existing water (supernate) to aid in sludge transfer, and by minimizing and reusing personal protective equipment (PPE) and on-site equipment as much as possible. Total cost savings for Fiscal Year 1997 activities from these efforts are estimated at $4.2 million dollars

  1. Quantization of a symplectic manifold associated to a manifold with projective structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Indranil

    2009-01-01

    Let X be a complex manifold equipped with a projective structure P. There is a holomorphic principal C*-bundle L P ' over X associated with P. We show that the holomorphic cotangent bundle of the total space of L P ' equipped with the Liouville symplectic form has a canonical deformation quantization. This generalizes the construction in the work of and Ben-Zvi and Biswas [''A quantization on Riemann surfaces with projective structure,'' Lett. Math. Phys. 54, 73 (2000)] done under the assumption that dim C X=1.

  2. Acute hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation is associated with increased extracellular brain adenosine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Dale, Nicholas; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2015-01-01

    ) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We measured the adenosine concentration with biosensors in rat brain slices exposed to ammonia and in a rat model with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation. Exposure to ammonia in concentrations from 0.15-10 mM led to increases in the cortical adenosine concentration up to 18......Acute liver failure (ALF) can lead to brain edema, cerebral hyperperfusion and intracranial hypertension. These complications are thought to be mediated by hyperammonemia and inflammation leading to altered brain metabolism. As increased levels of adenosine degradation products have been found...... in brain tissue of patients with ALF we investigated whether hyperammonemia could induce adenosine release in brain tissue. Since adenosine is a potent vasodilator and modulator of cerebral metabolism we furthermore studied the effect of adenosine receptor ligands on intracranial pressure (ICP...

  3. EEG potentials associated with artificial grammar learning in the primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaheri, Adam; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Wilson, Benjamin; Alter, Kai; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-09-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has identified human brain potentials elicited by Artificial Grammar (AG) learning paradigms, which present participants with rule-based sequences of stimuli. Nonhuman animals are sensitive to certain AGs; therefore, evaluating which EEG Event Related Potentials (ERPs) are associated with AG learning in nonhuman animals could identify evolutionarily conserved processes. We recorded EEG potentials during an auditory AG learning experiment in two Rhesus macaques. The animals were first exposed to sequences of nonsense words generated by the AG. Then surface-based ERPs were recorded in response to sequences that were 'consistent' with the AG and 'violation' sequences containing illegal transitions. The AG violations strongly modulated an early component, potentially homologous to the Mismatch Negativity (mMMN), a P200 and a late frontal positivity (P500). The macaque P500 is similar in polarity and time of occurrence to a late EEG positivity reported in human AG learning studies but might differ in functional role. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional brain and age-related changes associated with congruency in task switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, Teal S.; Parker, David; Liu, Dan; Oh, Hwamee; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Alternating between completing two simple tasks, as opposed to completing only one task, has been shown to produce costs to performance and changes to neural patterns of activity, effects which are augmented in old age. Cognitive conflict may arise from factors other than switching tasks, however. Sensorimotor congruency (whether stimulus-response mappings are the same or different for the two tasks) has been shown to behaviorally moderate switch costs in older, but not younger adults. In the current study, we used fMRI to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms of response-conflict congruency effects within a task switching paradigm in older (N=75) and younger (N=62) adults. Behaviorally, incongruency moderated age-related differences in switch costs. Neurally, switch costs were associated with greater activation in the dorsal attention network for older relative to younger adults. We also found that older adults recruited an additional set of brain areas in the ventral attention network to a greater extent than did younger adults to resolve congruency-related response-conflict. These results suggest both a network and an age-based dissociation between congruency and switch costs in task switching. PMID:27520472

  5. Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I; Small, Steven L

    2009-11-01

    Everyday communication is accompanied by visual information from several sources, including co-speech gestures, which provide semantic information listeners use to help disambiguate the speaker's message. Using fMRI, we examined how gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information. The BOLD response was recorded while participants listened to stories under three audiovisual conditions and one auditory-only (speech alone) condition. In the first audiovisual condition, the storyteller produced gestures that naturally accompany speech. In the second, the storyteller made semantically unrelated hand movements. In the third, the storyteller kept her hands still. In addition to inferior parietal and posterior superior and middle temporal regions, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and left anterior inferior frontal gyrus responded more strongly to speech when it was further accompanied by gesture, regardless of the semantic relation to speech. However, the right inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to the semantic import of the hand movements, demonstrating more activity when hand movements were semantically unrelated to the accompanying speech. These findings show that perceiving hand movements during speech modulates the distributed pattern of neural activation involved in both biological motion perception and discourse comprehension, suggesting listeners attempt to find meaning, not only in the words speakers produce, but also in the hand movements that accompany speech.

  6. Factors associated with self-esteem following acquired brain injury in adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvis, William; Simpson, Jane; Hampson, Natalie

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem is potentially a key factor in psychological and psychosocial well-being following acquired brain injury (ABI). The current review aimed to identify, synthesise and appraise all existing quantitative empirical studies on predictors or correlates of self-esteem following ABI in adulthood. In total, 27 papers met the inclusion criteria. A range of clinical factors were related to self-esteem after ABI, including the degree of physical and functional impairment. It is unclear if cognitive impairment is related to high or low self-esteem. Additionally, psychological variables such as coping styles, adjustment and perception of problems or rehabilitation are related to self-esteem following ABI. Depression is strongly associated with low self-esteem, alongside anxiety, psychological distress and quality of life. Limitations of the available research and recommendations for clinical practice and further research are discussed. In particular, there is a need to engage with contemporary theoretical understandings of self-esteem, integrated with and supported by developments in how self-esteem is conceptualised and measured over time in an ABI population. The findings of the review suggest that self-esteem is an important factor to consider following ABI, particularly in the context of developing individualised, formulation-driven rehabilitation interventions that take into account biological, social and psychological factors.