WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain arteriovenous malformations

  1. BRAIN ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADEYINKA

    Brain Arteriovenous Malformation (BAVM) is a form of congenital vascular malformation that are present at birth, and may be evident clinically, and usually will grow commensurately with the child. We report an adult ,a 40-year-old woman with brain arteriovenous malformation presenting with headache and epileptic.

  2. Brain AVM (Arteriovenous Malformation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk factors Anyone can be born with a brain AVM, but these factors may be a risk: Being male. AVMs are more common in males. Having a family history. Cases of AVMs in families have been reported, but it's unclear if ... of a brain AVM include: Bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). An ...

  3. Brain arteriovenous malformations: Report of a case | Adeyinka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brain Arteriovenous Malformation (BAVM) is a form of congenital vascular malformation that are present at birth, and may be evident clinically, and usually will grow commensurately with the child. We report an adult ,a 40-year-old woman with brain arteriovenous malformation presenting with headache and epileptic ...

  4. Genome-wide association study of sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinsheimer, S.; Bendjilali, N.; Nelson, J.; Guo, D.E.; Zaroff, J.G.; Sidney, S.; McCulloch, C.E.; Salman, R. Al-Shahi; Berg, J.N.; Koeleman, B.P.C.; Simon, M.; Bostroem, A.; Fontanella, M.; Sturiale, C.L.; Pola, R.; Puca, A.; Lawton, M.T.; Young, W.L.; Pawlikowska, L.; Klijn, C.J.M.; Kim, H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) remains unknown, but studies suggest a genetic component. We estimated the heritability of sporadic BAVM and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to investigate association of common single nucleotide

  5. Genome-wide association study of sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Weinsheimer, Shantel; Bendjilali, Nasrine; Nelson, Jeffrey; Guo, Diana E; Zaroff, Jonathan G.; Sidney, Stephen; McCulloch, Charles E.; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Berg, Jonathan N; Bobby P. C. Koeleman; Simon, Matthias; Bostroem, Azize; Fontanella, Marco; Sturiale, Carmelo L; Pola, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) remains unknown, but studies suggest a genetic component. We estimated the heritability of sporadic BAVM and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to investigate association of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with risk of sporadic BAVM in the international, multicentre Genetics of Arteriovenous Malformation (GEN-AVM) consortium.METHODS: The Caucasian discovery cohort included 515 BAVM c...

  6. Notch-1 Signalling Is Activated in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZhuGe, Qichuan; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, WeiMing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Mao, XiaoOu; Xie, Lin; Chen, Gourong; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

    2009-01-01

    A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that,…

  7. Human brain arteriovenous malformations express lymphatic-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D.; Fuentes, Laurel F; Santiago, Shauna M; Allen, Breanna M; Cook, Douglas J.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Chang, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular lesions characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining vein(s) and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise AVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. Given the role of the transcription factor COUP-TFII in vascular development, EC specification, and pathological angiogenesis, we examined human AVM tissue to determine if COUP-FTII may ...

  8. Genome-wide association study of sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinsheimer, S; Bendjilali, N; Nelson, J; Guo, D.E; Zaroff, J.G; Sidney, S; McCulloch, C.E; Salman, R. Al-Shahi; Berg, J.N; Koeleman, B.P.C; Simon, M; Bostroem, A; Fontanella, M; Sturiale, C.L; Pola, R; Puca, A; Lawton, M.T; Young, W.L; Pawlikowska, L; Klijn, C.J.M; Kim, H

    2016-01-01

    ...) to investigate association of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with risk of sporadic BAVM in the international, multicentre Genetics of Arteriovenous Malformation (GEN-AVM) consortium. METHODS...

  9. Relative risk of hemorrhage during pregnancy in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijnum, Janneke; Wilkinson, Tim; Whitaker, Heather J; van der Bom, Johanna G; Algra, Ale; Vandertop, W. Peter; van den Berg, René; Brouwer, Patrick A; Rinkel, Gabriël J.E.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Klijn, Catharina J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether the risk of bleeding from brain arteriovenous malformations is higher during pregnancy, delivery, or puerperium. We compared occurrence of brain arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage in women during this period with occurrence of hemorrhage outside this period during

  10. Genome-wide association study of sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinsheimer, Shantel; Bendjilali, Nasrine; Nelson, Jeffrey; Guo, Diana E; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Sidney, Stephen; McCulloch, Charles E; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Berg, Jonathan N; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Simon, Matthias; Bostroem, Azize; Fontanella, Marco; Sturiale, Carmelo L; Pola, Roberto; Puca, Alfredo; Lawton, Michael T; Young, William L; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Klijn, Catharina J M; Kim, Helen

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) remains unknown, but studies suggest a genetic component. We estimated the heritability of sporadic BAVM and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to investigate association of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with risk of sporadic BAVM in the international, multicentre Genetics of Arteriovenous Malformation (GEN-AVM) consortium. The Caucasian discovery cohort included 515 BAVM cases and 1191 controls genotyped using Affymetrix genome-wide SNP arrays. Genotype data were imputed to 1000 Genomes Project data, and well-imputed SNPs (>0.01 minor allele frequency) were analysed for association with BAVM. 57 top BAVM-associated SNPs (51 SNPs with pJAG1 and BNC2. Of the 6 candidate SNPs, 2 in ACVRL1 and MMP3 had a nominal p<0.05 in the replication cohort. We performed the first GWAS of sporadic BAVM in the largest BAVM cohort assembled to date. No GWAS SNPs were replicated, suggesting that common SNPs do not contribute strongly to BAVM susceptibility. However, heritability estimates suggest a modest but significant genetic contribution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Interventions for treating brain arteriovenous malformations in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jenny; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2010-07-07

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the single most common cause of intracerebral haemorrhage in young adults. Brain AVMs also cause seizure(s) and focal neurological deficits (in the absence of haemorrhage, migraine or an epileptic seizure); approximately one fifth are incidental discoveries. Various interventions are used in an attempt to eradicate brain AVMs: neurosurgical excision, stereotactic radiotherapy/'radiosurgery' (using gamma knife, linear accelerator, proton beam, or 'Cyber Knife'), endovascular embolisation (using glues, particles, fibres, coils, or balloons), and staged combinations of these interventions. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2006. To assess the clinical effects of interventions to treat brain AVMs in adults (with the aim of either partial obliteration or total eradication), using data published in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched November 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2009) and EMBASE (1980 to November 2009). We searched international registers of clinical trials, the contents pages of relevant journals, and bibliographies of relevant articles (November 2009). We also contacted manufacturers of interventional treatments for brain AVMs (March 2005). We sought randomised trials of any or all of the interventions for brain AVMs, compared against each other or against usual medical therapy, with relevant clinical outcome measures. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria and reviewed the relevant studies. One ongoing RCT fulfils the selection criteria for this review: A Randomized trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA, www.arubastudy.org), comparing interventional treatment versus medical management for brain AVMs that have never bled. We also found two RCTs which tested the equivalence of two

  12. Extensive white matter changes after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain arteriovenous malformations: a prognostic sign for obliteration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, R.; Buis, D. R.; Lagerwaard, F. J.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; Vandertop, W. P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Perinidal high-signal-intensity changes on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can be seen surrounding radiosurgically treated brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Occasionally, these signal intensity changes develop far beyond the irradiated volume. A retrospective analysis of

  13. Impaired peri-nidal cerebrovascular reserve in seizure patients with brain arteriovenous malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierstra, Jorn; Conklin, John; Krings, Timo; Slessarev, Marat; Han, Jay S.; Fisher, Joseph A.; terBrugge, Karel; Wallace, M. Christopher; Tymianski, Michael; Mikulis, David J.

    Epileptic seizures are a common presentation in patients with newly diagnosed brain arteriovenous malformations, but the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the seizures remain poorly understood. We used magnetic resonance imaging-based quantitative cerebrovascular reactivity mapping and

  14. Treatment of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijnum, Janneke; van der Worp, H. Bart; Buis, Dennis R.; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Rinkel, Gabriël J. E.; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, Jan Willem; Vandertop, W. Peter; Algra, Ale; Klijn, Catharina J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Context Outcomes following treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)with microsurgery, embolization, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or combinations vary greatly between studies. Objectives To assess rates of case fatality, long-term risk of hemorrhage, complications, and successful

  15. Angioarchitecture determines obliteration rate after radiosurgery in brain arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeshineetanakul, Patamintita; Krings, Timo; Geibprasert, Sasikhan; Menezes, Ravi; Agid, Ronit; Terbrugge, Karel G; Schwartz, Michael L

    2012-12-01

    Radiosurgery as a potential treatment modality for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) has 60% to 90% obliteration rates. To test whether AVM angioarchitecture determines obliteration rate after radiosurgery. This study was a retrospective analysis of 139 patients with AVM who underwent radiosurgery. Multiple angioarchitectural characteristics were reviewed on conventional angiogram on the day of radiosurgery: enlargement of feeding arteries, flow-related or intranidal aneurysms, perinidal angiogenesis, arteriovenous transit time, nidus type, venous ectasia, focal pouches, venous rerouting, and presence of a pseudophlebitic pattern. The radiation plan was reviewed for nidus volume and eloquence of AVM location. A chart review was performed to determine clinical presentation and previous treatment. Outcome was dichotomized into complete/incomplete obliteration, and various statistics were performed, examining whether outcome status was associated with the investigated factors. Marginal dose ranged from 15 to 25 Gy (mean, 18.8 Gy), with lower doses prescribed in eloquent locations. Sizes of AVMs ranged from 0.08 to 21 cm (mean, 3.78 ± 4.19 cm). Complete AVM obliteration was achieved in 92 patients (66%) and was related to these independent factors: noneloquent location (odds ratio [OR], 3.20), size (OR, 0.88), low flow (OR, 3.47), no or mild arterial enlargement (OR, 3.32), and absence of perinidal angiogenesis (OR, 2.61). Concerning the 3 last angioarchitectural characteristics, if no or only a single factor was present in an individual patient (n = 92 patients), obliteration was observed in 74 (80%); if 2 or 3 factors were present (n = 47), obliteration was observed in 18 patients (38%; OR, 6.62). Angioarchitectural factors that indicate high flow are associated with a lower rate of AVM obliteration after radiosurgery.

  16. Human brain arteriovenous malformations express lymphatic-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D; Fuentes, Laurel F; Santiago, Shauna M; Allen, Breanna M; Cook, Douglas J; Steinberg, Gary K; Chang, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular lesions characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining vein(s) and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise AVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. Given the role of the transcription factor COUP-TFII in vascular development, EC specification, and pathological angiogenesis, we examined human AVM tissue to determine if COUP-FTII may have a role in AVM disease biology. We examined 40 human brain AVMs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and qRT-PCR for the expression of COUP-TFII as well as other genes involved in venous and lymphatic development, maintenance, and signaling. We also examined proliferation and EC tube formation with human umbilical ECs (HUVEC) following COUP-TFII overexpression. We report that AVMs expressed COUP-TFII, SOX18, PROX1, NFATC1, FOXC2, TBX1, LYVE1, Podoplanin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, contained Ki67-positive cells and heterogeneously expressed genes involved in Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, and VEGF signaling pathways. Overexpression of COUP-TFII alone in vitro resulted in increased EC proliferation and dilated tubes in an EC tube formation assay in HUVEC. This suggests AVM ECs are further losing their arterial/venous specificity and acquiring a partial lymphatic molecular phenotype. There was significant correlation of gene expression with presence of clinical edema and acute hemorrhage. While the precise role of these genes in the formation, stabilization, growth and risk of hemorrhage of AVMs remains unclear, these findings have potentially important implications for patient management and treatment choice, and opens new avenues for future work on AVM disease mechanisms.

  17. Arteriovenous Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Diabetic Neuropathy Information Page Dysgraphia Information Page Dyslexia Information Page Dystonias Information Page Empty Sella Syndrome ... Spotlight Find NINDS Clinical Trials Patient & Caregiver Education Fact Sheets Hope Through Research Know Your Brain Preventing ...

  18. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Oxhøj, H; Andersen, P E

    1999-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease with a high prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). The first symptom of HHT may be stroke or fatal hemoptysis associated with the presence of PAVM.......Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease with a high prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). The first symptom of HHT may be stroke or fatal hemoptysis associated with the presence of PAVM....

  19. Application of a Novel Brain Arteriovenous Malformation Endovascular Grading Scale for Transarterial Embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D L; Leslie-Mazwi, T M; Yoo, A J; Rabinov, J D; Butler, W E; Bell, J E; Hirsch, J A

    2015-07-01

    The advent of modern neuroendovascular techniques has highlighted the need for a simple, effective, and reliable brain arteriovenous malformation endovascular grading scale. A novel scale of this type has recently been described. It incorporates the number of feeding arteries, eloquence, and the presence of an arteriovenous fistula component. Our aim is to assess the validity of this grading scale. We retrospectively reviewed all suspected brain arteriovenous malformations at Massachusetts General Hospital from 2005 to 2013, identifying 126 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Spearman correlations between endovascular and Spetzler-Martin grading scales and long-term outcomes were performed. Median endovascular grades were compared between treatment modalities and endovascular outcomes. Binary regression analysis was performed with major endovascular complications as a dichotomized dependent variable. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for interobserver reliability of the endovascular grading scale. A significant Spearman correlation between the endovascular grade and the Spetzler-Martin grade was demonstrated (ρ = 0.5, P < .01). Differences in the median endovascular grades between the endovascular cure (median = 2) and endovascular complication groups (median = 4) (P < .05) and between the endovascular cure and successful multimodal treatment groups (median = 3) (P < .05) were demonstrated. The endovascular grade was the only independent predictor of complications (OR = 0.5, P < .01). The intraclass correlation coefficient of the endovascular grade was 0.71 (P < .01). Validation of a brain arteriovenous malformation endovascular grading scale demonstrated that endovascular grades of ≤II were associated with endovascular cure, while endovascular grades of ≤III were associated with multimodal cure or significant lesion reduction and favorable outcome. The endovascular grade provides useful information to refine risk stratification for

  20. Uterine arteriovenous malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandrino, F.; Di Silverio, E.; Moramarco, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous vascular malformations (UAVM) are uncommon vascular diseases, occurring during reproductive age. Patients affected by UAMVs usually present with recurrent pregnancy loss or menorrhagia. Initial evaluation of UAVMs is made with ultrasonography (US) and US-Doppler. Magnetic resonance is used when a UAMV is suspected at US. Treatment can be surgical (hysterectomy or surgical removal of AVM), or with selective uterine arterial embolization. We report a case of UAMV, from its...

  1. Uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrino, F; Di Silverio, E; Moramarco, L P

    2013-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous vascular malformations (UAVM) are uncommon vascular diseases, occurring during reproductive age. Patients affected by UAMVs usually present with recurrent pregnancy loss or menorrhagia. Initial evaluation of UAVMs is made with ultrasonography (US) and US-Doppler. Magnetic resonance is used when a UAMV is suspected at US. Treatment can be surgical (hysterectomy or surgical removal of AVM), or with selective uterine arterial embolization. We report a case of UAMV, from its clinical signs to diagnostic confirmation and subsequent treatment.

  2. Giant scalp arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Roxo, Marcelo Rosa; Camelo, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the scalp are rare lesions. The clinical picture presents with complaints of increased scalp, scalp disfigurement, pain and neurological symptoms. Its origin can be congenital or traumatic. We present a case of giant scalp AVMs and its management, followed by a brief literature review on the subject. The diagnosis of scalp AVMs is based on physical examination and confirmed by internal and external carotid angiography or computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Surgical excision is especially effective in scalp AVMs, and is the most frequently used treatment modality.

  3. Positive correlation between occlusion rate and nidus size of proton beam treated brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomquist, Erik; Ronne Engström, Elisabeth; Borota, Ljubisa

    2016-01-01

    those with and without total occlusion regarding mean age, gender distribution or symptoms at diagnosis. Forty-one patients developed a mild radiation-induced brain edema and this was more common in those that had total occlusion of the AVM. Two patients had brain hemorrhages after treatment. One......Background. Proton beam radiotherapy of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the brain has been performed in Uppsala since 1991. An earlier study based on the first 26 patients concluded that proton beam can be used for treating large and medium sized AVMs that were considered difficult to treat...... with photons due to the risk of side effects. In the present study we analyzed the result from treating the subsequent 65 patients.Material and methods. A retrospective review of the patients medical records, treatment protocols and radiological results was done. Information about gender, age, presenting...

  4. Management of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derdeyn, Colin P; Zipfel, Gregory J; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Cooke, Daniel L; Feldmann, Edward; Sheehan, Jason P; Torner, James C

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this statement is to review the current data and to make suggestions for the diagnosis and management of both ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations. The writing group met in person and by teleconference to establish search terms and to discuss narrative text and suggestions. Authors performed their own literature searches of PubMed, Medline, or Embase, specific to their allocated section, through the end of January 2015. Prerelease review of the draft statement was performed by expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Scientific Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. The focus of the scientific statement was subdivided into epidemiology; diagnosis; natural history; treatment, including the roles of surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, and embolization; and management of ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations. Areas requiring more evidence were identified. Brain arteriovenous malformations are a relatively uncommon but important cause of hemorrhagic stroke, especially in young adults. This statement describes the current knowledge of the natural history and treatment of patients with ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations, suggestions for management, and implications for future research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. [Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, L; Morcel, K; Bruneau, B; Moquet, P-Y; Bauville, E; Levêque, J; Lavoue, V

    2011-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVM) may be responsible for vaginal bleeding potentially life-threatening. They are most often acquired following uterine trauma (curettage, cesarean section, artificial delivery/uterus examination) in association with pregnancy or gestational trophoblastic disease. We report three cases of patients having uterine AVM after curettage. The diagnostic management is important to avoid differential diagnoses (intra-uterine retention, hemangioma, gestational trophoblastic disease). It is based on serum hCG measurement and Doppler ultrasound, then confirmed on dynamic angio-MRI, which tends to replace angiography as first-line. The therapeutic management in cases of symptomatic AVMs is mostly embolization which offers the possibility for childbearing. Current data on subsequent pregnancies is reassuring even if they remain limited. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Compliance of systematic reviews articles in brain arteriovenous malformation with PRISMA statement guidelines: Review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhigbe, T; Zolnourian, A; Bulters, D

    2017-05-01

    The knowledge of reporting compliance of systematic reviews with PRISMA guidelines may assist in improving the quality of secondary research in brain AVM management and subsequently application to patient population and clinical practice. This may allow researchers and clinicians to be equipped to appraise existing literatures based on known deficit to look for or expect. The objective of this study was to assess the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in the management of brain AVM. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses articles published in medical journals between 1st of May 2011 and 30th April 2016 (five-year period) were examined. Exclusion criteria were articles that were not systematic reviews and not meta-analyses, narrative literature reviews, historical literature reviews, animal studies, unpublished articles, commentaries and letter to the editor. Electronic database search performed through Medline PubMed on 20th September 2016. This systematic review examined seven systematic review articles on intracranial arteriovenous malformation compliance with PRISMA statement guidelines. The mean percentage of applicable PRISMA items across all studies was 74% (range 67-93%). Protocol registration and declaration, risk of bias and funding sources were the most poorly reported of the PRISMA items (14% each). A significant variance in the total percentages was evident between studies (67-93%). Systematic review reporting in medical literature is excessively variable and overall poor. As these papers are being published with increasing frequency, need to fully adhere to PRISMA statement guide for systematic review to ensure high-quality publications. Complete reporting of PRISMA items within systematic reviews in cerebral arteriovenous malformation enhance quality assessment, robust critical appraisal, better judgement and ultimately sound application to practice thereby improving research standards and patients care. Crown Copyright © 2017

  7. Neuropsychological function and brain arteriovenous malformations: redefining eloquence as a risk for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, R M

    2001-11-15

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain, thought to begin during fetal development and undergo an unclear maturation process; most often do not become symptomatic until the patient reaches adulthood. Authors of recent prospective studies have suggested that relatively few patients present with neuropsychological abnormalities in the absence of hemorrhage. In general, neuropsychological evaluations in patients with AVMs have yielded mixed results with respect to localization of function, and the authors of most cognitive studies have not been able to demonstrate the nature and degree of impairment seen in acute ischemic stroke in comparable brain regions. Superselective Wada testing prior to therapeutic embolization, functional imaging studies, and intrasurgical cortical mapping have shown redistribution of language and memory to unpredictable regions. Developmental cognitive history in these patients indicates that most will have at least some background of learning problems during the school-age years with varying degrees of severity, reflecting a time when brain reorganization may be occurring. These data suggest that traditional assumptions about the eloquence of brain regions may not hold for patients with AVMs and that establishing treatment risk in the individual patient needs to be made on an empirical basis.

  8. Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Malformation Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kevin J.; Smith, Matthew C. P.; Li, Dean Y.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular malformations are a disruption of the normal vascular pattern in which it is expected that a capillary network of microscopic vessels lies interposed between high-pressure arteries that deliver blood and thin-walled veins that collect low-pressure blood for return to the heart. In the case of arteriovenous malformations, arteries or arterioles connect directly to the venous collection system, bypassing any capillary bed. Clinical consequences result from rupture and hemorrhage, from dramatically increased blood flow, or from the loss of capillary functions such as nutrient exchange and filtering function. These malformations can occur sporadically or as a component of inherited vascular malformation syndromes. In these and other hereditary vascular malformation syndromes, genetic studies have identified proteins and pathways involved in vascular morphogenesis and development. A common theme observed is that vascular malformations result from disruption in pathways involved in vascular stability. Here we review the vascular malformations and pathways involved in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation, cerebral cavernous malformations, and mucocutaneous venous malformations. PMID:23125071

  9. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-12-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision.

  10. Proteus Syndrome with Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asilian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is a rare sporadic disorder that appears with localized macrosomia, congenital lipomatosis, and slow flow vascular malformations, connective tissue nevus, and epidermal nevus. There are usually some manifestations at birth. The vascular abnormalities that have been reported in Proteus syndrome are capillary and slow flow venous malformation. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy with confirmed Proteus syndrome characterized by high flow vascular malformation (arteriovenous [AV] malformation unlike the usual vascular malformations seen in this syndrome. This case adds a new perspective to the established clinical findings of the Proteus syndrome.

  11. Novel brain arteriovenous malformation mouse models for type 1 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Choi

    Full Text Available Endoglin (ENG is a causative gene of type 1 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT1. HHT1 patients have a higher prevalence of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM than the general population and patients with other HHT subtypes. The pathogenesis of brain AVM in HHT1 patients is currently unknown and no specific medical therapy is available to treat patients. Proper animal models are crucial for identifying the underlying mechanisms for brain AVM development and for testing new therapies. However, creating HHT1 brain AVM models has been quite challenging because of difficulties related to deleting Eng-floxed sequence in Eng(2fl/2fl mice. To create an HHT1 brain AVM mouse model, we used several Cre transgenic mouse lines to delete Eng in different cell-types in Eng(2fl/2fl mice: R26CreER (all cell types after tamoxifen treatment, SM22α-Cre (smooth muscle and endothelial cell and LysM-Cre (lysozyme M-positive macrophage. An adeno-associated viral vector expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (AAV-VEGF was injected into the brain to induce focal angiogenesis. We found that SM22α-Cre-mediated Eng deletion in the embryo caused AVMs in the postnatal brain, spinal cord, and intestines. Induction of Eng deletion in adult mice using R26CreER plus local VEGF stimulation induced the brain AVM phenotype. In both models, Eng-null endothelial cells were detected in the brain AVM lesions, and formed mosaicism with wildtype endothelial cells. However, LysM-Cre-mediated Eng deletion in the embryo did not cause AVM in the postnatal brain even after VEGF stimulation. In this study, we report two novel HHT1 brain AVM models that mimic many phenotypes of human brain AVM and can thus be used for studying brain AVM pathogenesis and testing new therapies. Further, our data indicate that macrophage Eng deletion is insufficient and that endothelial Eng homozygous deletion is required for HHT1 brain AVM development.

  12. Late clinical and radiological complications of stereotactical radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations of the brain

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    Parkhutik, Vera [Hospital Universitario la Fe, Department of Neurology, Valencia (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, PhD Program of the Department of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Lago, Aida; Vazquez, Juan Francisco; Tembl, Jose Ignacio [Hospital Universitario la Fe, Department of Neurology, Valencia (Spain); Aparici, Fernando; Guillen, Lourdes; Mainar, Esperanza; Vazquez, Victor [Hospital Universitario la Fe, Department of Neuroradiology, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Post-radiation injury of patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) include blood-brain barrier breakdown (BBBB), edema, and necrosis. Prevalence, clinical relevance, and response to treatment are poorly known. We present a series of consecutive brain AVM treated with stereotactic radiosurgery describing the appearance of radiation injury and clinical complications. Consecutive patients with annual clinical and radiological follow-up (median length 63 months). Edema and BBBB were classified in four groups (minimal, perilesional, moderate, or severe), and noted together with necrosis. Clinical symptoms of interest were intracranial hypertension, new neurological deficits, new seizures, and brain hemorrhages. One hundred two cases, median age 34 years, 52 % male. Median irradiated volume 3.8 cc, dose to the margin of the nidus 18.5 Gy. Nineteen patients underwent a second radiosurgery. Only 42.2 % patients remained free from radiation injury. Edema was found in 43.1 %, blood-brain barrier breakdown in 20.6 %, necrosis in 6.9 %. Major injury (moderate or severe edema, moderate or severe BBBB, or necrosis) was found in 20 of 102 patients (19.6 %). AVM diameter >3 cm and second radiosurgery were independent predictors. Time to the worst imaging was 60 months. Patients with major radiation injury had a hazard ratio for appearance of focal deficits of 7.042 (p = 0.04), of intracranial hypertension 2.857 (p = 0.025), hemorrhage into occluded nidus 9.009 (p = 0.079), appearance of new seizures not significant. Major radiation injury is frequent and increases the risk of neurological complications. Its late appearance implies that current follow-up protocols need to be extended in time. (orig.)

  13. Late clinical and radiological complications of stereotactical radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations of the brain.

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    Parkhutik, Vera; Lago, Aida; Aparici, Fernando; Vazquez, Juan Francisco; Tembl, Jose Ignacio; Guillen, Lourdes; Mainar, Esperanza; Vazquez, Victor

    2013-03-01

    Post-radiation injury of patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) include blood-brain barrier breakdown (BBBB), edema, and necrosis. Prevalence, clinical relevance, and response to treatment are poorly known. We present a series of consecutive brain AVM treated with stereotactic radiosurgery describing the appearance of radiation injury and clinical complications. Consecutive patients with annual clinical and radiological follow-up (median length 63 months). Edema and BBBB were classified in four groups (minimal, perilesional, moderate, or severe), and noted together with necrosis. Clinical symptoms of interest were intracranial hypertension, new neurological deficits, new seizures, and brain hemorrhages. One hundred two cases, median age 34 years, 52% male. Median irradiated volume 3.8 cc, dose to the margin of the nidus 18.5 Gy. Nineteen patients underwent a second radiosurgery. Only 42.2% patients remained free from radiation injury. Edema was found in 43.1%, blood-brain barrier breakdown in 20.6%, necrosis in 6.9%. Major injury (moderate or severe edema, moderate or severe BBBB, or necrosis) was found in 20 of 102 patients (19.6%). AVM diameter >3 cm and second radiosurgery were independent predictors. Time to the worst imaging was 60 months. Patients with major radiation injury had a hazard ratio for appearance of focal deficits of 7.042 (p = 0.04), of intracranial hypertension 2.857 (p = 0.025), hemorrhage into occluded nidus 9.009 (p = 0.079), appearance of new seizures not significant. Major radiation injury is frequent and increases the risk of neurological complications. Its late appearance implies that current follow-up protocols need to be extended in time.

  14. Early outcomes and periprocedural complications of transarterial embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations with Onyx®.

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    Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Sawicki, Marcin; Lubkowska, Katarzyna; Rać, Monika

    Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) is a rare pathology diagnosed mostly in young adults. However, due to its hemorrhagic complications, it constitutes an important clinical problem. Treatment modalities available include endovascular, surgery and radiosurgery. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment of BAVM with Onyx ® by reporting one-center experience. Between 2006 and 2013, 54 patients with BAVM were embolized with Onyx. The group consisted of 24 males and 30 females, aged 10 to 65 years (mean 42.6±15.4). Clinical manifestations of BAVMs were: hemorrhage in 27 (50.0%), headaches in 12 (22.2%), seizures in 7 (13.0%) and focal neurologic deficits in 2 (3.7%) patients. Six (11.1%) patients were asymptomatic. A majority of BAVMs were of II and III grade in Spetzler-Martin scale (19 and 22 cases respectively). A total number of 108 endovascular procedures were performed (mean 2.00±0.98 sessions/patient). Complete obliteration of malformation was achieved in 25 (46.3%) patients, mostly with grade II and III BAVMs. In 29 (53.7%) patients, embolization led to a decrease in size of BAVM that made it feasible for other treatment modality. Morbidity and mortality rates were 5.6% and 1.8% respectively. The rate of hemorrhagic complications was 9.3%. Embolization of BAVM with Onyx ® is an effective and safe method of treatment. However, regarding type and consequences of complications, the technique needs further improvement. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphometric characterization of brain arteriovenous malformations for clinical and radiological studies to identify silent intralesional microhemorrhages.

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    Pekmezci, Melike; Nelson, Jeffrey; Su, Hua; Hess, Christopher; Lawton, Michael T; Sonmez, Melda; Young, William L; Kim, Helen; Tihan, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are vascular lesions that can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly when they bleed, i.e., rupture. Determining the risk of rupture for bAVMs is a crucial task to determine the most appropriate approach to patients with bAVM. Furthermore, patients who present with a hemorrhagic event also have a higher risk of subsequent hemorrhage. Determination of the hemorrhage risk and management strategy for incidentally discovered bAVMs still remains a controversial subject. In recent years, we have identified silent intralesional microhemorrhages (SIMs) as a possible risk factor for subsequent hemorrhage in patients with bAVMs. The principal aim of this study was to determine critical histological features that can be correlated with preoperative radioimaging findings, and allow better identification of patients with greater risk of adverse outcome. Here we provide a detailed descriptive analysis of the morphometric assessment of bAVMs in order to provide reproducible methodology that will aid in correlating preoperative radioimaging findings with histological features that may be significantly associated with increased risk of hemorrhage/rupture.

  16. Development of an angiogenesis animal model featuring brain arteriovenous malformation histological characteristics.

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    Papagiannaki, Chrysanthi; Clarençon, Frédéric; Ponsonnard, Sébastien; Couquet, Claude; Maizeroi-Eugène, Franck; Bresson, Damien; Yardin, Catherine; Mounayer, Charbel

    2017-02-01

    Angiogenesis has a key role in the formation and evolution of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Numerous models have been developed aiming to recreate configuration of brain AVMs. To develop an animal model sharing the same pathological characteristics as human brain AVMs. Ten pigs were divided into two groups. Five animals underwent endovascular left common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA) occlusion and five animals served as controls. DSA, associated with 3D-rotational angiography, was performed at day 0 and at 3 months in both groups. The volume of the retia was calculated. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A serum levels were measured in both groups at the same time intervals. Finally, the animals were sacrificed at 3 months and the retia were harvested for pathological and immunohistochemistry examinations. At 3 months, a significantly higher rete volume was seen in group A than in group B (2.92±0.33 mL vs 1.87±0.69 mL, respectively; p=0.016). There was a trend for increased VEGF-A levels in group A at 3 months. In the occlusion group, histological findings showed significant reduction of media thickness and disrupted internal elastic lamina; immunohistochemistry findings showed strong reactivity for VEGF receptors and interleukin 6. Unilateral endovascular occlusion of the CCA-ECA results in angiogenesis triggering of the rete mirabile with both significant augmentation of the rete volume and histological evidence of pro-angiogenic stimulation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Intensive care management of patients with severe intracerebral haemorrhage after endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations

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    Keller, E.; Yonekawa, Y.; Imhof, H.G. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Zuerich (Switzerland); Tanaka, M.; Valavanis, Anton [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-06-01

    We studied the impact of emergency neurosurgery and intensive care on the outcome for patients with severe intracerebral haemorrhage after endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We reviewed the case notes of 18 patients with severe haemorrhage after embolisation of a brain AVM between 1986 and 2001. During this period the treatment changed: before 1993, these patients were not surgically treated, and they died, while after 1994, all patients underwent emergency surgery. We established a standardised protocol for emergency treatment and intensive care in May 1998, and emergency surgery was performed as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms of haemorrhage. Postoperative intensive care was according to a standardised regime. During these 15 years, 24 out of 605 patients undergoing 1066 interventions had a haemorrhage during or after the procedure, of which 18 were severe (3% of patients, 1.7% of interventions). All patients had a severe clinical deficit (mean Glasgow coma scale 4.2); eight had uni- or bilateral mydriasis. From 1989 to April 1998 four (31%) of 13 patients died, one (7.5%) remained in a vegetative state and eight (61.5%) made a good recovery. All five patients treated between 1998 and 2001 had a favourable outcome. The mean time from onset of the symptoms of haemorrhage to reaching the operation room was 129 min between 1989 and 1998 and 24 min between 1998 and 2001. Standardised emergency treatment and intensive care with early resuscitation, minimal radiological exploration before rapid surgery improved the outcome. A short time between the onset of the symptoms of haemorrhage and evacuation of the haematoma may be the most important factor for a favourable outcome. (orig.)

  18. Transdural arterial recruitment to brain arteriovenous malformation: clinical and management implications in a prospective cohort series.

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    Bervini, David; Morgan, Michael Kerin; Stoodley, Marcus Andrew; Heller, Gillian Ziona

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The occurrence of transdural arterial recruitment (TDAR) in association with brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is uncommon, and the reason for TDAR is not understood. The aim of this cohort study was to examine patient and bAVM characteristics associated with TDAR and the implications of TDAR on management. METHODS A prospective surgical database of bAVMs was examined. Cases previously treated elsewhere or incompletely examined by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) assessment were excluded. Three studies of this cohort were performed, as follows: characteristics associated with TDAR, the relationship between TDAR and neurological deficits unassociated with hemorrhage (NDUH), and the impact of TDAR on outcome from surgery. Regression models were performed. RESULTS Of 769 patients with complete DSA who had no previous treatment, 51 (6.6%) were found to have TDAR. The presence of TDAR was associated with increasing age (p cases comparing those with and without NDUH found an association of larger size (6.6 cm [2.9 SD] compared with 4.7 cm [1.8 SD]; p 1) with the following variables: size; location in eloquent brain; deep venous drainage; increasing age; and no presentation with hemorrhage. The presence of TDAR was not associated with an increased risk of complications from surgery. CONCLUSIONS The authors found that TDAR occurs in older patients with larger bAVMs, and that TDAR is also more likely to be associated with bAVMs presenting with NDUH. The likely explanation for the presence of TDAR is a secondary recruitment arising as a consequence of shear stress, rather than a primary vascular supply present from the earliest development of the bAVM.

  19. A genome-wide investigation of copy number variation in patients with sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrine Bendjilali

    Full Text Available Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM are clusters of abnormal blood vessels, with shunting of blood from the arterial to venous circulation and a high risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage. Most BAVMs are sporadic, but also occur in patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a Mendelian disorder caused by mutations in genes in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling pathway.To investigate whether copy number variations (CNVs contribute to risk of sporadic BAVM, we performed a genome-wide association study in 371 sporadic BAVM cases and 563 healthy controls, all Caucasian. Cases and controls were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. CNVs were called using the PennCNV and Birdsuite algorithms and analyzed via segment-based and gene-based approaches. Common and rare CNVs were evaluated for association with BAVM.A CNV region on 1p36.13, containing the neuroblastoma breakpoint family, member 1 gene (NBPF1, was significantly enriched with duplications in BAVM cases compared to controls (P = 2.2×10(-9; NBPF1 was also significantly associated with BAVM in gene-based analysis using both PennCNV and Birdsuite. We experimentally validated the 1p36.13 duplication; however, the association did not replicate in an independent cohort of 184 sporadic BAVM cases and 182 controls (OR = 0.81, P = 0.8. Rare CNV analysis did not identify genes significantly associated with BAVM.We did not identify common CNVs associated with sporadic BAVM that replicated in an independent cohort. Replication in larger cohorts is required to elucidate the possible role of common or rare CNVs in BAVM pathogenesis.

  20. Outcomes and Complications After Endovascular Treatment of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Prognostication Attempt Using Artificial Intelligence.

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    Asadi, Hamed; Kok, Hong Kuan; Looby, Seamus; Brennan, Paul; O'Hare, Alan; Thornton, John

    2016-12-01

    To identify factors influencing outcome in brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) treated with endovascular embolization. We also assessed the feasibility of using machine learning techniques to prognosticate and predict outcome and compared this to conventional statistical analyses. A retrospective study of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of BAVM during a 22-year period in a national neuroscience center was performed. Clinical presentation, imaging, procedural details, complications, and outcome were recorded. The data was analyzed with artificial intelligence techniques to identify predictors of outcome and assess accuracy in predicting clinical outcome at final follow-up. One-hundred ninety-nine patients underwent treatment for BAVM with a mean follow-up duration of 63 months. The commonest clinical presentation was intracranial hemorrhage (56%). During the follow-up period, there were 51 further hemorrhagic events, comprising spontaneous hemorrhage (n = 27) and procedural related hemorrhage (n = 24). All spontaneous events occurred in previously embolized BAVMs remote from the procedure. Complications included ischemic stroke in 10%, symptomatic hemorrhage in 9.8%, and mortality rate of 4.7%. Standard regression analysis model had an accuracy of 43% in predicting final outcome (mortality), with the type of treatment complication identified as the most important predictor. The machine learning model showed superior accuracy of 97.5% in predicting outcome and identified the presence or absence of nidal fistulae as the most important factor. BAVMs can be treated successfully by endovascular techniques or combined with surgery and radiosurgery with an acceptable risk profile. Machine learning techniques can predict final outcome with greater accuracy and may help individualize treatment based on key predicting factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Postradiosurgery hemorrhage rates of arteriovenous malformations of the brain: influencing factors and evolution with time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhutik, Vera; Lago, Aida; Tembl, José Ignacio; Vázquez, Juan Francisco; Aparici, Fernando; Mainar, Esperanza; Vázquez, Víctor

    2012-05-01

    The long-term benefit of radiosurgery of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM), especially nonhemorrhagic cases, is controversial. We calculated hemorrhage rates pre- and posttreatment and analyzed the risk factors for bleeding based on cases followed at our site. One hundred eight patients, age 36 ± 17 years, 56 men. The mean follow-up was 65 ± 44 months (median, 54; interquartile range, 33-94). Most AVMs were small (74.1% <3 cm in diameter); 48.1% were located in an eloquent area, 27.8% had deep drainage, and 39.8% presented with hemorrhage. The annual hemorrhage rate for any undiagnosed AVM was 1.2%, and 3.3% for AVMs with hemorrhagic presentation. Older patients, cortical or subcortical AVMs, and cases with multiple draining veins were less likely to present with bleeding. During the first 36 months postradiosurgery, hemorrhagic AVMs had a rebleeding rate of 2.1%, and a rate of 1.1% from 3 years onwards. Nonhemorrhagic AVMs had a hemorrhage rate of 1.4% during the first 3 years and 0.3% afterward. Arterial hypertension and nidus volume were independent predictors of bleeding after treatment. Mean nidus obliteration time was 37 ± 18 months (median, 32; interquartile range, 25-40), with hemorrhage rate of 1.3% before and 0.6% after obliteration, and 1.9% for AVMs that were not closed at the end of follow-up. Both hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic AVMs benefit from radiosurgical therapy, with gradual decrease in their bleeding rates over the years. Albeit small, the risk of hemorrhage persists during the entirety of follow-up, being higher for cases with hemorrhagic presentation and nonobliterated AVM.

  2. Brain Arteriovenous Malformations Located in Language Area: Surgical Outcomes and Risk Factors for Postoperative Language Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuming; Lin, Fuxin; Wu, Jun; Li, Hao; Chen, Xin; Li, Zhicen; Ma, Ji; Cao, Yong; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Jizong

    2017-09-01

    Case selection for surgical treatment of language-area brain arteriovenous malformations (L-BAVMs) remains difficult. This study aimed to determine the surgical outcomes and risk factors for postoperative language deficits (LDs) in patients with L-BAVMs. Patients with L-BAVMs who underwent microsurgical resection between September 2012 and June 2016 were reviewed. All patients had undergone preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Both functional and angioarchitectural factors were analyzed regarding the postoperative LD. Functional factors included the eloquence involved, the side of blood-oxygenation level-dependent signal activation and the white-matter fibers (anterior segment, long segment [LS], and posterior segment of arcuate fasciculus, and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus) involved. Sixty-nine patients with L-BAVMs were reviewed. Postoperative short- and long-term LD was found in 32 (46.4%) and 14 (20.3%) patients, respectively. Twelve of the 14 patients with Geschwind's territory L-BAVMs (85.7%) had short-term LD, compared with 10 (34.5%) in Wernicke's and 10 (38.5%) in Broca's area. LS involvement (P = 0.001) and larger nidus size (P = 0.017) were independent risk factors for the short-term LD. Meanwhile, nidus size (P = 0.007), preoperative LD (P = 0.008), and LS involvement (P = 0.028) were independent risk factors for long-term LD. L-BAVMs located in Geschwind's territory can cause a high incidence of LD. LS involvement and larger nidus size are risk factors for postoperative short- and long-term LD, and preoperative LD is a risk factor for postoperative, long-term LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multimodality Management of Spetzler-Martin Grade 3 Brain Arteriovenous Malformations with Subgroup Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecassis, Isaac Josh; Nerva, John D; Feroze, Abdullah; Barber, Jason; Ghodke, Basavaraj V; Kim, Louis J; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2017-06-01

    Spetzler-Martin grade 3 (SM3) lesions entail 4 distinct subtypes described based on size, eloquence, and deep venous drainage (3A-3D). The ideal management of each is contentious, and the results of A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain AVMs (ARUBA) introduced additional controversy and attention toward management strategies of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). We retrospectively reviewed 114 patients with treated SM3 bAVMs, including both ruptured and unruptured lesions. Primary outcomes included modified Rankin score at most recent follow-up, angiographic cure, and permanent treatment-related complications (morbidity). Other outcomes included mortality, bAVM recurrence or rebleed, and transient treatment-related complications. We used univariate and multivariate modeling to determine whether any specific features were predictive of outcomes. For unruptured bAVMs, an "ARUBA eligible" subgroup analysis was performed. We also reviewed the literature on management of ruptured and unruptured SM3 bAVMs. Of the 114 identified SM3 bAVMs, 40% were unruptured. Most (43.5%) lesions in the unruptured group were type 3C, whereas most ruptured bAVMs (66.2%) were type 3A. Unruptured lesions were mostly managed with radiosurgery (47.8%) and ruptured ones with preoperative embolization and surgery (36.7%). Surgical intervention was predictive of angiographic cure in multivariate modeling, even after controlling for ≥2 years of follow-up, although associated with a slightly higher rate of morbidity. Focal neurological deficit was the only predictor of a worse (modified Rankin score ≥2) functional outcome in follow-up for unruptured bAVMs. For ruptured bAVMs, superficial and cerebellar locations were predictive of better outcomes in multivariate models, in the absence of a focal neurological deficit at presentation and new after surgery deficit. ARUBA SM3 bAVMs specifically underwent more embolization as a monotherapy and less microsurgical resection than

  4. [Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: two sibling cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigün, Bülent Mustafa; Yüksel, Cabir; Enön, Serkan; Kayı Cangır, Ayten; Atasoy, Kayhan Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, are abnormal connections between pulmonary arteries and veins. However it can be presented as an isolated single anomaly, also may be multiple when accompanying with autosomal dominant hereditary hemorrhagic telengiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber Syndrome; ROWS). In this case report, two patients operated with the diagnosis of multiple pulmonary arteriovenous malformation familial screening done with the possibility of ROWS and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation found in her sister, are presented.

  5. Analysis of X-knife and surgery in treatment of arteriovenous malformation of brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Pooja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of treatment in arteriovenous malformation (AVM is total obliteration of the AVM, restoration of normal cerebral function, and preservation of life and neurological function. Aim: To analyze the results of X-knife and surgery for AVM of the brain. The endpoints for success or failure were as follows: success was defined as angiographic obliteration and failure as residual lesion, requiring retreatment, or death due to hemorrhage from the AVM. Materials and Methods: From May 2002 to May 2007, 54 patients were enrolled for this study. Grade I AVM was seen in 9%, grade II in 43%, grade III in 26%, grade IV in 9%, and grade V in 13%. Thirty-eight patients were treated by microsurgical resection out of which Grade I was seen in 5 patients, Grade II was seen in 17 patients, Grade III was seen in 9 patients and Grade V was seen in 7 patients. Rest of the sixteen patients were treated by linear accelerator radiosurgery out of which Grade II was seen in 6 patients, Grade III was seen in 5 patients and Grade IV was seen in 5 patients. The follow up was in range of 3-63 months. In follow up, digital subtraction angiography/ magnetic resonance angiography (DSA/MRA was performed 3 months after surgery and 1 year and 2 years after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS. Results: Among the patients treated with X-knife, 12/16 (75% had proven angiographic obliteration. Complications were seen in 4/16 (25% patients. Among the patients treated with microsurgical resection, 23/38 (61% had proven angiographic obliteration. Complications (both intraoperative and postoperative were seen in 19/38 (50% patients. Conclusions: Sixty-one percent of patients were candidates for surgical resection. X-knife is a good modality of treatment for a low-grade AVM situated in eloquent areas of the brain and also for high-grade AVMs, when the surgical risk and morbidity is high.

  6. Angioarchitectural characteristics associated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in supratentorial brain arteriovenous malformations

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    Pan, Jianwei, E-mail: swordman_pan@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Feng, Lei, E-mail: lei_feng66@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Vinuela, Fernando, E-mail: fvinuela@mednet.ucla.edu [Interventional Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiological Sciences, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); He, Hongwei, E-mail: ttyyhhw@126.com [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Beijing 100050 (China); Wu, Zhongxue, E-mail: 252694812@qq.com [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Beijing 100050 (China); Zhan, Renya, E-mail: neurovasword@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: The difference in arterial supply, venous drainage, functional localization in supratentorial and infratentorial compartments may contribute to the conflicting results about risk factors for hemorrhage in published case series of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM). Further investigation focused on an individual brain compartment is thus necessary. This retrospective study aims to identify angioarchitectural characteristics associated with the initial hemorrhagic event of supratentorial bAVMs. Materials and methods: The clinical and angiographic features of 152 consecutive patients with supratentorial bAVMs who presented to our hospital from 2005 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All these patients had new diagnosis of bAVM. Univariate (χ{sup 2} test) and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the angiographic features in patients with and without initial hemorrhagic presentations. A probability value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant in each analysis. Results: In 152 patients with supratentorial AVMs, 70.6% of deep and 52.5% of superficial sbAVMs presented with hemorrhage. The deep location was correlated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in univariate analysis (χ{sup 2} = 3.499, p = 0.046) but not in the multivariate model (p = 0.144). There were 44 sbAVMs with perforating feeders, 39 (88.6%) of which bled at a significantly higher rate than those with terminal feeders (χ{sup 2} = 25.904, p = 0.000). 87.5% (21/24) of exclusive deep venous drainage presented with hemorrhage, a significantly higher rate than those of the other type of venous drainage (χ{sup 2} = 11.099, p = 0.004). All 10 patients with both perforating feeders and exclusive deep draining vein presented with initial hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic presentation was correlated with perforating feeders (p = 0.000) and exclusive deep draining vein (p = 0.007) in multivariate analysis as well. Conclusions: Supratentorial bAVMs with perforating feeders

  7. Arteriovenous Malformation of the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of congenital blood vessel disorders more typically referred to as birthmarks. Subcategorized into vascular tumors and malformations, each anomaly is characterized by specific morphology, pathophysiology, clinical behavior, and management approach. Hemangiomas are the most common vascular tumors. Lymphatic, capillary, venous, and arteriovenous malformations make up the majority of vascular malformations. Arteriovenous malformation of the head and neck is a rare vascular anomaly but when present is persistent and progressive in nature and can represent a lethal benign disease. Here we present a case report of a 25-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation involving the base of tongue.

  8. Hemodynamic quantification in brain arteriovenous malformations with time-resolved spin-labeled magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, Hélène; Bannier, Elise; Maurel, Pierre; Neyton, Clément; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Schmitt, Peter; Barillot, Christian; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves

    2014-08-01

    Unenhanced time-resolved spin-labeled magnetic resonance angiography enables hemodynamic quantification in arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Our purpose was to identify quantitative parameters that discriminate among different AVM components and to relate hemodynamic patterns with rupture risk. Sixteen patients presenting with AVMs (7 women, 9 men; mean age 37.1±15.9 years) were assigned to the high rupture risk or low rupture risk group according to anatomic AVM characteristics and rupture history. High temporal resolution (magnetic resonance angiography was performed on a 3-T MR system. After dedicated image processing, hemodynamic quantitative parameters were computed. T tests were used to compare quantitative parameters among AVM components, between the high rupture risk and low rupture risk groups, and between the hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic groups. Among the quantitative parameters, time-to-peak (Pmagnetic resonance angiography allows AVM-specific combined anatomic and quantitative analysis of AVM hemodynamics. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Cavernous angioma associated with arteriovenous malformation of the brain--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Hironaga; Nishimura, Shinjitsu; Kaimori, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Mika; Furuno, Yuichi; Saito, Atsushi; Nishijima, Michiharu

    2010-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented a rare case of cerebral cavernous angioma associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) manifesting as headache. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an AVM in the right occipital lobe and a cavernous angioma in the left middle fossa. The patient underwent left frontotemporal craniotomy with total resection of the left parasellar intra-axial tumor. One month after the first operation, he underwent right occipital craniotomy with total resection of the right occipital AVM. The histological diagnoses were cavernous angioma and AVM, respectively. Immunostaining for angiogenic growth factors and structural proteins revealed different expression patterns of alpha-smooth muscle actin in these structures. Expression of structural proteins may reflect differences in their pathogenesis.

  10. Renal arteriovenous malformation presenting with massive hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti P. Gandhi, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal arteriovenous malformations are abnormal communications between the intrarenal arterial and venous systems. They are a rare cause of hematuria. Color Doppler ultrasonography, multislice CT angiography, and DSA are important tools for making the diagnosis. We describe the case of a 62-year-old man with renal arteriovenous malformation who presented with gross hematuria.

  11. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation with maternal carbamazepine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Manish; Shah, Dheeraj; Natasha, Gupta

    2007-01-01

    1 1/2 month old child born to primigravida mother on prolonged carbamazepine therapy presented with recurrent seizures. The child had abnormal facies and was diagnosed to be having arteriovenous malformation with intracranial hemorrhage on neuroimaging. This case suggests that development of arteriovenous malformation in a child with maternal carbamazepine therapy may occur as a part of clinical profile of 'fetal anticonvulsant syndrome'.

  12. Rare malformation of glans penis: arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Y; Sarac, M; Yucel, S

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric glans penis malformations, especially arteriovenous malformations (AVM), are very rare. Herein, we report two rare cases. A 14-year-old boy attended our outpatient clinic with chief complaints of purple swelling and rapidly growing lesion on the glans penis. The lesion was excised surgically after physical and radiological evaluations. Pathology reported AVM and the patient is being followed up. The second case is a 2-year-old boy who was admitted with a big lesion involving glans penis and genital area that has been present since birth. In physical and radiological evaluations, lesion on the glans penis was pulsatile. Parents of the patient did not want any surgery and patient has been in follow-up. Diagnosis of the vascular lesions on glans penis is very easy by physical and radiological examinations today. Long-term follow-up is very important for AVM. Clinicians must make a careful effort to document new glans lesions in the pediatric population and decrease anxiety in the parents of affected children.

  13. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  14. Multiple intracranial arteriovenous malformations: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellem, R T; Buchheit, W A

    1985-07-01

    The authors describe a case of multiple supratentorial intracranial arteriovenous malformations in a patient with a family history of cerebrovascular disease. There was no sign of any other vascular dysplasia. A brief review of this rare entity is given.

  15. Language and motor mapping during resection of brain arteriovenous malformations: indications, feasibility, and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrós, Andreu; Young, William L; McDermott, Michael W; Lawton, Michael T

    2011-03-01

    Microsurgical resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) located in the language and motor cortex is associated with the risk of neurological deterioration, yet electrocortical stimulation mapping has not been widely used. To demonstrate the usefulness of intraoperative mapping with language/motor AVMs. During an 11-year period, mapping was used in 12 of 431 patients (2.8%) undergoing AVM resection (5 patients with language and 7 patients with motor AVMs). Language mapping was performed under awake anesthesia and motor mapping under general anesthesia. Identification of a functional cortex enabled its preservation in 11 patients (92%), guided dissection through overlying sulci down to the nidus in 3 patients (25%), and influenced the extent of resection in 4 patients (33%). Eight patients (67%) had complete resections. Four patients (33%) had incomplete resections, with circumferentially dissected and subtotally disconnected AVMs left in situ, attached to areas of eloquence and with preserved venous drainage. All were subsequently treated with radiosurgery. At follow-up, 6 patients recovered completely, 3 patients were neurologically improved, and 3 patients had new neurological deficits. Indications for intraoperative mapping include preoperative functional imaging that identifies the language/motor cortex adjacent to the AVM; larger AVMs with higher Spetzler-Martin grades; and patients presenting with unruptured AVMs without deficits. Mapping identified the functional cortex, promoted careful tissue handling, and preserved function. Mapping may guide dissection to AVMs beneath the cortical surface, and it may impact the decision to resect the AVM completely. More conservative, subtotal circumdissections followed by radiosurgery may be an alternative to observation or radiosurgery alone in patients with larger language/motor cortex AVMs.

  16. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Acad. Dept. of Radiol.; Blaser, S.; Armstrong, D.; Chuang, S.; Harwood-Nash, D. [Division of Neuroradiology, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Humphreys, R.P. [Division of Neurosurgery, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    We review the presentation, imaging findings and outcome in 18 children with cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVM). This group is of particular interest because of the reported poor outcome despite modern imaging and neurosurgical techniques. All children had CT and 15 underwent catheter angiography at presentation. Several of the children in the latter part of the study had MRI. Of the 18 children, 17 presented with a ruptured AVM producing intracranial haemorrhage. The remaining child presented with temporal lobe epilepsy and was shown to have temporal, vermian and cerebellar hemisphere AVM. This child had other stigmata of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. Three other children had pre-existing abnormalities of possible relevance. One had a vascular malformation of the cheek and mandible, one a documented chromosomal abnormality and another a midline cleft upper lip and palate. Six of the 17 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM died within 7 days of the ictus. Vascular pathology other than an AVM was found in 10 of the 14 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM who had angiography: 4 intranidal aneurysms, 5 venous aneurysms and 2 cases of venous outflow obstruction (one child having both an aneurysm and obstruction). The severity of clinical presentation was directly related to the size of the acute haematoma, which was a reasonable predictor of outcome. (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs.

  17. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: overview and transcatheter embolotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugash, R.A. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-04-01

    The majority of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs) are found in people with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a condition also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. HHT is a clinically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder in which abnormal blood vessels cause bleeding and arteriovenous shunting. The 2 basic lesions of HHT - telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) - are closely related. Multisystem involvement leads to a staggering array of clinical manifestations, making HHT one of medicine's less familiar 'great pretenders'. Telangiectasias are dilated blood vessels, typically located in mucocutaneous surfaces (i.e., skin, conjunctiva, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract). Small telangiectasias are simply dilated post-capillary venules, whereas larger telangiectasias are made up of dilated arterioles and venules, often with no intervening capillary. They are, in essence, diminutive AVMs. These tiny lesions are visible as punctate bright red spots on skin and mucosal surfaces (Fig. 1). Their fragility and superficial location account for the disabling epistaxis and chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, which are so common with HHT. Hematuria (caused by urothelial telangiectasias) occurs occasionally but is not a prominent feature of the disease. Although tracheobronchial telangiectasias do occur and may cause hemoptysis, severe hemoptysis is typically related to pAVM rupture. AVMs are direct artery-to-vein connections. Though larger and far more impressive radiologically than telangiectasias, AVMs are more likely to be clinically silent until they either declare themselves in a catastrophic fashion or are detected by screening tests. In contrast to telangiectasias, which are generally found in epithelial surfaces, AVMs tend to develop within organs, most commonly the lung and brain. As screening methods evolve, liver involvement with both telangiectasias and complex AVMs is being recognized

  18. Interventional treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) are congenital vascular communications in the lungs. They act as right to left shunts so that the blood running through these malformations is not oxygenated or filtered. These patients are typically hypoxaemic with exercise intolerance and are at high...... to the arteriovenous malformations. It is a minimally invasive procedure and at the same time a lung preserving treatment with a very high technical success, high effectiveness and low morbidity and mortality. Embolization prevents cerebral stroke and abscess as well as pulmonary haemorrhage and further raises...

  19. Toward a comprehensive assessment of functional outcomes in pediatric patients with brain arteriovenous malformations: the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecassis, Isaac Josh; Nerva, John D; Barber, Jason; Rockhill, Jason; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Kim, Louis J; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are rare in pediatric patients but represent the most common cause of hemorrhagic stroke in this population. Pediatric patients demonstrate superior outcomes in comparison with adult patients with similar lesions and presentations. Most studies of clinical outcomes of pediatric bAVMs use the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), despite a lack of validation in pediatric patients. METHODS The authors interviewed the parents of 26 pediatric patients who underwent multimodality bAVM treatment and administered the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL)-a well-validated tool for pediatric outcomes that quantifies performance in a physical, emotional, social, and school domains. They also reviewed clinical information from the patients' medical charts. Statistical analysis was performed using a log-transformed t-test, the Mann-Whitney exact test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman correlation. In addition, the literature was reviewed for prior reports of clinical outcome of pediatric cases of bAVM. RESULTS The average PedsQL health-related quality of life score was 71 ± 24, with an average age at diagnosis of 12.5 years and an average follow-up period of 6.8 years. Seventeen patients (65%) presented with hemorrhage and 4 (15%) with seizures. PedsQL scores correlated strongly and at a statistically significant level (p quality of life is contingent on utilizing validated toolsets, such as the PedsQL.

  20. Numerical modeling process of embolization arteriovenous malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Gologush, T. S.; Petrenko, I. A.; Ostapenko, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformation is a difficult, dangerous, and most frequently encountered vascular failure of development. It consists of vessels of very small diameter, which perform a discharge of blood from the artery to the vein. In this regard it can be adequately modeled using porous medium. Endovascular embolization of arteriovenous malformation is effective treatment of such pathologies. However, the danger of intraoperative rupture during embolization still exists. The purpose is to model this process and build an optimization algorithm for arteriovenous malformation embolization. To study the different embolization variants, the initial-boundary value problems, describing the process of embolization, were solved numerically by using a new modification of CABARET scheme. The essential moments of embolization process were modeled in our numerical experiments. This approach well reproduces the essential features of discontinuous two-phase flows, arising in the embolization problems. It can be used for further study on the process of embolization.

  1. A supplementary grading scale combining lesion-to-eloquence distance for predicting surgical outcomes of patients with brain arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuming; Lin, Fuxin; Wu, Jun; Li, Hao; Wang, Lijun; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Shuo; Cao, Yong

    2017-03-31

    OBJECTIVE Case selection for the surgical treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) remains challenging. This study aimed to construct a predictive grading system combining lesion-to-eloquence distance (LED) for selecting patients with BAVMs for surgery. METHODS Between September 2012 and September 2015, the authors retrospectively studied 201 consecutive patients with BAVMs. All patients had undergone preoperative functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), followed by resection. Both angioarchitectural factors and LED were analyzed with respect to the change between preoperative and final postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. LED refers to the distance between the lesion and the nearest eloquent area (eloquent cortex or eloquent fiber tracts) measured on preoperative fMRI and DTI. Based on logistic regression analysis, the authors constructed 3 new grading systems. The HDVL grading system includes the independent predictors of mRS change (hemorrhagic presentation, diffuseness, deep venous drainage, and LED). Full Score combines the variables in the Spetzler-Martin (S-M) grading system (nidus size, eloquence of adjacent brain, and venous drainage) and the HDVL. For the third grading system, the fS-M grading system, the authors added information regarding eloquent fiber tracts to the S-M grading system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was compared with those of the S-M grading system and the supplementary S-M grading system of Lawton et al. RESULTS LED was significantly correlated with a change in mRS score (p eloquent fiber tracts to preoperative evaluation can effectively improve its predictive accuracy.

  2. Arteriovenous malformation embocure score: AVMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Demetrius K; Moftakhar, Roham; Straus, David; Munich, Stephan A; Chaus, Fahad; Kaszuba, Megan C

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs) may be treated with microsurgery, radiosurgery, endovascular surgery, or a combination of these modalities. Grading scales are available to aid the assessment of curative risk for microsurgery and radiosurgery. No grading system has been developed to assess the curative risk of endovascular surgery. To report our retrospective application of the AVM embocure score to patients treated at our institution between 2005 and 2011 METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 39 patients with CAVM treated at our institution between 2005 and 2011 with the primary aim of achieving a curative embolization. After reviewing all the different variables associated with the conventional Onyx embolization technique for CAVMs, we identified the following as the most relevant characteristics influencing the chances for complete angiographic embolization and complication risk: the number of arterial pedicles and draining veins, size of AVM nidus, and vascular eloquence. We sought to develop a scoring system to assess the complication risk for a curative embolization of CAVM with liquid embolic Onyx (Covidien, Irvine, California, USA). We developed the AVM embocure score (AVMES). This scoring system ranges from 3 to 10 and is the arithmetic sum of the number of arterial pedicles feeding the AVM (≤3, 4-6, >6), the number of draining veins (≤3, 4-6, >6), the size of the AVM nidus in centimeters (≤3, 4-6, >6), and the vascular eloquence (0-1). We applied AVMES to the same cohort of patients and validated the predictability of complete angiographic embolization and expected clinical risk of complication. In lesions with an AVMES of 3 (n=8), there was a 100% rate of complete AVM obliteration and 0% rate of major complications. In AVMES 4 (n=12) lesions, there was 75% complete obliteration rate, with 8% major morbidity. In AVMES 5 (n=9) lesions, there was 78% complete obliteration and 11% major morbidity. In AVMES >5 (n=10) there was 20

  3. The use of 4D-CTA in the diagnostic work-up of brain arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, Peter W.A. [Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Taeshineetanakul, Patamintita; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Krings, Timo [Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Schenk, Barry; Brouwer, Patrick A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    We aimed to evaluate the use of time-resolved whole-head CT angiography (4D-CTA) in patients with an untreated arteriovenous malformation of the brain (bAVM), as demonstrated by catheter angiography (DSA). Seventeen patients with a DSA-proven bAVM were enrolled. These were subjected to 4D-CTA imaging using a 320 detector row CT scanner. Using a standardized scoring sheet, all studies were analyzed by a panel of three readers. This panel was blind to the DSA results at the time of reading the 4D-CTA. 4D-CTA detected all bAVMs. With regard to the Spetzler-Martin grade, 4D-CTA disagreed with DSA in only one case, where deep venous drainage was missed. Further discrepancies between 4D-CTA and DSA analyses included underestimation of the nidus size in small lesions (four cases), misinterpretation of a feeding vessel (one case), misinterpretation of indirect feeding through pial collaterals (three cases) and oversight of mild arterial enlargement (two cases). 4D-CTA correctly distinguished low-flow from high-flow lesions and detected dural/transosseous feeding (one case), venous narrowing (one case) and venous pouches (nine cases). In this series, 4D-CTA was able to detect all bAVMs. Although some angioarchitectural details were missed or misinterpreted when compared to DSA, 4D-CTA evaluation was sufficiently accurate to diagnose the shunt and classify it. Moreover, 4D-CTA adds cross-sectional imaging and perfusion maps, helpful in treatment planning. 4D-CTA appears to be a valuable new adjunct in the non-invasive diagnostic work-up of bAVMs and their follow-up when managed conservatively. (orig.)

  4. Postmortem angiography in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in a case of fatal hemorrhage due to an arterio-venous malformation in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckenberg, Sabine; Schulze, Claudia; Bolliger, Stephan A; Gascho, Dominic; Thali, Michael J; Flach, Patricia M

    2015-05-01

    Autopsy is the traditional gold standard for determining the cause and manner of death in a forensic death investigation. However, postmortem imaging plays an ever-growing role in preliminary examination, even replacing conventional autopsy in some cases. This case report presents a case of massive intra-axial brain hemorrhage due to an arterio-venous malformation. The cause and manner of death were exclusively determined by postmortem radiology. Based on radiological findings, the autopsy was considered redundant and cancelled by the public prosecutor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma in Association with Arteriovenous Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanolkotabi, M.; Schoeneman, S.E.; Dipatri, A.J.; Hurley, M C; Ansari, S A; Rajaram, V.; Tomita, T.; Shaibani, A

    2012-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are highly vascular, relatively common primary brain tumors in the pediatric population, but their association with a true arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is extremely rare. We describe an eight-year-old girl with a right supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) with an angiographically documented AVM entangled in the tumor mass who presented with intracranial hemorrhage due to a ruptured anterior choroidal artery pseudoaneurysm encased in the lesion...

  6. Combined spinal intramedullary arteriovenous malformation and lipomyelomeningocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Y.C.; Roh, H.G.; Byun, H.S. [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Chung, J.I. [Medimoa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Eoh, W. [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-10-01

    Combined spinal arteriovenous malformation and lipomyelomeningocele are extremely rare. We present a rare combined case of a lipomyelomeningocele with an intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) occurred at the L3-L4 level in a 30-year-old man who suffered from low back pain radiating to the lower extremities, dysuria, and frequency for 5 years. The MR studies showed an intradural mass with high-signal intensity on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, intermingled with multiple signal-void structures. The mass extended extradurally toward a subcutaneously forming fatty mass on the patient's back. Spinal angiography showed an AVM supplied by the radiculopial branches of the lumbar arteries and drained by tortuous, dilated, perimedullary veins. Endovascular embolization and surgical resection were performed. (orig.)

  7. Embolization of a Traumatic Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Monette S.; Borge, Marc A.; Pierce, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare but potentially life-threatening source of bleeding. A high index of suspicion and accurate diagnosis of the condition in a timely manor are essential because instrumentation that is often used for other sources of uterine bleeding can lead to massive hemorrhage. Although angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis, ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities of choice for the evaluation of a suspected AVM....

  8. Eight cases of intracranial arteriovenous malformations conducted conventional radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Masafumi; Ootsuka, Ryoichi; Sui, Osamu (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-03-01

    We conducted radiotherapy in 8 cases of intracranial arteriovenous malformation that had difficult embolectomy and other surgery from 1983 to October, 1988. The results in 6 cases of dural arteriovenous malformation at the cavernous sinus were 'marked effect' in 4 cases, 'relapse' in 1 case, and 'no effect' in 1 case. One case of dural arteriovenous malformation at the sigmoid venous sinus demonstrated only slight irradiation effect. No irradiation effect was observed in 1 case of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. (author).

  9. Clinical aspects, management and outcome of brain arteriovenous malformations – results with microsurgery first policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Aurelia Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study, including patients operated for brain AVMs between 1999 and 2014, in the Clinic of Neurosurgery, Emergency Clinical Hospital Bagdasar-Arseni, Bucharest. 277 patients underwent surgery for brain AVMs. Mean age was 29.82 years. 195 patients (70.40% presented with hemorrhage and 86 cases (31.05% were admitted with seizures. We performed total resection of AVMs in 228 cases (82.31% and subtotal resection in 49 cases (17.69%. Regarding patients with residual nidus, 16 of them underwent second surgery, 27 stereotactic radiosurgery Gamma Knife, 3 embolization and 3 refused further treatment. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS improved following surgery (Z = -9.248, p = 0.000. Early complications (0-30 days were encountered in 84 patients (30.32%. We found the following risk factors for postoperative complications occurrence: motor deficit (p = 0.006, co-morbidities (p = 0.023, higher mRS (p = 0.005, lower Karnofsky score (p = 0.003, lower GCS (p = 0.016, profound nidus (p = 0.001, eloquent aria (p = 0.000, large nidus (p = 0.000, multiple arterial territory (p = 0.000, deep feeding arteries (p = 0.000, higher number of feeding arteries (p = 0.000, deep venous drainage (p = 0.000, multiple draining veins (p = 0.000, higher Spetzler- Martin grade (p = 0.006, high flow (p = 0.000, vascular steel (p = 0.000, associated aneurysms (p = 0.010 and decompressive craniectomy (p = 0.019. Mortality was 6.1%. Microsurgery is the treatment of choice for brain AVMs. Surgical results are excellent, with low morbidity and mortality. Patients with poor surgical results belonged to the group admitted with severe altered general state, state of consciousness, massive hematomas and acute brainstem dysfunction. If part of the nidus cannot be safely surgical resected, stereotactic radiosurgery can provide definitive cure of the lesion.

  10. International multicenter cohort study of pediatric brain arteriovenous malformations. Part 2: Outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Robert M; Ding, Dale; Kano, Hideyuki; Mathieu, David; Huang, Paul P; Feliciano, Caleb; Rodriguez-Mercado, Rafael; Almodovar, Luis; Grills, Inga S; Silva, Danilo; Abbassy, Mahmoud; Missios, Symeon; Kondziolka, Douglas; Barnett, Gene H; Dade Lunsford, L; Sheehan, Jason P

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Pediatric patients (age stereotactic radiosurgery for unruptured and ruptured pediatric AVMs. METHODS We analyzed and pooled AVM radiosurgery data from 7 participating in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Patients younger than 18 years of age who had at least 12 months of follow-up were included in the study cohort. Favorable outcome was defined as AVM obliteration, no post-radiosurgical hemorrhage, and no permanently symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RIC). The post-radiosurgery outcomes of unruptured versus ruptured pediatric AVMs were compared, and statistical analyses were performed to identify predictive factors. RESULTS The overall pediatric AVM cohort comprised 357 patients with a mean age of 12.6 years (range 2.8-17.9 years). AVMs were previously treated with embolization, resection, and fractionated external beam radiation therapy in 22%, 6%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The mean nidus volume was 3.5 cm3, 77% of AVMs were located in eloquent brain areas, and the Spetzler-Martin grade was III or higher in 59%. The mean radiosurgical margin dose was 21 Gy (range 5-35 Gy), and the mean follow-up was 92 months (range 12-266 months). AVM obliteration was achieved in 63%. During a cumulative latency period of 2748 years, the annual post-radiosurgery hemorrhage rate was 1.4%. Symptomatic and permanent radiation-induced changes occurred in 8% and 3%, respectively. Favorable outcome was achieved in 59%. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the absence of prior AVM embolization (p = 0.001) and higher margin dose (p radiosurgery hemorrhage (10% vs 4%, p = 0.07). The annual post-radiosurgery hemorrhage rates were 0.8% for unruptured and 1.6% for ruptured AVMs. CONCLUSIONS Radiosurgery is a reasonable treatment option for pediatric AVMs. Obliteration and favorable outcomes are achieved in the majority of patients. The annual rate of latency period hemorrhage after radiosurgery for both ruptured and unruptured pediatric

  11. Arteriovenous malformations of the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cura, M; Martinez, N; Cura, A; Dalsaso, T J; Elmerhi, F

    2009-09-01

    Arterial venous malformations (AVM) of the uterus are uncommon entities and should be considered in patients who present with profuse genital bleeding. There are two types of uterine AVM: acquired and congenital. Acquired uterine AVMs are conformed by communications between the uterine arteries and the myometrial veins, and are caused by an iatrogenic event or a pathological condition. Congenital AVMs are the result of abnormal development of primitive vessels that result in connections between pelvic arteries and veins in the uterus without an interconnecting capillary bed. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive diagnostic method able to demonstrate and characterize AVMs of the uterus. AVM in the pelvis may be noted incidentally by computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used to confirm and further characterize the sonographic findings of uterine AVM. Catheter angiography and embolization are very effective in defining the vascular anatomy and treating uterine vascular abnormalities.

  12. Unique double recurrence of cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Ichinose, Shunsuke; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Surgically treated patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are considered cured when the postoperative angiogram proves complete resection. However, despite no residual nidus or early draining vein on postoperative angiogram, rare instances of AVM recurrence have been reported in adults. In this paper, the authors present a case of a 24-year-old woman with asymptomatic double recurrence of her cerebral AVM after angiographically proven complete resection. To the authors' knowledge, this patient represents the first case with double de novo asymptomatic recurrence of Spetzler-Martin grade I AVM. Also, she represents the first case with unique AVM criteria in each recurrence.

  13. Anaesthetic management of a child with massive extracranial arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shamim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular tumors affect the head and neck commonly but arteriovenous malformations are rare. Vascular malformations are often present at birth and grow with the patient, usually only becoming significant later in childhood. Embolization has been the mainstay of treatment in massive and complex arteriovenous malformations. We present a case of massive extracranial arteriovenous malformation in a 7-year-old boy causing significant workload on right heart and respiratory distress. The management of angioembolization under general anaesthesia and anaesthetic concerns are presented.

  14. Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma in association with arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanolkotabi, M; Schoeneman, S E; Dipatri, A J; Hurley, M C; Ansari, S A; Rajaram, V; Tomita, T; Shaibani, A

    2012-06-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are highly vascular, relatively common primary brain tumors in the pediatric population, but their association with a true arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is extremely rare. We describe an eight-year-old girl with a right supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) with an angiographically documented AVM entangled in the tumor mass who presented with intracranial hemorrhage due to a ruptured anterior choroidal artery pseudoaneurysm encased in the lesion. The AVM nidus as well as the hemorrhage site was embolized with Onyx. A literature review revealed only one previous report of a true intermixture of these two lesions. We hypothesize whether the association of vascular malformations and primary brain tumors are merely coincidental or if they point to the existence of a distinct entity and/or a common etiologic factor.

  15. Uterine arteriovenous malformation, images, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ore, Robert M; Lynch, David; Rumsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an infrequently described cause of severe genital tract bleeding. This is an important diagnostic consideration as therapeutic options differ significantly from those utilized with alternate etiologies of genital tract bleeding. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented initially with vaginal bleeding, and subsequently with intra-abdominal hemorrhage. She was diagnosed with uterine AVM, and was managed with uterine artery embolization followed by eventual hysterectomy. AVMs, both congenital and acquired, are diagnosed utilizing a range of radiographic tools. Management modalities include embolization and hysterectomy. Our patient presented uniquely with intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Previously managed with uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy became necessary because of her clinical presentation. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Retrograde transvenous obliteration for uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishino, Mitsuhiro; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Takeguchi, Yuko; Ohashi, Isamu

    2014-02-01

    Transarterial embolization is an established treatment for uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM); however, in some cases, transarterial embolization is difficult. We present balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration as an alternative endovascular treatment for uterine AVM. A 24-year-old woman was diagnosed with uterine AVM. Her medical treatments were ineffective, and selective embolization was abandoned because of the extremely tortuous feeders. We used balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration, in which balloon catheters were inserted into the draining vein to stop the outflow. Then, a sclerosant was retrogradely injected through the catheter into the nidus. The abnormal vessels were fully obliterated, and there was no recurrence after the treatment. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration may be an alternative treatment for uterine AVMs with adequate vascular structures.

  17. Embolization of a traumatic uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Monette S; Borge, Marc A; Pierce, Kenneth L

    2007-09-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare but potentially life-threatening source of bleeding. A high index of suspicion and accurate diagnosis of the condition in a timely manor are essential because instrumentation that is often used for other sources of uterine bleeding can lead to massive hemorrhage. Although angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis, ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities of choice for the evaluation of a suspected AVM. US and MRI cannot only accurately define a uterine AVM, but they also have the ability to assess the extent of pelvic involvement noninvasively. The definitive treatment of uterine AVM is hysterectomy. However, most women diagnosed with the condition are of childbearing age. Transcatheter uterine artery embolization offers a safe and effective alternative to surgery, with the major advantage of retaining childbearing capacity.

  18. Uterine arteriovenous malformations: from diagnosis to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Padraig; Neyastani, Amir; Buckley, Anne R; Chang, Silvia D; Legiehn, Gerald M

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the sonographic features of uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and to describe the role and clinical outcome after transcatheter arterial embolization of symptomatic uterine AVMs. In our institution, over a 4-year period, symptomatic uterine AVMs were diagnosed in 21 women. Endovaginal sonography with gray scale, color, and spectral Doppler imaging was performed on all patients. Fourteen patients required therapeutic angiography/embolization to control bleeding. These 14 patients had follow-up endovaginal sonography 24 hours after the procedure. The sonographic gray scale findings of uterine AVMs were nonspecific. The most common finding was subtle myometrial heterogeneity (n = 14), whereas other patients had small anechoic spaces in the myometrium (n = 7). Color Doppler sonography showed a tangle of vessels with multidirectional high-velocity flow that produced a "color mosaic" pattern. Spectral Doppler analysis showed arteriovenous shunting with high-velocity, low-resistance flow. Fourteen patients required transcatheter arterial embolization to control bleeding. Thirteen of 14 patients had no sonographic evidence of a residual AVM 24 hours after the procedure. One of 14 patients had a residual AVM requiring additional embolization. One patient had recurrent bleeding at 4 months and required further embolization. The remaining 7 patients were treated conservatively. Endovaginal sonography is the imaging modality of choice in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Routine use of color and spectral Doppler sonography allows one to confidently make the correct diagnosis. Transcatheter arterial embolization is an excellent treatment option. Endovaginal sonography should be used to monitor postembolization outcomes.

  19. Superficial middle cerebral vein connection to the cavernous sinus is not infrequent in brain arteriovenous malformations: an argument against their congenital origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotar, Eimad; Guédon, Alexis; Sourour, Nader; Di Maria, Federico; Gabrieli, Joseph; Nouet, Aurélien; Chiras, Jacques; Clarençon, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) is frequently absent or fails to connect with the cavernous sinus (CS) in the presence of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), a frequently reported argument for the congenital origin of brain AVMs. The SMCV was retrospectively compared between patients with a brain AVM and a control group. The presence or absence of the SMCV, its direct or indirect connection to the CS and its termination in a laterocavernous sinus (LCS), paracavernous sinus (PCS), or directly in the CS was studied on digital subtraction angiography. One hundred twenty-five left or right side carotid angiograms from 70 patients with a brain AVM were compared to 125 angiograms from 74 controls. The SMCV was present in 88 (70.4 %) cases in the brain AVM group and 96 (76.8 %) cases in controls (p = 0.25). The SMCV was connected directly or indirectly to the CS in 65 (52 %) cases in the brain AVM group and 65 (52 %) cases in controls (p = 1). When comparing the subgroup of carotid angiograms ipsilateral to a supratentorial AVM, no statistically significant difference was found with controls. In three of six cases in which a SMCV drained an AVM, the vein terminated directly or indirectly in the CS. No difference of SMCV presence and direct or indirect connection to the CS was found between patients with AVM and a control group. SMCV anatomy does not support the congenital origin of brain AVMs.

  20. Live-cell imaging to detect phosphatidylserine externalization in brain endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation: implications for the treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenjun; Johnson, Michael S; Chen, Biyi; Grace, Michael; Ukath, Jaysree; Lee, Vivienne S; McRobb, Lucinda S; Sedger, Lisa M; Stoodley, Marcus A

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established intervention for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The processes of AVM vessel occlusion after SRS are poorly understood. To improve SRS efficacy, it is important to understand the cellular response of blood vessels to radiation. The molecular changes on the surface of AVM endothelial cells after irradiation may also be used for vascular targeting. This study investigates radiation-induced externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) on endothelial cells using live-cell imaging. METHODS An immortalized cell line generated from mouse brain endothelium, bEnd.3 cells, was cultured and irradiated at different radiation doses using a linear accelerator. PS externalization in the cells was subsequently visualized using polarity-sensitive indicator of viability and apoptosis (pSIVA)-IANBD, a polarity-sensitive probe. Live-cell imaging was used to monitor PS externalization in real time. The effects of radiation on the cell cycle of bEnd.3 cells were also examined by flow cytometry. RESULTS Ionizing radiation effects are dose dependent. Reduction in the cell proliferation rate was observed after exposure to 5 Gy radiation, whereas higher radiation doses (15 Gy and 25 Gy) totally inhibited proliferation. In comparison with cells treated with sham radiation, the irradiated cells showed distinct pseudopodial elongation with little or no spreading of the cell body. The percentages of pSIVA-positive cells were significantly higher (p = 0.04) 24 hours after treatment in the cultures that received 25- and 15-Gy doses of radiation. This effect was sustained until the end of the experiment (3 days). Radiation at 5 Gy did not induce significant PS externalization compared with the sham-radiation controls at any time points (p > 0.15). Flow cytometric analysis data indicate that irradiation induced growth arrest of bEnd.3 cells, with cells accumulating in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. CONCLUSIONS Ionizing radiation

  1. Experimental model of arteriovenous malformation in vitro using biological grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Aurelia Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs represent a serious health problem all around the world. Experimental models help to better understand the pathophysiology of these lesions. Experiment: We performed an experimental model of AVM using biological grafts, arteries and veins harvested from chicken wings at the elbow joint. We used 14 vessels and we performed 20 end-to-end anastomoses to create a nidus with a single feeding artery and a single draining vein. The system was irrigated with colored solution. The experiment was done according with law in force regarding experimental research activity. Conclusions: Experimental models allow us to understand the hemodynamics and predict the outcome of brain AVMs in humans. This experimental model is a useful tool in understanding the hemodynamic properties of brain AVMs. It is very useful in vascular anastomosis training

  2. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for treating uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X; Zhao, C; Tian, C; Wen, S; He, X; Zhou, Y

    2017-08-01

    To explore HIFU treatment for uterine arteriovenous malformation. A case report. Gynaecological department in a university teaching hospital of China. A patient with uterine arteriovenous malformation. The diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation was made through MRI. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation was performed. HIFU is effective in treating uterine arteriovenous malformation. The patient had reduction of the lesion volume and obvious symptom relief, without significant adverse effects. HIFU can be used as a new treatment option for uterine arteriovenous malformation. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation is effective in treating uterine arteriovenous malformation. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Spinal type IV arteriovenous malformations (perimedullary fistulas) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sure, U; Wakat, J P; Gatscher, S; Becker, R; Bien, S; Bertalanffy, H

    2000-08-01

    Intradural perimedullary spinal arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a synonym for type IV spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). It is an important clinical differential diagnosis in all patients with slowly progressive or acute spinal symptoms. Perimedullary AVFs are rare in the paediatric age group. We report the treatment regimen and the clinico-radiological findings for these malformations at our institution. Of four paediatric patients, three individuals with persistent fistulas after endovascular treatment were operated on. The malformations were obliterated completely in all patients without any morbidity. In three patients previously documented neurological symptoms resolved during follow-up. If slowly progressive or acute radicular or medullary symptoms arise in children, a spinal arteriovenous malformation should be ruled out by MRI. A combined endovascular and surgical treatment of paediatric spinal AVM type IV (perimedullary AVFs) carries a low risk of morbidity and is reasonably effective.

  4. Hysteroscopic Management of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Stefano; Cozzolino, Mauro; Castellacci, Eleonora; Dubini, Valeria; Farruggia, Alfonso; Sisti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is characterized by shunts between the myometrial arteries and veins. Treatment is based on the severity of uterine bleeding and ranges from conservative medical approaches to embolization of affected arteries. The aim of study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of hysteroscopy for management of uterine AVM. This was a retrospective study of a cohort of 11 cases occurring between March 2012 and December 2015 in our Regional Center of Excellence in Hysteroscopy, University of Florence. The diagnosis of AVM was made by transvaginal ultrasonography with high-definition flow in patients with mild to moderate symptoms. In all cases, we used the hysteroscopic platform Gynecare VersaPoint II (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey, USA), equipped with a 4-mm electrosurgical loop and associated with the SPIES (Storz Professional Image Enhancement System) system (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). All patients were successfully treated with operative hysteroscopy with no reported complications. No patient had residual disease detected by ultrasonography performed after a month. At this writing, of the 11 patients treated with operative hysteroscopy, 4 had achieved a pregnancy that carried to term, 1 was pregnant at 20 wk, and 1 had a miscarriage in the first trimester. Hysteroscopy is a feasible and safe alternative treatment modality for AVM. Patients treated with surgical hysteroscopy have high fertility outcomes, a 100% success rate after the first treatment, no complications related to the surgical procedure, and a short hospital stay.

  5. Graded contrast echocardiography in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, J A; Bueno, J; Zarauza, J; Fariñas-Alvarez, C; Cuesta, J M; Ortiz, P; Zarrabeitia, R; Pérez del Molino, A; Bustamante, M; Botella, L M; Delgado, M T

    2010-06-01

    To compare the results of transthoracic contrast echocardiography (TTCE) adding a grading scale with the results of thoracic computed tomography (CT) in order to optimise the use of both techniques. 95 patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) were examined with TTCE and thoracic CT to detect pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). According to previous studies, TTCE was divided into a four grade scale depending on the degree of opacification of the left ventricle after the administration of a contrast agent. Of the 95 patients (50.5% female; mean age 46 yrs), none with normal or grade 1 TTCE had detectable PAVMs on thoracic CT. Shunts of grades 2, 3 and 4 were associated with PAVMs according to thoracic CT in 25, 80, and 100% of the cases. There was a statistically significant association between the TTCE grade and the detection of a PAVM by thoracic CT. There were also statistically significant associations between TTCE grade and the cardiac cycle when the contrast was first visible in the left atrium, and size of the feeding artery. Graded TTCE and timing of left atrium opacification may be useful techniques in selecting HHT patients for PAVM screening with thoracic CT scans.

  6. Medical image of the week: pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawter C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 34 year old woman presented to the clinic with exertional dyspnea since childhood. Oxygen saturations in clinic were 92% on room air. On review of systems she admitted to recurrent epistaxis and her daughter also suffered from frequent epistaxis. Bubble contrast echocardiography showed severe right to left shunting without evidence of intracardiac shunt (Figure 1. Computed tomography angiogram of the chest revealed multiple bilateral arteriovenous malformations (AVM’s, the largest measuring 9mm on coronal images (Figure 2. MRI brain was negative for AVM’s. She was referred to interventional radiology for microcoil embolization. She met two of four Curaçao criteria for the diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT, giving her “possible HHT”. She was referred for genetic testing to confirm the diagnosis.

  7. Delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after uneventful embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations is related to volume of embolic agent administered: multivariate analysis of 13 predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, Fernando; Shay, Sheila D; Mericle, Robert A

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms and management of delayed intracerebral hemorrhage (dICH) after treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are poorly understood and widely debated. Many clinical predictive factors have been theorized for dICH after an otherwise uneventful AVM embolization, but there is an absence of data to discern their significance. To analyze 13 proposed predictive factors and to assess their potential in guiding prevention strategies. One hundred sixty-eight embolization procedures were performed on 67 patients with brain AVMs by a single surgeon. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with symptomatic dICH and control subjects. Thirteen factors were analyzed: age, sex, race, previous ICH, Spetzler-Martin grade, AVM size, eloquence, embolic volume, embolic agent, percent obliteration, and timing, number, and stage of embolizations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on these factors to determine significance. Six procedures were complicated by dICH; 5 (83%) occurred after the final planned procedure. The volume of embolic agent was significantly higher in the dICH group (4.5 ± 1.0 mL) compared with control subjects (1.7 ± 0.2 mL) in both univariate and multivariate analyses (P < .01), even after controlling for AVM size. AVM size was significant in univariate analysis but not multivariate analysis. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for any of the other possible predictive factors. High volume of embolic agent administered per procedure is an independent predictive factor for dICH. Limiting the injected volume for each procedure may reduce this poorly understood complication.

  8. A CASE STUDY OF ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS OF PREGNANT UTERUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravanthi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM is a rare but potentially life threatening condition with fewer than 100 cases reported in literature. With advent of Doppler ultrasonography many cases of uterine arteriovenous malformations have been dia gnosed. We present a case of AVM uterus in 22 years old presented with pain abdomen and shock and trans abdominal ultrasound was done showing hemoperitonium. Exploratory laparotomy was done and hemostasis was controlled. Colour Doppler and angiography were used for diagnosis. Bilateral uterine arteries embolization was performed successfully.

  9. Spatiotemporal Fractionation Schemes for Irradiating Large Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bussière, Marc R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S.; Shih, Helen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To optimally exploit fractionation effects in the context of radiosurgery treatments of large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In current practice, fractionated treatments divide the dose evenly into several fractions, which generally leads to low obliteration rates. In this work, we investigate the potential benefit of delivering distinct dose distributions in different fractions. Methods and Materials: Five patients with large cerebral AVMs were reviewed and replanned for intensity modulated arc therapy delivered with conventional photon beams. Treatment plans allowing for different dose distributions in all fractions were obtained by performing treatment plan optimization based on the cumulative biologically effective dose delivered at the end of treatment. Results: We show that distinct treatment plans can be designed for different fractions, such that high single-fraction doses are delivered to complementary parts of the AVM. All plans create a similar dose bath in the surrounding normal brain and thereby exploit the fractionation effect. This partial hypofractionation in the AVM along with fractionation in normal brain achieves a net improvement of the therapeutic ratio. We show that a biological dose reduction of approximately 10% in the healthy brain can be achieved compared with reference treatment schedules that deliver the same dose distribution in all fractions. Conclusions: Boosting complementary parts of the target volume in different fractions may provide a therapeutic advantage in fractionated radiosurgery treatments of large cerebral AVMs. The strategy allows for a mean dose reduction in normal brain that may be valuable for a patient population with an otherwise normal life expectancy.

  10. A proposed grading system for arteriovenous malformations. 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizler, Robert F; Martin, Neil A

    2008-01-01

    An important factor in making a recommendation for treatment of a patient with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is to estimate the risk of surgery for that patient. A simple, broadly applicable grading system that is designed to predict the risk of morbidity and mortality attending the operative treatment of specific AVM's is proposed. The lesion is graded on the basis of size, pattern of venous drainage, and neurological eloquence of adjacent brain. All AVM's fall into one of six grades. Grade I malformations are small, superficial, and located in non-eloquent cortex; Grade V lesions are large, deep, and situated in neurologically critical areas; and Grade VI lesions are essentially inoperable AVM's. Retrospective application of this grading scheme to a series of surgically excised AVM's has demonstrated its correlation with the incidence of postoperative neurological complications. The application of a standardized grading scheme will enable a comparison of results between various clinical series and between different treatment techniques, and will assist in the process of management decision-making.

  11. Diagnosis and nonsurgical management of uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, R D; Moloney, J C; Anderson, H J

    2007-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon problem and traditional treatment by hysterectomy excludes the possibility of future pregnancy. Developments in interventional techniques make transcatheter embolization of the feeding vessel(s) a therapeutic alternative, potentially preserving the patient's fertility. We present a case of successful endovascular treatment of uterine AVM.

  12. Failed transarterial embolization of subserosal uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jin; Sohn, In Sook; Kwon, Han Sung; Park, Sang Woo; Hwang, Han Sung

    2013-09-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare but potentially life-threatening from excessive vaginal bleeding. All uterine AVMs reported to date have been found in the endometrial or myometrial layers. Here we present a patient with a subserosal type AVM on the fundus of uterus, which spontaneously ruptured.

  13. Congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: a rare cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare condition in which there is abnormal connection between pulmonary arteries and veins. The disorder usually appears in late childhood or early adult life, with dyspnea on exertion, clubbing or cyanosis. We present two patients with severe cyanosis and their work-up ...

  14. Occlusion of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations by Use of Vascular Plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P E; Kjeldsen, A D

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are commonly treated by embolization with coils or balloons to prevent cerebral complications and to raise the oxygenation of the blood. The Amplatzer vascular plug is a new occlusive device made of a self-expanding cylindrical nitinol mesh. It is fast and safe...

  15. Radiosurgery with a linear accelerator in cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Sergio Carlos Barros; Nadalin, Wladimir; Piske, Ronie Leo; Benabou, Salomon; Souza, Evandro de; Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Zuliani de [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: estevesrt@uol.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Objective. To evaluate results achieved with radiosurgery and complications of the procedure when treating arteriovenous malformations with linear accelerator. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between October 1993 and December 1996. Sixty-one patients with arteriovenous malformations were treated with radiosurgery utilizing a 6 MW energy linear accelerator. Ages of the 32 female and 29 male patients ranged from 6 to 54 years (mean: 28.3 years). The most frequent initial symptom was cephalea (45.9%), followed by neurological deficit (36.1%). Cerebral hemorrhage diagnosed by image was observed in 35 patients (57.3%). Most arteriovenous malformations (67.2%) were graded Spetzler III and IV. Venous stenosis (21.3%) and aneurysm (13.1%) were the most frequent angio-architecture changes. The dose administered varied from 12 to 27.5 Gy in the periphery of the lesion. Results. Out of twenty-eight patients that underwent conclusive angiography control, complete obliteration was achieved in 18 (72%) and treatment failed in 7 (absence of occlusion with more than 3 years of follow-up). Four were submitted to a second radiosurgery, and one of these has shown obliteration after 18 months of follow-up. Discussion. Several factors were analyzed regarding the occlusion rate (gender, age, volume, localization, Spetzler, flow , embolization, total of isocenters, prescribed dose and chosen isodose) and complications (total of isocenters, localization, volume, maximum dose, prescribed dose and chosen isodose). Analyzed variables showed no statistical significance for obliteration of the vessel, as well as for treatment complications. The largest diameter of the arteriovenous malformation, its volume and the dose administered did not influence time of obliteration. Conclusion. Radiosurgery is effective in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and can be an alternative for patients with clinical contraindication or with lesions in eloquent areas. In the studied

  16. Spontaneous occlusion of cerebral arteriovenous malformation following partial embolization with Onyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Omer Fatih; Ozturk, Kerem; Gokalp, Gokhan; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2017-02-01

    Management options for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are surgery, radiosurgery, and endovascular embolization. The aim of partial embolization in endovascular treatment is to make total resection possible. However, increased risk of bleeding in partial embolization creates some controversies about treatment options. Spontaneous total occlusion of cerebral AVMs following partial obliteration with embolization agents is a rarely seen condition. We present a case with an AVM vanishing from right posterior cerebral artery which spontaneously occluded following partial embolization with Onyx liquid agent.

  17. Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations noninvasive; Radiocirugia estereotaxica no invasiva para malformaciones arteriovenosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Romero, R.; Castro Tejero, P.; Sanchez Rubio, P.; Nunez Martin, L.; Medrano, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    Historically, stereotactic radiosurgery has been associated with invasive fixation systems-location guarantee that sub-millimeter accuracy to deliver high radiation doses to small volumes. The development of noninvasive stereotactic systems (no frame) allow for greater patient comfort without compromising accuracy. System availability BrainLAB for frame less cranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is relatively recent. It discusses the preliminary results of the positioning accuracy of AVM patients treated with the frame less system.

  18. Pregnancy after embolization therapy for uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delotte, Jérôme; Chevallier, Patrick; Benoit, Bernard; Castillon, Jean-Michel; Bongain, André

    2006-01-01

    To describe childbearing prognosis following embolization therapy for uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Case report and review. University hospital. Thirteen patients, including our case, who underwent pregnancy after embolization therapy for arteriovenous malformation. Two successive embolization procedures. Childbearing prognosis following embolization therapy for uterine AVM. Bilateral embolization was performed in seven patients. In four cases, including ours, two successive embolization procedures were required to treat the uterine AVM. The longest delay between embolization and pregnancy was 5 years and the shortest was six weeks. Two patients presented with postpartum hemorrhage which was treated medically. One neonate required resuscitation after delivery in the context of Listeria infection. Conservative management of uterine AVMs using embolization therapy is being increasingly developed. New embolization agents and hyperselective technical procedures aim at reducing morbidity related to such treatments and preserving reproductive capacity in women of childbearing age.

  19. Uterine arteriovenous malformation formed in a large uterine cervical myoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Shu; Ushijima, Junko; Furukawa, Shigenori; Miyajima, Masayuki; Sakuma, Kotaro; Watanabe, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yuko; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Keiya

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can arise in various organs, particularly the brain, but it is rare in the uterus. Uterine AVM is potentially lethal and is generally associated with uterine trauma, such as dilatation and curettage, therapeutic abortion or uterine surgery. On the other hand, uterine myoma is the most common benign gynecological tumor, but uterine cervical myoma is rare and grows in the extraperitoneal space, with development of complex capillary networks within the tumor. Cervical myoma surgery is therefore a difficult operation with a risk of massive bleeding. We report herein a patient with uterine AVM formed within a large cervical myoma in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was a 55-year-old Japanese woman who complained of lower abdominal distension. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an 18 × 20-cm uterine cervical tumor with dilatation of numerous vessels. Pelvic angiography was scheduled to provide accurate diagnosis and to minimize intraoperative blood loss. In fact, preoperative pelvic angiography allowed us to identify the true feeding artery and drainage veins. Occlusion of the feeding artery with a balloon device is effective in decreasing intraoperative bleeding. Abdominal total hysterectomy was performed as the surgical management of this uterine AVM. Prophylactic endovascular balloon occlusion of the ipsilateral internal iliac artery reduced the amount of hemorrhage during surgery, although blood transfusion was needed in our patient. In conclusion, preoperative embolosclerotherapy should be considered as a treatment option in patients with AVM present in a large uterine cervical myoma.

  20. An Unusual Case Of Urinary Bladder Arteriovenous Malformation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gnanappiragasam, D

    2016-07-01

    A 45-year-old male presented with haematuria and urinary frequency. Computed Tomography (CT) urogram revealed gross thickening of the left bladder wall. Histology showed large vessels cuffed by eosinophonilic material suggestive of urinary bladder arteriovenous malformation (AVM). No further intervention was carried out as symptoms resolve after the resection. Follow up rigid cystoscopy and CT at 3 months showed resolution of all visible pathology and no evidence of recurrence.

  1. Spontaneous Regression of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations with Conservative Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mekaru, Keiko; Oishi, Sugiko; Akamine, Kozue; Heshiki, Chiaki; Aoki, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can cause massive hemorrhage and is often treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE), which may lead to ovarian insufficiency. Thus, avoiding UAE should be considered, particularly in women undergoing fertility treatments. We present three women diagnosed with postmiscarriage AVM on color Doppler by transvaginal ultrasound imaging. They had no genital bleeding and a small mass, measuring 16–22 mm. If estradiol was >300 pg/mL when AVM was diagnosed,...

  2. Novel image-guided management of a uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybojewski, Stefan J; Sadler, David J

    2011-02-01

    The investigators present a novel image-guided embolization, not previously described, of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resistant to endovascular management. The uterus was exposed surgically, and Histoacryl (Braun, Fulda, Germany) was injected directly into the nidus using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy. The patient had a successful full-term pregnancy after this procedure. This technique may be a useful alternative management strategy in patients with uterine AVM who fail traditional endovascular embolization and who still desire fertility.

  3. Successful Treatment of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation with Percutaneous Embolization

    OpenAIRE

    An-Chi Lin; Yao-Ching Hung; Li-Chia Huang; Tsan-Hung Chiu; Ming Ho

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare condition and can be life-threatening if not managed properly. We report a case that was diagnosed by typical ultrasound imaging and treated successfully with uterine arterial embolization. Case Report: A 28-year-old female, gravida 4, para 3, abortus 1, presented with massive vaginal bleeding 19 days after a termination of pregnancy due to fetal anomaly. After a dilatation and curettage 3 years previously, typical ultrasound im...

  4. Successful Treatment of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation due to Uterine Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Karadag, Burak; Erol, Onur; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Uysal, Aysel; Alparslan, Ahmet Sukru; Gurses, Cemil; Koroglu, Mert

    2016-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is defined as abnormal and nonfunctional connections between the uterine arteries and veins. Although the patients typically present with vaginal bleeding, some patients may experience life-threatening massive bleeding in some circumstances. The treatment of choice depends on the symptoms, age, desire for future fertility, and localization and size of the lesion; however, embolization of the uterine artery is the first choice in symptomatic AVM in pati...

  5. Deliberate employment of postoperative hypotension for brain arteriovenous malformation surgery and the incidence of delayed postoperative hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael Kerin; Wiedmann, Markus Karl Hermann; Assaad, Nazih N A; Parr, Michael J A; Heller, Gillian Z

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to examine the impact of deliberate employment of postoperative hypotension on delayed postoperative hemorrhage (DPH) for all Spetzler-Ponce Class (SPC) C brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) and SPC B bAVMs ≥ 3.5 cm in diameter (SPC B 3.5+). METHODS A protocol of deliberate employment of postoperative hypotension was introduced in June 1997 for all SPC C and SPC B 3.5+ bAVMs. The aim was to achieve a maximum mean arterial blood pressure (BP) ≤ 70 mm Hg (with cerebral perfusion pressure > 50 mm Hg) for a minimum of 7 days after resection of bAVMs (BP protocol). The authors compared patients who experienced DPH (defined as brain hemorrhage into the resection bed that resulted in a new neurological deficit or that resulted in reoperation during the hospitalization for microsurgical bAVM resection) between 2 periods (prior to adopting the BP protocol and after introduction of the BP protocol) and 4 bAVM categories (SPC A, SPC B 3.5- [that is, SPC B < 3.5 cm maximum diameter], SPC B 3.5+, and SPC C). Patients excluded from treatment by the BP protocol were managed in the intensive care unit to avoid moderate hypertensive episodes. The pooled cases of all bAVM treated by surgery were analyzed to identify characteristics associated with the risk of DPH. These identified characteristics were then examined by multiple logistic regression analysis in both SPC B 3.5+ and SPC C cases. RESULTS From a cohort of 641 bAVMs treated by microsurgery, 32 patients with DPH were identified. Of those, 66% (95% CI 48-80) had a permanent new neurological deficit with a modified Rankin Scale score of 2-6. This included a mortality rate of 13% (95% CI 4.4-29). The BP protocol was used to treat 162 patients with either SPC B 3.5+ or SPC C. For SPC B 3.5+, there was no significant reduction in DPH with the introduction of the BP protocol (p = 0.77). For SPC C, there was a significant (p = 0.035) reduction of DPH from 29% (95% CI 13%-53%) to 8

  6. Cerebral and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This assumes that vascular malforma- tions are congenital or developmental hamartomas, rather than neo- plasms. This classification is based on microscopic and gross pathologi- cal features of the lesions. Although most CNS vascular malformations occur in isolation, some are also found in association with cutaneous.

  7. Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Lesions of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Malformations and Other Vascular Lesions of the Central Nervous System Fact Sheet What are arteriovenous malformations? What are ... other types of vascular lesions affect the central nervous system? Besides AVMs, three other main types of vascular ...

  8. Imaging findings of arteriovenous malformations involving lung and liver in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia(Osler-weber-rendu disease): two cases report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jeong Geun; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Seong, Su Ok [Cheongju St. Mary' s Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Osler-Weber-Rendu disease is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by repeated episodes of bleeding. Multiple telangiectases consisting of thin-walled, dilated vascular channels with arteriovenous communication may involve, for example, mucocutaneous tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, and the liver, lung, and brain. We report the imaging findings of two cases of HHT involving arteriovenous malformation of both the lungs and liver, a rare condition. Chest radiography revealed a round mass, while helical CT showed a feeding artery and draining vein with arteriovenous malformation in the lung. Color Doppler sonography revealed an enlarged and tortuous hepatic artery with high systolic velocity. CT demonstrated an enlarged hepatic artery, arteriovenous shunt, and early draining hepatic vein in the liver. Celiac angiography showed arteriovenous malformation.

  9. Arterio-venous malformations of uterus - diagnostic and management dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, H K; Puri, M; Patra, S; Trivedi, S S

    2015-01-01

    Keeping in mind the life-threatening consequences of curettage in cases of undiagnosed uterine arterio-venous malformation (AVM), its possibility should be considered in patients presenting with abnormal heavy uterine bleeding and negative Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-hCG) values. We collected a series of cases in which the patients presented with abnormal heavy uterine bleeding, some not responding to conservative treatment. In the presence of declining or low serum β-hCG levels and ultrasound Doppler showing increased vascularity, patients were investigated to detect the possible presence of uterine AVM. In those patients in whom angiographic confirmation of uterine AVM was made, embolisation was done and the outcome was followed. In those patients in whom hysterectomy was done the histopathogy specimen was studied for the possible cause of increased vascularity. Arterio-venous shunting seen on ultrasound does not always imply a uterine AVM and some cases can present diagnostic and management dilemmas.

  10. Surgical and Endovascular Treatment for Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENDO, Toshiki; ENDO, Hidenori; SATO, Kenichi; MATSUMOTO, Yasushi; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a broad term that constitutes diverse vascular pathologies. To date, various classification schemes for spinal AVM have been proposed in literature, which helped neurosurgeons understand the pathophysiology of the disease and determine an optimal treatment strategy. To discuss indications and results of surgical and endovascular interventions for spinal AVM, this article refers to the following classification proposed by Anson and Spetzler in 1992: type I, dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF); type II, glomus intramedullary AVM; type III, juvenile malformations; and type IV, perimedullary AVF. In general, complete obliteration of the fistula is a key for better outcome in type I dural and type IV perimedullary AVFs. On the other hand, in type II glomus and type III juvenile malformations, functional preservation, instead of pursuing angiographical cure, is the main goal of the treatment. In such cases, reduction of the shunt flow can alleviate clinical symptoms. Proper management of spinal AVM should start with neurological examination and understanding of angioarchitectures, which provide critical information that guides the indication and modality of intervention. Finally, close collaboration of the microsurgical and endovascular teams are mandatory for successful treatment. PMID:26948701

  11. Evaluation and management of congenital peripheral arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Naiem; Cirillo-Penn, Nolan C; Thomas, Jones

    2015-12-01

    The International Society for Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) broadly categorizes vascular anomalies into vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular malformations are further divided based on their flow properties into slow-flow venous and lymphatic malformations, high-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and congenital mixed syndromes, which can include combinations thereof. Whether occurring in isolation or as part of a broader syndrome, congenital high-flow AVMs are arguably the most complicated, challenging, and gratifying of all vascular malformations to diagnose and manage. Various configurations exist depending on location and coexisting clinical features. Transcatheter embolization has evolved into the mainstay of treatment for most congenital peripheral AVMs with surgical excision playing a growingly limited role as an adjunctive modality. Successful treatment requires technical precision, creativity, patience, and persistence given the ever-evolving angioarchitecture and hemodynamic profile of these lesions. Despite these challenges, certain fundamental principles have been established as our understanding of the pathogenesis, natural history, hemodynamics, and treatment outcomes has expanded and evolved over the last few decades. These principles are crucial to adhere to in the overall management of these lesions and are highlighted and expanded upon herein. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of surgical treatment for intracranial arteriovenous malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Dong-lei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs is complete obliteration of the nidus to prevent primary or recurrent intracranial hemorrhage and protect neurological functions maximally. Currently, microsurgical resection, endovascular embolization, or stereotactic radiosurgery are the most commonly used therapies which are utilized either alone or in combination. This study will discuss the pros and cons of the three therapeutic methods of AVMs in order to determine the optimal treatment. The choice of a multimodality treatment should follow the principle of improving the cure rate and avoiding complications as much as possible.

  13. Treat high cervical spinal arteriovenous malformation with Cyberknife radiosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of CyberKnife radiosurgery in the treatment of accidentally found cervical spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM. We present the case of a patient with cervical spinal AVM, who developed progressive neck pain, gait disturbance, urine and stool incontinence 2 weeks after the fell down accident. The patient underwent CyberKnife radiosurgery. After CyberKnife radiosurgery for 2 years, the patient′s neck pain diminished and was able to keep the walk without any assistance. The management of cervical spinal AVM varies. This patient demonstrated a successful treatment of cervical spinal AVM with CyberKnife radiosurgery.

  14. Successful Treatment of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation due to Uterine Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Karadag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM is defined as abnormal and nonfunctional connections between the uterine arteries and veins. Although the patients typically present with vaginal bleeding, some patients may experience life-threatening massive bleeding in some circumstances. The treatment of choice depends on the symptoms, age, desire for future fertility, and localization and size of the lesion; however, embolization of the uterine artery is the first choice in symptomatic AVM in patients at reproductive age with expectations of future fertility. We report a case of acquired AVM (after D/C with an extensive lesion, which was successfully treated with bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE.

  15. Successful Treatment of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation due to Uterine Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Burak; Erol, Onur; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Uysal, Aysel; Alparslan, Ahmet Sukru; Gurses, Cemil; Koroglu, Mert

    2016-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is defined as abnormal and nonfunctional connections between the uterine arteries and veins. Although the patients typically present with vaginal bleeding, some patients may experience life-threatening massive bleeding in some circumstances. The treatment of choice depends on the symptoms, age, desire for future fertility, and localization and size of the lesion; however, embolization of the uterine artery is the first choice in symptomatic AVM in patients at reproductive age with expectations of future fertility. We report a case of acquired AVM (after D/C) with an extensive lesion, which was successfully treated with bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE).

  16. Arteriovenous malformations in the differential diagnosis of palatal swellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Bora; Bas, Burcu; Duran, Hatice; Celenk, Peruze; Gunhan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is composed of abnormal communications between arteries and veins without the normal intervening capillary bed. AVM of the head and neck is a rare vascular anomaly. We present here an unusual case of AVM with the size of 4x3 cm at the left posterior palatal area. Incisionel biopsy revealed AVM. Resection of the lesion following angiography was suggested to the patient however, he refused the treatment. The patient was considered to be under control. AVM should always be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of palatal swellings. PMID:28955556

  17. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: A rare cause of hemoptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmin Kalyaniwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM is a rare cause of hemoptysis and exertional dyspnea. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is the most common cause of PAVM, but it can also occur in a variety of acquired medical conditions such as postthoracic trauma, cirrhosis of the liver, and conditions causing chronic pulmonary hypertension. We present a case of PAVM with classical cherry aneurysm of right hilar vessels on routine chest X-ray, which led to further evaluation and successful treatment of PAVM by the transseptal closure of the fistula.

  18. What Is an Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions of the brain lobes are below: The frontal lobe functions to process motor (movements), and frontal eye fields, regulates personality and articulation (and other aspects) of speech. The parietal lobe functions to process sensory information, such as interpretation ...

  19. Contemporary diagnosis and management of a uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John V; Asrat, Tamerou; Epstein, Howard D; Oglevie, Steven; Goldstein, Bram H

    2008-08-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are extremely rare and can result in severe complications. Experience with diagnosis and management of these vascular malformations is very limited. We report on a patient with a history of nonmetastatic gestational trophoblastic disease. The patient developed a concomitant 4.4-cm intrauterine mass, suggestive of a molar pregnancy, during her second pregnancy. Despite suction and sharp curettage, the mass and menorrhagia persisted. After complex diagnostic imaging, the diagnosis of a uterine AVM was made. Subsequently, the patient underwent uterine arterial embolization and laparoscopic surgery to resect the mass. Because uterine AVMs are infrequently encountered, they initially may not be included in the differential diagnosis. The use of contemporary imaging, interventional radiology, and surgery can optimize patient outcome.

  20. Klippel-Trénaunay Syndrome with Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformation: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahniya F. Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS is a rare vascular congenital anomaly affecting less than 200,000 people in the United States. Vascular malformations associated with KTS tend to affect slow flow systems: venous, capillary, and lymphatic systems. The nature of the syndrome leads to a higher risk for the development of arteriovenous malformations. Our case presentation describes a patient with KTS and an associated rare presentation of intraventricular arteriovenous malformation (AVM.

  1. Uterine arteriovenous malformations: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivell, Rosalie M; Reid, Kym M; Mellor, Amy

    2005-11-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. AVMs often present with intractable bleeding and commonly are seen in association with pregnancy and uterine trauma. Ultrasound is the most common form of initial investigation, and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are being used with greater frequency. Despite this, angiography remains the gold standard for diagnostic evaluation. Embolization has become a more acceptable form of treatment and allows more invasive forms of treatment, particularly hysterectomy, to be avoided. Numerous medical therapies have also been used in the management of patients with uterine AVM. Reports of successful pregnancies after diagnosis and treatment of a uterine AVM are still uncommon, but increasingly good outcomes are being reported after successful treatment of a confirmed uterine AVM. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians Learning Objectives: After completion of this article, the reader should be able to describe the many and varied clinical manifestations of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM), summarize the best ways to manage an acute hemorrhage from an AVM, and identify the current best way to diagnose an AVM.

  2. De novo cerebral arteriovenous malformation: Pink Floyd's song "Brick in the Wall" as a warning sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsarac, Murat; Aksay, Ersin; Kiyan, Selahattin; Unek, Orkun; Gulec, F Feray

    2012-07-01

    Arteriovenous malformations are shunts between an artery and the venous system that lie within a nidus without an intervening capillary bed. These lesions are thought to be congenital, but recent reports have challenged this assumption. A 50-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Before the onset of his seizure, he experienced a vivid auditory hallucination of his favorite song by the band Pink Floyd, "A Brick in the Wall." He had been diagnosed with epilepsy 25 years previously. On presentation, his neurological examination was normal, but a computed tomography scan of the brain revealed a large arteriovenous malformation (AVM) occupying the left temporal lobe. Upon more detailed questioning, he recalled that a brain angiogram had been performed 25 years before and was reported to be normal. Neurosurgery was not performed in view of the size of the malformation. The patient is being followed-up as an outpatient. AVMs may arise de novo and then spontaneously become symptomatic. Cerebral de novo AVM should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with complex auditory musical hallucinations or any new neuropsychiatric symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical management of scalp arterio-venous malformation and scalp venous malformation: An experience of eleven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhad Hossain Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Scalp arterio-venous malformation (AVM and scalp venous malformation (SVM are rare conditions that usually need surgical treatment. Here, we have reported our experience of the surgical management of such lesions with a short review of the literature. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 11 patients with scalp AVM and SVM, who underwent surgical excision of lesion in our hospital from 2006 to 2012, were included. All suspected high-flow AVM were investigated with the selective internal and external carotid digital subtraction angiogram (DSA ± computed tomography (CT scan of brain with CT angiogram or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain with MR angiogram, and all suspected low-flow vascular malformation (VM was investigated with MRI of brain + MR angiogram. Eight were high-flow and three were low-flow VM. Results: All lesions were successfully excised. Scalp cosmetic aspects were acceptable in all cases. There was no major post-operative complication or recurrence till last follow-up. Conclusions: With preoperative appropriate surgical planning, scalp AVM and SVM can be excised without major complication.

  4. Multicenter assessment of morbidity associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformation hemorrhages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keiko; Majumdar, Monica; Masoud, Hesham; Nguyen, Thanh; Honarmand, Amir; Shaibani, Ali; Ansari, Sameer; Tan, Lee A; Chen, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The optimal management strategy for unruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is controversial since the ARUBA trial (A Randomized trial of Unruptured Brain AVMs). An accurate understanding of the morbidity associated with AVM hemorrhages may help clinicians to formulate the best treatment strategy for unruptured AVMs. To determine the morbidity associated with initial cerebral AVM rupture in patients presenting to tertiary medical centers. Retrospective chart reviews from three tertiary academic medical centers were performed for the period between 2008 and 2014. All patients admitted with intracranial hemorrhage due to untreated AVMs were included in this study. Patient-specific variables, including demographics, imaging characteristics, neurologic examination results, and clinical outcome, were analyzed and recorded. 101 Patients met the inclusion criteria. Admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were 0, 1-9, and ≥10 in 26%, 29%, and 45% of patients, respectively. Hematoma locations were subarachnoid, intraventricular, intraparenchymal, and combined in 5%, 11%, 32%, and 52% of patients, respectively. Deep venous drainage was present in 43% of AVMs; AVM-associated aneurysms were present in 44% of patients. Emergent hematoma evacuations were performed in 37% of patients and 8% of patients died while in hospital. At discharge, of those who survived, NIHSS scores of ≥1 and ≥10 were found in 69% and 23%, respectively. At the 90-day follow-up, 34% had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score >2. Patients with admission NIHSS score ≥10 had significantly higher rates of midline shift, surgical hematoma evacuation, and follow-up mRS ≥3 (pmorbidity associated with cerebral AVM rupture appeared to be higher in our study than previously reported. Morbidity from AVM rupture should be considered as an important factor, together with variables such as risk of AVM rupture and procedural risk, in determining the optimal treatment

  5. Successful treatment of uterine arteriovenous malformation with percutaneous embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, An-Chi; Hung, Yao-Ching; Huang, Li-Chia; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Ho, Ming

    2007-03-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare condition and can be life-threatening if not managed properly. We report a case that was diagnosed by typical ultrasound imaging and treated successfully with uterine arterial embolization. A 28-year-old female, gravida 4, para 3, abortus 1, presented with massive vaginal bleeding 19 days after a termination of pregnancy due to fetal anomaly. After a dilatation and curettage 3 years previously, typical ultrasound image findings and a declining pattern of serum beta-hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin), acquired AVM was highly suspected. The patient underwent bilateral uterine arterial embolization. Four weeks later, there was nearly complete resolution of the AVM and the patient's menstrual cycle was restored 6 weeks after embolization. AVM can be diagnosed at an early stage with the aid of history taking and ultrasound. Percutaneous embolotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for AVM, especially when fertility preservation is desired.

  6. Pregnancy complicated by asymptomatic uterine arteriovenous malformation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Kaei; Yamaguchi, Mina; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Miyakawa, Isao

    2007-04-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare disease. Percutaneous arterial embolization has been performed for patients who wish to preserve their ability to conceive. A 27-year-old primigravida was admitted for treatment of threatened premature labor at 21 weeks of gestation. She had been diagnosed with asymptomatic uterine AVM 2 years previously. She had not received any treatment before conception. At 41 weeks of gestation she spontaneously delivered a healthy infant weighting 3,154 g. and the Excessive bleeding (1,600 mL) occurred, probably due to eruption of the AVM vessel at the time of parturition. At 3 months postpartum, the patient underwent arterial embolization of AVM. The management of uterine AVM should be individualized, taking into account the patient's desire to maintain her fertility and the symptoms.

  7. Spontaneous Regression of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations with Conservative Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaru, Keiko; Oishi, Sugiko; Akamine, Kozue; Heshiki, Chiaki; Aoki, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can cause massive hemorrhage and is often treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE), which may lead to ovarian insufficiency. Thus, avoiding UAE should be considered, particularly in women undergoing fertility treatments. We present three women diagnosed with postmiscarriage AVM on color Doppler by transvaginal ultrasound imaging. They had no genital bleeding and a small mass, measuring 16-22 mm. If estradiol was >300 pg/mL when AVM was diagnosed, then a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered. All three women underwent follow-up observation, revealing spontaneous mass disappearance. To avoid ovarian insufficiency risk with UAE, conservative management and close follow-up observation should be considered in patients with AVM without bleeding, particularly during the fertility treatment.

  8. Uterine arteriovenous malformation--a rare cause of uterine haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolitsas, T; Hurley, V; Gilford, E

    1994-05-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of massive uterine bleeding, with 70 cases reported in the English literature. Although uterine AVM is a rare cause of menorrhagia or postmenopausal bleeding, it is important to consider in the assessment of a patient with abnormal (especially heavy) uterine bleeding because accurate diagnosis can allow appropriate treatment to be planned and avoid hysterectomy in women who wish to retain their reproductive capacity. Until relatively recently this condition was difficult to diagnose and management almost always required hysterectomy. Special investigations (hysteroscopy, Doppler flow ultrasound and pelvic angiography) are important for diagnosis and assessment. Transcatheter embolization has replaced hysterectomy as the treatment of choice in women who wish to retain their fertility. Curettage may precipitate life-threatening haemorrhage and is therefore contraindicated when uterine AVM is suspected.

  9. Spontaneous Regression of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Mekaru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM can cause massive hemorrhage and is often treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE, which may lead to ovarian insufficiency. Thus, avoiding UAE should be considered, particularly in women undergoing fertility treatments. We present three women diagnosed with postmiscarriage AVM on color Doppler by transvaginal ultrasound imaging. They had no genital bleeding and a small mass, measuring 16–22 mm. If estradiol was >300 pg/mL when AVM was diagnosed, then a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered. All three women underwent follow-up observation, revealing spontaneous mass disappearance. To avoid ovarian insufficiency risk with UAE, conservative management and close follow-up observation should be considered in patients with AVM without bleeding, particularly during the fertility treatment.

  10. Kernohan's phenomenon associated with left ruptured occipital arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, A; Sato, H; Katayama, W; Nakai, K; Tsunoda, T; Kobayashi, E; Nose, T

    2004-05-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with ipsilateral hemiparesia due to rupture of a left occipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Emergency decompression (the onset-operation interval was 46 minutes,) was carried out and the patient could leave the hospital upon recovery without neurological deficits. In general, Kernohan's phenomenon is caused by the gradual displacement of the cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge caused by compression by the contralateral mass. This phenomenon is very rare among the cases with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and only three cases including the present one have been reported in the literature. In all cases the onset-operation intervals of were very short. Kernohan's phenomenon associated with a ruptured AVM is a rare condition and emergency decompression is required.

  11. Temporary alopecia after embolization of an arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; López, Inmaculada; Ricart, José M

    2012-09-15

    Alopecia after head and neck radiotherapy has been extensively reported in the literature. However, alopecia after endovascular procedures is seldom reported in the dermatological literature. Prolonged fluoroscopic imaging during these procedures may cause serious radiation injuries to the skin, such as dermatitis or alopecia. Radiation-induced temporary alopecia is a peculiar form of radiodermitis that occurs over the areas of the scalp that receive the highest doses of radiation. Although repopulation of alopecic patches occurs spontaneously without treatment, it is important to recognize this disorder to establish a correct diagnosis and inform patients about this transient side effect. We report a 44-year-old woman presenting with temporary alopecia after embolization of an arteriovenous malformation.

  12. Arteriovenous Malformation in a Youth with Atypical Autism Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison, Veena; Stackhouse, Tracy; Breeze, Robert; Hall, Terry; McKenzie, Pamela; Tartaglia, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) present a challenge to diagnose in children with developmental disability, because of the overlap in behavioral symptoms and neurologic manifestations. They have been very rarely reported in conjunction with autism spectrum disorder. This case involves a 13 year old male with a history of autism spectrum disorder and significant behavioral issues diagnosed with a thalamic AVM following lateralizing neurologic symptoms. Despite radiosurgical treatment, hemorrhage followed consequently causing extensive neurologic injury and death. This case emphasizes the need for close follow up and coordination within a medical home for children with developmental disabilities. A multidisciplinary team approach is ideal to allow detection of subtle neurologic changes over time that may be masked as behavioral difficulties. PMID:28989994

  13. Complicated congenital gluteal arteriovenous malformation with hemorrhage in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaišnytė, Birutė; Vajauskas, Donatas; Palionis, Darius; Nevidomskytė, Daiva; Misonis, Nerijus; Bilkis, Valdas; Sučila, Mykolas; Gutauskas, Marijus

    2013-08-01

    Extracranial congenital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare clinical entities that can be progressive in nature. The influence of pregnancy on lesion progression has been discussed in the past. This report presents an unusual case of 23-year-old primigravida woman who presented at 36 weeks' gestation with complicated necrotic ulceration and hemorrhage of the right gluteal region. A hyperpigmented mark with varicosities was initially noted at birth, but during pregnancy it showed remarkable progression and was first identified as an AVM. After hemorrhage control and induced delivery, the lesion was successfully treated with several embolizations. Complete wound healing was achieved, but because of partial recurrence at 3 years, repeat embolization was performed, with satisfactory clinical improvement and residual 25% arteriovenous shunting on transarterial lung perfusion scintigraphy study. AVM complications during pregnancy are uncommon, and this case supports the prior opinion that pregnancy can stimulate lesion progression. Especially in undiagnosed and previously untreated cases, this can lead to life-threatening complications for the mother and fetus. Long-term lesion management usually requires combined endovascular and surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformation with facial paralysis, hearing loss, and tinnitus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Funabiki, Kazuo; Hasebe, Seishi; Takahashi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    To describe cerebellar arteriovenous malformation in a 21-year-old man with symptoms resembling those of ear disease and to discuss the relationship between the findings of neurotologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Case report. Department of Otolaryngology, Head-and-Neck Surgery of the Kyoto University Hospital, which is a tertiary care center, in Kyoto, Japan. A 21-year-old man had cerebellar arteriovenous malformation and symptoms resembling those of ear disease: recurrent left facial paralysis, left retrocochlear hearing loss, and tinnitus. Auditory brainstem responses showed only waves I and II on his left side. Downbeat nystagmus was seen by anteflexion and retroflexion of his neck. He also experienced a slight sensory disturbance on the left side of his face and right lower extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging and vertebral angiography revealed a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation and a varix functioning as a drainer of the arteriovenous malformation surrounded by an edematous region probably induced by a small hemorrhage in the brainstem. Conservative treatment, including intravenous prednisolone, vitamin B12, and oral adenosine triphosphate was performed followed by total extirpation of the arteriovenous malformation. In examining patients with peripheral facial paralysis (sometimes recurrent with a short interval) and other symptoms resembling those of ear disease, especially those suggesting certain central disorders, it is important to take intracranial arteriovenous malformation into consideration because the condition may be sometimes life threatening if overlooked.

  15. High-flow paediatric mandibular arteriovenous malformations: case reports and a review of current management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderbhai, J; Breik, O; Heggie, A A; Penington, A J

    2017-12-01

    High-flow vascular malformations in the paediatric population are potentially life-threatening and are challenging to treat. This paper describes the management of three cases of mandibular arteriovenous malformations and reviews the contemporary management options for these serious lesions. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosis of Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation by Doppler Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Drew; Fraser, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of postpartum vaginal bleeding and can often be confused with retained products of conception (RPOC). Certain findings on ultrasound (US) increase the likelihood for AVM, such as hypoechoic areas in the myometrium and high velocity, multidirectional blood flow. Recognizing these changes on bedside US can cue the physician to send the patient for further studying and lead to the correct diagnosis. A 31-year-old, multigravida, multiparous female presented 5 weeks post-cesarean section with heavy, intermittent vaginal bleeding. Patient had multiple previous visits for similar bleeding, including an evaluation for RPOC. Upon current presentation, the patient underwent an US in the emergency department with color and pulse wave Doppler. US revealed a hypoechoic area within the myometrium, with high velocity, bidirectional blood flow, raising the clinical suspicion for uterine AVM. Following confirmatory studies, the patient underwent successful embolization of the AVM. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: The proper diagnosis of AVM is crucial, because the primary treatment modality for the alternative diagnosis of RPOC (i.e., dilation and curettage) can worsen vaginal bleeding and lead to shock or death, and is therefore contraindicated for uterine AVM. US is a quick bedside tool that can be used for rapid diagnosis of uterine AVM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effectiveness of percutaneous transarterial embolization for arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Sang; Hahn, Seong Tai; Lee, Sang Hoon [The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Hyung Min [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of percutaneous transarterial embolization for the treatment of arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Seven patients with AVMs located in the kidney, liver, lung, chest wall, uterus and paraspinal region underwent angiography and percutaneous transarterial embolization. The embolic materials used were steel coil, gelfoam, contour emboli, and absolute alcohol; in some cases, more than one of these were employed. The analysed the angiographic findings and clinical status following embolization were assessed and analysed. The AVMs had tortuous, dilated feeding arteries (n=7) and veins with early venous drainage (n=6). In the hepatic AVM, a grape-like dilated vessel arose from the hepatic artery and was connected to the portal vein. In the uterine AVM, numerous dilated feeding arteries formed a honeycomb. In the feeding arteries of the chest wall AVM and in the nidus of the pulmonary AVM, aneurysms were present. In simple AVMs, the patient's symptoms were relieved by first embolization. Complex AVMs, however, required repeated embolizations for symptomatic relief. Although extensive, complex AVMs of the chest wall and uterus recurred after initial embolization, repeated treatment successfully improved the clinical status of such patients. The complications developing after emboliation were fever (n=3) and pain (n=3), but these were relieved by conservative care. Percutaneous transarterial embolization is a safe and effective therapeutic method for the treatment of AVM. In a case of inoperable complex AVM, repeated embolization is the only method for symptomatic relief and the maintenance of life.

  18. Presenting features of women with uterine arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2010-11-01

    To describe the outcome of patients with uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) after uterine artery embolization (UAE). Retrospective case series. Tertiary center of a university hospital. Thirteen patients were referred to a tertiary medical center from primary care facilities with profuse uterine bleeding. Uterine artery embolization. Thirteen patients underwent UAE. Eleven patients had no additional vaginal bleeding, whereas two patients underwent hysterectomy after embolization. Twelve patients developed AVMs after induced abortions. One patient had a congenital uterine AVM. Based on the transfer notes, eight cases had incomplete abortions, three cases had dysfunctional uterine bleeding, one case had a molar pregnancy, and one case had a uterine AVM. Two cases underwent hysterectomy after UAE. One patient delivered a healthy baby after bilateral UAE. Uterine AVMs should be suspected in patients with abrupt, profuse vaginal bleeding and a medical history of an induced abortion. Primary physicians should consider uterine AVMs with such a medical history. A prompt diagnosis and therapy are essential for favorable outcomes in patients with uterine AVMs. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Uterine arteriovenous malformations induced after diagnostic curettage: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitsidis, Panagiotis; Manolakos, Emmanouil; Tsekoura, Vasiliki; Kreienberg, Rolf; Schwentner, Lukas

    2011-11-01

    To perform an extensive systematic review to examine all the available literature reporting iatrogenic acquired arteriovenous malformation (AVM) induced after diagnostic curettage and to describe a further case of a 34-year-old woman presenting with acute vaginal bleeding due to AVM induced after uterine curettage for termination of pregnancy. We searched the electronic databases: MEDLINE (1950-2011), Embase (1980-2011), Cochrane Library (2004-2011), Cinahl (1981-2011), Popline (2004-2011). Initial search extracted 333 relevant articles. Final assessment resulted to the inclusion of 91 studies, 85 case reports and 6 observational studies. Studies are dated between 1954 and 2011. A metanalysis of the 85 case reports reporting 100 patients was performed. The mean age of the women diagnosed with AVM was 30 ± 9.1 years, range (16-72) years, 96 women were premenopausal (96%) and 4 were postmenopausal (4%). Ultrasound imaging was applied in 86 patients (86%), and ultrasound combined with angiography was performed in 51 patients (51%). Uterine artery embolization (UAE) was the most common treatment option performed in 59 patients (59%). Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed in 29 patients (29%). Spontaneous resolution of AVM occurred in six patients (6%). In 17 patients (17%), recurrence occurred after treatment with UAE. Twenty-four articles reported pregnancies in 27 patients (27%). Ultrasound imaging with appropriate knowledge of color Doppler features minimizes the use of inappropriate interventional procedures such as diagnostic curettage. UAE is effective in treatment, and rarely leads to complications.

  20. Absolute Ethanol Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations in the Periorbital Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Li-xin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial & Head and Neck Oncology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China); Jia, Ren-Bing, E-mail: jrb19760517@hotmail.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China); Wang, De-Ming, E-mail: wdmdeming@hotmail.com; Lv, Ming-Ming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com; Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@aliyun.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ninth People’s Hospital (China)

    2015-06-15

    ObjectiveArteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving the periorbital region are technically challenging clinical entities to manage. The purpose of the present study was to present our initial experience of ethanol embolization in a series of 16 patients with auricular AVMs and assess the outcomes of this treatment.MethodsTranscatheter arterial embolization and/or direct percutaneous puncture embolization were performed in the 16 patients. Pure or diluted ethanol was manually injected. The follow-up evaluations included physical examination and angiography at 1- to 6-month intervals.ResultsDuring the 28 ethanol embolization sessions, the amount of ethanol used ranged from 2 to 65 mL. The obliteration of ulceration, hemorrhage, pain, infection, pulsation, and bruit in most of the patients was obtained. The reduction of redness, swelling, and warmth was achieved in all the 16 patients, with down-staging of the Schobinger status for each patient. AVMs were devascularized 100 % in 3 patients, 76–99 % in 7 patients, and 50–75 % in 6 patients, according to the angiographic findings. The most common complications were necrosis and reversible blister. No permanent visual abnormality was found in any of the cases.ConclusionEthanol embolization is efficacious and safe in the treatment of AVMs in the periorbital region and has the potential to be accepted as the primary mode of therapy in the management of these lesions.

  1. A 3-tier classification of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetzler, Robert F; Ponce, Francisco A

    2011-03-01

    The authors propose a 3-tier classification for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The classification is based on the original 5-tier Spetzler-Martin grading system, and reflects the treatment paradigm for these lesions. The implications of this modification in the literature are explored. Class A combines Grades I and II AVMs, Class B are Grade III AVMs, and Class C combines Grades IV and V AVMs. Recommended management is surgery for Class A AVMs, multimodality treatment for Class B, and observation for Class C, with exceptions to the latter including recurrent hemorrhages and progressive neurological deficits. To evaluate whether combining grades is warranted from the perspective of surgical outcomes, the 3-tier system was applied to 1476 patients from 7 surgical series in which results were stratified according to Spetzler-Martin grades. Pairwise comparisons of individual Spetzler-Martin grades in the series analyzed showed the fewest significant differences (p tier and 3-tier systems were equivalent (receiver operating characteristic curve area 0.711 and 0.713, respectively). Combining Grades I and II AVMs and combining Grades IV and V AVMs is justified in part because the differences in surgical results between these respective pairs are small. The proposed 3-tier classification of AVMs offers simplification of the Spetzler-Martin system, provides a guide to treatment, and is predictive of outcome. The revised classification not only simplifies treatment recommendations; by placing patients into 3 as opposed to 5 groups, statistical power is markedly increased for series comparisons.

  2. A large pulmonary arteriovenous malformation causing cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladden, David; Casha, Aaron; Azzopardi, Conrad; Manche', Alexander

    2015-04-16

    The incidence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) is 2.5 in 100,000. 80% are associated with Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome or hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. We report the case of a 70-year-old man with a 6 cm spherical mass incidentally found on chest X-ray. There was a localised systolic bruit over the right lower zone posteriorly; however, he was asymptomatic. He had suffered a stroke, affecting his right hand and his speech, from which he recovered. He experienced regular transient ischaemic attacks, on an average of every 2 months. He underwent a right lower lobectomy and on ligating the right lower lobe pulmonary artery the saturations of oxygen rose from 92% to 97%, demonstrating a significant right to left extracardiac shunt. Postoperative recovery was excellent and 1 year later the patient reports no further neurological symptoms. 40% of such lesions exhibit symptoms, however, only one-third are neurological. Treatment should be by percutaneous embolisation. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. The incidence of imaging abnormalities after stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous and cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamek, Sławomir; Boba, Marek; Larysz, Dawid; Rudnik, Adam; Ficek, Kornelia; Eksner, Bartosz; Miszczyk, Leszek; Tarnawski, Rafał

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of postirradiation imaging changes after stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM). A group of 85 patients treated for arteriovenous malformations (62 patients, 73%) and cavernomas (23 patients, 27%) between October 2001 and December 2005 was analyzed. All patients were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery with doses ranging from 8-28 Gy. After the irradiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) was performed at 6 to 12-month intervals to assess the effects of the treatment. The mean follow-up time for the whole group was 27.3 months; AVM group -- 26 months; CCM group -- 30.9 months. All the imaging data were carefully reviewed to identify the radiological symptoms of postradiosurgical damage. T2 or FLAIR hyperintensity, T1-hypointensity and contrast enhancement on MRI and the presence of hypodense areas and contrast enhancement on CT examinations were assessed. Imaging abnormalities were found in 28 (33%) patients. The symptoms of postradiosurgical damage were observed in 21 (33.9%) patients in the AVM group and 7 (30.4%) patients in the CCM group. Radiological symptoms of radiation necrosis associated with neurological deterioration were identified in two patients with cavernomas, while no radiation necrosis was found in the AVM group. Patients in whom radiological signs of focal brain edema or gliosis existed were asymptomatic. Radiological symptoms of postradiosurgical damage affected about one third of the irradiated patients, typically without any clinical manifestations. Patients irradiated for CCMs seem to be more prone to develop symptomatic postradiosurgical necrosis; this observation, however, requires further investigation.

  4. Prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and occurrence of neurological symptoms in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Oxhøj, H; Andersen, P E

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease. HHT is characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and neurological symptoms.......Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease. HHT is characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and neurological symptoms....

  5. The role of SDF-1/CXCR4 in the vasculogenesis and remodeling of cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lingyan Wang,1 Shaolei Guo,2 Nu Zhang,2 Yuqian Tao,3 Heng Zhang,1 Tiewei Qi,2 Feng Liang,2 Zhengsong Huang2 1Department of Neurosurgery ICU, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM involves the vasculogenesis of cerebral blood vessels and can cause severe intracranial hemorrhage. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and its receptor, CXCR4, are believed to exert multiple physiological functions including angiogenesis. Thus, we investigated the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 in the vasculogenesis of cerebral AVM.Methods: Brain AVM lesions from surgical resections were analyzed for the expression of SDF-1, CXCR4, VEGF-A, and HIF-1 by using immunohistochemical staining. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. Further, in an animal study, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model rats were analyzed for the expression of SDF-1 and HIF-1. CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, was also used to detect its effects on cerebral vasculogenesis and SDF-1 expression.Results: Large amounts of CXCR4-positive CD45+ cells were found in brain AVM lesion blood vessel walls, which also have higher SDF-1 expression. Cerebral AVM patients also had higher level of EPCs and SDF-1. In chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats, SDF-1, HIF-1, and CD45 expressions were elevated. The application of AMD3100 effectively suppressed angiogenesis and infiltration of CXCR4-positive CD45+ cells in hypoperfusion rats compared to controls.Conclusion: The SDF-1/CXCR4 axis plays an important role in the vasculogenesis and migration of inflammatory cells in cerebral AVM lesions, possibly via the recruitment of bone marrow EPCs. Keywords: cerebral arteriovenous malformation, SDF-1/CXCR4, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, endothelial progenitor cells

  6. Stomach arteriovenous malformation resected by laparoscopy-assisted surgery: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Cho, Kazumitsu; Takao, Yoshimune; Fukuoka, Takeshi; Uchida, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    Arteriovenous malformations of the stomach are an uncommon cause of upper GI bleeding. We report a case of stomach arteriovenous malformation in an 85-year-old Asian man who presented with massive hematemesis. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy did not detect this lesion, but contrast multi-detector CT confirmed GI bleeding. Multi-detector CT revealed a mass of blood vessels underlying the submucosa that arose from the right gastroepiploic artery. Repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed that the lesion was a submucosal tumor with erosion and without active bleeding in the lower body of the stomach on the greater curvature. We performed partial gastrectomy via laparoscopy-assisted surgery. The histopathological diagnosis was arteriovenous malformation. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Uterine arteriovenous malformations following gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhami, Omar; Gregoire, Jean; Noel, Patricia; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Plante, Marie

    2014-10-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) following gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare condition. It can be associated with chronic vaginal bleeding or life-threatening heavy bleeding, even after complete resolution of the tumor following chemotherapy. This analysis aimed to perform an extensive systematic review highlighting clinical symptoms, imaging, management and prognosis of this rare complication of GTN. We also describe an additional case of uterine AVM following GTN. We conducted a literature search using Medline, Embase and Cochrane library to analyze the clinical data of 49 published cases of uterine AVM following GTN. Median age of the women diagnosed with AVM was 29 years (range 15-49). Median gravidity was 2 (range 1-8) and 50% of women were nulligravida. Complete molar pregnancy was the most common initial gestational trophoblastic diagnosis (48%). Overall, 44 patients (88%) were symptomatic and presented with chronic or acute abnormal vaginal bleeding. Only 3 patients had an undetectable HCG level at the time of uterine AVM diagnosis. Hypo-echoic space in the myometrium is the most relevant finding on ultrasonography but the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of AVMs is angiographic examination. Uterine artery embolization was the most common treatment option performed in 82% of the patients and was successful in controlling the bleeding in 85% of cases. We identified 20 pregnancies after successful embolization of uterine AVM following a GTN and 90% of them were successful. Because of the risk of life-threatening heavy bleeding, the diagnosis of uterine AVM should always be considered in patients with a history of recurrent unexplained vaginal bleeding after gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Angiographic embolization is successful in the majority of cases and does not appear to compromise future pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiologic diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok [College of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To analyze gray-scale US, color and duplex Doppler US, and angiographic findings in patients with acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and to evaluate the usefulness of these modalities in the diagnosis of this disease and the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization in its treatment. During a recent seven-year period, we diagnosed 21 cases of acquired uterine AVM. Nineteen of these patients had a history of causative D and C (between one and seven D and C procedures per patient), one had a history of causative cesarean section, and one had cervical conization. All patients underwent transabdominal and endovaginal gray-scale, color Doppler, and duplex Doppler US and angiography, with therapeutic embolization of bilateral uterine arteries. The majority underwent follow-up Doppler US after embolization. The gray-scale US morphology of uterine AVMs included subtle myometrial inhomogeneity and multiple distinct, small anechoic spaces in the thickened myometrium or endometrium. Color Doppler US showed a tangle of tortuous vessels with multidirectional, high-velocity arterial flow, which was focally or asymmetrically distributed. Duplex Doppler US depicted a waveform of fast arterial flow with low resistance, while angiography demonstrated a complex tangle of vessels supplied by enlarged uterine arteries, in association with early venous drainage during the arterial phase, and staiss of contrast medium within abnormal vasculature. Where AVMs were combined with a pseudoaneurysm, this finding was observed. Transcatheter arterial embolization provided a complete cure, without recurrence. Color and duplex Doppler US in an appropriate modality for the detection and diagnosis of uterine AVMs and for follow-up after embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a safe and effective method of treating this disease.

  9. Endovascular treatment of head and neck arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmytriw, A.A. [University Health Network, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ter Brugge, K.G.; Krings, T.; Agid, R. [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Head and neck arteriovenous malformations (H and N AVM) are associated with considerable clinical and psychosocial burden and present a significant treatment challenge. We evaluated the presentation, response to treatment, and outcome of patients with H and N AVMs treated by endovascular means at our institution. Patients with H and N AVMs treated by endovascular means from 1984 to 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. These included AVMs involving the scalp, orbit, maxillofacial, and upper neck localizations. Patient's clinical files, radiological images, catheter angiograms, and surgical reports were reviewed. Eighty-nine patients with H and N AVMs (46 females, 43 males; 48 small, 41 large) received endovascular therapy. The goals of treatment were curative (n = 30), palliative (n = 34), or presurgical (n = 25). The total number of endovascular treatment sessions was 244 (average of 1.5 per patient). The goal of treatment was met in 92.1 % of cases. Eventual cure was achieved in 42 patients accounting for 58.4 % (52/89) of all patients who underwent treatment for any goal. Twenty-eight of these patients were cured by embolization alone (28/89, 31.4 %) of which 18 were single-hole AVFs. Twenty-four were cured by planned surgical excision after presurgical embolization (24/89, 27 %). Seven patients (7/89, 7.2 %) suffered transient and two (2/89, 2.2 %) permanent endovascular treatment complications. Endovascular treatment is effective for H and N AVMs and relatively safe. It is particularly effective for symptom palliation and presurgical aid. Embolization is curative mostly in small lesions and single-hole fistulas. In patients with large non-curable H and N AVMs, endovascular therapy is often the only palliative option. (orig.)

  10. Demographic and angioarchitectural features associated with seizures presentation in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogwale Samson Motebejane, MBChB, Mmed Neurosurg (UKZN, FC Neurosurg (SA

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Improved knowledge of specific morphological factors associated with brain AVM epilepsy could aid in the formulation of appropriate therapeutic strategies for control and/or cure of these brain AVM-associated seizures.

  11. Interventional radiography in management of high-flow arteriovenous malformation of maxilla: report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khambete, Neha; Risbud, Mukund [Vasantdada Patil Dental College and Hospital, Kavalapur (India); Mehta, Nikit [College of Medical Sciences, Dharwad (India)

    2011-09-15

    Arteriovenous malformations are extremely rare conditions in that can result from abnormalities in the structure of blood vessels, which may be potentially fatal. A 30-year-old female patient visited our hospital with a complaint of swelling on the right maxillary posterior gingiva along with the large port-wine stain on right side of face. On clinical examination, the swelling was compressible and pulsatile. Radiographic examination revealed a lytic lesion of maxilla. Diagnostic angiography revealed a high-flow arteriovenous malformation of maxilla which was treated by selective transarterial embolization of maxillary artery using polyvinyl alcohol particles.

  12. A proposal for a new arteriovenous malformation grading scale for neuroendovascular procedures and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Caleb E; de León-Berra, Ramón; Hernández-Gaitán, Manuel S; Rodríguez-Mercado, Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, decisions regarding treatment and outcomes for patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) have made use of the Spetzler-Martin grading scale. The latter has withstood the test of time in clinical practice for AVM patients managed surgically and even when comparing studies involving other modalities of treatment. Recent awareness on the applicability of the grading system for risk assessment and outcome determination in cases of treatment by neuroendovascular means has emerged. We propose a preliminary grading system for neuroendovascular procedures based on a revision of the available literature. A literature search using the keywords 'arteriovenous malformation', 'embolization' and 'outcome' was done. Articles studying the factors involved in complications and outcome determination for endovascular cerebral AVM patients were reviewed. These were tabulated and those dealing with anatomical, radiological and hemodynamic descriptions that were noted as significant determinants of risk or clinical outcome were used for development of a preliminary grading system to be used in a follow-up validation study. A grading system similar to the Spetzler-Martin grading scale was developed using factors deemed in the literature as significant determinants of outcome. The classification includes the number of feeding vessels into the AVM, the eloquence of adjacent areas, and the presence of fistulous components. Follow-up study is underway at our institution to validate our proposal. Yet, significant evidence exists in the literature validating those factors as stand alone determinants of outcome and risk, suggesting that this grading scale may well be applicable to endovascular embolization procedures. A grading scale similar to the Spetzler-Martin grading system for use in risk assessment and outcome determination in brain AVM patients treated by endovascular techniques seems adequate and clinically feasible. Studies on applicability and validation

  13. Arteriovenous malformations of the head and neck: natural history and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, M P; Hansen, M; Pribaz, J J; Mulliken, J B

    1998-09-01

    This is a retrospective review of 81 patients with extracranial arteriovenous malformation of the head and neck who presented to the Vascular Anomalies Program in Boston over the last 20 years. This study focused on the natural history and effectiveness of treatment. The male to female ratio was 1:1.5. Arteriovenous malformations occur in anatomic patterns. Sixty-nine percent occurred in the midface, 14 percent in the upper third of the face, and 17 percent in the lower third. The most common sites were cheek (31 percent), ear (16 percent), nose (11 percent), and forehead (10 percent). A vascular anomaly was apparent at birth in 59 percent of patients (82 percent in men, 44 percent in women). Ten percent of patients noted onset in childhood, 10 percent in adolescence, and 21 percent in adulthood. Eight patients first noted the malformation at puberty, and six others experienced exacerbation during puberty. Fifteen women noted appearance or expansion of the malformation during pregnancy. Bony involvement occurred in 22 patients, most commonly in the maxilla and mandible. In seven patients, the bone was the primary site; in 15 other patients, the bone was involved secondarily. Arteriovenous malformations were categorized according to Schobinger clinical staging: 27 percent in stage I (quiescence), 38 percent in stage II (expansion), and 38 percent in stage III (destruction). There was a single patient with stage IV malformation (decompensation). Stage I lesions remained stable for long periods. Expansion (stage II) was usually followed by pain, bleeding, and ulceration (stage III). Once present, these symptoms and signs inevitably progressed until the malformation was resected. Resection margins were best determined intraoperatively by the bleeding pattern of the incised tissue and by Doppler. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation frequently resulted in rapid progression of the arteriovenous malformation. The overall cure rate was 60 percent, defined as radiographic

  14. Case report: Combined transarterial and direct approaches for embolization of a large mandibular arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiramel George Koshy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs that involve the mandible are difficult lesions to treat, with traditional options being surgery and embolization. This article describes a large mandibular AVM that was treated with embolization using transarterial as well as direct puncture approaches. Follow-up imaging showed thrombosis of the vascular spaces of the malformation. There were no complications. The patient is doing well and is on follow-up.

  15. Onyx embolization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanolkotabi, Maryam; Schoeneman, Samantha E; Alden, Tord D; Hurley, Michael C; Ansari, Sameer A; DiPatri, Arthur J; Tomita, Tadanori; Shaibani, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The authors undertook this study to assess the safety and efficacy of Onyx embolization in the treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in pediatric patients. All pediatric Onyx embolization of intracranial AVM cases performed consecutively at a single children's hospital over a 5-year period were collected and evaluated. Twenty-five patients (mean age 10.5 years) underwent a total of 38 procedures. An aggregate of 56 pedicles were embolized (mean 1.47 per session). The Spetzler-Martin grade was determined in all cases. Onyx embolization resulted in complete obliteration of the AVM in 3 cases (12%) and partial obliteration in 22 cases (88%). A total of 23 patients underwent surgical treatment. The mean preoperative AVM devascularization in these cases was 72%. One patient was treated with radiosurgery following Onyx embolization. Overall, 10 complications occurred in a total of 38 procedures (26.3%). None of the complications resulted in permanent neurological morbidity. The rate of transient neurological complications was 10.5% (4 of 38 procedures) and the rate of transient nonneurological complications was 5.3% (2 of 38 procedures). The remaining 4 complications were clinically silent (rate of 10.5%). There were no procedure-related deaths in this study population. There was no significant difference in patients with and without complications in terms of demographic characteristics, AVM grade, or embolization features (p ≥ 0.2). Deep venous drainage was associated with higher complication rates (p = 0.03). Onyx utilization is feasible for preoperative or primary embolization in the treatment of pediatric intracranial AVMs; however, the spectrum of complications encountered is broad, and attention must be paid to the technical nuances of and indications for its use to avoid many potential dangerous effects. Although the overall complication rates were higher than expected, all were either clinically silent or had only transient clinical

  16. Multimodality management of Spetzler-Martin Grade III arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Paritosh; Marks, Michael P; Harraher, Ciara D; Westbroek, Erick M; Chang, Steven D; Do, Huy M; Levy, Richard P; Dodd, Robert L; Steinberg, Gary K

    2012-06-01

    Grade III arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are diverse because of their variations in size (S), location in eloquent cortex (E), and presence of central venous drainage (V). Because they may have implications for management and outcome, the authors evaluated these variations in the present study. Between 1984 and 2010, 100 patients with Grade III AVMs were treated. The AVMs were categorized by Spetzler-Martin characteristics as follows: Type 1 = S1E1V1, Type 2 = S2E1V0, Type 3 = S2E0V1, and Type 4 = S3E0V0. The occurrence of a new neurological deficit, functional status (based on modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score) at discharge and follow-up, and radiological obliteration were correlated with demographic and morphological characteristics. One hundred patients (49 female and 51 male; age range 5-68 years, mean 35.8 years) were evaluated. The size of AVMs was less than 3 cm in 28 patients, 3-6 cm in 71, and greater than 6 cm in 1; 86 AVMs were located in eloquent cortex and 38 had central drainage. The AVMs were Type 1 in 28 cases, Type 2 in 60, Type 3 in 11, and Type 4 in 1. The authors performed embolization in 77 patients (175 procedures), surgery in 64 patients (74 surgeries), and radiosurgery in 49 patients (44 primary and 5 postoperative). The mortality rate following the management of these AVMs was 1%. Fourteen patients (14%) had new neurological deficits, with 5 (5%) being disabling (mRS score > 2) and 9 (9%) being nondisabling (mRS score ≤ 2) events. Patients with Type 1 AVMs (small size) had the best outcome, with 1 (3.6%) in 28 having a new neurological deficit, compared with 72 patients with larger AVMs, of whom 13 (18.1%) had a new neurological deficit (p 40 years), malformation size > 3 cm, and nonhemorrhagic presentation predicted the occurrence of new deficits (p eloquent cortex, and venous drainage did not confer any benefit. In 89 cases follow-up was adequate for data to be included in the obliteration analysis. The AVM was obliterated in 78

  17. Splenic arteriovenous malformation manifested by thrombocytopenia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Jin; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Yeong; Cho, Jin Han; Kang, Myong Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyeong Jin [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by epistaxis, telangiectases and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung and cerebrum for HHT has been described, whereas little is known about AVMs of the spleen. We report here the radiological findings of a case of a splenic AVM manifested by thrombocytopenia in HHT.

  18. Arteriovenous and lymphatic malformations, linear verrucous epidermal nevus and mild overgrowth: another hamartoneoplastic syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Kwa, V. I.; van Amerongen, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report a 22 year old female presenting with slowly progressive paraparesis, who appeared to have many (mainly subcutaneous) hamartomas. The neurological symptoms were caused by intraspinal masses and arteriovenous malformations. In addition, she had mild overgrowth of one leg and lymph vessel

  19. Quality of life, anxiety, and depression in patients with an untreated intracranial aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaaf, IC; Brilstra, EH; Rinkel, GJE; Bossuyt, PM; van Gijn, J

    Background and Purpose-The objective of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients who are aware of the presence of a patent aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation. Methods-Participants were retrospectively identified and invited to

  20. Complications following linear accelerator based stereotactic radiation for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane; Roed, Henrik; Ohlhues, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Primarily, gamma knife centers are predominant in publishing results on arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treatments including reports on risk profile. However, many patients are treated using a linear accelerator-most of these at smaller centers. Because this setting is different from a large...

  1. Arteriovenous Malformation in Temporal Lobe Presenting as Contralateral Ocular Symptoms Mimicking Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzillah Mohd-Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To report a rare case of arteriovenous malformation in temporal lobe presenting as contralateral orbital symptoms mimicking carotid-cavernous fistula. Method. Interventional case report. Results. A 31-year-old Malay gentleman presented with 2-month history of painful progressive exophthalmos of his left eye associated with recurrent headache, diplopia, and reduced vision. Ocular examination revealed congestive nonpulsating 7 mm exophthalmos of the left eye with no restriction of movements in all direction. There was diplopia in left lateral gaze. Left IOP was elevated at 29 mmHg. Left eye retinal vessels were slightly dilated and tortuous. CT scan was performed and showed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with a nidus of 3.8 cm × 2.5 cm with right middle cerebral artery as feeding artery. There was dilated left superior ophthalmic vein of 0.9 mm in diameter with enlarged left cavernous sinus. MRA and carotid angiogram confirmed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with no carotid-cavernous fistula. Most of the intracranial drainage was via left cavernous sinus. His signs and symptoms dramatically improved following successful embolisation, completely resolved after one year. Conclusion. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation is rarely presented with primary ocular presentation. Early intervention would salvage the eyes and prevent patients from more disaster morbidity or fatality commonly due to intracranial haemorrhage.

  2. Face skin necrosis following embolization for arteriovenous malformations: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkan, Ozgür; Sürmelioğlu, Ozgür; Tuncer, Ulkü; Akgül, Erol

    2010-03-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare in the oral and maxillofacial regions. AVMs may induce severe complications such as uncontrollable bleeding. Superselective intra-arterial embolization is an effective method for this bleeding that is refractory to conservative treatment. Arterial embolization may cause ischemic complications. We report the case of a patient who developed face skin necrosis following bilateral facial artery embolization.

  3. Hemodynamics and arteriovenous malformations in cavopulmonary anastomosis: the case for residual antegrade pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henaine, Roland; Vergnat, Mathieu; Mercier, Olaf; Serraf, Alain; De Montpreville, Vincent; Ninet, Jean; Bacha, Emile A

    2013-12-01

    Continuous flow in Fontan circulation results in impairment of pulmonary artery endothelial function, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and, potentially, late failure of Fontan circulation. Bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt is the interim procedure in palliation of patients with single-ventricle physiology, but pulmonary arteriovenous malformations occur in many patients. In a porcine chronic model of cavopulmonary shunt, we studied pulmonary hemodynamics, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation occurrence, and gas exchange capabilities. We hypothesized that residual antegrade pulsatile pulmonary flow may attenuate the deleterious effects of nonpulsatile Fontan-type circulation. Thirty pigs underwent a sham procedure (n = 10, group I), a cavopulmonary shunt with right pulmonary artery ligation (n = 10, group II, nonpulsatile), or a cavopulmonary shunt with proximal right pulmonary artery partial ligation (n = 10, group III, micropulsatile). Three months later, in vivo hemodynamics, blood gas exchange, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation occurrence, and lung histology were assessed. At 3 months, group II right lungs demonstrated significantly increased pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and evidence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations compared with groups I and III (all P < .001). Group III lungs also showed increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance compared with the sham group, but significantly less than group II. Group III right lungs had the best gas exchange performance, with less histologic changes compared with group II. We developed a viable chronic large animal model of bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis. Residual antegrade pulsatile flow in the setting of a cavopulmonary shunt prevents pulmonary arteriovenous malformation formation and attenuates, but does not suppress, the development of pulmonary hypertension. From a clinical standpoint, these data would support keeping a small

  4. Multimodal magnetic resonance diagnostics of arteriovenous malformations; Multimodale MR-Diagnostik arteriovenoeser Malformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are complex inborn malformations of the vascular system. In the brain they can lead to severe complications, such as parenchymal haemorrhaging, epileptic seizures or neurologic failure, which necessitates a safe diagnosis and therapy. In addition to conventional angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) have now been established as the gold standard diagnostic procedures. Using MRA the angioarchitecture of malformations can be captured and with a parallel imaging of the parenchyme the method is very well suited for therapy planning and monitoring. This review summarizes the present day possibilities of multimodal MRT diagnosis of AVM and describes the purely morphologic as well as the physiologic and pathophysiologic characteristics. The various MR angiographic techniques will be firstly described with respect to the basic technical principles and the results obtained so far will be summarized. The principle of functional MRT will be described and the diagnostic possibilities with respect to AVM will be discussed. (orig.) [German] Arteriovenoese Malformationen sind komplexe, angeborene Fehlbildungen des Gefaesssystems. Im Gehirn koennen sie zu schwerwiegenden Komplikationen wie Parenchymblutungen, Anfallsleiden oder neurologischen Ausfaellen fuehren, was eine sichere Diagnostik und Therapie bedingt. Neben der konventionellen Angiographie als Goldstandard haben sich Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und MR-Angiographie (MRA) als diagnostische Verfahren etabliert. Die MRA erlaubt es, die Angioarchitektur der Malformationen zu erfassen, und durch die parallele Abbildung des Parenchyms ist die Methode sehr gut fuer Therapieplanung und Verlaufsbeurteilung geeignet. Diese Uebersichtsarbeit fasst die heutigen Moeglichkeiten einer multimodalen MRT-Diagnostik arteriovenoeser Malformationen zusammen, und zwar mit einem besonderen Schwerpunkt auf moderne, so genannte funktionelle MR-Techniken, die neben der reinen

  5. Long-Term Follow-up After Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Detachable Silicone Balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette D

    2008-01-01

    Long-term follow-up results after embolization of 13 pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in 10 patients by use of 14 detachable silicone balloons are given. Patients were followed for a mean of 99 months (range, 63-123 months) with chest x-rays and for a mean of 62 months (range, 3-101 months......) with pulmonary angiography. Fifty-four percent of the balloons were deflated at latest radiographic chest film follow-up, but at pulmonary angiographic follow-up all embolized malformations were without flow irrespective of whether or not the balloons were visible. Detachable silicone balloons are not available...... anymore, but use of these balloons for embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations has been shown to be a safe and precise method, with immediate occlusion of the feeding artery and with long-lasting occlusion, even though many balloons deflate with time, leaving a fibrotic scar replacing...

  6. Atypical MRI features in soft-tissue arteriovenous malformation: a novel imaging appearance with radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Anand S. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Department of Interventional Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Schulman, Joshua M.; Ruben, Beth S. [University of California, San Francisco, Departments of Pathology and Dermatology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hoffman, William Y. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Plastic Surgery, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States); Dowd, Christopher F. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States); Frieden, Ilona J. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Dermatology, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hess, Christopher P. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neuroradiology, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The absence of a discrete mass, surrounding signal abnormality and solid enhancement are imaging features that have traditionally been used to differentiate soft-tissue arteriovenous malformations from vascular tumors on MRI. We have observed that these findings are not uncommon in arteriovenous malformations, which may lead to misdiagnosis or inappropriate treatment. To estimate the frequency of atypical MRI features in soft-tissue arteriovenous malformations and assess their relationship to lesion size, location, tissue type involved and vascular architecture. Medical records, MRI and histopathology were reviewed in consecutive patients with soft-tissue arteriovenous malformations in a multidisciplinary vascular anomalies clinic. Arteriovenous malformations were divided into those with and without atypical MRI findings (perilesional T2 signal abnormality, enhancement and/or a soft-tissue mass). Lesion location, size, tissue involved and vascular architecture were also compared between groups. Tissue stains were reviewed in available biopsy or resection specimens to assess relationships between MRI findings and histopathology. Thirty patients with treatment-naive arteriovenous malformations were included. Fifteen lesions demonstrated atypical MRI. There was no difference in age, gender, lesion size or involved body part between the groups. However, more than half of the atypical lesions demonstrated multicompartmental involvement, and tiny intralesional flow voids were more common in atypical arteriovenous malformations. Histopathology also differed in atypical cases, showing densely packed endothelial cells with connective tissue architectural distortion and edema. Arteriovenous malformations may exhibit features of a vascular tumor on MRI, particularly when multicompartmental and/or containing tiny internal vessels. These features are important to consider in suspected fast-flow vascular malformations and may have implications with respect to their treatment

  7. Successful reconstruction after radical resection of arteriovenous malformation of the finger and toe using microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Shimizu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This report presents two cases of arteriovenous malformation of the finger and toe. In case 1, a diffuse arteriovenous malformation of the second toe was resected completely. As a result of radical resection, blood circulation to the second toe was ablated. To preserve the second toe, vein grafting from the forearm region was performed using a microsurgical technique. Using this procedure, complete preservation of the second toe was performed. In case 2, a diffuse arteriovenous malformation of the middle finger was resected completely and successful reconstruction was performed using a sensate free radial forearm flap transfer. One year after the operation, there has been no recurrence of the disease, and the functional result was acceptable. Radical excision for the arteriovenous malformation was recommended to avoid the recurrence of the disease. We believe that the microsurgical technique, including free flap transfer and vein grafting, enables radical excision and decreases postoperative morbidity.

  8. Predictive Capability of the Spetzler-Martin versus Supplementary Grading Scale for Microsurgical Outcomes of Cerebellar Arteriovenous Malformations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ding, Dale; Liu, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    The recently described supplementary grading scale may be superior to the widely used Spetzler-Martin grading scale in the prediction of microsurgical outcomes for cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVM...

  9. Radiological evaluation with Doppler sonography and multidetector CT angiography in congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformation in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaletli, Ibrahim; Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Kilic, Fahrettin [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty (Turkey); Senyuz, Osman F. [Istanbul University, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty (Turkey); Dervisoglu, Sergulen [Istanbul University, Department of Pathology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty (Turkey)

    2006-11-15

    Although hepatic arteriovenous malformations are rarely reported, they frequently have life-threatening complications such as cardiac failure and are associated with a high mortality rate. Consequently, accurate prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis is important and therapeutic procedures depend on the imaging features. We report the early postnatal sonographic, Doppler sonographic, multidetector CT and CT angiography findings of a congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformation in a newborn. (orig.)

  10. A case of Multiple Unilateral Pulmonary arteriovenous Malformation Relapse: Efficacy of embolization treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masiello Rossella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous Malformations (PAVMs are a rare vascular alteration characterized by abnormal communications between the pulmonary arteries and veins resulting in an extracardiac right-to-left (R-L shunt. The majority of PAVMs are associated with an autosomal dominant vascular disorder also known as Osler-Weber- Rendu Syndrome. PAVMs appearance can be both single and multiple. Clinical manifestations include hypoxemia, dyspnea cyanosis, hemoptysis and cerebrovascular ischemic events or abscesses. We report a case of an 18 year old female with severe respiratory failure caused by a relapse of multiple unilateral pulmonary arterovenous fistula. Symptoms at admission include dyspnea, cyanosis and clubbing. The patient underwent pulmonary angio-TC scan, brain CT and echocardiography. The thoracic angio-CT scan showed the presence of PAVMs of RUL and RLL; a marked increase of right bronchial artery caliber and its branches with an aneurismatic dilatation was also observed. The patient underwent percutaneous transcatheter embolization using Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV; a relevant clinical and functional improvement was subsequently recorded. Embolization is effective in the treatment of relapsing PAVMS.

  11. Endovascular venous approach in the treatment of ruptured intra-cerebral arterio-venous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Z. Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trans-venous approach has been described for endovascular treatment of many vascular lesions namely the intracranial dural, cavernous and intra-orbital malformations. A patient with a ruptured left deep parietal arteriovenous malformation (AVM treated with primary transvenous Onyx 18 embolization is reported. Trans-arterial approaches were unsuccessful because of the tiny tortuous feeding arteries and hence a transvenous approach was used for embolization. Follow-up angiography at 3 month revealed persistent angiographic cure of the AVM. Our case illustrates that in patients with ruptured small AVM having a single draining vein, transvenous treatment can be utilized to achieve occlusion resulting in AVM cure.

  12. Complications following linear accelerator based stereotactic radiation for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane; Roed, Henrik; Ohlhues, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Primarily, gamma knife centers are predominant in publishing results on arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treatments including reports on risk profile. However, many patients are treated using a linear accelerator-most of these at smaller centers. Because this setting is different from a large...... gamma knife center, the risk profile at Linac departments could be different from the reported experience. Prescribed radiation doses are dependent on AVM volume. This study details results from a medium sized Linac department center focusing on risk profiles....

  13. Successful Transarterial Embolization of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation: Report of Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Kuang; Yang, Bi-Li; Chen, Kuo-Chang; Tsai, Yieh-Loong

    2016-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are relatively rare disorders that can cause life-threatening vaginal bleeding. We describe three childbearing-age females, who had abdominal pain and heavy vaginal bleeding, and were diagnosed as uterine AVM by color Doppler and angiography. The patients received successful superselective transarterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Three years after treatment, one of them was admitted to our hospital for vaginal delivery at 39 weeks of gestation, and the baby was healthy.

  14. Embolization of uterine arteriovenous malformations associated with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekera, N T; Padley, S P; Kazmi, F; Davies, C L; McCall, J M

    2009-09-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and miscarriage. We report two cases of uterine AVMs in patients with a history of complex congenital heart disease, an association that has not been previously described. Both patients were treated by selective uterine artery embolization, a minimally invasive therapy that has revolutionized the management of uterine AVMs, thus offering an alternative to conventional hysterectomy.

  15. Management of Bleeding Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation with Bilateral Uterine Artery Embolization

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Taehwan; Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jinoo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Yang, Heechul; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical outcome of bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a first-line therapeutic option for bleeding uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Materials and Methods Between 2002 and 2012, 19 patients were diagnosed with acquired uterine AVM clinically and through imaging studies. The clinical characteristics, angiographic features, technical success rate of embolization, procedure-related complications, imaging, and clinical follow-...

  16. Defusing a Time Bomb – Embolization of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation with Venous Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Bellam Premnath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM is a rare disease and is usually an acquired disorder which can remain asymptomatic or cause life-threatening bleeding. Prompt diagnosis and management in the appropriate clinical setting is crucial. Imaging can diagnose and sometimes predict the possibility of future severe bleeds. Embolization is the mainstay of treatment, however should be performed using proper techniques of selective embolization avoiding physiological blood vessels supplying normal structures.

  17. Successful Transarterial Embolization of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation: Report of Three Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang-Kuang; Yang, Bi-Li; Chen, Kuo-Chang; Tsai, Yieh-Loong

    2016-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are relatively rare disorders that can cause life-threatening vaginal bleeding. We describe three childbearing-age females, who had abdominal pain and heavy vaginal bleeding, and were diagnosed as uterine AVM by color Doppler and angiography. The patients received successful superselective transarterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Three years after treatment, one of them was admitted to our hospital for vaginal delivery at 3...

  18. Molecular and cellular biology of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a review of current concepts and future trends in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Russin, Jonathan J; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Soriano-Baron, Hector; Spetzler, Robert F; Nakaji, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are classically described as congenital static lesions. However, in addition to rupturing, AVMs can undergo growth, remodeling, and regression. These phenomena are directly related to cellular, molecular, and physiological processes. Understanding these relationships is essential to direct future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The authors performed a search of the contemporary literature to review current information regarding the molecular and cellular biology of AVMs and how this biology will impact their potential future management. A PubMed search was performed using the key words "genetic," "molecular," "brain," "cerebral," "arteriovenous," "malformation," "rupture," "management," "embolization," and "radiosurgery." Only English-language papers were considered. The reference lists of all papers selected for full-text assessment were reviewed. Current concepts in genetic polymorphisms, growth factors, angiopoietins, apoptosis, endothelial cells, pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, medical treatment (including tetracycline and microRNA-18a), radiation therapy, endovascular embolization, and surgical treatment as they apply to AVMs are discussed. Understanding the complex cellular biology, physiology, hemodynamics, and flow-related phenomena of AVMs is critical for defining and predicting their behavior, developing novel drug treatments, and improving endovascular and surgical therapies.

  19. Methylene Blue injection via superior mesenteric artery microcatheter for focused enterectomy in the treatment of a bleeding small intestinal arteriovenous malformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frydman, James; Bahouth, Hany; Leiderman, Maxim; Ofer, Amos; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    .... When a small intestinal arteriovenous malformation is the responsible lesion, a technique combining super-selective angiography with intra-operative methylene blue injection and focused enterectomy...

  20. [Elective cerebral arteriovenous malformation treatment with onyx after coil embolization of ruptured, flow-realeted aneurysm of the posterior circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Falkowski, Aleksander; Rać, Monika; Sagan, Leszek; Kojder, Ireneusz

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial arteriovenous posterior circulation malformation was planned to embolize by onyx injection after acute coil embolization of ruptured flow-realeted aneurysm of posterior cerebral artery. Control angiography revealed completely embolized malformation with normal vessel patency at the end of procedure. There were no adverse events related to this procedure and no neurologic deficit at the discharge.

  1. Cardiac Computed Tomography Angiography for Imaging Coronary Arteriovenous Malformation: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Suciu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary arteriovenous malformation is a rare congenital disease consisting mainly in a direct communication between a coronary artery and any one of the four cardiac chambers, coronary sinus, pulmonary arteries or veins. This disease can lead to various cardiovascular events, their severity depending on the degree of the malformation. Case report: We present the case of a 56-year-old male patient, who was admitted to our institution with dyspnea, palpitation and chest pain, having a history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and an abnormal electrocardiogram. Physical examination did not reveal any alterations and the cardiac enzymes were in normal ranges. Cardiac computed tomography was performed before any other invasive studies, with a 64-row scanner (Somatom Sensation multislice 64 equipment, Siemens after intravenous administration of non-ionic contrast material. CT scan revealed a large (2-2.5 mm coronary fistula originating from the LAD to the main pulmonary artery, and multiple significant atherosclerotic coronary lesions. Coronary angiography confirmed the arteriovenous malformation between LAD and pulmonary artery, associated with three vascular coronary artery disease. Conclusions: Cardiac computed tomography angiography can help for a non-invasive diagnosis of the coronary artery malformations, in the same time revealing anatomic details which can be particulary useful for choosing the appropriate management strategy (surgical planning, interventional treatment or optimum medical treatment

  2. Impact on cognitive functions following gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiosurgery is an alternative to surgical resection of arteriovenous malformation (AVM. Very few studies have addressed the concern of radiation injury to the brain and its attendant adverse effects on cognitive function. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included all patients who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS at our institute for cerebral AVM between 2006 and December 2008 (n = 34. All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before the procedure. Neuropsychological evaluation was repeated in eighteen patients 2 years following GKRS. Clinical outcome, AVM obliteration, and factors influencing outcome were analyzed in these eighteen patients. Results: Before GKRS, more than 50% had significant impairment of neuropsychological functions compared to normal population norms. 66.6% achieved the excellent radiosurgical outcome. At 2 years follow-up, patients showed varied improvement in neuropsychological function in various categories. Pretherapeutic median value for percentage perseverative responses was 26.5 and at follow-up, it reduced to 18.2 (P = 0.039. Set shifting improved in 11 patients (61.1%, remained same in 5 patients (27.7%, and deteriorated in two patients (11.1%. Patients with a higher Spetzler-Martin grade AVM demonstrated a significantly more favorable shift in follow-up test values for set shifting function (P = 0.021. Patients with postradiation imaging changes had lesser tendency to improve in neuropsychological performance at follow-up. Conclusions: GKRS has no clinically harmful effect on cognitive and neuropsychological functioning in patients with brain AVM. On the contrary, there is an improvement in majority of patients at 2 years following radiosurgery when nidus is obliterated.

  3. Radiological findings of uterine arteriovenous malformation: a case report of an unusual and life-threatening cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Sales Farias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine arteriovenous malformations may cause life-threatening abnormal genital bleeding in women at childbearing age. Transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography is a widely available, noninvasive and excellent diagnostic method. The authors report the case of a patient with history of gestational trophoblastic disease and multiple curettage procedures who developed uterine arteriovenous malformations, with remission of the lesions after treatment with methotrexate.

  4. Planned Two-Fraction Proton Beam Stereotactic Radiosurgery for High-Risk Inoperable Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattangadi, Jona A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bussiere, Marc R.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ogilvy, Christopher S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Rowell, Alison; Daartz, Juliane; Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patients with high-risk cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), based on eloquent brain location or large size, who underwent planned two-fraction proton stereotactic radiosurgery (PSRS). Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2009, 59 patients with high-risk cerebral AVMs received two-fraction PSRS. Median nidus volume was 23 cc (range, 1.4-58.1 cc), 70% of cases had nidus volume {>=}14 cc, and 34% were in critical locations (brainstem, basal ganglia). Median AVM score based on age, AVM size, and location was 3.19 (range, 0.9-6.9). Many patients had prior surgery or embolization (40%) or prior PSRS (12%). The most common prescription was 16 Gy radiobiologic equivalent (RBE) in two fractions, prescribed to the 90% isodose. Results: At a median follow-up of 56.1 months, 9 patients (15%) had total and 20 patients (34%) had partial obliteration. Patients with total obliteration received higher total dose than those with partial or no obliteration (mean dose, 17.6 vs. 15.5 Gy (RBE), p = 0.01). Median time to total obliteration was 62 months (range, 23-109 months), and 5-year actuarial rate of partial or total obliteration was 33%. Five-year actuarial rate of hemorrhage was 22% (95% confidence interval, 12.5%-36.8%) and 14% (n = 8) suffered fatal hemorrhage. Lesions with higher AVM scores were more likely to hemorrhage (p = 0.024) and less responsive to radiation (p = 0.026). The most common complication was Grade 1 headache acutely (14%) and long term (12%). One patient developed a Grade 2 generalized seizure disorder, and two had mild neurologic deficits. Conclusions: High-risk AVMs can be safely treated with two-fraction PSRS, although total obliteration rate is low and patients remain at risk for future hemorrhage. Future studies should include higher doses or a multistaged PSRS approach for lesions more resistant to obliteration with radiation.

  5. Differences in Functional Outcome Across Subtypes with Spetzler-Martin Grade II Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Alice L; Yang, Wuyang; Westbroek, Erick M; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Caplan, Justin M; Braileanu, Maria; Wang, Joanna Y; Colby, Geoffrey P; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy

    2017-09-01

    The Spetzler-Martin grading system for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is based on size (S), eloquence (E), and deep venous drainage (V). However, variation exists due to subgroup heterogeneity. While previous studies have demonstrated variations in outcomes within grade III AVMs, no studies have focused on grade II AVM subtypes. We aim to delineate how functional outcomes differ among patients with subtypes of grade II AVMs. We retrospectively reviewed patients with AVMs evaluated at our institution from 1990 to 2013. Grade II AVMs were divided into 3 subtypes: group 1 (S2V0E0), group 2 (S1V0E1), and group 3 (S1V1E0). Baseline characteristics were compared, and functional status was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at pretreatment and last follow-up. Differences in mRS between the 2 time points were compared. A total of 208 grade II patients (34.0%) were retrieved from 611 graded patients. After accounting for missing data, our cohort consisted of 137 patients. Mean age of all patients was 37.2 years, with 74 females (54.0%). No significant difference was observed across subgroups for pretreatment mRS ( P = .096), treatment modalities ( P = .943), follow-up durations ( P = .125), and mRS at last follow-up ( P = .716). In a subgroup analysis between group 1 and group 3, more patients with worsened mRS were observed in group 3 ( P = .039). This distinction was further confirmed in surgically treated patients ( P = .049), but not in patients treated with radiosurgery ( P = .863). Subtypes of grade II AVMs portend different posttreatment gains in functional outcome. Group 1 (S2V0E0) patients had the best functional outcome gain from treatment, while group 3 (S1V1E0) patients fared less well, particularly with surgical treatment.

  6. Deep arteriovenous malformations in the Basal Ganglia, thalamus, and insula: microsurgical management, techniques, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Matthew B; Young, William L; Lawton, Michael T

    2013-09-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and insula are considered inoperable given their depth, eloquence, and limited surgical exposure. Although many neurosurgeons opt for radiosurgery or observation, others have challenged the belief that deep AVMs are inoperable. Further discussion of patient selection, technique, and multimodality management is needed. To describe and discuss the technical considerations of microsurgical resection for deep-seated AVMs. Patients with deep AVMs who underwent surgery during a 14-year period were reviewed through the use of a prospective AVM registry. Microsurgery was performed in 48 patients with AVMs in the basal ganglia (n=10), thalamus (n=13), or insula (n=25). The most common Spetzler-Martin grade was III- (68%). Surgical approaches included transsylvian (67%), transcallosal (19%), and transcortical (15%). Complete resection was achieved in 34 patients (71%), and patients with incomplete resection were treated with radiosurgery. Forty-five patients (94%) were improved or unchanged (mean follow-up, 1.6 years). This experience advances the notion that select deep AVMs may be operable lesions. Patients were highly selected for small size, hemorrhagic presentation, young age, and compactness-factors embodied in the Spetzler-Martin and Supplementary grading systems. Overall, 10 different approaches were used, exploiting direct, transcortical corridors created by hemorrhage or maximizing anatomic corridors through subarachnoid spaces and ventricles that minimize brain transgression. The same cautious attitude exercised in selecting patients for surgery was also exercised in deciding extent of resection, opting for incomplete resection and radiosurgery more than with other AVMs to prioritize neurological outcomes.

  7. Delayed presentation of an arteriovenous malformation after cerebellar hemangioblastoma resection-Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, E Emily; Otvos, Balint; Kshettry, Varun R; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Haemangioblastoma has been uncommonly reported to occur in coexistence either temporally or spatially with the development of an arteriovenous malformations (AVM). We present a case of a delayed AVM following haemangioblastoma resection. 44 year old female initially presented with a several week history of headaches, vertigo and nausea and emesis and was found to have a cystic lesion with a solid enhancing component on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the superior aspect of the vermis. She underwent gross total resection and final pathology was consistent with WHO grade I haemangioblastoma. One year later, patient re-presented with headaches, dizziness and left trochlear nerve palsy with rotary nystagmus. Imaging revealed a left posterior tentorial paramedian cerebellar vascular nidus with venous drainage into the left transverses sinus suspicious for arteriovenous malformation. She underwent gross total resection of the lesion. Final pathology confirmed the diagnosis of an arteriovenous malformation. Recent research supports both haemangioblastoma and AVM are of embryologic origin but require later genetic alterations to develop into symptomatic lesions. It is unclear in our case if the AVM was present at the time of the initial haemangioblastoma resection or developed de novo after tumor resection. However, given the short time between tumor resection and presentation of AVM, de novo AVM although possible, appears less likely. AVM and haemangioblastoma rarely presents together either temporally or spatially. We present a case of a delayed AVM following haemangioblastoma resection. More research is needed to elucidate the rare intermixture of these lesions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Successful management of uterine arteriovenous malformation by ligation of feeding artery after unsuccessful uterine artery embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomine, Daisaku; Yoshinaga, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Yasutaka; Matsuo, Takashi; Iguro, Yoshifumi; Nakajo, Masayuki; Douchi, Tsutomu

    2009-02-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease. The present report describes a postmenopausal patient with uterine AVM manifesting recurrent, massive genital bleeding. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) was scheduled before hysterectomy, but UAE was unsuccessful due to the dilated, tortuous internal iliac arteries, and extremely rapid arterial blood flow. Hysterectomy appeared to carry a potential risk of massive blood loss due to multiple dilated vessels around the uterine corpus and cervix. Therefore, six arteries feeding the uterus were surgically ligated. At 10 months after the operation there have been no episodes of atypical genital bleeding.

  9. Successful term pregnancy after selective embolization of a large postmolar uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C-C; Cheng, Y-F; Changchien, C-C; Lin, H

    2006-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are very uncommon disorders. Successful conservative treatment with subsequently conceived is rarely reported. We describe a 31-year-old woman with a complex and large postmolar AVM; she was successfully treated with transarterial selective embolization for a long history of repeated excessive vaginal bleeding and anemia. She resumed normal menstrual periods soon after treatment, and she subsequently conceived about 2 years later. A healthy male baby was delivered at 39 weeks of gestation via vaginal route. Selective embolization of a complex and large uterine AVM seems to be feasible for the treatment of uterine bleeding and preservation of reproductive capability.

  10. Congenital Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation Presenting as Postcoital bleeding: A Rare Presentation of a Rare Clinical Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Neha; Chopra, Seema; Aggarwal, Neelam; Gorsi, Ujjwal

    2017-01-01

    Congenital uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an extremely rare condition with AVM. Subsequently, computed tomography (CT) angiography confirmed the diagnosis. Embolization was chosen as the treatment because of the large extension of AVM and the risk of hemorrhage during hysterectomy. The patient was discharged in a stable condition with a plan of repeat embolization in the next setting. At 6 and 12 weeks of follow-up, she did not experience any further episodes of bleed. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the salient clinical features, diagnosis, and the management options available for this rare clinical condition.

  11. Uterine arteriovenous malformation after gestational trophoblastic disease: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yela, Daniela Angerame; Yoneda, Juliana; Brasil, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is considered a rare condition. Diagnosis is critical because patients are at risk of significant vaginal hemorrhage that has been traditionally managed with surgery. We report 2 cases of uterine AVM after gestational trophoblastic disease in young women who were treated with uterine artery embolization, allowing preservation of reproductive capability. Embolization addresses both the preservation of future reproductive function and the prevention of major surgery and anesthesia. Success rates have been quoted as > 90% with minimal complications after uterine artery embolization.

  12. Extensive uterine arteriovenous malformation with hemodynamic instability: Embolization for whole myometrium affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agwany, Ahmed Samy; Elshafei, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation is abnormal and nonfunctional connections between the uterine arteries and veins. Patients typically present with vaginal bleeding which may be life-threatening. Treatment depends on the symptoms, age, desire for future fertility, localization and size of the lesion. Embolization of the uterine artery is the first choice in symptomatic AVM in patients in the reproductive age. We report a case of acquired AVM with an extensive lesion on ultrasound and MRI, which was successfully treated with uterine artery embolization for severe bleeding (UAE). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recurrence of a paediatric arteriovenous malformation 9 years postcomplete excision: case report and review of literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a common congenital vascular anomaly, which often present in both children and adults. Surgery is considered curative once postoperative angiography confirms the absence of vessels. We describe a 6-year-old girl, who had a Spetzler-Martin Grade II AVM resected successfully, in which a recurrent AVM was detected on routine follow-up over 9 years post excision. The aetiopathogenesis of this rare occurrence with a review of literature is discussed. Long-term postoperative follow-up in the form of MRI\\/MR angiogram is recommended for all fully resected AVMs in the paediatric age group, anticipating the possibility of future recurrence.

  14. Modeling process of embolization arteriovenous malformation on the basis of two-phase filtration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Gologush, T. S.; Ostapenko, V. V.; Petrenko, I. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    Arteriovenous malformation is a chaotic disordered interlacement of very small diameter vessels, performing reset of blood from the artery into the vein. In this regard it can be adequately modeled using porous medium. In this model process of embolization described as penetration of non-adhesive substance ONYX into the porous medium, filled with blood, both of these fluids are not mixed with each other. In one-dimensional approximation such processes are well described by Buckley-Leverett equation. In this paper Buckley-Leverett equation is solved numerically by using a new modification of Cabaret scheme. The results of numerical modeling process of embolization of AVM are shown.

  15. Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation Involving the Duodenum Embolized with Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Luppi, Giacomo; Faiella, Eliodoro; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Giurazza, Francesco [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of Radiology (Italy); Borzomati, Domenico; Coppola, Roberto [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of General Surgery (Italy); Beomonte Zobel, Bruno [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas is a rare condition. Most patients are asymptomatic or alternatively may present with a wide spectrum of symptoms. Traditionally, surgery has been considered the treatment of choice; however, alternative approaches, such as transcatheter embolization (TAE), may be proposed. We report a case of a 48-year-old man with a pancreatic head AVM, presenting with upper abdominal pain and slight anemia. The patient refused surgery and underwent TAE by means of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). At 3 months follow-up, the patient was able to eat regularly, with no residual pain and no signs of anemia.

  16. Challenges in the management of massive intraorbital and hemifacial arteriovenous malformation as causing life-threatening epistaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anura Michelle Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations are congenital lesions that may evolve with time and manifest in a plethora of presentations. They can occur as torrential epistaxis when it extensively involves the facial region. Multi-imaging modalities are available to assist in characterizing the structure of the lesion as well as its location and extent. This complex disease requires a multidisciplinary team approach with preoperative embolization and surgery. We present a rare cause of life-threatening epistaxis in a gentleman with a longstanding orbital and hemifacial arteriovenous malformation and discuss the complexities involved in its management.

  17. Evaluation of the degree of arteriovenous shunting in intracranial arteriovenous malformations using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunwoo, Leonard; Park, Sun-Won [Seoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Chul-Ho; Yun, Tae Jin; Choi, Seung Hong; Cho, Young Dae; Kim, Ji-hoon; Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Young [Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kyung Sik [Chungbuk National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Yong Hwy; Kim, Jin Wook; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Kim, Dong Gyu [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) display venous signals on arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging due to the presence of arteriovenous shunting. Our aim was to quantitatively correlate AVM signal intensity on ASL with the degree of arteriovenous shunting estimated on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in AVMs. MR imaging including pseudo-continuous ASL at 3 T and DSA were obtained on the same day in 40 patients with intracranial AVMs. Two reviewers assessed the nidus and venous signal intensities on ASL images to determine the presence of arteriovenous shunting. Interobserver agreement on ASL between the reviewers was determined. ASL signal intensity of the AVM lesion was correlated with AVM size and the time difference between normal and AVM venous transit times measured from the DSA images. Interobserver agreement between two reviewers for nidus and venous signal intensities was excellent (κ = 0.80 and 1.0, respectively). Interobserver agreement regarding the presence of arteriovenous shunting was perfect (κ = 1.0). AVM signal intensity showed a positive relationship with the time difference between normal and AVM venous transit times (r = 0.638, P < 0.001). AVM signal intensity also demonstrated a positive relationship with AVM size (r = 0.561, P < 0.001). AVM signal intensity on ASL in patients with AVM correlates well with the degree of early vein opacification on DSA, which corresponds to the degree of arteriovenous shunting. (orig.)

  18. Uterine arteriovenous malformations: gray-scale and Doppler US features with MR imaging correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M W; Muradali, D; Thurston, W A; Burns, P N; Wilson, S R

    1998-01-01

    To describe the gray-scale and color and duplex Doppler ultrasound (US) and the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs in 10 patients were retrospectively evaluated. All patients underwent gray-scale US and color and duplex Doppler US. Nine underwent angiography with therapeutic embolization; four, MR imaging. The resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), and peak systolic velocities (PSVs) were evaluated. At gray-scale US, uterine AVMs were nonspecific and manifested as subtle myometrial inhomogeneity, tubular spaces within the myometrium, intramural uterine mass, endometrial mass, or cervical mass or sometimes as prominent parametrial vessels. Color Doppler features were consistent and included intense juxtaposed signals with aliasing and apparent flow reversals. Spectral Doppler US revealed low-resistance flow (RI, 0.25-0.55; PI, 0.3-0.6) and PSVs greater than 96 cm/sec, which suggests arteriovenous shunting. MR imaging showed a bulky uterus, a focal uterine mass, disruption of the junctional zones, serpiginous flow-related signal voids, and prominent parametrial vessels. Gray-scale morphology and Doppler US features should allow noninvasive diagnosis of uterine AVMs. Doppler and MR imaging features of uterine AVMs may overlap with other causes of arteriovenous shunting, including abnormal placentation and gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). These can be differentiated with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin test results (negative with AVM, positive with GTD).

  19. Nasopharyngeal Capillary Arteriovenous Malformation with Ancient/Symplastic Change: A Simulator of Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzija, Gordana; Djuricic, Slavisa M; Baljosevic, Ivan; Calonje, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    There are only 8 published cases of symplastic hemangioma (SH), a relatively recently described, distinct benign entity characterized by pleomorphic vascular smooth muscle and interstitial cells in a pre-existing, long-standing vascular lesion. Seven of these cases were of SH in cutaneous locations, and 1 case was described in the mediastinum. We report the case of the 12-year-old girl with a nasopharyngeal tumor mass with prominent symplastic changes arising in the background of a combined capillary arteriovenous malformation. After critical analysis of all published cases of SH, it is clear that these lesions commonly represent capillary arteriovenous malformations (CAVM) with ancient/symplastic changes according to current terminology proposed in the classification required by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). This is the first such lesion reported in a mucosal location and presenting in the pediatric age group. CAVM with ancient/symplastic change follows a benign clinical course, but it can simulate a malignant vascular tumor.

  20. "Seeing but not identifying": pure alexia coincident with prosopagnosia in occipital arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Wang, An-Guor; Yen, May-Yung

    2011-07-01

    Pure alexia and prosopagnosia are two separate and uncommon disorders of visual recognition in neuro-ophthalmology. We report an extremely rare case of pure alexia coincident with prosopagnosia secondary to occipital arteriovenous malformation. The manifestations of these two visual recognition disorders are also described. A 35-year-old, left-handed women had suffered from severe blurred vision when recognizing her family's faces and was unable to read or associate separate parts of a word into a whole word. Her visual field revealed slight right homonymous hemianopia. Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance images were arranged and vertebral angiography confirmed the diagnosis of left occipital arteriovenous malformation. Gamma-knife stereoscopic radiotherapy was performed. Two months after the treatment, the ability to recognize faces and read improved and the visual field recovered. Ophthalmologists should keep in mind that usual complaints of "blurred vision" might correlate with unusual visual recognition disorders. Pure alexia and prosopagnosia have not been reported to occur together and the left-handed- dominance in our case leads to this scarce concurrence.

  1. Automatic detection and quantification of pulmonary arterio-venous malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetita, Catalin; Fortemps de Loneux, Thierry; Kouvahe, Amélé Florence; El Hajjam, Mostafa

    2017-03-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomic dominant disorder, which is characterized by the development of multiple arterio-venous malformations in the skin, mucous membranes, and/or visceral organs. Pulmonary Arterio-Venous Malformation (PAVM) is an abnormal connection where feeding arteries shunt directly into draining veins with no intervening capillary bed. This condition may lead to paradoxical embolism and hemorrhagic complications. PAVMs patients should systematically be screened as the spontaneous complication rate is high, reaching almost 50%. Chest enhanced contrast CT scanner is the reference screening and follow-up examination. When performed by experienced operators as the prime treatment, percutaneous embolization of PAVMs is a safe, efficient and sustained therapy. The accuracy of PAVM detection and quantification of its progression over time is the key of embolotherapy success. In this paper, we propose an automatic method for PAVM detection and quantification relying on a modeling of vessel deformation, i.e. local caliber increase, based on mathematical morphology. The pulmonary field and vessels are first segmented using geodesic operators. The vessel caliber is estimated by means of a granulometric measure and the local caliber increase is detected by using a geodesic operator, the h-maxdomes. The detection sensitivity can be tuned up according to the choice of the h value which models the irregularity of the vessel caliber along its axis and the PAVM selection is performed according to a clinical criterion of >3 mm diameter of the feeding artery of the PAVM. The developed method was tested on a 20 patient dataset. A sensitivity study allowed choosing the irregularity parameter to maximize the true positive ratio reaching 85.4% in average. A specific false positive reduction procedure targeting the vessel trunks of the arterio-venous tree near mediastinum allows a precision increase from 13% to 67% with an average number of 1

  2. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation and dural arteriovenous fistula embedded in a meningioma—case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moujahed Labidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between a vascular malformation and a meningioma is a rare occurrence intracranially. We document the case of a 59-year-old man who presented with a right parietal extra-axial mass with headaches and seizures. Hemangiopericytoma was initially suspected on the basis of an unusual vascular pattern and rapid lesion progression. Angiography revealed abnormal vessels and an early draining vein associated with the mass. Arterial feeders were primarily from the middle cerebral artery with discrete contribution from both middle meningeal arteries. Craniotomy and Simpson 0 resection of the lesion were undertaken and revealed the coexistence of a dural based tumor with an AVM and a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF. Histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with the diagnosis of meningioma and associated AVM. This case represents the eleventh report of an AVM associated with a meningioma, among which only 6 were contiguous. Such cases illustrate the pathogenic roles of angiogenesis and inflammation that is common to AVMs, dAVF and meningiomas.

  3. [Differentiated surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations of cerebral hemispheres of small and middle sizes in the epilepsy-like type of clinical course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkovnikov, A Iu; Orlov, M Iu; Iarotskiĭ, Iu R

    2013-12-01

    Experience of 115 observations of surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the big brain hemispheres, having small and middle size, and owing various clinical signs, was analyzed. In 36 patients the epilepsy-like type of clinical signs was noted. To all the patients surgical treatment was conducted, using microsurgical technologies or endovascular embolization. Differentiated approach for determination of optimal method of surgical treatment have permitted to achieve satisfactory result in 33 (91.6%) patients, suffering epilepsy-like type of clinical signs.

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery for sylvian fissure arteriovenous malformations with emphasis on hemorrhage risks and seizure outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Greg; Kano, Hideyuki; Tonetti, Daniel; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John; Arai, Yoshio; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-09-01

    Sylvian fissure arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) present substantial management challenges because of the critical adjacent blood vessels and functional brain. The authors investigated the outcomes, especially hemorrhage and seizure activity, after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of AVMs within or adjacent to the sylvian fissure. This retrospective single-institution analysis examined the authors' experiences with Gamma Knife surgery for AVMs of the sylvian fissure in cases treated from 1987 through 2009. During this time, 87 patients underwent SRS for AVMs in the region of the sylvian fissure. Before undergoing SRS, 40 (46%) of these patients had experienced hemorrhage and 36 (41%) had had seizures. The median target volume of the AVM was 3.85 cm(3) (range 0.1-17.7 cm(3)), and the median marginal dose of radiation was 20 Gy (range 13-25 Gy). Over a median follow-up period of 64 months (range 3-275 months), AVM obliteration was confirmed by MRI or angiography for 43 patients. The actuarial rates of confirmation of total obliteration were 35% at 3 years, 60% at 4 and 5 years, and 76% at 10 years. Of the 36 patients who had experienced seizures before SRS, 19 (53%) achieved outcomes of Engel class I after treatment. The rate of seizure improvement was 29% at 3 years, 36% at 5 years, 50% at 10 years, and 60% at 15 years. No seizures developed after SRS in patients who had been seizure free before treatment. The actuarial rate of AVM hemorrhage after SRS was 5% at 1, 5, and 10 years. This rate equated to an annual hemorrhage rate during the latency interval of 1%; no hemorrhages occurred after confirmed obliteration. No permanent neurological deficits developed as an adverse effect of radiation; however, delayed cyst formation occurred in 3 patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery was an effective treatment for AVMs within the region of the sylvian fissure, particularly for smaller-volume AVMs. After SRS, a low rate of hemorrhage and improved seizure control were also

  5. Classification of Cortical Brain Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, radiological, and genetic classifications of 113 cases of malformations of cortical development (MCD were evaluated at the Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  6. Double Coaxial Microcatheter Technique for Glue Embolization of Renal Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchikawa, Yoko, E-mail: jauchikawa@gmail.com [University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Mori, Kensaku, E-mail: moriken@md.tsukuba.ac.jp [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Shiigai, Masanari, E-mail: m-41gai@yahoo.co.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Konishi, Takahiro, E-mail: soratobukangaruu@gmail.com [University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Hoshiai, Sodai, E-mail: hoshiai@sb4.so-net.ne.jp [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ishigro, Toshitaka, E-mail: suzutokei@gmail.com; Hiyama, Takashi, E-mail: med-tak@hotmail.com [University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nakai, Yasunobu, E-mail: nakaiya@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Minami, Manabu, E-mail: mminami@md.tsukuba.ac.jp [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo demonstrate the technical benefit of the double coaxial microcatheter technique for embolization of renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and iodized oil (glue).Materials and MethodsSix consecutive patients (1 man and 5 women; mean age 61 years; range 44–77 years) with renal AVMs were included. Five patients had hematuria, and one had a risk of heart failure due to a large intrarenal arteriovenous shunt. All patients underwent transarterial embolization using glue and the double coaxial microcatheter technique with outer 2.6F and inner 1.9F microcatheters. After glue injection, the inner microcatheter was retracted, while the outer microcatheter was retained. We assessed the complications and clinical outcomes of this technique.ResultsTechnical success was achieved in all patients. In 9 sessions, 34 feeding arteries were embolized with glue using the double coaxial microcatheter technique, 1 was embolized with glue using a single microcatheter, and 2 were embolized with coils. The double coaxial microcatheter technique was useful for selecting small tortuous feeding arteries, preventing glue reflux to the proximal arteries, and approaching multiple feeding arteries without complete retraction of the microcatheters. As a minor complication, glue migrated into the venous system in four patients without any sequelae. In all patients, favorable clinical outcomes, including hematuria cessation in five patients and improvement of the large intrarenal arteriovenous shunt in one patient, were obtained without deterioration of renal function.ConclusionGlue embolization with the double coaxial microcatheter technique was useful for treating renal AVMs with multiple tortuous feeding arteries.

  7. ArterioVenous Malformation within Jejunal Diverticulum: An Unusual Cause of Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive gastrointestinal (GI bleeding can occur with multiple jejunal diverticulosis. However, significant bleeding in the setting of few diverticulae is very unusual and rare. We report a case of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from an arteriovenous malformation (AVM within a jejunal diverticulum to underscore the significance of such coexisting pathologies. Mesenteric angiogram was chosen to help identify the source of bleeding and to offer an intervention. Despite endovascular coiling, emergent intestinal resection of the bleeding jejunal segment was warranted to ensure definitive treatment. However several reports have shown jejunal diverticulosis as a rare cause of massive GI bleeding. The coexistence of jejunal diverticulum and AVM is rare and massive bleeding from an acquired Dieulafoy-like AVM within a diverticulum has never previously been described. Awareness of Dieulafoy-like AVM within jejunoileal diverticulosis is useful in preventing delay in treatment.

  8. ArterioVenous Malformation within Jejunal Diverticulum: An Unusual Cause of Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey K.; Carethers, John M.; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2009-01-01

    Massive gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can occur with multiple jejunal diverticulosis. However, significant bleeding in the setting of few diverticulae is very unusual and rare. We report a case of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) within a jejunal diverticulum to underscore the significance of such coexisting pathologies. Mesenteric angiogram was chosen to help identify the source of bleeding and to offer an intervention. Despite endovascular coiling, emergent intestinal resection of the bleeding jejunal segment was warranted to ensure definitive treatment. However several reports have shown jejunal diverticulosis as a rare cause of massive GI bleeding. The coexistence of jejunal diverticulum and AVM is rare and massive bleeding from an acquired Dieulafoy-like AVM within a diverticulum has never previously been described. Awareness of Dieulafoy-like AVM within jejunoileal diverticulosis is useful in preventing delay in treatment. PMID:19753317

  9. Transcatheter embolization of uterine arteriovenous malformation: report of 2 cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molvi, Shaba N; Dash, Kiranbala; Rastogi, Harsh; Khanna, Shakti B

    2011-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the uterus is a rare cause of menorrhagia and may at times lead to life-threatening hemorrhage. The clinical findings may not always be reliable in the diagnosis of uterine AVM, and a high index of suspicion is important because, unlike many other causes of menorrhagia, curettage may paradoxically aggravate the bleeding. Herein are described the cases of 2 patients with uterine AVM with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Both had a history of abortion followed by dilation and curettage. In both patients, the diagnosis of uterine AVM was established at Doppler flow ultrasonography. Treatment using transcatheter embolization was successful, and both patients had normal menstrual cycles at follow-up. One patient delivered a healthy baby 2½ years after transcatheter embolization. Copyright © 2011 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on a uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Hideto; Minakami, Hisanori

    2006-09-01

    The effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) on uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is not well known. A 37-year-old woman with a previous cesarean was diagnosed as having a uterine AVM after a spontaneous abortion with massive vaginal bleeding. The AVM decreased in size from 5.1 x 3.8 cm to 1.4 x 1.0 cm after 6 months of therapy with a GnRHa. Uterine artery embolization conducted after the GnRH therapy resulted in complete disappearance of the AVM. The patient's menstrual cycles and ovulation resumed 3 months after uterine artery embolization. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy reduced the size of the uterine AVM. Thus, GnRHa therapy may be useful for uterine AVM in situations where uterine artery embolization must be postponed.

  11. Amenorrhoea revealing an arteriovenous uterine malformation, and recovery of menses after embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyftmann, Lionel; Dechaud, Hervé; Ovtchnikoff, Serge; de Lavit, Jean Pierre Rouanet; Hédon, Bernard

    2003-10-01

    A case is reported of secondary amenorrhoea related to an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) successfully treated with embolization, with a recovery of menstrual cycles. A 28-year-old woman presented with secondary amenorrhoea as the only clinical symptom. Although she had an eugonadic status, there was no genital withdrawal bleeding upon cessation of an oral contraceptive. Pelvic transvaginal ultrasonography revealed a pelvic mass but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly showed an AVM. Classical angiography was performed with endovascular embolization. Partial thrombosis of the lesion was assessed by magnetic resonance angiography. Recovery of menses occurred 2 months later. It is speculated that blood stolen from the endometrium by the uterine AVM could have been responsible for the amenorrhoea. It is a very unusual cause, and it can be successfully treated with embolization.

  12. Arteriovenous malformation in a bicornuate uterus leading to recurrent severe uterine bleeding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipari, Christopher W; Badawy, Shawky Z A

    2005-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare entities that have been documented in a wide age range. Several treatment modalities have been highlighted in the literature. Uterine artery embolization appears to be effective therapy for select cases. Embolization provides an alternative to hysterectomy and the potential for future fertility. To our knowledge, only 1 other case report describes an AVM existing within a bicornuate uterus. A 31-year-old, married, Caucasian woman with a history of infertility presented with intermittent uterine hemorrhage resulting in symptomatic anemia. The patient was diagnosed with a uterine AVM existing within the left horn of a bicornuate uterus. The patient underwent uterine artery embolization, with resolution of the vascular mass and resumption of regular menstrual flow. AVM in a bicornuate uterus is rarely reported. Selective uterine artery embolization offers an effective modality of treatment.

  13. Uterine arteriovenous malformation caused by intrauterine instrumentation for laparoscopic surgery due to left tubal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kylie Hae-Jin; Park, Jong-Kyu; Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hong-Bae; Park, Sung-Taek

    2014-09-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare entity in gynecology with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Due to abnormal connection between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary system, recurrent and profuse vaginal bleeding is the most common symptom which can be potentially life-threatening. Uterine AVM can be either congenital or acquired. Acquired AVM is reported as a consequence of previous uterine trauma such as curettage procedures, caesarean section or pelvic surgery. It is also associated with infection, retained product of conception, gestational trophoblastic disease, malignancy and exposure to diethlystilboestrol. We herein report a case of acquired uterine AVM located on the right lateral wall after intrauterine instrumentation for laparoscopic left salpingectomy due to left tubal pregnancy. The patient was successfully treated with embolization.

  14. Multimodality treatment approach in children with cerebral arteriovenous malformation-a survey in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane; Obbekjær, Tina; Birkeland, Peter

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Arteriovenous malformations are not a common disease in childhood. A national survey was conducted to reveal the Danish incidence of the disease, presentation, choice of treatment, and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients were admitted to any of the five neurosurgical...... centers during the years 2000-2008. A retrospective survey was conducted using hospital records. RESULTS: Twenty-three males and 17 females presented with AVM with a mean age of 11.3 (1 month-18 years). The incidence was found to be 0.4/100,000. Early fatal outcome was seen in three patients. Treatment...... was surgery (12), endovascular (5), radiosurgery (6), or a combination of the above (10). Four patients were treated conservatively. Complications of the treatment were seen in 27%. Occlusion rate was 74%. Good or excellent outcome was seen in 65%. CONCLUSION: A national survey may give a lower rate...

  15. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and embolic complications in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Federico; Ferreyro, Bruno L; Wainstein, Esteban J; Serra, Marcelo M

    2014-07-01

    Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) face higher risk of embolic complications. It is not clear whether poor outcomes are related to PAVM severity or pulmonary symptoms. Furthermore, there is currently no available data on HHT patients in Argentina. We conducted a cross sectional study in a teaching hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We describe baseline characteristics of HHT and compare the prevalence of embolic complications in patients with significant PAVM compared to patients without significant PAVM. One hundred and eight consecutive patients were included. Significant PAVM was defined as: contrast echocardiography grade 2 or greater; bilateral PAVM or feeding artery bigger than 3mm; or previous PAVM treatment. Primary composite outcome was defined as: cerebrovascular accident, cerebral abscess or peripheral embolism. 20% of participants had embolic complications, the most frequent one was stroke. Embolic complications were associated with significant PAVM and respiratory symptoms. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30 Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended.

  17. Congenital Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation Presenting as Postcoital bleeding: A Rare Presentation of a Rare Clinical Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM is an extremely rare condition with <100 cases documented in literature. We report multiparous women presenting to us with a history of postcoital bleed. Initial Doppler ultrasonography was consistent with features suggestive of AVM. Subsequently, computed tomography (CT angiography confirmed the diagnosis. Embolization was chosen as the treatment because of the large extension of AVM and the risk of hemorrhage during hysterectomy. The patient was discharged in a stable condition with a plan of repeat embolization in the next setting. At 6 and 12 weeks of follow-up, she did not experience any further episodes of bleed. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the salient clinical features, diagnosis, and the management options available for this rare clinical condition.

  18. Arteriovenous malformations of the uterus: an uncommon cause of vaginal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M K; Meilstrup, J W; Shackelford, D P; Kaminski, P F

    1997-12-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare entities in gynecology, with only 73 cases reported in the literature. Most commonly they present with vaginal hemorrhage, but other presentations such as congestive heart failure, postmenopausal bleeding, and an asymptomatic mass have been described. These lesions may be congenital or acquired. Acquired lesions are believed to follow trauma or may arise after choriocarcinoma or other gynecologic malignancies. Diagnosis can rapidly be made with color flow Doppler ultrasound or angiography. Additionally, they have been detected using hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingogram, and computerized tomography. Acute management consists of hemodynamic stabilization and possibly placement of a Foley bulb in the uterus or methylergonovine injection. Ultimate treatment depends on the patients desire for fertility. Embolization therapy is variably successful and may allow the preservation of reproductive capacity. To date, five pregnancies after embolization have been reported with varying outcomes. If pregnancy is not desired or embolization fails, hysterectomy remains the treatment of choice.

  19. The Rare Association of Moyamoya Disease and Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Te Chang [Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Tainan (China); Guo, Wan Yuo; Wu, Hsiu Mei; Chang, Feng Chi; Shiau, Cheng Ying; Chung, Wen Yuh [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei (China)

    2008-07-15

    A 36-year-old man was diagnosed with a right temporal lobe grade II cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cAVM) and was treated with radiosurgery. At nine months after the cAVM radiosurgery, the patient began to develop bilateral focal narrowing at the M1 segments of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries. The narrowing progressively deteriorated as was demonstrated on longitudinal serial follow- up MR imaging. X-ray angiography performed at 51 months after radiosurgery confirmed that the cAVM was cured and a diagnosis of moyamoya disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of cAVM-associated moyamoya disease that developed after radiosurgery. Given the chronological sequence of disease development and radiation dose distribution of radiosurgery, it is proposed that humoral or unknown predisposing factors, rather than direct radiation effects, are the cause of moyamoya disease associated with cAVM.

  20. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations: anatomic subtypes, surgical results, and increased predictive accuracy of the supplementary grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Kim, Helen; Pourmohamad, Tony; Young, William L; Lawton, Michael T

    2012-12-01

    Anatomic diversity among cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) calls for a classification that is intuitive and surgically informative. Selection tools like the Spetzler-Martin grading system are designed to work best with cerebral AVMs but have shortcomings with cerebellar AVMs. To define subtypes of cerebellar AVMs that clarify anatomy and surgical management, to determine results according to subtypes, and to compare predictive accuracies of the Spetzler-Martin and supplementary systems. From a consecutive surgical series of 500 patients, 60 had cerebellar AVMs, 39 had brainstem AVMs and were excluded, and 401 had cerebral AVMs. Cerebellar AVM subtypes were as follows: 18 vermian, 13 suboccipital, 12 tentorial, 12 petrosal, and 5 tonsillar. Patients with tonsillar and tentorial AVMs fared best. Cerebellar AVMs presented with hemorrhage more than cerebral AVMs (P eloquent (P eloquence are distorted by cerebellar anatomy in ways that components of the supplementary system are not.

  1. The Role of Radical Surgery in the Management of Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle K. Moulder

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acquired arteriovenous malformations (AVMs can develop after uterine instrumentation. The increased risks of vascular changes, including abnormal placentation, after repeated cesarean sections are well studied. Herein, we describe a patient with delayed hemorrhage from a uterine AVM, following dilation and curettage for a cesarean scar pregnancy. Case: A 32-year-old G3P2 presented with a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy managed with dilation and curettage, which incurred a 1,500-ml blood loss. Within 6 weeks, she returned with 2 episodes of vaginal bleeding. Initial angiography demonstrated a high-flow arteriovenous fistula, which was coiled. Vaginal hemorrhage recurred; repeat angiography demonstrated a large AVM. Gelfoam embolization of the bilateral internal iliac arteries reduced the vascularity of the AVM. The AVM's location, starting at the left lateral apex of the cesarean scar and extending into the parametrium, necessitated a radical hysterectomy. Pathologic examination revealed a placenta percreta extending into the parametrium. Conclusion: The prevalence of uterine AVMs has increased with the rise in surgical obstetrics. In patients with a failed prior interventional procedure, surgical management is necessary to prevent life-threatening hemorrhage. The location of the AVM within the abnormal uterine scar tissue requires familiarity with radical pelvic surgical techniques that are normally used in cancer surgery in order to definitively treat this delayed obstetrical complication.

  2. The role of radical surgery in the management of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, Janelle K; Garrett, Leslie A; Salazar, Gloria M; Goodman, Annekathryn

    2013-05-01

    Acquired arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can develop after uterine instrumentation. The increased risks of vascular changes, including abnormal placentation, after repeated cesarean sections are well studied. Herein, we describe a patient with delayed hemorrhage from a uterine AVM, following dilation and curettage for a cesarean scar pregnancy. A 32-year-old G3P2 presented with a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy managed with dilation and curettage, which incurred a 1,500-ml blood loss. Within 6 weeks, she returned with 2 episodes of vaginal bleeding. Initial angiography demonstrated a high-flow arteriovenous fistula, which was coiled. Vaginal hemorrhage recurred; repeat angiography demonstrated a large AVM. Gelfoam embolization of the bilateral internal iliac arteries reduced the vascularity of the AVM. The AVM's location, starting at the left lateral apex of the cesarean scar and extending into the parametrium, necessitated a radical hysterectomy. Pathologic examination revealed a placenta percreta extending into the parametrium. The prevalence of uterine AVMs has increased with the rise in surgical obstetrics. In patients with a failed prior interventional procedure, surgical management is necessary to prevent life-threatening hemorrhage. The location of the AVM within the abnormal uterine scar tissue requires familiarity with radical pelvic surgical techniques that are normally used in cancer surgery in order to definitively treat this delayed obstetrical complication.

  3. Modified Park Bench Position for Superior Vermian Arteriovenous Malformations and Dural Fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Alturki, Abdulrahman Y; Chapman, Paul H; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J

    2017-10-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the superior cerebellar vermis and dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) draining into tentorial venous structures are uncommon lesions. Various surgical approaches and positions have been used to gain access. We present our experience with 10 superior vermian AVMs and 3 dAVFs with retrograde transverse sinus or torcular drainage, each resected through a supracerebellar infratentorial approach in the park bench position with modification of the neck and head position (vertex tilt-up instead of down). All 13 patients were treated surgically, with 4 receiving adjunctive endovascular embolization. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography confirmed complete resection of lesion in all. One patient experienced superficial wound infection treated by oral antibiotics, and another presented with a cerebrospinal fluid collection due to delayed hydrocephalus requiring insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The median modified Rankin Scale score at last follow-up was 1. There were no surgical complications at the time of last follow-up. Our series shows that for superior vermian AVMs or dAVFs with retrograde transverse sinus or torcula venous drainage, the supracerebellar infratentorial approach in a modified vertex tilt-up park bench position is a safe and effective surgical approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. International multicentre validation of the arteriovenous malformation-related intracerebral haemorrhage (AVICH) score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidert, Marian C; Lawton, Michael T; Kim, Louis J; Nerva, John D; Kurisu, Kaoru; Ikawa, Fusao; Konczalla, Juergen; Dinc, Nazife; Seifert, Volker; Habdank-Kolaczkowski, Julian; Hatano, Taketo; Hayase, Makoto; Podlesek, Dino; Schackert, Gabriele; Wanet, Thomas; Gläsker, Sven; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Kneist, Andreas; Sure, Ulrich; Seifert, Burkhardt; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl

    2017-10-06

    The recently published arteriovenous malformation-related intracerebral haemorrhage (AVICH) score showed better outcome prediction for patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM)-related intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) than other AVM or ICH scores. Here we present the results of a multicentre, external validation of the AVICH score. All participating centres (n=11) provided anonymous data on 325 patients to form the Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade, the supplemented SM (sSM) grade, the ICH score and the AVICH score. Modified Rankin score (mRS) at last follow-up (mean 25.6 months) was dichotomized into favourable (mRS 0-2, n=210) and unfavourable (mRS 3-6;n=115). Univariate and AUROC analyses were performed to validate the AVICH score. Except nidus structure and AVM size, all single parameters forming the SM, sSM, ICH and AVICH score and the scores itself were significantly different between both outcome groups in the univariate analysis. The AVICH score was confirmed to be the highest predictive outcome score with an AUROC of 0.765 compared with 0.705 for the ICH score and 0.682 for the sSM grade. The multicentre-validated AVICH score predicts clinical outcome superior to pre-existing scores. We suggest the routine use of this score for future clinical outcome prediction and in clinical research. NCT02920645. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Pretreatment Predictors of Adverse Radiation Effects After Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Prooijen, Monique van [Physics Department, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Cusimano, Michael [Division of Neurosurgery, St Michael' s Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Tsao, May [Radiation Oncology Program, Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada); Menard, Cynthia [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada); Kulkarni, Abhaya V. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh, E-mail: gelareh.zadeh@uhn.on.ca [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To identify vascular and dosimetric predictors of symptomatic T2 signal change and adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation, in order to define and validate preexisting risk models. Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were treated at our institution between 2005 and 2009. Eighty-five patients have at least 12 months of clinical and radiological follow-up. Any new-onset headaches, new or worsening seizures, or neurological deficit were considered adverse events. Follow-up magnetic resonance images were assessed for new onset T2 signal change and the volume calculated. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects. Results: There were 19 children and 66 adults in the study cohort, with a mean age of 34 (range 6-74). Twenty-three (27%) patients suffered adverse radiation effects (ARE), 9 patients with permanent neurological deficit (10.6%). Of these, 5 developed fixed visual field deficits. Target volume and 12 Gy volume were the most significant predictors of adverse radiation effects on univariate analysis (p < 0.001). Location and cortical eloquence were not significantly associated with the development of adverse events (p = 0.12). No additional vascular parameters were identified as predictive of ARE. There was a significant target volume threshold of 4 cm{sup 3}, above which the rate of ARE increased dramatically. Multivariate analysis target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage are the only significant predictors of ARE. The volume of T2 signal change correlates to ARE, but only target volume is predictive of a higher volume of T2 signal change. Conclusions: Target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage is the most accurate predictor of adverse radiation effects and complications after radiosurgery for AVMs. A high percentage of permanent visual field defects in this series suggest the

  6. Pretreatment predictors of adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; van Prooijen, Monique; Cusimano, Michael; Tsao, May; Menard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Schwartz, Michael; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-02-01

    To identify vascular and dosimetric predictors of symptomatic T2 signal change and adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation, in order to define and validate preexisting risk models. A total of 125 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were treated at our institution between 2005 and 2009. Eighty-five patients have at least 12 months of clinical and radiological follow-up. Any new-onset headaches, new or worsening seizures, or neurological deficit were considered adverse events. Follow-up magnetic resonance images were assessed for new onset T2 signal change and the volume calculated. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects. There were 19 children and 66 adults in the study cohort, with a mean age of 34 (range 6-74). Twenty-three (27%) patients suffered adverse radiation effects (ARE), 9 patients with permanent neurological deficit (10.6%). Of these, 5 developed fixed visual field deficits. Target volume and 12 Gy volume were the most significant predictors of adverse radiation effects on univariate analysis (p eloquence were not significantly associated with the development of adverse events (p = 0.12). No additional vascular parameters were identified as predictive of ARE. There was a significant target volume threshold of 4 cm(3), above which the rate of ARE increased dramatically. Multivariate analysis target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage are the only significant predictors of ARE. The volume of T2 signal change correlates to ARE, but only target volume is predictive of a higher volume of T2 signal change. Target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage is the most accurate predictor of adverse radiation effects and complications after radiosurgery for AVMs. A high percentage of permanent visual field defects in this series suggest the optic radiation is a critical radiosensitive structure. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published

  7. MRI evidence for preserved regulation of intracranial pressure in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations

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    Meinel, Felix G.; Fischer, Judith; Pomschar, Andreas; Wöhrle, Natalie; Koerte, Inga K.; Steffinger, Denise [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Laubender, Rüdiger P. [Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Alperin, Noam [Department of Radiology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Ertl-Wagner, Birgit, E-mail: birgit.ertl-wagner@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate intracranial pressure and associated hemo- and hydrodynamic parameters in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations AVMs. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients with arteriovenous malformations (median age 38.7 years, 27/30 previously treated with radiosurgery) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were investigated on a 3.0 T MR scanner. Nidus volume was quantified on dynamic MR angiography. Total arterial cerebral blood flow (tCBF), venous outflow as well as aqueductal and craniospinal stroke volumes were obtained using velocity-encoded cine-phase contrast MRI. Intracranial volume change during the cardiac cycle was calculated and intracranial pressure (ICP) was derived from systolic intracranial volume change (ICVC) and pulse pressure gradient. Results: TCBF was significantly higher in AVM patients as compared to healthy controls (median 799 vs. 692 mL/min, p = 0.007). There was a trend for venous flow to be increased in both the ipsilateral internal jugular vein (IJV, 282 vs. 225 mL/min, p = 0.16), and in the contralateral IJV (322 vs. 285 mL/min, p = 0.09), but not in secondary veins. There was no significant difference in median ICP between AVM patients and control subjects (6.9 vs. 8.6 mmHg, p = 0.30) and ICP did not correlate with nidus volume in AVM patients (ρ = −0.06, p = 0.74). There was a significant positive correlation between tCBF and craniospinal CSF stroke volume (ρ = 0.69, p = 0.02). Conclusions: The elevated cerebral blood flow in patients with AVMs is drained through an increased flow in IJVs but not secondary veins. ICP is maintained within ranges of normal and does not correlate with nidus volume.

  8. Delayed angiography in the investigation of intracerebral hematomas caused by small arteriovenous malformations

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    Willinsky, R.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Brain Vascular Malformation Study Group, ON (Canada)); Fitzgerald, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada)); TerBrugge, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Brain Vascular Malformation Study Group, ON (Canada)); Montanera, W. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Wallace, M. (Div. of Neurosurgery, Dept. of Surgery, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., ON (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Brain Vascular Malformation Study Group, ON (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    We reviewed the clinical and radiological features of ten patients with small arteriovenous malformations that caused intracerebral hematomas. In six patients, angiography showed a small nidus (less than 1 cm in diameter) with a shunt at the site of the hematoma, and in four only an early-filling vein was evident. Six patients had only delayed angiography (4 weeks or more after the ictus). In three, angiography within 2 days of the ictus failed to reveal the cause of the bleed, but repeat angiography showed an early-filling vein in two, and a nidus with shunting in one. In only one patient did early angiography reveal the malformation. MRI was obtained in eight patients, and in two prominent vessels were evident in the wall of the hematoma cavity. In investigation of an unexplained intracerebral hematoma, MRI may be useful to exclude a neoplasm or cavernoma, although the latter may be not be evident in the presence of a recent hematoma. We suggest early MRI and angiography for investigation of an unexplained, nonhypertensive intracerebral bleed, with follow-up MRI and dealyed angiography if the initial studies fail to reveal the cause. (orig.)

  9. Clinical application of intraoperative MRI navigation in microsurgical resection of cerebral arteriovenous malformations located near the main functional areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-sheng KONG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraoperative MRI navigation in the microsurgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM located near the main functional areas of brain.  Methods A total of 53 patients with AVM in the adjacent functional areas were treated by microsurgical operation with intraoperative MRI navigation and electrophysiological monitoring. Blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI examinations were performed before and during operation. We fused BOLD-fMRI and DTI images to form three-dimensional images containing lesions, important functional areas and pyramidal tract so as to study the relationship between them and their changes before and after operation.  Results The diameter of malformations in 53 patients was 2-7 cm, on average of (3.41 ± 0.85 cm. There were 6 patients involved in sensory areas, 7 patients in motor areas, 10 patients in pyramidal tract, 14 patients in language areas, 2 patients in visual cortex, 9 patients in optic radiation, 2 patients in basal ganglia and 3 patients in brain stem. Gross total resection was achieved in 49 patients while full functionality was retained. The other 4 patients with intraoperative MRI navigation were found that malformations and functional areas were closely related, so the lesions were partially resected. There were 8 patients with new-onset postoperative neurological dysfunction, among whom one case was found bilateral visual field defects, 3 patients' muscle tone was lower than before, one case of facial paralysis, 2 cases of aphasia, one with decreased muscle tone and motor aphasia. Follow-up period varied from 3 to 60 months [median 19.37 (6.00, 30.00 months], and 2 cases died (one died of respiratory failure after one year, and the other was agnogenic. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS score was 5 in 45 cases (84.91%, 4 in 3 cases (5.66%, 3 in 2 cases (3.77%, 2 in one case (1

  10. Awake craniotomy for cortical language mapping and resection of an arteriovenous malformation adjacent to eloquent areas under general anesthesia — A hybrid approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pree Nimmannitya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgery of arteriovenous malformation (AVM is sometimes challenging and carries a high risk of morbidity, especially when the AVM is located in an eloquent area of the brain. Unlike gliomas, awake craniotomy has not been widely used for resection of AVM. The authors present a case of an AVM in the left frontal lobe which was successfully removed with the aid of awake craniotomy with cortical language mapping. In conclusion, awake craniotomy for functional cortical mapping is beneficial for AVM resection, especially when the lesion is located in or adjacent to eloquent areas of the brain. A hybrid approach with functional mapping in the awake condition and AVM resection under general anesthesia may be useful in selected cases. Furthermore, en bloc resection with the nidus embedded in the brain parenchyma may be a useful means of removal to reduce operation time and intraoperative blood loss if there is no apparent functional cortex surrounding the AVM, as in the present case.

  11. Chronic Iliac Vein Occlusion and Painful Nonhealing Ulcer Induced by High Venous Pressures from an Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Link

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic femoral vein compression (May-Thurner Syndrome is a known rare cause of deep venous thrombosis. Subsequent angiogenesis and the development of arteriovenous malformation (AVM in the setting of chronic venous thrombosis is by itself a rare and poorly understood phenomenon. We report a case in which elevated venous pressures resulting from such compression appear to have resulted in the development of a pelvic arteriovenous malformation, which was further complicated by chronic, nonhealing painful lower extremity ulcers, and the development of extensive subcutaneous venous collaterals. Following successful embolization of the pelvic AVM and ablation of veins under the ulcers with laser and sclerotherapy, the patient's ulcers healed and she became pain-free.

  12. Scattered depressions with temporal preponderance in visual field test coexisting with optic disc temporal atrophy in cerebral arteriovenous malformation

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    Gokce G

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gokcen Gokce,1 Nisa Cem Oren,2 Osman Melih Ceylan,3 Tarkan Mumcuoglu,3 Volkan Hurmeric3 1Sarikamis Military Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, Kars, 3Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara, Turkey Abstract: In this article, the unusual association of optic disc temporal atrophy associated with scattered depressions with temporal preponderance in visual field test resembling incomplete bitemporal hemianopsia is reported. A 22-year-old man with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM, which was located adjacent to the inferomedial portion of the posterior limb of the right internal capsule at the level of lateral ventricle, revealed interesting and unexpected ophthalmological findings. Possible mechanisms including anatomical variant, previously larger AVM, and retrograde optic neuropathy were mentioned. This case also highlighted that the usual complaint of visual disturbance might associate with unusual visual field defect in cerebral AVMs. Keywords: arteriovenous malformation, bitemporal hemianopsia, optic chiasm, optic nerve, vascular steal

  13. Real-time imaging of de novo arteriovenous malformation in a mouse model of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Ok; Wankhede, Mamta; Lee, Young Jae; Choi, Eun-Jung; Fliess, Naime; Choe, Se-Woon; Oh, Seh-Hoon; Walter, Glenn; Raizada, Mohan K; Sorg, Brian S; Oh, S Paul

    2009-11-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are vascular anomalies where arteries and veins are directly connected through a complex, tangled web of abnormal arteries and veins instead of a normal capillary network. AVMs in the brain, lung, and visceral organs, including the liver and gastrointestinal tract, result in considerable morbidity and mortality. AVMs are the underlying cause of three major clinical symptoms of a genetic vascular dysplasia termed hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), which is characterized by recurrent nosebleeds, mucocutaneous telangiectases, and visceral AVMs and caused by mutations in one of several genes, including activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1). It remains unknown why and how selective blood vessels form AVMs, and there have been technical limitations to observing the initial stages of AVM formation. Here we present in vivo evidence that physiological or environmental factors such as wounds in addition to the genetic ablation are required for Alk1-deficient vessels to develop to AVMs in adult mice. Using the dorsal skinfold window chamber system, we have demonstrated for what we believe to be the first time the entire course of AVM formation in subdermal blood vessels by using intravital bright-field images, hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence recordings of direct arterial flow through the AV shunts, and vascular casting techniques. We believe our data provide novel insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms of HHT and potential therapeutic approaches.

  14. Uterine artery embolization for uterine arteriovenous malformation is associated with placental abnormalities in the subsequent pregnancy: two cases report

    OpenAIRE

    Soeda, Shu; Kyozuka, Hyo; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yasuda, Shun; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya

    2014-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is generally associated with uterine trauma such as dilatation and curettage, therapeutic abortion, uterine surgery and uterine malignant tumors^{1)}. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is performed on patients with uterine AVM who have desire for future pregnancy^{2)}. Some successful pregnancies were reported after UAE for uterine AVM^{5,6)}, however complication during pregnancy has not been described clearly. We herein for the first time report two ...

  15. A Case of Successful Surgical Treatment of Migraine Headaches in a Patient with Sporadic Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Sang-Jun; Cho, Hyun Min; Park, Joon Seok

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are thin-walled aneurysms caused by abnormal communication between the pulmonary arteries and veins. Migraine headaches are sometimes the presenting clinical manifestation of PAVMs. Although embolotherapy, using detachable balloons or stainless steel coils, is generally accepted as the best choice for the treatment of multiple PAVMs, the mode of intervention for solitary PAVMs remains a subject of debate. We present a 43-yr-old woman with a 10-yr ...

  16. Challenges in the management of massive intraorbital and hemifacial arteriovenous malformation as causing life-threatening epistaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Anura Michelle Manuel; Santhi Kalimuthu; Sitra Siri Pathmanathan; Prepageran Narayanan; Zurina Zainal Abidin; Khairul Azmi; Alizan Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations are congenital lesions that may evolve with time and manifest in a plethora of presentations. They can occur as torrential epistaxis when it extensively involves the facial region. Multi-imaging modalities are available to assist in characterizing the structure of the lesion as well as its location and extent. This complex disease requires a multidisciplinary team approach with preoperative embolization and surgery. We present a rare cause of life-threatening epist...

  17. Management and clinical outcome of posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations: report on a single-centre 15-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, L; Thines, L; Dehdashti, A R; Wallace, M C; Willinsky, R A; Tymianski, M; Schwartz, M L; ter Brugge, K G

    2009-04-01

    Posterior fossa brain arteriovenous malformations (PFbAVMs) are rare lesions. Management is complicated by eloquence of adjacent neurological structures, multimodality treatment is often necessary, and obliteration is not always possible. We describe a 15-year experience in the management of posterior fossa brain AVMs with a focus on clinical outcome. From 1989 to 2004, prospectively collected information on 106 patients with diagnosis of a PFbAVMs was obtained. Clinical and angioarchitectural characteristics, management options and complications are described and reviewed to evaluate their impact on final outcome as measured by the Modified Rankin Score (mRS). Ninety-eight patients were followed for an average of 3.3 years (1-14.6). The male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Ninety-five out of 98 patients (96.9%) were symptomatic at presentation, with 61 (62.2%) intracranial haemorrhages. Sixty-two patients were treated (46 cerebellar, 16 brainstem). Ten haemorrhages occurred in follow-up (4.1%/year). The mRS was obtained in 62 patients and was classified as low (good, mRSor=3). Haemorrhage was the only predictor of poor mRS at presentation (p = 0.0229). A poor clinical outcome was correlated with the presence of AA (p = 0.0276), a poor initial mRS (p<0.0001) and the number of treatments needed (p = 0.0434). Patients were significantly more likely to improve than to deteriorate over time (p = 0.0201). The final clinical outcome in PFbAVMs relates directly with the presence of associated aneurysms, number of treatments needed to obliterate the AVM and mRS at presentation. Despite the fact that patients tend to improve after brain AVM haemorrhage, the relationship of MRS at presentation and final outcome suggests that an expedited, more definitive treatment is probably a better choice, especially in patients with good grades after the initial bleeding.

  18. Genetic Basis of Brain Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrini, Elena; Conti, Valerio; Dobyns, William B; Guerrini, Renzo

    2016-09-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCD) represent a major cause of developmental disabilities, severe epilepsy, and reproductive disadvantage. Genes that have been associated to MCD are mainly involved in cell proliferation and specification, neuronal migration, and late cortical organization. Lissencephaly-pachygyria-severe band heterotopia are diffuse neuronal migration disorders causing severe global neurological impairment. Abnormalities of the LIS1, DCX, ARX, RELN, VLDLR, ACTB, ACTG1, TUBG1, KIF5C, KIF2A, and CDK5 genes have been associated with these malformations. More recent studies have also established a relationship between lissencephaly, with or without associated microcephaly, corpus callosum dysgenesis as well as cerebellar hypoplasia, and at times, a morphological pattern consistent with polymicrogyria with mutations of several genes (TUBA1A, TUBA8, TUBB, TUBB2B, TUBB3, and DYNC1H1), regulating the synthesis and function of microtubule and centrosome key components and hence defined as tubulinopathies. MCD only affecting subsets of neurons, such as mild subcortical band heterotopia and periventricular heterotopia, have been associated with abnormalities of the DCX, FLN1A, and ARFGEF2 genes and cause neurological and cognitive impairment that vary from severe to mild deficits. Polymicrogyria results from abnormal late cortical organization and is inconstantly associated with abnormal neuronal migration. Localized polymicrogyria has been associated with anatomo-specific deficits, including disorders of language and higher cognition. Polymicrogyria is genetically heterogeneous, and only in a small minority of patients, a definite genetic cause has been identified. Megalencephaly with normal cortex or polymicrogyria by MRI imaging, hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia can all result from mutations in genes of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. Postzygotic mutations have been described for most MCD and can be limited to the dysplastic tissue in the

  19. Management of bleeding uterine arteriovenous malformation with bilateral uterine artery embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehwan; Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jinoo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Yang, Heechul; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical outcome of bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a first-line therapeutic option for bleeding uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Between 2002 and 2012, 19 patients were diagnosed with acquired uterine AVM clinically and through imaging studies. The clinical characteristics, angiographic features, technical success rate of embolization, procedure-related complications, imaging, and clinical follow-up data were assessed. Clinical success was defined as immediate symptomatic resolution with disappearance of vascular abnormality on subsequent imaging studies. A total of 20 bilateral UAE, with or without embolization of extra-uterine feeders, were performed as the first-line treatment. Technical and clinical success rate was 90.0% (18/20) and 89.5% (17/19), respectively. Embolization was incomplete in two patients who had residual extra-uterine fine feeders to the AVM or a procedure- related complication (ruptured uterine artery); the former showed slow regression of the vascular malformation during the observation period, while the latter underwent a successful second bilateral UAE. Immediate clinical success was achieved in the remaining 17 patients after a single session and no recurrence of bleeding was found. Recovery to normal menstrual cycle was seen in all 17 patients with clinical success within one or two months, two of whom subsequently had uneventful intrauterine pregnancies carried to term. Bilateral UAE is a safe and effective first-line therapeutic option for the management of bleeding uterine AVMs. However, incomplete embolization due to unembolizable feeders or difficult access into the uterine artery may lead to suboptimal treatment.

  20. Seizure and anticonvulsant outcomes following stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylowski, Colin J; Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M; Yen, Chun-Po; Quigg, Mark; Dodson, Blair; Ball, Benjamin Z; Sheehan, Jason P

    2015-06-01

    Epilepsy associated with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has an unclear course after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Neither the risks of persistent seizures nor the requirement for postoperative antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are well defined. The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients with AVMs who underwent SRS at the University of Virginia Health System from 1989 to 2012. Seizure status was categorized according to a modified Engel classification. The effects of demographic, AVM-related, and SRS treatment factors on seizure outcomes were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. Changes in AED status were evaluated using McNemar's test. Of the AVM patients with pre- or post-SRS seizures, 73 with pre-SRS epilepsy had evaluable data for subsequent analysis. The median patient age was 37 years (range 5-69 years), and the median follow-up period was 65.6 months (range 12-221 months). Sixty-five patients (89%) achieved seizure remission (Engel Class IA or IB outcome). Patients presenting with simple partial or secondarily generalized seizures were more likely to achieve Engel Class I outcome (p = 0.045). Twenty-one (33%) of 63 patients tapered off of pre-SRS AEDs. The incidence of freedom from AED therapy increased significantly after SRS (p Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective treatment for long-term AVM-related epilepsy. Seizure-free patients on continued AED therapy were more likely to have residual AVM nidi. Simple partial or secondarily generalized seizure type were associated with better seizure outcomes following SRS.

  1. Conservative management of cesarean scar pregnancy with uterine arteriovenous malformation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Puneet Kaur; Sarangal, Monica; Gupta, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy in which implantation occurs in a previous lower segment cesarean scar. It may be associated with uncontrolled hemorrhage ending in hysterectomy. It can become potentially life threatening for the patient when it further gets complicated by uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM). To the best of our knowledge there are only a few previous reports of AVM complicating a scar pregnancy. It is still unclear which treatment is most optimal. We describe a case of a scar pregnancy complicated by uterine AVM. The diagnosis was made using 3D color Doppler ultrasound, showing a highly vascular tumor in the isthmic region of the uterus. Computed tomography angiography supported the diagnosis. The patient underwent selective embolization of the uterine artery followed by weekly intramuscular injections of methotrexate. Recovery was uneventful. The decision regarding mode of treatment should be made by the patient and the clinician based on the local expertise and experience. Judicious use of medical management (methotrexate) and uterine artery embolization may prevent hysterectomy and allow preservation of fertility.

  2. Arteriovenous malformation of the uterus after a midtrimester loss: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Daniel W; Strand, Eric A

    2009-05-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the uterus are rare but potentially life-threatening lesions. The typical presentation includes intermittent, heavy and profuse vaginal bleeding, often refractory to medical therapy. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman presenting 18 months after a 22-week pregnancy loss complicated by a postpartum curettage for retained placenta. The patient's initial symptoms included irregular and extremely heavy vaginal bleeding. Several transfusions of packed red blood cells were required because of severe anemia. On transfer to our institution, evaluation with ultrasound and hysteroscopy revealed a large AVM in the fundus of the uterus, apparently fed by both the right and left uterine arteries. After 2 embolization procedures of the uterine arteries, the patient experienced a recurrence of her symptoms, requiring definitive treatment with a hysterectomy. AVMs of the uterus are a rare cause of vaginal bleeding. AVMs should be considered in the differential diagnosis for the patient with bleeding refractory to medical management and a history of prior uterine surgery. Although unsuccessful in our case, uterine artery embolization remains a viable treatment option, particularly in patients wishing to retain their reproductive capacity.

  3. A Systematic Review of Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Transcatheter Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Daniel J; Jones, Megan; Taani, Jamal Al; Buhimschi, Catalin; Dowell, Joshua D

    2016-03-01

    Objective An acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and, although hysterectomy is the definitive therapy, transcatheter embolization (TCE) provides an alternative treatment option. This systematic review presents the indications, technique, and outcomes for transcatheter treatment of the acquired uterine AVMs. Study Design Literature databases were searched from 2003 to 2013 for eligible clinical studies, including the patient characteristics, procedural indication, results, complications, as well as descriptions on laterality and embolic agents utilized. Results A total of 40 studies were included comprising of 54 patients (average age of 33.4 years). TCE had a primary success rate with symptomatic control of 61% (31 patients) and secondary success rate of 91% after repeated embolization. When combined with medical therapy, symptom resolution was noted in 48 (85%) patients without more invasive surgical procedures. Conclusion Low-level evidence supports the role of TCE, including in the event of persistent bleeding following initial embolization, for the treatment of acquired uterine AVMs. The variety of embolic agents and laterality of approach delineate the importance of refining procedural protocols in the treatment of the acquired uterine AVM. Condensation A review on the management of patients with acquired uterine AVMs.

  4. Pregnancy-related uterine arteriovenous malformations: experience from a single medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin, Z; Sadeh-Mefpechkin, D; Halperin, R; Altshuler, A; Amir, P; Maymon, R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate clinical ultrasonographic findings and the outcomes of post-pregnancy patients with acquired uterine vascular abnormalities including arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We performed a computerized database search for all patients with ultrasonographic findings of a vascular abnormality including AVM in our referral center between 2000-2008. An ultrasound finding of vascular abnormality was defined as an area of strong hypervascularity within the myometrium and the presence of marked turbulence. The inclusion criteria for angiography were abnormal vaginal bleeding in a hemodynamically stable patient, bhCG serum levels ≤ 30 mIU/ml, and ultrasound demonstration of large (≥ 15 mm on the larger side of the vessel) or multiple vascular lesions. 16 women were identified, of whom 10 (63 %) underwent uterine artery embolization. Angiography confirmed the pre-interventional ultrasound diagnosis of AVM in all cases. AVM feeding arteries were on the left side of the uterus in 80 % of the cases. Residual tissue was ultrasonographically detected in five patients: 2 underwent hysteroscopy and guided curettage following embolization and three received methotrexate. All tissue samples were benign. One small vascular abnormality resolved spontaneously. An acquired uterine vascular abnormality including AVM should be considered in the work-up of post-pregnancy vaginal bleeding. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Arteriovenous malformations of the uterus: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Peer; Karmin, Ira; Einstein, Mark H

    2008-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the uterus have various clinical presentations. With the advancement of and accessibility to imaging, the diagnosis of the lesions in association with less severe clinical presentations is becoming more common. Contrary to cases with severe hemorrhage, the management of these cases is not clear. The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up of cases with different clinical presentations of uterine AVMs. The clinical and sonographic presentations of 8 cases diagnosed between July 2000 and July 2003 in our medical center are described. Annual sonographic follow-up was performed for a period of at least 42 months. Only 3 of the 8 cases presented with heavy vaginal bleeding and 2 of them required selective embolization. Two patients had hysterectomy during the study period which was not related to a severe bleeding event. Long-term follow-up for all other cases was significant for sonographic resolution of the uterine AVM. Management of uterine AVMs should be influenced by the clinical and not by the sonographic findings. If clinically feasible, conservative management should be considered as the primary approach, since most of these lesions tend to spontaneously resolve. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Uterine artery embolization for uterine arteriovenous malformation in five women desiring fertility: pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilos, Angelos G; Vilos, George A; Hollett-Caines, Jackie; Rajakumar, Chandrew; Garvin, Greg; Kozak, Roman

    2015-07-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare and can be classified as either congenital or acquired. Acquired AVMs may result from trauma, uterine instrumentation, infection or gestational trophoblastic disease. The majority of acquired AVMs are encountered in women of reproductive age with a history of at least one pregnancy. Traditional therapies of AVMs include medical management of symptomatic bleeding, blood transfusions, uterine artery embolization (UAE) or hysterectomy. In this retrospective case series, we report our experience with AVM and UAE in five symptomatic women of reproductive age who wished to preserve fertility. Patients were 18-32 years old, and had 1-3 previous pregnancies prior to initial presentation. All patients were followed until their deliveries. All five patients delivered live births. Three of the five patients required two embolization procedures and one of these women required a subsequent hysterectomy. Two deliveries were at term and had normal weight babies and normal placenta. One woman had cerclage placed and developed chorioamnionitis at 34 weeks but had a normal placenta. Two pregnancies were induced AVM as previously thought and should be questioned as an initial therapy in symptomatic women of reproductive age desiring fertility preservation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Initial experience with use of hydrogel microcoils in embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Keigo; Kishimoto, Kentaro; Tanaka, Kaishu; Nakamura, Masahisa; Ono, Yusuke; Maeda, Noboru; Higashihara, Hiroki; Nakazawa, Tetsuro; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our initial experience with embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using hydrogel microcoils. The technical and radiological outcomes were retrospectively reviewed in seven patients with nine simple-type PAVMs (median feeder size 4 mm, range 3-6 mm) who underwent embolization. Hydrogel microcoils were mainly used, and detachable bare microcoils were combined as needed to occlude the terminal feeding artery just before the sac. Of a total of 43 microcoils, 30 (69.8%) hydrogel microcoils were deployed in eight PAVMs with the median number 3.5 (range 2 to 6) per lesion. All hydrogel microcoils were successfully deployed without microcatheter stuck or malposition. In the remaining one small PAVM, only soft bare microcoils were used, however, resulting in recanalization requiring additional coils in the second session. The venous sac was substantially shrunk in all lesions treated with hydrogel microcoils with the median size reduction rate 95.0% (range 81.8% to 99.0%) during the median follow-up period 10 months (range 6 to 18 months). In conclusion, hydrogel microcoils were safely and effectively applied for occluding PAVMs with relatively small feeders.

  8. Non-enhanced MR imaging of cerebral arteriovenous malformations at 7 Tesla

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    Wrede, Karsten H.; Dammann, Philipp [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Department of Neurosurgery, Essen (Germany); Johst, Soeren; Maderwald, Stefan [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Moenninghoff, Christoph; Forsting, Michael [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schlamann, Marc [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen, Department of Neuroradiology, Giessen (Germany); Sandalcioglu, I.E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Neurosurgery, Essen (Germany); Nordstadtkrankenhaus Hannover, Department of Neurosurgery, Hannover (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiology (E020), Heidelberg (Germany); Sure, Ulrich [University Hospital Essen, Department of Neurosurgery, Essen (Germany); Umutlu, Lale [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate prospectively 7 Tesla time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and 7 Tesla non-contrast-enhanced magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) for delineation of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in comparison to 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Twenty patients with single or multifocal AVMs were enrolled in this trial. The study protocol comprised 1.5 and 7 Tesla TOF MRA and 7 Tesla non-contrast-enhanced MPRAGE sequences. All patients underwent an additional four-vessel 3D DSA. Image analysis of the following five AVM features was performed individually by two radiologists on a five-point scale: nidus, feeder(s), draining vein(s), relationship to adjacent vessels, and overall image quality and presence of artefacts. A total of 21 intracerebral AVMs were detected. Both sequences at 7 Tesla were rated superior over 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA in the assessment of all considered AVM features. Image quality at 7 Tesla was comparable with DSA considering both sequences. Inter-observer accordance was good to excellent for the majority of ratings. This study demonstrates excellent image quality for depiction of intracerebral AVMs using non-contrast-enhanced 7 Tesla MRA, comparable with DSA. Assessment of untreated AVMs is a promising clinical application of ultra-high-field MRA. (orig.)

  9. Augmented reality in the surgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: technique assessment and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrilo, Ivan; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schaller, Karl

    2014-09-01

    Augmented reality technology has been used for intraoperative image guidance through the overlay of virtual images, from preoperative imaging studies, onto the real-world surgical field. Although setups based on augmented reality have been used for various neurosurgical pathologies, very few cases have been reported for the surgery of arteriovenous malformations (AVM). We present our experience with AVM surgery using a system designed for image injection of virtual images into the operating microscope's eyepiece, and discuss why augmented reality may be less appealing in this form of surgery. N = 5 patients underwent AVM resection assisted by augmented reality. Virtual three-dimensional models of patients' heads, skulls, AVM nidi, and feeder and drainage vessels were selectively segmented and injected into the microscope's eyepiece for intraoperative image guidance, and their usefulness was assessed in each case. Although the setup helped in performing tailored craniotomies, in guiding dissection and in localizing drainage veins, it did not provide the surgeon with useful information concerning feeder arteries, due to the complexity of AVM angioarchitecture. The difficulty in intraoperatively conveying useful information on feeder vessels may make augmented reality a less engaging tool in this form of surgery, and might explain its underrepresentation in the literature. Integrating an AVM's hemodynamic characteristics into the augmented rendering could make it more suited to AVM surgery.

  10. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations after the superior cavopulmonary shunt: mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavarana, Minoo N; Jones, Jeffrey A; Stroud, Robert E; Bradley, Scott M; Ikonomidis, John S; Mukherjee, Rupak

    2014-06-01

    Children with functional single ventricle heart disease are commonly palliated down a staged clinical pathway toward a Fontan completion procedure (total cavopulmonary connection). The Fontan physiology is fraught with long-term complications associated with lower body systemic venous hypertension, eventually resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The bidirectional Glenn shunt or superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) is commonly the transitional stage in single ventricle surgical management and provides excellent palliation. Some studies have demonstrated lower morbidity and mortality with the SCPC when compared with the Fontan. Unfortunately the durability of the SCPC is significantly limited by the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) which have been commonly attributed to the absence of hepatic venous blood flow and the lack of pulsatile flow to the affected lungs. Abnormal angiogenesis has been suggested as a final common pathway to PAVM development. Understanding these fundamental mechanisms through the investigation of angiogenic pathways associated with the pathogenesis of PAVMs would help to develop medical therapies that could prevent or reverse this complication following SCPC. Such therapies could improve the longevity of the SCPC, potentially eliminate or significantly postpone the Fontan completion with its associated complications, and improve long-term survival in children with single ventricle disease.

  11. Fractal dimension and vessel complexity in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Reishofer

    Full Text Available The fractal dimension (FD can be used as a measure for morphological complexity in biological systems. The aim of this study was to test the usefulness of this quantitative parameter in the context of cerebral vascular complexity. Fractal analysis was applied on ten patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM and ten healthy controls. Maximum intensity projections from Time-of-Flight MRI scans were analyzed using different measurements of FD, the Box-counting dimension, the Minkowski dimension and generalized dimensions evaluated by means of multifractal analysis. The physiological significance of this parameter was investigated by comparing values of FD first, with the maximum slope of contrast media transit obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data and second, with the nidus size obtained from X-ray angiography data. We found that for all methods, the Box-counting dimension, the Minkowski dimension and the generalized dimensions FD was significantly higher in the hemisphere with AVM compared to the hemisphere without AVM indicating that FD is a sensitive parameter to capture vascular complexity. Furthermore we found a high correlation between FD and the maximum slope of contrast media transit and between FD and the size of the central nidus pointing out the physiological relevance of FD. The proposed method may therefore serve as an additional objective parameter, which can be assessed automatically and might assist in the complex workup of AVMs.

  12. Fractal Dimension and Vessel Complexity in Patients with Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Enzinger, Christian; Ebner, Franz; Ahammer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    The fractal dimension (FD) can be used as a measure for morphological complexity in biological systems. The aim of this study was to test the usefulness of this quantitative parameter in the context of cerebral vascular complexity. Fractal analysis was applied on ten patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and ten healthy controls. Maximum intensity projections from Time-of-Flight MRI scans were analyzed using different measurements of FD, the Box-counting dimension, the Minkowski dimension and generalized dimensions evaluated by means of multifractal analysis. The physiological significance of this parameter was investigated by comparing values of FD first, with the maximum slope of contrast media transit obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data and second, with the nidus size obtained from X-ray angiography data. We found that for all methods, the Box-counting dimension, the Minkowski dimension and the generalized dimensions FD was significantly higher in the hemisphere with AVM compared to the hemisphere without AVM indicating that FD is a sensitive parameter to capture vascular complexity. Furthermore we found a high correlation between FD and the maximum slope of contrast media transit and between FD and the size of the central nidus pointing out the physiological relevance of FD. The proposed method may therefore serve as an additional objective parameter, which can be assessed automatically and might assist in the complex workup of AVMs. PMID:22815946

  13. Proliferation activity is significantly elevated in partially embolized cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandalcioglu, I Erol; Asgari, Siamak; Wende, Doreen; van de Nes, Johannes A P; Dumitru, Claudia A; Zhu, Yuan; Gizewski, Elke R; Stolke, Dietmar; Sure, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The natural history of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is yet to be determined. It has been shown that angiogenic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of AVMs, in particular in partially embolized lesions. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of angiogenic and proliferative factors in relation to different clinical conditions and treatment modalities. Immunohistochemistry was performed for 145 consecutive cases of cerebral AVMs. The specimens were stained with antibodies against VEGF, bFGF, Ki 67, CD 34 and CD 31. Expression was correlated with clinical presentation (haemorrhage, seizures or other symptoms), AVM localization, size, eloquence and venous drainage, as well as with preoperative AVM embolization. Whereas no correlation was found between the expression of angiogenic factors and different clinical conditions, we observed a significantly increased proliferation activity as shown by Ki 67 expression in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (p = 0.02) and in patients with preoperative embolization (p = 0.02). Increased proliferation activity in partially embolized AVMs supports a 'no-touch' strategy and clinical observation in high-risk AVMs and demands complete AVM elimination in treatable lesions. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. A proposed grading system for endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: Buffalo score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Travis M; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V; Hopkins, L Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I

    2015-01-01

    The Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system has proven to be useful in guiding treatment of cerebral AVMs with craniotomy. It is based on anatomical characteristics each of which makes surgical resection of an AVM more difficult, namely, deep venous drainage, eloquence of surrounding tissue, and large nidus size. A higher score correlates with more complications after treatment. Although this grading system has proven reliable over time, it does not reflect the major determinants of risk associated with endovascular treatment. The authors developed a grading system unique to endovascular treatment of cerebral AVMs. The proposed grading system accounts for the principal AVM anatomical and physiological features that make endovascular embolization more difficult and, thus, the likelihood of complications greater. These include number of arterial pedicles, diameter of arterial pedicles, and eloquent location of AVM nidus. The proposed grading system was retrospectively applied to 50 patients undergoing endovascular AVM embolization, and its ability to predict complications was compared to the Spetzler-Martin grading system. Perioperative complications among the 50 patients included 4 major and 9 minor complications. The proposed grading system was predictive of complication risk, with an increasing rate of perioperative complications associated with an increasing AVM grade. An improved correlation of perioperative complication incidence was noted with the proposed system (P = 0.002), when compared with the Spetzler-Martin grading system (P = 0.33). This grading system for the endovascular treatment of AVMs is simple, easily reproduced, and clinically valuable.

  15. Effect of the embolization material in the dose calculation for stereotactic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations

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    Galván de la Cruz, Olga Olinca [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel, E-mail: jlarraga@innn.edu.mx [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Celis, Miguel Angel [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    It is reported in the literature that the material used in an embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can attenuate the radiation beams used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) up to 10% to 15%. The purpose of this work is to assess the dosimetric impact of this attenuating material in the SRS treatment of embolized AVMs, using Monte Carlo simulations assuming clinical conditions. A commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation engine was used to recalculate the dose distribution of 20 AVMs previously planned with a pencil beam dose calculation algorithm. Dose distributions were compared using the following metrics: average, minimal and maximum dose of AVM, and 2D gamma index. The effect in the obliteration rate was investigated using radiobiological models. It was found that the dosimetric impact of the embolization material is less than 1.0 Gy in the prescription dose to the AVM for the 20 cases studied. The impact in the obliteration rate is less than 4.0%. There is reported evidence in the literature that embolized AVMs treated with SRS have low obliteration rates. This work shows that there are dosimetric implications that should be considered in the final treatment decisions for embolized AVMs.

  16. Dynamic conformal arc radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations: Outcome and influence of clinical and dosimetrical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement-Colmou, Karen; Roualdes, Vincent; Martin, Stéphane-André; Josset, Stephanie; Desal, Hubert; Campion, Loïc; Thillays, François

    2017-05-01

    To assess efficacy, toxicity, and their predictive factors for dynamic conformal arc arteriovenous malformations (AVM) stereotactic radiosurgery. Data concerning 90 consecutive patients were retrospectively studied. Clinical, radiological, dosimetrical data and quality indexes were computed. AVM median volume was 1.06cc. Median prescribed dose was 22Gy. Total occlusion was obtained for 69% of patients. Post-radiosurgery annual hemorrhage rate was 2.2%. Predictive factor for total occlusion was delivered dose. Undesirable events occurred for 28% of patients. Predictive factors for adverse events were AVM revealing mode with seizure or headache, age≤28, AVM diameter≥3cm Spetzler-Martin score≥4, V12Gy≥2cc, large target volume and low homogeneity index (pradiosurgery, numerous embolization, target volume, V12Gy and low homogeneity index (p<0.05). Occlusion rate and toxicities are comparable to other series. Specific attention must be paid on pre-treatment clinical data, and target volume should be as small as possible, without reducing the delivered dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a de novo cerebral arteriovenous malformation in a child with sickle cell disease and moyamoya arteriopathy. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Brian A; DiPatri, Arthur J; Parkinson, Richard J; Batjer, H Hunt

    2005-03-01

    The authors report the unique case of a 6-year-old African-American girl with sickle cell disease (SCD) and an associated moyamoya arteriopathy who developed a de novo arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the cerebral circulation. Based on preoperative cerebral angiography, computerized tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging, the incidentally discovered lesion was originally thought to be a direct arteriovenous fistula with an associated varix. At surgery, however, a 1.5-cm AVM was identified adjacent to the deep surface of the varix, and it was successfully resected. The diagnosis of cerebral AVM was then confirmed histopathologically. Based on a review of the literature, no published correlation between cerebral AVMs and SCD exists. In addition to reporting this case, the authors provide a description of AVM pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on acquired AVMs of the cerebral circulation.

  18. In vivo imaging of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression after radiosurgery in an animal model of arteriovenous malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newsha Raoufi-Rad

    Full Text Available Focussed radiosurgery may provide a means of inducing molecular changes on the luminal surface of diseased endothelium to allow targeted delivery of novel therapeutic compounds. We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation to induce surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1 on endothelial cells (EC in vitro and in vivo, to assess their suitability as vascular targets in irradiated arteriovenous malformations (AVMs. Cultured brain microvascular EC were irradiated by linear accelerator at single doses of 0, 5, 15 or 25 Gy and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 measured by qRT-PCR, Western, ELISA and immunocytochemistry. In vivo, near-infrared (NIR fluorescence optical imaging using Xenolight 750-conjugated ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 antibodies examined luminal biodistribution over 84 days in a rat AVM model after Gamma Knife surgery at a single 15 Gy dose. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were minimally expressed on untreated EC in vitro. Doses of 15 and 25 Gy stimulated expression equally; 5 Gy was not different from the unirradiated. In vivo, normal vessels did not bind or retain the fluorescent probes, however binding was significant in AVM vessels. No additive increases in probe binding were found in response to radiosurgery at a dose of 15 Gy. In summary, radiation induces adhesion molecule expression in vitro but elevated baseline levels in AVM vessels precludes further induction in vivo. These molecules may be suitable targets in irradiated vessels without hemodynamic derangement, but not AVMs. These findings demonstrate the importance of using flow-modulated, pre-clinical animal models for validating candidate proteins for vascular targeting in irradiated AVMs.

  19. In vivo imaging of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression after radiosurgery in an animal model of arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoufi-Rad, Newsha; McRobb, Lucinda S; Lee, Vivienne S; Bervini, David; Grace, Michael; Ukath, Jaysree; Mchattan, Joshua; Sreenivasan, Varun K A; Duong, T T Hong; Zhao, Zhenjun; Stoodley, Marcus A

    2017-01-01

    Focussed radiosurgery may provide a means of inducing molecular changes on the luminal surface of diseased endothelium to allow targeted delivery of novel therapeutic compounds. We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation to induce surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells (EC) in vitro and in vivo, to assess their suitability as vascular targets in irradiated arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Cultured brain microvascular EC were irradiated by linear accelerator at single doses of 0, 5, 15 or 25 Gy and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 measured by qRT-PCR, Western, ELISA and immunocytochemistry. In vivo, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence optical imaging using Xenolight 750-conjugated ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 antibodies examined luminal biodistribution over 84 days in a rat AVM model after Gamma Knife surgery at a single 15 Gy dose. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were minimally expressed on untreated EC in vitro. Doses of 15 and 25 Gy stimulated expression equally; 5 Gy was not different from the unirradiated. In vivo, normal vessels did not bind or retain the fluorescent probes, however binding was significant in AVM vessels. No additive increases in probe binding were found in response to radiosurgery at a dose of 15 Gy. In summary, radiation induces adhesion molecule expression in vitro but elevated baseline levels in AVM vessels precludes further induction in vivo. These molecules may be suitable targets in irradiated vessels without hemodynamic derangement, but not AVMs. These findings demonstrate the importance of using flow-modulated, pre-clinical animal models for validating candidate proteins for vascular targeting in irradiated AVMs.

  20. [Endovascular treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformation with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Working methods and experience in 58 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan González, José A; Llibre Guerra, Juan Carlos; Prince López, José A; Vázquez Luna, Frank; Rodríguez Ramos, Raúl Marino; Ugarte Suarez, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) constitute malformative lesions of the central nervous system vasculature and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Endovascular embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate is a well established modality of AVM treatment, usually combined with surgery or radiosurgery. The purpose of this study was to characterise the AVMs that were treated endovascularly with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and to evaluate the post-embolization results in the Cuban population. From February 2006 to February 2011, a group of 58 consecutive patients with brain AVMs were embolized using n-butyl cyanoacrylate in the endovascular therapy unit of the Medical Surgical Research Centre in Havana (Cuba). In all, 91sessions were carried out with intranidal embolization and mainly partial devascularization, 25-30% per session, and closing 123 arterial pedicles. Safety times for n-butyl cyanoacrylate injection were established by calculating the polymerisation times for different dilutions, using post-embolisation hypotension systematically, as well as a superselective test with propofol to determine cerebral eloquence. Haemorrhagic signs were the initial presentation in 68.8% of the patients, 24.1% presented with epileptic episodes and 1.7% with ischemic stroke. Of the AVMs, 93.2% were supratentorial; according to the Spetzler and Martin classification, 13.8% were grade II, 56.9% were grade III, 22.4% were grade IV and 6.8%, grade V. One hundred and twenty-eight selective tests with propofol were performed and 118 (92.2%) of those were negative. Partial devascularization (20-30%) prevailed; complete obliteration was achieved in 17.2% of the patients and 70%-99% in 27.5% of the patients. Safety times for n-butyl cyanoacrylate injection were established and the use of post-procedure hypotension was settled. Morbidity of 17.2%, with 6.9% haemorrhagic complications and mortality of 3.4% were registered in the whole series. The rates of total occlusion and of morbidity and

  1. Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations after Onyx embolization: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Ching-Jen; Ball, Benjamin; Schlesinger, David; Xu, Zhiyuan; Yen, Chun-Po; Sheehan, Jason

    2015-07-01

    Onyx, an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer mixed in a dimethyl sulfoxide solvent, is currently one of the most widely used liquid materials for embolization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The goal of this study was to define the risks and benefits of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients who have previously undergone partial AVM embolization with Onyx. Among a consecutive series of 199 patients who underwent SRS between January 2007 and December 2012 at the University of Virginia, 25 patients had Onyx embolization prior to SRS (the embolization group). To analyze the obliteration rates and complications, 50 patients who underwent SRS without prior embolization (the no-embolization group) were matched by propensity score method. The matched variables included age, sex, nidus volume before SRS, margin dose, Spetzler-Martin grade, Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale score, and median imaging follow-up period. After Onyx embolization, 18 AVMs were reduced in size. Total obliteration was achieved in 6 cases (24%) at a median of 27.5 months after SRS. In the no-embolization group, total obliteration was achieved in 20 patients (40%) at a median of 22.4 months after SRS. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated obliteration rates of 17.7% and 34.1% in the embolization group at 2 and 4 years, respectively. In the no-embolization group, the corresponding obliteration rates were 27.0% and 55.9%. The between-groups difference in obliteration rates after SRS did not achieve statistical significance. The difference in complications, including adverse radiation effects, hemorrhage episodes, seizure control, and patient mortality also did not reach statistical significance. Onyx embolization can effectively reduce the size of many AVMs. This case-control study did not show any statistically significant difference in the rates of embolization or complications after SRS in patients who had previously undergone Onyx embolization and those who had not.

  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery results in three cases of intramedullary spinal cord arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potharaju, Mahadev; John, Reginald; Venkataraman, Murali; Gopalakrishna, Kurup; Subramanian, Balaji

    2014-11-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare and have an unfavorable prognosis. We report our experience of treating three symptomatic patients with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The standard treatment for these lesions are embolization or microsurgical resection. There are only a few reports of efficacy of radiosurgery in these cases. To study the efficacy of radiosurgery in intramedullary spinal cord AVM patients, who failed or refused conventional treatment. This study reports the results of SRS in 3 cases of intramedullary spinal cord AVMs. Three symptomatic patients diagnosed with intramedullary spinal cord AVMs. Two patients underwent embolization previously and one was newly diagnosed. The AVM obliteration was assessed by yearly high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical examination was carried out every 6 months. Three symptomatic patients with intramedullary spinal cord AVMs were treated with SRS using the cyberknife system from January 2010 to May 2011. All the three patients presented with acute neurologic symptoms. Two patients were treated previously with embolization. As per protocol, patients underwent a plain computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, high-resolution MRI, and conventional spinal angiography for radiotherapy planning. The mean target volume was 4.05 cc. The prescribed dose was 21 Gy in three fractions on consecutive days. No special immobilization was done during treatment. Continuous image guidance of the treated area was done using the specialized spine tracking software. Follow-up was done by yearly clinical examination and high-resolution spine MRI after SRS. Mean follow-up was 36 months. Follow-up MRI revealed absence of flow voids, suggesting complete obliteration of the AVM in two patients, with significant improvement in neurologic and functional symptoms. The third patient did not show any clinical improvement or deterioration. There was no incidence of hemorrhage after SRS in any

  3. Predictive Factors of Postoperative Seizure for Pediatric Patients with Unruptured Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibo; Deng, Zhenghai; Yang, Wuyang; Liu, Kai; Yao, Hongxin; Tong, Xianzeng; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Yuanli; Cao, Yong; Wang, Shuo

    2017-09-01

    Seizure is the second-most common presentation in patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and superimposes a significant burden on pediatric patients. Postoperative seizure risk in unruptured AVMs is underreported in the pediatric AVM literature. We aimed to characterize and identify predictive factors for postoperative seizures in this study. We performed a retrospective review of all surgically treated pediatric patients with unruptured AVM at our institution from 2001 to 2014. Patients younger than 18 years of age were included. Baseline variables was compared against our outcome of interest, which was defined as patients with or without follow-up seizures. Multivariable Cox regression was performed to identify potential predictive factors. The average age of all patients was 13.1 years, and 68.2% were male. Nine patients were asymptomatic (13.6%), and seizure presentation occurred in 57.6% (n = 38). During an average follow-up of 4.2 years, 12 (18.2%) patients experienced postoperative seizures, with 5 (17.9%) of 28 patients with seizures being de novo. In patients with seizure presentation, 81.6% were completely seizure-free throughout follow-up. In multivariable analysis, larger AVM size (hazard ratio [HR] 1.63, P = 0.023) and temporal location (HR 8.35, P = 0.007) were found to increase the risk of follow-up seizures. On the contrary, seizure presentation (HR 1.91, P = 0.369) and postoperative infection (HR 2.37, P = 0.265) were not associated. Surgery may eliminate most seizures with low risk of inducing de novo seizures in pediatric patients with unruptured AVM. Predictive factors for postoperative seizures included large AVM size and temporal location. For selected unruptured AVMs with small size and nontemporal location, consideration of surgery as primary treatment for persistent seizures is a reasonable option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Time-Staged Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Large Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations: A Preliminary Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Ran Park

    Full Text Available We retrospectively analyzed our experience with time-staged gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKS in treating large arteriovenous malformation(AVMs;≥ 10 cm3.Forty-five patients who underwent time-staged GKS (2-stage, n = 37;3-stage,n = 8 between March 1998 and December 2011 were included. The mean volume treated was 20.42±6.29 cm3 (range, 10.20-38.50 cm3. Obliteration rates of AVMs and the associated complications after GKS were evaluated.Mean AVM volume (and median marginal dose at each GKS session in the 37 patients who underwent 2-stage GKS was 19.67±6.08 cm3 (13 Gy at session 1 and 6.97±6.92 cm3 (17 Gy at session 2. The median interval period was 39 months. After follow-up period of 37 months, the complete obliteration rate was 64.9%. The mean AVM volume (and median marginal dose at each GKS session in the 8 patients who underwent 3-stage GKS was 23.90±6.50 cm3 (12.25 Gy, 19.43±7.46 cm3 (13.5 Gy, 7.48±6.86 cm3 (15.5 Gy at session 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The median interval duration between each GKS session was 37.5 and 38 months, respectively. After a median follow-up period of 47.5 months, 5 patients (62.5% achieved complete obliteration. Postradiosurgical hemorrhage developed in 5 patients (11.1% including one case of major bleeding and 4 cases of minor bleeding. No patient suffered from clinically symptomatic radiation necrosis following radiation.Time-staged GKS could be an effective and safe treatment option in the management of large AVMs.

  5. Embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations to make a success of subsequent radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyachi, Shigeru; Negoro, Makoto; Okamoto, Takeshi; Yoshida, Jun [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki

    1999-09-01

    We studied angiographic changes of embolized arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) by comparing pre- and postembolization angiograms and angiograms preceding radiosurgery. This study sought factors determining the usefulness of embolization as a pretreatment to enhance the success of subsequent radiosurgery. Thirty-seven patients with cerebral AVMs treated in this manner over 4 years were studied. In these cases, AVMs were embolized with cyanoacrylate and were treated with Gamma-knife radiosurgery. The mean size of the AVM nidus was reduced by a fraction of seven following embolization. The subsequent angiogram for planning radiosurgery showed further nidus reduction in 16 AVMs, no change in 10, and regrowth in 11. In all size-reduction cases the nidus was sufficiently packed, and 2 AVMs had thrombosed completely before radiosurgery. All the regrowing AVMs were of the diffuse type, 7 of which were associated with already-developed leptomeningeal channels, and the remaining 4 were fed by newly sprouted meningeal feeders. Five AVMs disappeared following radiosurgery, all representing size-reduction or no-change cases. Analysis of cases with regrowth showed increased risk of that event with feeder occlusion of a multi-axially supplied AVM, lack of reduction of shunt flow, or remaining meningeal feeders. On the other hand, when embolization as pretreatment prior to radiosurgery succeeds in producing a small, compacted, plexiform nidus with slow shunt flow, it furthers the likelyhood of successful radiosurgery. Nidus embolization and occlusion of fistulous and meningeal feeders are mandatory, while proximal feeder occlusion and use of embolic materials that risk recanalization should be avoided to prevent nidus regrowth. (author)

  6. Spinal glomus (type II) arteriovenous malformations: a pooled analysis of hemorrhage risk and results of intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bradley A; Du, Rose

    2013-01-01

    The natural history and treatment results for spinal glomus (type II) arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remain relatively obscure. To calculate spinal glomus (type II) AVM hemorrhages rates and amalgamate results of intervention. We performed a pooled analysis via the PubMed database through May 2012, including studies with at least 3 cases. Data on individual patients were extracted and analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model to obtain hazard ratios for hemorrhage risk factors. The annual hemorrhage rate before treatment was 4% (95% confidence interval [confidence interval]: 3%-6%), increasing to 10% (95% CI: 7%-16%) for AVMs with previous hemorrhage. The hazard ratio for hemorrhage after hemorrhagic presentation was 2.25 (95% CI: 0.71-7.07), increasing to 13.0 within the first 10 years (95% CI: 1.44-118). The overall rates of complete obliteration were 78% (95% CI: 72%-83%) for surgery and 33% (95% CI: 24%-43%) for endovascular treatment. Long-term clinical worsening occurred in 12% of patients after surgical treatment (95% CI: 8%-16%) and in 13% after endovascular treatment (95% CI: 7%-21%). No hemorrhages occurred after complete obliteration. After partial surgical treatment, the annual hemorrhage rate was 3% (95% CI: 1%-6%); no hemorrhages were reported over 196 patient-years after partial endovascular treatment. Spinal glomus (type II) AVMs with previous hemorrhage, particularly within 10 years, demonstrated a greater risk of hemorrhage. Complete obliteration and even partial endovascular treatment significantly decreased their hemorrhage rate.

  7. Non-Enhanced MR Imaging of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Karsten H; Dammann, Philipp; Johst, Sören; Mönninghoff, Christoph; Schlamann, Marc; Maderwald, Stefan; Sandalcioglu, I Erol; Ladd, Mark E; Forsting, Michael; Sure, Ulrich; Umutlu, Lale

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate prospectively 7 Tesla time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and 7 Tesla non-contrast-enhanced magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) for delineation of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in comparison to 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Twenty patients with single or multifocal AVMs were enrolled in this trial. The study protocol comprised 1.5 and 7 Tesla TOF MRA and 7 Tesla non-contrast-enhanced MPRAGE sequences. All patients underwent an additional four-vessel 3D DSA. Image analysis of the following five AVM features was performed individually by two radiologists on a five-point scale: nidus, feeder(s), draining vein(s), relationship to adjacent vessels, and overall image quality and presence of artefacts. A total of 21 intracerebral AVMs were detected. Both sequences at 7 Tesla were rated superior over 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA in the assessment of all considered AVM features. Image quality at 7 Tesla was comparable with DSA considering both sequences. Inter-observer accordance was good to excellent for the majority of ratings. This study demonstrates excellent image quality for depiction of intracerebral AVMs using non-contrast-enhanced 7 Tesla MRA, comparable with DSA. Assessment of untreated AVMs is a promising clinical application of ultra-high-field MRA. • Non-contrast-enhanced 7 Tesla MRA demonstrates excellent image quality for intracerebral AVM depiction. • Image quality at 7 Tesla was comparable with DSA considering both sequences. • Assessment of intracerebral AVMs is a promising clinical application of ultra-high-field MRA.

  8. Severe pulmonary oedema following therapeutic embolization with Onyx for cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, C.; Saravanan, Sundararaj; Rajkumar, John; Prasad, Jagadish; Banakal, Sanjay; Muralidhar, Kanchi [Narayana Hrudayalaya Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2008-05-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by sudden onset of respiratory distress, infiltrates on radiographs consistent with pulmonary oedema, hypoxaemia and increased work in breathing. Infiltrates on radiographs are bilateral, but may be patchy or diffuse and fluffy or dense. It is associated with absence of left heart failure and a PaO{sub 2}/FiO{sub 2} ratio of {<=}200. Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was approved by the US FDA in July 2005, is used as an embolic agent for cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). It is a biocompatible liquid polymer that precipitates and solidifies on contact with blood, thus forming a soft and spongy embolus. We report a case of ARDS following therapeutic embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer for cerebral AVM under general anaesthesia. Experienced perioperative physicians adopted standard anaesthetic technique and monitoring for this procedure. Acute respiratory distress and hypoxaemia developed in the patient following extubation of the trachea. Infiltrates seen on postprocedural chest radiographs were consistent with pulmonary oedema. DMSO, the solvent for the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, is excreted via the lungs after administration and we postulate that DMSO was the possible cause of ARDS in this patient. Monitoring of haemodynamic parameters (invasive blood pressure, electrocardiography) and ventilatory parameters (ETCO{sub 2}, SpO{sub 2}, airway pressure monitoring) are important in the recognition of this possible event. One should be vigilant and anticipate this complication following therapeutic embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol polymer for the treatment of cerebral AVM. (orig.)

  9. Linear Accelerator-Based Radiosurgery Alone for Arteriovenous Malformation: More Than 12 Years of Observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Takayuki, E-mail: takayuki@nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Kamada, Kensaku; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Izumi

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although radiosurgery is an accepted treatment method for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), its long-term therapeutic effects have not been sufficiently evaluated, and many reports of long-term observations are from gamma-knife facilities. Furthermore, there are few reported results of treatment using only linear accelerator (LINAC)-based radiosurgery (LBRS). Methods and Materials: Over a period of more than 12 years, we followed the long-term results of LBRS treatment performed in 51 AVM patients. Results: The actuarial obliteration rates, after a single radiosurgery session, at 3, 5, 10, and 15 years were 46.9%, 54.0%, 64.4%, and 68.0%, respectively; when subsequent radiosurgeries were included, the rates were 46.9%, 61.3%, 74.2%, and 90.3%, respectively. Obliteration rates were significantly related to target volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}, marginal doses ≥12 Gy, Spetzler-Martin grades (1 vs other), and AVM scores ≥1.5; multivariate analyses revealed a significant difference for target volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}. The postprocedural actuarial symptomatic radiation injury rates, after a single radiation surgery session, at 5, 10, and 15 years were 12.3%, 16.8%, and 19.1%, respectively. Volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}, location (lobular or other), AVM scores ≥1.5, and the number of radiosurgery were related to radiation injury incidence; multivariate analyses revealed significant differences associated with volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3} and location (lobular or other). Conclusions: Positive results can be obtained with LBRS when performed with a target volume ≤4 cm{sup 3}, an AVM score ≤1.5, and ≥12 Gy radiation. Bleeding and radiation injuries may appear even 10 years after treatment, necessitating long-term observation.

  10. Surgical planning for microsurgical excision of cerebral arterio-venous malformations using virtual reality technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ivan; Hwang, Peter Y K; Kumar, Dinesh; Lee, Cheng Kiang; Kockro, Ralf A; Sitoh, Y Y

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of surgical planning using a virtual reality platform workstation in the treatment of cerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) Patient-specific data of multiple imaging modalities were co-registered, fused and displayed as a 3D stereoscopic object on the Dextroscope, a virtual reality surgical planning platform. This system allows for manipulation of 3D data and for the user to evaluate and appreciate the angio-architecture of the nidus with regards to position and spatial relationships of critical feeders and draining veins. We evaluated the ability of the Dextroscope to influence surgical planning by providing a better understanding of the angio-architecture as well as its impact on the surgeon's pre- and intra-operative confidence and ability to tackle these lesions. Twenty four patients were studied. The mean age was 29.65 years. Following pre-surgical planning on the Dextroscope, 23 patients underwent microsurgical resection after pre-surgical virtual reality planning, during which all had documented complete resection of the AVM. Planning on the virtual reality platform allowed for identification of critical feeders and draining vessels in all patients. The appreciation of the complex patient specific angio-architecture to establish a surgical plan was found to be invaluable in the conduct of the procedure and was found to enhance the surgeon's confidence significantly. Surgical planning of resection of an AVM with a virtual reality system allowed detailed and comprehensive analysis of 3D multi-modality imaging data and, in our experience, proved very helpful in establishing a good surgical strategy, enhancing intra-operative spatial orientation and increasing surgeon's confidence.

  11. Extravasation of contrast (Spot Sign) predicts in-hospital mortality in ruptured arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zengpanpan; Ai, Xiaolin; Zheng, Jun; Hu, Xin; You, Chao; Andrew M, Faramand; Fang, Fang

    2017-10-09

    The spot sign is a highly specific and sensitive predictor of hematoma expansion in following primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Rare cases of the spot sign have been documented in patients with intracranial hemorrhage secondary to arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The purpose of this retrospective study is to assess the accuracy of spot sign in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with ruptured AVM. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed for patients who presented to West China Hospital with ICH secondary to AVM in the period between January 2009 and September 2016. Two radiologists blinded to the clinical data independently assessed the imaging data, including the presence of spot sign. Statistical analysis using univariate testing, multivariate logistic regression testing, and receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was performed. A total of 116 patients were included. Overall, 18.9% (22/116) of subjects had at least 1 spot sign detected by CT angiography, 7% (8/116) died in hospital, and 27% (31/116) of the patients had a poor outcome after 90 days. The spot sign had a sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 84.3% for predicting in-hospital mortality (p = .02, AUC 0.734). No correlation detected between the spot sign and 90-day outcomes under multiple logistic regression (p = .19). The spot sign is an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality. The presence of spot sign did not correlate with the 90 day outcomes in this patient cohort. The results of this report suggest that patients with ruptured AVM with demonstrated the spot sign on imaging must receive aggressive treatment early on due to the high risk of mortality.

  12. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Embolized Using a Micro Vascular Plug System: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatta, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.boatta@yahoo.it; Jahn, Christine, E-mail: christine.jahn@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Canuet, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.canuet@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service Service de Pneumologie, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2017-02-15

    AIMTo report our preliminary experience using a Micro Vascular Plug (MVP) deployed through a 2.8Fr micro-catheter for the treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in a cohort of patients affected by Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT).Materials and MethodsFour consecutive female patients (mean age 38.0 years; range 25–55 years) with PAVMs diagnosed on echocardiogram/bubble test and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) underwent MVP embolization. One patient was symptomatic with recent transient ischaemic attack. Follow-up was undertaken at 1-month post-procedure with CECT to assess PAVMs permeability and MVP positioning and at 1-, 6-, and 12-month post-procedure, with echocardiography/bubble test and standard neurological history, to confirm absence of right-to-left shunts and recurrent symptoms.ResultsEight PAVMs were treated in 4 patients over 5 interventional sessions (mean 1.6 PAVMs per session). All PAVMs were simple, with mean feeding artery diameter of 4.25 mm. Eight 6.5 mm MVPs were deployed in total (one per lesion). Technical success was 100%. Mean procedural time and patient dose per session were 70 min (range 40–70 min) and 53418 mGy.cm{sup 2} (range 6113–101628 mGy.cm{sup 2}), respectively. No signs of reperfusion neither of MPV migration were noted at 1-month CECT follow-up. At early follow-up (mean 3.75 months; range 1–12 months), clinical success was 100% with no evidence of recurrent right-to-left shunt, and no neurological symptoms. No immediate or late complications were observed.ConclusionsMVP embolization of PAVMs appears technically feasible, safe, and effective at early follow-up. Further prospective studies are required to confirm long-term safety and efficacy of this promising technique.

  13. Assessing the Role of Preoperative Embolization in the Surgical Management of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksik, Andrew S; Law, Jody; Yang, Wuyang; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Caplan, Justin M; Colby, Geoffrey; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy

    2017-08-01

    Preoperative embolization is established as an advantageous adjunct in multimodality treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, the benefit of preoperative embolization in AVMs with favorable surgical risk profile is debatable, because it has yet to be supported by evidence in comparative studies. In this study, we assessed outcome of surgically treated patients in a comparative setting. Our institutional AVM database of retrospectively and prospectively collected data between 1990 and 2015 was reviewed. Patients with complete clinical data who underwent surgical resection for AVMs were included. We performed a 1:1 ratio propensity score match for baseline variables that differed between patients with or without preoperative embolization. Differences in surgical risk and outcomes were evaluated between these 2 groups. AVM size, eloquence, deep drainage, middle cerebral artery feeder, and ruptured presentation differed significantly between the 2 groups. Forty-eight patients without preoperative embolization were matched to 48 with embolization, with no significant differences in baseline variables or AVM characteristics between the 2 groups. We found no significant differences in AVM obliteration and postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score between embolized and nonembolized patients, respectively. Change in mRS score from preoperative score was also not significant, although more embolized patients had a decline in mRS score. Secondary outcome measures including duration of surgery (P = 0.172), intraoperative bleeding (P = 0.280), duration of hospitalization (P = 0.368), and postoperative symptoms were also similar between both groups. Our data do not support substantial benefit of preoperative embolization for patients with a favorable surgical risk profile. Because of risks and costs with this intervention, the prudent use of preoperative embolization should be individually considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Ethanol embolization of arteriovenous malformations: results and complications of 33 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yong Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Shin, Sung Wook; Liu, Wei Chiang; Cho, Jae Min; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Boong; Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook [School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ethanol embolization for the treatment of arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and the complications, if any, arising. Thirty-three patients with AVMs underwent 145 staged sessions of ethanol embolization. AVMs were located in an upper extremity (n=14), a lower extremity (n=10), the pelvis (n=7), the thorax (n=1), or the abdomen (n=1). Eighty-five transcatheter embolizations and 60 direct percutaneous puncture embolizations were performed, and seven patients underwent additional coil embolization of the dilated outflow vein. The therapeutic effectiveness of embolization was evaluated in terms of the extent to which an AVM was obliterated between baseline and the final angiogram. Complications were classified as minor or major. In 13 patients (39%), AVMs were totally obliterated. In eight patients (24%), more than 75% were obliterated; in three (9%), the proportion was 50-75%; and in four (12%), less than 50%. Five patients (15%), were not treated. The reasons for failure were the difficulty of approaching the nidus due to previous surgical ligation or coil embolization of the feeding artery, the subcutaneous location of an AVM, post-procedural infection, and massive bleeding during the follow-up period. Twenty-one minor complications such as focal skin necrosis or transient nerve palsy developed during 145 sessions of (an incidence of 14%), but these were relieved by conservative treatment. The five major complications arising (3%) were cerebral infarction, urinary tract infection, acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis, permanent median nerve palsy, and infection. Ethanol embolization by direct percutaneous puncture or using a transcatheter technique is an effective approach to the treatment of an AVM. However, to overcome the considerable number of complications, arising, further investigation is required.

  15. Dosimetric comparison of different treatment modalities for stereotactic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations and acoustic neuromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Thierry; Levivier, Marc; Lacornerie, Thomas; Verellen, Dirk; Engels, Benedikt; Reynaert, Nick; Tournel, Koen; Duchateau, Michael; Reynders, Truus; Depuydt, Tom; Collen, Christine; Lartigau, Eric; De Ridder, Mark

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the influence of beam modulation on treatment planning by comparing four available stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) modalities: Gamma-Knife-Perfexion, Novalis-Tx Dynamic-Conformal-Arc (DCA) and Dynamic-Multileaf-Collimation-Intensity-Modulated-radiotherapy (DMLC-IMRT), and Cyberknife. Patients with arteriovenous malformation (n = 10) or acoustic neuromas (n = 5) were planned with different treatment modalities. Paddick conformity index (CI), dose heterogeneity (DH), gradient index (GI) and beam-on time were used as dosimetric indices. Gamma-Knife-Perfexion can achieve high degree of conformity (CI = 0.77 ± 0.04) with limited low-doses (GI = 2.59 ± 0.10) surrounding the inhomogeneous dose distribution (D(H) = 0.84 ± 0.05) at the cost of treatment time (68.1 min ± 27.5). Novalis-Tx-DCA improved this inhomogeneity (D(H) = 0.30 ± 0.03) and treatment time (16.8 min ± 2.2) at the cost of conformity (CI = 0.66 ± 0.04) and Novalis-TX-DMLC-IMRT improved the DCA CI (CI = 0.68 ± 0.04) and inhomogeneity (D(H) = 0.18 ± 0.05) at the cost of low-doses (GI = 3.94 ± 0.92) and treatment time (21.7 min ± 3.4) (pNovalis-Tx at the cost of treatment time. Non-isocentric beams (Cyberknife) or IMRT-beams (Novalis-Tx-DMLC-IMRT) will spread more low-dose than multiple isocenters (Gamma-Knife-Perfexion) or dynamic arcs (Novalis-Tx-DCA). Inverse planning and modulated fluences (Novalis-Tx-DMLC-IMRT and CyberKnife) will deliver the most homogeneous treatment. Furthermore, Linac-based systems (Novalis and Cyberknife) can perform image verification at the time of treatment delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Headway Duo microcatheter for cerebral arteriovenous malformation embolization with n-BCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Jeremy J; Faisal, Abigail G S; Telischak, Nicholas A; Choudhri, Omar; Do, Huy M

    2016-11-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are uncommon vascular lesions, and hemorrhage secondary to AVM rupture results in significant morbidity and mortality. AVMs may be treated by endovascular embolization, and technical advances in microcatheter design are likely to improve the success and safety of endovascular embolization of cerebral AVMs. To describe our early experience with the Headway Duo microcatheter for embolization of cerebral AVMs with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (n-BCA). Consecutive patients treated by endovascular embolization of a cerebral AVM with n-BCA delivered intra-arterially through the Headway Duo microcatheter (167 cm length) were identified. Patient demographic information, procedural details, and patient outcome were determined from electronic medical records. Ten consecutive patients undergoing cerebral AVM embolization using n-BCA injected through the Headway Duo microcatheter were identified. Presenting symptoms included headache, hemorrhage, seizures, and weakness. Spetzler Martin grades ranged from 1 to 5, and AVMs were located in the basal ganglia (2 patients), parietal lobe (4 patients), frontal lobe (1 patient), temporal lobe (1 patient), an entire hemisphere (1 patient), and posterior fossa (1 patient). 50 arterial pedicles were embolized, and all procedures were technically successful. There was one post-procedural hemorrhage that was well tolerated by the patient, and no other complications occurred. Additional AVM treatment was performed by surgery and radiation therapy. The Headway Duo microcatheter is safe and effective for embolization of cerebral AVMs using n-BCA. The trackability and high burst pressure of the Headway Duo make it an important and useful tool for the neurointerventionalist during cerebral AVM embolization. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Associação de malformação vascular e gliomas: estudo de quatro casos Arteriovenous malformation-glioma association: study of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Raquel R. Borges

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os pacientes operados no Hospital São Paulo e acompanhados pelo setor de neuro-oncologia no período de 1991 a 2000, avaliamos a apresentação clínica, aspectos de imagem e características histopatológicas de 4 pacientes (2 homens; idade entre 15 e 52 anos cujo diagnóstico histológico foi malformação vascular associada a glioma. O quadro inicial foi cefaléia progressiva com características de hipertensão intracraniana (em 3 e crises parciais motoras (em 1. O diagnóstico tomográfico inicial foi processo expansivo, sem que houvesse suspeita de malformação vascular pelo aspecto da imagem em nenhum caso. O exame histológico mostrou neoplasias de linhagem astrocítica associadas a malformações vasculares. Em nenhum paciente o componente vascular esteve localizado na intimidade da neoplasia. A associação de malformação vascular e gliomas é rara e deve ser caracterizada por nítida separação entre a malformação e a neoplasia, independente da vascularização própria do tumor.We reviewed the clinical presentation, imaging and histopathologic findings in 4 patients with the diagnosis of arteriovenous malformation associated with glioma that were operated on from 1991 to 2000 in our institution. Four patients (2 males; age between 15 and 52 years presented with progressive headache with clinical evidence of intracranial hypertension (in 3 and partial seizures (in 1. CT scan showed a brain tumor without any detectable pathologic vessels. Histologic examination revealed astrocytic tumors associated with arteriovenous malformation. No patient presented the vascular component intermixed with the tumor. The arteriovenous-glioma association is rare and must be identified by a clear demarcation between the malformation and the tumor.

  18. Uterine artery embolization for uterine arteriovenous malformation is associated with placental abnormalities in the subsequent pregnancy: two cases report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Shu; Kyozuka, Hyo; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yasuda, Shun; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya

    2014-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is generally associated with uterine trauma such as dilatation and curettage, therapeutic abortion, uterine surgery and uterine malignant tumors(1)). Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is performed on patients with uterine AVM who have desire for future pregnancy(2)). Some successful pregnancies were reported after UAE for uterine AVM(5,6)), however complication during pregnancy has not been described clearly. We herein for the first time report two cases of successful pregnancy and spontaneous delivery after UAE for uterine AVM who had placenta accreta and placental abruption respectively. Although successful pregnancy is possible after UAE for AVM, placenta abnormalities have to be considered during pregnancy and after delivery.

  19. Direct Puncture Embolization of Scalp Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with Severe Hemophilia A: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong Jin [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha [Dept. of Radiology, Samsug Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We present a case of scalp arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in a patient with severe hemophilia A. The 22-year-old man presented with a pulsatile right parietal scalp mass. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an AVM in the right parietal scalp, supplied by superficial temporal and occipital arteries that drained into multiple venous structures. We successfully performed direct puncture embolization followed by surgical resection of the scalp AVM in conjunction with supplemental infusion of coagulation factor VIII before, during and after the embolization and the operation.

  20. Obstructive Hydrocephalus Caused by an Unruptured Arteriovenous Malformation Successfully Treated by Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy After Shunt Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeaux, Charles; Botella, Céline; Lefevre, Etienne; Devaux, Bertrand

    2016-12-22

    The authors report on a patient harbouring an unruptured cortical arteriovenous malformation (AVM), who had presented with obstructive hydrocephalus due to compression of the cerebral aqueduct by a large venous varix. A ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was inserted in emergency. Due to its large volume, the AVM was not referred for treatment and a follow-up policy was chosen. After the second VP shunt dysfunction, endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed under neuronavigation. The procedure went uneventfully and the patient recovered well. In the rare eventuality of obstructive hydrocephalous caused by an unruptured AVM, endoscopic third ventriculostomy is feasible, efficient and can avoid shunt-related complications.

  1. Automatic definition of prescription isodose for stereotactic irradiations of arteriovenous malformations; Definition automatique de l'isodose de prescription pour les irradiations stereotaxiques de malformations arterioveineuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejean, C.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Foulquier, J.N.; Schlienger, M.; Touboul, E. [Hopital Tenon, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate dosimetric consequences generated by the automatic definition based on lesion coverage of prescription isodose. A clinical series of 124 arteriovenous malformations was analysed. Plan quality was quantified by the standard deviation of the differential dose volume histogram calculated in the lesion. We define two quantitative protocols based on lesion coverage for the automatic definition of prescription isodose using a volumetric definition of coverage (90% of lesion volume), and an isodose-based definition proposed by RTOG (prescription isodose equals minimum isodose in the lesion divided by 0.9). We have evaluated the plans obtained for these two protocols, calculating several dose-volume indices. These indices are presented as a function of dose-volume histogram standard deviation in order to quantify the consequences of their variations for this representative series of plans. The margin our team tolerates is such that the sum of under-dosed lesion and overdosed healthy tissues factors remains lower than one. Protocol based on volumetric coverage gives results situated within this margin. Protocol based on RTOG definition produces conformation indices that could be greater than 1. The absolute dose would be decided taking into account examined dose-volume indices and clinical data. A protocol for automatic definition of prescription isodose using volumetric lesion coverage seems to be more judiciously adapted to arteriovenous malformation conformal plans in stereotactic conditions because of variations observed in the overdosage of healthy tissues. (authors)

  2. Treatment of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations with Radiosurgery or Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in a Consecutive Pooled Linear Accelerator Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Jan P; Bruckermann, Ruth; Pintea, Bogdan; Boström, Azize; Surber, Gunnar; Hamm, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    To review outcomes after linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (hfSRT) of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) from a consecutive and pooled series of 2 Novalis centers and to analyze the influence of AVM size, Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade, pretreatment, and hemorrhagic versus nonhemorrhagic presentation. A subgroup analysis of A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA)-eligible patients also was performed. Prospectively collected treatment and outcome data were supplemented by retrospectively collected follow-up data for 93.8% of all patients. A total of 129 patients with AVM had SRS or hfSRT between 2000 and 2014 with the same linear accelerator system in 2 centers. Data analysis included initial presentation, SM grade, occlusion rates assessed by magnetic resonance and/or digital subtraction angiography, neurologic and therapeutic complications, and pretreatments. Statistical analysis was performed for patient demographic data and for factors potentially influencing outcome. Initial presentation was hemorrhage in 43.8% or seizures/neurologic deficits in 46.2%. The series included 6 SM grade I (5%), 26 SM II (21.5%), 55 SM III (45.5%), 28 SM IV (23%), and 6 SM V cases (5%). Pre-embolization was used in 36 patients (29.8%), 8 patients had previous surgery (6.6%), and 6 patients were irradiated before elsewhere (5%); 5 patients (4.2%) received multimodal pretreatment. Mean follow-up was 43 months. The occlusion rate for the total series was 71.1%, for SM I/II cases 80.6%, and 67.4% for the SM ≥ subgroup. The occlusion rate was 75.0% for the small volume (10 cc) subgroup. There was no statistical difference between the occlusion rate of patients with or without pretreatment if taken all modalities together (72.7% and 69.7%, respectively). There was only a trend of a belated occlusion of pre-embolized AVMs. The occlusion rate for hemorrhagic AVM was with 77.4% better than for

  3. Doppler Sonography and 3D CT Angiography of Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs): Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; Ranga, Upasana; Veeraiyan, Saveetha

    2014-02-01

    Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) are rare but life threatening causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Accurate clinical and radiological diagnosis is essential because uterine instrumentation that is often used for management of other sources of abnormal bleeding, can lead to massive hemorrhage. Timely diagnosis and early proper treatment can markedly reduce the associated disease mortality. Ultrasound with colour and spectral doppler is the initial imaging modality of choice. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) angiography can determine the actual extent of the vascular malformation and helps in pre-interventional planning noninvasively. Uterine AVM can be either congenital or acquired in nature with latter being more common. We hereby report two cases of acquired AVMs diagnosed by color doppler sonography and confirmed by three-dimensional CT angiography. Both the cases reported here had previous history of dilation and curettage for abortion. Clinically one patient presented with profuse uterine bleeding and another with meno-metrorrhagia and both cases underwent surgical removal of uterus.

  4. Single-Fraction Proton Beam Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kim, Daniel; Niemierko, Andrzej; Bussière, Marc R.; Stringham, Alison; Daartz, Juliane [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ogilvy, Christopher [Department of Neurosurgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To evaluate the obliteration rate and potential adverse effects of single-fraction proton beam stereotactic radiosurgery (PSRS) in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2010, 248 consecutive patients with 254 cerebral AVMs received single-fraction PSRS at our institution. The median AVM nidus volume was 3.5 cc (range, 0.1-28.1 cc), 23% of AVMs were in critical/deep locations (basal ganglia, thalamus, or brainstem), and the most common prescription dose was 15 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess factors associated with obliteration and hemorrhage. Results: At a median follow-up time of 35 months (range, 6-198 months), 64.6% of AVMs were obliterated. The median time to total obliteration was 31 months (range, 6-127 months), and the 5-year and 10-year cumulative incidence of total obliteration was 70% and 91%, respectively. On univariable analysis, smaller target volume (hazard ratio [HR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-0.93, P<.0001), smaller treatment volume (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.96, P<.0001), higher prescription dose (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07-1.26, P=.001), and higher maximum dose (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.23, P=.002) were associated with total obliteration. Deep/critical location was also associated with decreased likelihood of obliteration (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.98, P=.04). On multivariable analysis, critical location (adjusted HR [AHR] 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.65, P<.001) and smaller target volume (AHR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97, P=.02) remained associated with total obliteration. Posttreatment hemorrhage occurred in 13 cases (5-year cumulative incidence of 7%), all among patients with less than total obliteration, and 3 of these events were fatal. The most common complication was seizure, controlled with medications, both acutely (8%) and in the long term (9.1%). Conclusions: The current series is the largest

  5. New predictive model for microsurgical outcome of intracranial arteriovenous malformations: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xianzeng; Wu, Jun; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Yuanli; Wang, Shuo

    2017-01-27

    Although microsurgical resection is currently the first-line treatment modality for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), microsurgery of these lesions is complicated due to the fact that they are very heterogeneous vascular anomalies. The Spetzler-Martin grading system and the supplementary grading system have demonstrated excellent performances in predicting the risk of AVM surgery. However, there are currently no predictive models based on multimodal MRI techniques. The purpose of this study is to propose a predictive model based on multimodal MRI techniques to assess the microsurgical risk of intracranial AVMs. The study consists of 2 parts: the first part is to conduct a single-centre retrospective analysis of 201 eligible patients to create a predictive model of AVM surgery based on multimodal functional MRIs (fMRIs); the second part is to validate the efficacy of the predictive model in a prospective multicentre cohort study of 400 eligible patients. Patient characteristics, AVM features and multimodal fMRI data will be collected. The functional status at pretreatment and 6 months after surgery will be analysed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. The patients in each part of this study will be dichotomised into 2 groups: those with improved or unchanged functional status (a decreased or unchanged mRS 6 months after surgery) and those with worsened functional status (an increased mRS). The first part will determine the risk factors of worsened functional status after surgery and create a predictive model. The second part will validate the predictive model and then a new AVM grading system will be proposed. The study protocol and informed consent form have been reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (KY2016-031-01). The results of this study will be disseminated through printed media. NCT02868008. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  6. Stereotactic radiosurgery for Spetzler-Martin Grade IV and V arteriovenous malformations: an international multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Ding, Dale; Kano, Hideyuki; Xu, Zhiyuan; Lee, John Y K; Mathieu, David; Whitesell, Jamie; Pierce, John T; Huang, Paul P; Kondziolka, Douglas; Feliciano, Caleb; Rodriguez-Mercado, Rafael; Almodovar, Luis; Grills, Inga S; Silva, Danilo; Abbassy, Mahmoud; Missios, Symeon; Barnett, Gene H; Lunsford, L Dade; Sheehan, Jason P

    2017-09-08

    OBJECTIVE Due to the complexity of Spetzler-Martin (SM) Grade IV-V arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the management of these lesions remains controversial. The aims of this multicenter, retrospective cohort study were to evaluate the outcomes after single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for SM Grade IV-V AVMs and determine predictive factors. METHODS The authors retrospectively pooled data from 233 patients (mean age 33 years) with SM Grade IV (94.4%) or V AVMs (5.6%) treated with single-session SRS at 8 participating centers in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Pre-SRS embolization was performed in 71 AVMs (30.5%). The mean nidus volume, SRS margin dose, and follow-up duration were 9.7 cm3, 17.3 Gy, and 84.5 months, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with post-SRS outcomes. RESULTS At a mean follow-up interval of 84.5 months, favorable outcome was defined as AVM obliteration, no post-SRS hemorrhage, and no permanently symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RIC) and was achieved in 26.2% of patients. The actuarial obliteration rates at 3, 7, 10, and 12 years were 15%, 34%, 37%, and 42%, respectively. The annual post-SRS hemorrhage rate was 3.0%. Symptomatic and permanent RIC occurred in 10.7% and 4% of the patients, respectively. Only larger AVM diameter (p = 0.04) was found to be an independent predictor of unfavorable outcome in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The rate of favorable outcome was significantly lower for unruptured SM Grade IV-V AVMs compared with ruptured ones (p = 0.042). Prior embolization was a negative independent predictor of AVM obliteration (p = 0.024) and radiologically evident RIC (p = 0.05) in the respective multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS In this multi-institutional study, single-session SRS had limited efficacy in the management of SM Grade IV-V AVMs. Favorable outcome was only achieved in a minority of unruptured SM Grade IV-V AVMs, which supports

  7. Comparison of language cortex reorganization patterns between cerebral arteriovenous malformations and gliomas: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Long; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuo; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Rong; Wang, Jia; Zhao, Jizong

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital malformations that may grow in the language cortex but usually do not lead to aphasia. In contrast, language dysfunction is a common presentation for patients with a glioma that involves language areas. The authors attempted to demonstrate the difference in patterns of language cortex reorganization between cerebral AVMs and gliomas by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) evaluation. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical and imaging data of 63 patients with an unruptured cerebral AVM (AVM group) and 38 patients with a glioma (glioma group) who underwent fMRI. All the patients were right handed, and all their lesions were located in the left cerebral hemisphere. Patients were further categorized into 1 of the 2 following subgroups according to their lesion location: the BA subgroup (overlying or adjacent to the inferior frontal or the middle frontal gyri [the Broca area]) and the WA subgroup (overlying or adjacent to the supramarginal, angular, or superior temporal gyri [the Wernicke area]). Lateralization indices of BOLD signal activations were calculated separately for the Broca and Wernicke areas. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the difference in patterns of language cortex reorganization between the 2 groups. RESULTS In the AVM group, right-sided lateralization of BOLD signal activations was observed in 23 patients (36.5%), including 6 with right-sided lateralization in the Broca area alone, 12 in the Wernicke area alone, and 5 in both areas. More specifically, in the 34 patients in the AVM-BA subgroup, right-sided lateralization of the Broca area was detected in 9 patients (26.5%), and right-sided lateralization of the Wernicke area was detected in 4 (11.8%); in the 29 patients in the AVM-WA subgroup, 2 (6.9%) had right-sided lateralization of the Broca area, and 13 (44.8%) had right-sided lateralization of the Wernicke area. In the glioma group

  8. Successful pregnancy with a full-term vaginal delivery one year after n-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Colleen C; Kim, Hyun S

    2006-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) causes significant morbidity with vaginal bleeding. Traditional therapy is a hysterectomy with no potential for future pregnancy. We present a case of successful superselective embolization of uterine AVM using n-butyl cyanoacrylate with subsequent normal term pregnancy and uncomplicated vaginal delivery in 1 year.

  9. Pulmonale arteriovenøse malformationer. Moderne behandlingsprincipper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P E; Kjeldsen, A D

    2001-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are congenital vascular malformations in the lungs, which act as shunts so that the blood is not oxygenated or filtered. These patients are typically hypoxaemic with exercise intolerance and are at high risk of paradoxical emboli to the brain. About 25...

  10. Cerebral dysplastic vascular malformation: a developmental arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortzman, G.; Sima, A.A.F.; Morley, T.P.

    1983-08-01

    A cryptic malformation of the brain was found to represent an arrest in vascular development. Microscopy showed plump endothelium of blood vessels, which did not have a normal lumen and consisted of solid cords of cells. The microscopic, angiographic, and computed tomographic appearance of this anomaly are discussed and compared with cavernous angiomas, arteriovenous malformations, and venous angiomas.

  11. A case report of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula: origins, determinants, and consequences of abnormal vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry M. Zakhary, DO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is an abnormally layered connection between radicular arteries and venous plexus of the spinal cord. This vascular condition is relatively rare with an incidence of 5–10 cases per million in the general population. Diagnosis of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is differentiated by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography or structural magnetic resonance imaging, but a definitive diagnosis requires spinal angiography methods. Here, we report a case of a 67-year-old female with a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula, provide a pertinent clinical history to the case nosology, and discuss the biology of adhesive proteins, chemotactic molecules, and transcription factors that modify the behavior of the vasculature to possibly cause sensorimotor deficits.

  12. Dosimetric measurements of an n-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization material for arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labby, Zacariah E., E-mail: zelabby@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Chaudhary, Neeraj [Division of Neurointerventional Radiology, Departments of Radiology and Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Gemmete, Joseph J. [Division of Neurointerventional Radiology, Departments of Radiology, Neurosurgery, and Otolaryngology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Pandey, Aditya S. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Roberts, Donald A. [Radiation Physics Division, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic regimen for cranial arteriovenous malformations often involves both stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolization. Embolization agents may contain tantalum or other contrast agents to assist the neurointerventionalists, leading to concerns regarding the dosimetric effects of these agents. This study investigated dosimetric properties of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) plus lipiodol with and without tantalum powder. Methods: The embolization agents were provided cured from the manufacturer with and without added tantalum. Attenuation measurements were made for the samples and compared to the attenuation of a solid water substitute using a 6 MV photon beam. Effective linear attenuation coefficients (ELAC) were derived from attenuation measurements made using a portal imager and derived sample thickness maps projected in an identical geometry. Probable dosimetric errors for calculations in which the embolized regions are overridden with the properties of water were calculated using the ELAC values. Interface effects were investigated using a parallel plate ion chamber placed at set distances below fixed samples. Finally, Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using a stereotactic radiosurgery CT protocol, and more appropriate HU values were derived from the ELAC results and the CT scanner’s HU calibration curve. Results: The ELAC was 0.0516 ± 0.0063 cm{sup −1} and 0.0580 ± 0.0091 cm{sup −1} for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively, compared to 0.0487 ± 0.0009 cm{sup −1} for the water substitute. Dose calculations with the embolized region set to be water equivalent in the treatment planning system would result in errors of −0.29% and −0.93% per cm thickness of n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively. Interface effects compared to water were small in magnitude and limited in distance for both embolization materials. CT values at 120 kVp were 2082 and 2358 HU for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively

  13. Stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations - preliminary results; Radiocirurgia estereotaxica no tratamento das malformacoes arteriovenosas - resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Antonio Belmiro Rodrigues Campbell [Hospital dos Servidores do Estado (HSE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Vieira, Sergio Lannes [Hospital Sao Vicente de Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Rossini Junior, Olamir [Clinica Radioterapia Botafogo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents the clinical and radiological results of six patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery with a 6 MeV linear accelerator for arteriovenous malformations. All patients had been previously examined by neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists who contraindicated surgery or embolization due to the size and location of the nidus. Radiological investigations performed 12 to 36 months after the treatments showed complete response in five patients and partial response in one patient, adding up to a total response rate of 100%. No signs or symptoms of permanent injury to the cranial nerves or cerebral parenchyma were detected up to the last follow-up visit. No episodes of cerebral hemorrhage were diagnosed and no deaths related to the radiosurgical treatment were reported during the follow-up period. (author)

  14. Successful term pregnancy after selective arterial embolization of symptomatic arteriovenous malformation in the setting of gestational trophoblastic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Elizabeth I O; Meyerovitz, Michael; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2003-01-01

    Patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are at risk for significant vaginal hemorrhage, and are traditionally managed surgically. In the patient desiring future fertility, conservative management via selective arterial embolization is a reasonable option. Only a few cases have been previously reported of successful pregnancy after this procedure in the setting of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). A 31-year-old gravida 1 para 0 was treated for persistent gestational trophoblastic tumor after a complete mole in 1997. She presented with heavy vaginal bleeding, and arteriogram demonstrated a large uterine AVM. The patient underwent selective uterine artery embolization with complete resolution of bleeding, as well as arteriographic cessation of flow through the AVM. After two first-trimester spontaneous abortions, the patient successfully completed a normal pregnancy, resulting in the forceps-assisted delivery of a healthy female infant. Successful term pregnancy can occur after selective uterine artery embolization in women hemorrhaging from symptomatic GTD-associated AVM.

  15. Uterine arteriovenous malformation in a patient with recurrent pregnancy loss and a bicornuate uterus. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo-Soberon, F; Loret de Mola, J R; Shlansky-Goldberg, R; Tureck, R W

    1997-04-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the uterus are a rare but potential cause of recurrent pregnancy loss. Only four cases of uterine AVM have resulted in a live birth after conservative management. There is no previous report in which a combination of a müllerian anomaly and an AVM existed concomitantly. A 33-year-old woman with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss was found to have a coexistent uterine AVM and a bicornuate uterus. The patient underwent arterial embolization and Strassman metroplasty and subsequently had a term pregnancy with a live birth. Management of uterine AVM should be individualized, taking into account the patient's desire for future fertility and the stability of her health at presentation.

  16. A Retrograde Transvenous Embolization Technique with Balloon-Assisted Arterial Aspiration for a Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformation with a Venous Pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhara, Asako, E-mail: kuhara-asako@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Norimitsu; Koganemaru, Masamichi; Kugiyama, Tomoko [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kiyokawa, Kensuke [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery and Maxillofacial Surgery (Japan); Abe, Toshi [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is challenging, and there is no consensus regarding either the ideal approach or the treatment timing. Percutaneous embolization is the most frequent approach currently used and is considered the first-line technique for AVMs. There is an ongoing discussion about the best technical approach to embolize AVMs. AVMs associated with a dominant outflow vein (DOV) are rare. Embolization of both the DOV and the nidus is considered more effective. Herein, we report a novel technique of transvenous embolization of a DOV under negative pressure from an arterial balloon catheter in a case of a peripheral AVM. This technique allows the embolization of the DOV and the nidus retrogradely.

  17. Notch1 and 4 Signaling Responds to an Increasing Vascular Wall Shear Stress in a Rat Model of Arteriovenous Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch signaling is suggested to promote the development and maintenance of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs, and an increasing wall shear stress (WSS contributes to AVM rupture. Little is known about whether WSS impacts Notch signaling, which is important for understanding the angiogenesis of AVMs. WSS was measured in arteriovenous fistulas (AVF surgically created in 96 rats at different time points over a period of 84 days. The expression of Notch receptors 1 and 4 and their ligands, Delta1 and 4, Jagged1, and Notch downstream gene target Hes1 was quantified in “nidus” vessels. The interaction events between Notch receptors and their ligands were quantified using proximity ligation assay. There was a positive correlation between WSS and time (r=0.97; P<0.001. The expression of Notch receptors and their ligands was upregulated following AVF formation. There was a positive correlation between time and the number of interactions between Notch receptors and their ligands aftre AVF formation (r=0.62, P<0.05 and a positive correlation between WSS and the number of interactions between Notch receptors and their ligands (r=0.87, P<0.005. In conclusion, an increasing WSS may contribute to the angiogenesis of AVMs by activation of Notch signaling.

  18. Iodine-containing cellulose mixed esters as radiopaque polymers for direct embolization of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottu, F; Rüfenacht, D A; Laurent, A; Doelker, E

    2002-01-01

    The present study deals with the synthesis and characterization of radiopaque polymers which could, when solubilized in an appropriate water-miscible solvent, be useful embolic materials for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. For this purpose cellulose (both microcrystalline and powdered) and partially substituted cellulose acetate (two different viscosity grades) were selected as starting materials to prepare iodine-containing polymers through various synthetic routes. The materials obtained were characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy, molecular weight, iodine content, radiopacity and solubility in selected injectable organic solvents. The embolic liquids were evaluated for their precipitation behavior in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) mimicking physiological conditions using an in vitro aneurysm model. A sheep model was also used to assess in vivo the radiopacity and precipitation properties of a highly concentrated solution of a cellulose acetate 2,3,4-triiodobenzoate mixed ester. All materials with 4-iodo- and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoyl groups gave sufficient radiopacity to be regarded as possible embolization materials, whereas iododeoxycellulose and iododeoxycellulose acetate were not radiopaque because of their low iodine content. Esters synthesized using cellulose as starting material were not soluble in the selected organic solvents due to the presence of many residual hydroxyl groups, but could be used for other biomedical applications where insoluble radiopaque materials are used. In contrast, solubility of the materials as well as satisfactory precipitation properties were ensured using cellulose acetate as the starting material. In conclusion, cellulose acetate iodobenzoate mixed esters dissolved in diglyme or dimethyl isosorbide (dimethyl sulfoxide is probably less appropriate because of its toxicity and hemolytic properties) could be useful embolic liquids for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms or arteriovenous

  19. Diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation by Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic angio resonance findings: a case report; Diagnostico de malformacao arteriovenosa uterina por meio da ultra-sonografia com doppler colorido e achados a angiorresonancia magnetica: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Ayrton Roberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia]. E-mail: arpastore@ajato.com.br; Pastore, Daniel [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base. Dept. de Radiologia; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Moreira, Airton Mota [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia Intervencionista; Kano, Alice [Hospital do Servidor Municipal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Clinica Obstetrica; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    2004-10-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations are rare and the clinical features quite variable. Gynecologists and radiologists must be aware of this diagnostic possibility in order to indicate a fast and accurate treatment. The aim of the present paper is to present a case of uterine arteriovenous malformation acquired after trophoblastic gestational disease for which diagnosis was well established by means of color Doppler ultrasonography and correlation to magnetic angio resonance. (author)

  20. Linear Accelerator Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Central Nervous System Arteriovenous Malformations: A 15-Year Analysis of Outcome-Related Factors in a Single Tertiary Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenier-Villa, José Luis; Galárraga-Campoverde, Raúl Alejandro; Martínez Rolán, Rosa María; De La Lama Zaragoza, Adolfo Ramón; Martínez Cueto, Pedro; Muñoz Garzón, Víctor; Salgado Fernández, Manuel; Conde Alonso, Cesáreo

    2017-07-01

    Linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery is one of the modalities available for the treatment of central nervous system arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The aim of this study was to describe our 15-year experience with this technique in a single tertiary center and the analysis of outcome-related factors. From 1998 to 2013, 195 patients were treated with linear accelerator-based radiosurgery; we conducted a retrospective study collecting patient- and AVM-related variables. Treatment outcomes were obliteration, posttreatment hemorrhage, symptomatic radiation-induced changes, and 3-year neurologic status. We also analyzed prognostic factors of each outcome and predictability analysis of 5 scales: Spetzler-Martin grade, Lawton-Young supplementary and Lawton combined scores, radiosurgery-based AVM score, Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale, and Heidelberg score. Overall obliteration rate was 81%. Nidus diameter and venous drainage were predictive of obliteration (P radiosurgery is a useful, valid, effective, and safe modality for treatment of brain AVMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiosurgery with a linear accelerator in cerebral arteriovenous malformations Radiocirurgia com acelerador linear em malformações arteriovenosas cerebrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carlos Barros Esteves

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate results achieved with radiosurgery and complications of the procedure when treating arteriovenous malformations with linear accelerator. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between October 1993 and December 1996. Sixty-one patients with arteriovenous malformations were treated with radiosurgery utilizing a 6MV energy linear accelerator. Ages of the 32 female and 29 male patients ranged from 6 to 54 years (mean: 28.3 years. The most frequent initial symptom was cephalea (45.9%, followed by neurological deficit (36.1%. Cerebral hemorrhage diagnosed by image was observed in 35 patients (57.3%. Most arteriovenous malformations (67.2% were graded Spetzler III and IV. Venous stenosis (21.3% and aneurysm (13.1% were the most frequent angioarchitecture changes. The dose administered varied from 12 to 27.5Gy in the periphery of the lesion. RESULTS: Out of twenty-eight patients that underwent conclusive angiography control, complete obliteration was achieved in 18 (72% and treatment failed in 7 (absence of occlusion with more than 3 years of follow-up. Four were submitted to a second radiosurgery, and one of these has shown obliteration after 18 months of follow-up. DISCUSSION: Several factors were analyzed regarding the occlusion rate (gender, age, volume, localization, Spetzler, flow, embolization, total of isocenters, prescribed dose and chosen isodose and complications (total of isocenters, localization, volume, maximum dose, prescribed dose and chosen isodose. Analyzed variables showed no statistical significance for obliteration of the vessel, as well as for treatment complications. The largest diameter of the arteriovenous malformation, its volume and the dose administered did not influence time of obliteration. CONCLUSION: Radiosurgery is effective in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and can be an alternative for patients with clinical contraindication or with lesions in eloquent areas. In the studied

  2. A case of severe uterine arteriovenous malformation treated with danazol followed by a transarterial embolization of unilateral uterine and ovarian arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Yazawa; Syu Soeda; Tsuyoshi Hiraiwa; Masayo Takaiwa; Keiya Fujimori

    2015-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by abrupt and profuse uterine bleeding from abnormal connections between arteries and veins in the myometrium. It is commonly associated with prior pregnancy or uterine trauma. We present a case of severe uterine AVM treated with danazol and transarterial embolization (TAE). A 38-year-old patient with a history of two abortions and a myomectomy was referred to our hospital for intermittent massi...

  3. Uterine arteriovenous malformation with positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin: Embolization of both uterine arteries and extra-uterine feeding arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Mi; Ahn, Hee Young; Choi, Min Jeong; Kang, Yun Dan; Park, Jin Wan; Park, Choong Hak; Kim, Jong Soo

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare. However, it is clinically significant in that it can cause life-threatening vaginal bleeding. We report a case of a large uterine AVM with positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. A presumptive diagnosis was made; a uterine AVM accompanied by, early pregnancy or retained product of conception. Because this uterine AVM was extensive, transcatheter arterial embolization of both uterine arteries and extra-uterine feeding...

  4. Methylene Blue injection via superior mesenteric artery microcatheter for focused enterectomy in the treatment of a bleeding small intestinal arteriovenous malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Frydman, James; Bahouth, Hany; Leiderman, Maxim; Ofer, Amos; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding from the small intestine may present the Acute Care Surgeon with a formidable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Despite the current array of diagnostic studies, localization of the causative pathology may be elusive, especially when the bleeding is intermittent. When a small intestinal arteriovenous malformation is the responsible lesion, a technique combining super-selective angiography with intra-operative methylene blue injection and focus...

  5. Methylene Blue injection via superior mesenteric artery microcatheter for focused enterectomy in the treatment of a bleeding small intestinal arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, James; Bahouth, Hany; Leiderman, Maxim; Ofer, Amos; Kluger, Yoram

    2014-02-19

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding from the small intestine may present the Acute Care Surgeon with a formidable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Despite the current array of diagnostic studies, localization of the causative pathology may be elusive, especially when the bleeding is intermittent. When a small intestinal arteriovenous malformation is the responsible lesion, a technique combining super-selective angiography with intra-operative methylene blue injection and focused enterectomy has been described in a number of case series. The current case report utilizes this same approach with emphasis on computed tomography angiography representing a key first step in the diagnostic algorithm. In this case report, we describe the diagnosis and treatment of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding emanating from an arteriovenous malformation in the small intestine of a 52 year old male. After an extensive work-up including upper and lower endoscopy, double balloon enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy, he was referred for computed tomography angiography. Though he was not actively bleeding, a jejunal arteriovenous malformation was localized on imaging. This prompted directed transfemoral angiography, placement of a super-selective microcatheter in the 4th jejunal arterial branch, intra-operative methylene blue injection and focused enterectomy with pathological confirmation. The patient was found to be free of gastrointestinal bleeding on 6 month follow-up. A step-wise, rational diagnostic approach should be utilized in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. In the non-actively bleeding patient, computed tomography angiogram may facilitate the diagnosis of a small intestinal arteriovenous malformation. Methylene blue injection via a super-selective angiographic microcatheter may then allow for focused enterectomy.

  6. High resolution MR venography technique in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations; Hochaufgeloeste MR-Venographie zerebraler arteriovenoeser Malformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, M.; Schad, L. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie; Reichenbach, J.R.; Kaiser, W.A. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Debus, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Allgemeine Radiologie mit Poliklinik

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of a high resolution MR venography technique in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). A high-resolution 3D gradient echo sequence was used with a long echo time TE to obtain venous information down to sub-pixel sized vessel diameters of several hundred microns. The method is based on the paramagnetic property of deoxyhemoglobin and the resulting developing phase difference between veins and brain parenchyma at long echo times which leads to signal cancellation. The reconstructed venograms were compared with TOF-MR angiography using qualitative and quantitative criteria with the conventional DSA serving as the reference gold standard. Methods. In 17 patients with angiographically proven cerebral AVM the method indicates its potential in clinical applications. Venography was able to detect all AVM whereas TOF-MRA failed in three patients. In the delineation of venous drainage patterns MR venography was superior to TOF-MRA, however, as expected the method detected only about half of the main feeding arteries. Due to susceptibility artifacts at air/tissue boundaries or interference with paramagnetic hemosiderin, MR venography was limited with respect to the delineation of the exact nidus sizes and shapes in ten patients with AVM located close to the skull base or in patients having suffered from previous bleeding. Results. Although the visualization of draining veins represents an important prerequisite in the surgical and radiosurgical treatment planning of cerebral AVM, there exist limitations of the technique in regions where strong induced static field inhomogeneities are present. (orig.) [German] Ziel. Ziel unserer Untersuchungen war es, die diagnostische Wertigkeit einer neuen, raeumlich hochaufgeloesten MR-Venographietechnik bei Patienten mit zerebralen arteriovenoesen Malformationen (AVM) zu untersuchen. Methode. Fuer die MR-Venographie wurde eine 3D-Gradientenechosequenz mit

  7. Orthodeoxia without Platypnea in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia in the Presence of a Cerebral Abscess and Multiple Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations: Unusual Complications and Transcatheter Endovascular Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a rare autosomal-dominant condition affecting visceral blood vessel development. Cerebral and most commonly pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are found in the majority of symptomatic patients. The most common complications include embolic strokes and cerebral abscesses, which have been attributed to abnormal vessel communications. Platypnea orthodeoxia is a rare condition that presents dyspnea and oxygen desaturation when adopting an upright position and is relieved on decubitus. The association between hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, and platypnea orthodeoxia has been described in medical literature; however, orthodeoxia as a single entity without platypnea has not been described yet, especially associated with complications of this hereditary condition. We present the case of a 38-year-old male with persistent headaches, in whom a cerebral lesion was detected. Orthostatic tachycardia and severe orthodeoxia without platypnea were evidenced during physical examination. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and underwent cerebral abscess drainage as well as transcatheter endovascular closure of multiple pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. For this reason, the concept of platypnea orthodeoxia syndrome needs further revision. Patients presenting refractory hypoxemia should warn physicians to initially evaluate their oxygen saturation measurements during standing and decubitus position, even though platypnea may not be present.

  8. Difference of language cortex reorganization between cerebral arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, and gliomas: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Long; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Yuanli; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Rong; Ye, Xun; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Jizong

    2016-04-01

    The authors attempted to demonstrate the difference in language cortex reorganization between cerebral malformations (AVMs), cavernous malformations (CMs), and gliomas by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical and imaging data of 27 AVM patients (AVM-L group), 29 CM patients (CM-L group), and 20 glioma patients (Glioma-L group) were retrospectively reviewed, with lesions overlying the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca area). As a control, patients with lesions involving the right inferior frontal gyrus were also enrolled, including 14 AVM patients (AVM-R group), 20 CM patients (CM-R group), and 14 glioma patients (Glioma-R group). All patients were right-handed. Lateralization indices (LI) of BOLD signal activations were calculated separately for Broca and Wernicke areas. In AVM-L group, right-sided lateralization of BOLD signals was observed in 10 patients (37.0%), including 6 in the Broca area alone, 1 in the Wernicke area alone, and 3 in both areas. Three patients (10.3%) of CM-L group showed right-sided lateralization in both Broca and Wernicke areas, and 1 patient (5.0%) of Glioma-L group had right-sided lateralization in the Wernicke area alone. A significant difference of right-sided lateralization was observed between the AVM-L group and CM-L group (P = 0.018) and also between the AVM-L group and Glioma-L group (P = 0.027). No patient in AVM-R, CM-R, or Glioma-R groups showed right-sided lateralization. Language cortex reorganization may occur in AVM, CM, and glioma patients when the traditional language cortex was involved by lesions, but the potential of reorganization for CM and glioma patients seems to be insufficient compared with AVM patients.

  9. Genetic causes of congenital brain malformations in epilepsy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre

    2008-01-01

    The search for genetic causes of congenital brain malformations, severe epilepsy and mental retardation plays an important role in neuropediatrics and neurology. Disclosure of the aetiology of the intellectual disabilities, seizures and the underlying brain malformation may be of psychological...... value for the family, and it is essential for proper genetic counselling. The human brain is one of the most complex structures known, and probably many of the 25.000- 30.000 genes that comprise the human genome are involved in its development, which means that thousands of genes could be candidate...

  10. A successful natural conception and childbirth after embolization of uterine arteriovenous malformation – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati Adhe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine AV malformation is dreadful condition due to vaginal bleeding. In past the only option was hysterectomy which leads to cessation of reproductive function. Here we are presenting a case where we preserved the reproductive function through Transarterial Embolization (TAE technique. Post TAE patient resumed average flow regular menses, conceived naturally and delivered by elective caesarean section.

  11. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: the most frequent vascular malformations of the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Gordo, J; Martínez García, R

    2017-10-27

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas are produced by direct communication between the arterial and venous systems of the spinal cord, causing hypertension in the latter with spinal cord dysfunction. It is a rare pathology with unknown etiology and non-specific clinical symptoms that usually results in a delayed diagnosis. Often radiologists are the first to guide the disease towards an adequate diagnosis. Characteristic findings can be seen through MR or MR angiography, and may even locate the fistula in a high percentage of cases, although the pathology must be confirmed by spinal angiography. There are two treatment modalities: endovascular and surgical therapy. Endovascular treatment has improved in recent years with the advantages of a less invasive approach and is therefore usually chosen as primary therapy. In this article we review the main clinical manifestations, imaging findings and treatment of this pathology. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Disappearance of a uterine arteriovenous malformation following long-term administration of oral norgestrel/ethinyl estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oride, Aki; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can cause sudden massive hemorrhage. We report a case of uterine AVM following curettage in a patient treated conservatively with an intermediate-dose pill. An 18-year-old gravida 2 para 0 underwent curettage at 12 weeks of gestation and was examined for massive genital hemorrhage that occurred in postoperative month 4. Abundant blood flow in a mass within the uterine lumen was observed on color Doppler ultrasonography, and the patient was diagnosed with AVM. Six days after starting oral norgestrel/ethinyl estradiol, the hemorrhage ceased, and computed tomography on day 37 of administration showed disappearance of the abnormal vasculature. After 12 months, the patient's course remains favorable without relapse. Transarterial embolization for AVM can cause ovarian failure and subsequent placental malpositioning. Administration of oral norgestrel/ethinyl estradiol may be an alternative conservative treatment option for patients who wish to maintain fertility. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Transcatheter arterial embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) for the treatment of hemorrhage due to uterine arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, P-A; Saeed-Kilani, M; Tradi, F; Dabadie, A; Izaaryene, J; Soussan, J; Bartoli, J-M; Vidal, V

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) as a single embolic agent for percutaneous arterial treatment of hemorrhage due to uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Twelve women (mean age, 33 years) with metrorrhagia due to uterine AVMs who were treated by percutaneous arterial embolization using Onyx as a single embolic agent were retrospectively included. The diagnosis of uterine AVM was suggested by pelvic ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging findings and further confirmed by angiography. Clinical files and angiographic examinations were reviewed for angiographic findings, technical and clinical success, procedure complication and further pregnancies. Clinical success was defined by absence of metrorrhagia at 1 month following embolization. Sixteen arterial embolization procedures were performed. Angiographically, 6 women had high flow AVM and 6 had low flow AVM. The rate of technical and clinical success was 92% (11/12 patients). One woman with early repeat hemorrhage underwent two embolization procedures and further hysterectomy. No severe complications were observed after embolization. Three women (3/12; 25%) became pregnant following embolization including one full term pregnancy. In women with metrorrhagia due to AVM, arterial embolization with Onyx is effective and safe. Additional research is needed to confirm the possibility of future pregnancy after Onyx embolization. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Ectopic pregnancy after successful treatment with percutaneous transcatheter uterine arterial embolization for congenital uterine arteriovenous malformation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Kaei; Nishida, Masakazu; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Narahara, Hisashi

    2008-08-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare disease. Percutaneous transcatheter uterine arterial embolization (UAE) has been performed in patients who wish to preserve their ability to conceive. UAE is considered to be a safe and effective procedure, but its long-term effect on fertility has not been fully elucidated. We present a case of ectopic tubal pregnancy after conservative treatment with UAE for uterine AVM. A 30-year-old Japanese woman was admitted for the treatment of unruptured right tubal pregnancy at 6 weeks of gestation. She had conceived spontaneously and delivered a healthy baby at term, 3 years previously. Subsequently, she was successfully treated with UAE for a large congenital uterine AVM. Transvaginal color Doppler ultrasonography revealed no evidence of residual AVM vessels. After the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy, the patient underwent right tubectomy. At laparotomy, there were no adhesions or structural anomalies in the pelvic cavity that might affect tubal function. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and she is now healthy without conception 24 months after surgery. Prior uterine arterial embolization may have affected the tubal function in the present case, allowing tubal pregnancy to occur.

  15. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation in the Korean Population: Clinical Manifestations and the Long-Term Results of Transarterial Embolotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae A; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Jin, Gong Young; Han, Young Min [Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Byung Suk [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the general features and the long-term results of transarterial embolotherapy (TAE) for the treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). Thirteen (n=13) patients who underwent TAE for PAVMs were identified. These patients were comprised of 4 men and 9 women, aged between 19 and 67 years (mean age, 44 years). The authors evaluated the general features of PAVMs, including, type, location, size, and symptoms. In addition, results following TAE were analyzed to evaluate its efficacy, and to investigate arterial oxygen pressure changes. In total, 13 patients presented with 21 angiographically confirmed PAVMs. Nine (69.2%) patients had single PAVM. Of the 21 PAVMs, 19 were simple, 16 were located in lower lobes, and 17 were located in the subpleural region. Furthermore, 2 of the 13 patients experienced coughing, 2 experienced dyspnea, and 1 experienced massive hemoptysis. All PAVMs were subjected to superselective TAE using a detachable balloon or coils. Six PAVMs (28.6%) in three patients (23.1%) were subsequently recanalized as determined by contrast-enhanced CT scan. All 3 patients were identified during long-term follow up (mean: 61.9 months). One of the 3 patients experienced an acute stroke due to thrombi migration in the middle cerebral artery following PAVM recanalization. TAE with coils is effective for the treatment of PAVMs, and it should be noted that patients who undergo embolotherapy require careful surveillance, due to the need for recanalization during follow-up

  16. Pulmonary artery endothelial cell phenotypic alterations in a large animal model of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations after the Glenn shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavarana, Minoo N; Mukherjee, Rupak; Eckhouse, Shaina R; Rawls, William F; Logdon, Christina; Stroud, Robert E; Patel, Risha K; Nadeau, Elizabeth K; Spinale, Francis G; Graham, Eric M; Forbus, Geoffrey A; Bradley, Scott M; Ikonomidis, John S; Jones, Jeffrey A

    2013-10-01

    Longevity of the superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) is limited by the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). The goal of this study was to determine whether phenotypic changes in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) that favor angiogenesis occur with PAVM formation. A superior vena cava to right pulmonary artery connection was constructed in 5 pigs. Pulmonary arteries were harvested at 6 to 8 weeks after surgery to establish cultures of PAEC and smooth muscle cells, to determine cell proliferation, gene expression, and tubule formation. Abundance of proteins related to angiogenesis was measured in lung tissue. Contrast echocardiography revealed right-to-left shunting, consistent with PAVM formation. While the proliferation of smooth muscle cells from the right pulmonary artery (shunted side) and left pulmonary artery (nonshunted side) were similar, right PAEC proliferation was significantly higher. Expression profiles of genes encoding cellular signaling proteins were higher in PAECs from the right pulmonary artery versus left pulmonary artery. Protein abundance of angiopoietin-1, and Tie-2 (angiopoietin receptor) were increased in the right lung (both p SCPC concomitantly with differential changes in PAEC proliferative ability and phenotype. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the angiopoietin/Tie-2 complex in the right lung, which may provide novel therapeutic targets to attenuate PAVM formation after a SCPC. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cell Phenotypic Alterations in a Large Animal Model of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Following the Glenn Shunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavarana, Minoo N.; Mukherjee, Rupak; Eckhouse, Shaina R.; Rawls, William F.; Logdon, Christina; Stroud, Robert E.; Patel, Risha K.; Nadeau, Elizabeth K.; Spinale, Francis G.; Graham, Eric M.; Forbus, Geoffrey A.; Bradley, Scott M.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Longevity of the superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) is limited by the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). The goal of this study was to determine whether phenotypic changes in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) that favor angiogenesis occur with PAVM formation. Methods: A superior vena cava to right pulmonary artery connection was constructed in 5 pigs. Pulmonary arteries were harvested at 6-8 weeks following surgery to establish cultures of PAEC and smooth muscle cells, to determine cell proliferation, gene expression, and tubule formation. Abundance of proteins related to angiogenesis was measured in lung tissue. Results: Contrast echocardiography revealed right-to-left shunting, consistent with PAVM formation. While the proliferation of smooth muscle cells from the right pulmonary artery (RPA) (shunted side) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) (non- shunted side) were similar, right PAEC proliferation was significantly higher. Expression profiles of genes encoding cellular signaling proteins were higher in PAECs from the RPA vs. LPA. Protein abundance of angiopoietin-1, and Tie-2 (angiopoietin receptor) were increased in the right lung (both pSCPC. This study found that PAVM development occurred concomitantly with differential changes in PAEC proliferative ability and phenotype. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the angiopoietin/Tie-2 complex in the right lung, which may provide novel therapeutic targets to attenuate PAVM formation following a SCPC. PMID:23968766

  18. Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric patients with intracranial arteriovenous malformations: variables that may affect obliteration time and probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván De la Cruz, O O; Ballesteros-Zebadúa, P; Moreno-Jiménez, S; Celis, M A; García-Garduño, O A

    2015-02-01

    It is debatable whether pediatric patients diagnosed with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) should be treated as adults. Several indexes to classify AVMs have been proposed in the literature, and most try to predict the outcome for each specific treatment. The indexes differ in the variables considered, but they are all based in adult populations. In this study, we analyzed the variables that influence the obliteration time and probability of occurrence in a Mexican pediatric population diagnosed with an AVM and treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We analyzed 45 pediatric patients (eloquent region, there was a tendency of a shorter obliteration time (p=0.071). None of the previously proposed indexes for adults predict obliteration in this pediatric population. Treatment technique, eloquence and follow up time were the only variables that showed influence in obliteration. Since the highest probability of obliteration occurs during the first three years, if the nidus has not been obliterated after this time then another treatment option could be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Massive hematuria due to a congenital renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal pelvis tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sountoulides P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Congenital renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are very rare benign lesions. They are more common in women and rarely manifest in elderly people. In some cases they present with massive hematuria. Contemporary treatment consists of transcatheter selective arterial embolization which leads to resolution of the hematuria whilst preserving renal parenchyma. Case presentation A 72-year-old man, who was heavy smoker, presented with massive hematuria and flank pain. CT scan revealed a filling defect caused by a soft tissue mass in the renal pelvis, which initially led to the suspicion of a transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the upper tract, in view of the patient's age and smoking habits. However a subsequent retrograde study could not depict any filling defect in the renal pelvis. Selective right renal arteriography confirmed the presence of a renal AVM by demonstrating abnormal arterial communication with a vein with early visualization of the venous system. At the same time successful selective transcatheter embolization of the lesion was performed. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of careful diagnostic work-up in the evaluation of upper tract hematuria. In the case presented, a congenital renal AVM proved to be the cause of massive upper tract hematuria and flank pain in spite of the initial evidence indicating the likely diagnosis of a renal pelvis tumor.

  20. Microsurgical management of deep ruptured arteriovenous malformations of the basal ganglia and thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Aurelia Mihaela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Deep AVMs are more difficult to operate compared with other supratentorial locations due to the long working corridor through the brain, location in eloquent areas and vicinity with brain critical structures.

  1. [Recurrent brain abscess associated with congenital pulmonary arteriovenous fistula: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioya, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Suda, Yoshitaka; Shindo, Kenjiro; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    We report a rare case of recurrent brain abscess associated with congenital pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in October, 1999 because of a sudden stroke-like onset of right hemiparesis, right hemiparesthesia, dysarthria and sensory aphasia. He had a history of previous brain abscess in the right cerebellar hemisphere. It had been removed in 1991. CT scan at the time of the current admission disclosed a low-density area in the left parietal region. The mass was ring-enhanced after injection of contrast medium. On MRI the mass lesion was depicted as low-intensity on T1-weighted image and high-intensity on T2-weighted image. The mass was ring-enhanced after administration of Gd-DTPA. In spite of conservative treatment the size of the abscess increased considerably with marked surrounding edema. The brain abscess was successfully treated with aspiration and drainage, and the residual mass was resected. The patient also had a history of arteriovenous fistula in the lower lobe of his right lung. This had been excised in 1965. However, he had no signs, symptoms or family histories of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber disease). Contrast enhanced CT scan of the chest showed nodular lesions connected to vascular shadows in the right lower lung field. Pulmonary angiograms also revealed multiple arteriovenous fistulas in the lower lobe of the right lung. He was not dyspneic or cyanotic, but his hypoxia, polycythemia, and recurrent brain abscess were thought to be caused by pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. The fistulas were embolized with coils via a percutaneous catheter. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula should be treated aggressively either by surgery and/or by coil embolization in order to prevent the complication of brain abscess.

  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery planning based on time-resolved CTA for arteriovenous malformation: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ryan C; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Josiah, Darnell; Gonzalez, Javier; Schmidt, Matthew; Tarabishy, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery has long been recognized as the optimal form of management for high-grade arteriovenous malformations not amenable to surgical resection. Radiosurgical plans have generally relied upon the integration of stereotactic magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), standard contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computed tomography angiography (CTA) with biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Current options are disadvantageous in that catheter-based biplane DSA is an invasive test associated with a small risk of complications and perhaps more importantly, the two-dimensional nature of DSA is an inherent limitation in creating radiosurgical contours. The necessity of multiple scans to create DSA contours for radiosurgical planning puts patients at increased risk. Furthermore, the inability to import two-dimensional plans into some radiosurgery programs, such as Cyberknife TPS, limits treatment options for patients. Defining the nidus itself is sometimes difficult in any of the traditional modalities as all draining veins and feeding arteries are included in the images. This sometimes necessitates targeting a larger volume, than strictly necessary, with stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of the AVM. In this case report, we show the ability to use a less-invasive and three-dimensional form of angiography based on time-lapsed CTA (4D-CTA) rather than traditional DSA for radiosurgical planning. 4D-CTA may allow generation of a series of images, which can show the flow of contrast through the AVM. A review of these series may allow the surgeon to pick and use a volume set that best outlines the nidus with least interference from feeding arteries or draining veins. In addition, 4D-CTA scans can be uploaded into radiosurgery programs and allow three-dimensional targeting. This is the first reported case demonstrating the use of a 4D CTA and an MRI to delineate the AVM nidus for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, with complete

  3. Stereotactic radiosurgery of intracranial arteriovenous malformations and the use of the K index in determining treatment dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon; Al-Shyal, Gasser; Rasmussen, Peter A; Barnett, Gene H

    2014-09-01

    The appropriate dose during stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains a matter of debate. In the present study, the authors retrospectively evaluated the association of using a prescribed dose calculated utilizing the K index with the obliteration rate of cerebral AVMs after SRS. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the Cleveland Clinic SRS database. All patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery for cerebral AVMs from 1997 to 2010 were selected. Regression techniques and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to investigate the effect of divergence from the optimal K index dose on the rate of AVM obliteration. In the study period 152 patients (mean age 43.6 years; 53.9% of treatments were performed in females) underwent 165 Gamma Knife radiosurgery treatments for AVMs. In a univariate analysis Spetzler-Martin grade (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.42-0.93]), higher AVM score (OR 0.43 [95% CI 0.27-0.70]), larger AVM volume (OR 0.88 [95% CI 0.82-0.94]), and higher maximum diameter (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41-0.77]) were associated with a lower rate of AVM obliteration. Higher margin dose (OR 1.16 [95% CI 1.08-1.24]) and higher maximum dose (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.04-1.13]) were associated with a higher obliteration rate. To further examine the effect of prescribed dose divergence from the calculated K index dose, cases were classified to groups depending on the AVM volume and dose variance from the ideal K index dose. Contingency tables and Kaplan-Meier curves were then created, and no significant differences in rates of obliteration were noted among the different groups. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for cerebral AVMs remains an effective and safe treatment modality. Smaller AVMs may receive doses less than the calculated K index dose without an apparent effect on obliteration rates.

  4. Ethanol embolotherapy of high-flow auricular arteriovenous malformations with electrolytically detachable coil-assisted dominant outflow vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Su, L; Han, Y; Fan, X

    2014-11-01

    High-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with a dominant outflow vein (DOV) remain difficult for ethanol embolotherapy, but improved technology and experience of detachable coils allows for the treatment of some of these AVMs with satisfactory results. A single-center experience and evaluation of technical and clinical safety, and effectiveness of electrolytically detachable coil (EDC)-assisted DOV occlusion for ethanol embolization of high-flow auricular AVMs, which has some advantages over conventional coils because of its controlled deployment, reposition, and removal is reported. From November 2010 to June 2013, 40 consecutive patients with auricular AVMs underwent staged ethanol embolizations, of which nine patients' auricular AVMs with a DOV who had undergone ethanol embolization of high-flow auricular AVMs in combination with EDCs-assisted DOV occlusion were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical follow-up (range, 5-29 months; mean, 15.1 months) was completed in all patients, and results from imaging follow-up (range, 7-25 months; mean, 14.7 months) were available from the last treatment session in six patients. Therapeutic outcomes were determined by evaluating the clinical outcome of symptoms and signs, as well as the degree of devascularization at follow-up arteriography. Twenty-eight ethanol embolizations and nine EDC-assisted DOV occlusions were performed in nine patients. Seventeen EDCs were used in nine patients. Five (55.6%) of the nine patients were cured, and four (44.4%) had partial palliation. One minor complication occurred in one of the nine patients. Transient hemoglobinuria occurred in six of nine patients in a total nine of the 28 procedures. There were no major complications. Ethanol embolization has the potential for cure in the management of high-flow auricular AVMs with the aid of occlusion DOV by EDCs with acceptable risk of minor and major complications. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  5. The Retrograde Transvenous Push-Through Method: A Novel Treatment of Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with Dominant Venous Outflow

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    Wohlgemuth, Walter A., E-mail: walter.wohlgemuth@ukr.de; Müller-Wille, René, E-mail: Rene.Mueller-Wille@ukr.de; Teusch, Veronika I., E-mail: Veronika.Teusch@gmx.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Dudeck, Oliver, E-mail: Oliver.Dudeck@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Cahill, Anne M., E-mail: Cahill@email.chop.edu [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (United States); Alomari, Ahmad I., E-mail: Ahmad.Alomari@childrens.harvard.edu [Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Uller, Wibke, E-mail: Wibke.Uller@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel retrograde transvenous embolization technique of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent transvenous retrograde Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow over a 29-month period. The embolization is aimed at retrograde filling of the nidus after building a solid plug in the dominant venous outflow (push-through). Classification, clinical signs, technical aspects, clinical and technical success rates, and complications were recorded. Short-term outcome was assessed.Results11 Symptomatic patients (8 female; mean age 31.4 years) were treated at our Vascular Anomalies Center with this method between January 2012 and May 2014. The AVMs were located on the upper extremity (n = 3), pelvis (n = 2), buttock (n = 2), and lower extremity (n = 4). Retrograde embolization was successfully carried out after preparatory transarterial-flow reduction in eight cases (73 %) and venous-flow reduction with Amplatzer Vascular Plugs in four cases (36 %). Complete devascularization (n = 10; 91 %) or 95 % devascularization (n = 1; 9 %) led to complete resolution (n = 8; 73 %) or improvement of clinical symptoms (n = 3; 27 %). One minor complication occurred (pain and swelling). During a mean follow-up time of 8 months, one clinically asymptomatic recurrence of AVM was detected.ConclusionInitial results suggest that retrograde transvenous Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow is a safe and effective novel technique with a low complication rate.

  6. Contribution of technological progress, inter-operator difference and experience of operators in Gamma Knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tomoyuki; Shin, Masahiro; Maruyama, Keisuke; Kurita, Hiroki; Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Saito, Nobuhito

    2011-04-01

    Outcomes of microsurgical resection for cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) largely depend on the skill and experience of the operator, but it is still unknown whether such individual differences similarly exists in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for AVM. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the inter-operator difference and technological progress in SRS for AVM. During the past 20 years, 514 patients with AVM were treated by SRS by four neurosurgeons. Until 1992, angiography was solely used for dose planning, and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was jointly used thereafter. In the early years, dose planning was calculated with the first-generation computer system, KULA, and manually superimposed on the radiographical images. After 1998, treatment planning was made on the computer monitor with sophisticated dose-planning software, GammaPlan. The influence of inter-operator difference, the operator's experience, and radiographical or radiosurgical technologies on the rates of obliteration and morbidity was assessed by multivariate analyses. The factors associated with higher obliteration rates were higher margin dose (p = 0.003) and the presence of hemorrhagic event before SRS (p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in either obliteration rate or morbidity among the five operators. However, after introduction of CT and MRI on dose planning, the risk of adverse events was significantly decreased. Especially for AVM larger than 3 cm in maximum diameter, each operator's experience (p = 0.040) and use of GammaPlan (p = 0.015) reduced morbidity. Inter-operator difference was not a significant factor associated with the rates of obliteration and the risk of adverse events after SRS for AVM in the multivariate analyses. Progress of the sophisticated planning software and the experience of the operator were associated with lower morbidity for larger lesions.

  7. Amplatzer Vascular Plugs Versus Coils for Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations in Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tau, Noam, E-mail: taunoam@gmail.com; Atar, Eliyahu [Rabin Medical Center – Beilinson and HaSharon Campuses, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Israel); Mei-Zahav, Meir [Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel, Department of Pulmonology and National HHT Center (Israel); Bachar, Gil N. [Rabin Medical Center – Beilinson and HaSharon Campuses, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Israel); Dagan, Tamir; Birk, Einat; Bruckheimer, Elchanan [Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel, Institute of Pediatric Cardiology (Israel)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeCoil embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) has a high re-canalization/re-perfusion rate. Embolization with Amplatzer plugs has been previously described, but the long-term efficacy is not established. This study reports the experience of a referral medical center with the use of coils and Amplatzer plugs for treating PAVMs in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.MethodsThe study was approved by the Institutional Review Board with waiver of informed consent. The cohort included all patients who underwent PAVM embolization in 2004–2014 for whom follow-up imaging scans were available. The medical files were retrospectively reviewed for background data, embolization method (coils, Amplatzer plugs, both), and complications. Re-canalization of treated PAVMs was assessed from intrapulmonary angiograms (following percutaneous procedures) or computed tomography angiograms. Fisher’s exact test and Pearson Chi-squared test or t test were used for statistical analysis, with significance at p < 0.05.Results16 patients met the study criteria. Imaging scans were available for 63 of the total 110 PAVMs treated in 41 procedures. Coils were used for embolization in 37 PAVMs, Amplatzer plugs in 21, and both in five. Median follow-up time was 7.7 years (range 1.4–18.9). Re-canalization was detected in seven vessels, all treated with coils; there were no cases of re-canalization in plug-occluded vessels (p = 0.0413).ConclusionThe use of Amplatzer plugs for the embolization of PAVMs in patients with hemorrhagic telangiectasia is associated with a significantly lower rate of re-canalization of feeding vessels than coils. Long-term prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  8. Transvenous retrograde nidus sclerotherapy under controlled hypotension (TRENSH): hemodynamic analysis and concept validation in a pig arteriovenous malformation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Tarik F

    2013-08-01

    Transvenous retrograde nidus sclerotherapy under controlled hypotension (TRENSH) is a proposed novel concept for endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). To assess the experimental hemodynamic feasibility of TRENSH in a pig AVM model. We surgically constructed carotid-jugular fistula-type AVM models in 8 pigs. In 5 pigs (group 1) we hemodynamically assessed the AVM through the main arterial feeder (AF) and draining vein (DV) at systemic normotension (Syst(norm)). We then performed retrograde nidus angiography through the DV at progressively deeper levels of hemorrhagic systemic hypotension (Syst(hypo)), and graded and correlated these angiograms with the degree of Syst(hypo). In another 3 pigs (group 2) we correlated the effects of temporary balloon occlusion of the main AF with the angiographic extent of retrograde nidus filling. In group 1 pigs, the drop in AF pressure correlated strongly (r(2) = 0.93-0.99) with the drop in DV pressure at progressively deeper Syst(hypo). Minimal retrograde nidus filling occurred at Syst(norm). We observed progressively greater extents of retrograde nidus filling as the transnidal pressure gradients fell with deeper Syst(hypo). Near-complete retrograde permeation of the nidus was possible as the transnidal gradients approached 0 mm Hg. As more of the nidus filled, its concurrent emptying was documented through a greater number of DVs. Temporary AF occlusion resulted in improved retrograde nidus filling in all group 2 pigs. Endovascular TRENSH appears feasible in a pig AVM model. Further experimental investigations of TRENSH are necessary to assess its full potential before future clinical applications.

  9. Uterine arteriovenous malformation with positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin: Embolization of both uterine arteries and extra-uterine feeding arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Mi; Ahn, Hee Young; Choi, Min Jeong; Kang, Yun Dan; Park, Jin Wan; Park, Choong Hak; Kim, Jong Soo

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare. However, it is clinically significant in that it can cause life-threatening vaginal bleeding. We report a case of a large uterine AVM with positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. A presumptive diagnosis was made; a uterine AVM accompanied by, early pregnancy or retained product of conception. Because this uterine AVM was extensive, transcatheter arterial embolization of both uterine arteries and extra-uterine feeding arteries was performed. Three months after undergoing transcatheter arterial embolization, complete resolution of the uterine AVM was confirmed without major complication.

  10. Fertility-preserving management of a uterine arteriovenous malformation: a case report of uterine artery embolization (UAE) followed by laparoscopic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Elizabeth W; Moy, Irene; Milad, Magdy P; Vogezang, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Herein is presented a fertility-preserving approach in the management of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resistant to endovascular management. The patient had a documented AVM and underwent 2 uterine artery embolization procedures, with subsequent recurrence of symptoms. Doppler ultrasound demonstrated recanalization of the AVM. Ultimately, laparoscopic resection of the AVM was performed after laparoscopic ligation of the uterine arteries. Postoperatively, the patient has remained asymptomatic. Laparoscopic resection of a uterine AVM may offer a fertility-preserving alternative to hysterectomy in patients in whom endovascular management has failed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. SU-E-T-382: Evaluation of Clinical Application and Dosimetric Comparison for Treatment Plans of Gamma Knife and CyberKnife for Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical Univer, New Taipei City, Taiwan (R.O.C.) (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To analyze and compare the characteristics of dose distributions between Gamma Knife (GK) and CyberKnife (CK), in treating arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and evaluate the influences on their clinical applications. Methods: Twenty four patients with AVMs treated with CK of prescribed dose (PD) of 16–25 Gy in single fraction were selected. Each patient’s CT images used for CK treatment planning with contours of targets and critical organs were exported and then loaded into the GK planning system. GK treatment plan with the same PD used in CK was generated for each patient. The metrics for dose comparison between GK and CK included conformity index (CI), gradient index (GI) of 75%, 50% and 25% of the PD, heterogeneity index (HI), volume of brain tissues covered by 10 Gy and 12 Gy, maximum dose to brainstem and beam-on time. Paired Samples t-test was used to analyze these metrics for significance (p value). Results: The CI were 0.744 ± 0.075 (GK) and 0.768 ± 0.086 (CK), p = 0.281. The GI75%, GI50%, and GI25% in GK and CK were 1.735 ± 0.100 and 2.439 ± 0.338 (p < 0.001), 3.169 ± 0.265 and 4.972 ± 0.852 (p < 0.001), and 8.650 ± 0.914 and 14.261 ± 2.476 (p < 0.001). The HI were 0.728 ± 0.072 (GK) and 0.313 ± 0.069 (CK), p < 0.001. There were significant differences both for volume of brain tissues covered by 10 Gy and 12 Gy in GK and CK (p < 0.001). GK had smaller maximum dose to brainstem. CK had shorter beam-on time. Conclusion: GK has similar dose conformity as CK, and has better normal tissue sparing but is less efficient than CK.

  12. Advantages of T2 reversed fast spin-echo image and enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

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    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Honmou, Osamu; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Hashi, Kazuo [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Although the anatomical investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with conventional neuro-imagings considerably supports the preoperative evaluation, it is still hard to dissect the detailed anatomical conformations of AVMs such as location of nidus, identification of feeding arteries or draining veins, and the three-dimensional configuration of nidus in sulci or gyri. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography (surface MRA) and T2 reversed image (T2R image) in the diagnosis and surgical planning for cerebral AVMs. The diagnostic accuracy was studied in twelve AVMs: four AVMs closed to motor area, one to Broca area, one to Wernicke area, four in temporal lobe, and two in occipital lobe. Images were obtained with a SIGNA HORIZON LX 1.5T VER 8.2. To construct T2R, the brain is scanned by fast SE method with long TR and was displayed with the reversed gray scale, which seemed similar to T1WI. Surface MRA is a fusion image of MRA and surface image in the workstation. The original data was obtained by enhanced 3D-SPGR method. MRA image was reconstructed with MIP method, and surface image was manipulated with a volume rendering method. T2R images demonstrated seven sulcal AVMs, three gyral AVMs, and two sulco-gyral AVMs; five AVMs located on cortex, four extended to subcortex, and three to paraventricular brain. The images clearly showed six AVMs had hypervascular network such as modja-modja vascular formation. Surface MRA represented nidus adjacent to eloquent area. They were present in central sulcus, precentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal sulcus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, medial temporal gyrus, premotor area and superior frontal sulcus, precuneus and parieto-occipital sulcus. It was easy to identify the point of feeding arteries going down into the sulcus and the junction-point of nidus

  13. De novo formation of cerebral cavernous malformation adjacent to existing developmental venous anomaly - an effect of change in venous pressure associated with management of a complex dural arterio-venous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Hariprakash; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Chen, Yao-Liang; Wu, Yi-Ming; Yeh, Chin-Hua; Wong, Ho-Fai

    2016-12-01

    This is a case report of de novo development of two cerebral cavernous malformations adjacent to existing developmental venous anomalies. The development of cavernomas was noted over a follow-up period of 10 years. These developments happened during the course of staged endovascular management of a complex dural arterio-venous fistula along the right sphenoid wing. The patient presented with a proptosis secondary to lympho-haemangiomatous lesion of the fronto-orbital region and a high-flow right sphenoid wing dural arterio-venous fistula. During the initial period of conservative management of the dural arterio-venous fistula, he developed de novo cavernous malformations in the left mesial temporal lobe adjacent to a developmental venous anomaly in the temporal lobe, and along with this there was engorgement of deep veins related to another existing developmental venous anomaly in the brainstem. Later during the course of endovascular treatment of the dural arterio-venous fistula, a large brainstem cavernoma developed adjacent to the brainstem developmental venous anomaly. This case report discusses the cause-effect relationship of venous pressure changes related to management of dural arterio-venous fistula and de novo formation of cerebral cavernous malformations adjacent to existing developmental venous anomalies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Retrospective analysis of linac-based radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations and testing of the Flickinger formula in predicting radiation injury

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    Cetin, I.A. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (Belgium). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marmara Univ., Ustkaynarca/Pendik (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ates, R.; Dhaens, J.; Storme, G. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (Belgium). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: The aim of the study was to validate the use of linac-based radiosurgery in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients and to predict complications using an integrated logistic formula (ILF) in comparison with clinical outcomes. Patients and methods: The results of radiosurgery in 92 AVM patients were examined. All patients were treated with linac-based radiosurgery. Of these, 70 patients were followed for 12-45 months (median, 24 months) and were analyzed. The treated volume varied from 0.09 to 26.95 cm{sup 3} (median, 2.3 cm{sup 3}) and the median marginal dose was 20 Gy (range, 10.4-22). The median 12-Gy volume was 9.94 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.74-60.09 cm{sup 3}). Patients and lesion characteristics potentially affecting nidus obliteration and excellent outcome were evaluated by performing a log-rank test and univariate and multivariate analyses. The risk for radiation injury (RRI) was calculated with an integrated logistic formula. The predictive power of the RRI was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) angiography revealed complete AVM obliteration in 56 of 70 patients. The MR angiography confirmed an obliteration rate of 80%. The annual hemorrhage rate was 1.4% for the first 2 years after radiosurgery and 0% thereafter. The number of patients with an excellent outcome was 48 (68%). Factors associated with better obliteration were higher radiation dose to the lesion margins [12-Gy volume (V12) > 10 cm{sup 3}], small volume, and a Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49; those predicting excellent outcomes were V12 < 10 cm{sup 3}, small volume, and Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49, as determined by multivariate analyses. Factors associated with radiation injury were V12 > 10 cm{sup 3} (p=0.03) and volume greater than 2 cm{sup 3} (p=0.001), as determined by a univariate analysis. The analyses showed an ROC of 0.66. Conclusion: These data

  15. Retrospective analysis of linac-based radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations and testing of the Flickinger formula in predicting radiation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, I A; Ates, R; Dhaens, J; Storme, G

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to validate the use of linac-based radiosurgery in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients and to predict complications using an integrated logistic formula (ILF) in comparison with clinical outcomes. The results of radiosurgery in 92 AVM patients were examined. All patients were treated with linac-based radiosurgery. Of these, 70 patients were followed for 12-45 months (median, 24 months) and were analyzed. The treated volume varied from 0.09 to 26.95 cm(³) (median, 2.3 cm(³)) and the median marginal dose was 20 Gy (range, 10.4-22). The median 12-Gy volume was 9.94 cm(³) (range, 0.74-60.09 cm(³)). Patients and lesion characteristics potentially affecting nidus obliteration and excellent outcome were evaluated by performing a log-rank test and univariate and multivariate analyses. The risk for radiation injury (RRI) was calculated with an integrated logistic formula. The predictive power of the RRI was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) angiography revealed complete AVM obliteration in 56 of 70 patients. The MR angiography confirmed an obliteration rate of 80%. The annual hemorrhage rate was 1.4% for the first 2 years after radiosurgery and 0% thereafter. The number of patients with an excellent outcome was 48 (68%). Factors associated with better obliteration were higher radiation dose to the lesion margins [12-Gy volume (V12) >10 cm(³)], small volume, and a Pollock-Flickinger score less than 1.49; those predicting excellent outcomes were V1210 cm(³ )(p=0.03) and volume greater than 2 cm(³) (p=0.001), as determined by a univariate analysis. The analyses showed an ROC of 0.66. These data suggest that linac-based radiosurgery is effective. In terms of obliteration, excellent outcomes, and especially radiation injury, V12 and volume should be considered. The Flickinger formula seems to be applicable to Novalis-treated patients, but long

  16. Cerebellar Arteriovenous Malformations: Anatomical Subtypes, Surgical Results, and Increased Predictive Accuracy of the Supplementary Grading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Kim, Helen; Pourmohamad, Tony; Young, William L.; Lawton, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anatomical diversity amongst cerebellar AVMs calls for a classification that is intuitive and surgically informative. Selection tools like the Spetzler-Martin grading system are designed to work best with cerebral AVMs, but have shortcomings with cerebellar AVMs. Objective To define subtypes of cerebellar AVMs that clarify anatomy and surgical management, determine results according to subtypes, and compare predictive accuracies of Spetzler-Martin and supplementary systems. Methods From a consecutive surgical series of 500 patients, 60 had cerebellar AVMs, 39 had brain stem AVMs and were excluded, and 401 had cerebral AVMs. Results Cerebellar AVM subtypes were: 18 vermian, 13 suboccipital, 12 tentorial, 12 petrosal, and 5 tonsillar. Patients with tonsillar and tentorial AVMs fared best. Cerebellar AVMs presented with hemorrhage more than cerebral AVMs (peloquent (peloquence, are distorted by cerebellar anatomy in ways that components of the supplementary system are not. PMID:22986595

  17. Digital Subtraction Angiography is Superior to Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Diagnosis of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A H; Ghose, S K; Mohammad, Q D; Habib, M; Khan, S U; Rahman, K M

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to compare MRA and DSA in diagnosis of cerebral AVM. It was a retrospective observational study conducted in the Department of Neurology Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), Dhaka during the period of January 2010 to December 2010. Thirty patients with haemorrhagic stroke age ranging from 13 to 65 years were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria as the study sample. MRA and DSA were done in all the selected patients. The mean age of the patients of haemorrhagic stroke was 30.3 ± 14.3 years and male female ratio was 2.7:1. Regarding the venous drainage of AVM 13 and 12 were superficial and deep respectively, and evaluated 100% by MRA. In the diagnosis of cerebral AVM nidus size S1: eloquence of brain area 15 had no eloquence by both MRA and DSA and identification of eloquence of brain area sensitivity was 73.3% and accuracy was 86.7%. The main feeding vessels was found (22, 73.3%) in both DSA and MRA findings. Distal vessels was seen (8, 26.7%) in DSA but not seen in MRA findings. Intranidal aneurysm and Angiopathic AVM were seen in 3(10.0%) and 4(13.3%) respectively in DSA. This study was carried out to diagnose the patients presented with cerebral AVM by MRA and DSA. MRA could not be evaluated flow status of AVM, distal feeding arteries, intranidal aneurysm and angiopathic AVM which could be detected by DSA. So, DSA is superior to MRA in diagnosis of cerebral AVM.

  18. Volumetric Modulated Arc-Based Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Selected Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Dosimetric Report and Early Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Sai; Srinivas, Chilukuri; Ramalingam, K.; Babaiah, M.; Swamy, S. Thirumalai; Arun, G.; Kathirvel, M.; Ashok, S. [Yashoda Super Specialty Hospital, Hyderabad (India); Clivio, Alessandro [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.fogliata-cozzi@eoc.ch [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Nicolini, Giorgia [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Rao, K. Srinivasa; Reddy, T. Pratap; Amit, Jotwani [Yashoda Super Specialty Hospital, Hyderabad (India); Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, with a dosimetric and clinical feasibility study, RapidArc (a volumetric modulated arc technique) for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy treatment of large arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were subject to multimodality imaging (magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography) to determine nidus and target volumes, as well as involved organs at risk (optical structures, inner ear, brain stem). Plans for multiple intensity-modulated arcs with a single isocenter were optimized for a fractionation of 25 Gy in 5 fractions. All plans were optimized for 6-MV photon beams. Dose-volume histograms were analyzed to assess plan quality. Delivery parameters were reported to appraise technical features of RapidArc, and pretreatment quality assurance measurements were carried out to report on quality of delivery. Results: Average size of AVM nidus was 26.2 cm{sup 3}, and RapidArc plans provided complete target coverage with minimal overdosage (V{sub 100%} = 100% and V{sub 110%} < 1%) and excellent homogeneity (<6%). Organs at risk were highly spared. The D{sub 1%} to chiasm, eyes, lenses, optic nerves, and brainstem (mean {+-} SD) was 6.4 {+-} 8.3, 1.9 {+-} 3.8, 2.3 {+-} 2.2, 0.7 {+-} 0.9, 4.4 {+-} 7.2, 12.2 {+-} 9.6 Gy, respectively. Conformity index (CI{sub 95%}) was 2.2 {+-} 0.1. The number of monitor units per gray was 277 {+-} 45, total beam-on time was 2.5 {+-} 0.3 min. Planning vs. delivery {gamma} pass rate was 98.3% {+-} 0.9%. None of the patients developed acute toxicity. With a median follow-up of 9 months, 3 patients presented with deterioration of symptoms and were found to have postradiation changes but responded symptomatically to steroids. These patients continue to do well on follow-up. One patient developed headache and seizures, which was attributed to intracranial bleed, confirmed on imaging. Conclusion: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy can be

  19. Autodestrucción espontánea de una malformación arteriovenosa cerebral Spontaneous self-destruction of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Guevara Melcón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una paciente que fue investigada y operada en el Hospital Universitario "Gral. Calixto García", portadora de una malformación arteriovenosa cerebral, que desapareció espontáneamente después de un cuadro neurológico de intensa gravedad. Arteriográficamente se comprobó que estaba asociada a un aneurisma arterial en su mismo sistema vascular cerebral. La paciente había sufrido 3 eventos neurológicos en orden ascendente de gravedad, y fue el último motivo de ingreso en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva, con un nivel de 5 en la escala de Glasgow para el coma y sin signos meníngeos evidenciables. La lesión valorada como malformación arteriovenosa cerebral en las tomografías axiales cumputarizadas previas, no se evidenció en la panangiografía cerebral realizada en la fase de mejoría clínica relativa después de su etapa más crítica. Dicha angiografía demostró un aneurisma arterial homolateral a la malformación arteriovenosa ya desaparecida, el cual fue excluido de la circulación por presillamiento de su cuello sin eventos transoperatorios ni posoperatorios relevantes. Se realiza una revisión de la literatura al respecto.Authors present the case of a patient researched and operated on in the "General Calixto García" University Hospital presenting with a cerebral arteriovenous malformation disappeared spontaneously after a neurologic picture of intense severity. From the arteriographic point of view it was verified that it was associated with an arterial aneurysm present in her same cerebral vascular system. The patient has had three neurological events in rising order of severity which was the last reason for admission in the Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU with a level of 5 in the Glasgow scale for the coma and without obvious meningeal signs. The injury classified as a cerebral arteriovenous malformation according to the previous computerized axial tomographies was not evidenced in the cerebral panangiograpy carried out

  20. Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: Confusion Ear noise/buzzing (also called pulsatile tinnitus) Headache in one or more parts of the ... References Lazzaro MA, Zaidat OO. Principles of neurointerventional therapy. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy ...

  1. Treatment of uterine arteriovenous malformation by myometrial lesion resection combined with artery occlusion under laparoscopy: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Qin; Jiang, Hong-Ye; Li, Jin-Bo; Fan, Li; Liu, Ming-Juan; Yao, Shu-Zhong

    2013-07-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon, potentially life-threatening condition, and the primary therapeutic method is embolization. We describe a case of a 36-year-old woman with acquired uterine AVM accompanied by abnormal vaginal bleeding. The diagnosis was established by Doppler flow ultrasonography combined with magnetic resonance arteriography. Because this uterine AVM was extensive and multiple, uterine arterial embolization could not be considered. We therefore employed a combined method under laparoscopy, in which the uterine arteries were first occluded, then uterine myometrial lesions were resected and abnormal pelvic blood vessels were ablated. Finally, the uterus was reconstructed with an intact uterine cavity. Abnormal vaginal bleeding was successfully stopped after operation, but amenorrhea due to uterine adhesions occurred. This method is suitable for the treatment of uterine AVM with extensive and multiple lesions, but it should be chosen cautiously for women of reproductive age with AVM and fertility requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Postoperative visual loss following cerebral arteriovenous malformation surgery: a case report [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2pl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Goettel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 46 year-old woman presenting with postoperative visual loss in the right eye after craniotomy for excision of an arteriovenous malformation. The intraoperative course was uneventful with hemodynamic stability and maintenance of blood pressure within 10% of the preoperative value. Blood loss was 300 ml; postoperative hemoglobin was 12.4 g/dl. In the recovery room, the ophthalmologic examination revealed decreased visual acuity, color vision, and visual field in the right eye. Assessment of the retina was normal, but the patient showed a relative afferent pupillary defect consistent with the clinical diagnosis of ischemic optic neuropathy. Anesthesiologists should be aware that this condition may follow uncomplicated intracranial surgeries in the supine position, and should obtain prompt ophthalmologic consultation when patients develop postoperative visual loss.

  3. Extensive bilateral arteriovenous malformations of the mandible successfully controlled by combined endovascular and transcutaneous angio-embolization: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Mathieu; Cortes, Maria; Dolev, Yalon; H P Nguyen, Lily

    2013-01-01

    We report a unique case of extensive bilateral arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) in a child's mandible, discuss treatment options and review literature. A healthy 8 year-old girl presented with bright blood of unknown source found on her pillow. Three large AVMs involving the symphyseal region and bilateral mandibular bodies were found on angiography. Due to the extent of surgical resection required, the patient underwent a series of endovascular and transcutaneous angio-embolization. In cases of extensive intraosseous AVMs, serial embolization procedures can be successful in controlling episodes of hemorrhage and allow for bone remineralization. A multidisciplinary approach by otolaryngologists and neurointerventional radiologists can optimize the results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A case of severe uterine arteriovenous malformation treated with danazol followed by a transarterial embolization of unilateral uterine and ovarian arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yazawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM is a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by abrupt and profuse uterine bleeding from abnormal connections between arteries and veins in the myometrium. It is commonly associated with prior pregnancy or uterine trauma. We present a case of severe uterine AVM treated with danazol and transarterial embolization (TAE. A 38-year-old patient with a history of two abortions and a myomectomy was referred to our hospital for intermittent massive uterine bleeding. She was diagnosed with uterine AVM by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasonography and helical computed tomography (CT. Diagnostic three-dimensional CT (3D-CT angiography clearly demonstrated hypervascular tangles of uterine vessels, feeding arteries, remarkably dilated draining veins, as well as early filling of the internal iliac vein and the inferior vena cava, indicating massive arteriovenous shunting in the uterus. Danazol was administrated for 10 months to reduce the shunting of the uterine AVM before TAE with N-butyl-cyanoacrylate of the left ovarian artery and left uterine artery was successfully performed. After the procedure, we confirmed that shunting through the uterine AVM was markedly reduced. The patient has not experienced any severe uterine bleeding since the treatment.

  5. Wavelet brain angiography suggests arteriovenous pulse wave phase locking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Butler

    Full Text Available When a stroke volume of arterial blood arrives to the brain, the total blood volume in the bony cranium must remain constant as the proportions of arterial and venous blood vary, and by the end of the cardiac cycle an equivalent volume of venous blood must have been ejected. I hypothesize the brain to support this process by an extraluminally mediated exchange of information between its arterial and venous circulations. To test this I introduce wavelet angiography methods to resolve single moving vascular pulse waves (PWs in the brain while simultaneously measuring brain pulse motion. The wavelet methods require angiographic data acquired at significantly faster rate than cardiac frequency. I obtained these data in humans from brain surface optical angiograms at craniotomy and in piglets from ultrasound angiograms via cranial window. I exploit angiographic time of flight to resolve arterial from venous circulation. Initial wavelet reconstruction proved unsatisfactory because of angiographic motion alias from brain pulse motion. Testing with numerically simulated cerebral angiograms enabled the development of a vascular PW cine imaging method based on cross-correlated wavelets of mixed high frequency and high temporal resolution respectively to attenuate frequency and motion alias. Applied to the human and piglet data, the method resolves individual arterial and venous PWs and finds them to be phase locked each with separate phase relations to brain pulse motion. This is consistent with arterial and venous PW coordination mediated by pulse motion and points to a testable hypothesis of a function of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.

  6. Utility of susceptibility-weighted imaging and arterial spin perfusion imaging in pediatric brain arteriovenous shunting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, Seyed Ali; Edgar, J.C.; Vossough, Arastoo [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The objectives of the study are to investigate the application of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging in the assessment of shunting and the draining veins in pediatric patients with arteriovenous shunting and compare the utility of SWI and ASL with conventional MR and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). This study is a retrospective study of 19 pediatric patients with arteriovenous shunting on brain MRI who were also evaluated with DSA. We assessed the ability of conventional MRI sequences, susceptibility magnitude images, phase-filtered SWI images, and pulsed ASL images in the detection of arteriovenous (AV) shunting, number of draining veins and drainage pathways in comparison to DSA. The mean number of detected draining veins on DSA (3.63) was significantly higher compared to SWI phase-filtered image (mean = 2.72), susceptibility magnitude image (mean = 2.92), ASL (mean = 1.76) and conventional MRI (2.47) (p < 0.05). Pairwise comparison of DSA difference scores (i.e., difference between MR modalities in the number of missed draining veins) revealed no difference between the MR modalities (p > 0.05). ASL was the only method that correctly identified superficial and deep venous drainage in all patients. Regarding detection of shunting, ASL, SWI phase-filtered, and magnitude images demonstrated shunting in 100, 83, and 84 % of patients, respectively. SWI depicts a higher number of draining vein compared to conventional MR pulse sequences. ASL is a sensitive approach in showing 100 % sensitivity in the detection of AV shunting and in the diagnosis of the pattern of venous drainage. The present findings suggest the added utility of both SWI and ASL in the assessment of AV shunting. (orig.)

  7. Immunohistochemical and histochemical characterization of intraosseous arteriovenous malformations of the jaws: analysis of 16 cases with emphasis on GLUT-1 immunophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Reda; Koutlas, Ioannis G; Argyris, Prokopios P

    2017-08-01

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the craniofacial region are rare and may cause diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The purpose of this study was to characterize 16 cases of intraosseous arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) affecting the jaws. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin, CD31, D2-40, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). Staining with elastic Verhoeff-Van Gieson and Masson trichrome histochemical stains was also performed. No gender predilection (female:male ratio = 1:1) was observed, with patients' mean age being 50.8 years (SD of ±13.9; range 28-71 years). Predilection for the mandible was observed (12 of 16 [75%]). Immunohistochemically, diffuse endothelial CD31 staining was noted, and α-SMA strongly highlighted smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Desmin-positive vessels were identified in 9 of 16 AVMs (56.3%). D2-40 was uniformly negative in all specimens. AVMs were negative for GLUT-1 (11 of 14 [78.6%]) except for 2 cases (2 of 14 [14.3%]) exhibiting focal limited cytoplasmic GLUT-1 immunoreactivity. One case was equivocal for GLUT-1. Masson trichrome highlighted smooth muscle cells, and elastic fibers were identified in thick-walled arteries. AVMs of the jaws generally lack expression of GLUT-1, similar to soft tissue vascular malformations. Clinicoradiographic features of intraosseous AVMs in the present study were consistent with the findings of previous studies, although mean age was higher. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oclusión espontánea de malformación arteriovenosa cerebral parcialmente embolizada: reporte de dos casos Spontaneous occlusion of previously cerebral embolized residual arteriovenous malformation: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alejandro Torrico

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mostrar dos casos de oclusión espontánea de remanente malformativo previamente embolizado y analizar sus probables causas. MÉTODO: Revisión retrospectiva de pacientes con malformaciones arteriovenosas cerebrales (MAV embolizadas entre Enero de 1999 y Agosto de 2005 en nuestra institución y análisis de dos casos de oclusión de MAV remanentes. RESULTADOS: Se presentan dos casos de MAV tratadas por vía endovascular, con remanentes del nido malformativo post-embolización, que posteriormente en controles angiográficos presentan desaparición completa de las lesiones sin mediar otro tratamiento. CONCLUSIÓN: La oclusión espontánea de un remanente arteriovenoso es un hecho infrecuente. Se discuten diversos mecanismos relacionados.OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of spontaneous occlusion of residual malformations that had previously been embolized and to analyze their probable causes. METHOD: Retrospective review of patients with embolized arteriovenous malformations (AVMs between January 1999 and August 2005 in our institution and analysis of two cases of occlusion in residual AVMs. RESULTS: Two cases of AVMs that received endovascular treatment and had post-embolization residual nidus malformation, which in later angiographic controls showed a complete disappearance of the lesions without other treatment. CONCLUSION: The spontaneous occlusion of residual arteriovenous malformations is an infrequent occurrence. Several related mechanisms are discussed.

  9. Postoperative visual loss following cerebral arteriovenous malformation surgery: a case report [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/308

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    Nicolai Goettel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 46 year-old woman presenting with unilateral postoperative visual loss after right frontal craniotomy for resection of an arteriovenous malformation in the supine position. The intraoperative course was uneventful with maintenance of hemodynamic stability. Blood loss was 300 ml; postoperative hemoglobin was 12.4 g/dl. In the recovery room, the patient reported loss of vision in her right eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed decreased visual acuity, color vision, and visual field. Assessment of the retina was normal, but the patient showed a relative afferent pupillary defect consistent with the clinical diagnosis of ischemic optic neuropathy. Postoperative computer tomogram showed normal perfusion of ophthalmic artery and vein, no hemorrhage or signs of cerebral ischemia or edema. The patient recovered most of her vision 3 months after surgery. Anesthesiologists should be aware that this condition may follow uncomplicated intracranial surgeries in the supine position, and should obtain prompt ophthalmologic consultation when a patient develops postoperative visual loss.

  10. The "focus on aneurysm" principle: Classification and surgical principles of management of concurrent arterial aneurysm with arteriovenous malformation causing intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vikas; Behari, Sanjay; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Shende, Yogesh P; Phadke, Rajendra V

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent arterial aneurysms (AAs) occurring in 2.7-16.7% patients harboring an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) aggravate the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. We evaluate the variations of aneurysms simultaneously coexisting with AVMs. A classification-based management strategy and an abbreviated nomenclature that describes their radiological features is also proposed. Tertiary care academic institute. Test of significance applied to determine the factors causing rebleeding in the groups of patients with concurrent AVM and aneurysm and those with only AVMs. Sixteen patients (5 with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 11 with intracerebral/intraventricular hemorrhage; 10 with low flow [LF] and 6 with high flow [HF] AVMs) underwent radiological assessment of Spetzler Martin (SM) grading and flow status of AA + AVM. Their modified Rankin's score (mRS) at admission was compared with their follow-up (F/U) score. Pre-operative mRS was 0 in 5, 2 in 6, 3 in 1, 4 in 3 and 5 in 1; and, SM grade I in 5, II in 3, III in 3, IV in 4 and V in 1 patients, respectively. AA associated AVMs were classified as: (I) Flow-related proximal (n = 2); (II) flow-related distal (n = 3); (III) intranidal (n = 5); (IV) extra-intranidal (n = 2); (V) remote major ipsilateral (n = 1); (VI) remote major contralateral (n = 1); (VII) deep perforator related (n = 1); (VIII) superficial (n = 1); and (IX) distal (n = 0). Their treatment strategy included: Flow related AA, SM I-III LF AVM: aneurysm clipping with AVM excision; nidal-extranidal AA, SM I-III LF AVM: Excision or embolization of both AA + AVM; nidal-extranidal and perforator-related AA, SM IV-V HF AVM: Only endovascular embolization or radiosurgery. Surgical decision-making for remote AA took into account their ipsilateral/contralateral filling status and vessel dominance; and, for AA associated with SM III HF AVM, it varied in each patient based on diffuseness of AVM nidus, flow across arteriovenous fistula and eloquence of cortex. Follow up (F

  11. The “focus on aneurysm” principle: Classification and surgical principles of management of concurrent arterial aneurysm with arteriovenous malformation causing intracranial hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vikas; Behari, Sanjay; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K.; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Shende, Yogesh P.; Phadke, Rajendra V.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Concurrent arterial aneurysms (AAs) occurring in 2.7-16.7% patients harboring an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) aggravate the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Aim: We evaluate the variations of aneurysms simultaneously coexisting with AVMs. A classification-based management strategy and an abbreviated nomenclature that describes their radiological features is also proposed. Setting: Tertiary care academic institute. Statistics: Test of significance applied to determine the factors causing rebleeding in the groups of patients with concurrent AVM and aneurysm and those with only AVMs. Subjects and Methods: Sixteen patients (5 with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 11 with intracerebral/intraventricular hemorrhage; 10 with low flow [LF] and 6 with high flow [HF] AVMs) underwent radiological assessment of Spetzler Martin (SM) grading and flow status of AA + AVM. Their modified Rankin's score (mRS) at admission was compared with their follow-up (F/U) score. Results: Pre-operative mRS was 0 in 5, 2 in 6, 3 in 1, 4 in 3 and 5 in 1; and, SM grade I in 5, II in 3, III in 3, IV in 4 and V in 1 patients, respectively. AA associated AVMs were classified as: (I) Flow-related proximal (n = 2); (II) flow-related distal (n = 3); (III) intranidal (n = 5); (IV) extra-intranidal (n = 2); (V) remote major ipsilateral (n = 1); (VI) remote major contralateral (n = 1); (VII) deep perforator related (n = 1); (VIII) superficial (n = 1); and (IX) distal (n = 0). Their treatment strategy included: Flow related AA, SM I-III LF AVM: aneurysm clipping with AVM excision; nidal-extranidal AA, SM I-III LF AVM: Excision or embolization of both AA + AVM; nidal-extranidal and perforator-related AA, SM IV-V HF AVM: Only endovascular embolization or radiosurgery. Surgical decision-making for remote AA took into account their ipsilateral/contralateral filling status and vessel dominance; and, for AA associated with SM III HF AVM, it varied in each patient based on diffuseness of AVM nidus, flow

  12. Midline-malformations of brain shown by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzka, M.; Wodarz, R.; Soerensen, N.

    1981-11-01

    The paper is referring to the most frequent and essential exponents of these midline- malformations together with their main features in anatomy, pathomorphology, clinical and radiological signs. The persistent performed cavities especially the cavum septi pellucidi, the cavum Vergae and the cavum veli interpositi, additionally the agenesis of the corpus callosum, the Dandy-Walker-syndrome and the Chiari-malformations are described by typical cases. In conclusion the reliability of diagnosis in all cases of midline-malformations will be mostly sufficient by plain axail computed tomograms due to very clearly definded unmistakable pictures.

  13. Epidermal Nevus Syndrome Associated with Brain Malformations and Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Juntendo University and Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Japan; and University of California, San Francisco, Ca, report a male infant with epidermal nevus syndrome associated with brainstem and cerebellar malformations and neonatal medulloblastoma.

  14. Microsurgical resection of Spetzler-Martin grades 1 and 2 unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations results in lower long-term morbidity and loss of quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) than conservative management--results of a single group series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Fischer, Igor; Rohn, Benjamin; Turowski, Bernd; Etminan, Nima; Hänggi, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The therapeutic benefits of microsurgery for unruptured brain AVM remain unclear. A series of 97 microsurgically resected unruptured brain AVM was analyzed in terms of postoperative morbidity and lifetime loss of quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). For comparison, the natural risk of becoming disabled was modeled on the basis of published data. Discharge morbidity was recorded in 11 of the 69 of Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade 1 and 2 AVMs (16 %), eight of 22 (36 %) grade 3, and four of six grade 4 (67 %), permanent morbidity >mRS 1 in 3 (4.3 %) grade 1 and 2, four (18 %) grade 3, and three (50 %) grade 4. Treatment inflicted loss of QALY amounted to 0.5 years for SM grade 1-2, 2.5 years grade 3, 7.3 years for grade 4. For the SM grades 1 and 2, the treatment-related loss of 0.5 QALY was met by the natural course after 2.7-4.3 years. For the Spetzler-Martin grades 3 and 4, the treatment-induced loss QALY was not met by the natural risk within a foreseeable time. Permanent morbidity and treatment inflicted loss of QALY of patients younger than 39 years was lower than that of older patients (7 vs. 15 % and 1.0 vs. 2.1 QALY). Microsurgically managed SM grades 1 and 2 fared better than the modeled natural course but grades 3 and 4 AVM did not benefit from surgery. Younger patients appear to fare more favorably than older patients.

  15. Radiology Case of the Month:Diagnosis and Treatment of an Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation in a 26-Year-Old Woman presenting with Vaginal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew; Patel, Montu; Eghbalieh, Navid; Weidenhaft, Mandy; Hanemann, Cynthia; Neitzschman, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a rare source of potentially life-threatening uterine bleeding, and should be suspected in patients presenting with metromenorrhagia. Histologically, AVMs are characterized as having both arterial and venous tissues without an intervening capillary network.1 The etiology may be either congenital or acquired secondary to prior uterine surgery or uterine malignancy.2 Congenital lesions are thought to result from arrested vascular development and contain a nidus of multiple feeding arteries anastomosed to multiple draining veins. In contrast, acquired lesions contain small fistulas between a single feeding artery and draining vein.4 While angiography is considered the gold standard for diagnosing AVMs, its limitations include exposure to contrast and radiation and the inability to accurately detect the degree of pelvic extension.5 As a result, ultrasound (US) with color Doppler is the imaging modality of choice in suspected AVM and can be confirmed noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).6 Angiography remains the preferred method of imaging when there is a high index of suspicion of AVM in a patient who may potentially undergo embolization as treatment.3 Historically, the definitive treatment for AVMs has been either hysterectomy or uterine artery ligation. However, embolotherapy has become a well-recognized alternative to surgery since the first reported case in 1982.5 One of the advantages of embolotherapy is the preservation of reproductive structures. Currently, treatment for AVMs is based on the patient's desire to maintain fertility. The objective of this study was (1) to describe the diagnostic features of an AVM on Doppler ultrasound in a patient who presented with vaginal bleeding and (2) discuss the treatment and outcome of this patient using uterine artery embolization.

  16. Contrast Time-Density Time on Digital Subtraction Angiography Correlates With Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Flow Measured by Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Angiography, Angioarchitecture, and Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunozzi, Denise; Hussein, Ahmed E; Shakur, Sophia F; Linninger, Andreas; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Charbel, Fady T; Alaraj, Ali

    2017-07-06

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) currently provides angioarchitectural features of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) but its role in the hemodynamic evaluation of AVMs is poorly understood. To assess contrast time-density time (TT) on DSA relative to AVM flow measured using quantitative magnetic resonance angiography (QMRA). Patients seen at our institution between 2007 and 2014 with a supratentorial AVM and DSA and QMRA obtained prior to any treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Regions of interest were selected on the draining veins at the point closest to the nidus. TT on DSA was defined as time needed for contrast to change image intensity from 10% to 100%, 100% to 10%, and 25% to 25%. TT was correlated to AVM total flow, angioarchitectural features, and hemorrhage. Twenty-eight patients (mean age 35.6 yr) were included. Six patients presented with hemorrhage. Mean AVM volume was 11.42 mL (range 0.3-57.7 mL). Higher total AVM flow significantly correlated with shorter TT 100%-10% and TT 25%-25% ( P = .02, .02, respectively). Presence of venous stenosis correlated significantly with shorter TT 100%-10% ( P = .04) and TT 25%-25% ( P = .04). AVMs with a single draining vein exhibited longer TT 25%-25% compared to those with multiple draining veins ( P = .04). Ruptured AVMs had significantly shorter TT 10%-100% compared to unruptured AVMs ( P = .05). TT on DSA correlates with cerebral AVM flow measured using QMRA and with AVM angioarchitecture and hemorrhagic presentation. Thus, TT may be used to indirectly estimate AVM flow during angiography in real-time and may also be an indicator of important AVM characteristics associated with outflow resistance and increased rupture risk, such as venous stenosis.

  17. Cerebral Abscess Associated With Odontogenic Bacteremias, Hypoxemia, and Iron Loading in Immunocompetent Patients With Right-to-Left Shunting Through Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boother, Emily J; Brownlow, Sheila; Tighe, Hannah C; Bamford, Kathleen B; Jackson, James E; Shovlin, Claire L

    2017-08-15

    Cerebral abscess is a recognized complication of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) that allow systemic venous blood to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed through anatomic right-to-left shunts. Broader implications and mechanisms remain poorly explored. Between June 2005 and December 2016, at a single institution, 445 consecutive adult patients with computed tomography-confirmed PAVMs (including 403 [90.5%] with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia) were recruited to a prospective series. Multivariate logistic regression was performed and detailed periabscess histories were evaluated to identify potential associations with cerebral abscess. Rates were compared to an earlier nonoverlapping series. Thirty-seven of the 445 (8.3%) patients experienced a cerebral abscess at a median age of 50 years (range, 19-76 years). The rate adjusted for ascertainment bias was 27 of 435 (6.2%). Twenty-nine of 37 (78.4%) patients with abscess had no PAVM diagnosis prior to their abscess, a rate unchanged from earlier UK series. Twenty-one of 37 (56.7%) suffered residual neurological deficits (most commonly memory/cognition impairment), hemiparesis, and visual defects. Isolation of periodontal microbes, and precipitating dental and other interventional events, emphasized potential sources of endovascular inoculations. In multivariate logistic regression, cerebral abscess was associated with low oxygen saturation (indicating greater right-to-left shunting); higher transferrin iron saturation index; intravenous iron use for anemia (adjusted odds ratio, 5.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.4-21.1]); male sex; and venous thromboemboli. There were no relationships with anatomic attributes of PAVMs, or red cell indices often increased due to secondary polycythemia. Greater appreciation of the risk of cerebral abscess in undiagnosed PAVMs is required. Lower oxygen saturation and intravenous iron may be modifiable risk factors.

  18. Investigation of Brain Arterial Circle Malformations Using Electrical Modelling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Capova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the cerebral arterial system investigation by means of electrical modelling and simulations. The main attention is paid to the brain arterial circle malformations (stenoses and aneurysms and their determination and evaluation by computer-aided methods as tools of a non-invasive diagnostics. The compensation possibilities of brain arterial circle in case of presence of concrete arterial malformations are modelled and simulated. The simulation results of brain arteries blood pressures and volume flow velocities time dependences are presented and discussed under various health conditions.

  19. [A case of multiple anomalies of cerebral vessels--fenestration of the middle cerebral artery aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and arteriovenous malformation on the frontopolar region (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, M; Shimizu, T; Kagawa, M; Kitamura, K; Kobayashi, N

    1977-01-01

    A case associated with multiple cerebral vascular anomalies, which consisted of fenestration of the middle cerebral artery, arteriovenous malformation and aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, was reported. A 48 year-old male has been suffering from the left paralysis and mental disorder after the initial attack of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the second attack resulted in the deterioration of the symptoms. He was admitted to our clinic on October 28, 1974. On neurological examination, mental disorders, such as disorientation, emotional incontinence, amnesia and acalculia, hemiplegia on the left and meningeal irritation signs were observed in admission period. Physical examination was negative. Cerebral angiographic findings were as follows: 1) Moderate vasospasm of the right internal carotid artery at the terminal segment, mild bowing of the anterior cerebral artery and stretching of the frontparietal opercular branches of the middle cerebral artery were observed. 2) Right frontpolar arteriovenous malformation fed by the frontobasal artery and the frontopolar artery, and drained via the aberrant cortical vein into the superior sagittal sinus. 3) Aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery was opacified by left carotid angiography. 4) An abnormal vessel derived from the terminal segment of the right internal carotid artery and terminated at the portion of the sphenoidal segment of the middle cerebral artery. Complete loop was formed between genuine middle cerebral artery and this abnormal artery. He was operated with dissecting microscope on November 11, 1974. The arteriovenous malformation at right frontopolar region was totally removed and aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery was clipped. According to the operative findings, the arachnoid membrane over the right frontopolar region was turbid and adhered to the adjacent tissues. On the contrary, no abnormal findings suggestive of previous subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed around the region

  20. Fistula components of brain arteriovenous malformations: Angioarchitecture analysis and embolization prior to gamma-knife surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Bao Luo

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: Early detection of the central type of AVF of BAVM prior to GKS may be difficult because of its overlapping with feeder, nidus, and/or venous drains or it being overlooked. Peripheral-type AVFs were usually evident prior to GKS, particularly those with proximal dilated venous drains. Endovascular embolization is an effective modality for managing these AVFs, which may be treated by GKS ineffectively.

  1. Results of volume-staged fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery for large complex arteriovenous malformations: obliteration rates and clinical outcomes of an evolving treatment paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzin, Alberto; Panni, Pietro; Spatola, Giorgio; Vecchio, Antonella Del; Gallotti, Alberto L; Gigliotti, Carmen R; Cavalli, Andrea; Donofrio, Carmine A; Mortini, Pietro

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE There are few reported series regarding volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of large, complex, cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The object of this study was to report the results of using volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients affected by large and complex AVMs. METHODS Data from 20 patients with large AVMs were prospectively included in the authors' AVM database between 2004 and 2012. A staging strategy was used when treating lesion volumes larger than 10 cm(3). Hemorrhage and seizures were the presenting clinical feature for 6 (30%) and 8 (40%) patients, respectively. The median AVM volume was 15.9 cm(3) (range 10.1-34.3 cm(3)). The mean interval between stages (± standard deviation) was 15 months (± 9 months). The median margin dose for each stage was 20 Gy (range 18-25 Gy). RESULTS Obliteration was confirmed in 8 (42%) patients after a mean follow-up of 45 months (range 19-87 months). A significant reduction (> 75%) of the original nidal volume was achieved in 4 (20%) patients. Engel Class I-II seizure status was reported by 75% of patients presenting with seizures (50% Engel Class I and 25% Engel Class II) after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, 71.5% (5/7) of patients who had presented with a worsening neurological deficit reported a complete resolution or amelioration. None of the patients who presented acutely because of hemorrhage experienced a new bleeding episode during follow-up. One (5%) patient developed radionecrosis that caused sensorimotor hemisyndrome. Two (10%) patients sustained a bleeding episode after GKRS, although only 1 (5%) was symptomatic. High nidal flow rate and a time interval between stages of less than 11.7 months were factors significantly associated with AVM obliteration (p = 0.021 and p = 0.041, respectively). Patient age younger than 44 years was significantly associated with a greater than 75% reduction in AVM volume but not with AVM obliteration (p = 0

  2. Cerebral arteriovenous malformation: Spetzler-Martin classification at subsecond-temporal-resolution four-dimensional MR angiography compared with that at DSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R; von Falkenhausen, Marcus; Gieseke, Jürgen; Meyer, Bernhard; Urbach, Horst; Hoogeveen, Romhild; Schild, Hans H; Willinek, Winfried A

    2008-01-01

    To prospectively test the hypothesis that subsecond-temporal-resolution four-dimensional (4D) contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 3.0 T enables the same Spetzler-Martin classification (nidus size, venous drainage, eloquence) of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) as that at digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Institutional ethics committee approval and written informed consent were obtained. In a prospective intraindividual comparative study, 18 consecutive patients with cerebral AVM (nine men, nine women; mean age, 41.9 years +/- 14.0 [standard deviation]; range, 23-69 years) were examined with 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and DSA. Four-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography combined randomly segmented central k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, sensitivity encoding, and half-Fourier imaging, which yielded a total acceleration factor of 60. Fifty dynamic scans were obtained every 608 msec at an acquired spatial resolution of 1.1 x 1.4 x 1.1 mm. Four-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiograms were independently reviewed by one neuroradiologist and one neurosurgeon according to Spetzler-Martin classification, overall diagnostic quality, and level of confidence. Kendall W coefficients of concordance (K) were computed to compare reader assessment of image quality, level of confidence, and Spetzler-Martin classification by using 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and to compare Spetzler-Martin classification as determined with DSA with that at 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Spetzler-Martin classification of cerebral AVM at 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and at DSA matched in 18 of 18 patients for both readers, which yielded 100% interobserver agreement (K = 1). Image quality of 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography was judged to be at least adequate for diagnosis in all patients by both readers. In three of 18 patients, DSA depicted additional arterial feeders of cerebral AVM. Subsecond-temporal-resolution 4

  3. Role of intraoperative indocyanine green video-angiography to identify small, posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations mimicking cavernous angiomas. Technical report and review of the literature on common features of these cerebral vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Giuseppe M V; Certo, Francesco; Caltabiano, Rosario; Chiaramonte, Ignazio; Albanese, Vincenzo; Visocchi, Massimiliano

    2015-11-01

    To illustrate the usefulness of intraoperative indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) to identify the nidus and feeders of a small cerebellar AVM resembling a cavernous hemangioma. To review the unique features regarding the overlay between these two vascular malformations and to highlight the importance to identify with ICG-VA, and treat accordingly, the arterial and venous vessels of the AVM. A 36-year old man presented with bilateral cerebellar hemorrhage. MRI was equivocal in showing an underlying vascular malformation but angiography demonstrated a small, Spetzler-Martin grade I AVM. Surgical resection of the AVM with the aid of intraoperative ICG-VA was performed. After hematoma evacuation, pre-resection ICG-VA did not reveal tortuous arterial and venous vessels in keeping with a typical AVM but rather an unusual blackberry-like image resembling a cavernous hemangioma, with tiny surrounding vessels. Such intraoperative appearance, which could also be the consequence of a "leakage" of fluorescent dye from the nidal pathological vessels, with absent blood-brain barrier, into the surrounding parenchymal pathological capillary network, is important to be recognized as an unusual AVM appearance. Post-resection ICG-VA confirmed the AVM removal, as also shown by postoperative and 3-month follow-up DSAs. Despite technical limitations associated with ICG-VA in post-hemorrhage AVMs, this case together with the intraoperative video, demonstrates the useful role of ICG-VA in identifying small AVMs with peculiar features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rare malformation of glans penis: Arteriovenous malformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-04

    AVM), are very rare. Herein, we report two rare cases. A 14-year-old boy attended our outpatient clinic with chief complaints of purple swelling and rapidly growing lesion on the glans penis. The lesion was excised surgically after ...

  5. CSF in the ventricles of the brain behaves as a relay medium for arteriovenous pulse wave phase coupling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Butler

    Full Text Available The ventricles of the brain remain perhaps the largest anatomic structure in the human body without established primary purpose, even though their existence has been known at least since described by Aristotle. We hypothesize that the ventricles help match a stroke volume of arterial blood that arrives into the rigid cranium with an equivalent volume of ejected venous blood by spatially configuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF to act as a low viscosity relay medium for arteriovenous pulse wave (PW phase coupling. We probe the hypothesis by comparing the spatiotemporal behavior of vascular PW about the ventricular surfaces in piglets to internal observations of ventricle wall motions and adjacent CSF pressure variations in humans. With wavelet brain angiography data obtained from piglets, we map the travel relative to brain pulse motion of arterial and venous PWs over the ventricle surfaces. We find that arterial PWs differ in CF phase from venous PWs over the surfaces of the ventricles consistent with arteriovenous PW phase coupling. We find a spatiotemporal difference in vascular PW phase between the ventral and dorsal ventricular surfaces, with the PWs arriving slightly sooner to the ventral surfaces. In humans undergoing neuroendoscopic surgery for hydrocephalus, we measure directly ventricle wall motions and the adjacent internal CSF pressure variations. We find that CSF pressure peaks slightly earlier in the ventral Third Ventricle than the dorsal Lateral Ventricle. When matched anatomically, the peri-ventricular vascular PW phase distribution in piglets complements the endo-ventricular CSF PW phase distribution in humans. This is consistent with a role for the ventricles in arteriovenous PW coupling and may add a framework for understanding hydrocephalus and other disturbances of intracranial pressure.

  6. B3GALNT2 is a gene associated with congenital muscular dystrophy with brain malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Hedberg, Carola; Oldfors, Anders; Darin, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophies associated with brain malformations are a group of disorders frequently associated with aberrant glycosylation of α-dystroglycan. They include disease entities such a Walker–Warburg syndrome, muscle–eye–brain disease and various other clinical phenotypes. Different genes involved in glycosylation of α-dystroglycan are associated with these dystroglycanopathies. We describe a 5-year-old girl with psychomotor retardation, ataxia, spasticity, muscle weakness and i...

  7. Screening for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxhøj, H; Kjeldsen, A D; Nielsen, G

    2000-01-01

    echocardiography with intravenous injection of echo contrast was performed in all subjects. Outcome measures were oxygen saturation change >2% units on changing body position and echo contrast observed in the left-sided heart chambers. Positive contrast echocardiography indicating the presence of PAVM was found...

  8. [Arteriovenous malformation in the mandibula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, E.H.; Meijer, G.J.; Koole, R.; Es, R.J. van

    2007-01-01

    A 15-year-old autistic boy of subnormal intelligence appeared at the office of his dental practitioner complaining about pain in the third quadrant. Investigation revealed that the second molar could be intruded easily. No other irregularities, such as caries or periodontal disease were apparent.

  9. Use of three-dimensional power Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation and follow-up after uterine artery embolization: Case report and brief review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullius, Thomas G; Ross, Jason Robert; Flores, Melanie; Ghaleb, Melhem; Kupesic Plavsic, Sanja

    2015-06-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the uterus can cause life-threatening hemorrhage. Unexplained, heavy vaginal bleeding in a reproductive age woman should raise suspicion for an AVM. Here a 37-year-old woman had increasingly severe vaginal bleeding for 15 days. Serum β-hCG was elevated. Two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound suggested retained products of conception. Before dilation and curettage (D&C), color Doppler and three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler demonstrated findings indicative of uterine AVM. A bilateral uterine artery embolization was performed without complications. Three months after uterine artery embolization, 3D power Doppler ultrasonography found complete resolution of the AVM. This case illustrates the importance of assessing both gray-scale and 3D power Doppler, and the ability of postprocedure Doppler to assess resolution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Neuropathological Hallmarks of Brain Malformations in Extreme Phenotypes Related to DYNC1H1 Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquerriere, Annie; Maillard, Camille; Cavallin, Mara; Chapon, Françoise; Marguet, Florent; Molin, Arnaud; Sigaudy, Sabine; Blouet, Marie; Benoist, Guillaume; Fernandez, Carla; Poirier, Karine; Chelly, Jamel; Thomas, Sophie; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia

    2017-03-01

    Dyneins play a critical role in a wide variety of cellular functions such as the movement of organelles and numerous aspects of mitosis, making it central player in neocortical neurogenesis and migration. Recently, cytoplasmic dynein-1, heavy chain-1 (DYNC1H1) mutations have been found to cause a wide spectrum of brain cortical malformations. We report on the detailed neuropathological features of brain lesions from 2 fetuses aged 36 and 22 weeks of gestation (WG), respectively, carrying de novo DYNC1H1 mutations, p.Arg2720Lys and p.Val3951Ala and presenting the most severe phenotype reported to date. Analysis using the Dictyostelium discoideum dynein motor crystal structure showed that the mutations are both predicted to have deleterious consequences on the function of the motor domain. Both fetuses showed a similar macroscopic and histological brain malformative complex associating bilateral fronto-parietal polymicrogyria (PMG), dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and of the cortico-spinal tracts, along with brainstem and cerebellar abnormalities. Both exhibited extremely severe disrupted cortical lamination. Immunohistochemical studies provided the evidence for defects in cell proliferation and postmitotic neuroblast ability to exit from the subventricular zone resulting in a failure of radial migration toward the cortical plate, thus providing new insights for the understanding of the pathophysiology in these cortical malformations. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain malformation in single median maxillary central incisor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Wagner, Aa; Thomsen, L L

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and radiographic examinations and MR scan of a 12-year-old girl with SMMCI (single median maxillary central incisor) showed impaired growth and a midline defect involving the central incisor, cranium and the midline structures in the brain, falx cerebri and pituitary gland. She had a sev...

  12. Cavernous malformations of the brain after treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia: presentation and long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Amit; Brace O'Neill, Jill E; Smith, Edward; Scott, R Michael

    2013-02-01

    The authors undertook this study to determine the clinical course and long-term outcomes in pediatric patients who developed cavernous malformations of the brain following treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). They reviewed the senior author's database of surgically treated cavernous malformations of the brain to identify those patients whose cavernous malformations developed after cranial radiation during treatment for ALL. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to determine their clinical presentation, radiological findings, and outcome at long-term follow-up. Five patients fulfilled the specified criteria over a 23-year period. At the time of ALL diagnosis, they were all 4-5 years old. The cerebral cavernous malformations developed 2-8 years after cranial radiation, and 4 of the 5 patients presented with neurological symptoms, which ranged from focal deficits to seizures. Two patients required a second craniotomy, one from lesion recurrence possibly due to incomplete resection, and another for a second cavernous malformation, which developed at another site 6 years after the initial malformation was excised. Long-term follow-up of 2, 10, 11, 11, and 17 years has revealed no additional lesion development or recurrence. Symptomatic cavernous malformations of the brain may develop several years after chemotherapy and cranial radiation treatment for ALL, and the clinical course of these cavernous malformations may be more aggressive than that of the typical post-radiation lesions seen in other conditions. Long-term clinical and imaging monitoring is recommended for children who have undergone treatment for ALL. Craniotomy for excision of the malformations appears to convey long-term protection from repeat hemorrhage and accumulating neurological deficits.

  13. High frequency of rare copy number variants affecting functionally related genes in patients with structural brain malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kariminejad, Roxana; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Tümer, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    During the past years, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the development of the human brain, and much of this knowledge comes from genetic studies of disorders associated with abnormal brain development. We employed array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH...... that genes involved in "axonal transport," "cation transmembrane transporter activity," and the "c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade" play a significant role in the etiology of brain malformations. This is to the best of our knowledge the first systematic study of CNVs in patients with structural brain...... malformations and our data show that CNVs play an important role in the etiology of these malformations, either as direct causes or as genetic risk factors....

  14. Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation in Neonates Presenting With Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjenie Madhuban MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a neonate presenting with signs of a congenital cardiac disease. Echocardiography showed a structural normal heart, right-to-left ductal flow, a dilated superior caval vein, and reversed diastolic flow in the proximal descending aorta. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a vein of Galen arteriovenous malformation. This highlights the importance of considering an intracranial cause in the differential diagnosis of neonatal congestive heart failure.

  15. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  16. Craniofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) 3 - a transitional pattern between CAM 1 and 2 and spinal arteriovenous metameric syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, I.Y.C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Batista, L.L.; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P.L. [Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, Hopital de Bicetre, 94275, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France)

    2003-09-01

    We report a rare case of craniofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) 3 arteriovenous malformations of the mandible, left VIII nerve and petrous bone. The patient, a 19-year-old girl, presented with profuse gingival bleeding during a dental procedure and we diagnosed CAMS 3 during a pre-embolisation angiogram. The distribution of the vascular lesions suggests that CAMS 3 is intermediate CAMS 1 and 2 and spinal arteriovenous metameric syndrome (SAMS). (orig.)

  17. Arteriovenous Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... catheterization. An arteriovenous fistula may develop as a complication of a procedure called cardiac catheterization. During cardiac catheterization, a long, thin tube called a catheter is inserted in an artery or vein in ...

  18. Perkutan transluminal embolisation af pulmonale arteriovenøse malformationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P E; Kjeldsen, A D; Oxhøj, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of embolisation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM), as estimated by contrast echocardiography, arterial blood-gas analyses and functional level, and further to evaluate procedure-related and late complications.......The aim was to evaluate the effect of embolisation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM), as estimated by contrast echocardiography, arterial blood-gas analyses and functional level, and further to evaluate procedure-related and late complications....

  19. Chiari Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Are Reading How to Talk to Your Child About the News Brain and Nervous System Cancers When Your Child Needs ... spine that can lead to nerve damage or paralysis). Chiari malformations also can happen after brain or spinal surgery. A gene that causes Chiari ...

  20. The use of 3D rendering, VCI-C, 3D power Doppler and B-flow in the evaluation of interstitial pregnancy with arteriovenous malformation treated by selective uterine artery embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsky, D V; Hamani, Y; Verstandig, A; Yagel, S

    2007-03-01

    Cornual pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. We describe a case of cornual pregnancy suspected by two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) and confirmed by three-dimensional volume contrast imaging in the C-plane. Three-dimensional power Doppler showed a particularly rich blood supply and two-dimensional color Doppler mapping demonstrated arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The feeding vessel originating from the right uterine artery and AVM were demonstrated with B-flow spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) modality. Conservative management was chosen to preserve the uterus. Angiography confirmed the diagnosis of AVM; embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles and embolization coils was performed through the right uterine artery until occlusion of the AVM and feeding vessels had occurred. Postprocedure color Doppler mapping and B-flow STIC modalities demonstrated absence of flow in the AVM. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels gradually fell to non-pregnant levels during the ensuing 5 weeks. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of cornual pregnancy with AVM. We demonstrate here the value of new three-dimensional ultrasound modalities in the diagnosis of cornual pregnancy and the use of embolization as an effective therapeutic option when conservative treatment with uterine preservation is desired.

  1. Selection of the methods used in MR angiography with arteriovenous malformation, carotid cavernous fistula, moyamoya disease, and cerebral aneurysms; A comparison of 3-D phase-contrast MRA with 3-D time-of-flight MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikawa, Fusao; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-02-01

    The methods used in MR angiography (MRA) can be roughly divided into two groups: time-of-flight methods (TOF methods) which make use of the influx effect of the flow, and the phase-contrast method of Dumoulin, Souza, and their collaborators (PC method), which utilizes phase differences induced by the flow. In this study, the selection of the MRA method was determined by a comparison of the three-dimensional (3-D) PC and the 3-D TOF method in normal and clinical cases. The tool used was SIGNA Advantage (1.5T) made by GE. The 3-D PC method was applied under a pulse sequence generated by gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS); the pulse sequence used for the 3-D TOF method was spoiled GRASS (SPGR) in a total of 28 cases. The following conclusions were reached: the TOF method should be used when aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations (AVM), and moyamoya disease have been diagnosed, and the PC method should be used when AVM and carotid cavernous fistulae (CCF) are to be evaluated in the flow and when CCFs have been diagnosed. (author).

  2. Perilesional Hyperintensity on T1-Weighted Images in Intra-Axial Brain Masses other than Cavernous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, S Ali; Pechersky, Dasha; Schmitt, J Eric; Nasrallah, MacLean; Wolf, Ronald; Loevner, Laurie; Mamourian, Alexander C

    2017-09-01

    Hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging in perilesional vasogenic edema has been reported as a useful sign for differentiating cavernous malformation from other hemorrhagic intra-axial masses. In this study, we investigated the frequency of perilesional hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging in patients with intra-axial hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic brain masses. The study was performed with the approval of the institutional review board. Magnetic resonance images of 218 patients with 282 intra-axial brain masses (129 metastases, 46 gliomas, 18 primary central nervous system lymphomas [PCNSLs], 25 intracerebral hemorrhages, 50 cavernous malformations, and 14 patients with brain abscesses) were evaluated. The signal intensity in perilesional area was qualitatively evaluated on T1-weighted sequences. In addition, signal intensity in perilesional area was quantitatively measured on T1-weighted sequences and normalized to the contralateral white matter. Hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging in perilesional vasogenic edema was found in 12 (9%) of 129 metastases, 8 (16%) of 50 cavernous malformations, 1 (4%) in 25 nonneoplastic intracerebral hemorrhages, and none of the patients with high-grade glioma, PCNSL, or abscess. All of the lesions with perilesional hyperintensity showed either acute or subacute hemorrhage. Pairwise comparison of qualitative hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging demonstrated no significant difference between the groups. Perilesional hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging showed high specificity in both metastasis and cavernous malformation groups (94%). Perilesional hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging is not limited to cavernous malformations and frequently evident with melanoma and other hemorrhagic metastasis to the brain. In our experience, it was not seen in high-grade glioma, PCNSL, and brain abscess. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  3. B3GALNT2 is a gene associated with congenital muscular dystrophy with brain malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Carola; Oldfors, Anders; Darin, Niklas

    2014-05-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophies associated with brain malformations are a group of disorders frequently associated with aberrant glycosylation of α-dystroglycan. They include disease entities such a Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease and various other clinical phenotypes. Different genes involved in glycosylation of α-dystroglycan are associated with these dystroglycanopathies. We describe a 5-year-old girl with psychomotor retardation, ataxia, spasticity, muscle weakness and increased serum creatine kinase levels. Immunhistochemistry of skeletal muscle revealed reduced glycosylated α-dystroglycan. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at 3.5 years of age showed increased T2 signal from supratentorial and infratentorial white matter, a hypoplastic pons and subcortical cerebellar cysts. By whole exome sequencing, the patient was identified to be compound heterozygous for a one-base duplication and a missense mutation in the gene B3GALNT2 (β-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2; B3GalNAc-T2). This patient showed a milder phenotype than previously described patients with mutations in the B3GALNT2 gene.

  4. Seizure outcome after resection of cavernous malformations is better when surrounding hemosiderin-stained brain also is removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian R; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Cossu, Massimo; Citterio, Alberto; Andermann, Frederick; Siegel, Adrian M

    2006-03-01

    Considering the epileptogenic effect of cavernoma-surrounding hemosiderin, assumptions are made that resection only of the cavernoma itself may not be sufficient as treatment of symptomatic epilepsy in patients with cavernous malformations. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis whether seizure outcome after removal of cavernous malformations may be related to the extent of resection of surrounding hemosiderin-stained brain tissue. In this retrospective study, 31 consecutive patients with pharmacotherapy-refractory epilepsy due to a cavernous malformation were included. In all patients, cavernomas were resected, and all patients underwent pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We grouped patients according to MRI findings (hemosiderin completely removed versus not/partially removed) and compared seizure outcome (as assessed by the Engel Outcome Classification score) between the two groups. Three years after resection of cavernomas, patients in whom hemosiderin-stained brain tissue had been removed completely had a better chance for a favorable long-term seizure outcome compared with those with detectable postoperative hemosiderin (p=0.037). Our study suggests that complete removal of cavernoma-surrounding hemosiderin-stained brain tissue may improve epileptic outcome after resection of cavernous malformations.

  5. Delineation of brain AVMs on MR-Angiography for the purpose of stereotactic radiosurgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, Dennis R.; Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Dirven, Clemens M. F.; Barkhof, Frederik; Knol, Dirk L.; van den Berg, René; Slotman, Ben J.; Vandertop, W. Peter

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the dosimetric consequences of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) delineation on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the purpose of stereotactic radiosurgery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Three observers contoured a bAVM in 20 patients, using digital subtraction angiography

  6. Angioembolisation in vaginal vascular malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava D

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal arteriovenous malformations are rare entities and their most common presentation is vaginal haemorrhage. This case report describes a 22-year-old woman who presented at 20 weeks of gestation with slow growing soft and tender swelling at anterior vaginal wall. Diagnosis was confirmed as vaginal vascular malformation on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The mass did not subside after delivery and patient developed dyspareunia. It was successfully treated by angioembolisation using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Angioembolisation being safe and effective should be the treatment of first choice for symptomatic vaginal vascular malformation.

  7. Diagnóstico de malformação arteriovenosa uterina por meio da ultra-sonografia com doppler colorido e achados à angiorressonância magnética: relato de caso Diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation by Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic angioresonance findings: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton Roberto Pastore

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available As malformações arteriovenosas do útero são entidades raras. Sua forma de apresentação clínica é muito diversa, devendo o ginecologista e o imaginologista estar atentos para esta possibilidade diagnóstica, para estabelecer o tratamento de forma precisa e rápida. O presente artigo visa mostrar um caso de malformação arteriovenosa uterina adquirida após doença trofoblástica gestacional, cujo diagnóstico foi bem estabelecido por meio da ultra-sonografia com Doppler colorido e correlação com angiorressonância magnética.Uterine arteriovenous malformations are rare and the clinical features quite variable. Gynecologists and radiologists must be aware of this diagnostic possibility in order to indicate a fast and accurate treatment. The aim of the present paper is to present a case of uterine arteriovenous malformation acquired after trophoblastic gestational disease for which diagnosis was well established by means of color Doppler ultrasonography and correlation to magnetic angioresonance.

  8. Effects of oxidative stress on hyperglycaemia-induced brain malformations in a diabetes mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Ya [Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China (China); Wang, Guang [Division of Histology & Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Han, Sha-Sha; He, Mei-Yao [Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China (China); Cheng, Xin; Ma, Zheng-Lai [Division of Histology & Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wu, Xia [Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China (China); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Division of Histology & Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu, Guo-Sheng, E-mail: tlgs@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China (China)

    2016-09-10

    Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) enhances the risk of fetal neurodevelopmental defects. However, the mechanism of hyperglycaemia-induced neurodevelopmental defects is not fully understood. In this study, several typical neurodevelopmental defects were identified in the streptozotocin-induced diabetes mouse model. The neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin/forkhead box P1-labelled neuronal differentiation was suppressed and glial fibrillary acidic protein-labelled glial cell lineage differentiation was slightly promoted in pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) mice. Various concentrations of glucose did not change the U87 cell viability, but glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression was altered with varying glucose concentrations. Mouse maternal hyperglycaemia significantly increased Tunel{sup +} apoptosis but did not dramatically affect PCNA{sup +} cell proliferation in the process. To determine the cause of increased apoptosis, we determined the SOD activity, the expression of Nrf2 as well as its downstream anti-oxidative factors NQO1 and HO1, and found that all of them significantly increased in PGDM fetal brains compared with controls. However, Nrf2 expression in U87 cells was not significantly changed by different glucose concentrations. In mouse telencephalon, we observed the co-localization of Tuj-1 and Nrf2 expression in neurons, and down-regulating of Nrf2 in SH-SY5Y cells altered the viability of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to high glucose concentrations. Taken together, the data suggest that Nrf2-modulated antioxidant stress plays a crucial role in maternal hyperglycaemia-induced neurodevelopmental defects. - Highlights: • Typical neurodevelopmental defects could be observed in STZ-treated mouse fetuses. • Nrf2 played a crucial role in hyperglycaemia-induced brain malformations. • The effects of hyperglycaemia on neurons and glia cells were not same.

  9. Management of cerebral cavernous malformations in the pediatric population: a literature review and case illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnik-Infinger, L; Carroll, C; Greiner, H; Leach, J; Mangano, F T

    2015-09-01

    Cavernous malformations (CM) are vascular malformations of the central nervous system that may occur in the brain and spinal cord. They are one of the four major types of vascular malformations that also includes developmental venous anomalies (DVA)s, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and capillary telangiectasias. CMs are a common vascular malformation, and 25% of them occur in the pediatric age group. They can present with acute or chronic symptoms including headache, neurologic deficits secondary to hemorrhage, mass effect, or epilepsy. This review will focus on the neurosurgical management of intracranial cavernous malformations in children. Pediatric CMs have special considerations different from CM that occur in the adult population which are highlighted throughout this review. Characteristics specific to pediatric CM epidemiology, genetics, presentation, pathology, location, size, epilepsy, and management will be discussed. Specific considerations must be entertained with the diagnosis of pediatric CM in that management needs to include consideration of the lifetime risk of hemorrhage, as well as the possibility of development of epilepsy. If in an accessible location, most cavernomas should be surgically removed in a timely fashion to provide lifelong cure for pediatric patients. The review closes with the discussion of two interesting cavernous malformation cases occurring in a 12-year old male and a 12-year old female that exhibit many of the important aspects specific to the management of a pediatric patient with CM, highlighting the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to treatment.

  10. Malformação arteriovenosa uterina após doença trofoblástica gestacional Uterine arteriovenous malformation after gestational trophoblastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Belfort

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a presença e resultados de malformações vasculares uterinas (MAVU após doença trofoblástica gestacional (DTG. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo com inclusão de casos diagnosticados entre 1987 e 2004; 2764 pacientes após DTG foram acompanhadas anualmente com ultra-sonografia transvaginal e Doppler colorido no Centro de Neoplasia Trofoblástica Gestacional da Santa Casa da Misericórdia (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Sete pacientes tiveram diagnóstico final de MAVU baseado em análise ultra-sonográfica - índice de pulsatilidade (IP, índice de resistência (IR e velocidade sistólica máxima (VSM - e achados de imagens de ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM. Dosagens negativas de beta-hCG foram decisivas para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial com DTG recidivante. RESULTADOS: a incidência de MAVU após DTG foi 0,2% (7/2764. Achados ultra-sonográficos de MAVU: IP médio de 0,44±0,058 (extremos: 0,38-0,52; IR médio de 0,36±0,072 (extremos: 0,29-0,50; VSM média de 64,6±23,99 cm/s (extremos: 37-96. A imagem de RNM revelou útero aumentado, miométrio heterogêneo, espaços vasculares tortuosos e vasos parametriais com ectasia. A apresentação clínica mais comum foi hemorragia transvaginal, presente em 52,7% (4/7 dos casos. Tratamento farmacológico com 150 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona foi empregado para controlar a hemorragia, após a estabilização hemodinâmica. Permanecem as pacientes em seguimento, assintomáticas até hoje. Duas pacientes engravidaram com MAVU, com gestações e partos exitosos. CONCLUSÃO: presente sangramento transvaginal em pacientes com beta-hCG negativo e história de DTG, deve-se considerar a possibilidade de MAVU e solicitar avaliação ultra-sonográfica com dopplervelocimetria. O tratamento conservador é a melhor opção na maioria dos casos de MAVU pós-DTG.PURPOSE: to investigate the presence and outcome of uterinevascular malformations (UVAM after gestational

  11. Clinical results of stereotactic heavy-charged-particle radiosurgery for intracranial angiographically occult vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Phillips, M.H.; Frankel, K.A.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.; Lyman, J.T.

    1989-12-01

    Angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain have been recognized for many years to cause neurologic morbidity and mortality. They generally become symptomatic due to intracranial hemorrhage, focal mass effect, seizures or headaches. The true incidence of AOVMs is unknown, but autopsy studies suggest that they are more common than high-flow angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We have developed stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery for the treatment of inoperable intracranial vascular malformations, using the helium ion beams at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 184-inch Synchrocyclotron and Bevatron. This report describes the protocol for patient selection, radiosurgical treatment planning method, clinical and neuroradiologic results and complications encountered, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the method. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Linkage of a human brain malformation, familial holoprosencephaly, to chromosome 7 and evidence for genetic heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muenke, M.; Gurrieri, F.; Bay, C.; Yi, D. H.; Collins, A. L.; Johnson, V. P.; Hennekam, R. C.; Schaefer, G. B.; Weik, L.; Lubinsky, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a common malformation of the developing forebrain and midface characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Familial HPE has been reported in many families with autosomal dominant inheritance in some and apparent autosomal recessive inheritance in

  13. Natural history of cavernous malformations in children with brain tumors treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Angela; Morana, Giovanni; Rossi, Andrea; Cama, Armando; Bertoluzzo, Luisella; Barra, Salvina; Nozza, Paolo; Milanaccio, Claudia; Consales, Alessandro; Garrè, Maria Luisa

    2014-04-01

    Cavernous malformations (CM) are cerebral irradiation-related late complications. Little is known about their natural history and the pathogenetic role of concomitant chemotherapy. We present a retrospective, single-institution study of 108 children affected with medulloblastoma, ependymoma, or germinoma treated with radio- and chemotherapy. The frequency, clinical and radiological presentations, and outcomes were analyzed to investigate the relationship among radiation dose, associated chemotherapy, age, latency and localization of radiation-induced CM. 100 out of 108 children were treated with radiotherapy for primary brain tumor; 34 (27 with medulloblastoma and 7 with other histologies) out of 100 patients developed CM. No significant relationship was found between CM and gender (p = 0.70), age (p = 0.90), use of specific chemotherapy (standard versus high-dose, p = 0.38), methotrexate (p = 0.49), and radiation dose (p = 0.45). However, CM developed more frequently and earlier when radiotherapy was associated with methotrexate (70 % of cases). Radiation-induced CM prevailingly occurred in the cerebral hemispheres (p = 0.0001). Only 3 patients (9 %) were symptomatic with headache. Three patients underwent surgery for intra- or extra-lesional hemorrhage. CM was confirmed by histopathology for all 3 patients. The vast majority of radiation-induced CM is asymptomatic, and macro-hemorrhagic events occur rarely. Concomitant therapy with methotrexate seems to favor their development. We recommend observation for asymptomatic lesions, while surgery should be reserved to symptomatic growth or hemorrhage.

  14. Conditional deletion of Ccm2 causes hemorrhage in the adult brain: a mouse model of human cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kirk; Uchida, Yutaka; O'Donnell, Erin; Claudio, Estefania; Li, Wenling; Soneji, Kosha; Wang, Hongshan; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2011-08-15

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are irregularly shaped and enlarged capillaries in the brain that are prone to hemorrhage, resulting in headaches, seizures, strokes and even death in patients. The disease affects up to 0.5% of the population and the inherited form has been linked to mutations in one of three genetic loci, CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3. To understand the pathophysiology underlying the vascular lesions in CCM, it is critical to develop a reproducible mouse genetic model of this disease. Here, we report that limited conditional ablation of Ccm2 in young adult mice induces observable neurological dysfunction and reproducibly results in brain hemorrhages whose appearance is highly reminiscent of the lesions observed in human CCM patients. We first demonstrate that conventional or endothelial-specific deletion of Ccm2 leads to fatal cardiovascular defects during embryogenesis, including insufficient vascular lumen formation as well as defective arteriogenesis and heart malformation. These findings confirm and extend prior studies. We then demonstrate that the inducible deletion of Ccm2 in adult mice recapitulates the CCM-like brain lesions in humans; the lesions display disrupted vascular lumens, enlarged capillary cavities, loss of proper neuro-vascular associations and an inflammatory reaction. The CCM lesions also exhibit damaged neuronal architecture, the likely cause of neurologic defects, such as ataxia and seizure. These mice represent the first CCM2 animal model for CCM and should provide the means to elucidate disease mechanisms and evaluate therapeutic strategies for human CCM.

  15. Renal cirsoid arteriovenous malformation masquerading as neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, K; George, D

    1988-12-01

    A woman with renal colic and microscopic hematuria had filling defects in the left renal collecting system detected on excretory urography. A nephrectomy, performed because of suspected malignancy, might have been averted by renal angiography.

  16. Elevated Intraocular Pressure due to Arteriovenous Fistula between External Carotid Artery and Facial Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagatay, Halil Huseyin; Ekinci, Metin; Sendul, Selam Yekta; Uslu, Ceylan; Demir, Mehmet; Ulusay, Sıtkı Mert; Uysal, Ender; Seker, Selma

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous outflow via the conventional outflow pathway is dependent on the pressure gradient between intraocular pressure (IOP) and episcleral venous pressure (EVP). Elevated IOP resulting from increased EVP is a well-known complication of arteriovenous fistulas, which are usually between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Arteriovenous malformations usually occur spontaneously, after a trauma or from iatrogenic causes, and they manifest with findings of chemosis, dilatation of the conjunctival vessels, exophthalmos, and extraocular motility limitation. In this study, we present a case of elevated IOP due to facial arteriovenous malformations following a functional neck dissection surgery that caused intraocular pressure elevation.

  17. Elevated Intraocular Pressure due to Arteriovenous Fistula between External Carotid Artery and Facial Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Huseyin Cagatay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous outflow via the conventional outflow pathway is dependent on the pressure gradient between intraocular pressure (IOP and episcleral venous pressure (EVP. Elevated IOP resulting from increased EVP is a well-known complication of arteriovenous fistulas, which are usually between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Arteriovenous malformations usually occur spontaneously, after a trauma or from iatrogenic causes, and they manifest with findings of chemosis, dilatation of the conjunctival vessels, exophthalmos, and extraocular motility limitation. In this study, we present a case of elevated IOP due to facial arteriovenous malformations following a functional neck dissection surgery that caused intraocular pressure elevation.

  18. Ventricular arteriovenous malformation bleeding: a rare cause of headache in children. Case report Hemorragia cerebral secundária a malformação artério-venosa ventricular: uma causa rara de cefaléia na infância. Relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Mariano da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Headache as a chief complaint is rare in the paediatric emergency room. Actually, very seldom cases secondary to life threatening conditions as non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage have been reported. A child with severe headache and nuchal rigidity and no other abnormalities on the physical examination is reported. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography disclosed a ventricular arteriovenous malformation in the choroid plexus, supplied by the anterior choroidal artery, classified according to Spetzler grading system as grade 3 (deep venous drainage: 1; eloquence area: 0 and size: 2. The differences in the clinical presentations of the central nervous system arteriovenous malformation between children and adults are discussed.Cefaléia como queixa principal raramente ocorre num serviço de emergência pediátrica. Quando isso acontece, casos de cefaléia secundária que trazem risco de vida, tais como a hemorragia subaracnóide são raramente relatados. Apresentamos o caso de uma criança que apresentou cefaléia de forte intensidade associada a rigidez de nuca, sem outras anormalidades no exame físico. A angioressonância e angiografia digital evidenciaram malformação arteriovenosa na topografia do plexo coróide do ventrículo lateral direito, nutrida pela artéria coroidéia anterior, grau III na classificação de Spetzler (drenagem venosa profunda: 1; área de eloqüência: 0 e tamanho: 2. Nós discutimos as diferenças na apresentação clínica das malformações arteriovenosas encefálicas nas crianças e adultos.

  19. Twenty-seven years follow-up of a patient with congenital retinocephalofacial vascular malformation syndrome and additional congenital malformations (Bonnet-dechaume-blanc syndrome or wyburn-mason syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Follow-up of vascular changes in a patient with congenital retinocephalofacial vascular malformation syndrome. Methods MRI and cerebral angiography. Results In a 36-year-old man, magnetic resonance im aging of the skull and cerebral angiography revealed left intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Follow-up observation of 27 years revealed no essential change of retinal and cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Additional congenital deficits in this patient were described. Conclusion Patients with retinal arteriovenous malformations should be early examined with neuroradiological methods.

  20. Rare malformation of glans penis: Arteriovenous malformation | Akin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AVM), are very rare. Herein, we report two rare cases. A 14‑year‑old boy attended our outpatient clinic with chief complaints of purple swelling and rapidly growing lesion on the glans penis. The lesion was excised surgically after physical and ...

  1. Spinal vascular malformations; Spinale Gefaessmalformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Spinal vascular malformations are a group of rare diseases with different clinical presentations ranging from incidental asymptomatic findings to progressive tetraplegia. This article provides an overview about imaging features as well as clinical and therapeutic aspects of spinal arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas and capillary telangiectasia. (orig.) [German] Spinale Gefaessmalformationen sind eine Gruppe seltener Erkrankungen mit unterschiedlichen klinischen Praesentationen, die vom asymptomatischen Zufallsbefund bis zur progredienten Tetraparese reichen. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber radiologische Befunde sowie klinische und therapeutische Aspekte von spinalen arteriovenoesen Malformationen, Kavernomen und kapillaeren Teleangiektasien. (orig.)

  2. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research Featured Director's Message menu search Enter Search Term Submit Search Cerebral Cavernous Malformation ...

  3. Genetic basis in epilepsies caused by malformations of cortical development and in those with structurally normal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Danielle M

    2009-07-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder affecting young people. The etiologies are multiple and most cases are sporadic. However, some rare families with Mendelian inheritance have provided evidence of genes' important role in epilepsy. Two important but apparently different groups of disorders have been extensively studied: epilepsies associated with malformations of cortical development (MCDs) and epilepsies associated with a structurally normal brain (or with minimal abnormalities only). This review is focused on clinical and molecular aspects of focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, periventricular nodular heterotopia, subcortical band heterotopia, lissencephaly and schizencephaly as examples of MCDs. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy, some familial forms of focal epilepsy and epilepsies associated with febrile seizures are discussed as examples of epileptic conditions in (apparently) structurally normal brains.

  4. A case of pancreatic AV malformation in an elderly man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Kedia, Saurabh; Sonika, Ujjwal; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Pal, Sujoy; Garg, Pramod

    2018-02-05

    A 60-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain and weight loss for 6 months. Abdominal imaging showed a large vascular lesion in the head and neck of pancreas suggestive of arteriovenous malformation (AV malformation). Endoscopic ultrasound was done which showed features of AV malformation with no evidence of pancreatic malignancy. Surgery was planned for definitive treatment of malformation. Digital subtraction angiography with angioembolization was done prior to surgery to reduce vascularity of the lesion. He recovered after a pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of the resected specimen confirmed the pancreatic AV malformation. There has been no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up.

  5. α-Tocopherol mitigates ethanol induced malformations and cell damage in the eye and brain of the chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the ability of vitamin E in the active form α-tocopherol to mitigate the ethanol induced damaging effects and malformations in the developing chick embryo. Fertilized eggs were divided into five groups; the control group, and treated groups. The experimental groups were injected, in the air sac, before incubation with a single dose of 100 μl saline solution, 100 μl of 10% ethanol in saline solution, a mixture of 100 μl of 10% ethanol and 200 ppm vitamin E or 10% ethanol and 400 ppm vitamin E. Treatment of developing chick embryos with 10% ethanol resulted in growth retardation and malformations in the eye, brain, limbs and other body parts. Ethanol exerted its degenerative effects probably via increasing membrane fluidity leading to membrane damage and significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Ethanol also induced significant reduction in nitric oxide levels resulting in reduced body weight of the treated embryo probably due to restricted bold flow. Ethanol significantly increased glutathione level as a defense response. Vitamin C levels were significantly decreased after ethanol treatment due to oxidation or utilization. Vitamin E in the active form α-tocopherol partially mitigated the ethanol damaging effects either by exerting its antioxidant properties leading to a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation levels, retaining normal levels of nitric oxide or maintaining normal levels of endogenous antioxidants, glutathione and vitamin C.

  6. Microvascular proliferation in congenital vascular malformations of skin and soft tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer-Jorna, Lorine B.; van der Loos, Chris M.; de Boer, Onno J.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; van der Wal, Allard C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congenital vascular malformations (VMs) are mass-forming lesions that usually progress slowly, but may become symptomatic because of episodes of sudden growth and pain, particularly those with a substantial component of arteriovenous shunting. AIM: To systematically investigate the

  7. Cerebral vascular malformations: Applications of magnetic resonance imaging to differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imakita, S.; Nishimura, T.; Yamada, N.; Naito, H.; Takamiya, M.; Yamada, Y.; Kikuchi, H.; Yonekawa, Y.; Sawada, T.; Yamaguchi, T.

    1989-09-01

    Twelve patients with cerebral vascular malformations (5 cavernous angiomas, 1 thrombosed arteriovenous malformation, and 6 venous angiomas) were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. All lesions were clearly depicted. Characteristic MR findings were obtained mainly on T2-weighted images: A markedly low intensity area was always seen. The margins of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and venous angioma were irregular while those of cavernous angioma were smooth in all planes on T2-weighted images. Gradient-echo (GrE) pulse sequence were more sensitive than T2-weighted spin echo (SE) in AVM detection. MR imaging could play an important role in the differential diagnosis of cerebral vascular malformations. (orig.).

  8. Micro-computed tomography in murine models of cerebral cavernous malformations as a paradigm for brain disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Romuald; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Orsbon, Courtney; Tan, Huan; Moore, Thomas; Hobson, Nick; Shenkar, Robert; Lightle, Rhonda; Shi, Changbin; Fam, Maged D; Cao, Ying; Shen, Le; Neander, April I; Rorrer, Autumn; Gallione, Carol; Tang, Alan T; Kahn, Mark L; Marchuk, Douglas A; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Awad, Issam A

    2016-09-15

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are hemorrhagic brain lesions, where murine models allow major mechanistic discoveries, ushering genetic manipulations and preclinical assessment of therapies. Histology for lesion counting and morphometry is essential yet tedious and time consuming. We herein describe the application and validations of X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), a non-destructive technique allowing three-dimensional CCM lesion count and volumetric measurements, in transgenic murine brains. We hereby describe a new contrast soaking technique not previously applied to murine models of CCM disease. Volumetric segmentation and image processing paradigm allowed for histologic correlations and quantitative validations not previously reported with the micro-CT technique in brain vascular disease. Twenty-two hyper-dense areas on micro-CT images, identified as CCM lesions, were matched by histology. The inter-rater reliability analysis showed strong consistency in the CCM lesion identification and staging (K=0.89, p<0.0001) between the two techniques. Micro-CT revealed a 29% greater CCM lesion detection efficiency, and 80% improved time efficiency. Serial integrated lesional area by histology showed a strong positive correlation with micro-CT estimated volume (r(2)=0.84, p<0.0001). Micro-CT allows high throughput assessment of lesion count and volume in pre-clinical murine models of CCM. This approach complements histology with improved accuracy and efficiency, and can be applied for lesion burden assessment in other brain diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated Intraocular Pressure due to Arteriovenous Fistula between External Carotid Artery and Facial Vein

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Huseyin Cagatay; Metin Ekinci; Selam Yekta Sendul; Ceylan Uslu; Mehmet Demir; Sıtkı Mert Ulusay; Ender Uysal; Selma Şeker

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous outflow via the conventional outflow pathway is dependent on the pressure gradient between intraocular pressure (IOP) and episcleral venous pressure (EVP). Elevated IOP resulting from increased EVP is a well-known complication of arteriovenous fistulas, which are usually between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Arteriovenous malformations usually occur spontaneously, after a trauma or from iatrogenic causes, and they manifest with findings of chemosis, dilatation of the con...

  10. PI3K/AKT pathway mutations cause a spectrum of brain malformations from megalencephaly to focal cortical dysplasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Laura A; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Ishak, Gisele E; O'Roak, Brian J; Hiatt, Joseph B; Roden, William H; Gunter, Sonya A; Christian, Susan L; Collins, Sarah; Adams, Carissa; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; St-Onge, Judith; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Shendure, Jay; Hevner, Robert F; Dobyns, William B

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development containing dysplastic neuronal and glial elements, including hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia, are common causes of intractable paediatric epilepsy...

  11. Consensus Document of the International Union of Angiology (IUA)-2013. Current concept on the management of arterio-venous management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.B.; Baumgartner, I.; Berlien, H.P.; Bianchini, G.; Burrows, P.; Do, Y.S.; Ivancev, K.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Laredo, J.; Loose, D.A.; Lopez-Gutierrez, J.C.; Mattassi, R.; Parsi, K.; Rimon, U.; Rosenblatt, M.; Shortell, C.; Simkin, R.; Stillo, F.; Villavicencio, L.; Yakes, W.

    2013-01-01

    Arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) are congenital vascular malformations (CVMs) that result from birth defects involving the vessels of both arterial and venous origins, resulting in direct communications between the different size vessels or a meshwork of primitive reticular networks of dysplastic

  12. Vascular malformations in pediatrics; Vaskulaere Erkrankungen bei Neugeborenen, Saeuglingen und Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Homburg/Saar (Germany); Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, 66421, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Shamdeen, M.G. [Kinderklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [German] Vaskulaere Malformationen sind die haeufigste Ursache einer intrakraniellen Blutung im Saeuglings- und Kindesalter. Deswegen sollte jedes Kind mit einer intrakraniellen Blutung auf eine vaskulaere Malformation und Kindesmisshandlung untersucht werden. Intrazerebrale Gefaessmalformationen beinhalten Vena-Galeni-Anomalien, arteriovenoese Malformationen (AVM), Kavernome, durale arteriovenoese Fisteln, kapillaere Teleangiektasien und venoese Anlagevarianten (DVA). Obwohl einige familiaere Gefaessmalformationen beschrieben sind, tritt die ueberwiegende Mehrzahl spontan auf. Die Klinik, Diagnostik und therapeutischen Optionen werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  13. Surgical treatment of symptomatic cerebral cavernous malformations in eloquent brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostrack, Maria; Shiban, Ehab; Harmening, Kathrin; Obermueller, Thomas; Ringel, Florian; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Meyer, Bernhard; Stoffel, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Despite the increased risk of hemorrhage and deteriorating neurological function of once-bled cerebral cavernous malformations (CM), the management of eloquently located CMs remains controversial. All eloquently located CMs (n = 45) surgically treated between 03/2006 and 04/2011 in our department were consecutively evaluated. Eloquence was characterized according to Spetzler and Martin's definition. The following locations were approached: brainstem, n = 16; sensorimotor, n = 8; visual pathway, n = 7; cerebellum (deep nuclei and peduncles), n = 7; basal ganglia, n = 4, and language, n = 3. Follow-up data was available for 41 patients (91 %) with a median interval of 14 months. Outcomes were evaluated according to the Glasgow outcome and the modified Rankin scale. Immediately after surgery, 47 % (n = 21) had a new deficit. At follow-up, 80 % (n = 36) recovered to at least preoperative status or were better than before surgery, 9 % (n = 4) exhibited a slight, and 7 % (n = 3) had a moderate neurological impairment. Only two cases (4 %) with a new permanent severe deficit were observed, both related to dorsal brainstem surgery. The outcome after the surgery of otherwise located brainstem CMs was as beneficial as that for non-brainstem CMs. Patients with initially poor neurological performance fared worse than oligosymptomatic patients. Despite the high postoperative transient morbidity, the majority improved profoundly during follow-ups. Compared with natural history, surgical treatment should be considered for all eloquent symptomatic CMs. Dorsal brainstem location and poor preoperative neurological status are associated with an increased postoperative morbidity.

  14. Presumed Zika virus-related congenital brain malformations: the spectrum of CT and MRI findings in fetuses and newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Vieira de Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The new epidemic of Zika virus infection raises grave concerns, especially with the increasingly-recognized link between emerging cases of microcephaly and this infectious disease. Besides small cranial dimensions, there are striking morphologic anomalies in the fetal brain. Key anomalies include cortical developmental malformations and a peculiar distribution of pathologic calcifications. These potentially indicate a new pattern of congenital central nervous system infection. Methods: Eight women underwent fetal MRI. Four infants also underwent postnatal CT. Five of the women underwent amniocentesis. Results: All neonates were born with microcephaly. On fetal MRI, ventriculomegaly, marked reduction of white matter thickness, severe sylvian fissure simplification, abnormal sulcation, and diffuse volumetric loss of cerebellar hemispheres were consistently seen. On postnatal CT, diffuse subcortical and basal ganglia calcifications were observed. The Zika virus was detected in two amniocenteses by polymerase chain reaction assays. Conclusion: We hope to assist the medical community in recognizing the spectrum of encephalic changes related to congenital Zika virus infection.

  15. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula: Clinical and Histologic Spectrum of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomin Ahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF is abnormally dilated vessels that provide a right-to-left shunt between pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein and is clinically divided into simple and complex type. Here, we report four cases of surgically resected sporadic PAVFs presenting various clinical and histologic spectrums. Cases 1 (a 57-old-female and 2 (a 54-old-female presented as incidentally identified single aneurysmal fistulas and the lesions were surgically removed without complication. On the other hand, case 3 (an 11-old-male showed diffuse dilated vascular sacs involving both lungs and caused severe hemodynamic and pulmonary dysfunction. Embolization and surgical resection of the main lesion failed to relieve the symptoms. Case 4 (a 36-old-male had a localized multiloculated cyst clinically mimicking congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of dilated thick vessels, consistent with the diagnosis of fistulous arteriovenous malformation/hemangioma.

  16. Safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy and gamma knife surgery for brain arteriovenous malformations in China: Study protocol for an observational clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengwei Jin

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: The most confusion on BAVM treatment is whether to choose interventional therapy or medical therapy, and the choice of interventional therapy modes. This study will provide evidence for evaluating the safety and efficacy of microinvasive treatment in China, to characterize the microinvasive treatment strategy for BAVMs.

  17. Choroid Plexus A-V Malformation Presenting with IVH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A term infant presenting on the second day with apnea and decerebrate posturing had an intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, the result of an arteriovenous malformation of the choroid plexus demonstrated angiographically on the 3rd day and reported from Johns Hopkins Hospital.

  18. The human brain and face: mechanisms of cranial, neurological and facial development revealed through malformations of holoprosencephaly, cyclopia and aberrations in chromosome 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C; Gboluaje, Temitayo; Reid, Shaina N; Lin, Stephen; Wang, Paul; Green, William; Diogo, Rui; Fidélia-Lambert, Marie N; Herman, Mary M

    2015-09-01

    The study of inborn genetic errors can lend insight into mechanisms of normal human development and congenital malformations. Here, we present the first detailed comparison of cranial and neuro pathology in two exceedingly rare human individuals with cyclopia and alobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) in the presence and absence of aberrant chromosome 18 (aCh18). The aCh18 fetus contained one normal Ch18 and one with a pseudo-isodicentric duplication of chromosome 18q and partial deletion of 18p from 18p11.31 where the HPE gene, TGIF, resides, to the p terminus. In addition to synophthalmia, the aCh18 cyclopic malformations included a failure of induction of most of the telencephalon - closely approximating anencephaly, unchecked development of brain stem structures, near absence of the sphenoid bone and a malformed neurocranium and viscerocranium that constitute the median face. Although there was complete erasure of the olfactory and superior nasal structures, rudiments of nasal structures derived from the maxillary bone were evident, but with absent pharyngeal structures. The second non-aCh18 cyclopic fetus was initially classified as a true Cyclops, as it appeared to have a proboscis and one median eye with a single iris, but further analysis revealed two eye globes as expected for synophthalmic cyclopia. Furthermore, the proboscis was associated with the medial ethmoid ridge, consistent with an incomplete induction of these nasal structures, even as the nasal septum and paranasal sinuses were apparently developed. An important conclusion of this study is that it is the brain that predicts the overall configuration of the face, due to its influence on the development of surrounding skeletal structures. The present data using a combination of macroscopic, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide an unparalleled analysis on the extent of the effects of median defects, and insight into normal development and patterning of the brain

  19. Extracranial vascular malformations (hemangiomas and vascular malformations) in children and adolescents - diagnosis, clinic, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivazi, Behfar; Werner, Jochen A

    2014-01-01

    The field of extracranial vascular anomalies is considered as special focus of pediatric otolaryngology and it has shown a rapid development during the last years. The reason for this interest is finally also due to the global acceptance of the classification introduced by the ISSVA (International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies). Hemangiomas are the most frequently observed vascular tumors. Today the systemic propranolol therapy is mostly used for therapy of hemangiomas requiring treatment. Increasingly, the topical application of beta blocker is discussed while the benefit in the head and neck seems to be limited. Vascular malformations are classified according to the morphology of the affected part of the vascular system in arterial, venous, arterio-venous, lymphatic, capillary, and combined vascular malformations. Conventional surgery, sclerosing therapy, and laser treatment are invasive options for the treatment of lymphatic malformations. The options for the treatment of venous malformations could be significantly improved during the last years. In this context, the use of Nd:YAG laser, the conservative treatment of the localized disseminated intravascular coagulation with low-molecular weight heparin, the re-discovery of bleomycin as effective sclerosing agent, and the improvement of alcohol-based embolization agents must be mentioned. Today the treatment with dye laser is the preferred therapy for capillary malformations and it is superior to other therapeutic options as for example photodynamic therapy. Arterio-venous malformations as representatives for high-flow lesions are the high-risk lesions. Frequently they are compared to malignant head and neck tumors, in particular when a curative treatment can no longer be assured because of diffuse or multifocal extent and when the disease shows a progressive course. The combined treatment of embolization and surgical resection and if necessary consecutive defect reconstruction have turned out to be

  20. Extracranial vascular malformations (hemangiomas and vascular malformations) in children and adolescents – diagnosis, clinic, and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivazi, Behfar; Werner, Jochen A.

    2014-01-01

    The field of extracranial vascular anomalies is considered as special focus of pediatric otolaryngology and it has shown a rapid development during the last years. The reason for this interest is finally also due to the global acceptance of the classification introduced by the ISSVA (International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies). Hemangiomas are the most frequently observed vascular tumors. Today the systemic propranolol therapy is mostly used for therapy of hemangiomas requiring treatment. Increasingly, the topical application of beta blocker is discussed while the benefit in the head and neck seems to be limited. Vascular malformations are classified according to the morphology of the affected part of the vascular system in arterial, venous, arterio-venous, lymphatic, capillary, and combined vascular malformations. Conventional surgery, sclerosing therapy, and laser treatment are invasive options for the treatment of lymphatic malformations. The options for the treatment of venous malformations could be significantly improved during the last years. In this context, the use of Nd:YAG laser, the conservative treatment of the localized disseminated intravascular coagulation with low-molecular weight heparin, the re-discovery of bleomycin as effective sclerosing agent, and the improvement of alcohol-based embolization agents must be mentioned. Today the treatment with dye laser is the preferred therapy for capillary malformations and it is superior to other therapeutic options as for example photodynamic therapy. Arterio-venous malformations as representatives for high-flow lesions are the high-risk lesions. Frequently they are compared to malignant head and neck tumors, in particular when a curative treatment can no longer be assured because of diffuse or multifocal extent and when the disease shows a progressive course. The combined treatment of embolization and surgical resection and if necessary consecutive defect reconstruction have turned out to be

  1. Specific proof of various stages of Osler's disease of the brain via high field magnetic resonance tomography (1. 5 Tesla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billet, F.; Bluemm, R.G.; Beyer, H.K.

    1988-08-01

    MR is a sensitive noninvasive examination method for diagnosing parenchymatous cryptic arteriovenous malformations and sequels of cerebral haemorrhage. In a patient with recurring nosebleed and brain stem syndrome eleven so-called cryptic arteriovenous malformations or their haemorrhage sequels were diagnosed via magnetic resonance tomography. Basing on these specific findings, nosebleeding, and a positive family anamnesis, the findings could be classified as belonging to manifestations of Osler's disease (hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia). This rare disease is characterised by a triad of signs: telangiectasias, recurring bleeding, and heredity. In this article the specific MR image is compared with the CT pattern and the results are discussed against the background of literature on Osler's disease which is also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber disease.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Dandy-Walker malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Walker malformation , signs and symptoms caused by abnormal brain development are present at birth or develop within the first year of life. Some children have a buildup of fluid in the brain ( ...

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of concurrent facial and cerebral vascular malformation which caused congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Moradi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are rarely reported antenatally. Most in utero diagnosis of vascular malformation is related to vein of Galen malformation (VGM. We describe a case of simultaneously diagnosed pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF and facial vascular malformation in a 20 weeks old fetus. The dilated intracranial venous pouch appeared as a midline anechoic structure which was misdiagnosed as a VGM in her previous ultrasound exam. Another AVM was diagnosed in the same side of fetal face which fed by a branch of external carotid artery and communicated with the mentioned pial AVF. High output cardiac failure and hydrops were evident. To our knowledge this is the first report of prenatally detected combination of facial and cerebral vascular malformations at such as early pregnancy week.

  4. Gastrointestinal malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Dolk, Helen

    2007-01-01

    malformations, although not statistically significant for gastroschisis. There was little difference in median birthweight by GA for the pre- and postnatally diagnosed infants. The difference in GA at birth between prenatally and postnatally diagnosed infants with GIMs is enough to increase the risk......The aim of the study was to analyse the degree to which gestational age (GA) has been shortened due to prenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal malformations (GIM). The data source for the study was 14 population-based registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). All liveborn infants with GIMs...... and without chromosomal anomalies, born 1997-2002, were included. The 14 registries identified 1047 liveborn infants with one or more GIMs (oesophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, omphalocele, gastroschisis and diaphragmatic hernia). Median GA at birth was lower in prenatally diagnosed cases for all five...

  5. Intracranial Vascular Malformations and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Colin B; Rosenow, Felix; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2015-06-01

    Among the spectrum of intracranial vascular malformations (IVMs), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and cavernous malformations (CCMs) are of particular importance for epilepsy. Seizures are a common mode of presentation for both conditions. Seizures may occur de novo or secondary to intracerebral hemorrhage. Timely imaging is thus crucial for patients with seizures and AVMs or CCMs. Patients with a first-ever AVM- or CCM-related seizure can now be considered to have epilepsy according to the International League Against Epilepsy criteria. Observational studies and case series suggest that between 45 to 78% of patients with AVM-related epilepsy and 47 to 60% of patients with CCM-related epilepsy may achieve seizure freedom through antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) alone. Invasive procedures are available although current evidence suggests that epilepsy-specific preintervention evaluations are underused. Randomized controlled trials and population-based studies have demonstrated worse short-term functional outcomes after routine intervention on unruptured AVMs or CCMs when compared with conservative management. The role of invasive therapy for IVM-related epilepsy has yielded mixed results. Case series have reported high estimates of seizure freedom although these results have not been replicated in controlled observational studies. Randomized controlled trials of immediate invasive therapy versus conservative management, in addition to usual care with AEDs and of different types of treatment and their timing, are warranted for AVMs and CCM-related epilepsy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. PDCD10 (CCM3) regulates brain endothelial barrier integrity in cerebral cavernous malformation type 3: role of CCM3-ERK1/2-cortactin cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatovic, Svetlana M; Sladojevic, Nikola; Keep, Richard F; Andjelkovic, Anuska V

    2015-11-01

    Impairment of brain endothelial barrier integrity is critical for cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) lesion development. The current study investigates changes in tight junction (TJ) complex organization when PDCD10 (CCM3) is mutated/depleted in human brain endothelial cells. Analysis of lesions with CCM3 mutation and brain endothelial cells transfected with CCM3 siRNA (CCM3-knockdown) showed little or no increase in TJ transmembrane and scaffolding proteins mRNA expression, but proteins levels were generally decreased. CCM3-knockdown cells had a redistribution of claudin-5 and occludin from the membrane to the cytosol with no alterations in protein turnover but with diminished protein-protein interactions with ZO-1 and ZO-1 interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. The most profound effect of CCM3 mutation/depletion was on an actin-binding protein, cortactin. CCM3 depletion caused cortactin Ser-phosphorylation, dissociation from ZO-1 and actin, redistribution to the cytosol and degradation. This affected cortical actin ring organization, TJ complex stability and consequently barrier integrity, with constant hyperpermeability to inulin. A potential link between CCM3 depletion and altered cortactin was tonic activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2. ERK1/2 inhibition increased cortactin expression and incorporation into the TJ complex and improved barrier integrity. This study highlights the potential role of CCM3 in regulating TJ complex organization and brain endothelial barrier permeability.

  7. A Novel Strategy Combining Array-CGH, Whole-exome Sequencing and In Utero Electroporation in Rodents to Identify Causative Genes for Brain Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Valerio; Carabalona, Aurelie; Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Leventer, Richard J; Schaller, Fabienne; Parrini, Elena; Deparis, Agathe A; Watrin, Françoise; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Novara, Francesca; Lise, Stefano; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Kini, Usha; Taylor, Jenny C; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Represa, Alfonso; Keays, David Antony; Guerrini, Renzo; Falace, Antonio; Cardoso, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    Birth defects that involve the cerebral cortex - also known as malformations of cortical development (MCD) - are important causes of intellectual disability and account for 20-40% of drug-resistant epilepsy in childhood. High-resolution brain imaging has facilitated in vivo identification of a large group of MCD phenotypes. Despite the advances in brain imaging, genomic analysis and generation of animal models, a straightforward workflow to systematically prioritize candidate genes and to test functional effects of putative mutations is missing. To overcome this problem, an experimental strategy enabling the identification of novel causative genes for MCD was developed and validated. This strategy is based on identifying candidate genomic regions or genes via array-CGH or whole-exome sequencing and characterizing the effects of their inactivation or of overexpression of specific mutations in developing rodent brains via in utero electroporation. This approach led to the identification of the C6orf70 gene, encoding for a putative vesicular protein, to the pathogenesis of periventricular nodular heterotopia, a MCD caused by defective neuronal migration.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging features of complex Chiari malformation variant of Chiari 1 malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Hannah E. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Moore, Kevin R. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Complex Chiari malformation is a subgroup of Chiari 1 malformation with distinct imaging features. Children with complex Chiari malformation are reported to have a more severe clinical phenotype and sometimes require more extensive surgical treatment than those with uncomplicated Chiari 1 malformation. We describe reported MR imaging features of complex Chiari malformation and evaluate the utility of craniometric parameters and qualitative anatomical observations for distinguishing complex Chiari malformation from uncomplicated Chiari 1 malformation. We conducted a retrospective search of the institutional imaging database using the keywords ''Chiari'' and ''Chiari 1'' to identify children imaged during the 2006-2011 time period. Children with Chiari 2 malformation were excluded after imaging review. We used the first available diagnostic brain or cervical spine MR study for data measurement. Standard measurements and observations were made of obex level (mm), cerebellar tonsillar descent (mm), perpendicular distance to basion-C2 line (pB-C2, mm), craniocervical angle (degrees), clivus length, and presence or absence of syringohydromyelia, basilar invagination and congenital craniovertebral junction osseous anomalies. After imaging review, we accessed the institutional health care clinical database to determine whether each subject clinically met criteria for Chiari 1 malformation or complex Chiari malformation. Obex level and craniocervical angle measurements showed statistically significant differences between the populations with complex Chiari malformation and uncomplicated Chiari 1 malformation. Cerebellar tonsillar descent and perpendicular distance to basion-C2 line measurements trended toward but did not meet statistical significance. Odontoid retroflexion, craniovertebral junction osseous anomalies, and syringohydromyelia were all observed proportionally more often in children with complex Chiari malformation than in

  9. Screening for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: contrast echocardiography versus pulse oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxhøj, H; Kjeldsen, A D; Nielsen, G

    2000-01-01

    echocardiography with intravenous injection of echo contrast was performed in all subjects. Outcome measures were oxygen saturation change >2% units on changing body position and echo contrast observed in the left-sided heart chambers. Positive contrast echocardiography indicating the presence of PAVM was found...

  10. Successful Treatment of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation with Percutaneous Embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Chi Lin

    2007-03-01

    Conclusion: AVM can be diagnosed at an early stage with the aid of history taking and ultrasound. Percutaneous embolotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for AVM, especially when fertility preservation is desired.

  11. Treatment-induced neoangiogenesis in cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sure, U; Butz, N; Siegel, A M; Mennel, H D; Bien, S; Bertalanffy, H

    2001-04-01

    We investigated the angiogenetic and proliferative activity of the endothelium of 30 consecutive surgical cases of AVM treated at our institution by immunohistochemical detection of the PCNA, MIB-1, Flk-1 and VEGF antibodies. Endothelial positive immunostaining was observed in 87% of the cases for PCNA, in 20% for MIB-1, and in 80% for Flk-1. Of 22 individuals treated with incomplete embolization prior to surgery, 17 showed an expression of VEGF (77%), but only two of the eight patients (25%) who were treated without prior embolization exhibited such an immunoreaction (P=0.0086). The proliferation and growth of cerebral AVMs is documented by endothelial expression of PCNA and MIB-1. The statistically significantly higher expression of VEGF in partially obliterated (embolized) AVMs is most likely caused by transient regional hypoxia within the AVM nidus that mediates neoangiogensis. It points out the clinical relevance of a complete occlusion in order to avoid neovascularization associated with subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  12. Embolization of Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Using PHIL Liquid Embolic Agent in 26 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamin, S; Chew, H S; Chavda, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of liquid embolic agents has revolutionized endovascular approach to cranial vascular malformations. The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of Precipitating Hydrophobic Injectable Liquid (PHIL), a new nonadhesive liquid...... embolic agent, in the treatment of patients with cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas. The primary end point was the rate of complete occlusion of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Secondary end points included the incidence of adverse events and clinical status at 3-month follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: This was a retrospective multicenter study. Twenty-six consecutive patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (de novo or previously treated) treated by injection of PHIL only or with PHIL in combination with other embolization products (such as Onyx or detachable coils) were included in the study. Recruitment started...

  13. BILATERAL SPLIT HAND FOOT MALFORMATION AND INV(7)(P22Q21.3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COBBEN, JM; VERHEIJ, JBGM; EISMA, WH; ROBINSON, PH; ZWIERSTRA, RP; LEEGTE, B; CASTEDO, S

    A boy with typical tetramelic split hands and feet is described. In addition, there was a large arteriovenous malformation of the right arm. Chromosome studies showed a pericentric inversion of chromosome 7: 46,XY,inv(7) (p22q21.3). Inspection of the extremities and chromosome studies in the parents

  14. Of Bubbles and Layers: Which Cerebral Cavernous Malformations are Most Difficult to Dissect From Surrounding Eloquent Brain Tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Philipp; Wrede, Karsten; Jabbarli, Ramazan; Müller, Oliver; Mönninghoff, Christoph; Forsting, Michael; Sure, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) may lead to repetitive intracerebral hemorrhage. In selected cases, a surgical resection is indicated. To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of CCM that correlate with the difficulty of dissection and postoperative outcome. This study prospectively analyzed pre- and postoperative MRI features, intraoperative findings (surgical questionnaire), and postoperative outcome of 41 patients with eloquent CCM. Based on the results of the surgeon's questionnaire and postoperative MRI findings, all surgical procedures were dichotomized in a "difficult" (group A) or "not difficult" (group B) lesion dissection. Based on the correlation of preoperative MRI features with groups A and B, a 3-tiered classification was established and tested for sensitivity and specificity. In 22 patients, dissection of the lesion was rated difficult. This was significantly correlated with amount of postoperative diffusion restriction on MRI ( P = .001) and postoperative outcome ( P = .05). Various preoperative MRI features were tested for correlation and combined in a 3-tiered classification. Receiver operating characteristics revealed excellent and good results for predicting difficulty of dissection for the different classification types. We provide a meticulous analysis and new classification of preoperative MRI features that seem to be involved in the microsurgical resection of CCM.

  15. Constitutively active endothelial Notch4 causes lung arteriovenous shunts in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelin, Eric B.; Ng, Jennifer; Wu, Jianfeng; Carlson, Timothy R.; Wu, Xiaoqing; Looney, Mark R.; Wang, Rong A.

    2010-01-01

    Lung arteriovenous (AV) shunts or malformations cause significant morbidity and mortality in several distinct clinical syndromes. For most patients with lung AV shunts, there is still no optimal treatment. The underlying molecular and cellular etiology for lung AV shunts remains elusive, and currently described animal models have insufficiently addressed this problem. Using a tetracycline-repressible system, we expressed constitutively active Notch4 (Notch4*) specifically in the endothelium of adult mice. More than 90% of mice developed lung hemorrhages and respiratory insufficiency and died by 6–7 wk after gene expression began. Vascular casting and fluorescent microsphere analysis showed evidence of lung AV shunts in affected mice. Cessation of Notch4* expression reversed these pathophysiological effects. Assessment of the vascular morphology revealed enlarged, tortuous vessels in the lungs that resembled arteriovenous malformations. By using whole lung organ culture, we demonstrated the effects of constitutively active Notch4 on the lung vasculature to be a primary lung phenomenon. Together, our results indicate the importance of Notch signaling in maintaining the lung vasculature and offer a new, reliable model with which to study the pathobiology of lung arteriovenous shunts and malformations. PMID:19933399

  16. Allelic heterogeneity contributes to variability in ocular dysgenesis, myopathy and brain malformations caused by Col4a1 and Col4a2 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Debbie S.; Labelle-Dumais, Cassandre; Mao, Mao; Jeanne, Marion; Kauffman, William B.; Allen, Jennifer; Favor, Jack; Gould, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen type IV alpha 1 and 2 (COL4A1 and COL4A2) are present in nearly all basement membranes. COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations are pleiotropic, affecting multiple organ systems to differing degrees, and both genetic-context and environmental factors influence this variable expressivity. Here, we report important phenotypic and molecular differences in an allelic series of Col4a1 and Col4a2 mutant mice that are on a uniform genetic background. We evaluated three organs commonly affected by COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations and discovered allelic heterogeneity in the penetrance and severity of ocular dysgenesis, myopathy and brain malformations. Similarly, we show allelic heterogeneity in COL4A1 and COL4A2 biosynthesis. While most mutations that we examined caused increased intracellular and decreased extracellular COL4A1 and COL4A2, we identified three mutations with distinct biosynthetic signatures. Reduced temperature or presence of 4-phenylbutyrate ameliorated biosynthetic defects in primary cell lines derived from mutant mice. Together, our data demonstrate the effects and clinical implications of allelic heterogeneity in Col4a1- and Col4a2-related diseases. Understanding allelic differences will be valuable for increasing prognostic accuracy and for the development of therapeutic interventions that consider the nature of the molecular cause in patients with COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations. PMID:24203695

  17. Abordagem anestésica de grávida com malformação arteriovenosa cerebral e hemorragia subaracnoidea durante a gravidez: relato de caso Abordaje anestésico de embarazada con malformación arteriovenosa cerebral y hemorragia subaracnoidea durante el embarazo: relato de caso Anesthetic approach of pregnant woman with cerebral arteriovenous malformation and subarachnoid hemorrhage during pregnancy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Santos Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    de 39 semanas, sana antes del embarazo, con antecedentes de HSA a las 22 semanas de gestación que se manifestó por medio de cefaleas, vómitos y mareos, sin la pérdida de la consciencia u otros déficits a la hora de su entrada en el servicio de urgencia. La resonancia magnética (RM arrojó MAV frontal izquierda. Después de un breve período de ingreso para la estabilización y el diagnóstico, se decidió mantener el embarazo y el acompañamiento ambulatorio multidisciplinario por neurocirugía y obstetricia en consulta de alto riesgo. Se optó por realizar la cesárea electiva a las 39 semanas bajo anestesia epidural lumbar. En el intraoperatorio ocurrió un episodio de hipotensión que fue rápidamente revertido con fenilefrina. El Índice de Apgar del recién nacido fue de 10/10. El catéter epidural fue usado para la analgesia postoperatoria, que también cursó sin intercurrencias. CONCLUSIONES: Son muy raros los casos publicados de abordaje anestésico de embarazadas con MAV sintomáticas. Todas las decisiones tomadas por el equipo multidisciplinario, desde optar por continuar con el embarazo, hasta el momento ideal para intervenir la MAV, pasando por el tipo de anestesia y analgesia, fueron sopesadas en función del riesgo de daño cerebral. Desde el punto de vista anestésico, los autores enfatizan la necesidad de estabilidad hemodinámica.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH during pregnancy is a rare event, and about half the cases are due to arteriovenous malformations (AVM. The authors describe the anesthetic approach of a 39 week pregnant patient scheduled for cesarean section, with a history of SAH due to AVM at 22 week gestation. CASE REPORT: 39 week pregnant patient, healthy prior to pregnancy, with a history of SAH at 22 week gestation, manifested by headache, vomiting, and dizziness without loss of consciousness or other deficits on admission to the emergency room. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a left frontal AVM

  18. European consensus conference on unruptured brain AVMs treatment (Supported by EANS, ESMINT, EGKS, and SINCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenzato, Marco; Boccardi, Edoardo; Beghi, Ettore; Vajkoczy, Peter; Szikora, Istvan; Motti, Enrico; Regli, Luca; Raabe, Andreas; Eliava, Shalva; Gruber, Andreas; Meling, Torstein R; Niemela, Mika; Pasqualin, Alberto; Golanov, Andrey; Karlsson, Bengt; Kemeny, Andras; Liscak, Roman; Lippitz, Bodo; Radatz, Matthias; La Camera, Alessandro; Chapot, René; Islak, Civan; Spelle, Laurent; Debernardi, Alberto; Agostoni, Elio; Revay, Martina; Morgan, Michael K

    2017-06-01

    In December of 2016, a Consensus Conference on unruptured AVM treatment, involving 24 members of the three European societies dealing with the treatment of cerebral AVMs (EANS, ESMINT, and EGKS) was held in Milan, Italy. The panel made the following statements and general recommendations: (1) Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a complex disease associated with potentially severe natural history; (2) The results of a randomized trial (ARUBA) cannot be applied equally for all unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation (uBAVM) and for all treatment modalities; (3) Considering the multiple treatment modalities available, patients with uBAVMs should be evaluated by an interdisciplinary neurovascular team consisting of neurosurgeons, neurointerventionalists, radiosurgeons, and neurologists experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of brain AVM; (4) Balancing the risk of hemorrhage and the associated restrictions of everyday activities related to untreated unruptured AVMs against the risk of treatment, there are sufficient indications to treat unruptured AVMs grade 1 and 2 (Spetzler-Martin); (5) There may be indications for treating patients with higher grades, based on a case-to-case consensus decision of the experienced team; (6) If treatment is indicated, the primary strategy should be defined by the multidisciplinary team prior to the beginning of the treatment and should aim at complete eradication of the uBAVM; (7) After having considered the pros and cons of a randomized trial vs. a registry, the panel proposed a prospective European Multidisciplinary Registry.

  19. Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, Shimon; Luckman, Yehudit; Strauss, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare disease, the etiology of which is not entirely clear. It is the most common vascular malformation of the spinal cord, comprising 60-80 % of the cases. The clinical presentation and imaging findings may be nonspecific and misleading, often mistaking it for other entities like demyelinating or degenerative diseases of the spine.This chapter describes the imaging findings, clinical signs, and symptoms of this disease and also the available treatment options according to the current literature.Angiography is still considered the gold standard for diagnosis; however, MRI/MRA is increasingly used as a screening tool. Modern endovascular techniques are becoming increasingly more effective in treating SDAVF offering a less invasive treatment option; however, they still lag behind surgical success rates which approach 100 %. The outcome of both treatment options is similar if complete obliteration of the fistula is obtained and depends mainly on the severity of neurological dysfunction before treatment.Heightened awareness by radiologists and clinicians to this rare entity is essential to make a timely diagnosis of this treatable disease. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is required in order to make appropriate treatment decisions.

  20. Thermographic Assessment of a Vascular Malformation of the Hand: A New Imaging Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Hardwicke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular malformations of the hand are rare. Angiography is the current Gold Standard imaging modality. Thermal imaging is an emerging noninvasive, noncontact technology that does not require intravenous contrast agents. We present the case of a patient with an arteriovenous malformation affecting the hand in which thermal imaging has been used as an adjunct to capture baseline images to allow monitoring of progression. We suggest that thermal imaging provides an adjunct that can be used in addition to clinical examination and/or angiography for the diagnosis and routine follow-up of conservatively managed arteriovenous malformations, to monitor progression or vascular steal, and also for recording recurrence after surgical excision for which there is known to be a significant incidence. With the benefit of being a noninvasive imaging modality that does not require intravenous contrast, or ionizing radiation exposure, office-based thermal imaging may become commonplace.

  1. Case series on vascular malformation and their review with regard to terminology and categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Charan Shetty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of vascular nature originate as anomalies caused due to errors in vasculogenesis. These tumors are generally broadly classified into vascular tumors (hemangiomas and vascular malformations (venous malformations, arteriovenous malformations, lymphatic malformations. These descriptive tumors and malformations have been categorized based on the architectural assembly of vessels. Lymphangiomas are further subclassified microscopically into capillary, cavernous, cystic and lymphangioendothelioma, depending upon their histopathological features. Lymphatic malformations or lymphangiomas are uncommon congenital malformations of the lymphatic system, usually occurring in the head and neck region, characterized by collections of ectatic lymph vessels that form endothelial lined cystic spaces. Advancements in the knowledge of pathogenesis of such vascular malformations are continuously changing their treatment protocols. Early recognition is of utmost importance for initiation of proper treatment and avoiding serious complications. Hemangiolymphangioma is a variant of lymphangioma showing vascular component. Herewith, we present a case of vascular malformation diagnosed as hemangiolymphangioma histopathologically in a 9-year-old girl, along with a review of literature regarding its categorization.

  2. Spinal cord arteriovenous shunts: from imaging to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodesch, G. E-mail: g.rodesch@hopital-foch.org; Lasjaunias, P

    2003-06-01

    Spinal cord arteriovenous shunts (SCAVSs) are either fistulas or niduses that can be separated in four different groups according to their localization and relationship to the dura. Paraspinal AVSs are located outside the spine and are responsible for neurological symptoms because of cord compression by ertatic veins, venous congestion or arterial steal. Epidural shunts are located in the epidural space and drain in epidural veins with secondary intradural congestion. Dural shunts are embedded in the dura, produce a cord venous myelopathy after draining through veins that either pierce the dura far from a nerve root or accompany a nerve root. Intradural shunts affect the cord, the roots or the filum. Additionally, they can be classified according to their potential relationships with genetics, vascular biological features and angiogenesis into genetic hereditary lesions (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia), genetic non-hereditary lesions (multiple lesions with metameric links) and single lesions (AVMs or micro AVFs). MRI and MRA are able to visualise SCAVS early after the onset of clinical symptoms. The type of shunt and its localization may remain difficult to be precise. Angiography remains the gold standard for analysis of the anatomical, morphological and architectural features necessary for therapeutic decisions in both paediatric and adult populations. In our series, embolisation is chosen in first intention whatever the type of shunt responsible for the clinical symptoms and glue is preferably used. In paraspinal, dural or epidural arteriovenous shunts, the goal of treatment should be complete closure of the shunt. A complete cure by embolization is rather easily achieved in paraspinal lesions. Failure of endovascular therapy in dural or epidural shunts must bring the patient to surgery. The prognosis of most intradural shunts seems better than previously thought, even after haemorrhage. In intradural spinal cord arteriovenous shunts, embolisation

  3. Evaluation and management of peripheral venous and lymphatic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Naiem; Thomas, Jones; Cirillo-Penn, Nolan C

    2016-04-01

    The International Society for Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) broadly categorizes vascular anomalies as vascular tumors or vascular malformations. The latter are congenital lesions that are further categorized by their flow properties and include high-flow arteriovenous malformations, slow-flow venous and lymphatic malformations, and congenital mixed syndromes, which can include a combination of malformations. Unlike vascular tumors, vascular malformations never regress and can persist and grow for the duration of the patient's lifespan. As our understanding of the natural history, hemodynamics, and treatment outcomes of these lesions has expanded and evolved over the last few decades, certain fundamental diagnostic and therapeutic principles have been established and are considered standard of care. These overarching principles are crucial to adhere to in the overall management of these lesions and are highlighted and expanded on in this report, which focuses exclusively on peripheral slow-flow venous and lymphatic malformations. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of histochemical stains in differentiating hemangioma and vascular malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Jitendra Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benign vascular lesions such as vascular malformation and hemangioma at times pose difficulty in diagnosis both for clinicians and pathologists. Vascular malformations are difficult to treat while hemangiomas resolve spontaneously in most instances. There are instances when vascular malformations, especially arteriovenous malformations (AVMs have been misdiagnosed as hemangiomas and vice-versa. Clinical and radiological correlation with histopathological confirmation of these anomalies is important for the management of these lesionsAim: The aim was to study the histological characteristics of hemangiomas and vascular malformations and to study the utility of histochemical stains in their diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied fifty cases retrieved from the records of Department of Pathology which were diagnosed as hemangioma (n=32 and vascular malformation (n=18 on Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E stain over a period of 18 months. The cases were analyzed based on findings of histochemical stains such as Verhoeff-van Gieson (VVG, Masson's trichrome (MT, and toluidine blue. Results: After reviewing all the cases with the use of histochemical stains, two of the three cases originally diagnosed as hemangioma turned out to be AVM and one to be venous malformation. An increased number of intra-lesional nerves were found in 16 of 19 cases of AVM and in both cases of venous and lymphatic malformation. Hemangiomas did not show increase in nerve bundles. Mast cells were found to be increased in proliferating hemangiomas and pyogenic granulomas as compared to AVMs. Conclusion: Hemangiomas and vascular malformations should be clearly differentiated to reduce the risk of treatment failure and recurrence. With the use of histochemical stains such as VVG, MT and toluidine blue, the diagnostic difficulty can be reduced and definitive diagnosis is possible.

  5. Stereotactic radiosurgery for brain AVMs: role of interobserver variation in target definition on digital subtraction angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, Dennis R.; Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Barkhof, Frederik; Dirven, Clemens M. F.; Lycklama, Geert J.; Meijer, Otto W. M.; van den Berg, René; Langendijk, Hans A.; Slotman, Ben J.; Vandertop, W. Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: We evaluated the extent of interobserver variation in contouring arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with respect to volume, spatial localization, and dosimetry and correlated our findings with the clinical outcome. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-one

  6. Genetic Animal Models of Malformations of Cortical Development and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael; Roper, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development constitute a variety of pathological brain abnormalities that commonly cause severe, medically-refractory epilepsy, including focal lesions, such as focal cortical dysplasia, hetereotopias, and tubers of tuberous sclerosis complex, and diffuse malformations, such as lissencephaly. Although some cortical malformations result from environmental insults during cortical development in utero, genetic factors are increasingly recognized as primary pathogenic factors across the entire spectrum of malformations. Genes implicated in causing different cortical malformations are involved in a variety of physiological functions, but many are focused on regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and neuronal migration. Advances in molecular genetic methods have allowed the engineering of increasingly sophisticated animal models of cortical malformations and associated epilepsy. These animal models have identified some common mechanistic themes shared by a number of different cortical malformations, but also revealed the diversity and complexity of cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of the pathological lesions and resulting epileptogenesis. PMID:25911067

  7. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. Diagnostics and therapy; Spinale durale arteriovenoese Fisteln. Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Kettner, M.; Simgen, A.; Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas are rare spinal vascular malformations which can cause progressive paraparesis and paraplegia if not treated. As symptoms are unspecific diagnosis is often delayed and clinical outcome is dependent on early therapy. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the first choice imaging procedure, selective spinal digital subtraction angiography is necessary to analyze the angioarchitecture and to plan the treatment. This article provides an overview on the epidemiology, etiology, clinical aspects and imaging features as well as therapeutic aspects of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. Knowledge of spinal vascular anatomy is the basis for understanding spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. (orig.) [German] Spinale durale arteriovenoese Fisteln (dAVF) sind seltene spinale vaskulaere Malformationen, die unbehandelt zu einer progredienten Paraparese und Paraplegie fuehren koennen. Da die klinischen Symptome oft unspezifisch sind, werden sie haeufig erst in einem spaeteren Stadium diagnostiziert. Die Erkrankungshaeufigkeit ist mit 5-10 Neuerkrankungen/1 Mio. Einwohner/Jahr relativ selten, ueber 80% der Betroffenen sind Maenner. Der unbehandelt schlechte klinische Verlauf der dAVF sowie die Moeglichkeit der Therapie, deren Erfolg von einer fruehzeitigen Behandlung abhaengt, macht sie jedoch zu einer wichtigen Erkrankung. Die Diagnose ist haeufig im MRT zu stellen, zur genauen Darstellung der Fistel ist eine selektive spinale Subtraktionsangiographie jedoch notwendig. Ziel dieses Artikels ist, einen Ueberblick ueber die Epidemiologie, Aetiologie, Klinik und bildgebende Verfahren sowie therapeutischen Moeglichkeiten dieser spinalen vaskulaeren Malformation zu geben. Voraussetzung zum grundlegenden Verstaendnis der duralen AVF sind genaue Kenntnisse der vaskulaeren spinalen Gefaessversorgung. (orig.)

  8. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula: Imaging features and its mimics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeog, Ying; Ting, David Yen; Hsu, Hui Ling; Huang, Yen Lin; Chen, Chi Jen; Tseng, Ting Chi [Dept. of Radiology, aipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-15

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is the most common spinal vascular malformation, however it is still rare and underdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging findings such as spinal cord edema and dilated and tortuous perimedullary veins play a pivotal role in the confirmation of the diagnosis. However, spinal angiography remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of SDAVF. Classic angiographic findings of SDAVF are early filling of radicular veins, delayed venous return, and an extensive network of dilated perimedullary venous plexus. A series of angiograms of SDAVF at different locations along the spinal column, and mimics of serpentine perimedullary venous plexus on MR images, are demonstrated. Thorough knowledge of SDAVF aids correct diagnosis and prevents irreversible complications.

  9. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yu. Evzikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF, the most common type of spinal cord vascular anomalies. SDAVFs account for 60–80% of the spinal cord vascular anomalies. The causes of SDAVFs, the specific features of their hemodynamics, and their classification remain the subject matter of disputes.SDAVFs form in dura mater tissue, on the dorsal surface of radicular cuffs. The pathogenesis of neurological disorders in SDAVF has determined the name «venous hypertensive myelopathy», a spinal cord injury occurring in their presence. Pain and paresthesias, cacesthesia (more commonly in their distal parts, and motor disorders as flail legs are observed at the onset of SDAVF in typical cases. On average, 12 to 44 months elapse to establish its diagnosis. In addition of motor and sensory disorders, sphincter impairments and sexual dysfunction are detected in the patients at the time of diagnosis. By this time, most patients have already neurological disability.The paper presents the history of studying SDAVF, the existing classifications of arteriovenous malformations and fistulas, the clinical manifestations of venous hypertensive myelopathy in SDAVF, neuroimaging findings, and treatment options.

  10. Experimental model of intracranial arteriovenous shunting in the acute stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Shinichi; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Sato, Sonomi; Watanabe, Yoichi; Watanabe, Zenichiro; Kodama, Namio

    2005-06-01

    A model of intracranial arteriovenous (AV) shunting must incorporate local hypoperfusion and simulate the hemodynamics of arteriovenous malformations. In this study, the hemodynamics of an intracranial AV shunt model in the acute stage were clarified. End-to-side anastomoses with a femoral vein graft were performed between a cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the superior sagittal sinus in anesthetized dogs. Local cerebral blood flow (l-CBF) was measured by laser Doppler blood flowmetry. l-CBF decreased suddenly by 34.2% when the shunt was opened in the ipsilateral MCA territory. Upon re-occlusion, l-CBF immediately equaled or exceeded the pre-opening value and returned to the pre-opening value within the next 15 minutes. Opening the shunt produced little change in l-CBF in the territory of the ipsilateral or contralateral anterior cerebral artery. The decrease in l-CBF was correlated with shunt volume only in the MCA territory. l-CBF manifested a PaCO(2)-dependent increase before shunt opening, but CO(2) reactivity was impaired after opening the shunt only in the MCA territory. This dog model features local hypoperfusion due to intracranial AV shunting and disturbance of CO(2) reactivity in the acute stage. The hemodynamics of this model will be confirmed in the chronic stage.

  11. Study and therapeutic progress on spinal cord perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tiefeng; Guo, Yunbao; Shi, Lei; Yu, Jinlu

    2017-09-01

    Spinal cord perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas (PMAVFs) are rare and belong to type IV spinal cord arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Little is known regarding the treatment and prognosis of spinal cord PMAVFs. In the present study the relevant literature from PubMed was reviewed, and it was found that these fistulas can occur at all ages but are more common in children. In children, most spinal cord PMAVFs are large and with high flow, begin with bleeding and are frequently associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. However, in adults, most spinal cord PMAVFs are small and with low flow and begin with progressive spinal cord dysfunction. The early diagnosis of spinal cord PMAVFs is generally difficult, and symptoms can be very severe at the time of diagnosis. Digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard; however, computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are also promising. Spinal cord PMAVFs can be treated by endovascular embolization, surgical removal or a combination of the two methods. Most spinal cord PMAVFs show good outcomes after the appropriate treatment, and the prognosis is primarily associated with the blood flow of the PMAVF. For high-flow spinal cord PMAVFs, endovascular embolization is more effective and can lead to a good outcome; however, for low-flow spinal cord PMAVFs, surgical removal or the combination with endovascular embolization is the optimal choice. The prognosis for low-flow types is slightly worse than for high-flow spinal cord PMAVFs in children, but the outcome is acceptable.

  12. Vascular malformations in the extremities: emphasis on MR imaging features that guide treatment options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayad, Laura; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Bluemke, David; Mitchell, Sally [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Vascular malformations can be classified into high-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and low-flow venous or lymphatic malformations (VM/LM). VMs and LMs have the ability to cross multiple tissue boundaries. Not only is subcutaneous tissue often involved, but multiple muscle groups, tendons, bone cortex and bone marrow are also not uncommonly violated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides valuable information for the assessment and treatment of malformations. Firstly, MRI can characterize the flow pattern of these malformations to guide treatment towards trans-arterial embolization for AVMs and percutaneous embolization for low flow malformations. MRI is essential to define the anatomic extent and in-volvement of various tissue layers (a distinct advantage over ultrasound), and to correlate treatable components of the malformation with patient symptoms. Treatment is decided by the need to alleviate clinical symptoms, and is dependent on the extent of the malformation as defined by MRI. We present MRI features of vascular malformations to demonstrate the potential spectrum of in-volvement of these lesions, illustrating the value of MRI in treatment planning. (orig.)

  13. Fiber 1.56-1.9 μm lasers in treatment of vascular malformations in children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushkin, Ivan A.; Privalov, Valeriy A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Minaev, Vladimir P.

    2013-03-01

    A few new low invasive fiber laser technologies for treatment of 1) capillary malformations (port-wine stains), 2) venous, arterial, and arteriovenous malformations, 3) lymphatic malformations of 3 types: micro, small and large-cystic lymphangiomas are presented in this work. There were applied 1.56 μm laser distant photocoagulation, 1.56 μm laser endovascular thermotherapy, 1.9 μm laser instant ablation, 1.9 μm laser interstitial thermotherapy, and 1.9 μm laser excision. The technologies were applied to about 300 patients. Good clinical and esthetic results have been achieved in great majority cases.

  14. Arteriovenous Patterns in Beaked Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Arteriovenous patterns in beaked whales Alexander M...picture of the vascular anatomy in beaked whale heads that will enhance our understanding of the basic biology of beaked whales and act as a baseline...The objective was to describe and better understand the gross morphology of the blood vessels in the heads of beaked whales . Gross anatomical

  15. Arteriovenous Patterns in Beaked Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    time in cold storage, and therefore yielded varying results. Nonetheless, all specimens examined were beneficial to the process and added various...to thermoregulation . We observed a sizable arteriovenous structure suggestive of counter-current heat exchange (CCHE) not only in the lingual and...surfaces in contact with cold water. An analogous structure was described on the palatine surface of the bowhead whale (Mead, Werth and George, 2013

  16. A rare cause of progressive paraparesis and urinary retention: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula- Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sırma Geyik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal arteriovenous fistulas (AVF, are rarely seen clinical pathology, have serious morbidity in cases without treatment although spinal AVF are the most common types of spinal arteriovenous malformation. Fifty years old male patient suffered from urine retention and paraparesis after lifted a heavy object. Spinal magnetic resonance images (MRI showed diffuse hyper intense lesion from midthoracic spinal cord segment to conus medullaris in T2A sequance. Spinal angiography revealed a long segmental dorsal AVF on the right side of T 7-8 level in spinal cord. Because of the low flow and a small AVF neurosurgical Department decided to perform an operation for spinal AVF. We should keep in mind spinal AVF, in which prognosis is well after prompt and appropriate theraphy, as a differential diagnosis in patients presented with progressive spinal symptoms.

  17. [Hemangiomas and superficial vascular malformations of the face and neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Minteguiaga, C; Casasco, A; Guimaraens, L; Deffrennes, D; Herbreteau, D; Racy, E; Pérez Rull, J; Huy, P Tran Ba

    2002-01-01

    Hemangiomas and superficial vascular anomalies of the head and neck form what usually calls the angiomas. Many terms exist in the literature for that reason the classification of the ISSVA, admitted by most of the doctors, helps us in naming the different anomalies. The processing of this pathology needs a multidisciplinary collaboration with doctors of different specialties. The evolution of the radiological, surgical techniques of laser, and who knows, of the research, allows to hope us to cure some of the particularly dangerous anomalies like the arteriovenous malformations. We presented here the different technics used in 2001 in the management of hemangioma and superficial vascular anomalies insisting on a multidisciplinary approach.

  18. Interobserver reliability and diagnostic performance of Chiari II malformation measures in MR imaging-part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Niels; van der Vliet, Ton; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Feuth, Ton; Roeleveld, Nel; Mullaart, Reinier A.

    Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of MR images of the malformation is not always straightforward. Morphometric analyses of the extent of Chiari II malformation may improve

  19. Interobserver reliability and diagnostic performance of Chiari II malformation measures in MR imaging--part 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Vliet, T. van der; Rotteveel, J.J.; Feuth, T.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of MR images of the malformation is not always straightforward. Morphometric analyses of the extent of Chiari II malformation may

  20. Radiologic evaluation of the therapeutic effect of gamma knife radiosurgery in cerebral vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ig Dae; Kim, Il; Jeon, Young Seup; Lee, Jong Yuk; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Seong Suk; Eun, Choong Ki; Kim, Mu Seong; Sim, Jae Hong [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of gamma knife radiosurgery in cerebral vascular malformation using a radiologic imaging method such as MRI or angiography. We retrospectively reviewed MRIs, CT scans and angiograms of 29 cases of arteriovenous malformation and 15 of cavernous malformation before and after gamma knife radiosurgery. The patients underwent follow-up radiologic studies for between 6 and 35 months after radiosurgery. No patient underwent other surgery or embolization. Radiological imaging analysis focused on changes in the volume of the nidus or central core. Other findings of edema, cystic change, hemorrhage, signal intensity, enhancement and distributional vascular markings were also studied. The volume of the AVM nidus was measured and assigned to one of four groups:<1cc, 1-4cc,>4-10cc and >10cc. In arteriovenous malformation cases, the volume of the nidus decreased by mean 60.2%;reduction was greatest(68.1%) in the 1-4cc group. Three cases showed complete loss of the nidus at 9, 12 and 25 months after radiosurgery, respectively. In nine cases, decreased caliber or loss of draining vein was noted. High signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images, suggesting either edema or demyelination, was observed in four cases. In cavernous angioma cases, core volume was reduced by 36.8%. Transient cerebral edema and presumed radiation necrosis were observed in two cases and one, respectively. Gamma knife surgery was effective in nearly all cases of arteriovenous malformation and some cases of cavernous malformation. More than two years follow-up involving radiologic imaging such as MRI is needed for the evaluation of therapeutic effect and diagnosis of complications.=20.

  1. Erratum: Complications of Arteriovenous Fistula with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Erratum: Complications of Arteriovenous Fistula with. Polytetraflouroethylen Grafts in Hemodialysis Patients. In the article titled “Complications of arteriovenous fistula with polytetraflouroethylen grafts in hemodialysis patients” published in pages 120-123, issue 1, vol. 18 of Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

  2. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cerebro-vascular malformations by CT (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, M; Stoeter, P; Voigt, K

    1980-03-01

    In 38 patients, the diagnosis of a cerebrovascular malformation (17 arteriovenous agniomas including one low-flow- and two venous angiomas; 10 aneurysms; 4 arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus, the tentorium and one of the Great Vein of Galen; 6 megadolical basilar arteries) was initially made by computertomographic (CT) examination, including contrast enhancement. The characteristic and pathognomonic CT findings are described and compared with those of cerebral angiography also done in these cases. The problems of differential diagnosis and the reasons for a false CT diagnosis in 5 other patients with a cerebro-vascular malformation are investigated; and the diagnostic value of cerebral angiography and CT is discussed and their complementary functions are being pointed out.

  3. Occurrence of multiple Cerebral Cavernous Malformations in a patient with Neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerat, K; Parker, F; Nasser, G; Vidaud, D; Riant, F; Tournier-Lasserve, E; Denier, C

    2015-03-15

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) belongs to the autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorders' group, which mainly includes NF1 and NF2, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau disease and Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCMs). NF1 has a major impact on the nervous system, eye, skin, bone or cardiovascular system. Cerebrovascular lesions have been reported in NF1 including aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous malformations, vascular stenosis or occlusion and Moya moya syndrome. To report a case of an NF1 patient with multiple CCMs. A 47-year-old man with café-au-lait skin lesions, countless cutaneous neurofibromas, short stature and scoliosis was admitted for progressive spinal cord compression due to histologically proven neurofibroma. Systematic cerebral MRI screening including gradient echo sequences showed multiple asymptomatic CCMs. Screening of CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3 genes was negative while a deleterious frameshift mutation was identified in NF1 gene. While single CCM can occur in NF1 patients following radiation exposure, they are only rarely reported in non-irradiated NF1 brain. Even if it could be a fortuitous association, plausible links and explanations exist. If cerebral MRI can be systematic in NF1 to detect asymptomatic gliomas, used protocols in neuroradiology do not usually include gradient echo sequences, the most sensitive test for CCM detection, leading possibly to failure to detect these vascular lesions. More reports having this combination and further investigations of NF1 families will certainly provide a better understanding of links between these 2 phakomatoses, as recently reported with "multiple meningiomas" phenotype associated with multiple CCMs in patients with CCM3 gene mutations or café-au-lait skin lesions in CCM1 mutation carriers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. [Vascular tumours and malformations, classification, pathology and imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, M; Vanwijck, R; Clapuyt, P; Boon, L; Magalon, G

    2006-01-01

    The understanding of vascular anomalies (vascular tumours and vascular malformations) was obscured, for a long time, by confusion and uncertainties in nosology and terminology. The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) recently adopted a classification scheme, clearly separating vascular tumours (hemangiomas of different types) which result from active cell proliferation, from vascular malformations, which are inborn defects in vascular morphogenesis. These two types of lesions have different clinical behaviour and require different diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The most frequent vascular tumour is infantile hemangioma. Its clinical aspects and evolution are well-known. New data have been recently obtained concerning the phenotype of tumour cells and its histogenesis. Of the numerous new vascular tumours, which have been recently described, only the congenital hemangiomas, the vascular tumours associated with the Maffucci syndrome and the tumours that may be complicated by a profound thrombocytopenia (Kasabach and Merritt phenomenon) will be considered. Vascular malformations can be classified according to the vessel(s) types they are composed of. A classification table is presented, separating the malformations of vascular trunks from tissular malformations which are more intimately embedded in the surrounding tissues. The different syndromes associated with vascular anomalies take also place in this table. The clinical, imaging and histological aspects of the most frequent malformations (capillary, venous, lymphatic and arteriovenous) are presented. This classification intend to clarify the nosology and terminology of the complex field of vascular tumours and malformation and to offer a common language to the different physicians and specialists contributing, preferably with a interdisciplinary approach, to the diagnosis and treatment of these difficult lesions.

  5. [Extracranial vascular anomalies (hemangiomas and vascular malformations) in children and adolescents--diagnosis, clinic, and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivazi, B; Werner, J A

    2014-03-01

    The field of extracranial vascular anomalies is considered as special focus of pediatric otolaryngology and it has shown a rapid development during the last years. The reason for this interest is finally also due to the global acceptance of the classification introduced by the ISSVA (International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies). Hemangiomas are the most frequently observed vascular tumors. Today the systemic propranolol therapy is mostly used for therapy of hemangiomas requiring treatment. Increasingly, the topical application of beta blocker is discussed while the benefit in the head and neck seems to be limited. Vascular malformations are classified according to the morphology of the affected part of the vascular system in arterial, venous, arterio-venous, lymphatic, capillary, and combined vascular malformations. Conventional surgery, sclerosing therapy, and laser treatment are invasive options for the treatment of lymphatic malformations. The options for the treatment of venous malformations could be significantly improved during the last years. In this context, the use of Nd:YAG laser, the conservative treatment of the localized disseminated intravascular coagulation with low-molecular weight heparin, the re-discovery of bleomycin as effective sclerosing agent, and the improvement of alcohol-based embolization agents must be mentioned. Today the treatment with dye laser is the preferred therapy for capillary malformations and it is superior to other therapeutic options as for example photodynamic therapy. Arterio-venous malformations as representatives for high-flow lesions are the high-risk lesions. Frequently they are compared to malignant head and neck tumors, in particular when a curative treatment can no longer be assured because of diffuse or multifocal extent and when the disease shows a progressive course. The combined treatment of embolization and surgical resection and if necessary consecutive defect reconstruction have turned out to be

  6. Management of extensive intraparotid vascular malformation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Anesti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of large soft tissue vascular lesions remains one of the greatest challenges in modern plastic surgery. The extent of the disease and the involved structures, but also the expectations of the patients are important in determining the way of treatment. The effective management of hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck requires a team approach, in order to understand the biologic behavior of the lesion, complete the diagnostic studies necessary to define the area of involvement, and understand the benefits and limitations of interventional radiologic and surgical procedures. The synthesis of this knowledge can help determine the best treatment. The strategic plan and subsequent management of a 34-year-old Maori man with an extensive arteriovenous intraparotid malformation is presented.

  7. Syringomyelia associated with Chiari malformation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Kitano, Shouhei; Nishikawa, Misao; Yasui, Toshihiro [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan); Fujitani, Ken; Hakuba, Akira; Nakanishi, Naruhiko

    1997-02-01

    Among 28 patients with myelomeningocele (MMC group), the myelomeningocele in all patients was repaired shortly after birth, and a shunt was implanted for the associated hydrocephalus in 18 patients. MRI of the group of 28 indicated 20 were afflicted with Chiari II malformation, and the remaining 8 by Chiari I malformation. Among 8 patients lacking myelomeningocele (non-MMC group), seven demonstrated a large syrinx at the cervical and cervico-thoracic level; only one had a syrinx extending from the cervical level down to the lumbar level. None of these patients had hydrocephalus. Surgical decompression to improve cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow at the major cistern improved neurological signs in 7 patients. MRI indicated 4 patients were afflicted with Chiari I malformation, and the remaining 4 with Chiari II malformation. In the MMC group, the initial development of the syrinx at the lumbar level may be the result of a combination of occlusion of the caudal end of the central canal brought about by repair of the myelomeningocele and CSF flow into the hydromyelic cavity via the patent proximal portion of the central canal. In the non-MMC group, the syringomyelia may be considered an early onset type of syringomyelia associated with adult type Chiari malformation because the location of the syrinx was quite similar to that found in adult type Chiari malformation, and decompressive surgery was quite effective. In the non-MMC group, turbulence of the CSF now at the major cistern caused by the herniated cerebellum plays an important role in the enlargement of the syringomyelia. To offer greater appropriate management of pediatric Chiari malformation accompanied by syringomyelia, the malformation should be classified not by degree of the herniated brain tissue but by its association with neural tube defect (myelomeningocele). (K.H.)

  8. Venous hypertensive encephalopathy secondary to venous sinus thrombosis and dural arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Pria; Orru, Emanuele; Izbudak, Izlem; Zhang, Jiaying; Kheradmand, Amir

    2017-08-01

    A 52-year-old man with a history of factor V Leiden thrombophilia, persistent headaches and papilloedema presented with worsening vision and confusion. MRI and MR angiography of the brain at the time of this presentation showed findings concerning for transverse sinus thrombosis and an associated dural arteriovenous fistula. Dural venous sinus thrombosis can lead to the formation of a dural arteriovenous fistula, which must be considered in the differential diagnosis for intracranial hypertension in patients with thrombophilia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Multiple coronary arteriovenous fistulae combined with ventricular septal defect: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kun Sik; Zeon, Seok Kil; Kim, Ki Sik [Keimyung University, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yeon Hee [Pohang Hospital, Dongguk University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Congenital coronary arteriovenous fistulas are all of those anomalies and malformations that result in a direct communication of a coronary artery and/or any of its branches with a cardiac chamber or extra cardiac vessel resulting in a shunt of varying proportions. The majority of these fistulas form an A-V connection between a coronary artery and the right heart chambers, and rarely their is communication with the left heart chambers. In most reported cases, the abnormal fistula involves only one coronary artery which developed alone. This report describes a unique case in which multiple coronary fistulas associated with VSD were encountered.

  10. Dandy-Walker malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silian Mandu Fonseca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dandy-Walker malformation is characterized by complete or partial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and enlargement of the posterior fossa with displacement of the lateral sinuses. This article aims to present current, anatomical, etiological, pathophysiological, syndromic and treatment aspects of this malformation.

  11. Vascular malformations of the spine; Spinale Gefaessmalformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, A.; Mull, M. [Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie; Reith, W. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2001-11-01

    The vascular malformations of the spine and spinal cord are rare diseases. Possible symptoms may consist in a transient neurological deficit, a progressive sensorimotor transverse lesion or an acute para- or tetraplegia. Damage to the spinal cord occurs by bleeding, space-occupying effects and venous congestion, rarely by steal effects. Classification of the true inborn malformations differentiates between arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), cavernomas and capillary teleangiectasias. The more frequent spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) of the elderly patient is a probably acquired lesion which is presented in a separate paper. Capillary teleangiectasias are mostly incidental findings but may cause differential diagnostic problems. Cavernomas are important causes of hemorrhage and may initially be obscured within the bleeding. MRI is the most relevant imaging procedure in the early diagnostic workup. In case of an AVM selective spinal angiography is required to define the type of the lesion and to decide about the appropriate therapy which may be endovascular-interventional, neurosurgical, combined or attentive. (orig.) [German] Die Gefaessmalformationen des Spinalkanals und Rueckenmarks sind seltene Erkrankungen, deren moegliche Symptome von transienten neurologischen Ausfaellen bis zur akuten Querschnittlaehmung reichen. Eine Schaedigung des Rueckenmarks kann durch Blutungen, Raumforderungswirkung, venoese Kongestion oder ''Steal-Effekte'' entstehen. Haeufiger als die echten (angeborenen) Malformationen, wozu arteriovenoese Malformationen (AVMs), Kavernome und kapillaere Teleangiektasien gerechnet werden, sind die vermutlich erworbenen spinalen duralen arteriovenoesen Fisteln (SDAVF) des aelteren Patienten, die gesondert dargestellt werden. Die kapillaeren Teleangiektasien sind meist Zufallsbefunde, koennen aber differenzialdiagnostische Verwirrung verursachen. Kavernome sind eine wichtige Ursache fuer Blutungen, wobei sie sich

  12. Metformin as possible therapy of pulmonary arterio venous malformation in HHT patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacout, Alexis; Marcy, Pierre Yves; El Hajjam, Mostafa; Lacombe, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is an autosomic dominant disorder, which is characterized by the development of multiple arteriovenous malformations. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations may either rupture or be responsible for a right-to-left shunting leading to paradoxical embolism causing stroke or cerebral abscess. Metformin may harbor a pleiotropic action, (a) decreasing inflammation (via anti COX 2 pathway and other mechanism), (b) decreasing COX 2 and VEGF mediated angiogenesis, (c) increasing negative angiogenic regulation pathway by stimulating SMAD 2/3 expression either directly or via the AMPK pathway and preventing from pulmonary hypertension development and (d) diminushin oxidative stress. An animal model could be experimented to show its effects on PAVM formation. Metformin could also be tested in human individuals, particularly in patients presenting a diffuse HHT type with tiny PAVM. Metformin may be indicated as a prophylactic or curative therapy in HHT patients presenting with initial lung involvement. Metformin may be proposed to prevent from pulmonary arteriovenous malformation development and subsequent related complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Split Cord Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Gezercan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Split cord malformations are rare form of occult spinal dysraphism in children. Split cord malformations are characterized by septum that cleaves the spinal canal in sagittal plane within the single or duplicated thecal sac. Although their precise incidence is unknown, split cord malformations are exceedingly rare and represent %3.8-5 of all congenital spinal anomalies. Characteristic neurological, urological, orthopedic clinical manifestations are variable and asymptomatic course is possible. Earlier diagnosis and surgical intervention for split cord malformations is associated with better long-term fuctional outcome. For this reason, diagnostic imaging is indicated for children with associated cutaneous and orthopedic signs. Additional congenital anomalies usually to accompany the split cord malformations. Earlier diagnosis, meticuolus surgical therapy and interdisciplinary careful evaluation and follow-up should be made for good prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 199-207

  14. Mapping of brain function with positron emission tomography for pathophysiological analysis of neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariai, Tadashi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Graduate School

    2001-02-01

    The role of PET is discussed mainly through author's clinical experience in patients with brain lesions from the view of mapping of brain function. Procedure for PET concept in clinical practice is summarized. PET using tracers like [{sup 15}O]water and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose for mapping of the function has been used in combination with MRI, MEG (magnetoencephalography), SPECT and other imaging means for morphological identification. Actual those images before and after surgery are presented in cases of epilepsy, moyamoya disease, stegnosis of cervical artery, arteriovenous malformation and oligodendroglioma. Images of [{sup 11}C]flumazenil in epilepsies are also presented to show the neurological dysfunctions. PET evaluation of neurological functions is concluded to become more important in parallel with the advancement of therapeutics. (K.H.)

  15. Chiari type I malformation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, L; Novegno, F; di Rocco, C

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of Chiari type I malformation (CIM) is more and more frequent in clinical practice due to the wide diffusion of magnetic resonance imaging. In many cases, such a diagnosis is made incidentally in asymptomatic patients, as including children investigated for different reasons such as mental development delay or sequelae of brain injury. The large number of affected patients, the presence of asymptomatic subjects, the uncertainties surrounding the pathogenesis of the malformation, and the different options for its surgical treatment make the management of CIM particularly controversial.This paper reports on the state of the art and the recent achievements about CIM aiming at providing further information especially on the pathogenesis, the natural history, and the management of the malformation, which are the most controversial aspects. A historial review introduces and explains the current classification. Furthermore, the main clinical, radiological, and neurophysiological findings of CIM are described to complete the picture of this heterogeneous and complex disease.

  16. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  17. Microsurgical treatment and outcomes of spinal arteriovenous lesions: Learned from consecutive series of 105 lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Linkai; Su, Wei; Guo, Yi; Sun, Zhenxing; Wang, James; Wang, Guihuai

    2017-12-01

    Spinal arteriovenous lesions (SAVLs), arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), are rare and can devastatingly impair spinal cord function. This study aimed to evaluate clinical outcomes after microsurgical treatment with the aid of intraoperative indocyanine green video-angiography (ICG-VA) in a large series of patients with SAVLs. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 95 consecutive patients with 105 SAVLs (77 spinal AVFs, 28 spinal AVMs) who had been treated surgically during 2010-2016 in two hospitals by the same experienced surgeon. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography preoperatively and were assessed using the modified Aminoff and Logue Scale (mALS). All lesions were resected or occluded using ICG-VA. No ICG-VA-related complications occurred. Compared with AVF, patients with AVM tended to be younger (ppresentation was paresthesia (89.52%). At a mean follow-up of 33.3months, mALS indicated significant improvement in patients with spinal AVFs (ptool during resection of these lesions, especially in patients with an AVF. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Dandy-Walker malformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Silian Mandu Fonseca; Marta Wey Vieira; Sandra Regina Dantas Nascimento; Sandro Blasi Esposito

    2017-01-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation is characterized by complete or partial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and enlargement of the posterior fossa with displacement...

  19. Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla for evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of vascular malformations: description of distinct subgroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Simone; Fellner, Claudia; Wohlgemuth, Walter A. [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Uller, Wibke [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Manger, Florentine [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Zeman, Florian [University Hospital Regensburg, Center for Clinical Trials, Regensburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Quantitative evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of arteriovenous and venous malformations using time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla. Time-resolved MRA with interleaved stochastic trajectories (TWIST) at 3.0 Tesla was studied in 83 consecutive patients with venous malformations (VM) and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Enhancement characteristics were calculated as percentage increase of signal intensity above baseline over time. Maximum percentage signal intensity increase (signal{sub max}), time intervals between onset of arterial enhancement and lesion enhancement (t{sub onset}), and time intervals between beginning of lesion enhancement and maximum percentage of lesion enhancement (t{sub max}) were analyzed. All AVMs showed a high-flow hemodynamic pattern. Two significantly different (p < 0.001) types of venous malformations emerged: VMs with arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) (median signal{sub max} 737 %, IQR [interquartile range] = 511 - 1182 %; median t{sub onset} 5 s, IQR = 5 - 10 s; median t{sub max} 35 s, IQR = 26 - 40 s) and without AVFs (median signal{sub max} 284 %, IQR = 177-432 %; median t{sub onset} 23 s, IQR = 15 - 30 s; median t{sub max} 60 s, IQR = 55 - 75 s). Quantitative evaluation of time-resolved MRA at 3.0 Tesla provides hemodynamic characterization of vascular malformations. VMs can be subclassified into two hemodynamic subgroups due to presence or absence of AVFs. (orig.)

  20. A case of spinal epidural venous malformation with mediastinal extension: management with combined surgery and percutaneous sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Yilmaz, Sabri; Grunwaldt, Lorelei; Hamilton, Ronald L; Salvetti, David J; Greene, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    While spinal epidural arteriovenous malformations, fistulas, and shunts are well reported, the presence of a venous malformation in the spinal epidural space is a rare phenomenon. Herein, the authors report the clinical presentation, imaging findings, pathological features, and the outcome of surgical and percutaneous interventional management of a mediastinal and spinal epidural venous malformation in a young woman who presented clinically with neurogenic claudication from presumed venous hypertension precipitating the formation of a syrinx. The patient underwent a C6-T5 osteoplastic laminectomy for decompression of the spinal canal and subtotal resection of the epidural venous malformation, followed by percutaneous sclerotherapy of the mediastinal and residual anterior spinal venous malformation. She developed transient loss of dorsal column sensation, which returned to baseline within 3 weeks of the surgery. A 6-month postoperative MRI study revealed complete resolution of the syrinx and the mediastinal venous malformation. Twelve months after the surgery, the patient has had resolution of all neurological symptoms with the exception of her premorbid migraine headaches. A multidisciplinary approach with partial resection and the use of percutaneous sclerotherapy for the residual malformation can be used to successfully treat a complex venous malformation.

  1. The use of 3D computer graphics in the diagnosis and treatment of spinal vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Keisuke; Kin, Taichi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Iijima, Akira; Shojima, Masaaki; Nishido, Hajime; Saito, Nobuhito

    2011-12-01

    Digital subtraction (DS) angiography is the gold standard for diagnosing spinal vascular malformations. Recently, multidetectorrow spiral CT and contrast-enhanced MR angiography have been introduced as screening examinations before DS angiography. These methods, however, do not always determine the accurate location of an arteriovenous shunt because the resulting images lack information about the spinal cord or the dura mater. Between April 2009 and December 2010, 13 patients underwent imaging evaluations for spinal vascular malformations at the authors' university hospital. This group included 8 patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), 3 with perimedullary AVFs, and 2 with intramedullary arteriovenous malformations. Using data from these patients, the authors attempted to develop 3D computer graphics (CG) based upon the fusion of 3D rotational angiography and postmyelographic CT. They subsequently verified the accuracy of this imaging method. Ten of these 13 patients underwent surgical treatment for their lesions (11 AVFs), and for these 11 lesions the authors compared the diagnoses obtained using 3D CG with those obtained using conventional DS angiography. In all 13 cases, 3D CG images of the spinal lesions were successfully developed using the patients' actual data. Four (36%) of 11 AVFs were correctly identified using DS angiography, whereas 10 (91%) were correctly identified using 3D CG. Results from 3D CG of spinal AVFs corresponded well with operative findings, and 3D CG was significantly better than conventional DS angiography at predicting AVF location (p = 0.024, Fisher exact test). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case series in which 3D CG of spinal vascular malformations was used to provide simultaneous, stereoscopic visualization of the spinal vascular system, spinal cord, dura mater, and bone. The 3D CG method provides precise visual images for the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions.

  2. Cerebrovascular Accident Secondary to Paradoxical Embolism Following Arteriovenous Graft Thrombectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolina Pamela Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombectomy is a common procedure performed to declot thrombosed dialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF or arteriovenous graft (AVG. Complications associated with access thrombectomy like pulmonary embolism have been reported, but paradoxical embolism is extremely rare. We report a case of a 74-year-old black man with past medical history significant for end-stage renal disease (ESRD, atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation with warfarin, who presented to our hospital with lethargy, aphasia, and right-sided hemiparesis following thrombectomy of a clotted AVG. Computed tomography (CT scan of brain showed a hypodensity within the left posterior parietal lobe. INR was 2.0 on admission. Echocardiogram revealed a normal sized left atrium with no intracardiac thrombus, and bubble study showed the presence of right-to-left shunting. These findings suggest that the stroke occurred as a result of an embolus originating from the AVG. Paradoxical cerebral embolism is uncommon but can occur after thrombectomy of clotted vascular access in ESRD patients. Clinicians and patients should be aware of this serious and potentially fatal complication of vascular access procedure.

  3. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency.

  4. Noncavernous arteriovenous shunts mimicking carotid cavernous fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobkitsuksakul, Chai; Jiarakongmun, Pakorn; Chanthanaphak, Ekachat; Pongpech, Sirintara

    2016-01-01

    The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinus with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages. We retrospectively examined the records of 350 patients who were given provisional diagnoses of carotid cavernous sinus fistulae or cavernous sinus dural AVF in the division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok between 2008 and 2014. Any patient with cavernous arteriovenous shunt was excluded. Of those 350 patients, 10 patients (2.85%) were identified as having noncavernous sinus AVF. The angiographic diagnoses consisted of three anterior condylar (hypoglossal) dural AVF, two traumatic middle meningeal AVF, one lesser sphenoid wing dural AVF, one vertebro-vertebral fistula (VVF), one intraorbital AVF, one direct dural artery to cortical vein dural AVF, and one transverse-sigmoid dural AVF. Six cases (60%) were found to have venous efferent obstruction. Arteriovenous shunts mimicking the cavernous AVF are rare, with a prevalence of only 2.85% in this series. The clinical presentation mainly depends on venous outflow. The venous outlet of the arteriovenous shunts is influenced by venous afferent-efferent patterns according to the venous anatomy of the central nervous system and the skull base, as well as by architectural disturbance, specifically, obstruction of the venous outflow.

  5. Dandy-Walker Malformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rme

    Dandy-Walker variant consist of vermian hypoplasia and cystic dilttion of the fourth ventricle without enlargement of the posterior fossa. (Figure 1). Fig. 1: Dandy-Walker malformation. Dandy-. Walker variant in a 13-year-old girl with thoracal scoliosis. Sagittal T1-weighted MRI shows agenesis of the corpus callosum and a.

  6. Acral hemosideric lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

    2013-07-01

    Cutaneous lymphatic malformations represent a group of heterogeneous diseases caused by developmental defects of lymphatic system. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a distinctive lymphatic malformation. Twelve patients with similar clinical and histopathological features were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining of CD31, D2-40, Prox1 and Wilms tumor 1 (WT-1) were performed on all lesions. All cases were either congenital lesions or developed during the first 2 years of life. All presented as red to brown papules or nodules on acral sites. Histopathologically, the lesions consisted of a dermal proliferation of flat or slit-like vessels lined with a single layer of endothelial cells. Hemosiderin or extravascular red blood cells were present in all cases. The constituent vessels expressed CD31, D2-40 and Prox1 and lacked expression of WT-1. On the basis of the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, our cases represent a unique type of lymphatic malformation that we believe is distinct from previously reported vascular proliferations. We propose the name of acral hemosideric lymphatic malformation for this entity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Anorectal malformations in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anorectal malformations (ARMs) remain a significant birth defect with an accepted incidence of approximately 0.2 -. 1.2%.1,2 Although major advances have occurred in the man- agement of these children during the last 15 years, ARMs remain a clinical challenge largely because of the significant reconstructive and ...

  8. Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3.0 Tesla for evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of vascular malformations: description of distinct subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Simone; Uller, Wibke; Manger, Florentine; Fellner, Claudia; Zeman, Florian; Wohlgemuth, Walter A

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of hemodynamic characteristics of arteriovenous and venous malformations using