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Sample records for braided multi-layer metallic

  1. Thermal analysis of thin multi-layer metal films during femtosecond laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, A.; Tunc, M.; Camdali, Ü.

    2010-12-01

    Multi-layer metals films are widely used in modern engineering applications such as gold-coated metal mirrors used in high power laser systems. A transient heat flux model is derived to analyze multi-layer metal films under laser heating. The two separate system composed of electrons and the lattice is considered to take into account the electron-lattice interaction. The present model predicted the effects of underlying chromium's thermal properties on temperature rise of the top gold layer. The effects of two adjacent and different metals with different electron-lattice coupling factors are analyzed for the heating mechanism of different lattices. The derived transient model combined with the two different conservation equations for the lattice and electrons are applied for the ultra short-pulse laser heating of a multi-layer film composed of gold and chromium.

  2. Design of multi-layered porous fibrous metals for optimal sound absorption in the low frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a design method for calculating and optimizing sound absorption coefficient of multi-layered porous fibrous metals (PFM in the low frequency range. PFM is simplified as an equivalent idealized sheet with all metallic fibers aligned in one direction and distributed in periodic hexagonal patterns. We use a phenomenological model in the literature to investigate the effects of pore geometrical parameters (fiber diameter and gap on sound absorption performance. The sound absorption coefficient of multi-layered PFMs is calculated using impedance translation theorem. To demonstrate the validity of the present model, we compare the predicted results with the experimental data. With the average sound absorption (low frequency range as the objective function and the fiber gaps as the design variables, an optimization method for multi-layered fibrous metals is proposed. A new fibrous layout with given porosity of multi-layered fibrous metals is suggested to achieve optimal low frequency sound absorption. The sound absorption coefficient of the optimal multi-layered fibrous metal is higher than the single-layered fibrous metal, and a significant effect of the fibrous material on sound absorption is found due to the surface porosity of the multi-layered fibrous.

  3. Blood-Flow Modelling Along and Trough a Braided Multi-Layer Metallic Stent

    CERN Document Server

    Milisic, Vuk

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study the hemodynamics in a stented artery connected either to a collateral artery or to an aneurysmal sac. The blood flow is driven by the pressure drop. Our aim is to characterize the flow-rate and the pressure in the contiguous zone to the main artery: using boundary layer theory we construct a homogenized first order approximation with respect to epsilon, the size of the stent's wires. This provides an explicit expression of the velocity profile through and along the stent. The profile depends only on the input/output pressure data of the problem and some homogenized constant quantities: it is explicit. In the collateral artery this gives the flow-rate. In the case of the aneurysm, it shows that : (i) the zeroth order term of the pressure in the sac equals the averaged pressure along the stent in the main artery, (ii) the presence of the stent inverses the rotation of the vortex. Extending the tools set up in [Bonnetier et al, Adv. Math. Fluids, 2009, Milisic, Meth. Apl. Ann., 2009] we pro...

  4. Numerical Simulation of Multi-track and Multi-layer Temperature Field on Laser Direct Metal Shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Risheng; LIU Weijun

    2006-01-01

    To improve the mechanical properties of the parts fabricated by Laser Direct Metal Shaping (LDMS), it is of great significance to understand the distribution regularities of transient temperature field during LDMS process. Based on the "element birth and death" technique of finite element method, a three-dimensional multi-track and multi-layer model for the transient temperature field analysis of LDMS is developed by ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) for the first time. In the fabricated model, X-direction parallel reciprocating scanning paths is introduced. Using the same process parameters, the simulation results show good agreement with the microstructure features of samples which fabricated by LDMS.

  5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of select multi-layered transition metal carbides (MXenes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Joseph; Cook, Kevin M.; Naguib, Michael; Eklund, Per; Gogotsi, Yury; Rosen, Johanna; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a detailed high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is presented for select MXenes-a recently discovered family of two-dimensional (2D) carbides and carbonitrides. Given their 2D nature, understanding their surface chemistry is paramount. Herein we identify and quantify the surface groups present before, and after, sputter-cleaning as well as freshly prepared vs. aged multi-layered cold pressed discs. The nominal compositions of the MXenes studied here are Ti3C2Tx, Ti2CTx, Ti3CNTx, Nb2CTx and Nb4C3Tx, where T represents surface groups that this work attempts to quantify. In all the cases, the presence of three surface terminations, sbnd O, sbnd OH and sbnd F, in addition to OH-terminations relatively strongly bonded to H2O molecules, was confirmed. From XPS peak fits, it was possible to establish the average sum of the negative charges of the terminations for the aforementioned MXenes. Based on this work, it is now possible to quantify the nature of the surface terminations. This information can, in turn, be used to better design and tailor these novel 2D materials for various applications.

  6. The effect of metal nano particle on optical absorption coefficient of multi-layer spherical quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, N., E-mail: n.zamani@sutech.ac.ir [Department of Physics, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshavarz, A., E-mail: keshavarz@sutech.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nadgaran, H., E-mail: nadgaran@susc.ac.ir [Department of Physics, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optical absorption coefficient of hybrid structure consisting of metal nano particle (MNP) coupled to multi-layer spherical quantum dot (MSQD). Energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of Schrödinger equation in this structure are obtained by using numerical solution (by the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method). The effect of MNP in the vicinity of MSQD is calculated by considering local field theory. Then the variation of optical absorption coefficient hybrid structure is calculated. The results show that the presence of MNP near MSQD enhances the optical absorption coefficient. Also, by changing the distance between MNP and MSQD and radius of MNP, variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are introduced.

  7. The effect of metal nano particle on optical absorption coefficient of multi-layer spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, N.; Keshavarz, A.; Nadgaran, H.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optical absorption coefficient of hybrid structure consisting of metal nano particle (MNP) coupled to multi-layer spherical quantum dot (MSQD). Energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of Schrödinger equation in this structure are obtained by using numerical solution (by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method). The effect of MNP in the vicinity of MSQD is calculated by considering local field theory. Then the variation of optical absorption coefficient hybrid structure is calculated. The results show that the presence of MNP near MSQD enhances the optical absorption coefficient. Also, by changing the distance between MNP and MSQD and radius of MNP, variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are introduced.

  8. Layered structure of Ni-Al multi-layered metal-intermetallic composites fabricated by in-situ reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佼; 孙宝德; 夏振海

    2004-01-01

    Systematical experiments were done at five temperature levels: 500 ℃, 630 ℃, 900 ℃, 1 000 ℃ and 1 100 ℃ to illuminate the layer structure of the multi-layered metal-intermetallic composites of Ni-Al system that were fabricated by a previously reported simple and cost-effective method. The analysis of back scattering photos and XRD examination of specimens reveal that the look like single compound layer is composed of several different components. The primary phase produced during reaction is Ni2 Al3 and there exists a like two-phase field between NiAl3 and Ni2 Al3. The high temperature phases like NiAl and Ni3 Al are also found at low temperature. The results indicate that the key driving force of in-situ reaction is not temperature, but the atom concentration.

  9. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  10. Effect of cyclic outer and inner bending on the fatigue behavior of a multi-layer metal film on a polymer substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Joon; Shin, Hae-A.-Seul; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Joo, Young-Chang

    2016-06-01

    The electrical reliability of a multi-layer metal film on a polymer substrate during cyclic inner bending and outer bending is investigated using a bending fatigue system. The electrical resistance of a Cu film on a polymer substrate during cyclic outer bending increases due to fatigue damage formation, such as cracks and extrusion. Cyclic inner bending also leads to fatigue damage and a similar increase in the electrical resistance. In a sample having a NiCr under-layer, however, the electrical resistance increases significantly during outer bending but not during inner bending mode. Cross-sectional observations reveal that brittle cracking in the hard under-layer results in different fatigue behaviors according to the stress mode. By applying an Al over-layer, the fatigue resistance is improved during both outer bending and inner bending by suppressing fatigue damage formation. The effects of the position, materials, and thickness of the inter-layer on the electrical reliability of a multi-layer sample are also investigated. This study can provide meaningful information for designing a multi-layer structure under various mechanical deformations including tensile and compressive stress.

  11. High-gain complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor inverter based on multi-layer WSe2 field effect transistors without doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won-Mook; Cho, In-Tak; Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Changhee; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-10-01

    A high-gain complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic inverter was implemented by fabricating p- and n-type field effect transistors (FETs) based on multi-layer WSe2 on the same wafer. Au as a high work-function metal is contacted to WSe2 for the source/drain of the p-type FET. The n-type FET has an Al electrode contacted to WSe2 for the source/drain. Both FETs were designed to have similar on-current densities (>10-7 A μm-1) and high on/off current ratios (>106). The inverter shows excellent switching characteristics including relatively high voltage gains (>25) and high noise margins (>0.9) in the range of supply voltage from 2 V to 8 V. This work has a great significance in the realization of a CMOS logic gate based on WSe2 without an additional doping scheme.

  12. Novel multi-layer polymer-metal structures for use in ultrasonic transducer impedance matching and backing absorber applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Minoru; Thompson, Mitchell

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a novel design principle for designing multilayer polymer-metal structures which are well suited for front surface impedance conversion (matching) and for back surface acoustic absorption. It is shown that a polymer layer with an outer metal layer, when loaded by a low impedance propagation medium, acts as an efficient impedance converter. The resulting impedance seen at the inner polymer surface is increased and the structure provides the same performance as a traditional quarter-wavelength matching layer. Experimental evidence is also shown for a double-matching scheme for a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer using an inner polymer-metal multilayer and an outer polymer quarterwavelength layer, resulting in a 55% bandwidth at 2.6 MHz with air backing. Also, it is theoretically shown that multiple layers of a lossy polymer adhesive-metal structure produce low propagation velocity and high absorption. Experimental proof of this ultrasonic multilayer backing absorber is provided. Design theories based on both a simplified mass and spring model and a rigorous one-dimensional wave model have been developed and show fair agreement.

  13. Braiding Parameters of Medical Silk Braided Suture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佩华; 吴建华

    2001-01-01

    The relationships between braiding parameters and properties of medical silk braided suture are investigated. Experimental results indicate that the main factors affecting the suture properties include the proportion of core silk and shell silk, braiding density and braiding tension. The results show that the braiding technology significantly influences the suture properties and the optimal braiding parameters were obtained by using the regression method.

  14. Divisor braids

    CERN Document Server

    Bökstedt, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    We study a novel type of braid groups on a closed orientable surface $\\Sigma$. These are fundamental groups of certain manifolds that are hybrids between symmetric products and configuration spaces of points on $\\Sigma$; a class of examples arises naturally in gauge theory, as moduli spaces of vortices in toric fibre bundles over $\\Sigma$. The elements of these braid groups, which we call divisor braids, have coloured strands that are allowed to intersect according to rules specified by a graph $\\Gamma$. In situations where there is more than one strand of each colour, we show that the corresponding braid group admits a metabelian presentation as a central extension of the free Abelian group $H_1(\\Sigma;\\mathbb{Z})^{\\oplus r}$, where $r$ is the number of colours, and describe its Abelian commutator. This computation relies crucially on producing a link invariant (of closed divisor braids) in the three-manifold $S^1 \\times \\Sigma $ for each graph $\\Gamma$. We also describe the von Neumann algebras associated t...

  15. Corrosion protected, multi-layer fuel cell interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Haim; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1986-01-01

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. The multi-layer configuration for the interface comprises a non-cupreous metal-coated metallic element to which is film-bonded a conductive layer by hot pressing a resin therebetween. The multi-layer arrangement provides bridging electrical contact.

  16. Unprovability results involving braids

    CERN Document Server

    Carlucci, Lorenzo; Weiermann, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    We construct long sequences of braids that are descending with respect to the standard order of braids (``Dehornoy order''), and we deduce that, contrary to all usual algebraic properties of braids, certain simple combinatorial statements involving the braid order are true, but not provable in the subsystems ISigma1 or ISigma2 of the standard Peano system.

  17. Fibonacci numbers and positive braids

    CERN Document Server

    Ashraf, Rehana; Riasat, Ayesha

    2010-01-01

    The paper contains enumerative combinatorics for positive braids, square free braids, and simple braids, emphasizing connections with classical Fibonacci sequence. The simple subgraph of the Cayley graph of the braid group is analyzed in the final part.

  18. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-09-14

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  19. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  20. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  1. Generating random braids

    CERN Document Server

    Gebhardt, Volker

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm to generate positive braids of a given length as words in Artin generators with a uniform probability. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial in the number of strands and in the length of the generated braids. As a byproduct, we describe a finite state automaton accepting the language of lexicographically minimal representatives of positive braids that has the minimal possible number of states, and we prove that its number of states is exponential in the number of strands.

  2. Reverse engineering of multi-layer films

    OpenAIRE

    Effendi Widjaja; Marc Garland

    2011-01-01

    This contribution introduces the combined application of Raman microscopy and band-target entropy minimization (BTEM) in order to successfully reverse-engineer a multi-layer packaging material. Three layers are identified, namely, polyethylene, a paper and talc layer (with two distinct cellulose forms), and a poly-styrene co-polymer composite containing anatase and calcite. This rapid and non-destructive approach provides a unique opportunity for the assessment of multi-layer composites, incl...

  3. Reverse engineering of multi-layer films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effendi Widjaja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution introduces the combined application of Raman microscopy and band-target entropy minimization (BTEM in order to successfully reverse-engineer a multi-layer packaging material. Three layers are identified, namely, polyethylene, a paper and talc layer (with two distinct cellulose forms, and a poly-styrene co-polymer composite containing anatase and calcite. This rapid and non-destructive approach provides a unique opportunity for the assessment of multi-layer composites, including the constitution of the additives present.

  4. Multi-layer VEB modeling: capturing interlayer etch process effects for multi-patterning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin; Jung, Sunwook; Li, Jianliang; Kim, Young; Bar, Yuval; Lobb, Granger; Liang, Jim; Ogino, Atsushi; Sturtevant, John; Bailey, Todd

    2016-03-01

    Self-Aligned Via (SAV) process is commonly used in back end of line (BEOL) patterning. As the technology node advances, tightening CD and overlay specs require continuous improvement in model accuracy of the SAV process. Traditional single layer Variable Etch Bias (VEB) model is capable of describing the micro-loading and aperture effects associated with the reactive ion etch (RIE), but it does not include effects from under layers. For the SAV etch, a multi-layer VEB model is needed to account for the etch restriction from metal trenches. In this study, we characterize via post-etch dimensions through pitch and through metal trench widths, and show that VEB model prediction accuracy for SAV CDs after SAV formation can be significantly improved by applying a multi-layer scheme. Using a multi-layer VEB, it is demonstrated that the output via size changes with varying trench dimensions, which matches the silicon results. The model also reports via shape post-etch as a function of trench environment, where elliptical vias are correctly produced. The multi-layer VEB model can be applied both multi-layer correction and verification in full chip flow. This paper will also suggest that the multi-layer VEB model can be used in other FEOL layers with interlayer etch process effects, such as gate cut, to support the robustness of new model.

  5. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  6. Mathematical Formulation of Multi-Layer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Cozzo, Emanuele; Kivelä, Mikko; Moreno, Yamir; Porter, Mason A; Gòmez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2013-01-01

    A network representation is useful for describing the structure of a large variety of complex systems. However, most real and engineered systems have multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and the data produced by such systems is very rich. Achieving a deep understanding of such systems necessitates generalizing "traditional" network theory, and the newfound deluge of data now makes it possible to test increasingly general frameworks for the study of networks. In particular, although adjacency matrices are useful to describe traditional single-layer networks, such a representation is insufficient for the analysis and description of multiplex and time-dependent networks. One must therefore develop a more general mathematical framework to cope with the challenges posed by multi-layer complex systems. In this paper, we introduce a tensorial framework to study multi-layer networks, and we discuss the generalization of several important network descriptors and dynamical processes ---including degree centr...

  7. Network Composition from Multi-layer Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Kristina; Yan, Xiaoran

    2016-01-01

    It is common for people to access multiple social networks, for example, using phone, email, and social media. Together, the multi-layer social interactions form a "integrated social network." How can we extend well developed knowledge about single-layer networks, including vertex centrality and community structure, to such heterogeneous structures? In this paper, we approach these challenges by proposing a principled framework of network composition based on a unified dynamical process. Mathematically, we consider the following abstract problem: Given multi-layer network data and additional parameters for intra and inter-layer dynamics, construct a (single) weighted network that best integrates the joint process. We use transformations of dynamics to unify heterogeneous layers under a common dynamics. For inter-layer compositions, we will consider several cases as the inter-layer dynamics plays different roles in various social or technological networks. Empirically, we provide examples to highlight the usef...

  8. Multi-Layered Neural Networks Infer Fundamental Stellar Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Kuldeep; Bhattacharya, Jishnu; Antia, H M; Krishnamurthy, Ganapathy

    2016-01-01

    The advent of space-based observatories such as CoRoT and Kepler has enabled the testing of our understanding of stellar evolution on thousands of stars. Evolutionary models typically require five input parameters, the mass, initial Helium abundance, initial metallicity, mixing-length (assumed to be constant over time) and the age to which the star must be evolved. These parameters are also very useful in characterizing the associated planets and in studying galactic archaeology. How to obtain the parameters from observations rapidly and accurately, specifically in the context of surveys of thousands of stars, is an outstanding question, one that has eluded straightforward resolution. For a given star, we typically measure the effective temperature and surface metallicity spectroscopically and low-degree oscillation frequencies through space observatories. Here we demonstrate that statistical learning, using multi-layered neural networks, is successful in determining the evolutionary parameters based on spect...

  9. Analysis of multi-layer ERBS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmitt, G.G. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rosa, L.F.S. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nandi, S.K. [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Vos, M., E-mail: maarten.vos@anu.edu.au [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Electron Rutherford backscattering (ERBS) spectra are presented. • The spectra are fitted based on physical meaningful quantities. • Very consistent results are obtained for spectra taken under different conditions. • This establishes that ERBS can be used to measure film thicknesses. - Abstract: A systematic way of analysis of multi-layer electron Rutherford backscattering spectra is described. The approach uses fitting in terms of physical meaningful parameters. Simultaneous analysis then becomes possible for spectra taken at different incoming energies and measurement geometries. Examples are given to demonstrate the level of detail that can be resolved by this technique.

  10. On braid monodromy factorizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France); Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2003-06-30

    We introduce and develop a language of semigroups over the braid groups to study the braid monodromy factorizations (bmf's) of plane algebraic curves and other related objects. As an application, we give a new proof of Orevkov's theorem on the realization of bmf's over a disc by algebraic curves and show that the complexity of such a realization cannot be bounded in terms of the types of factors of the bmf. We also prove that the type of a bmf distinguishes Hurwitz curves with singularities of inseparable type up to H-isotopy and J-holomorphic cuspidal curves in CP{sup 2} up to symplectic isotopy.

  11. Probability and (Braiding) Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Given recent progress in the realization of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting nanowires with proximity-induced superconductivity, a crucial next step is to attempt an experimental demonstration of the predicted braiding statistics associated with the Majorana mode. Such a demonstration should, in principle, confirm that observed zero-bias anomalies are indeed indicative of the presence of anyonic Majorana zero modes. Moreover, such a demonstration would be a breakthrough at the level of f...

  12. Generalized braided Hopf algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-jian; FANG Xiao-li

    2009-01-01

    The concept of (f, σ)-pair (B, H)is introduced, where B and H are Hopf algebras. A braided tensor category which is a tensor subcategory of the category HM of left H-comodules through an (f, σ)-pair is constructed. In particularly, a Yang-Baxter equation is got. A Hopf algebra is constructed as well in the Yetter-Drinfel'd category HHYD by twisting the multiplication of B.

  13. An ensemble perspective on multi-layer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wider, Nicolas; Scholtes, Ingo; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study properties of multi-layered, interconnected networks from an ensemble perspective, i.e. we analyze ensembles of multi-layer networks that share similar aggregate characteristics. Using a diffusive process that evolves on a multi-layer network, we analyze how the speed of diffusion depends on the aggregate characteristics of both intra- and inter-layer connectivity. Through a block-matrix model representing the distinct layers, we construct transition matrices of random walkers on multi-layer networks, and estimate expected properties of multi-layer networks using a mean-field approach. In addition, we quantify and explore conditions on the link topology that allow to estimate the ensemble average by only considering aggregate statistics of the layers. Our approach can be used when only partial information is available, like it is usually the case for real-world multi-layer complex systems.

  14. Bicharacters, braids and Jacobi identity

    CERN Document Server

    Rozansky, L

    1996-01-01

    For an abelian group G we consider braiding in a category of G-graded modules $M^{kG}$ given by a bicharacter \\chi on G. For $(G,\\chi)$-bialgebra A in $M^{kG}$ an analog of Lie bracket is defined. This bracket is determined by a linear map $E\\in\\End(A)$ and n-ary operations $\\Omega^{n}_{E}$ on A. Our result states that if $E(1)=0,E^{2}=0$ and $\\Omega^{3}_{E}=0$ then a braided Jacobi identity holds and the linear map E is a braided derivation of a braided Lie algebra.

  15. Kummer covers and braid monodromy

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Ortigas-Galindo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe a method to reconstruct the braid monodromy of the preimage of a curve by a Kummer cover. This method is interesting, since it combines two techniques, namely, the reconstruction of a highly non-generic braid monodromy with a systematic method to go from a non-generic to a generic braid monodromy. This "generification" method is independent from Kummer covers and can be applied in more general circumstances since non generic braid monodromies appear more naturally and are oftentimes much easier to compute. Explicit examples are computed using these techniques.

  16. Dynnikov coordinates on virtual braid groups

    CERN Document Server

    Bardakov, Valerij G; Wiest, Bert

    2011-01-01

    We define Dynnikov coordinates on virtual braid groups. We prove that they are faithful invariants of virtual 2-braids, and present evidence that they are also very powerful invariants for general virtual braids.

  17. Basic results on braid groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan

    2010-01-01

    These are Lecture Notes of a course given by the author at the French-Spanish School "Tresses in Pau", held in Pau (France) in October 2009. It is basically an introduction to distinct approaches and techniques that can be used to show results in braid groups. Using these techniques we provide several proofs of well known results in braid groups, namely the correctness of Artin's presentation, that the braid group is torsion free, or that its center is generated by the full twist. We also recall some solutions of the word and conjugacy problems, and that roots of a braid are always conjugate. We also describe the centralizer of a given braid. Most proofs are classical ones, using modern terminology. I have chosen those which I find simpler or more beautiful.

  18. Group theory analysis of braided geometry structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wei; MA Wensuo

    2005-01-01

    The braided geometry structures are analyzed with point groups and space groups for which the continuous yarn of the braided preforms is segmented and expressed in some special symbols. All structures of braided material are described and classified with group theory, and new braiding methods are found. The group theory analysis lays the theoretical foundation for optimizing material performance.

  19. Twisted conjugacy in braid groups

    CERN Document Server

    González-Meneses, Juan

    2011-01-01

    In this note we solve the twisted conjugacy problem for braid groups, i.e. we propose an algorithm which, given two braids $u,v\\in B_n$ and an automorphism $\\phi \\in Aut (B_n)$, decides whether $v=(\\phi (x))^{-1}ux$ for some $x\\in B_n$. As a corollary, we deduce that each group of the form $B_n \\rtimes H$, a semidirect product of the braid group $B_n$ by a torsion-free hyperbolic group $H$, has solvable conjugacy problem.

  20. Design considerations for energy efficient, resilient, multi-layer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Hansen, Line Pyndt; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates different network design considerations with respect to energy-efficiency, under green-field resilient multi-layer network deployment. The problem of energy efficient, reliable multi-layer network design is known to result in different trade-offs between key performance...... in multi-layer networks and performance measures such as network resource utilization, availability, agility to traffic fluctuations and energy consumption. A green-field network deployment scenario is considered, where different resiliency methods, design methodologies and grooming strategies are applied...

  1. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langston, William L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilio, Lorena I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  2. Reducible braids and Garside theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan

    2010-01-01

    We show that reducible braids which are, in a Garside-theoretical sense, as simple as possible within their conjugacy class, are also as simple as possible in a geometric sense. More precisely, if a braid belongs to a certain subset of its conjugacy class which we call the stabilized set of sliding circuits, and if it is reducible, then its reducibility is geometrically obvious: it has a round or almost round reducing curve. Moreover, for any given braid, an element of its stabilized set of sliding circuits can be found using the well-known cyclic sliding operation. This leads to a polynomial time algorithm for deciding the Nielsen-Thurston type of any braid, modulo one well-known conjecture on the speed of convergence of the cyclic sliding operation.

  3. Study on Braiding Parameters of a Biodegradable Nerve Regeneration Conduit with Regular Braided Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-hua; ZHANG Pei-hua; WANG Wen-zu; FENG Xun-wei; LIU Hong-feng

    2004-01-01

    A biodegradable nerve regeneration conduit has been developed by the regular braided technique on a spindle-braiding machine. The geometry property indexes of braided nerve conduit consist of pitch, density, wall thickness and porosity etc. In this article, the influences of the braiding parameters i.e. the linear density of yarn, gear ratio and spindle number of the braiding machine on these geometry property indexes of nerve conduit were discussed from which the optimal braiding parameters were obtained.

  4. Power Control in Multi-Layer Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Davaslioglu, Kemal

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possible performance gains of power control in multi-layer cellular systems where microcells and picocells are distributed within macrocells. Although multilayers in cellular networks help increase system capacity and coverage, and can reduce total energy consumption; they cause interference, reducing the performance of the network. Therefore, downlink transmit power levels of multi-layer hierarchical cellular networks need to be controlled in order to fully exploit their benefits. In this work, we present an analytical derivation to determine optimum power levels for two-layer cellular networks and generalize our solution to multi-layer cellular networks. We also simulate our results in a typical multi-layer network setup and observe significant power savings compared to single-layer cellular networks.

  5. Multi-layer Far-Infrared Component Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR will demonstrate the feasibility of a process to create multi-layer thin-film optics for the far-infrared/sub-millimeter wave spectral region. The...

  6. Multi-layer perception approach to identification of compound information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金玮; 李德胜

    2001-01-01

    Presents a novel approach of multi-layer sensing for perception of high-level environmental information related to many conventional physical quantities, such as temperature, humidity and brightness, which focuses on the processing of multi-functional variables in a multi-layer framework, and consists of multi-functional sensing and multi-layer fusion. Concerning the first aspect, a CdS and Fe3 O4 materials based multi-functionsensor has been developed to measure the three quantities, and provides a possible solution to the sensor multifunctional measurement equations, especially when the sensor processes more than three quantities, and proposes ways to evaluate the concerned environment as degree of comfort, Quantity Creditability Tactics (QCT) of multi-layer data fusion.

  7. Genetic braid optimization: A heuristic approach to compute quasiparticle braids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ross B.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2013-02-01

    In topologically protected quantum computation, quantum gates can be carried out by adiabatically braiding two-dimensional quasiparticles, reminiscent of entangled world lines. Bonesteel [Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.140503 95, 140503 (2005)], as well as Leijnse and Flensberg [Phys. Rev. B10.1103/PhysRevB.86.104511 86, 104511 (2012)], recently provided schemes for computing quantum gates from quasiparticle braids. Mathematically, the problem of executing a gate becomes that of finding a product of the generators (matrices) in that set that approximates the gate best, up to an error. To date, efficient methods to compute these gates only strive to optimize for accuracy. We explore the possibility of using a generic approach applicable to a variety of braiding problems based on evolutionary (genetic) algorithms. The method efficiently finds optimal braids while allowing the user to optimize for the relative utilities of accuracy and/or length. Furthermore, when optimizing for error only, the method can quickly produce efficient braids.

  8. Enhanced Multi-Layer Fatigue-Analysis Approach for Unbonded Flexible Risers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨和振; 姜豪; 杨启

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an enhanced approach for evaluating the fatigue life of each metallic layer of unbonded flexible risers. Owing to the complex structure of unbonded flexible risers and the nonlinearity of the system, particularly in the critical touchdown zone, the traditional method is insufficient for accurately evaluating the fatigue life of these risers. The main challenge lies in the transposition from global to local analyses, which is a key stage for the fatigue analysis of flexible pipes owing to their complex structure. The new enhanced approach derives a multi-layer stress-decomposition method to meet this challenge. In this study, a numerical model validated experimentally is used to demonstrate the accuracy of the stress-decomposition method. And a numerical case is studied to validate the proposed approach. The results demonstrate that the multi-layer stress-decomposition method is accurate, and the fatigue lives of the metallic layers predicted by the enhanced multi-layer analysis approach are rational. The proposed fatigue-analysis approach provides a practical and reasonable method for predicting fatigue life in the design of unbonded flexible risers.

  9. Defect Detection in Multi-Layered Structures Using High Frequency Guided Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masserey, B.; Kostson, E.; Fromme, P.

    2011-06-01

    Aircraft structures contain multi-layered components connected by fasteners, where fatigue cracks and disbonds can develop due to cyclic loading conditions and stress concentration. High frequency guided waves propagating along the structure allow for the efficient non-destructive testing of components, such as aircraft wings. However, the sensitivity for the detection of small defects has to be ascertained. The type of multi-layered model structure investigated consists of two adhesively bonded aluminium plate-strips. High frequency ultrasonic wave propagation along the structure and the sensitivity to disbonds and small defects in the metallic layers was investigated and verified experimentally. Preliminary fatigue experiments were carried out and the sensitivity of the guided waves to monitor fatigue crack growth at a fastener hole during cyclic loading was investigated. The measurement setup has the potential for fatigue crack growth monitoring at critical and difficult to access fastener locations from a stand-off distance.

  10. Structural, magnetic and transport properties of discontinuous granular multi-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denardin, J.C. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas SP (Brazil); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: knobel@ifi.unicamp.br; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM 97105-900, Santa Maria RS (Brazil); Schelp, L.F. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM 97105-900, Santa Maria RS (Brazil)

    2005-07-15

    Results of structural, magnetic and transport properties of magnetic Co/SiO{sub 2} discontinuous multi-layers produced by sequential deposition are presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the samples that are close to metal-insulation transition are composed by a connected network of metallic paths, and display an enhanced Hall Effect. The granular samples are composed by an almost periodic array of Co nanoparticles, and after annealing these samples show a clear evolution in the nanostructure, with increasing average Co grain sizes and decreasing size dispersion. Relationships between the nanostructure and magnetotransport properties are discussed and compared with previous results obtained in cosputtered films.

  11. Braiding Knots in Contact 3-Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelescu, Elena

    2009-01-01

    We show that a transverse link in a contact structure supported by an open book decomposition can be transversely braided. We also generalize Markov's theorem on when the closures of two braids represent (transversely) isotopic links.

  12. Energy transfer through a multi-layer liner for shaped charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Saul; Goodman, Albert

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the determination of parameters for selecting materials for use as liners in shaped charges to transfer the greatest amount of energy to the explosive jet. Multi-layer liners constructed of metal in shaped charges for oil well perforators or other applications are selected in accordance with the invention to maximize the penetrating effect of the explosive jet by reference to four parameters: (1) Adjusting the explosive charge to liner mass ratio to achieve a balance between the amount of explosive used in a shaped charge and the areal density of the liner material; (2) Adjusting the ductility of each layer of a multi-layer liner to enhance the formation of a longer energy jet; (3) Buffering the intermediate layers of a multi-layer liner by varying the properties of each layer, e.g., composition, thickness, ductility, acoustic impedance and areal density, to protect the final inside layer of high density material from shattering upon impact of the explosive force and, instead, flow smoothly into a jet; and (4) Adjusting the impedance of the layers in a liner to enhance the transmission and reduce the reflection of explosive energy across the interface between layers.

  13. Medical Image Retrieval Based on Multi-Layer Resampling Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-rui; YANG Yun-feng

    2014-01-01

    Medical image application in clinical diagnosis and treatment is becoming more and more widely, How to use a large number of images in the image management system and it is a very important issue how to assist doctors to analyze and diagnose. This paper studies the medical image retrieval based on multi-layer resampling template under the thought of the wavelet decomposition, the image retrieval method consists of two retrieval process which is coarse and fine retrieval. Coarse retrieval process is the medical image retrieval process based on the image contour features. Fine retrieval process is the medical image retrieval process based on multi-layer resampling template, a multi-layer sampling operator is employed to extract image resampling images each layer, then these resampling images are retrieved step by step to finish the process from coarse to fine retrieval.

  14. Modeling Macroscopic Shape Distortions during Sintering of Multi-layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye

    Ceramic multi-layered composites are being used as components in various technologies ranging from electronics to energy conversion devices. Thus, different architectures of multi-layers involving ceramic materials are often required to be produced by powder processing, followed by sintering...... evolutions during co-firing of bi-layers. Optimizations of the co-firing process by controlling the initial geometry of the sample and structural characteristics are also suggested. Furthermore, the multi-scale model has also shown the expected behavior of shape distortions for different bi-layers systems...... involving layers with the same and different sinterabilities. Based on the experimental and simulation results, the following conclusions are reached: during sintering of planar multi-layers, understanding of the effect of gravity on the camber evolution can be used in optimizing the co-sintering process so...

  15. A Multi-Layer Extension of the Stochastic Heat Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Neil; Warren, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments on solvable directed polymer models, we define a `multi-layer' extension of the stochastic heat equation involving non-intersecting Brownian motions. By developing a connection with Darboux transformations and the two-dimensional Toda equations, we conjecture a Markovian evolution in time for this multi-layer process. As a first step in this direction, we establish an analogue of the Karlin-McGregor formula for the stochastic heat equation and use it to prove a special case of this conjecture.

  16. Permutation Analysis of Track and Column Braiding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毓陵; 丁辛; 胡良剑

    2004-01-01

    The positions of braiding carrier in track and column braiding are represented by a diagrammatic braiding plan and a corresponding lattice-array is defined. A set is then formed so that the permutation analysis can be performed to represent the movement of carriers in a braiding process. The process of 4-step braiding is analyzed as an example to describe the application of the proposed method by expressing a braiding cycle as a product of disjoint cycles. As a result, a mapping relation between the disjoint cycles and the movement of carriers is deduced. Following the same analysis principles, a process of 8-step braiding and the corresponding initial state of the lattice-array is developed. A successful permutation analysis to the process manifests the general suitability of the proposed method.

  17. A multi-layer flood safety approach towards resilient cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, Johannes; Boomgaard, Marcel; Zuijlen, van Conny; Hollanders, Peter; Butler, D.; Djordjevic, S.; Hammond, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The multi-layer safety approach focuses on flood risk reduction through three types of measures: (1) prevention through dikes, levees and dams , (2) a flood resilient spatial planning and (3) an adequate crisis management. Whereas the official Dutch policy propagates the multi-level safety approac

  18. Multi-layer thermoplastic composites manufacturing processes: simulations and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thije, ten René; Haanappel, Sebastiaan

    2011-01-01

    Press forming of multi-layer thermoplastic composite laminates is a fast and cost-effective method to produce thin shelled products. This paper shows that virtual forming provides designers with a tool to determine and to optimize the formability of these composite products. Forming simulations iden

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of ion-irradiated multi-layer graphenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, Akira [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Honda, Shin-ichi, E-mail: s-honda@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Osugi, Ryo [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Okada, Hiraku [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Niibe, Masahito [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Terasawa, Mititaka [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Hirase, Ryuji; Izumi, Hirokazu; Yoshioka, Hideki [Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology, Kobe 654-0037 (Japan); Niwase, Keisuke [Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Kato, Hyogo 673-1494 (Japan); Taguchi, Eiji [Research Center for Ultra-High Voltage Electron Microscopy, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Lee, Kuei-Yi [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Oura, Masaki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Low-energy Ar ions (0.5–2 keV) were irradiated to multi-layer graphenes and the damage process, the local electronic states, and the degree of alignment of the basal plane, and the oxidation process upon ion irradiation were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). By Raman spectroscopy, we observed two stages similar to the case of irradiated graphite, which should relate to the accumulations of vacancies and turbulence of the basal plane, respectively. XAS analysis indicated that the number of sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon (sp{sup 2}-C) atoms decreased after ion irradiation. Angle-resolved XAS revealed that the orientation parameter (OP) decreased with increasing ion energy and fluence, reflecting the turbulence of the basal plane under irradiation. In situ XPS shows the oxidation of the irradiated multi-layer graphenes after air exposure.

  20. Clustering with Multi-Layer Graphs: A Spectral Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xiaowen; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Nefedov, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    Observational data usually comes with a multimodal nature, which means that it can be naturally represented by a multi-layer graph whose layers share the same set of vertices (users) with different edges (pairwise relationships). In this paper, we address the problem of combining different layers of the multi-layer graph for improved clustering of the vertices compared to using layers independently. We propose two novel methods, which are based on joint matrix factorization and graph regularization framework respectively, to efficiently combine the spectrum of the multiple graph layers, namely the eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian matrices. In each case, the resulting combination, which we call a "joint spectrum" of multiple graphs, is used for clustering the vertices. We evaluate our approaches by simulations with several real world social network datasets. Results demonstrate the superior or competitive performance of the proposed methods over state-of-the-art technique and common baseline methods, such a...

  1. Multi-layer boron thin-film detectors for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic efficiencies of the multilayer boron detectors have been examined both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that due to the charge loss in the boron layers, the practical efficiencies of most multi-layer {sup 10}B detectors are limited up to about 42%, much less than 77% of the 2 bar 2-inch diameter {sup 3}He detectors. It is suggested that the same charge loss mechanism will prevent essentially all substrate-based boron detectors from ever reaching the efficiencies of high-pressure {sup 3}He tubes, independent of the substrate geometry and material composition (including silicon). Meanwhile, the experimental data indicate that the multi-layer approach can increase the efficiencies up to the theoretical limit. Good n/{gamma} discrimination has also achieved using the ionization charnber technique.

  2. A multi-layer network of the sovereign securities market

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos León; Jhonatan Pérez; Luc Renneboog

    2014-01-01

    We study the network of Colombian sovereign securities settlements. With data from the settlement market infrastructure we study financial institutions’ transactions from three different trading and registering individual networks that we combine into a multi-layer network. Examining this network of networks enables us to confirm that (i) studying isolated single-layer trading and registering networks yields a misleading perspective on the relations between and risks induced by participating ...

  3. Non-destructive Inspection of Multi-layered Composite Using Ultrasonic Signal Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S C; Ismail, N; Ali, Aidy; Sahari, Barkawi [Intelligent System and Robotic Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusof, J M; Chu, B W, E-mail: ngsokchoo@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Composites exhibit higher strength and stiffness, better design practice and greater corrosion resistance compare to metal material. However, composites are susceptible to impact damage and the typical damage behaviour in the laminated composites is fibre-breakage and delamination. Detection of failure in laminated composites is complicated compared with ordinary non-destructive testing for metal materials as they are sensitive to echoes drown in noise due to the properties of the constituent materials and the multi-layered structure of the composites. In the current study, the detection of failure in multi-layered composite materials is investigated. To obtain a high probability of defect detection in composite materials, signal processing algorithms were used to resolve echoes associated with defects in glass fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) detected by using ultrasonic testing. Pulse-echo method with single transducer was used to transmit and receive ultrasound. The obtained signals were processed to reduce noise and to extract suitable features. Results were validated on GRP with and without defects in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the method on defect detection in composites.

  4. Microstructure Evolution and Cracking Control of 316L Stainless Steel Manufactured by Multi-layer Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGJian-li; DENGQi-lin; HUDe-jin; SUNKang-kai; ZHOUGuang-cai

    2004-01-01

    Multi-layer laser cladding manufacturing is a newly developed rapid manufacturing technology. It is a powerful tool for direct fabrication of three-dimensional fully dense metal components and part repairing. In this paper, the microstructure evolution and properties of 316L stainless steel deposited with this technology was investigated, compact components with properties similar to the as-cast and wrought annealed material was obtained. Cracking was eliminated by introducing of supersonic vibration and application of parameter adjustment technologies.

  5. Abstract commensurators of braid groups

    OpenAIRE

    Leininger, Christopher J; Margalit, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Let B_n be the braid group on n strands, with n at least 4, and let Mod(S) be the extended mapping class group of the sphere with n+1 punctures. We show that the abstract commensurator of B_n is isomorphic to a semidirect product of Mod(S) with a group we refer to as the transvection subgroup, Tv(B_n). We also show that Tv(B_n) is itself isomorphic to a semidirect product of an infinite dimensional rational vector space with the multiplicative group of nonzero rational numbers.

  6. A yarn interaction model for circular braiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenhorst, van J.H.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-01-01

    Machine control data for the automation of the circular braiding process has been generated using previously published mathematical models that neglect yarn interaction. This resulted in a significant deviation from the required braid angle at mandrel cross-sectional changes, likely caused by an inc

  7. Emergent Braided Matter of Quantum Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundance Bilson-Thompson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We review and present a few new results of the program of emergent matter as braid excitations of quantum geometry that is represented by braided ribbon networks. These networks are a generalisation of the spin networks proposed by Penrose and those in models of background independent quantum gravity theories, such as Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin Foam models. This program has been developed in two parallel but complimentary schemes, namely the trivalent and tetravalent schemes. The former studies the braids on trivalent braided ribbon networks, while the latter investigates the braids on tetravalent braided ribbon networks. Both schemes have been fruitful. The trivalent scheme has been quite successful at establishing a correspondence between braids and Standard Model particles, whereas the tetravalent scheme has naturally substantiated a rich, dynamical theory of interactions and propagation of braids, which is ruled by topological conservation laws. Some recent advances in the program indicate that the two schemes may converge to yield a fundamental theory of matter in quantum spacetime.

  8. Monitoring of hidden damage in multi-layered aerospace structures using high-frequency guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semoroz, A.; Masserey, B.; Fromme, P.

    2011-04-01

    Aerospace structures contain multi-layered components connected by fasteners, where fatigue cracks and disbonds or localized lack of sealant can develop due to cyclic loading conditions and stress concentration. High frequency guided waves propagating along such a structure allow for the efficient non-destructive testing of large components, such as aircraft wings. The type of multi-layered model structure investigated in this contribution consists of two aluminium plates adhesively bonded with an epoxy based sealant layer. Using commercially available transducer equipment, specific high frequency guided ultrasonic wave modes that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure were excited. The wave propagation along the structure was measured experimentally using a laser interferometer. Two types of hidden damage were considered: a localized lack of sealant and small surface defects in the metallic layer facing the sealant. The detection sensitivity using standard pulse-echo measurement equipment has been quantified and the detection of small hidden defects from significant stand-off distances has been shown. Fatigue experiments were carried out and the potential of high frequency guided waves for the monitoring of fatigue crack growth at a fastener hole during cyclic loading was discussed.

  9. APT analyses of deuterium-loaded Fe/V multi-layered films

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, R.

    2009-04-01

    Interaction of hydrogen with metallic multi-layered thin films remains as a hot topic in recent days Detailed knowledge on such chemically modulated systems is required if they are desired for application in hydrogen energy system as storage media. In this study, the deuterium concentration profile of Fe/V multi-layer was investigated by atom probe tomography (APT) at 60 and 30 K. It is firstly shown that deuterium-loaded sample can easily react with oxygen at the Pd capping layer on Fe/V and therefore, it is highly desired to avoid any oxygen exposure after D(2) loading before APT analysis. The analysis temperature also has an impact on D concentration profile. The result taken at 60 K shows clear traces of surface segregation of D atoms towards analysis surface. The observed diffusion profile of D allows us to estimate an apparent diffusion coefficient D. The calculated D at 60 K is in the order of 10(-17) cm(2)/s, deviating 6 orders of magnitude from an extrapolated value. This was interpreted with alloying, D-trapping at defects and effects of the large extension to which the extrapolation was done. A D concentration profile taken at 30 K shows nosegregation anymore and a homogeneous distribution at C(D) = 0.05(2) D/Me, which is in good accordance with that measured in the corresponding pressure-composition isotherm. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The learning problem of multi-layer neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jung-Chao; Chang, Chih-Hung

    2013-10-01

    This manuscript considers the learning problem of multi-layer neural networks (MNNs) with an activation function which comes from cellular neural networks. A systematic investigation of the partition of the parameter space is provided. Furthermore, the recursive formula of the transition matrix of an MNN is obtained. By implementing the well-developed tools in the symbolic dynamical systems, the topological entropy of an MNN can be computed explicitly. A novel phenomenon, the asymmetry of a topological diagram that was seen in Ban, Chang, Lin, and Lin (2009) [J. Differential Equations 246, pp. 552-580, 2009], is revealed.

  11. Pareto distance for multi-layer network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    services, e.g., Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Foursquare. As a result, the analysis of on-line social networks requires a wider scope and, more technically speaking, models for the representation of this fragmented scenario. The recent introduction of more realistic layered models has however determined...... on the nature of the connections required by the Pareto distance may in theory result in a large number of potential shortest paths between pairs of nodes. However, an experimental computation of distances on multi-layer networks of increasing size shows an interesting and non-trivial stable behavior....

  12. Research on Multi-Layer Distributed HF Radio Network Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dai; Chun-Jiang Wang; Quan Yu

    2008-01-01

    High frequency (HF) transmission is an important communication techniques. However, conventional point-to-point transmission can be easily destroyed, which limits its utilization in practice. HF networking communication has the capability against demolishment. The network structure is one of the key factors for HF networking communication. In this paper, a novel analysis method of the network connectedness based on the eigenvalue is derived, and a multi-layer distributed HF radio network structure is proposed. Both the theore tical analysis and the computer simulation results verify that the application of the proposed network structure in the HF radio communication can improve the anti demolishment ability of the HF network efficiently.

  13. The Tribological Properties of Multi-Layered Graphene as Additives of PAO2 Oil in Steel–Steel Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Bao Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-layered graphene was prepared by supercritical CO2 exfoliation of graphite. As the additives of polyalphaolefin-2 (PAO2 oil, its tribological properties were investigated using four-ball test method. The friction reduction and anti-wear ability of pure lubricant was improved by the addition of graphene. With a favorable concentration, the graphene was dispersive. The PAO2 oil with 0.05 wt % graphene showed better tribological properties than that for the other concentration of graphene additives. It could be used as a good lubricant additive for its excellent tribological characteristics, and the multi-layered graphene can bear the load of the steel ball and prevent direct contact of the mating metal surfaces. However, a higher concentration would cause the agglomeration of graphene and weaken the improvement of tribological properties.

  14. Radial transmission line analysis of multi-layer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.

    2011-03-28

    The analysis of multi-layer beam tubes is a standard problem and involves axially propagating waves. This treatment is ill suited to a short multi-layer structure such as the present example of a ferrite covered ceramic break in the beam tube at the ERL photo-cathode electron gun. This paper demonstrates that such structure can better be treated by radial wave propagation. The theoretical method is presented and numerical results are compared with measured network analyser data and Microwave Studio generated simulations. The results confirm the concept of radial transmission lines as a valid analytical method. An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is being constructed at this laboratory for the purpose of research towards an envisioned Electron Ion Collider. One of the pertinent topics is damping of Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this ERL, the damping is provided by ferrite absorbers in the beam tube. A modified version thereof, a ceramic break surrounded by ferrite, is planed for the superconducting electron gun. The damper here is located at room temperature just outside of the gun. If used in a cavity chain, the ceramic break is in the vacuum tube at helium temperature whereas the ferrite is moved into the cryostat insulating vacuum allowing higher temperatures. The general properties of the ferrite HOM dampers have been published but are more detailed in this paper.

  15. Elastic Buckling Behaviour of General Multi-Layered Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ming Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elastic buckling behaviour of multi-layered graphene sheets is rigorously investigated. Van der Waals forces are modelled, to a first order approximation, as linear physical springs which connect the nodes between the layers. Critical buckling loads and their associated modes are established and analyzed under different boundary conditions, aspect ratios and compressive loading ratios in the case of graphene sheets compressed in two perpendicular directions. Various practically possible loading configurations are examined and their effect on buckling characteristics is assessed. To model more accurately the buckling behaviour of multi-layered graphene sheets, a physically more representative and realistic mixed boundary support concept is proposed and applied. For the fundamental buckling mode under mixed boundary support, the layers with different boundary supports deform similarly but non-identically, leading to resultant van der Waals bonding forces between the layers which in turn affect critical buckling load. Results are compared with existing known solutions to illustrate the excellent numerical accuracy of the proposed modelling approach. The buckling characteristics of graphene sheets presented in this paper form a comprehensive and wholesome study which can be used as potential structural design guideline when graphene sheets are employed for nano-scale sensing and actuation applications such as nano-electro-mechanical systems.

  16. Vulnerability of multi-layer networks under malware spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, Rafael; Cuenda, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Computer viruses are evolving by developing spreading mechanisms based on the use of multiple vectors of propagation. The use of the social network as an extra vector of attack to penetrate the security measures in IP networks is improving the effectiveness of the malware, and have therefore been used by the most aggressive viruses, like Conficker and Stuxnet. In this work we use multi-layer networks to model the propagation of these kind of viruses. In particular, we study the propagation of a SIS model on a multi-layer network where the state of each node is layer-independent and the dynamics in each network follows either a contact process or a reactive process, with different propagation rates. We show that the interplay between the layers leads to a non-trivial dynamics, with an epidemic onset that may trigger before it triggers in each isolated network. We apply this study to the case of a real two-layer network: a Spanish scientific community of Statistical Physics, formed by a social network of scient...

  17. Competitive dynamics of lexical innovations in multi-layer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We study the introduction of lexical innovations in a community of language users. Lexical innovations, i.e., new terms added in the people's vocabulary, have an important role in the process of language evolution. Nowadays, the information spreading takes place over different networks, as online/offline social networks, the World Wide Web and other information networks. The whole system, composed by networks of different nature, can be represented as a multi-layer network. In this context, the spreading of lexical innovations has a peculiar behavior. In particular, a lexical innovation can generate incomprehensions when used without providing its meaning and, in this case, more than one meaning can emerge in the population. Therefore, lexical innovations cannot be considered as simple informations. We develop a model to analyze this scenario by using a multi-layer network composed of a social network and a media network. This latter represents the set of all information systems of a society, e.g., television...

  18. Matrix Algorithm for Braiding Simulation of Three-Dimensional Four-Step Braided Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new kind of computational approach of three-dimensional (3D braiding simulation based on matrix theory and symbol operation, which is suitable for batch integral calculation. The approach can be used to calculate braiding matrix at any step. Different braiding matrices fully reflect yarn carrier position changes. Using the braiding matrix calculation, the approach can provide data for storing yarn carrier paths, also termed braiding paths. The 3D braiding paths study was conducted to better visualization and thereby analyse the carrier’s movement characteristics and principles of operation. Finally, a program was designed to provide a reference for the mathematical model in further research.

  19. Experimental investigation of braided fabric forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Soulat, Damien; Legrand, Xavier; Zemni, Lilia; Jacquot, Pierre-Baptiste

    2016-10-01

    Woven and braided textile structures are largely used as the composite reinforcements. Forming of the continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled yarns can be performed at room temperature. The "cool" forming stage is well-controlled and more economical compared to thermoforming. Many studies have been addressed for carbon and glass fibres / thermoplastic commingled yarns reinforced composite forming for woven structure. On the contrary, few research works has deal with the natural fibre reinforced textile forming and none concerns the braided fabrics forming. In this present work, the Flax/Polyamide 12 commingled yarns are used to produce braided fabric and then to analyze their deformability behaviour.

  20. Detecting coherent structures using braids

    CERN Document Server

    Allshouse, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    The detection of coherent structures is an important problem in fluid dynamics, particularly in geophysical applications. For instance, knowledge of how regions of fluid are isolated from each other allows prediction of the ultimate fate of oil spills. Existing methods detect Lagrangian coherent structures, which are barriers to transport, by examining the stretching field as given by finite-time Lyapunov exponents. These methods are very effective when the velocity field is well-determined, but in many applications only a small number of flow trajectories are known, for example when dealing with oceanic float data. We introduce a topological method for detecting invariant regions based on a small set of trajectories. In the method we regard the two-dimensional trajectory data as a braid in three dimensions, with time being the third coordinate. Invariant regions then correspond to trajectories that travel together and do not entangle other trajectories. We detect these regions by examining the growth of hypo...

  1. Optimization of multi-layer front-contact grid patterns for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flat, A.; Milnes, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    In a front-contact grid pattern for a solar cell there is a trade-off necessary between shadowing loss and excessive power loss due to voltage drop in the metalization itself. If the metalization is too little there may be excessive contact resistance to the underlying semiconductor and insufficient coverage to control losses in the thin front-surface layer of the solar cell. Optimization of grid pattern area and geometry is considered analytically to minimize total losses. Worthwhile performance advantages are shown to be possible, particularly in concentrator systems, if multi-layer grid patterns are used. The current carrying fingers should be approximately square in metal cross section and the main current feedout bars should not only be wider but also thicker than the primary collecting fingers. This is termed multi-level metalization. Effective use of multi-level grid metalization allows much greater concentration-to-loss ratio for a cell of large area and permits good performance from cells of high front-layer sheet resistance.

  2. Methods for making a multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2007-05-29

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  3. Implementing Semantic Deduction of Propositional Knowledge in an Extension Multi-layer Perceptron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGTian-min; PEIZheng

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an extension multi-layer perceptron model that is capable of representing and reasoning propositional knowledge base. An extended version of propositional calculus is developed,and its some properties is discussed. Formulas of the extended calculus can be expressed in the extension multi-layer perceptron. Naturally, semantic deduction of propositional knowledge base can be imple-ment by the extension multi-layer perceptron, and by learning, an unknown formula set can be found.

  4. Handwritten Arabic Numeral Recognition using a Multi Layer Perceptron

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Nibaran; Saha, Sudip; Haque, Syed Sahidul

    2010-01-01

    Handwritten numeral recognition is in general a benchmark problem of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Compared to the problem of printed numeral recognition, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is compounded due to variations in shapes and sizes of handwritten characters. Considering all these, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is addressed under the present work in respect to handwritten Arabic numerals. Arabic is spoken throughout the Arab World and the fifth most popular language in the world slightly before Portuguese and Bengali. For the present work, we have developed a feature set of 88 features is designed to represent samples of handwritten Arabic numerals for this work. It includes 72 shadow and 16 octant features. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier is used here for recognition handwritten Arabic digits represented with the said feature set. On experimentation with a database of 3000 samples, the technique yields an average recognition rate of 94....

  5. Multi- Layer Tree Hierarchical Architecture Based on Web Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Hengjian; LI Deren; ZHU Xinyan; SHAO Zhenfeng

    2006-01-01

    To solve the problem of the information share and services integration in population information system, we propose a multi-layer tree hierarchical architecture. The com mand (Web Service Call) is recursively multicast from top layer of tree to bottom layer of tree and statistical data are gathered from bottom layer to top layer. We implemented the architecture by using Web Services technology. In our implementation, client program is the requestor of Web Services,and all leaf nodes of the last layer are only the provider of Web Services. For those nodes of intermediate layers, every node is not only the provider of Web Services, but also the dispatcher of Web Services. We take population census as an example to describe the working flow of the architecture.

  6. Robust Object Segmentation Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomseong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations.

  7. Robust object segmentation using a multi-layer laser scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beomseong; Choi, Baehoon; Yoo, Minkyun; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Euntai

    2014-10-29

    The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations.

  8. Investigation of multi-layer thin films for energy storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, Timothy Jerome; Monson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    We investigate here the feasibility of increasing the energy density of thin-film capacitors by construction of a multi-layer capacitor device through ablation and redeposition of the capacitor materials using a high-power pulsed ion beam. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The dielectric capacitor filler material was a composition of Lead-Lanthanum-Zirconium-Titanium oxide (PLZT). The energy storage can be increased by using material of intrinsically high dielectric constant, and constructing many thin layers of this material. For successful device construction, there are a number of challenging requirements including correct stoichiometric and crystallographic composition of the deposited PLZT. This report details some success in satisfying these requirements, even though the attempt at device manufacture was unsuccessful. The conclusion that 900 C temperatures are necessary to reconstitute the deposited PLZT has implications for future manufacturing capability.

  9. Multi-layer graphene membrane based memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahlo, Andrei I.; Popov, Andrey M.; Poklonski, Nikolai A.; Lozovik, Yurii E.; Vyrko, Sergey A.; Ratkevich, Sergey V.

    2016-10-01

    The scheme and operational principles of the nanoelectromechanical memory cell based on the bending of a multi-layer graphene membrane by the electrostatic force are proposed. An analysis of the memory cell total energy as a function of the memory cell sizes is used to determine the sizes corresponding to a bistable memory cell with the conducting ON and non-conducting OFF states and to calculate the switching voltage between the OFF and ON states. It is shown that a potential barrier between the OFF and ON states is huge for practically all sizes of a bistable memory cell which excludes spontaneous switching and allows the proposed memory cell to be used for long-term archival storage.

  10. Simulations of a multi-layer extended gating grid

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00507724

    2016-01-01

    A novel idea to control ion back-flow in time projection chambers is to use a multi-layer extended gating grid to capture back-flowing ions at the expense of live time and electron transparency. In this initial study, I perform simulations of a four-layer grid for the ALICE and STAR time projection chambers, using $\\text{Ne}-\\text{CO}_{2}\\;(90-10)$ and $\\text{Ar}-\\text{CH}_{4}\\;(90-10)$ gas mixtures, respectively. I report the live time and electron transparency for both 90% and 99% ion back-flow suppression. Additionally, for the ALICE configuration I study several effects: using a mesh vs. wire-plane grid, including a magnetic field, and varying the over-voltage distribution in the gating region. For 90% ion back-flow suppression, I achieve 75% live time with 86% electron transparency for ALICE, and 95% live time with 83% electron transparency for STAR.

  11. Radio-transparent multi-layer insulation for radiowave receiver

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, J; Mima, S; Oguri, S; Takahashi, K; Tajima, O

    2013-01-01

    In the field of radiowave detection, enhancement of the amount of detected light is essential for greater scientific achievements. A large aperture system is a promising way to increase the number of photons that are received at the detectors. One challenge in the application of radio transmittable apertures is keeping the detectors cool. This is because transparency to thermal radiation above the radio frequency range increases the thermal load. For shielding from thermal radiation, the general strategy involves installation of thermal filters in the light path between the aperture and the detectors. However, enlargement of the aperture gives rise to a new difficulty: warming of the filter. A thermal radiation shielding technology that does not warm the associated filter while allowing enlargement of the aperture is long-awaited. We propose radio-transparent multi-layer insulation (RT-MLI), which comprises a set of stacked insulator layers that are transparent in the radiowave frequency range. The basic idea...

  12. Braided magnetic fields: equilibria, relaxation and heating

    CERN Document Server

    Pontin, D I; Russell, A J B; Hornig, G

    2015-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes containing non-trivial field line braiding (or linkage), using mathematical and computational modelling. The key results obtained from recent modelling efforts are summarised, in the context of testable predictions for the laboratory. We discuss the existence of braided force-free equilibria, and demonstrate that for a field anchored at perfectly-conducting plates, these equilibria exist and contain current sheets whose thickness scales inversely with the braid complexity - as measured for example by the topological entropy. By contrast, for a periodic domain braided exact equilibria typically do not exist, while approximate equilibria contain thin current sheets. In the presence of resistivity, reconnection is triggered at the current sheets and a turbulent relaxation ensues. We discuss the properties of this relaxation, and in particular the existence of constraints that may mean that the final state is not the linear force-free field predicted by Taylor's hypo...

  13. Infinitesimal 2-braidings and differential crossed modules

    CERN Document Server

    Cirio, Lucio S

    2013-01-01

    We categorify the notion of an infinitesimal braiding in a linear strict symmetric monoidal category, leading to the notion of a (strict) infinitesimal 2-braiding in a linear symmetric strict monoidal 2-category. We describe the associated categorification of the 4-term relation, leading to six categorified relations. We prove that any infinitesimal 2-braiding gives rise to a flat and fake flat 2-connection in the configuration space of $n$ undistinguishable particles in the complex plane, hence to a categorification of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov connection. We discuss infinitesimal 2-braidings in a category naturally assigned to every differential crossed module, leading to the notion of a quasi-invariant tensor in a differential crossed module. Finally we prove that quasi-invariant tensors exist in the differential crossed module associated to the string Lie-2-algebra.

  14. Symmetric centres of braided monoidal categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of‘symmetric centres' of braided monoidal categories. Let H be a Hopf algebra with bijective antipode over a field k. We address the symmetric centre of the Yetter-Drinfel'd module category HH(yD) and show that a left Yetter-Drinfel'd module M belongs to the symmetric centre of HH(yD) if and only if M is trivial. We also study the symmetric centres of categories of representations of quasitriangular Hopf algebras and give a sufficient and necessary condition for the braid of H(M) to induce the braid of (H(H)(A),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), or equivalently, the braid of (A#H(H),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), where A is a quantum commutative H-module algebra.

  15. Modelling planform changes of braided rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers, Hendrik Reinhard Albert

    2003-01-01

    This study has focused on modelling techniques to predict planform changes of braided rivers and their relation with state-of-the-art knowledge on the physical processes and the availability of model input data

  16. The Braid-Based Bit Commitment Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-cheng; CAO Zhen-fu; CAO Feng; QIAN Hai-feng

    2006-01-01

    With recent advances of quantum computation, new threats have closed in upon to the classical public key cryptosystems. In order to build more secure bit commitment schemes, this paper gave a survey of the new coming braid-based cryptography and then brought forward the first braid-based bit commitment protocol. The security proof manifests that the proposed protocol is computationally binding and information-theoretically hiding.Furthermore, the proposed protocol is also invulnerable to currently known quantum attacks.

  17. Self-diagnosing braided composite rod

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Zdraveva, E.; Pereira, Cristiana Gonilho; Ferreira, A; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a braided reinforced composite rod (BCR) able to both reinforce and monitor the stress state of concrete structures. Carbon fibers have been used as sensing and reinforcing materials along with glass fiber. Various composites rods have been produced using an author patented technique based on a modified conventional braiding machine. The materials investigated were prepared with different carbon fiber content as follows: BCR2 (77% glass/23...

  18. Braided rings a scattering billiard model

    CERN Document Server

    Bénet, L

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a billiard scattering model consisting of two non-overlapping rotating discs in the context of the formation and structural properties of planetary rings. We show that due to the arrangement of the symmetric periodic orbits, stable orbits are found which in the configuration space lead to the appearance of patterns qualitatively similar to planetary rings. Rings associated with different stability regions are naturally braided; different braids may overlap displaying features similar to clumps. Erosion mechanisms within the model are discussed.

  19. Minimal Braid in Applied Symbolic Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成; 张亚刚; 彭守礼

    2003-01-01

    Based on the minimal braid assumption, three-dimensional periodic flows of a dynamical system are reconstructed in the case of unimodal map, and their topological structures are compared with those of the periodic orbits of the Rossler system in phase space through the numerical experiment. The numerical results justify the validity of the minimal braid assumption which provides a suspension from one-dimensional symbolic dynamics in the Poincare section to the knots of three-dimensional periodic flows.

  20. In Vitro Degradation of Polyglycolide/Chitosan Hybrid Braids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiaoyan; ZHANG Qingwei; WANG Yonglin; YAO Kangde

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid braids of polyglycolide (PGA) and chitosan were prepared by the three-yarn braiding method from PGA and chitosan fiber bundles. These braids were in vitro degraded by incubating them in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 and 37 ℃ for 5 weeks. Results suggested that PGA/chitosan hybrid braids degraded significantly. Scanning electron micrographs showed that chitosan fibers in the PGA/chitosan hybrid braid with about 750% PGA in weight (PGA75/chitosan) were shaped into gel-like after 5 weeks, but those in the hybrid braid with about 250% PGA in weight (PGA25/chitosan) did not change. After 5 weeks, the ultimate tensile loads of PGA and PGA75/chitosan braids lost almost completely, but those of chitosan and PGA25/chitosan braids remained around 14 N. The PGA/chitosan hybrid braids with higher initial ultimate tensile load would have potential applications in tendon/ligament tissue reconstruction.

  1. Internal Strain Measurement in 3D Braided Composites Using Co-braided Optical Fiber Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenfang YUAN; Rui HUANG; Yunjiang RAO

    2004-01-01

    3D braided composite technology has stimulated a great deal of interest in the world at large. But due to the threedimensional nature of these kinds of composites, coupled with the shortcomings of currently-adopted experimental test methods, it is difficult to measure the internal parameters of this materials, hence causes it difficult to understand the material performance. A new method is introduced herein to measure the internal strain of braided composite materials using co-braided fiber optic sensors. Two kinds of fiber optic sensors are co-braided into 3D braided composites to measure internal strain. One of these is the Fabry-Parrot (F-P) fiber optic sensor; the other is the polarimetric fiber optic sensor. Experiments are conducted to measure internal strain under tension, bending and thermal environments in the 3D carbon fiber braided composite specimens, both locally and globally. Experimental results show that multiple fiber optic sensors can be braided into the 3D braided composites to measure the internal parameters, providing a more accurate measurement method and leading to a better understanding of these materials.

  2. MUPLEX: a compact multi-layered polymer foil collector for micrometeoroids and orbital debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearsley, A T; Graham, G A; Burchell, M J; Taylor, E A; Drolshagen, G; Chater, R J; McPhail, D

    2004-10-04

    Detailed studies of preserved hypervelocity impact residues on spacecraft multi-layer insulation foils have yielded important information about the flux of small particles from different sources in low-Earth orbit. We have extended our earlier research on impacts occurring in LEO to design and testing of a compact capture device. MULPEX (MUlti-Layer Polymer EXperiment) is simple, cheap to build, lightweight, of no power demand, easy to deploy, and optimized for the efficient collection of impact residue for analysis on return to Earth. The capture medium is a stack of very thin (8 micron and 40 micron) polyimide foils, supported on poly-tetrafluoroethylene sheet frames, surrounded by a protective aluminum casing. The uppermost foil has a very thin metallic coating for thermal protection and resistance to atomic oxygen and ultra-violet exposure. The casing provides a simple detachable interface for deployment on the spacecraft, facing into the desired direction for particle collection. On return to the laboratory, the stacked foils are separated for examination in a variable pressure scanning electron microscope, without need for surface coating. Analysis of impact residue is performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers. Our laboratory experiments, utilizing buck-shot firings of analogues to micrometeoroids (35-38 micron olivine) and space debris (4 micron alumina and 1mm stainless steel) in a light gas gun, have shown that impact residue is abundant within the foil layers, and preserves a record of the impacting particle, whether of micrometer or millimeter dimensions. Penetrations of the top foil are easily recognized, and act as a proxy for dimensions of the penetrating particle. Impact may cause disruption and melting, but some residue retains sufficient crystallographic structure to show clear Raman lines, diagnostic of the original mineral.

  3. A declarative approach to multi-layer path finding based on semantic network descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Dijkstra, F.; Marchal, D.; Taal, A.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for dynamic network connections between multiple research networks, a number of issues on multi-layer hybrid networks need to be addressed, such as network representation, path finding, and path provisioning. This paper focuses on solving the multi-layer path finding probl

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of multi-layer ceramics for electrochemical flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Cristine Grings; Ippolito, Davide; Bentzen, Janet Jonna;

    2013-01-01

    Multi-layered ceramics for electrochemical flue gas purification were fabricated by tape casting and lamination or by multi-layer tape casting. The sintered bodies were studied by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was shown that the samples made by multi...

  5. Multi-layered reasoning by means of conceptual fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Tomohiro; Imura, Atsushi; Ushida, Hirohide; Yamaguchi, Toru

    1993-01-01

    The real world consists of a very large number of instances of events and continuous numeric values. On the other hand, people represent and process their knowledge in terms of abstracted concepts derived from generalization of these instances and numeric values. Logic based paradigms for knowledge representation use symbolic processing both for concept representation and inference. Their underlying assumption is that a concept can be defined precisely. However, as this assumption hardly holds for natural concepts, it follows that symbolic processing cannot deal with such concepts. Thus symbolic processing has essential problems from a practical point of view of applications in the real world. In contrast, fuzzy set theory can be viewed as a stronger and more practical notation than formal, logic based theories because it supports both symbolic processing and numeric processing, connecting the logic based world and the real world. In this paper, we propose multi-layered reasoning by using conceptual fuzzy sets (CFS). The general characteristics of CFS are discussed along with upper layer supervision and context dependent processing.

  6. Weaving multi-layer fabrics for reinforcement of engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B. J.; Mcilhagger, R.; Mclaughlin, P.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of interlinked, multi-layer fabrics and near net shape preforms for engineering applications, woven on a 48 shaft dobby loom using glass, aramid, and carbon continuous filament yarns is assessed. The interlinking was formed using the warp yarns. Two basic types of structure were used. The first used a single warp beam and hence each of the warp yarns followed a similar path to form four layer interlinked reinforcements and preforms. In the second two warp beams were used, one for the interlinking yarns which pass from the top to the bottom layer through-the-thickness of the fabric and vice versa, and the other to provide 'straight' yarns in the body of the structure to carry the axial loading. Fabrics up to 15mm in thickness were constructed with varying amounts of through-the-thickness reinforcement. Tapered T and I sections were also woven, with the shaping produced by progressive removal of ends during construction. These fabrics and preforms were impregnated with resin and cured to form composite samples for testing. Using these two basic types of construction, the influence of reinforcement construction and the proportion and type of interlinking yarn on the performance of the composite was assessed.

  7. Circadian KaiC phosphorylation: a multi-layer network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congxin Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Circadian KaiC phosphorylation in cyanobacteria reconstituted in vitro recently initiates a series of studies experimentally and theoretically to explore its mechanism. In this paper, we report a dynamic diversity in hexameric KaiC phosphoforms using a multi-layer reaction network based on the nonequivalence of the dual phosphorylation sites (S431 and T432 in each KaiC subunit. These diverse oscillatory profiles can generate a kaleidoscopic phase modulation pattern probably responsible for the genome-wide transcription rhythms directly and/or indirectly in cyanobacteria. Particularly, our model reveals that a single KaiC hexamer is an energy-based, phosphorylation-dependent and self-regulated circadian oscillator modulated by KaiA and KaiB. We suggest that T432 is the main regulator for the oscillation amplitude, while S431 is the major phase regulator. S431 and T432 coordinately control the phosphorylation period. Robustness of the Kai network was examined by mixing samples in different phases, and varying protein concentrations and temperature. Similar results were obtained regardless of the deterministic or stochastic method employed. Therefore, the dynamic diversities and robustness of Kai oscillator make it a qualified core pacemaker that controls the cellular processes in cyanobacteria pervasively and accurately.

  8. Laser multi-layer cladding of Mg-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长军; 王东生; 王茂才

    2003-01-01

    By laser multi-layer cladding using a pulsed Nd-YAG irradiation the thickness of the cladding zone Mg-based alloys(ZM2 and ZM5) can reach about 1. 0 mm. The microstructure of the substrate and the cladding zone wasstudied using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and micro hard-ness analysis. It is observed that constituent of ZM5 alloy is δ+Mg17 Al12, that of ZM2 alloy is α+MgZn+Mg9Ce.That of cladding layer ZM2 alloy(L-ZM2) is Mg+ Mg2 Zn11 +MgCe; while that of the cladding layer ZM5 alloy(L-ZM5) is Mg+Mg32 (Al, Zn)49. The hardness of the cladding area can be increased to values above HV127. Veryfine uniform microstructure and the produced new phases of nanometer/sub-micrometer order were obtained. Now,many repaired Mg-based alloy components have been passed by flying test in outside field.

  9. CASCADE - a multi-layer Boron-10 neutron detection system

    CERN Document Server

    Köhli, M; Allmendinger, F; Perrevoort, A -K; Schröder, T; Martin, N; Schmidt, C J; Schmidt, U

    2016-01-01

    The globally increased demand for helium-3 along with the limited availability of this gas calls for the development of alternative technologies for the large ESS instrumentation pool. We report on the CASCADE Project - a novel detection system, which has been developed for the purposes of neutron spin echo spectroscopy. It features 2D spatially resolved detection of thermal neutrons at high rates. The CASCADE detector is composed of a stack of solid boron-10 coated Gas Electron Multiplier foils, which serve both as a neutron converter and as an amplifier for the primary ionization deposited in the standard Argon-CO2 counting gas environment. This multi-layer setup efficiently increases the detection efficiency and serves as a helium-3 alternative. It has furthermore been possible to extract the signal of the charge traversing the stack to identify the very thin conversion layer of about 1 micrometer. This allows the precise determination of the time-of-flight, necessary for the application in MIEZE spin echo...

  10. Equilibrium theory for braided elastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Gert

    Motivated by supercoiling of DNA and other filamentous structures, we formulate a theory for equilibria of 2-braids, i.e., structures formed by two elastic rods winding around each other in continuous contact and subject to a local interstrand interaction. Unlike in previous work no assumption is made on the shape of the contact curve. Rather, this shape is found as part of the solution. The theory is developed in terms of a moving frame of directors attached to one of the strands with one of the directors pointing to the position of the other strand. The constant-distance constraint is automatically satisfied by the introduction of what we call braid strains. The price we pay is that the potential energy involves arclength derivatives of these strains, thus giving rise to a second-order variational problem. The Euler-Lagrange equations for this problem give balance equations for the overall braid force and moment referred to the moving frame as well as differential equations that can be interpreted as effective constitutive relations encoding the effect that the second strand has on the first as the braid deforms under the action of end loads. Simple analytical cases are discussed first and used as starting solutions in parameter continuation studies to compute classes of both open and closed (linked or knotted) braid solutions.

  11. On Vassiliev invariants of braid groups of the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kaabi, N

    2012-01-01

    We construct a universal Vassiliev invariant for braid groups of the sphere and the mapping class groups of the sphere with $n$ punctures. The case of a sphere is different from the classical braid groups or braids of oriented surfaces of genus strictly greater than zero, since Vassiliev invariants in a group without 2-torsion do not distinguish elements of braid group of a sphere.

  12. Integrated Design for Manufacturing of Braided Preforms for Advanced Composites Part I: 2D Braiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan Tao; Ko, Frank K.; Hu, Hong

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a 2D braiding design system for advanced textile structural composites was based on dynamic models. A software package to assist in the design of braided preform manufacturing has been developed. The package allows design parameters (machine speeds, fiber volume fraction, tightness factor, etc.) to be easily obtained and the relationships between said parameters to be demonstrated graphically. The fabirc geometry model (FGM) method was adopted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the composites. Experimental evidence demonstrates the success of the use of dynamic models in the design software for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms.

  13. Multi-Layer and Recursive Neural Networks for Metagenomic Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzler, Gregory; Polikar, Robi; Rosen, Gail

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in machine learning, specifically in deep learning with neural networks, has made a profound impact on fields such as natural language processing, image classification, and language modeling; however, feasibility and potential benefits of the approaches to metagenomic data analysis has been largely under-explored. Deep learning exploits many layers of learning nonlinear feature representations, typically in an unsupervised fashion, and recent results have shown outstanding generalization performance on previously unseen data. Furthermore, some deep learning methods can also represent the structure in a data set. Consequently, deep learning and neural networks may prove to be an appropriate approach for metagenomic data. To determine whether such approaches are indeed appropriate for metagenomics, we experiment with two deep learning methods: i) a deep belief network, and ii) a recursive neural network, the latter of which provides a tree representing the structure of the data. We compare these approaches to the standard multi-layer perceptron, which has been well-established in the machine learning community as a powerful prediction algorithm, though its presence is largely missing in metagenomics literature. We find that traditional neural networks can be quite powerful classifiers on metagenomic data compared to baseline methods, such as random forests. On the other hand, while the deep learning approaches did not result in improvements to the classification accuracy, they do provide the ability to learn hierarchical representations of a data set that standard classification methods do not allow. Our goal in this effort is not to determine the best algorithm in terms accuracy-as that depends on the specific application-but rather to highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each of the approach we discuss and provide insight on how they can be improved for predictive metagenomic analysis.

  14. Energy management and multi-layer control of networked microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Ramon

    Networked microgrids is a group of neighboring microgrids that has ability to interchange power when required in order to increase reliability and resiliency. Networked microgrid can operate in different possible configurations including: islanded microgrid, a grid-connected microgrid without a tie-line converter, a grid-connected microgrid with a tie-line converter, and networked microgrids. These possible configurations and specific characteristics of renewable energy offer challenges in designing control and management algorithms for voltage, frequency and power in all possible operating scenarios. In this work, control algorithm is designed based on large-signal model that enables microgrid to operate in wide range of operating points. A combination between PI controller and feed-forward measured system responses will compensate for the changes in operating points. The control architecture developed in this work has multi-layers and the outer layer is slower than the inner layer in time response. The main responsibility of the designed controls are to regulate voltage magnitude and frequency, as well as output power of the DG(s). These local controls also integrate with a microgrid level energy management system or microgrid central controller (MGCC) for power and energy balance for. the entire microgrid in islanded, grid-connected, or networked microgid mode. The MGCC is responsible to coordinate the lower level controls to have reliable and resilient operation. In case of communication network failure, the decentralized energy management will operate locally and will activate droop control. Simulation results indicate the superiority of designed control algorithms compared to existing ones.

  15. Multi-Layer Electrospun Membrane Mimicking Tendon Sheath for Prevention of Tendon Adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Defect of the tendon sheath after tendon injury is a main reason for tendon adhesions, but it is a daunting challenge for the biomimetic substitute of the tendon sheath after injury due to its multi-layer membrane-like structure and complex biologic functions. In this study, a multi-layer membrane with celecoxib-loaded poly(l-lactic acid-polyethylene glycol (PELA electrospun fibrous membrane as the outer layer, hyaluronic acid (HA gel as middle layer, and PELA electrospun fibrous membrane as the inner layer was designed. The anti-adhesion efficacy of this multi-layer membrane was compared with a single-layer use in rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon model. The surface morphology showed that both PELA fibers and celecoxib-loaded PELA fibers in multi-layer membrane were uniform in size, randomly arrayed, very porous, and smooth without beads. Multi-layer membrane group had fewer peritendinous adhesions and better gliding than the PELA membrane group and control group in gross and histological observation. The similar mechanical characteristic and collagen expression of tendon repair site in the three groups indicated that the multi-layer membrane did not impair tendon healing. Taken together, our results demonstrated that such a biomimetic multi-layer sheath could be used as a potential strategy in clinics for promoting tendon gliding and preventing adhesion without poor tendon healing.

  16. Inversion of thicknesses of multi-layered structures from eddy current testing measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平捷; 吴昭同

    2004-01-01

    Luquire et al. ' s impedance change model of a rectangular cross section probe coil above a structure with an arbitrary number of parallel layers was used to study the principle of measuring thicknesses of multi-layered structures in terms of eddy current testing voltage measurements. An experimental system for multi-layered thickness measurement was developed and several fitting models to formulate the relationships between detected impedance/voltage measurements and thickness are put forward using least square method. The determination of multi-layered thicknesses was investigated after inversing the voltage outputs of the detecting system. The best fitting and inversion models are presented.

  17. Inversion of thicknesses of multi-layered structures from eddy current testing measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ping-jie(黄平捷); WU Zhao-tong(吴昭同)

    2004-01-01

    Luquire et al.'s impedance change model of a rectangular cross section probe coil above a structure with an arbitrary number of parallel layers was used to study the principle of measuring thicknesses of multi-layered structures in terms of eddy current testing voltage measurements. An experimental system for multi-layered thickness measurement was developed and several fitting models to formulate the relationships between detected impedance/voltage measurements and thickness are put forward using least square method. The determination of multi-layered thicknesses was investigated after inversing the voltage outputs of the detecting system. The best fitting and inversion models are presented.

  18. Thickness measurement of multi-layer conductive coatings using multifrequency eddy current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dejun; Yu, Yating; Lai, Chao; Tian, Guiyun

    2016-07-01

    To ensure the key structural performance in high-temperature and high-stress environments, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are often adopted in engineering. The thickness of these multi-layer conductive coatings is an important quality indicator. In order to measure the thickness of multi-layer conductive coatings, a new measurement approach is presented using eddy current testing techniques, and then, an inversion algorithm is proposed and proved efficient and applicable, of which the maximum experimental relative error is within 10%. Therefore, the new approach can be effectively applied to thickness measurement of multi-layer conductive coatings such as TBCs.

  19. Statistical Model of the 3-D Braided Composites Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Laiyuan; ZUO Weiwei; CAI Ganwei; LIAO Daoxun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the statistical model for the tensile statistical strength of unidirectional composite materials and the stress analysis of 3-D braided composites, a new method is proposed to calculate the tensile statistical strength of the 3-D braided composites. With this method, the strength of 3-D braided composites can be calculated with very large accuracy, and the statistical parameters of 3-D braided composites can be determined. The numerical result shows that the tensile statistical strength of 3-D braided composites can be predicted using this method.

  20. Braid equivalence in 3-manifolds with rational surgery description

    OpenAIRE

    Diamantis, Ioannis; Lambropoulou, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe braid equivalence for knots and links in a 3-manifold $M$ obtained by rational surgery along a framed link in $S^3$. We first prove a sharpened version of the Reidemeister theorem for links in $M$. We then give geometric formulations of the braid equivalence via mixed braids in $S^3$ using the $L$-moves and the braid band moves. We finally give algebraic formulations in terms of the mixed braid groups $B_{m,n}$ using cabling and the techniques of parting and combing ...

  1. Ferrofluids, complex particle dynamics and braid description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjeltorp, A.T. E-mail: arne.skjeltorp@ife.no; Clausen, Sigmund; Helgesen, Geir

    2001-05-01

    Finely divided magnetic matter is important in many areas of science and technology. A special sub-class of systems are made up of freely moving particles suspended in a carrier liquid where the magnetic interactions play an important role in the actual structure formation and dynamical behaviour. These include ferrofluids, which are colloids of magnetic particles dispersed in carrier fluids, magnetic micro-beads, which are micrometer sized plastic beads loaded with iron oxide, and nonmagnetic particles dispersed in ferrofluids, forming the so-called 'magnetic holes'. How, in a simple and forceful way, is it possible to characterise the dynamics of systems with several moving components like dispersed magnetic particles subjected to external magnetic fields? The methods based on the theory of braids may provide the answer. Braid theory is a sub-field of mathematics known as topology. It involves classifying different ways of tracing curves in space. The topological description of braids thus provides a simple and concise language for describing the dynamics of a system of moving particles as if they perform a complicated dance as they move about one another, and the braid encodes the choreography of this dance.

  2. Exploring multi-layer flow network of international trade based on flow distances

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Bin; Zheng, Qiuhua

    2015-01-01

    Based on the approach of flow distances, the international trade flow system is studied from the perspective of multi-layer flow network. A model of multi-layer flow network is proposed for modelling and analyzing multiple types of flows in flow systems. Then, flow distances are introduced, and symmetric minimum flow distance is presented. Subsequently, we discuss the establishment of the multi-layer flow networks of international trade from two coupled viewpoints, i.e., the viewpoint of commodity flow and that of money flow. Thus, the multi-layer flow networks of international trade is explored. First, trading "trophic levels" are adopted to depict positions that economies occupied in the flow network. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodity, and there are some regularities between money flow network and commodity flow network. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while ...

  3. Load-Bearing Tank-Applied Multi-Layer Insulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed load-bearing, tank-applied, multi-layer insulation system consists of a set of highly reflective radiation shields made from 1 mil thick aluminized...

  4. A Comparison of Homogeneous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, Kasper; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with homogeneous and multi-layer berm breakwaters designed to maximize the utilization of the quarry material. Two wide stone classes are typically used for berm breakwaters with a homogeneous berm....

  5. Investigation of Laser-Induced Damage on Multi-Layer Dielectric Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Wei-Jin; SHEN Zi-Cai; SHEN Jian; SHAO Jian-Da; FAN Zheng-Xiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate mechanisms of laser induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) of multi-layer dielectric gratings (MDGs).It is found that the laser damage thresholds of MDGs and unstructured dielectric multi-layer coatings (the substrate of MDG) are 3.15J/cm2 and 9.32J/cm2, respectively, at 1064nm (12ns) with the Littrow angle 51.2°and the TEM00 mode. The laser-induced damage mechanism of multi-layer dielectric is presented with the analysis of the following factors: The dominant factor is the pollution on the corrugated surface, which is induced by the complex manufacture process of multi-layer dielectric gratings; another is the electric field distribution along the corrugated surface. The third reason is due to the reduction in stoichiometry of oxide films, resulting from the manufacture process of etching.

  6. Influencing factors on elastic-plastic deformation of multi-layered surfaces under sliding contact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Li; PAN Xin-xiang; XU Jiu-jun; CHENG Dong

    2004-01-01

    Stress distribution in the gradient multi-layered surface under a sliding contact was investigated using finite element method(FEM). The main structure parameters of layered surface discussed are total layer thickness,layer number and elastic modulus ratio of layer to the substrate. A model of multi-layered surface contact with rough slider was studied. The effect of the surface structure parameters on the elastic-plastic deformation was analyzed.

  7. Orientation in multi-layer chitosan hydrogel: morphology, mechanism, and design principle

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyi Nie; Wentao Lu; Jianjun Ma; Ling Yang; Zhengke Wang; An Qin; Qiaoling Hu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels with organized structure have attracted remarkable attentions for bio-related applications. Among the preparation of hierarchical hydrogel materials, fabrication of hydrogel with multi-layers is an important branch. Although the generation mechanism of layers had been fully discussed, sub-layer structure was not sufficiently studied. In this research, multi-layered chitosan hydrogel with oriented structure was constructed, and the formation mechanism of orientation was proposed, bas...

  8. Null Models and Modularity Based Community Detection in Multi-Layer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    Multi-layer networks are networks on a set of entities (nodes) with multiple types of relations (edges) among them where each type of relation/interaction is represented as a network layer. As with single layer networks, community detection is an important task in multi-layer networks. A large group of popular community detection methods in networks are based on optimizing a quality function known as the modularity score, which is a measure of presence of modules or communities in networks. Hence a first step in community detection is defining a suitable modularity score that is appropriate for the network in question. Here we introduce several multi-layer network modularity measures under different null models of the network, motivated by empirical observations in networks from a diverse field of applications. In particular we define the multi-layer configuration model, the multi-layer expected degree model and their various modifications as null models for multi-layer networks to derive different modulariti...

  9. Monitoring of hidden fatigue crack growth in multi-layer aircraft structures using high frequency guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H.; Masserey, B.; Fromme, P.

    2015-03-01

    Varying loading conditions of aircraft structures result in stress concentration at fastener holes, where multi-layered components are connected, potentially leading to the development of hidden fatigue cracks in inaccessible layers. High frequency guided waves propagating along the structure allow for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of such components, e.g., aircraft wings. Experimentally the required guided wave modes can be easily excited using standard ultrasonic wedge transducers. However, the sensitivity for the detection of small, potentially hidden, fatigue cracks has to be ascertained. The type of multi-layered model structure investigated consists of two adhesively bonded aluminum plate-strips with a sealant layer. Fatigue experiments were carried out and the growth of fatigue cracks at the fastener hole in one of the metallic layers was monitored optically during cyclic loading. The influence of the fatigue cracks of increasing size on the scattered guided wave field was evaluated. The sensitivity and repeatability of the high frequency guided wave modes to detect and monitor the fatigue crack growth was investigated, using both standard pulse-echo equipment and a laser interferometer. The potential for hidden fatigue crack growth monitoring at critical and difficult to access fastener locations from a stand-off distance was ascertained. The robustness of the methodology for practical in situ ultrasonic monitoring of fatigue crack growth is discussed.

  10. Non-Abelian Braiding of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadecola, Thomas; Schuster, Thomas; Chamon, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    Many topological phenomena first proposed and observed in the context of electrons in solids have recently found counterparts in photonic and acoustic systems. In this work, we demonstrate that non-Abelian Berry phases can arise when coherent states of light are injected into "topological guided modes" in specially fabricated photonic waveguide arrays. These modes are photonic analogues of topological zero modes in electronic systems. Light traveling inside spatially well-separated topological guided modes can be braided, leading to the accumulation of non-Abelian phases, which depend on the order in which the guided beams are wound around one another. Notably, these effects survive the limit of large photon occupation, and can thus also be understood as wave phenomena arising directly from Maxwell's equations, without resorting to the quantization of light. We propose an optical interference experiment as a direct probe of this non-Abelian braiding of light.

  11. Braid group representation on quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Ryan Kasyfil, E-mail: kasyfilryan@gmail.com [Department of Computational Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia); Muchtadi-Alamsyah, Intan, E-mail: ntan@math.itb.ac.id [Algebra Research Group, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    There are many studies about topological representation of quantum computation recently. One of diagram representation of quantum computation is by using ZX-Calculus. In this paper we will make a diagrammatical scheme of Dense Coding. We also proved that ZX-Calculus diagram of maximally entangle state satisfies Yang-Baxter Equation and therefore, we can construct a Braid Group representation of set of maximally entangle state.

  12. Geometric representations of the braid groups

    CERN Document Server

    Castel, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    We show that the morphisms from the braid group with n strands in the mapping class group of a surface with a possible non empty boundary, assuming that its genus is smaller or equal to n/2 are either cyclic morphisms (their images are cyclic groups), or transvections of monodromy morphisms (up to multiplication by an element in the centralizer of the image, the image of a standard generator of the braid group is a Dehn twist, and the images of two consecutive standard generators are two Dehn twists along two curves intersecting in one point). As a corollary, we determine the endomorphisms, the injective endomorphisms, the automorphisms and the outer automorphism group of the following groups: the braid group with n strands where n is greater than or equal to 6, and the mapping class group of any surface of genus greater or equal than 2. For each statement involving the mapping class group, we study both cases: when the boundary is fixed pointwise, and when each boundary component is fixed setwise. We will al...

  13. Creep Test of Polymer-matrix 3-D Braided Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The long-term creep behavior of polymer-matrix 3-D braided composites was studied by using the tensile creep test method, and the effect of braiding structure, braiding angle and fiber volume fraction were discussed. The creep curve appears as expected, and can be defimed two phases,namely, the primary phase and the secondary phase. For each sample, strain increases with time rapidly, and then the strain rate decreases and appears to approach a constant rate of change (steady-state creep). The experiment results show that the creep resistant properties are improved while the braiding angle decreases or the fiber volume fraction increases, and that the five-directional braiding structure offers better creep resistant properties than the fourdirectional braiding structure.

  14. MULTI-LAYER PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR AND ITS APPLICATION IN CONTROLLABLE CONSTRAINED DAMPING TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xinong; XIE Shilin; ZHANG Yahong

    2007-01-01

    A kind of novel multi-layer piezoelectric actuator is proposed and integrated with controllable constrained damping treatment to perform hybrid Vibration control. The governing equation of the System is derived based on the constitutive equations of elastic, viscoelastic and piezoelectric materials, which shows that the magnitude of control force exerted by multi-layer piezoelectric actuator is the quadratic function of the number of piezoelectric laminates used but in direct proportion to control voltage. This means that the multi-layer actuator can produce greater actuating force than that by piezoelectric laminate actuator with the same area under the identical control voltage. The optimal location placement of the multi-layer piezoelectric actuator is also discussed. As an example, the hybrid Vibration control of a cantilever rectangular thin-plate is numerically simulated and carried out experimentally. The simulated and experimental results validate the power of multi-layer piezoelectric actuator and indicate that the present hybrid damping technique can effectively suppress the low frequency modal Vibration of the experimental thin-plate structure.

  15. Inner strain determination of three-dimensional braided preforms with co-braided optical fiber sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghua LI; Xiaohui LIU; Shenfang YUAN

    2008-01-01

    The experimental characterization of three-dimensional (3-D) braided composites is extremely important for their design and analysis. Because of their desirable attributes and outstanding performance, optical fiber sensors (OFSs) can be embedded to mon-itor mechanical properties of textile composites. This paper discusses two techniques to incorporate different OFSs into 3-D braided composite preforms. The oper-ating principle of various sensor systems is first con-ducted. Experiments using Michelson interferometers, FBG sensors, and micro-bend sensors are performed to verify the concept of the proposed method. Strain curves of various OFSs tests are finally compared, and they all exhibit good linearity.

  16. A Categorical Model for the Virtual Braid Group

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffman, Louis H.; Lambropoulou, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a new interpretation of the virtual braid group in terms of a strict monoidal category SC that is freely generated by one object and three morphisms, two of the morphisms corresponding to basic pure virtual braids and one morphism corresponding to a transposition in the symmetric group. The key to this approach is to take pure virtual braids as primary. The generators of the pure virtual braid group are abstract solutions to the algebraic Yang-Baxter equation. This point of v...

  17. On reduction curves and Garside properties of braids

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the reduction curves of a braid, and how they can be used to decompose the braid into simpler ones in a precise way, which does not correspond exactly to the decomposition given by Thurston theory. Then we study how a cyclic sliding (which is a particular kind of conjugation) affects the normal form of a braid with respect to the normal forms of its components. Finally, using the above methods, we provide the example of a family of braids whose sets of sliding circuits (hence ultra summit sets) have exponential size with respect to the number of strands and also with respect to the canonical length.

  18. Validation of the physical modeling approach for braided rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosatti, Giorgio

    2002-12-01

    Laboratory channels are often used to study the complexity of braiding mechanisms for the advantages with respect to field studies. Nevertheless, the extensive use of experimental data raises the question of how representative laboratory braided channels are as compared to real braided rivers. This study verifies to what extent laboratory braided patterns reproduce the main features of braided rivers. Experimental data display isotropic and anisotropic scaling of braided patterns, state-space plot of total widths, anisotropic scaling of islands, and statistical distribution of island areas that are similar to those observed in real rivers. Moreover, the data reveals scaling in the perimeter-area relation. These results support both the reliability of experimental braided channels as physical models of braided rivers and also the possibility of investigating some aspects of braiding in the laboratory that are difficult to address in the field. The lack of preferential scales in island characteristics suggests that other phenomena must play a key role in generating island shapes besides classical sediment transport-based mechanisms which tend to select well-defined length scales.

  19. Can we neglect the multi-layer structure of functional networks?

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Functional networks, i.e. networks representing dynamic relationships between the components of a complex system, have been instrumental for our understanding of, among others, the human brain. Due to limited data availability, the multi-layer nature of numerous functional networks has hitherto been neglected, and nodes are endowed with a single type of links even when multiple relationships coexist at different physical levels. A relevant problem is the assessment of the benefits yielded by studying a multi-layer functional network, against the simplicity guaranteed by the reconstruction and use of the corresponding single layer projection. Here, I tackle this issue by using as a test case, the functional network representing the dynamics of delay propagation through European airports. Neglecting the multi-layer structure of a functional network has dramatic consequences on our understanding of the underlying system, a fact to be taken into account when a projection is the only available information.

  20. Coordinated Multi-layer Multi-domain Optical Network (COMMON) for Large-Scale Science Applications (COMMON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokkarane, Vinod [University of Massachusetts

    2013-09-01

    We intend to implement a Coordinated Multi-layer Multi-domain Optical Network (COMMON) Framework for Large-scale Science Applications. In the COMMON project, specific problems to be addressed include 1) anycast/multicast/manycast request provisioning, 2) deployable OSCARS enhancements, 3) multi-layer, multi-domain quality of service (QoS), and 4) multi-layer, multidomain path survivability. In what follows, we outline the progress in the above categories (Year 1, 2, and 3 deliverables).

  1. Generalized multi-layered granulations and approximations based on neighborhood systems under incomplete information systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ming; FENG Bo-qin

    2005-01-01

    A generalized multi-layered granulation structure used by neighborhood systems is proposed. With granulated views, the concepts of approximations under incomplete information systems are studied, which are represented by covering of the universe. With respect to different levels of granulations, a pair of lower and upper approximations is defined and an approximation structure is investigated, which lead to a more general approximation structure. The generalized multi-layered granulation structure provides a basis of the proposed framework of granular computing. Using this framework, the interesting and useful results about information granulation and approximation reasoning can be obtained. This paper presents some useful explorations about the incomplete information systems from information views.

  2. Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Tom [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID

    2010-08-31

    At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, Control plane software release, Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, Network Virtualization architecture, Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  3. Multi-layered parallel plate ionization chamber for cross-section measurements of minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K., E-mail: hirose@lns.tohoku.ac.j [Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 982-0826 (Japan); Ohtsuki, T.; Shibasaki, Y. [Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 982-0826 (Japan); Iwasa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Hori, J.; Takamiya, K.; Yashima, H. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennangun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kiyanagi, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2010-09-21

    A multi-layered parallel plate ionization chamber (MLPPIC) has been developed for the measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-sections using the lead slowing-down neutron spectrometer at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. The MLPPIC consists of two sets of multi-layered electrodes to detect fission fragments from two samples located back-to-back between them. The performance of the MLPPIC was tested with a spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm. The cross-section for the neutron-induced fission of {sup 241}Am was successfully obtained using that of {sup 235}U as a reference.

  4. Study on Folds of Equal Thickness Multi-layer Sandwiched in Different Thickness Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical model and non-homogeneous differential equation of equal thickness multi-layer folds sandwiched in different thickness and same character media are established by elastic and plastic mechanics. The special answer of the non-homogeneous differential equation and the common answer of the homogeneous differential equation are deduced by applying logistic equation and special function, and the dominant wavelength theory of equal thickness multi-layer folds sandwiched in different thickness and same character media. In addition, the experimental folding in both elastic and sticky materials proves the dominant wavelength theory.

  5. A New Multi-Layered Fuzzy Image Filter for Removing Impulse Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel J Stonier

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a fuzzy image .lter which consists of a multi-layered fuzzy structure based on the weighted fuzzy blend filter for the removal of noise from images heavily corrupted by impulse noise, while preserving the intricate details of the image. The introduction of multi-layered fuzzy systems substantially decreases the number of rules to be learnt. We then show how Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs can be used to effectively learn the fuzzy rules in each knowledge base. Results are presented for impulse noise corruption of the well-known 'Lena' image.

  6. Failure of multi-layer graphene coatings in acidic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Feng; Stoot, Adam Carsten; Bøggild, Peter

    2016-01-01

    with thick, high-quality chemical vapor deposited multilayered graphene is exposed to acidic solutions, a dramatic evolution of gas is observed at the coating–substrate interface. The gas bubbles grow and merge, eventually rupturing and delaminating the coating. This behavior, attributed to cathodic hydrogen...... evolution, can also occur spontaneously on a range of other technologically important metals and alloys based on iron, zinc, aluminum and manganese; this makes these findings relevant for practical applications of graphene-based coatings.Being impermeable to all gases, graphene has been proposed...... is exposed to acidic solutions, a dramatic evolution of gas is observed at the coating–substrate interface. The gas bubbles grow and merge, eventually rupturing and delaminating the coating. This behavior, attributed to cathodic hydrogen evolution, can also occur spontaneously on a range of other...

  7. The Pure Virtual Braid Group Is Quadratic

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Peter

    2011-01-01

    If an augmented algebra K over Q is filtered by powers of its augmentation ideal I, the associated graded algebra gr_I K need not in general be quadratic: although it is generated in degree 1, its relations may not be generated by homogeneous relations of degree 2. In this paper we give a criterion which is equivalent to gr_I K being quadratic. We apply this criterion to the group algebra of the pure virtual braid group (also known as the quasi-triangular group), and show that the corresponding associated graded algebra is quadratic.

  8. Unraveling "Braid": Puzzle Games and Storytelling in the Imperative Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Luke

    2012-01-01

    "Unraveling Braid" analyzes how unconventional, non-linear narrative fiction can help explain the ways in which video games signify. Specifically, this essay looks at the links between the semiotic features of Jonathan Blow's 2008 puzzle-platform video game Braid and similar elements in Georges Perec's 1978 novel "Life A User's Manual," as well as…

  9. Braids as a representation space of SU(5)

    CERN Document Server

    Cartin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics provides very accurate predictions of phenomena occurring at the sub-atomic level, but the reason for the choice of symmetry group and the large number of particles considered elementary, is still unknown. Along the lines of previous preon models positing a substructure to explain these aspects, Bilson-Thompson showed how the first family of elementary particles is realized as the crossings of braids made of three strands, with charges resulting from twists of those strands with certain conditions; in this topological model, there are only two distinct neutrino states. Modeling the particles as braids implies these braids must be the representation space of a Lie algebra, giving the symmetries of the Standard Model. In this paper, this representation is made explicit, obtaining the raising operators associated with the Lie algebra of $SU(5)$, one of the earliest grand unified theories. Because the braids form a group, the action of these operators are braids themselves, ...

  10. A multi-layered network of the (Colombian) sovereign securities market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc; Leon Rincon, Carlos; Pérez, Jhonatan; Alexandrova-Kabadjova, Bilana; Diehl, Martin; Heuver, Richard; Martinez-Jaramillo, Serafín

    2015-01-01

    We study the network of Colombian sovereign securities settlements. With data from the settlement market infrastructure we study financial institutions’ transactions from three different trading and registering individual networks that we combine into a multi-layer network. Examining this network of

  11. Electrohydrodynamic direct—writing of conductor—insulator-conductor multi-layer interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gao-Feng; Pei, Yan-Bo; Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Jian-Yi; Sun, Dao-Heng

    2014-06-01

    A multi-layer interconnection structure is a basic component of electronic devices, and printing of the multi-layer interconnection structure is the key process in printed electronics. In this work, electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) is utilized to print the conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnection structure. Silver ink is chosen to print the conductor pattern, and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution is utilized to fabricate the insulator layer between the bottom and top conductor patterns. The influences of EDW process parameters on the line width of the printed conductor and insulator patterns are studied systematically. The obtained results show that the line width of the printed structure increases with the increase of the flow rate, but decreases with the increase of applied voltage and PVP content in the solution. The average resistivity values of the bottom and top silver conductor tracks are determined to be 1.34 × 10-7 Ω·m and 1.39 × 10-7 Ω·m, respectively. The printed PVP layer between the two conductor tracks is well insulated, which can meet the insulation requirement of the electronic devices. This study offers an alternative, fast, and cost-effective method of fabricating conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnections in the electronic industry.

  12. A multi-layered safety perspective on the tsunami disaster in Tohoku, Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kolen, B.; Maaskant, B.; Mori, N.; Yasuda, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the multi-layered safety system in Tohoku, Japan based on the tsunami disaster of March 2011. The performed analysis has been based on data provided by local researchers and field observations. First an overview of the tsunami behaviour along the affected coastli

  13. Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerhill, Richard

    2009-08-14

    There were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing, o Simulation, o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  14. Deconsolidation and combustion performance of thermally consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layers coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-gang XIAO; San-jiu YING; Fu-ming XU

    2014-01-01

    Both heating and solvent-spray methods are used to consolidate the standard grains of double-base oblate sphere propellants plasticized with triethyleneglycol dinitrate (TEGDN) (TEGDN propellants) to high density propellants. The obtained consolidated propellants are deterred and coated with the slow burning multi-layer coating. The maximum compaction density of deterred and coated consolidated propellants can reach up to 1.39 g/cm3. Their mechanic, deconsolidation and combustion performances are tested by the materials test machine, interrupted burning set-up and closed vessel, respectively. The static compression strength of consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layer coating increases significantly to 18 MPa, indicating that they can be applied in most circumstances of charge service. And the samples are easy to deconsolidate in the interrupted burning test. Furthermore, the closed bomb burning curves of the samples indicate a two-stage combustion phenomenon under the condition of certain thickness of coated multi-layers. After the outer deterred multi-layer coating of consolidated samples is finished burning, the inner consolidated propellants continue to burn and breakup into aggregates and grains. The high burning progressivity can be carefully obtained by the smart control of deconsolidation process and duration of consolidated propellants. The preliminary results of consolidated propellants show that a rapid deconsolidation process at higher deconsolidation pressure is presented in the dynamic vivacity curves of closed bomb test. Higher density and higher macro progressivity of consolidated propellants can be obtained by the techniques in this paper.

  15. Complete passive vibration suppression using multi-layered piezoelectric element, inductor, and resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes passive technique for suppressing vibration in flexible structures using a multi-layered piezoelectric element, an inductor, and a resistor. The objective of using a multi-layered piezoelectric element is to increase its capacitance. A piezoelectric element with a large capacitance value does not require an active electrical circuit to simulate an inductor with a large inductance value. The effect of multi-layering of piezoelectric elements was theoretically analyzed through an equivalent transformation of a multi-layered piezoelectric element into a single-layered piezoelectric element. The governing equations were derived using this equivalent transformation. The effect of the resistances of the inductor and piezoelectric elements were considered because the sum of these resistances may exceed the optimum resistance. The performance of the passive vibration suppression using an LR circuit was compared to that of the method where a resistive circuit is used assuming that the sum of the resistances of the inductor and piezoelectric elements exceeds the optimum resistance. The effectiveness of the proposed method and theoretical analysis was verified through simulations and experiments.

  16. Application of Multi-Layered Polyurethane Foams for Flat-Walled Anechoic Linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, J. F.; Buchholz, Jörg; Fricke, Fergus R.

    2006-01-01

    of the application of multi-layered polyurethane foams as the flat-walled anechoic lining. The investigation includes aspects such as the efficacy of a single layer of material, the minimum number of layers of linings to achieve the minimum overall thickness for low (100Hz), mid (250Hz) and high (500Hz) cut...

  17. The AC (Alternating Current) Electrical Behavior of Multi-layered Thermoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Budak, Satilmis; Bhattacharjee, Sudip

    2016-11-01

    In this study the ac (alternating current) small-signal electrical data in the frequency range 5 Hz ≤ f ≤ 13 MHz are obtained for the multi-layered thermoelectric (TE) devices to extract underlying operative mechanisms via an equivalent circuit model. This model is developed from the complex plane plots in conjunction with the Bode plot. It is observed that the inductive behavior is prevalent for both unbombarded and bombarded TE devices regardless of the doses as both types are observed as somewhat weak in thermoelectric properties. The bombarded multi-layered devices followed a systematic pattern in ac behavior via semicircular relaxation both in the impedance and admittance planes for the same measured data. This pattern is attributed to the transition from one lumped behavior to two distinct mechanisms. It is observed that the conductive nature of the equivalent circuit model via non-blocking (non-capacitive) elements, attributed to the underlying operative electrical paths between the two opposite electrodes across the multi-layered device exists, satisfying direct current conditions of the equivalent circuit model. The inductive behavior at high frequencies originates from the conductive aspect of the lumped response of the device in addition to the contribution of the electrode leads. Thus, the proposed equivalent circuit model contains external inductance that verifies a meaningful representation of the multi-layered TE device, though weak in thermoelectric properties.

  18. Energy efficiency of the Rural Wall multi-layer structure in low-rise building design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Golova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study on energy efficiency of various wall design solutions and a new multi-layer wall design for low-rise construction as well as the results of television studies on multi-layer and single-layer envelopes. Indoor climate parameters for various wall design solutions are determined. The study reveals the optimal wall design solutions and specifies the theoretical assessment of their energy efficiency in compliance with Russia's national building code 23-02-2003. The paper presents calculations of building heat loss through the exterior building envelope, reduced resistance to heat transfer of walls and total heat loss of the building with the selected outer wall design during the heating season. Recommendations on the application of the new multi-layer wall design using local wall materials in the construction of energy-efficient low-rise buildings are developed. The recommendations include requirements for wall materials, thermal calculations, production guidelines, properties of layers in a multi-layer walls and physical and mechanical properties of wall layers.

  19. Efficient Exciton Diffusion and Resonance-Energy Transfer in Multi-Layered Organic Epitaxial Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Cadelano, Michele; Quochi, Francesco;

    2015-01-01

    Multi-layered epitaxial nanofibers are exemplary model systems for the study of exciton dynamics and lasing in organic materials due to their well-defined morphology, high luminescence efficiencies, and color tunability. We resort to temperature-dependent cw and picosecond photoluminescence (PL) ...

  20. Multi-layered satisficing decision making in oil and gas production platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Mikkelsen, Lars; Jørgensen, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    From a control perspective, offshore oil and gas production is very challenging due to the many and potentially conflicting production objectives that arise from the intrinsic complexity of the oil and gas domain. In this paper, we show how a multi-layered multi-agent system can be used...

  1. Demonstrating multi-layered MAS in control of offshore oil and gas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Mikkelsen, Lars; Næumann, J. R.; Demazeau, Y.

    2013-01-01

    From a control perspective, offshore oil and gas production is very challenging due to the many and potentially conflicting production objectives that arise from the intrinsic complexity of the oil and gas domain. In this paper, we demonstrate how a multi-layered multi-agent system can be used...

  2. Study on tribological properties of multi-layer surface texture on Babbitt alloys surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongya; Zhao, Feifei; Li, Yan; Li, Pengyang; Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng

    2016-12-01

    To improve tribological properties of Babbitt alloys, multi-layer surface texture consisted of the main grooves and secondary micro-dimples are fabricated on the Babbitt substrate through laser pulse ablation. The tribological behaviors of multi-layer surface texture are investigated using a rotating type pin-on-disc tribo-meter under variation sliding speeds, and the film pressure distributions on the textured surfaces are simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for elucidating the possible mechanisms. The results suggest that: (i) the multi-layer surface texture can reduce friction coefficient of Babbitt alloy, which has lowest friction coefficient of 0.03, in case of the groove parameter of 300 μm width and 15% of area density; (ii) the improvement effect may be more sensitive to the groove area density and the siding speed, and the textured surface with lower area density has lower friction coefficient under high sliding speed. Based on the reasons of (i) the secondary micro-dimples on Babbitt alloy possesses a hydrophobicity surface and (ii) the CFD analysis indicates that main grooves enhancing hydrodynamic effect, thus the multi-layer surface texture is regarded as dramatically improve the lubricating properties of the Babbitt alloy.

  3. River channel patterns: Braided, meandering, and straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna B.; Wolman, M. Gordon

    1957-01-01

    Channel pattern is used to describe the plan view of a reach of river as seen from an airplane, and includes meandering, braiding, or relatively straight channels. Natural channels characteristically exhibit alternating pools or deep reaches and riffles or shallow reaches, regardless of the type of pattern. The length of the pool or distance between riffles in a straight channel equals the straight line distance between successive points of inflection in the wave pattern of a meandering river of the same width. The points of inflection are also shallow points and correspond to riffles in the straight channel. This distance, which is half the wavelength of the meander, varies approximately as a linear function of channel width. In the data we analysed the meander wavelength, or twice the distance between successive riffles, is from 7 to 12 times the channel width. It is concluded that the mechanics which may lead to meandering operate in straight channels. River braiding is characterized by channel division around alluvial islands. The growth of an island begins as the deposition of a central bar which results from sorting and deposition of the coarser fractions of the load which locally cannot be transported. The bar grows downstream and in height by continued deposition on its surface, forcing the water into the flanking channels, which, to carry the flow, deepen and cut laterally into the original banks. Such deepening locally lowers the water surface and the central bar emerges as an island which becomes stabilized by vegetation. Braiding was observed in a small river in a laboratory. Measurements of the adjustments of velocity, depth, width, and slope associated with island development lead to the conclusion that braiding is one of the many patterns which can maintain quasi-equilibrium among discharge, load, and transporting ability. Braiding does not necessarily indicate an excess of total load. Channel cross section and pattern are ultimately controlled by

  4. Quilts central extensions, braid actions, and finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Quilts are 2-complexes used to analyze actions and subgroups of the 3-string braid group and similar groups. This monograph establishes the fundamentals of quilts and discusses connections with central extensions, braid actions, and finite groups. Most results have not previously appeared in a widely available form, and many results appear in print for the first time. This monograph is accessible to graduate students, as a substantial amount of background material is included. The methods and results may be relevant to researchers interested in infinite groups, moonshine, central extensions, triangle groups, dessins d'enfants, and monodromy actions of braid groups.

  5. FE simulation and process analysis on forming of aluminum alloy multi-layer cylinder parts with flow control forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-yun; WU You-sheng; XIA Ju-chen; HU Guo-an

    2005-01-01

    The aluminum alloy parts used in airbag of car were studied with flow control forming(FCF) method,which was a good way to low forming force and better mechanical properties. The key technology of FCF was the design of control chamber to divide metal flow. So, the design method of FCF was analyzed and two type of control chamber were put forward. According to divisional principle, calculation model of forming force and approximate formula were given. Then forming process of aluminum alloy multi-layer cylinder parts was simulated. The effect of friction factor, die radius and punch velocity on metal flow and forming force was obtained. Finally, the experiment was preformed under the direction of theory and finite element(FE) simulation results. And the qualified parts were manufactured. The simulation data and experimental results show that the forming sequence of inner wall and outer wall, and then the force step, can be controlled by adjusting the process parameters. And the FCF technology proposed has very important application value in precision forging.

  6. High frequency guided waves for hidden fatigue crack growth monitoring in multi-layer aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Henry; Fromme, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Varying loading conditions of aircraft structures result in stress concentration at fastener holes, where multi-layered components are connected, possibly leading to the development of fatigue cracks. High frequency guided waves propagating along the structure allow for the non-destructive testing of such components, e.g., aircraft wings. However, the sensitivity for the detection of small, potentially hidden, fatigue cracks has to be ascertained. The type of multi-layered model structure investigated consists of two adhesively bonded aluminium plate-strips. Fatigue experiments were carried out. The sensitivity of the high frequency guided wave modes to monitor fatigue crack growth at a fastener hole during cyclic loading was investigated, using both standard pulse-echo equipment and laser interferometry. The sensitivity and repeatability of the measurements were ascertained, having the potential for fatigue crack growth monitoring at critical and difficult to access fastener locations from a stand-off distance.

  7. Multi-layer holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Huang, K. S.; Diep, J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data processing techniques have the inherent advantage of high data throughout, low weight and low power requirements. These features are particularly desirable for onboard spacecraft in-situ real-time data analysis and data compression applications. the proposed multi-layer optical holographic neural net pattern recognition technique will utilize the nonlinear photorefractive devices for real-time adaptive learning to classify input data content and recognize unexpected features. Information can be stored either in analog or digital form in a nonlinear photofractive device. The recording can be accomplished in time scales ranging from milliseconds to microseconds. When a system consisting of these devices is organized in a multi-layer structure, a feedforward neural net with bifurcating data classification capability is formed. The interdisciplinary research will involve the collaboration with top digital computer architecture experts at the University of Southern California.

  8. Rounded Data Analysis Based on Multi-Layer Ranked Set Sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ming LI; Zhi Dong BAI

    2011-01-01

    Observations of sampling are often subject to rounding,but are modeled as though they were unrounded.This paper examines the impact of rounding errors on parameter estimation with multi-layer ranked set sampling.It shows that the rounding errors seriously distort the behavior of covariance matrix estimate,and lead to inconsistent estimation.Taking this into account,we present a new approach to implement the estimation for this model,and further establish the strong consistency and asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators.Simulation experiments show that our estimates based on rounded multi-layer ranked set sampling are always more efficient than those based on rounded simple random sampling.

  9. MULTI-LAYER TRACK FUSION ALGORITHM BASED ON SUPPORTING DEGREE MATRIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei; Quan Li; Zhang Ke

    2012-01-01

    The random noises of multi-sensor and the environment make observations uncertain and correlative,so the performance of fusion algorithms is reduced by using observations directly.To solve this problem,a multi-layer track fusion algorithm based on supporting degree matrix is proposed.Combined with the track fusion algorithm based on filtering step by step,it uses multi-sensor observations to establish supporting degree matrix and realize multi-layer fusion.Simulation results show its estimation precision is higher than the original algorithm and is increased by 20% around.Therefore,it solves the problem of target tracking further in the distributed track fusion system.

  10. Multi-layer micro/nanofluid devices with bio-nanovalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Firestone, Millicent A.

    2013-01-01

    A user-friendly multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device and micro/nano fabrication process are provided for numerous uses. The multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device can comprise: a substrate, such as indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO glass); a conductive layer of ferroelectric material, preferably comprising a PZT layer of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) positioned on the substrate; electrodes connected to the conductive layer; a nanofluidics layer positioned on the conductive layer and defining nanochannels; a microfluidics layer positioned upon the nanofluidics layer and defining microchannels; and biomolecular nanovalves providing bio-nanovalves which are moveable from a closed position to an open position to control fluid flow at a nanoscale.

  11. High temperature and current density induced degradation of multi-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baoming; Haque, M. A., E-mail: mah37@psu.edu [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 314, Leonhard Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Mag-isa, Alexander E.; Kim, Jae-Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajungbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak-Joo [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajungbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Meta-Materials (CAMM), 156 Gajungbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-19

    We present evidence of moderate current density, when accompanied with high temperature, promoting migration of foreign atoms on the surface of multi-layer graphene. Our in situ transmission electron microscope experiments show migration of silicon atoms at temperatures above 800 °C and current density around 4.2 × 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. Originating from the micro-machined silicon structures that clamp the freestanding specimen, the atoms are observed to react with the carbon atoms in the multi-layer graphene to produce silicon carbide at temperatures of 900–1000 °C. In the absence of electrical current, there is no migration of silicon and only pyrolysis of polymeric residue is observed.

  12. Plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by surface loads

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarva Jit Singh; Sunita Rani

    2006-12-01

    The Biot linearized quasi-static theory of fluid-infiltrated porous materials is used to formulate the problem of the two-dimensional plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by surface loads. The Fourier–Laplace transforms of the stresses, displacements, pore pressure and fluid flux in each homogeneous layer of the multi-layered half-space are expressed in terms of six arbitrary constants. Generalized Thomson–Haskell matrix method is used to obtain the deformation field. Simplified explicit expressions for the elements of the 6 × 6 propagator matrix for the poroelastic medium are obtained. As an example of the possible applications of the analytical formulation developed, formal solution is given for normal strip loading, normal line loading and shear line loading.

  13. PRESSURE-IMPULSE DIAGRAM OF MULTI-LAYERED ALUMINUM FOAM PANELS UNDER BLAST PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANG-SU SHIM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-terror engineering has increasing demand in construction industry, but basis of design (BOD is normally not clear for designers. Hardening of structures has limitations when design loads are not defined. Sacrificial foam claddings are one of the most efficient methods to protect blast pressure. Aluminum foam can have designed yield strength according to relative density and mitigate the blast pressure below a target transmitted pressure. In this paper, multi-layered aluminum foam panels were proposed to enhance the pressure mitigation by increasing effective range of blast pressure. Through explicit finite element analyses, the performance of blast pressure mitigation by the multi-layered foams was evaluated. Pressure-impulse diagrams for the foam panels were developed from extensive analyses. Combination of low and high strength foams showed better applicability in wider range of blast pressure.

  14. A Linear Multi-Layer Perceptron for Identifying Harmonic Contents of Biomedical Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thien; Wira, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: Intelligent Signal and Image Processing; International audience; A linear Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) is proposed as a new approach to identify the harmonic content of biomedical signals and to characterize them. This layered neural network uses only linear neurons. Some synthetic sinusoidal terms are used as inputs and represent a priori knowledge. A measured signal serves as a reference, then a supervised learning allows to adapt the weights and to fit its Fourier series. The ampli...

  15. AN EXACT ANALYSIS OF FORCED THICKNESS-TWIST VIBRATIONS OF MULTI-LAYERED PIEZOELECTRIC PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the thickness-twist vibration of a multi-layered rectangular piezoelectric plate of crystals of 6 mm symmetry or polarized ceramics. An exact solution is obtained from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity. The solution is useful to the understanding and design of composite piezoelectric devices. A piezoelectric resonator, a piezoelectric transformer, and a piezoelectric generator are analyzed as examples.

  16. An Enhanced Leakage-Based Precoding Scheme for Multi-User Multi-Layer MIMO Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chunliang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an enhanced leakage-based precoding scheme, i.e., layer signal to leakage plus noise ratio (layer SLNR) scheme, for multi-user multi-layer MIMO systems. Specifically, the layer SLNR scheme incorporates the MIMO receiver structure into the precoder design procedure, which makes the formulation of signal power and interference / leakage power more accurate. Besides, the layer SLNR scheme not only takes into account the inter-layer interference from different users, but...

  17. Matrix solution to longitudinal impedance of multi-layer circular structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn,H.

    2008-10-01

    A matrix method in which radial wave propagation is treated in analogy to longitudinal transmission lines is presented and applied to finding the longitudinal coupling impedance of axially symmetric multi-layer beam tubes. The method is demonstrated in the case of a Higher Order Mode ferrite absorber with an inserted coated ceramic beam tube. The screening of the ferrite damping properties by the dielectric beam tube is discussed.

  18. Multi-chamber and multi-layer thiol-ene microchip for cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, H. Y.; Hemmingsen, Mette; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a multi-layer and multi-chamber microfluidic chip fabricated using two different thiol-ene mixtures. Sandwiched between the thiol-ene chip layers is a commercially available membrane whose morphology has been altered with coatings of thiol-ene mixtures. Experiments have been conducted ...... with the microchip and shown that the fabricated microchip is suitable for long term cell culture....

  19. Engineering meniscus structure and function via multi-layered mesenchymal stem cell-seeded nanofibrous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew B; Henning, Elizabeth A; Söegaard, Nicole; Bostrom, Marc; Esterhai, John L; Mauck, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Despite advances in tissue engineering for the knee meniscus, it remains a challenge to match the complex macroscopic and microscopic structural features of native tissue, including the circumferentially and radially aligned collagen bundles essential for mechanical function. To mimic this structural hierarchy, this study developed multi-lamellar mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-seeded nanofibrous constructs. Bovine MSCs were seeded onto nanofibrous scaffolds comprised of poly(ε-caprolactone) with fibers aligned in a single direction (0° or 90° to the scaffold long axis) or circumferentially aligned (C). Multi-layer groups (0°/0°/0°, 90°/90°/90°, 0°/90°/0°, 90°/0°/90°, and C/C/C) were created and cultured for a total of 6 weeks under conditions favoring fibrocartilaginous tissue formation. Tensile testing showed that 0° and C single layer constructs had stiffness values several fold higher than 90° constructs. For multi-layer groups, the stiffness of 0°/0°/0° constructs was higher than all other groups, while 90°/90°/90° constructs had the lowest values. Data for collagen content showed a general positive interactive effect for multi-layers relative to single layer constructs, while a positive interaction for stiffness was found only for the C/C/C group. Collagen content and cell infiltration occurred independent of scaffold alignment, and newly formed collagenous matrix followed the scaffold fiber direction. Structural hierarchies within multi-lamellar constructs dictated biomechanical properties, and only the C/C/C constructs with non-orthogonal alignment within layers featured positive mechanical reinforcement as a consequence of the layered construction. These multi-layer constructs may serve as functional substitutes for the meniscus as well as test beds to understand the complex mechanical principles that enable meniscus function.

  20. Analysis of Counterfeit Coated Tablets and Multi-Layer Packaging Materials Using Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Taryn L; Lanzarotta, Adam; Sommer, André J

    2016-06-01

    An effective method for detecting and characterizing counterfeit finished dosage forms and packaging materials is described in this study. Using attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging, suspect tablet coating and core formulations as well as multi-layered foil safety seals, bottle labels, and cigarette tear tapes were analyzed and compared directly with those of a stored authentic product. The approach was effective for obtaining molecular information from structures as small as 6 μm.

  1. Carbon nano-onions (multi-layer fullerenes): chemistry and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Juergen Bartelmess; Silvia Giordani

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the development of multi-layer fullerenes, known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs). First, it briefly summarizes the most important synthetic pathways for their preparation and their properties and it gives the reader an update over new developments in the recent years. This is followed by a discussion of the published synthetic procedures for CNO functionalization, which are of major importance when elucidating future applications and addressing drawbacks for possible appli...

  2. Deconsolidation and combustion performance of thermally consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layers coating

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng-gang Xiao; San-jiu Ying; Fu-ming Xu

    2014-01-01

    Both heating and solvent-spray methods are used to consolidate the standard grains of double-base oblate sphere propellants plasticized with triethyleneglycol dinitrate (TEGDN) (TEGDN propellants) to high density propellants. The obtained consolidated propellants are deterred and coated with the slow burning multi-layer coating. The maximum compaction density of deterred and coated consolidated propellants can reach up to 1.39 g/cm3. Their mechanic, deconsolidation and combustion performances...

  3. Partial disjoint path for multi-layer protection in GMPLS networks

    OpenAIRE

    Urra i Fàbregas, Anna; Calle Ortega, Eusebi; Marzo i Lázaro, Josep Lluís

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, different recovery methods applied at different network layers and time scales are used in order to enhance the network reliability. Each layer deploys its own fault management methods. However, current recovery methods are applied to only a specific layer. New protection schemes, based on the proposed partial disjoint path algorithm, are defined in order to avoid protection duplications in a multi-layer scenario. The new protection schemes also encompass shared segment backup ...

  4. Deconsolidation and combustion performance of thermally consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layers coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-gang Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Both heating and solvent-spray methods are used to consolidate the standard grains of double-base oblate sphere propellants plasticized with triethyleneglycol dinitrate (TEGDN (TEGDN propellants to high density propellants. The obtained consolidated propellants are deterred and coated with the slow burning multi-layer coating. The maximum compaction density of deterred and coated consolidated propellants can reach up to 1.39 g/cm3. Their mechanic, deconsolidation and combustion performances are tested by the materials test machine, interrupted burning set-up and closed vessel, respectively. The static compression strength of consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layer coating increases significantly to 18 MPa, indicating that they can be applied in most circumstances of charge service. And the samples are easy to deconsolidate in the interrupted burning test. Furthermore, the closed bomb burning curves of the samples indicate a two-stage combustion phenomenon under the condition of certain thickness of coated multi-layers. After the outer deterred multi-layer coating of consolidated samples is finished burning, the inner consolidated propellants continue to burn and breakup into aggregates and grains. The high burning progressivity can be carefully obtained by the smart control of deconsolidation process and duration of consolidated propellants. The preliminary results of consolidated propellants show that a rapid deconsolidation process at higher deconsolidation pressure is presented in the dynamic vivacity curves of closed bomb test. Higher density and higher macro progressivity of consolidated propellants can be obtained by the techniques in this paper.

  5. Effect of Amount of Carbon on the Reduction Efficiency of Iron Ore-Coal Composite Pellets in Multi-layer Bed Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srinibash; Roy, Gour Gopal

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carbon-to-hematite molar ratio has been studied on the reduction efficiency of iron ore-coal composite pellet reduced at 1523 K (1250 °C) for 20 minutes in a laboratory scale multi-layer bed rotary hearth furnace (RHF). Reduced pellets have been characterized through weight loss measurement, estimation of porosity, shrinkage, qualitative and quantitative phase analysis by XRD. Performance parameters such as the degree of reduction, metallization, carbon efficiency, productivity, and compressive strength have been calculated to compare the process efficacy at different carbon levels in the pellets. Pellets with optimum carbon-to-hematite ratio (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) that is much below the stoichiometric carbon required for direct reduction of hematite yielded maximum reduction, better carbon utilization, and productivity for all three layers. Top layer exhibited maximum reduction at comparatively lower carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio 2.33). Correlation between degree of reduction and metallization indicated non-isothermal kinetics influenced by heat and mass transfer in multi-layer bed RHF. Compressive strength of the partially reduced pellet with optimum carbon content (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) showed that they could be potentially used as an alternate feed in a blast furnace or any other smelting reactor.

  6. A High-Temperature Solar Selective Absorber Based upon Periodic Shallow Microstructures Coated by Multi-Layers Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Shimizu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the fabrication of solar selective absorbers, the ability to create microstructures on top of metal surfaces is a promising technology. Typically, these materials are able to possess spectrally-selective absorption properties for high-temperature usage. Solar-selective absorbers that function at temperatures up to 700 °C and possess shallow honeycomb cylindrical microcavities coated with a metal-dielectric multi-layer have been investigated. Honeycomb array cylindrical microcavities were fabricated on W substrate with interference lithography and multi-layers consisting of Pt nano-film sandwiched by Al2O3 layers were created for a uniform coating via atomic layer deposition. The absorbance spectrum of fabricated samples reveals results consistent with a simulation based on a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. A solar absorbance value of 0.92 and a hemispherical total emittance value of 0.18 at 700 °C was determined from the fabricated solar-selective absorber. Additionally, thermal stability of up to 700 °C was confirmed in vacuum.

  7. Optimization of hybrid antireflection structure integrating surface texturing and multi-layer interference coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shigeru; Kanomata, Kensaku; Suzuki, Takahiko; Hirose, Fumihiko

    2014-10-01

    The antireflection structure (ARS) for solar cells is categorized to mainly two different techniques, i.e., the surface texturing and the single or multi-layer antireflection interference coating. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid ARS, which integrates moth eye texturing and multi-layer coat, for application to organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Using optical simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we conduct nearly global optimization of the geometric parameters characterizing the hybrid ARS. The proposed optimization algorithm consists of two steps: in the first step, we optimize the period and height of moth eye array, in the absence of multi-layer coating. In the second step, we optimize the whole structure of hybrid ARS by using the solution obtained by the first step as the starting search point. The methods of the simple grid search and the Hooke and Jeeves pattern search are used for global and local searches, respectively. In addition, we study the effects of deviations in the geometric parameters of hybrid ARS from their optimized values. The design concept of hybrid ARS is highly beneficial for broadband light trapping in OPVs.

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Multi-layer Heat Mirror with Photocatalytic Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tran Le; Tuan Tran; Huu Chi Nguyen; Dac Ngoc Son Luu; Minh Nam Hoang; Dinh Quan Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    A novel TiO_2~(5)/TiO_2~(buffer)/Ti~(4)/Ag~(3)/Ti~(2)/TiO_2~(1) multi-layer film coating with coming glass is designed and fabricated by a dc magnetron sputtering method as a renovation of the well-known TiO_2/Ti/Ag/Ti/TiO_2 system in order to obtain a heat mirror system with photocatalytic properties due to sufficient thickness of the TiO_2 layer. The outer TiO_2 layer is fabricated in two steps, possibly claimed as two layers TiO _2~(5) and TiO_2~(buffer), among which the 70-nm-thick layer TiO _2~(buffer) deposited in poor oxygen effectively minimizes the oxidation toward its neighbor Ti (4) layer. The optimal total thickness of the TiO_2~ (5) and TiO_2~(buffer) di-layer is found to be 300nm to yield a highly photo-catalytic property of the film without affecting the optical properties considerably. This multi-layer film can transmit light of above 75-85% in the visible spectrum (380≤λ≤760 nm) and reflect radiation of above 90% in the infrared spectrum (λ≥760 nm). Such multi-layer coatings are strongly recommended not only as promising transparent heat mirrors but also as photo-catalytic films for architectural window coatings.

  9. Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harajli, Ali A.

    Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks. This paper covers the development of a new methodology for predicting the chloride concentration and corrosion initiation times for a multi-layer protection overlay system. The first topic will be presenting an innovative method to predict the chloride concentrations using different diffusion coefficients for each protective layer. The new method covers the cases where the applied surface chloride concentrations are either a constant or linear functions with time. The second topic will implement the results from field data about the chloride variations due to the presence of applied topical layers for comparison with the theoretical models. This section will also apply damage factors that are time-dependent to simulate external factors such as traffic loading or vibrations. The third topic will investigate the sensitivity of the single and multi-layer systems due to diffusivity parameter changes. The fourth topic will analyze the random variation of the diffusivity values to predict the mean and standard deviation of chloride concentrations. The diffusivity values are selected from published values by NIST and are based on certain water cement (w/c) ratios.

  10. Femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on multi-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltaos, Angela; Kovačević, Aleksander G.; Matković, Aleksandar; Ralević, Uroš; Savić-Šević, Svetlana; Jovanović, Djordje; Jelenković, Branislav M.; Gajić, Radoš

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we present an observation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on graphene. LIPSS on other materials have been observed for nearly 50 years, but until now, not on graphene. Our findings for LIPSS on multi-layer graphene were consistent with previous reports of LIPSS on other materials, thus classifying them as high spatial frequency LIPSS. LIPSS on multi-layer graphene were generated in an air environment by a linearly polarized femtosecond laser with excitation wavelength λ of 840 nm, pulse duration τ of ˜150 fs, and a fluence F of ˜4.3-4.4 mJ/cm2. The observed LIPSS were perpendicular to the laser polarization and had dimensions of width w of ˜30-40 nm and length l of ˜0.5-1.5 μm, and spatial periods Λ of ˜70-100 nm (˜λ/8-λ/12), amongst the smallest of spatial periods reported for LIPSS on other materials. The spatial period and width of the LIPSS were shown to decrease for an increased number of laser shots. The experimental results support the leading theory behind high spatial frequency LIPSS formation, implying the involvement of surface plasmon polaritons. This work demonstrates a new way to pattern multi-layer graphene in a controllable manner, promising for a variety of emerging graphene/LIPSS applications.

  11. Femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on multi-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltaos, Angela, E-mail: abeltaos@ualberta.ca; Kovačević, Aleksander G.; Matković, Aleksandar; Ralević, Uroš; Savić-Šević, Svetlana; Jovanović, Djordje; Jelenković, Branislav M.; Gajić, Radoš [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-11-28

    In this work, we present an observation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on graphene. LIPSS on other materials have been observed for nearly 50 years, but until now, not on graphene. Our findings for LIPSS on multi-layer graphene were consistent with previous reports of LIPSS on other materials, thus classifying them as high spatial frequency LIPSS. LIPSS on multi-layer graphene were generated in an air environment by a linearly polarized femtosecond laser with excitation wavelength λ of 840 nm, pulse duration τ of ∼150 fs, and a fluence F of ∼4.3–4.4 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The observed LIPSS were perpendicular to the laser polarization and had dimensions of width w of ∼30–40 nm and length l of ∼0.5–1.5 μm, and spatial periods Λ of ∼70–100 nm (∼λ/8–λ/12), amongst the smallest of spatial periods reported for LIPSS on other materials. The spatial period and width of the LIPSS were shown to decrease for an increased number of laser shots. The experimental results support the leading theory behind high spatial frequency LIPSS formation, implying the involvement of surface plasmon polaritons. This work demonstrates a new way to pattern multi-layer graphene in a controllable manner, promising for a variety of emerging graphene/LIPSS applications.

  12. Compressive Mechanical Characteristics of Multi-layered Gradient Hydroxyapatite Reinforced Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Gel Biomaterial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusong Pan; Qianqian Shen; Chengling Pan; Jing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Functional gradient materials provided us a new concept for artificial articular cartilage design with gradient component and gradient structure where one side of the material is high free water content thereby providing excellent lubrication function and the opposite side of the material is high hydroxyapatite content,thereby improving the bioactivity of the material and stimulating cell growth.The goal of the present study was to develop a multi-layered gradient HA/PVA gel biocomposites through layer-by-layer casting method combing with freeze/thaw cycle technology.The various influence factors on the compressive strength and modulus of the multi-layered gradient biocomposites were investigated.The results showed that the compressive mechanical characteristics of the biocomposites were similar to that of natural articular cartilage.Both the compressive strength and modulus of the multi-layered gradient HA/PVA gel biocomposites increased exponentially with the rise of compressive strain ratio.Both the compressive strength and average compressive modulus of the biocomposites improved with the rise of freeze/thaw cycle times and total concentration of HA particles in the biocomposites,but they showed decreasing tendency with the rise of HA concentration difference between adjacent layers.

  13. Characterization of nitrogen doped silicon-carbon multi-layer nanostructures obtained by TVA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, Victor; Vasile, Eugeniu; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Prodan, Gabriel C.; Lungu, Cristian P.; Vladoiu, Rodica; Jepu, Ionut; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Caraiane, Aureliana; Nicolescu, Virginia; Dinca, Paul; Zaharia, Agripina

    2016-09-01

    Ionized nitrogen doped Si-C multi-layer thin films used to increase the oxidation resistance of carbon have been obtained by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. The 100 nm thickness carbon thin films were deposed on silicon or glass substrates and then seven N doped Si-C successively layers on carbon were deposed. To characterize the microstructure, tribological and electrical properties of as prepared N-SiC multi-layer films, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDXS), electrical and tribological techniques were achieved. Samples containing multi-layer N doped Si-C coating on carbon were investigated up to 1000°C. Oxidation protection is based on the reaction between SiC and elemental oxygen, resulting SiO2 and CO2, and also on the reaction involving N, O and Si-C, resulting silicon oxynitride (SiNxOy) with a continuously vary composition, and because nitrogen can acts as a trapping barrier for oxygen. The tribological properties of structures were studied using a tribometer with ball-on-disk configuration from CSM device with sapphire ball. The measurements show that the friction coefficient on the N-SiC is smaller than friction coefficient on uncoated carbon layer. Electrical conductivity at different temperatures was measured in constant current mode. The results confirm the fact that conductivity is greater when nitrogen content is greater. To justify the temperature dependence of conductivity we assume a thermally activated electrical transport mechanism.

  14. Diffusion-Based Design of Multi-Layered Ophthalmic Lenses for Controlled Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Andreia F R; Serro, Ana Paula; Paradiso, Patrizia; Saramago, Benilde; Colaço, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    The study of ocular drug delivery systems has been one of the most covered topics in drug delivery research. One potential drug carrier solution is the use of materials that are already commercially available in ophthalmic lenses for the correction of refractive errors. In this study, we present a diffusion-based mathematical model in which the parameters can be adjusted based on experimental results obtained under controlled conditions. The model allows for the design of multi-layered therapeutic ophthalmic lenses for controlled drug delivery. We show that the proper combination of materials with adequate drug diffusion coefficients, thicknesses and interfacial transport characteristics allows for the control of the delivery of drugs from multi-layered ophthalmic lenses, such that drug bursts can be minimized, and the release time can be maximized. As far as we know, this combination of a mathematical modelling approach with experimental validation of non-constant activity source lamellar structures, made of layers of different materials, accounting for the interface resistance to the drug diffusion, is a novel approach to the design of drug loaded multi-layered contact lenses.

  15. Vassiliev invariants; 1, braid groups and rational homotopy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Funar, L

    1995-01-01

    We get a detailed account of Vassiliev type invariants starting with Chen's theory of iterated integrals and Malcev's completion of discrete groups. The canonical injection of the group of pure braids into its completion is identified with the universal Kontsevich-Vassiliev invariant.Further we discuss the extension of this morphism to the whole braid group and the multiplication law for the last one.

  16. A Novel Analytical Approach for Multi-Layer Diaphragm-Based Optical Microelectromechanical-System Pressure Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming; WANG Ming; RONG Hua; LI Hong-Pu

    2006-01-01

    @@ An optical microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) pressure sensor based on multi-layer circular diaphragm is described and analysed by using the proposed novel analytical approach and the traditional transfer matrix method. The analytical expressions of the deflection of multi-layer diaphragm and absolute optical reflectance are derived respectively. The influence of residual stress on the deflection of diaphragm is also analysed. Simulation results given by the finite element method are consistent with the ones which are analysed by using the analytical approach. The analytical approach will be helpful to design and fabricate the optical MEMS pressure sensors with multi-layer diaphragm based on Fabry-Perot interferometry.

  17. A Categorical Model for the Virtual Braid Group

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, Louis H

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a new interpretation of the virtual braid group in terms of a tensor category with generating diagrams that are abstract strings or connections between pairs of strands in an identity braid, and elements corresponding to virtual crossings that generate the symmetric group. The point of this categorical formulation of the virtual braid groups is that we see how these groups form a natural extension of the symmetric groups by formal elements that satisfy the algebraic Yang-Baxter equation. The category we desribe is a natural structure for an algebraist interested in exploring formal properties of the algebraic Yang-Baxter equation, and it is directly related to more topological points of view about virtual links and virtual braids. We discuss a generalization of the virtual braiding formalism to braided tensor categories that can be used for obtaining invariants of knots and links via Hopf algebras. The invariants we obtain are invariants of rotational virtual knots and links, where the term r...

  18. Topological chaos, braiding and bifurcation of almost-cyclic sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Piyush; Ross, Shane D.; Stremler, Mark A.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2012-12-01

    In certain two-dimensional time-dependent flows, the braiding of periodic orbits provides a way to analyze chaos in the system through application of the Thurston-Nielsen classification theorem (TNCT). We expand upon earlier work that introduced the application of the TNCT to braiding of almost-cyclic sets, which are individual components of almost-invariant sets [Stremler et al., "Topological chaos and periodic braiding of almost-cyclic sets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 114101 (2011)]. In this context, almost-cyclic sets are periodic regions in the flow with high local residence time that act as stirrers or "ghost rods" around which the surrounding fluid appears to be stretched and folded. In the present work, we discuss the bifurcation of the almost-cyclic sets as a system parameter is varied, which results in a sequence of topologically distinct braids. We show that, for Stokes' flow in a lid-driven cavity, these various braids give good lower bounds on the topological entropy over the respective parameter regimes in which they exist. We make the case that a topological analysis based on spatiotemporal braiding of almost-cyclic sets can be used for analyzing chaos in fluid flows. Hence, we further develop a connection between set-oriented statistical methods and topological methods, which promises to be an important analysis tool in the study of complex systems.

  19. Braids as a representation space of SU(5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartin, Daniel, E-mail: cartin@naps.edu [Naval Academy Preparatory School, 440 Meyerkord Avenue, Newport, Rhode Island 02841-1519 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The standard model of particle physics provides very accurate predictions of phenomena occurring at the sub-atomic level, but the reason for the choice of symmetry group and the large number of particles considered elementary is still unknown. Along the lines of previous preon models positing a substructure to explain these aspects, Bilson-Thompson showed how the first family of elementary particles is realized as the crossings of braids made of three strands, with charges resulting from twists of those strands with certain conditions; in this topological model, there are only two distinct neutrino states. Modeling the particles as braids implies these braids must be the representation space of a Lie algebra, giving the symmetries of the standard model. In this paper, this representation is made explicit, obtaining the raising operators associated with the Lie algebra of SU(5), one of the earliest grand unified theories. Because the braids form a group, the action of these operators are braids themselves, leading to their identification as gauge bosons. Possible choices for the other two families are also given. Although this realization of particles as braids is lacking a dynamical framework, it is very suggestive, especially when considered as a natural method of adding matter to loop quantum gravity.

  20. Braids as a representation space of SU(5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartin, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The standard model of particle physics provides very accurate predictions of phenomena occurring at the sub-atomic level, but the reason for the choice of symmetry group and the large number of particles considered elementary is still unknown. Along the lines of previous preon models positing a substructure to explain these aspects, Bilson-Thompson showed how the first family of elementary particles is realized as the crossings of braids made of three strands, with charges resulting from twists of those strands with certain conditions; in this topological model, there are only two distinct neutrino states. Modeling the particles as braids implies these braids must be the representation space of a Lie algebra, giving the symmetries of the standard model. In this paper, this representation is made explicit, obtaining the raising operators associated with the Lie algebra of SU(5), one of the earliest grand unified theories. Because the braids form a group, the action of these operators are braids themselves, leading to their identification as gauge bosons. Possible choices for the other two families are also given. Although this realization of particles as braids is lacking a dynamical framework, it is very suggestive, especially when considered as a natural method of adding matter to loop quantum gravity.

  1. Flexible protection for metal bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, K. G.

    1970-01-01

    RTV silicone is used with a braided wire sheath surrounding the metal bellows in fluid transfer systems. It demonstrated best overall performance in flexibility and shock absorbing tests, high temperature, low temperature, and salt spray.

  2. A Multi-Layer Intelligent Loss-of-Control Prevention System (LPS) for Flight Control Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to design and develop a multi-layer intelligent Loss-of-control Prevention System (LPS) for flight control applications....

  3. The prediction of bacteria type and culture growth phase by an electronic nose with a multi-layer perceptron network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. W.; Craven, M.; Dow, C.; Hines, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the use of an electronic nose to predict the class and growth phase of two potentially pathogenic micro-organisms, Eschericha coli ( E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), has been performed. In order to do this we have developed an automated system to sample, with a high degree of reproducibility, the head space of bacterial cultures grown in a standard nutrient medium. Head spaces have been examined by using an array of six different metal oxide semiconducting gas sensors and classified by a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with a back-propagation (BP) learning algorithm. The performance of 36 different pre-processing algorithms has been studied on the basis of nine different sensor parameters and four different normalization techniques. The best MLP was found to classify successfully 100% of the unknown S. aureus samples and 92% of the unknown E. coli samples, on the basis of a set of 360 training vectors and 360 test vectors taken from the lag, log and stationary growth phases. The real growth phase of the bacteria was determined from optical cell counts and was predicted from the head space samples with an accuracy of 81%. We conclude that these results show considerable promise in that the correct prediction of the type and growth phase of pathogenic bacteria may help both in the more rapid treatment of bacterial infections and in the more efficient testing of new anti-biotic drugs.

  4. The optimum layer number of multi-layer pyramidal core sandwich columns under in-plane compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Jia Feng; Lin-Zhi Wu∗; Guo-Cai Yu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the face thickness to core height ratio on different multi-layer pyramidal core sandwich columns under in-plane compression is investigated theoretically and numerically. Numerical simulation is in good agreement with theory. Results indicate that one specified face thickness to core height ratio corresponds to one optimum layer number of multi-layer pyramidal core sandwich columns in consideration of engineering application. This result can guide the sandwich structure design.

  5. Whole shaft visibility and mechanical performance for active MR catheters using copper-nitinol braided polymer tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McVeigh Elliot R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catheter visualization and tracking remains a challenge in interventional MR. Active guidewires can be made conspicuous in "profile" along their whole shaft exploiting metallic core wire and hypotube components that are intrinsic to their mechanical performance. Polymer-based catheters, on the other hand, offer no conductive medium to carry radio frequency waves. We developed a new "active" catheter design for interventional MR with mechanical performance resembling braided X-ray devices. Our 75 cm long hybrid catheter shaft incorporates a wire lattice in a polymer matrix, and contains three distal loop coils in a flexible and torquable 7Fr device. We explored the impact of braid material designs on radiofrequency and mechanical performance. Results The incorporation of copper wire into in a superelastic nitinol braided loopless antenna allowed good visualization of the whole shaft (70 cm in vitro and in vivo in swine during real-time MR with 1.5 T scanner. Additional distal tip coils enhanced tip visibility. Increasing the copper:nitinol ratio in braiding configurations improved flexibility at the expense of torquability. We found a 16-wire braid of 1:1 copper:nitinol to have the optimum balance of mechanical (trackability, flexibility, torquability and antenna (signal attenuation properties. With this configuration, the temperature increase remained less than 2°C during real-time MR within 10 cm horizontal from the isocenter. The design was conspicuous in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion We have engineered a new loopless antenna configuration that imparts interventional MR catheters with satisfactory mechanical and imaging characteristics. This compact loopless antenna design can be generalized to visualize the whole shaft of any general-purpose polymer catheter to perform safe interventional procedures.

  6. Design, installation, and performance of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaszuba, J. P. (John P.); Longmire, P. A. (Patrick A.); Strietelmeier, E. A. (Elizabeth A.); Taylor, T. P. (Tammy P.); Den-Baars, P. S. (Peter S.)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-layered permeable reactive barrier (PRB) has been installed in Mortandad Canyon, on the Pajarito Plateau in the north-central part of LANL, to demonstrate in-situ treatment of a suite of contaminants with dissimilar geochemical properties. The PRB will also mitigate possible vulnerabilities from downgradient contaminant movement within alluvial and deeper perched groundwater. Mortandad Canyon was selected as the location for this demonstration project because the flow of alluvial groundwater is constrained by the geology of the canyon, a large network of monitoring wells already were installed along the canyon reach, and the hydrochemistry and contaminant history of the canyon is well-documented. The PRB uses a funnel-and-gate system with a series of four reactive media cells to immobilize or destroy contaminants present in alluvial groundwater, including strontium-90, plutonium-238,239,240, americium-241, perchlorate, and nitrate. The four cells, ordered by sequence of contact with the groundwater, consist of gravel-sized scoria (for colloid removal); phosphate rock containing apatite (for metals and radionuclides); pecan shells and cotton seed admixed with gravel (bio-barrier, to deplete dissolved oxygen and destroy potential RCRA organic compounds, nitrate and perchlorate); and limestone (pH buffering and anion adsorption). Design elements of the PRB are based on laboratory-scale treatability studies and on a field investigation of hydrologic, geochemical, and geotechnical parameters. The PRB was designed with the following criteria: 1-day residence time within the biobarrier, 10-year lifetime, minimization of surface water infiltration and erosion, optimization of hydraulic capture, and minimization of excavated material requiring disposal. Each layer has been equipped with monitoring wells or ports to allow sampling of groundwater and reactive media, and monitor wells are located immediately adjacent to the up- and down-gradient perimeter of the

  7. Multi-layer Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (M-THGEM): a new MPDG structure for high-gain operation at low-pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, M; Mittig, W; Limonge, Y Ayyad; Bazin, D; Yurkon, J; Stolz, A

    2016-01-01

    The operating principle and performances of the Multi-layer Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (M-THGEM) is presented. The M-THGEM is a novel hole-type gaseous electron multiplier produced by multi-layer printed circuit board technology; it consists of a densely perforated assembly of multiple insulating substrate sheets (e.g., FR-4), sandwiched between thin metallic-electrode layers. The electron avalanche processes occur along the successive multiplication stages within the M-THGEM holes, under the action of strong dipole fields resulting from the application of suitable potential differences between the electrodes. The present work focuses on investigation of two different geometries: a two-layer M-THGEM (either as single or double-cascade detector) and a single three-layer M-THGEM element, tested in various low-pressure He-based gas mixtures. The intrinsically robust confinement of the avalanche volume within the M-THGEM holes provides an efficient suppression of the photon-induced secondary effects, resul...

  8. Effects of Thickness Deviation of Elastic Plates in Multi-Layered Resonance Systems on Frequency Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; ZHANG Shu-Yi; FAN Li

    2009-01-01

    A model of high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators is used to study the effects of thickness deviation of elastic plates on resonance frequency spectra in planar multi-layered systems. The resonance frequency shifts induced by the thickness deviations of the elastic plates periodically vary with the resonance order, which depends on the acoustic impedance ratios of the elastic plates to piezoelectric patches. Additionally, the center lines of the frequency shift oscillations Hnearly change with the orders of the resonance modes, and their slopes are sensitive to the thickness deviations of the plates, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the thickness deviations.

  9. Adaptive Multi-Layered Space-Time Block Coded Systems in Wireless Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ghadhban, Samir

    2014-12-23

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Multi-layered space-time block coded systems (MLSTBC) strike a balance between spatial multiplexing and transmit diversity. In this paper, we analyze the block error rate performance of MLSTBC. In addition, we propose an adaptive MLSTBC schemes that are capable of accommodating the channel signal-to-noise ratio variation of wireless systems by near instantaneously adapting the uplink transmission configuration. The main results demonstrate that significant effective throughput improvements can be achieved while maintaining a certain target bit error rate.

  10. Numerical Solution of Problem for Non-Stationary Heat Conduction in Multi-Layer Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Еsman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for non-stationary heat conduction of multi-layer bodies has been developed. Dirac’s δ-function is used to take into account phase and chemical transformations in one of the wall layers. While formulating a problem non-linear heat conduction equations have been used with due account of dependence of thermal and physical characteristics on temperature. Solution of the problem is realized with the help of methods of a numerical experiment and computer modeling.

  11. Modeling of Nonlinear Propagation in Multi-layer Biological Tissues for Strong Focused Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ting-Bo; LIU Zhen-Bo; ZHANG Zhe; ZHANG DONG; GONG Xiu-Fen

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nonlinear propagation in multi-layered tissues for strong focused ultrasound is proposed. In this model, the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) is utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation in each layer tissue, and generalized oblique incidence theory is used to deal with the sound transmission between two layer tissues. Computer simulation is performed on a fat-muscle-liver tissue model under the irradiation of a 1 MHz focused transducer with a large aperture angle of 35°. The results demonstrate that the tissue layer would change the amplitude of sound pressure at the focal region and cause the increase of side petals.

  12. Comparative Study on Acoustic Behavior Between Light Multi-layered and Traditional Façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz, L.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Light multi-layered facade systems in general have been acoustically little studied. The data available suggests they do not usually fulfil the sound insulation values required in the Technical Building Code (CTE in particularly in noisy environments. Therefore the main objectives of this study, is to obtain light multi-layered façade systems with a high degree of acoustic insulation that can be used in noisy environments. While in turn showing excellent thermal characteristics, without neglecting important aspects such as the sustainability of materials, industrialization, costs, among others. This article will explain the process that has been followed to carry out an investigation on the acoustic behaviour of light multi-layered facades. For this purpose acoustic behaviour and sound intensimetry measurement methods have been used. After obtaining these results, a comparison between light multi-layered and traditional facades was made.Los sistemas de fachadas multicapas ligeras acústicamente, en general han sido poco estudiados. Los primeros datos que se tienen es que no suelen alcanzar los valores de aislamiento acústico requeridos en el Código Técnico de la Edificación (CTE en entornos especialmente ruidosos. Los objetivos principales de esta investigación son obtener fachadas multicapas ligeras con un alto grado de aislamiento acústico, que puedan ser empleados en entornos ruidosos. Al mismo tiempo que presenten excelentes características térmicas, sin descuidar aspectos tan importantes como la sostenibilidad, industrialización, costes, etc. En este artículo se explicará el proceso que se ha llevado a cabo para realizar una investigación relacionada con el comportamiento acústico de fachadas multicapas ligeras. Para ello se han empleado los métodos de medida del comportamiento acústico a ruido aéreo e intensimetría sonora. Una vez obtenidos estos resultados se realiza una comparativa entre las fachadas multicapas ligeras

  13. Fast algorithm for inverting structure parameters of the horizontal multi-layer soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A fast algorithm is presented to invert the structure parameter of the horizontal multi-layer soil. The procedure is divided into two independent stages. First, Fredholm equation of the first kind with respect to the apparent resistivity is solved by the technology of decay spectrum to reduce computation time greatly. Second, the structure parameter of soil is determined by the generalized Newton-Kantorovich method, which is more robust and less noise sensitive because of using the generalized inverse algorithm to solve the nonlinear equation group. The numerical results show the validities and main features of the proposed approach.

  14. Formation and removal of multi-layered fluorescence patterns in gold-ion doped glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jongho; Jang, Kyungsik [BK21 Physics Program and Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Ki-Soo, E-mail: kslim@chungbuk.ac.kr [BK21 Physics Program and Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Shil; Lee, You-Lee; Choi, Jung-Hyun [BK21 Physics Program and Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Ik-Bu; Lee, Jongmin [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myeongkyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-30

    We report the formation of fluorescence patterns inside gold-doped glass medium by femtosecond-laser fabrication. Strong fluorescence images appeared from the irradiated multi-layered region after low temperature annealing. We removed the images by exposing the glass to an electric furnace or a CO{sub 2} laser beam for high temperature annealing. The method was also applied to recording, reading, and erasing of fluorescence data by a femtosecond laser, a 405-nm laser diode, and a CO{sub 2} laser respectively.

  15. Study on the Relation between Individual Layer and Multi-layered Nonwoven Geotextile Permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽芳; 储才元

    2003-01-01

    Water permeability is an important property of nonwoven geotextiles used in drainage field, and usually it is obtained by testing individual layer or multi-layered nonwoven geotextiles. However, the permeability coefficient tested by using different layers would be different for the same nonwoven geotextile. In this paper, the relation between them is studied based on Darcy's law. The study shows that vertical permeability coefficients are theoretically invariable no matter how many layers are tested; but experimental results show that vertical permeability coefficients decrease with the increase of nonwoven geotextile layers number.

  16. Investigations and experiments of a new multi-layer complex liquid-cooled mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Lu(陆宇灵); Zuhai Cheng(程祖海); Yaoning Zhang(张耀宁); Feng Sun(孙锋); Wenfeng Yu(余文峰)

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new multi-layer complex liquid-cooled Si mirror with 3 cooling ducts in Archimedes spirals. Utilizing the ANSYS program, the structure of the mirror is optimized and the thermal deformation model of the mirror is simulated. The simulation results show that the mirror has the following advantages:very small amount of surface deformation, uniform distribution of temperature and surface deformation,and fast surface shape restoration. The results of the experiments of thermal deformation and the surface restoration are accurately mapped to the simulation results.

  17. Fabrication and flexural strength of multi-layer alumina with aligned acicular pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Soo; Lee, Myoung-Won; Kim, Hai-Doo; Jung, Yeon-Gil

    2004-07-01

    Multi-layer alumina with alternating dense and porous layers with aligned acicular pores was successfully prepared by tape casting the slurry with chopped carbon fibers followed by pressureless sintering. As the content of the chopped carbon fiber increased, the open porosity was increased, in part due to impingement among the carbon fibers inside the sample. The three-point flexural strength of the sample with total porosity of 11% was approximately 80% that of a dense sample. However, a sample with a porous layer with 5% chopped carbon fiber exhibited only 60% flexural strength of the dense sample, in part due to a low degree of alignment among the chopped fibers.

  18. Calculation of multi-layer plate damper under one-axial load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yan; Lu, Zhang; Hong-Yuan, Jiang; Alexander, M. Ulanov

    2016-02-01

    A multi-layer damper with waved plates under one-axial load is considered. A method of theoretical calculation of its energy dissipation coefficient is proposed. An experimental research of own frequencies and vibration transfer ratios for different parameters of damper structure, harmonic vibration load and random load is performed. Results of this research are approximated by functions; it is possible to use these functions for the calculation of the damper too. Project supported by the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (Grant No. B07018).

  19. Fabrication and Measurements of Hoop Strength of a Multi-Layered SiC Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daejong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Weon Ju; Park, Ji Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the influence of the winding patterns of the SiC fiber on the fiber volume fraction and hoop strength were investigated. Silicon carbide has a low neutron absorption cross section, a high melting point, and low chemical interaction, making it possible to use as fuel cladding in light water reactors. A multi-layered SiC composite tube as the LWR fuel cladding is composed of the monolith SiC inner layer, SiC/SiC composite intermediate layer, and monolith SiC outer layer.

  20. Multi-Layer Mobility Load Balancing in a Heterogeneous LTE Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Laselva, Daniela;

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of a distributed Mobility Load Balancing (MLB) scheme in a multi-layer 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) Long Term Evolution (LTE) deployment with different User Equipment (UE) densities in certain network areas covered with pico cells. Target of the study...... user performance. Results have shown that the proposed MLB scheme can significantly improve the overall network resources utilization by eliminating potential load imbalances amongst the deployment layers and consequently enhance user experience. However this occurs at the cost of increased Radio Link...

  1. Multi-Layer Forecast Project of Rain-Induced Debris Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-hong; WEI Fang-qiang; LIU Shu-zhen; CUI Peng; ZHONG Dun-lun; LI Fa-bin; GAO Ke-chang

    2005-01-01

    Based on four kinds of methods--numerical weather prediction model, cloud image of stationary meteorological satellite, echo image of meteorological radar and telemetric rain gauge, multi space-time scale precipitation prediction products have been achieved, and multi-layer project of debris flow forecast is established with different space-time scale to get different forecast precision. The forecast system has the advantages in combination of regions and ravines, rational compounding of time and space scale. The project, which has debris flow forecast models of Sichuan province, Liangshan district and single ravine, can forecast debris flow in 3 layers and meets the demand of hazard mitigation in corresponding layer.

  2. Tunable electromagnetic chirality induced by graphene inclusions in multi-layered metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Rizza, Carlo; Ciattoni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the electromagnetic response of a novel class of multi-layered metamaterials obtained by alternating graphene sheets and dielectric layers, the whole structure not exhibiting a plane of reflection symmetry along the stacking direction. We show that the electromagnetic response of the structure is characterized by a magneto-electric coupling described by an effective chiral parameter. Exploiting the intrinsic tunability of the graphene-light coupling, we prove that one can tune both the dielectric and the chiral electromagnetic response by varying the graphene chemical potential through external voltage gating.

  3. Carbon nano-onions (multi-layer fullerenes: chemistry and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Bartelmess

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the development of multi-layer fullerenes, known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs. First, it briefly summarizes the most important synthetic pathways for their preparation and their properties and it gives the reader an update over new developments in the recent years. This is followed by a discussion of the published synthetic procedures for CNO functionalization, which are of major importance when elucidating future applications and addressing drawbacks for possible applications, such as poor solubility in common solvents. Finally, it gives an overview over the fields of application, in which CNO materials were successfully implemented.

  4. Detection of multi-layer and vertically-extended clouds using A-train sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joiner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection of multiple cloud layers using satellite observations is important for retrieval algorithms as well as climate applications. In this paper, we describe a relatively simple algorithm to detect multiple cloud layers and distinguish them from vertically-extended clouds. The algorithm can be applied to coincident passive sensors that derive both cloud-top pressure from the thermal infrared observations and an estimate of solar photon pathlength from UV, visible, or near-IR measurements. Here, we use data from the A-train afternoon constellation of satellites: cloud-top pressure, cloud optical thickness, the multi-layer flag from the Aqua MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and the optical centroid cloud pressure from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI. For the first time, we use data from the CloudSat radar to evaluate the results of a multi-layer cloud detection scheme. The cloud classification algorithms applied with different passive sensor configurations compare well with each other as well as with data from CloudSat. We compute monthly mean fractions of pixels containing multi-layer and vertically-extended clouds for January and July 2007 at the OMI spatial resolution (12 km×24 km at nadir and at the 5 km×5 km MODIS resolution used for infrared cloud retrievals. There are seasonal variations in the spatial distribution of the different cloud types. The fraction of cloudy pixels containing distinct multi-layer cloud is a strong function of the pixel size. Globally averaged, these fractions are approximately 20% and 10% for OMI and MODIS, respectively. These fractions may be significantly higher or lower depending upon location. There is a much smaller resolution dependence for fractions of pixels containing vertically-extended clouds (~20% for OMI and slightly less for MODIS globally, suggesting larger spatial scales for these clouds. We also find higher fractions of vertically-extended clouds over land as

  5. EXPERIMENTS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW STRUCTURE IN BRAIDED RIVERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Zu-lin; GU Li; CHU Ke-jian

    2009-01-01

    The braided river is a typical river pattern in nature, but there is a paucity of comprehensive data set describing the three-dimensional flow field in the braided river. A physical model experiment was used to study the flow characteristics in the typical braided river with a mid-bar between two anabranches. In the experiment, two kinds of mid-bar with the ratios of its length to maximal width of 3 and 5 were considered. Moreover, the mid-bar could be moved to adjust the width of two anabranches. The detailed measurements of velocity were conducted using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter over a grid defined throughout the whole braided river region, including the bifurcation, two anabranches and the confluence. In two kinds of mid-bar braided models, a separation zone was observed in the anabranch of the model in which the ratio of length to maximal width of mid-bar is 3, however the separation zone was not found in another model in which the ratio is 5. In addition, the opposite secondary cells were observed at the bend apex of anabranch in two models, and different longitudinal velocity distributions in the entrance region of anabranch account for this opposite flow structure. Finally, turbulent kinetic energy were shown and compared in different situations. The high turbulence occurs at the place with strong shear, especially at the boundary of the separation zone and the high velocity passing flow.

  6. Virtual optimization of self-expandable braided wire stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beule, Matthieu; Van Cauter, Sofie; Mortier, Peter; Van Loo, Denis; Van Impe, Rudy; Verdonck, Pascal; Verhegghe, Benedict

    2009-05-01

    At present, the deployment of self-expandable braided stents has become a common and widely used minimally invasive treatment for stenotic lesions in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory system. To improve these revascularization procedures (e.g. increase the positioning accuracy) the optimal strategy lies in the further development of the stent design. In the context of optimizing braided stent designs, computational models can provide an excellent research tool complementary to analytical models. In this study, a finite element based modelling strategy is proposed to investigate and optimize the mechanics of braided stents. First a geometrical and finite element model of a braided Urolume endoprosthesis was built with the open source pyFormex design tool. The results of the reference simulation of the Urolume stent are in close agreement with both analytical and experimental data. Subsequently, a simplex-based design optimization algorithm automatically adjusts the reference Urolume geometry to facilitate precise positioning by reducing the foreshortening with 20% while maintaining the radial stiffness. Therefore, the proposed modelling strategy appears to be a promising optimization methodology in braided stent design.

  7. A braided monoidal category for free super-bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Runkel, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The chiral conformal field theory of free super-bosons is generated by weight one currents whose mode algebra is the affinisation of an abelian Lie super-algebra h with non-degenerate super-symmetric pairing. The mode algebras of a single free boson and of a single pair of symplectic fermions arise for even|odd dimension 1|0 and 0|2 of h, respectively. In this paper, the representations of the untwisted mode algebra of free super-bosons are equipped with a tensor product, a braiding, and an associator. In the symplectic fermion case, i.e. if h is purely odd, the braided monoidal structure is extended to representations of the Z/2Z-twisted mode algebra. The tensor product is obtained by computing spaces of vertex operators. The braiding and associator are determined by explicit calculations from three- and four-point conformal blocks.

  8. Noncommutative independence from the braid group $B_\\infty$

    CERN Document Server

    Gohm, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    We introduce `braidability' as a new symmetry for (infinite) sequences of noncommutative random variables related to representations of the braid group $B_\\infty$. It provides an extension of exchangeability which is tied to the symmetric group $S_\\infty$. Our key result is that braidability implies spreadability and thus conditional independence, according to the noncommutative extended de Finetti theorem (of C. K\\"{o}stler). This endows the braid groups $B_n$ with a new intrinsic (quantum) probabilistic interpretation. We underline this interpretation by a braided extension of the Hewitt-Savage Zero-One Law. Furthermore we use the concept of product representations of endomorphisms (of R. Gohm) with respect to certain Galois type towers of fixed point algebras to show that braidability produces triangular towers of commuting squares and noncommutative Bernoulli shifts. As a specific case we study the left regular representation of $B_\\infty$ and the irreducible subfactor with infinite Jones index in the non...

  9. 3D multi-layered fibrous cellulose structure using an electrohydrodynamic process for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseong; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-11-01

    Micro/nanofibrous structures have been applied widely in various tissue-engineering applications because the topological structures are similar to the extracellular matrix (ECM), which encourages a high degree of cell adhesion and growth. However, it has been difficult to produce a three-dimensional (3D) fibrous structure using controllable macro-pores. Recently, cellulose has been considered a high-potential natural-origin biomaterial, but its use in 3D biomedical structures has been limited due to its narrow processing window. Here, we suggest a new 3D cellulose scaffold consisting of multi-layered struts made of submicron-sized entangled fibers that were fabricated using an electrohydrodynamic direct jet (EHDJ) process that is spin-printing. By optimizing processing conditions (electric field strength, cellulose feeding rate, and distance between nozzle and target), we can achieve a multi-layered cellulose structure consisting of the cylindrically entangled cellulose fibers. To compare the properties of the fabricated 3D cellulose structure, we used a PCL fibrous scaffold, which has a similar fibrous morphology and pore geometry, as a control. The physical and in vitro biocompatibilities of both fibrous scaffolds were assessed using human dermal fibroblasts, and the cellulose structure showed higher cell adhesion and metabolic activities compared with the control. These results suggest the EHDJ process to be an effective fabricating tool for tissue engineering and the cellulose scaffold has high potential as a tissue regenerative material.

  10. Penetration of a Small Caliber Projectile into Single and Multi-layered Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad A.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The normal penetration of armor-piercing projectiles into single and multi-layered steel plates has been investigated. An experimental program has been conducted to study the effect of spaced and in-contact layered targets on their ballistic resistance. Armor piercing projectiles with caliber of 7.62 mm were fired against a series of single and multi-layered steel targets. The projectile impact velocities were ranged from 300-600 m/s, whereas the total thicknesses of the tested single, spaced and in-contact layered steel targets were 3 mm. The penetration process of different tested target configurations has been simulated using Autodayn-2D hydrocode. The experimental measurements of the present work were used to discuss the effect of impact velocity, target configurations and number of layers of different spaced and in-contact layered steel targets on their ballistic resistance. In addition, the post-firing examination of the tested targets over the used impact velocity range showed that the single and each layer of spaced and in-contact laminated steel targets were failed by petalling. Finally, the obtained experimental measurements were compared with the corresponding numerical results of Autodyn-2D hydrocode, good agreement was generally obtained.

  11. Heat resistive dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array in epitaxial lateral overgrowth gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Yang; Ku, Hao-Min; Liao, Wei-Tsai; Chao, Chu-Li; Tsay, Jenq-Dar; Chao, Shiuh

    2009-03-30

    Ta2O5 / SiO2 dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array (MMA) with 3mm mirror size and 6mm array period was fabricated on c-plane sapphire substrate. The MMA was subjected to 1200 degrees C high temperature annealing and remained intact with high reflectance in contrast to the continuous multi-layer for which the layers have undergone severe damage by 1200 degrees C annealing. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of gallium nitride (GaN) was applied to the MMA that was deposited on both sapphire and sapphire with 2:56 mm GaN template. The MMA was fully embedded in the ELO GaN and remained intact. The result implies that our MMA is compatible to the high temperature growth environment of GaN and the MMA could be incorporated into the structure of the micro-LED array as a one to one micro backlight reflector, or as the patterned structure on the large area LED for controlling the output light.

  12. [Research on Early Identification of Bipolar Disorder Based on Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haowei; Gao, Yanni; Yuan, Chengmei; Liu, Ying; Ding, Yuqing

    2015-06-01

    Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network belongs to multi-layer feedforward neural network, and has the ability and characteristics of high intelligence. It can realize the complex nonlinear mapping by its own learning through the network. Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness with high recurrence rate, high self-harm rate and high suicide rate. Most of the onset of the bipolar disorder starts with depressive episode, which can be easily misdiagnosed as unipolar depression and lead to a delayed treatment so as to influence the prognosis. The early identifica- tion of bipolar disorder is of great importance for patients with bipolar disorder. Due to the fact that the process of early identification of bipolar disorder is nonlinear, we in this paper discuss the MLP neural network application in early identification of bipolar disorder. This study covered 250 cases, including 143 cases with recurrent depression and 107 cases with bipolar disorder, and clinical features were statistically analyzed between the two groups. A total of 42 variables with significant differences were screened as the input variables of the neural network. Part of the samples were randomly selected as the learning sample, and the other as the test sample. By choosing different neu- ral network structures, all results of the identification of bipolar disorder were relatively good, which showed that MLP neural network could be used in the early identification of bipolar disorder.

  13. Spectrum splitting using multi-layer dielectric meta-surfaces for efficient solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wu, Wei

    2014-06-01

    We designed a high-efficiency dispersive mirror based on multi-layer dielectric meta-surfaces. By replacing the secondary mirror of a dome solar concentrator with this dispersive mirror, the solar concentrator can be converted into a spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system with higher energy harvesting efficiency and potentially lower cost. The meta-surfaces are consisted of high-index contrast gratings (HCG). The structures and parameters of the dispersive mirror (i.e. stacked HCG) are optimized based on finite-difference time-domain and rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. Our numerical study shows that the dispersive mirror can direct light with different wavelengths into different angles in the entire solar spectrum, maintaining very low energy loss. Our approach will not only improve the energy harvesting efficiency, but also lower the cost by using single junction cells instead of multi-layer tandem solar cells. Moreover, this approach has the minimal disruption to the existing solar concentrator infrastructures.

  14. Multi-layered gelatin/acacia microcapsules by complex coacervation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijichi, K.; Yoshizawa, H.; Uemura, Y.; Hatate, Y. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawano, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-20

    Microencapsulation of biphenyl was carried out by varying the colloid concentration to investigate the microencapsulation of large oil droplets by the complex coacervation method. In dilute colloid solutions, the traditional model of the complex coacervation method is supported where coacervate droplets formed in the bulk solution adhere to oil droplets. However, in a solution of 3.0 wt% colloid, it was clarified that the microcapsule membrane was formed not by adhesion of the full-grown coacervate droplets, but by growth of small coacervate droplets adhering to oil droplets. Spherical gelatine/acacia microcapsules with thicker membrane were successfully prepared by repeating the conventional complex coacervation method. The affinity of coacervate droplets to a core material is found to be a dominant factor in microencapsulation in the complex coacervation method. The multi-layered microcapsules endured the release of encapsulated biphenyl, however the singlelayered microcapsules were ruptured within a short time in release experiments, and a serious initial burst was induced. The multi-layered microcapsules prepared by repeating the conventional complex coacervation can be applied as a dosage form in the controlled release of active agents. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Collaborative multi-layer network coding for cellular cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a prioritized multi-layer network coding scheme for collaborative packet recovery in underlay cellular cognitive radio networks. This scheme allows the collocated primary and cognitive radio base-stations to collaborate with each other, in order to minimize their own and each other\\'s packet recovery overheads, and thus improve their throughput, without any coordination between them. This non-coordinated collaboration is done using a novel multi-layer instantly decodable network coding scheme, which guarantees that each network\\'s help to the other network does not result in any degradation in its own performance. It also does not cause any violation to the primary networks interference thresholds in the same and adjacent cells. Yet, our proposed scheme both guarantees the reduction of the recovery overhead in collocated primary and cognitive radio networks, and allows early recovery of their packets compared to non-collaborative schemes. Simulation results show that a recovery overhead reduction of 15% and 40% can be achieved by our proposed scheme in the primary and cognitive radio networks, respectively, compared to the corresponding non-collaborative scheme. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Orbital-dependent Electron-Hole Interaction in Graphene and Associated Multi-Layer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tianqi; Su, Haibin

    2015-11-01

    We develop an orbital-dependent potential to describe electron-hole interaction in materials with structural 2D character, i.e. quasi-2D materials. The modulated orbital-dependent potentials are also constructed with non-local screening, multi-layer screening, and finite gap due to the coupling with substrates. We apply the excitonic Hamiltonian in coordinate-space with developed effective electron-hole interacting potentials to compute excitons’ binding strength at M (π band) and Γ (σ band) points in graphene and its associated multi-layer forms. The orbital-dependent potential provides a range-separated property for regulating both long- and short-range interactions. This accounts for the existence of the resonant π exciton in single- and bi-layer graphenes. The remarkable strong electron-hole interaction in σ orbitals plays a decisive role in the existence of σ exciton in graphene stack at room temperature. The interplay between gap-opening and screening from substrates shed a light on the weak dependence of σ exciton binding energy on the thickness of graphene stacks. Moreover, the analysis of non-hydrogenic exciton spectrum in quasi-2D systems clearly demonstrates the remarkable comparable contribution of orbital dependent potential with respect to non-local screening process. The understanding of orbital-dependent potential developed in this work is potentially applicable for a wide range of materials with low dimension.

  17. Multi-layer 3D imaging using a few viewpoint images and depth map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suginohara, Hidetsugu; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method that makes multi-layer images from a few viewpoint images to display a 3D image by the autostereoscopic display that has multiple display screens in the depth direction. We iterate simple "Shift and Subtraction" processes to make each layer image alternately. The image made in accordance with depth map like a volume slicing by gradations is used as the initial solution of iteration process. Through the experiments using the prototype stacked two LCDs, we confirmed that it was enough to make multi-layer images from three viewpoint images to display a 3D image. Limiting the number of viewpoint images, the viewing area that allows stereoscopic view becomes narrow. To broaden the viewing area, we track the head motion of the viewer and update screen images in real time so that the viewer can maintain correct stereoscopic view within +/- 20 degrees area. In addition, we render pseudo multiple viewpoint images using depth map, then we can generate motion parallax at the same time.

  18. Feasibility evaluation of the monolithic braided ablative nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Director, Mark N.; McPherson, Douglass J., Sr.

    1992-02-01

    The feasibility of the monolithic braided ablative nozzle was evaluated as part of an independent research and development (IR&D) program complementary to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) Low-Cost, High-Reliability Case, Insulation and Nozzle for Large Solid Rocket Motors (LOCCIN) Program. The monolithic braided ablative nozzle is a new concept that utilizes a continuous, ablative, monolithic flame surface that extends from the nozzle entrance, through the throat, to the exit plane. The flame surface is fabricated using a Through-the-Thickness braided carbon-fiber preform, which is impregnated with a phenolic or phenolic-like resin. During operation, the braided-carbon fiber/resin material ablates, leaving the structural backside at temperatures which are sufficiently low to preclude the need for any additional insulative materials. The monolithic braided nozzle derives its potential for low life cycle cost through the use of automated processing, one-component fabrication, low material scrap, low process scrap, inexpensive raw materials, and simplified case attachment. It also has the potential for high reliability because its construction prevents delamination, has no nozzle bondlines or leak paths along the flame surface, is amenable to simplified analysis, and is readily inspectable. In addition, the braided construction has inherent toughness and is damage-tolerant. Two static-firing tests were conducted using subscale, 1.8 - 2.0-inch throat diameter, hardware. Tests were approximately 15 seconds in duration, using a conventional 18 percent aluminum/ammonium perchlorate propellant. The first of these tests evaluated the braided ablative as an integral backside insulator and exit cone; the second test evaluated the monolithic braided ablative as an integral entrance/throat/exit cone nozzle. Both tests met their objectives. Radial ablation rates at the throat were as predicted, approximately 0.017 in

  19. Splitting of the neutral mechanical plane depends on the length of the multi-layer structure of flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Su, Yewang; Li, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Multi-layer structures with soft (compliant) interlayers have been widely used in flexible electronics and photonics as an effective design for reducing interactions among the hard (stiff) layers and thus avoiding the premature failure of an entire device. The analytic model for bending of such a structure has not been well established due to its complex mechanical behaviour. Here, we present a rational analytic model, without any parameter fitting, to study the bending of a multi-layer structure on a cylinder, which is often regarded as an important approach to mechanical reliability testing of flexible electronics and photonics. For the first time, our model quantitatively reveals that, as the key for accurate strain control, the splitting of the neutral mechanical plane depends not only on the relative thickness of the middle layer, but also on the length-to-thickness ratio of the multi-layer structure. The model accurately captures the key quantities, including the axial strains in the top and bottom layers, the shear strain in the middle layer and the locations of the neutral mechanical planes of the top and bottom layers. The effects of the length of the multi-layer and the thickness of the middle layer are elaborated. This work is very useful for the design of multi-layer structure-based flexible electronics and photonics.

  20. Improvement of the sensitivity of the surface plasmon resonance sensors based on multi-layer modulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xihong; Chu-Su, Yu; Tsai, Woo-Hu; Wang, Ching-Ho; Chuang, Tsung-Liang; Lin, Chii-Wann; Tsao, Yu-Chia; Wu, Mu-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a multi-layer modulation technique was used in an SPR optical fiber sensor to enhance the sensitivity of the SPR optical fiber sensor by adjusting the SPR resonant wavelength. The sputtering process deposited 20 nm of TiO2, 11 nm of SiO2 and 30 nm of gold film on the material surface to change the refractive index. Regardless of the different refractive index solutions (1.32 and 1.36), the sensitivities in wavelength interrogation of the SPR optical fiber with the single gold thin film and multi-layers modulation were 1.08×10-5 RIUs and 1.74×10-6 RIUs, respectively. The results showed the significant differences between the different refractive index solutions of 1.32 and 1.36 using the 850 nm light source to analyze the SPR optical fiber sensor in real-time. The sensitivities in intensity interrogation of the SPR optical fiber with the single gold thin film and multi-layers modulation were 1.08×10-3 RIUs and 1.73×10-4 RIUs, respectively, which indicated that the multi-layer modulation techniques could enhance the sensitivity of the SPR optical fiber sensor. The compact size of the multi-layer SPR fiber sensor had a wider detecting range of the refractive index and higher sensitivity, which had the potential for other applications in biological analysis with suitable wavelength.

  1. Suppression of Cross Contamination in Multi-Layer Thin Film Prepared by Using Rotating Hexagonal Sputtering Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Yeon; Choi, Bum Ho; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this study, single- and multi-layered thin films were prepared on a glass substrate using a newly developed rotating hexagonal sputtering cathode in a single chamber. The rotatinghexagonal sputtering cathode can install up to six different sputtering targets or six single targets in a cathode. Using the rotating hexagonal cathode, we prepared a single-layered AZO film and a multi-layer film to evaluate the performance of hexagonal gun. Cross-contamination, which is often observed in multi-layer thin film preparation, was suppressed to nearly zero by controlling process parameters and revising hardware. Energy-saving effects of five-layered glass were also verified by measuring the temperature.

  2. The Layer Boundary Effect on Multi-Layer Mesoporous TiO2 Film Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Yixin

    2016-10-01

    Multi-layer mesoporous TiO2 prepared by screen printing is widely used for fabrication of high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compare the three types of ~10 um thick mesoporous TiO2 films, which were screen printed as 1-, 2- and 4-layers using the same TiO2 nanocrystal paste. The layer boundary of the multi-layer mesoporous TiO2 films was observed in the cross-section SEM. The existence of a layer boundary could reduce the photoelectron diffusion length with the increase of layer number. However, the photoelectron diffusion lengths of the Z907 dye sensitized solar cells based on these different layered mesoporous TiO2 films are all longer than the film thickness. Consequently, the photovoltaic performance seems to have little dependence on the layer number of the multi-layer TiO2 based DSSCs.

  3. Planning of circle locus for multi-path/multi-layer welding robot with automatical error-correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a planning algorithm for multi-path/multi-layer circular locus is poposed. The algorithm is applied to weld the nipples on the header of boiler. Multi-path/multi-layer circular locus is planned according to three teaching points, which is lapped head-on-end to satisfy the requirement of technology. For the nipples wherever they are arranged radially or axially, even if there are errors caused by positioning and thermal deformations, providing that nipple's position and orientation relative to the teaching one can be measured, the multi-path/multi-layer circular locus can be planned without teaching any more. The algorithm has been applied in welding robot for manufacturing power station' boiler.

  4. Investigation on the Thermal Conductivity of 3-Dimensional and 4-Directional Braided Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenguo; Zhang Haiguo; Lu Zixing; Li Diansen

    2007-01-01

    It is vital to choose a factual and reasonable micro-structural model of braided composites for improving the calculating precision of thermal property of 3-D braided composites by finite element method (FEM). On the basis of new microstructure model of braided composites proposed recently, the model of FEM calculation for thermal conductivity of 3-dimennsional and 4-directional braided composites is set up in this paper. The curves of coefficient of effective thermal conductivity versus fiber volume ratio and interior braiding angle are obtained. Furthermore, comparing the results of FEM with the available experimental data, the reasonability and veracity of calculation are confirmed at the same time.

  5. Quasiparticle operators with non-abelian braiding statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Cabra, D C; Rossini, G L; Cabra, Daniel C.; Moreno, Enrique F.; Rossini, Gerardo L.

    1998-01-01

    We study the gauge invariant fermions in the fermion coset representation of $SU(N)_k$ Wess-Zumino-Witten models which create, by construction, the physical excitations (quasiparticles) of the theory. We show that they provide an explicit holomorphic factorization of $SU(N)_k$ WZW primaries and satisfy non-abelian braiding relations.

  6. The braid index of complicated DNA polyhedral links.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Sheng Cheng

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to determine the braid index of two types of complicated DNA polyhedral links introduced by chemists and biologists in recent years. We shall study it in a more broad context and actually consider so-called Jaeger's links (more general Traldi's links which contain, as special cases, both four types of simple polyhedral links whose braid indexes have been determined and the above two types of complicated DNA polyhedral links. Denote by b(L and c(L the braid index and crossing number of an oriented link L, respectively. Roughly speaking, in this paper, we prove that b(L = c(L/2 + 1 for any link L in a family including Jaeger's links and contained in Traldi's links, which is obtained by combining the MFW inequality and an Ohyama's result on upper bound of the braid index. Our result may be used to to characterize and analyze the structure and complexity of DNA polyhedra and entanglement in biopolymers.

  7. From the braided to the usual Yang-Baxter relation

    CERN Document Server

    Fioravanti, D; Fioravanti, Davide; Rossi, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Quantum monodromy matrices coming from a theory of two coupled (m)KdV equations are modified in order to satisfy the usual Yang-Baxter relation. As a consequence, a general connection between braided and {\\it unbraided} (usual) Yang-Baxter algebras is derived and also analysed.

  8. Effect of Landau level mixing on braiding statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven H

    2008-03-21

    We examine the effect of Landau level mixing on the braiding statistics of quasiparticles of Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states. While path dependent geometric phases can perturb the Abelian part of the statistics, we find that the non-Abelian properties remain unchanged to an accuracy that is exponentially small in the distance between quasiparticles.

  9. Processing and performance of nanophased braided carbon/epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, Mahesh V., E-mail: hosur@tuskegee.ed [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Islam, Md. Mazedul; Jeelani, Shaik [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    A systematic study has been carried out to investigate mechanical properties of 2D nanophased braided carbon/epoxy composites. SC-15 epoxy with three types of braided fabrics: +-45 deg., 0/+-45 deg., and 0/+-60 deg. was used to fabricate composite laminates using vacuum assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM) process. Low-velocity impact (LVI), ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and 3-point bend flexure studies were carried out on biaxial and triaxial braided samples. Impact parameters like peak load and absorbed energy were calculated. All the LVI tested samples were then subjected to ultrasonic c-scan testing to determine the damage size. From the results it was seen that laminates sustained the impact load without any damage at 10 J, a little damage at 20 J and more damage at 30 J. From the ultrasonic tests it was seen that the biaxial +-45 deg. laminates had lowest damage. Flexural test showed the highest flexural strength and stiffness for triaxial 0 deg./+-45 deg. An investigation was also carried out to improve the properties of the braided laminates by introducing Nanomer I-28E nanoclay, a surface modified montmorillonite mineral, into SC-15 epoxy matrix. Different weight percentages of nanoclay were dispersed in SC-15 epoxy. Highest properties were obtained for samples with 1% by weight of nanoclay reinforcement.

  10. Room temperature performance of 4 V aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using multi-layered lithium-doped carbon negative electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Sho; Yamamoto, Rie; Sugimoto, Shigeyuki; Sugimoto, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    Water-stable multi-layered lithium-doped carbon (LixC6) negative electrode using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-lithium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) polymer electrolyte containing N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI) ionic liquid was developed. Electrochemical properties at 60 °C of the aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using activated carbon positive electrode and a multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode (LixC6 | PEO-LiTFSI | LTAP) without PP13TFSI exhibited performance similar to that using Li anode (Li | PEO-LiTFSI | LTAP). A drastic decrease in ESR was achieved by the addition of PP13TFSI to PEO-LiTFSI, allowing room temperature operation. The ESR of the multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI at 25 °C was 801 Ω cm2, which is 1/6 the value of the multi-layered Li negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI (5014 Ω cm2). Charge/discharge test of the aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI at 25 °C afforded specific capacity of 20.6 mAh (g-activated carbon)-1 with a working voltage of 2.7-3.7 V, and good long-term capability up to 3000 cycles. Furthermore, an aqueous hybrid supercapacitor consisting of a high capacitance RuO2 nanosheet positive electrode and multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI showed specific capacity of 196 mAh (g-RuO2)-1 and specific energy of 625 Wh (kg-RuO2)-1 in 2.0 M acetic acid-lithium acetate buffered solution at 25 °C.

  11. Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua; Yeh, Shoupu; Fang, Wei Cheng; Chu, Yuehchieh

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films have been synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) on oxidized silicon which is pre-seeded with diamond nanoparticles. MPECVD of N-UNCD on nanodiamond seeds produces a base layer, from which carbon structures nucleate and grow perpendicularly to form standing carbon platelets. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering measurements reveal that these carbon platelets are comprised of ultrananocrystalline diamond embedded in multilayer-graphene-like carbon structures. The hybrid carbon films are of low electrical resistivity. UNCD grains in the N-UNCD base layer and the hybrid carbon platelets serve as high-density diamond nuclei for the deposition of an electrically insulating UNCD film on it. Biocompatible carbon-based heaters made of low-resistivity hybrid carbon heaters encapsulated by insulating UNCD for possible electrosurgical applications have been demonstrated.

  12. Internal defect position analysis of a multi-layer chip using lock-in infrared microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Jin; Kim, Geon Hee [Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kye Sung; Hur, Hwan [Center for Analytical Instrumentation Development, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak Sun; Bae, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Kwang Seong [Information and Communications Core Technology Research Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ghi Seok [Dept. of Biosystem and Biomaterial Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    An ultra-precise infrared microscope consisting of a high-resolution infrared objective lens and infrared sensors is utilized successfully to obtain location information on the plane and depth of local heat sources causing defects in a semiconductor device. In this study, multi-layer semiconductor chips are analyzed for the positional information of heat sources by using a lock-in infrared microscope. Optimal conditions such as focal position, integration time, current and lock-in frequency for measuring the accurate depth of the heat sources are studied by lock-in thermography. The location indicated by the results of the depth estimate, according to the change in distance between the infrared objective lens and the specimen is analyzed under these optimal conditions.

  13. A multi-layer zone model for predicting temperature distribution in a fire room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaojun; YANG Lizhong; DENG Zhihua; FAN Weicheng

    2004-01-01

    A multi-layer zone fire growth model is developed to predict the vertical distributions of the temperature in a single room. The fire room volume is divided into a number of horizontal layers, in which the temperature and other physical properties are assumed to be uniform. The principal equations for each laminated horizontal layer are derived from the conservation equations of mass and energy. The implemented fire sub-models are introduced, including the combustion, fluid flow and heat transfer models. Combined with these sub-models, the zone equations for the gas temperature of each layer are solved by Runge-Kutta method for each time step. The results of the sample calculations compare well with the results of experiments conducted by Steckler et al.

  14. Broadband quasi perfect absorption using chirped multi-layer porous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Noé; Cebrecos, Alejandro; Picó, Rubén; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J; García-Raffi, Lluis M

    2016-01-01

    This work theoretically analyzes the sound absorption properties of a chirped multi-layer porous material including transmission, in particular showing the broadband unidirectional absorption properties of the system. Using the combination of the impedance matching condition and the balance between the leakage and the intrinsic losses as well as the critical coupling condition, the system is designed to have broadband unidirectional and nearly perfect absorption. The transfer and scattering matrix formalism, together with full wave numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the results showing excellent agreement between them. The proposed system allows to construct broadband sound absorbers with improved absorption in the low frequency regime using less than 15 \\% of the complete porous material.

  15. Laser multi-layer cladding on ZM6 magnesium base alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changjun Chen(陈长军); Dongsheng Wang(王东生); Maocai Wang(王茂才)

    2003-01-01

    A pulsed Nd: YAG laser is used in multi-layer cladding on ZM6 Mg base alloys. The microstructure isstudied with an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The composition within thelayer was determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was also used toinvestigate the phase of constitutes of the cladding zone. The results show that microstructure in solidifiedcladding layer changes much when treated by high energy laser beam. The microstructure of the ZM6alloy consists of α-Mg and Mg9Nd, while the L-ZM6 of α-Mg, Mg9Nd and c-Zr. The depth of the claddingis over 1 mm. Many fine particles were found to be distributed homogeneously throughout the matrix andthe columnar grain grows along substrate.

  16. Identification of Determinants for Globalization of SMEs using Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Draz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SMEs (Small and Medium Sized Enterprises sector is facing problems relating to implementation of international quality standards. These SMEs need to identify factors affecting business success abroad for intelligent allocation of resources to the process of internationalization. In this paper, MLP NN (Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network has been used for identifying relative importance of key variables related to firm basics, manufacturing, quality inspection labs and level of education in determining the exporting status of Pakistani SMEs. A survey has been conducted for scoring out the pertinent variables in SMEs and coded in MLP NNs. It is found that ?firm registered with OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer and ?size of firm? are the most important in determining exporting status of SMEs followed by other variables. For internationalization, the results aid policy makers in formulating strategies

  17. Snow modeling within a multi-layer soil-vegetation-atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, L. E.; Paw U, K. T.; Pyles, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of snow depth, extent, and melt in the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range are critical to estimating the amount of water that will be available for crops during the growing season within California's Central Valley. Numerical simulations utilizing a fourth order turbulent closure transport scheme in a multi-layer soil-vegetation-atmosphere model, Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil algorithm (ACASA), were used to explore snow model improvements in the physics-based parameterization for the Sierra Nevada Range. A set of alterations were made separately to the existing snowpack model within ACASA focusing on improvements to snow cover simulations on complex terrain slopes and over varying canopy cover. Three winter seasons were simulated; a climatological average, dry, and wet winter. The simulated output from the models are compared to observations to determine which model alterations made the largest improvements to snow simulations.

  18. Piezoelectricity of single- and multi-layer cellular polypropylene film electrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Xunlin; XIA Zhongfu; WANG Feipeng

    2007-01-01

    The piezoelectricity of a pressure-treated cellular polypropylene (PP) (commercially available,trade name PQ50) film electret was studied by the measurement of direct- and inverse-piezoelectric d33 coefficient.The sample expanded with optimal parameters has a quasi-static piezo-electric d33 coefficient of more than 600 Pc/N,which is about 40 times as high as that of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). In addition,the hybrid multi-layer system,which properly combines single-layer cellular PP film electrets,shows a quasi-static piezoelectric sensitivity of as high as 2010 Pc/N. This is around three times higher than that of well-known lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics.The results are theoreti-cally and technically helpful to promote the application of cellular PP film electrets.

  19. Highly Accurate Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network for Air Data System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Krishna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The error backpropagation multi-layer perceptron algorithm is revisited. This algorithm is used to train and validate two models of three-layer neural networks that can be used to calibrate a 5-hole pressure probe. This paper addresses Occam's Razor problem as it describes the adhoc training methodology applied to improve accuracy and sensitivity. The trained outputs from 5-4-3 feed-forward network architecture with jump connection are comparable to second decimal digit (~0.05 accuracy, hitherto unreported in literature.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(6, pp.670-674, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1574

  20. A Rejection Model Based on Multi-Layer Perceptrons forMandarin Digit Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟林; 刘加; 刘润生

    2002-01-01

    High performance Mandarin digit recognition (MDR) is much more difficult to achieve than its English counterpart, especially on inexpensive hardware implementation In this paper, a new Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLP) based postprocessor, an a posteriori probability estimator, is presented and used for the rejection model of the speaker independent Mandarin digit recognition system based on hidden Markov model (HMM). Poor utterances,which are recognized by HMMs but have low a posteriori probability, will be rejected. After rejecting about 4.9% of the tested utterances, the MLP rejection model can boost the digit recognition accuracy from 97.1% to 99.6%. The performance is better than those rejection models based on linear discrimination, likelihood ratio or anti-digit.

  1. High-frequency guided ultrasonic waves for hidden defect detection in multi-layer aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masserey, B.; Raemy, C.; Fromme, P.

    2012-05-01

    Aerospace structures contain multi-layer components subjected to cyclic loading conditions; fatigue cracks and disbonds can develop, often at fastener holes. High-frequency guided waves have the potential for non-destructive damage detection at critical and difficult to access locations from a stand-off distance. Using commercially available ultrasonic transducers, high frequency guided waves were generated that penetrate through the complete thickness of a model structure, consisting of two adhesively bonded aluminum plates. The wave propagation along the specimen was measured and quantified using a laser interferometer. The wave propagation and scattering at internal defects was simulated using Finite Element (FE) models and good agreement with the measurement results found. The detection sensitivity using standard pulse-echo measurements was verified and the influence of the stand-off distance predicted from the FE simulation results.

  2. Novel Intersection Type Recognition for Autonomous Vehicles Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonghyun An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are several types of intersections such as merge-roads, diverge-roads, plus-shape intersections and two types of T-shape junctions in urban roads. When an autonomous vehicle encounters new intersections, it is crucial to recognize the types of intersections for safe navigation. In this paper, a novel intersection type recognition method is proposed for an autonomous vehicle using a multi-layer laser scanner. The proposed method consists of two steps: (1 static local coordinate occupancy grid map (SLOGM building and (2 intersection classification. In the first step, the SLOGM is built relative to the local coordinate using the dynamic binary Bayes filter. In the second step, the SLOGM is used as an attribute for the classification. The proposed method is applied to a real-world environment and its validity is demonstrated through experimentation.

  3. Guided Waves in a Multi-Layered Cylindrical Elastic Solid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bi-Xing; CUI Han-Yin; XIAO Bo-Xun; ZHANG Cheng-Guang

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the guided waves in a multi-layered cylindrical elastic solid medium. The dispersion function of guided waves is usually complex and the dispersion curves of all modes are not conveniently obtained. Here we present an effective method to obtain the dispersion curves of all modes. First, the dispersion function of the guided waves is transformed into a real function. The dispersion curves are then calculated for all the modes of the guided waves by the bisection method. The modes with the orders n= 0, 1, and 2 are analysed in two- and three-layer media. The existence condition of Stoneley wave is discussed. The modes of the guided waves are also investigated in a two-layer medium, in which the velocity of shear wave in the outer layer is less than that in the inner layer.

  4. Broadband quasi perfect absorption using chirped multi-layer porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, N.; Romero-García, V.; Cebrecos, A.; Picó, R.; Sánchez-Morcillo, V. J.; Garcia-Raffi, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    This work theoretically analyzes the sound absorption properties of a chirped multi-layer porous material including transmission, in particular showing the broadband unidirectional absorption properties of the system. Using the combination of the impedance matching condition and the balance between the leakage and the intrinsic losses, the system is designed to have broadband unidirectional and quasi perfect absorption. The transfer and scattering matrix formalism, together with numerical simulations based on the finite element method are used to demonstrate the results showing excellent agreement between them. The proposed system allows to construct broadband sound absorbers with improved absorption in the low frequency regime using less amount of material than the complete bulk porous layer.

  5. Growth of MgO on multi-layered graphene and Mg in PVA matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marka, Sandeep K.; Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad; Prasad, Muvva D.; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.

    2015-07-01

    An easy and low temperature in-situ growth of MgO micro-rods on multi-layered graphene (MLG) in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix is elucidated. MLG decked with nanosized fragments of MgO and PVA are used as the starting materials to form MgO micro-rods (width = ∼1 μm and length = ∼4 μm) and MLG filled PVA composite film. Simple solution mixing, spin coating and simple drying processes are used to obtain the PVA composite. The growth mechanism of MgO micro-rods and the role of PVA in the growth of MgO micro-rods are explained on the basis of the observed morphological, structural and phase characteristics and a further controlled synthesis experiment, respectively.

  6. Fractography analysis of 0.5 wt% multi-layer graphene/nanoclayreinforced epoxy nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Inam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The topographical features of fractured tensile, flexural, K1C, and impact specimens of0.5 wt% multi-layer graphene (MLG/nanoclay-epoxy (EP nanocomposites have been investigated.The topographical features studied include maximum roughness height (Rmax or Rz,root meansquare value (Rq, roughness average (Ra, and waviness (Wa.Due to the deflection and bifurcationof cracks by nano-fillers, specific fracture patterns are observed. Although these fracture patternsseem aesthetically appealing, however, if delved deeper, they can further be used to estimate theinfluence of nano-filler on the mechanical properties. By a meticulous examination of topographicalfeatures of fractured patterns, various important aspects related to fillers can be approximated such asdispersion state, interfacial interactions, presence of agglomerates, and overall influence of theincorporation of filler on the mechanical properties of nanocomposites. In addition, treating thenanocomposites with surfaces of specific topography can help improve the mechanical properties ofnanocomposites.

  7. Memory characteristics of hysteresis and creep in multi-layer piezoelectric actuators: An experimental analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Biggio, Matteo; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro; Storace, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide an experimental characterization of creep and hysteresis in a multi layer piezoelectric actuator (PEA), taking into account their relationships in terms of memory structure. We fit the well-known log-t model to the response of the PEA when driven by piecewise-constant signals, and find that both the instantaneous and the delayed response of the PEA display hysteretic dependence on the voltage level. We investigate experimentally the dependence of the creep coefficient on the input history, by driving the PEA along first order reversal curves and congruent minor loops, and find that it displays peculiar features like strict congruence of the minor loops and discontinuities. We finally explain the observed experimental behaviors in terms of a slow relaxation of the staircase interface line in the Preisach plane.

  8. Displacements and stresses in composite multi-layered media due to varying temperature and concentrated load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. K. Ghosh; M. Kanoria

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the determination of the thermo-elastic displacements and stresses in a multi-layered body set up in different layers of different thickness having different elastic properties due to the application of heat and a concentrated load in the uppermost surface of the medium. Each layer is assumed to be made of homogeneous and isotropic elastic material. The relevant displacement components for each layer are taken to be axisymmetric about a line, which is perpendicular to the plane surfaces of all layers. The stress function for each layer, therefore, satisfies a single equation in absence of any body forces. The equation is then solved by integral transform technique. Analytical expressions for thermo-elastic displacements and stresses in the underlying mass and the corresponding numerical codes are constructed for any number of layers. However, the numerical comparison is made for three and four layers.

  9. Field theoretical model of multi-layered Josephson junction and dynamics of Josephson vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nitta, Muneto

    2016-01-01

    Multi-layered Josephson junctions are modeled in the context of a field theory, and dynamics of Josephson vortices trapped inside insulators are studied. Starting from a theory consisting of complex and real scalar fields coupled to a U(1) gauge field which admit parallel $N-1$ domain-wall solutions, Josephson couplings are introduced weakly between the complex scalar fields. The $N-1$ domain walls behave as insulators separating $N$ superconductors. We construct the effective Lagrangian on the domain walls, which reduces to a coupled sine-Gordon model for well-separated walls and contains more interactions for walls at short distance. We then construct sine-Gordon solitons emerging in the effective theory that we identify Josephson vortices carrying singly quantized magnetic fluxes. When two neighboring superconductors tend to have the same phase, the ground state does not change with the positions of domain walls. On the other hand, when two neighboring superconductors tend to have the $\\pi$ phase differenc...

  10. A Multi-layer, Hierarchical Information Management System for the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Du, Pengwei; Paulson, Patrick R.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Guo, Xinxin; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-10-10

    This paper presents the modeling approach, methodologies, and initial results of setting up a multi-layer, hierarchical information management system (IMS) for the smart grid. The IMS allows its users to analyze the data collected by multiple control and communication networks to characterize the states of the smart grid. Abnormal, corrupted, or erroneous measurement data and outliers are detected and analyzed to identify whether they are caused by random equipment failures, unintentional human errors, or deliberate tempering attempts. Data collected from different information networks are crosschecked for data integrity based on redundancy, dependency, correlation, or cross-correlations, which reveal the interdependency between data sets. A hierarchically structured reasoning mechanism is used to rank possible causes of an event to aid the system operators to proactively respond or provide mitigation recommendations to remove or neutralize the threats. The model provides satisfactory performance on identifying the cause of an event and significantly reduces the need of processing myriads of data collected.

  11. Novel Intersection Type Recognition for Autonomous Vehicles Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jhonghyun; Choi, Baehoon; Sim, Kwee-Bo; Kim, Euntai

    2016-07-20

    There are several types of intersections such as merge-roads, diverge-roads, plus-shape intersections and two types of T-shape junctions in urban roads. When an autonomous vehicle encounters new intersections, it is crucial to recognize the types of intersections for safe navigation. In this paper, a novel intersection type recognition method is proposed for an autonomous vehicle using a multi-layer laser scanner. The proposed method consists of two steps: (1) static local coordinate occupancy grid map (SLOGM) building and (2) intersection classification. In the first step, the SLOGM is built relative to the local coordinate using the dynamic binary Bayes filter. In the second step, the SLOGM is used as an attribute for the classification. The proposed method is applied to a real-world environment and its validity is demonstrated through experimentation.

  12. Broadband quasi perfect absorption using chirped multi-layer porous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jiménez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work theoretically analyzes the sound absorption properties of a chirped multi-layer porous material including transmission, in particular showing the broadband unidirectional absorption properties of the system. Using the combination of the impedance matching condition and the balance between the leakage and the intrinsic losses, the system is designed to have broadband unidirectional and quasi perfect absorption. The transfer and scattering matrix formalism, together with numerical simulations based on the finite element method are used to demonstrate the results showing excellent agreement between them. The proposed system allows to construct broadband sound absorbers with improved absorption in the low frequency regime using less amount of material than the complete bulk porous layer.

  13. Memory characteristics of hysteresis and creep in multi-layer piezoelectric actuators: An experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggio, Matteo [Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 11a, Genova (Italy); Butcher, Mark [Engineering Department, CERN (Switzerland); Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro [Engineering Department, CERN (Switzerland); Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, Piazza Roma, 21, I-82100 Benevento (Italy); Storace, Marco, E-mail: marco.storace@unige.it [Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 11a, Genova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we provide an experimental characterization of creep and hysteresis in a multi-layer piezoelectric actuator (PEA), taking into account their relationships in terms of memory structure. We fit the well-known log-t model to the response of the PEA when driven by piecewise-constant signals, and find that both the instantaneous and the delayed response of the PEA display hysteretic dependence on the voltage level. We investigate experimentally the dependence of the creep coefficient on the input history, by driving the PEA along first-order reversal curves and congruent minor loops, and find that it displays peculiar features like strict congruence of the minor loops and discontinuities. We finally explain the observed experimental behaviors in terms of a slow relaxation of the staircase interface line in the Preisach plane.

  14. Laser induced damage of multi-layer dielectric used in pulse compressor gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijin Kong; Yuanan Zhao; Tao Wang; Jianda Shao; Zhengxiu Fan

    2005-01-01

    Laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of multi-layer dielectric used in pulse compressor gratings (PCG) was investigated. The sample was prepared by e-beam evaporation (EBE). LIDT was detected following ISO standard 11254-1.2. It was found that LIDTs of normal and 51.2°incidence (transverse electric (TE) mode) were 14.14 and 9.31 J/cm2, respectively. A Nomarski microscope was employed to map the damage morphology, and it was found that the damage behavior was pit-concave-plat structure for normal incidence, while it was pit structure for 51.2°incidence with TE mode. The electric field distribution was calculated to illuminate the difference of LIDT between the two incident cases.

  15. Research on novel multi-layer and multi-polarized slot-coupling planar antenna array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hou; Wu Wenzhou; Wang Jian

    2009-01-01

    A novel multi-layer planar antenna array to achieve multi-polarized radiation is developed. U-shaped coupling slots are embedded in the ground plane to extend the bandwidth. The phase relation between adjacent elements in the radiation field is analyzed when adjacent elements are fed in opposite phase. Return loss and radiation pattern are measured for a 16-element antenna array at 12.5 GHz. The radiation pattern shows a good agreement with the calculated one in the shape of the main beam. The return-loss of the proposed antenna array is less than -20 dB in the 12.5 GHz frequency band (12.25-12.75 GHz). Because of two feed ports the antenna can transmit arbitrary elliptic polarized waves if the two feed ports have different amplitude and phase. The main factors such as element spacing, substrate medium and manufacturing imperfection are analyzed and the corresponding conclusions are presented.

  16. A multi-layer VLC imaging system based on space-time trace-orthogonal coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Xu; Yang, Yu-Hong; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Yu

    2017-02-01

    In visible light communication (VLC) imaging systems, different properties of data are usually demanded for transmission with different priorities in terms of reliability and/or validity. For this consideration, a novel transmission scheme called space-time trace-orthogonal coding (STTOC) for VLC is proposed in this paper by taking full advantage of the characteristics of time-domain transmission and space-domain orthogonality. Then, several constellation designs for different priority strategies subject to the total power constraint are presented. One significant advantage of this novel scheme is that the inter-layer interference (ILI) can be eliminated completely and the computation complexity of maximum likelihood (ML) detection is linear. Computer simulations verify the correctness of our theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that both transmission rate and error performance of the proposed scheme greatly outperform the conventional multi-layer transmission system.

  17. Modeling Liner Shipping Service Selection and Container Flows using a Multi-layer Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Balakrishnan, Anant

    We introduce a new formulation for the tactical planning problem facing container shipping companies of selecting the best subset of sailing routes from a given pool of candidate routes so as to maximize profit. Since most containers are sent directly or transshipped at most twice in current liner...... shipping networks, we impose limits on the number of transshipments for each container (which most previous models do not incorporate). Our multi-layer multi-commodity model associates one commodity with each container origin port, and decides the route for each commodity on a logical network layer whose...... arcs represent segments (pairs of ports between which a container can use a single service). This approach, combined with commodity flow variables that are indexed by segment sequence permits us to incorporate the transshipment limits while also tracking the commodity’s outflow from the system...

  18. Development of a low cost 94GHz imaging receiver using multi-layer liquid crystal polymer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Paul J.; Black, Mark; McNicol, John; Munday, Paul D.; Adamson, Kate; Smethurst, Lee

    2008-04-01

    The 94GHz imaging band is the most commercially focused of the mm-wave imaging "windows". However, the commercial uptake of imaging systems has been limited due to the production costs involved, of which a significant proportion is due to the front-end receivers. Conventionally, the receiver is machined from metal and made-up of either several modules or a single more integrated module containing the RF and DC circuitry. Even with the more integrated approach the cost is prohibitive, due to the cost of the MMICs, the machining of the metal and integration of different materials during assembly. The front end receiver cost is a potential limiting factor in the deployment of imaging systems. LCP multi-layer substrates remove the requirement for expensive metal machining and because the RF and DC circuitry is integrated in the same substrate the assembly cost of the module is also reduced. Cost is not the only consideration, LCP has excellent properties which are especially attractive for high-performance microwave applications. These properties include low permittivity, low loss tangent, low water-absorption coefficient and most importantly low cost. By means of heat treatments, their coefficients of thermal expansion can be tailored to make them more amenable to integration into packages that include other materials. The LCP is manufactured in large sheet/panel form allowing batch manufacture of circuits which ensures circuit to circuit repeatability and a high yield. LCP has a dielectric constant of 3.16+/-0.05 and a dielectric loss tangent of 0.0049 to 100GHz. These properties have resulted in measured line loss of 0.2dB/mm at 110GHz. This level of loss makes this material system a viable approach for low noise integrated imaging receivers and will allow sensitivities of <0.8°K NETD to be achieved. This paper describes the design, measurement and characterisation of the first 94GHz receiver manufactured using LCP reported in the literature.

  19. A multi-layer robust adaptive fault tolerant control system for high performance aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ying

    Modern high-performance aircraft demand advanced fault-tolerant flight control strategies. Not only the control effector failures, but the aerodynamic type failures like wing-body damages often result in substantially deteriorate performance because of low available redundancy. As a result the remaining control actuators may yield substantially lower maneuvering capabilities which do not authorize the accomplishment of the air-craft's original specified mission. The problem is to solve the control reconfiguration on available control redundancies when the mission modification is urged to save the aircraft. The proposed robust adaptive fault-tolerant control (RAFTC) system consists of a multi-layer reconfigurable flight controller architecture. It contains three layers accounting for different types and levels of failures including sensor, actuator, and fuselage damages. In case of the nominal operation with possible minor failure(s) a standard adaptive controller stands to achieve the control allocation. This is referred to as the first layer, the controller layer. The performance adjustment is accounted for in the second layer, the reference layer, whose role is to adjust the reference model in the controller design with a degraded transit performance. The upmost mission adjust is in the third layer, the mission layer, when the original mission is not feasible with greatly restricted control capabilities. The modified mission is achieved through the optimization of the command signal which guarantees the boundedness of the closed-loop signals. The main distinguishing feature of this layer is the the mission decision property based on the current available resources. The contribution of the research is the multi-layer fault-tolerant architecture that can address the complete failure scenarios and their accommodations in realities. Moreover, the emphasis is on the mission design capabilities which may guarantee the stability of the aircraft with restricted post

  20. Design and analysis of optimal multi-layer walls for time-varying thermal excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Danielle E. M.

    U.S. buildings are a significant source of energy consumption (about 50%) and carbon emissions (about 40%), and providing conditioning to building interiors is a major portion of that expenditure. Improving building envelope performance can reduce the amount of energy used for heating and cooling, since external walls provide an important barrier between occupied building spaces and variable ambient conditions. In general, multi-layer exterior walls tend to perform better than single-layer walls, even for the same overall R-value and thermal capacitance. This work addresses practical choices in multi-layer wall design to minimize internal temperature swings that result from outside, or ambient, temperature fluctuations. An electrical analogy is used to model one-dimensional heat conduction using RC circuits. A frequency response analysis is conducted based on a period of one day. For a fixed wall thickness, four features are optimized: materials, proportion of materials, number of layers, and material distribution. Key design features include pairing insulating and thermally massive materials, distributing layers evenly, and positioning the insulating layers at the inner- and outer-most layers of the wall (i.e., near the indoor and outdoor environments). Methods for determining the optimal proportion of each material and number of layers are also presented. Combined, these easily implemented features can reduce interior temperature fluctuations by several orders of magnitude compared to ambient temperature variations. This helps maintain steady indoor temperatures, which is more comfortable for building occupants, and supports energy management strategies, like reducing peak heating and cooling loads.

  1. SiC multi-layer protective coating on carbon obtained by thermionic vacuum arc method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, V.; Lungu, C. P.; Vladoiu, R.; Epure, T.-D.; Prodan, G.; Roşca, C.; Porosnicu, C.; Jepu, I.; Belc, M.; Prodan, M.; Stanescu, I. M.; Stefanov, C.; Contulov, M.; Mandes, A.; Dinca, V.; Vasile, E.; Zarovschi, V.; Nicolescu, V.

    2013-09-01

    SiC single-layer or multi-layer on C used to improve the oxidation resistance and tribological properties of C have been obtained by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. The 200nm thickness carbon thin films was deposed on glass or Si substrate and then 100÷500 nm thickness SiC successively layers on carbon thin film was deposed. The microstructure and mechanical characteristics of as-prepared SiC coating were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Electron Scattering Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and tribological techniques. Samples containing SiC single-layer or multi-layer coating on carbon were investigated up to 1000°C. The results of thermal treatments reveals the increase of oxidation resistance with increase of the number of SiC layers. The mechanism of oxidation protection is based on the reaction between SiC and elemental oxygen resulting SiO2 and CO. The tribological behavior of SiC coatings was evaluated with a tribometer with ball-on-disk configuration from CSM device with 6mm diameter sapphire ball, sliding speed in dry conditions being 0.2m/s, with normal contact loads of 0.5N, 1N, 1.5N and 2N, under unlubricated conditions. The friction coefficient on SiC was compared with the friction coefficient on uncoated carbon layer. Electrical surface resistance of SiC coating on carbon at different temperatures was measured comparing the potential drop on the sample with the potential drop on a series standard resistance in constant mode.

  2. Assessing artificial neural networks coupled with wavelet analysis for multi-layer soil moisture dynamics prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunJun Yang; ZhiBin He; WeiJun Zhao; Jun Du; LongFei Chen; Xi Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture simulation and prediction in semi-arid regions are important for agricultural production, soil conservation and climate change. However, considerable heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of soil moisture, and poor ability of distributed hydrological models to estimate it, severely impact the use of soil moisture models in research and practical applications. In this study, a newly-developed technique of coupled (WA-ANN) wavelet analysis (WA) and artificial neural network (ANN) was applied for a multi-layer soil moisture simulation in the Pailugou catchment of the Qilian Mountains, Gansu Province, China. Datasets included seven meteorological factors: air and land surface temperatures, relative humidity, global radiation, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, precipitation, and soil water content at 20, 40, 60, 80, 120 and 160 cm. To investigate the effectiveness of WA-ANN, ANN was applied by itself to conduct a comparison. Three main findings of this study were: (1) ANN and WA-ANN provided a statistically reliable and robust prediction of soil moisture in both the root zone and deepest soil layer studied (NSE >0.85, NSE means Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient); (2) when input meteorological factors were transformed using maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) and one-dimensional auto de-noising algorithm (heursure) in WA, the coupling technique improved the performance of ANN especially for soil moisture at 160 cm depth; (3) the results of multi-layer soil moisture prediction indicated that there may be different sources of water at different soil layers, and this can be used as an indicator of the maximum impact depth of meteorological factors on the soil water content at this study site. We conclude that our results show that appropriate simulation methodology can provide optimal simulation with a minimum distortion of the raw-time series; the new method used here is applicable to soil sciences and management applications.

  3. Regional atmospheric budgets of reduced nitrogen over the British isles assessed using a multi-layer atmospheric transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, N.; Tang, Y.S.; Dragosits, U.; Kluizenaar, Y.de; Sutton, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric budgets of reduced nitrogen for the major political regions of the British Isles are investigated with a multi-layer atmospheric transport model. The model is validated against measurements of NH3 concentration and is developed to provide atmospheric budgets for defined subdomains of the

  4. A fast and accurate method for the simulation of the diffusing temporal light correlation in multi-layered turbid media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bin; LI Jun; HE Sai-ling

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of the diffusing temporal light correlation in a multi-layered turbid medium is considered.A straightforward formula is introduced to calculate accurately and efficiently the autocorrelation function at any detector position.The simulation results are in an excellent agreement with an analytical solution of the correlation diffusion equation.

  5. A game of give and take: The introduction of multi-layer (water) safety in the Netherlands and Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, M.; Mees, H.; Liefferink, J.D.; Crabbé, A.

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the Netherlands and Flanders introduced a risk-based approach to flood risk management (FRM), labelled as multi-layer (water) safety. In contrast to a flood defence approach, risk-based management stresses the need to manage both the consequences and probability

  6. Comparison of Homogenous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Front Slope Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, K. T.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    A model test study was conducted to study overtopping and front slope stability of homogenous and multi-layered berm breakwaters. The two breakwater types are compared and cons and pros are listed. The study shows that the optimum number of stone classes might be significantly lower than what has...

  7. Heating of multi-layered samples by a Nd: YAG pulsed laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Neto, O. O.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In the work we examine the heating of multi-layered samples by a powerful Nd - YAG pulsed láser. The samples are made of two and three layers, conductor-isolator (Al-Al2O3, conductor-conductor (Al-Ag; Al-Au and conductor-conductor-conductor (Al-Au-Ag; Ag-Au-Al. The transient behaviour of the temperature distribution throughout the sample is computed. We carry out three dimensional model calculations for the heating process in which we consider not only the temperature dependence of the sample thermal and optical parameters but also the space and time characteristics of the laser beam as the heating source. We showed the influence of the substrate in the thermal profile, in space and time, and máximum temperature on the multi-layered samples.

    Em nosso trabalho examinamos o aquecimento de amostras compostas de duas e três camadas, condutor- isolante e condutor-condutor, com um pulso potente de láser. O comportamento transiente da distribuição de temperatura através da amostra foi calculado. Em nosso modelo de calculo para o processo de aquecimento levamos em conta a dependência com a temperatura dos parâmetros térmicos (difusividade, capacidade e condutividade térmica, óticos (refletividade e coeficiente de absorção, bem como a dependência das condições de contorno com o tempo e consequentemente com a temperatura. Aplicamos nossa metodología para calcular o aquecimento amostras compostas: Al-Au, Al-Ag, Al-Al2O3, Al-Au-Ag e Ag-Au-Al. Concluimos que o substrato influencia as temperaturas máximas nas superfície exposta ao láser e a forma com que a frente de calor se propaga nas amostras termicamente finas.

  8. Sensitivity study of multi-layer active magnetic regenerators using first order magnetocaloric material La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2015-01-01

    We present simulation results of multi-layer active magnetic regenerators using the solid-state refrigerant La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hy. This material presents a large, however quite sharp, isothermal entropy change that requires a careful choice of number of layers and working temperature for multi-layer r...

  9. Modeling of Moisture Diffusion in Carbon Braided Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Laurenzi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a methodology based on finite element analysis to predict the weight gain of carbon braided composite materials exposed to moisture. The analysis was based on the analogy between thermal conduction and diffusion processes, which allowed for a commercial code for finite element analysis to be used. A detailed finite element model using a repetitive unit cell (RUC was developed both for bundle and carbon braided composites. Conditioning tests were performed to estimate the diffusivity of both the resin and composite. When comparing numerical and experimental results, it was observed that the procedure introduces an average error of 20% and a maximum error of 31% if the RUC is assumed to be isotropic. On the other hand, the average error does not exceed 10% and the maximum error is less than 20% when the material is considered as orthotropic. The procedure is independent of the particular fiber architecture and can be extended to other composites.

  10. Relative Yetter-Drinfeld modules and comodules over braided groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haixing, E-mail: zhuhaixing@163.com, E-mail: haxing.zhu@njfu.edu.cn [College of Economics and Management, Nanjing Forestry University, 210037 Nanjing (China)

    2015-04-15

    Let H{sub 1} be a quantum group and f : H{sub 1}⟶H{sub 2} a Hopf algebra homomorphism. Assume that B is some braided group obtained by Majid’s transmutation process. We first show that there is a tensor equivalence between the category of comodules over the braided group B and that of relative Yetter-Drinfeld modules. Next, we prove that the Drinfeld centers of the two categories mentioned above are equivalent to the category of modules over some quantum double, namely, the category of ordinary Yetter-Drinfeld modules over some Radford’s biproduct Hopf algebra. Importantly, the above results not only hold for a finite dimensional quantum group but also for an infinite dimensional one.

  11. Duality Theorem and Drinfeld Double in Braided Tensor Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouchuan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Let (C, ( ), I, C) be a braided tensor category. For a finite Hopf algebra H in c with CH, H = C-1 H,H, the duality theorem is shown, i.e.,(R#H)#H^* ≌ R( ) (H-( )H^*)as algebras in C. Also, it is proved that the Drinfeld double (D(H), [b]) is a quasi-triangular Hopf algebra in c.

  12. Wireless majorana fermions: from magnetic tunability to braiding (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatin, Geoffrey L.; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Zutic, Igor

    2016-10-01

    In condensed-matter systems Majorana bound states (MBSs) are emergent quasiparticles with non-Abelian statistics and particle-antiparticle symmetry. While realizing the non-Abelian braiding statistics under exchange would provide both an ultimate proof for MBS existence and the key element for fault-tolerant topological quantum computing, even theoretical schemes imply a significant complexity to implement such braiding. Frequently examined 1D superconductor/semiconductor wires provide a prototypical example of how to produce MBSs, however braiding statistics are ill-defined in 1D and complex wire networks must be used. By placing an array of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) above a 2D electron gas formed in a semiconductor quantum well grown on the surface of an s-wave superconductor, we have predicted the existence of highly tunable zero-energy MBSs and have proposed a novel scheme by which MBSs could be exchanged [1]. This scheme may then be used to demonstrate the states' non-Abelian statistics through braiding. The underlying magnetic textures produced by MTJ array provides a pseudo-helical texture which allows for highly-controllable topological phase transitions. By defining a local condition for topological nontriviality which takes into account the local rotation of magnetic texture, effective wire geometries support MBS formation and permit their controlled movement in 2D by altering the shape and orientation of such wires. This scheme then overcomes the requirement for a network of physical wires in order to exchange MBSs, allowing easier manipulation of such states. [1] G. L. Fatin, A. Matos-Abiague, B. Scharf, and I. Zutic, arXiv:1510.08182, preprint.

  13. Noncommutative Independence in the Infinite Braid and Symmetric Group

    CERN Document Server

    Gohm, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    This is an introductory paper about our recent merge of a noncommutative de Finetti type result with representations of the infinite braid and symmetric group which allows to derive factorization properties from symmetries. We explain some of the main ideas of this approach and work out a constructive procedure to use in applications. Finally we illustrate the method by applying it to the theory of group characters.

  14. Noncommutative Independence from the Braid Group {mathbb{B}_{infty}}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohm, Rolf; Köstler, Claus

    2009-07-01

    We introduce ‘braidability’ as a new symmetry for infinite sequences of noncommutative random variables related to representations of the braid group {mathbb{B}_{infty}} . It provides an extension of exchangeability which is tied to the symmetric group {mathbb{S}_{infty}} . Our key result is that braidability implies spreadability and thus conditional independence, according to the noncommutative extended de Finetti theorem [Kös08]. This endows the braid groups {mathbb{B}n} with a new intrinsic (quantum) probabilistic interpretation. We underline this interpretation by a braided extension of the Hewitt-Savage Zero-One Law. Furthermore we use the concept of product representations of endomorphisms [Goh04] with respect to certain Galois type towers of fixed point algebras to show that braidability produces triangular towers of commuting squares and noncommutative Bernoulli shifts. As a specific case we study the left regular representation of {mathbb{B}_{infty}} and the irreducible subfactor with infinite Jones index in the non-hyperfinite I I 1-factor L {(mathbb{B}_{infty})} related to it. Our investigations reveal a new presentation of the braid group {mathbb{B}_{infty}} , the ‘square root of free generator presentation’ {mathbb{F}^{1/2}_{infty}} . These new generators give rise to braidability while the squares of them yield a free family. Hence our results provide another facet of the strong connection between subfactors and free probability theory [GJS07]; and we speculate about braidability as an extension of (amalgamated) freeness on the combinatorial level.

  15. Topological Chaos and Periodic Braiding of Almost-Cyclic Sets

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In certain (2 + 1)-dimensional dynamical systems, the braiding of periodic orbits provides a framework for analyzing chaos in the system through application of the Thurston-Nielsen classification theorem. Periodic orbits generated by the dynamics can behave as physical obstructions that "stir" the surrounding domain and serve as the basis for this topological analysis. We provide evidence that, even in the absence of periodic orbits, almost-cyclic regions identified using a transfer operator ...

  16. Characterization of Triaxial Braided Composite Material Properties for Impact Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Biniendak, Wieslaw K.; Arnold, William A.; Littell, Justin D.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of impact simulations for aircraft components made with triaxial braided carbon fiber composites is currently limited by inadequate material property data and lack of validated material models for analysis. Improvements to standard quasi-static test methods are needed to account for the large unit cell size and localized damage within the unit cell. The deformation and damage of a triaxial braided composite material was examined using standard quasi-static in-plane tension, compression, and shear tests. Some modifications to standard test specimen geometries are suggested, and methods for measuring the local strain at the onset of failure within the braid unit cell are presented. Deformation and damage at higher strain rates is examined using ballistic impact tests on 61- by 61- by 3.2-mm (24- by 24- by 0.125-in.) composite panels. Digital image correlation techniques were used to examine full-field deformation and damage during both quasi-static and impact tests. An impact analysis method is presented that utilizes both local and global deformation and failure information from the quasi-static tests as input for impact simulations. Improvements that are needed in test and analysis methods for better predictive capability are examined.

  17. Development of braided drug-loaded nanofiber sutures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Wen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Zhengming [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu Xiangyang, E-mail: huangzm@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore)

    2010-08-06

    The objectives of this work are twofold. Firstly, while most work on electrospinning is limited to the development of only functional materials, a structural application of electrospun nanofibers is explored. Secondly, a drug-loaded tissue suture is fabricated and its various properties are characterized. Braided drug-loaded nanofiber sutures are obtained by combining an electrospinning process with a braiding technique followed by a coating procedure. Two different electrospinning techniques, i.e. blend and coaxial electrospinning, to incorporate a model drug cefotaxime sodium (CFX-Na) into poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers have been applied and compared with each other. Properties of the braided drug-loaded sutures are characterized through a variety of methods including SEM, TEM and tensile testing. The results show that the nanofibers had a preferable micromorphology. The drug was incorporated into the polymer nanofibers homogeneously, with no cross-linking. The nanofibers maintained their fibrous structures. An in vitro release study indicates that the drug-loaded nanofibers fabricated by blend electrospinning and coaxial electrospinning had a different drug release behavior. An inhibition zone experiment shows that both sutures obtained from the nanofibers of the different electrospinning techniques had favorable antibacterial properties. The drug-loaded sutures had preferable histological compatibility performance compared with commercial silk sutures in an in vivo comparative study.

  18. Characterization of multi-layered impact damage in polymer matrix composites using lateral thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Travis; Sathish, Shamachary

    2017-02-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are increasingly being integrated into aircraft structures. However, these components are susceptible to impact related delamination, which, on aircrafts, can occur due to a number of reasons during aircraft use and maintenance. Quantifying impact damage is an important aspect for life-management of aircraft and requires in-depth knowledge of the damage zone on a ply-by-ply level. Traditionally, immersion ultrasound has provided relative high resolution images of impact damage. Ultrasonic time-of-flight data can be used to determine the front surface delamination depth and an approximation of the delaminated area. However, such inspections require the material to be immersed in water and can be time consuming. The objective of this work is to develop a quick and robust methodology to non-destructively characterize multi-layered impact damage using lateral thermography. Initial results suggest lateral heat flow is sensitive to the depth of impact damage. The anticipated outcome of this project is to estimate the extent of through-thickness impact damage. Initial results are shown and future efforts are discussed.

  19. Study of experimental parameters for IRT applications in building elements using multi-layered analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Catarina; Simões, Nuno; Tadeu, António

    2015-05-01

    This paper compares experimental and heat transfer modeling results for thermography applications in building elements. Over the years most building envelope inspections using infrared thermography (IRT) have been focused on qualitative analysis using mostly passive thermography techniques. However, increased need for the monitorization and assessment of the energy performance and thermal behavior of buildings, along with ongoing structural safety concerns, has raised interest in quantitative studies and active IRT applications in buildings. Numerous other fields have benefited from developments in defect detection studies and from countless non-destructive testing applications. Pulse phase thermography, in which phase images are studied (instead of temperature images) using a long heating pulse have been proposed to be the most effective for Civil Engineering applications. However, the particular characteristics of building elements and materials, along with the complex nature of heat transfer phenomena, demand specific experimental procedures and processing techniques. In this paper, analytical solutions to simulate heat transfer in the frequency domain in multi-layered media are used to compute thermal wave phase results. These are compared to experimental IRT phase analysis results of experiments performed on test specimens simulating building elements with embedded defects. Crucial test parameters such as test duration and defect characteristics are changed and their influence is studied. In this way, this paper contributes to the understanding of building envelope thermal patterns using active IRT in defect detection studies and to the definition of test parameters.

  20. iBole:A Hybrid Multi-Layer Architecture for Doctor Recommendation in Medical Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫继兵; 王立; 孙胜涛; 彭思维

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we try to systematically study how to perform doctor recommendation in medical social net-works (MSNs). Specifically, employing a real-world medical dataset as the source in our work, we propose iBole, a novel hybrid multi-layer architecture, to solve this problem. First, we mine doctor-patient relationships/ties via a time-constraint probability factor graph model (TPFG). Second, we extract network features for ranking nodes. Finally, we propose RWR-Model, a doctor recommendation model via the random walk with restart method. Our real-world experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Experimental results show that we obtain good accuracy in mining doctor-patient relationships from the network, and the doctor recommendation performance is better than that of the baseline algorithms:traditional Ranking SVM (RSVM) and the individual doctor recommendation model (IDR-Model). The results of our RWR-Model are more reasonable and satisfactory than those of the baseline approaches.

  1. Exact traveltime computation in multi-layered transversely isotropic media with vertical symmetry axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; LI Lei

    2008-01-01

    An approach to calculate the accurate ray paths and travelfimes in multi-layered VTI media (transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis) is proposed. The expressions of phase velocity, group velocity and Snell's law used for computation are all explicit and exact. The calculation of ray paths and traveltimes for a given ele- mentary wave is equivalent to that of a transmission problem which is much easier to be treated with the formulae proposed. In the section of numerical examples, the processes of implementation are described at length using a multi-arrival example and a head-wave example. Lastly, the exact and approximate traveltime curves for the same elementary wave are calculated from the exact formulae and Thomsen's approximations, respectively. The com- parison of the curves reveals the increase of errors arising from the repeated use of approximations and indicates the limited applicable range of approximations. It is emphasized that one should keep in mind the applicable range of an approximation when using it.

  2. Causal inference for community-based multi-layered intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pan; Gunzler, Douglas; Lu, Naiji; Chen, Tian; Wymen, Peter; Tu, Xin M

    2014-09-28

    Estimating causal treatment effect for randomized controlled trials under post-treatment confounding, that is, noncompliance and informative dropouts, is becoming an important problem in intervention/prevention studies when the treatment exposures are not completely controlled. When confounding is present in a study, the traditional intention-to-treat approach could underestimate the treatment effect because of insufficient exposure of treatment. In the recent two decades, many papers have been published to address such confounders to investigate the causal relationship between treatment and outcome of interest based on different modeling strategies. Most of the existing approaches, however, are suitable only for standard experiments. In this paper, we propose a new class of structural functional response model to address post-treatment confounding in complex multi-layered intervention studies within a longitudinal data setting. The new approach offers robust inference and is readily implemented. We illustrate and assess the performance of the proposed structural functional response model using both real and simulated data.

  3. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal Performance in the Novel Multi-Layered Biological Tricking Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Ting-ting

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological trickling filter is one of the main rural sewage treatment technology, but it still has the shortcomings such as lower re-moval efficiency for nitrogen and phosphorus or lower stability. In order to improve the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of the de-vice and find out its optimum technological conditions, the study took the novel multi-layered biological tricking filter as the device to test the contribution of filter medium, hydraulic loading, recirculation ratio on the treatment of nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The results showed that when the hydraulic loading of 4 m3·m-2·d-1, the recirculation ratio rate of 2∶1 and slag as filter medium were applied, the best effect could be achieved in the filter. The highest mean efficiency of NH4+-N, TN, TP and COD were 87.08%, 57.37%, 66.04% and 80.78%, respectively.The results also indicated that higher recirculation ratio was one of effective paths to improve nitrogen removal efficiency.

  4. Hypothetical Pattern Recognition Design Using Multi-Layer Perceptorn Neural Network For Supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdullah-al-mamun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humans are capable to identifying diverse shape in the different pattern in the real world as effortless fashion due to their intelligence is grow since born with facing several learning process. Same way we can prepared an machine using human like brain called Artificial Neural Network that can be recognize different pattern from the real world object. Although the various techniques is exists to implementation the pattern recognition but recently the artificial neural network approaches have been giving the significant attention. Because the approached of artificial neural network is like a human brain that is learn from different observation and give a decision the previously learning rule. Over the 50 years research now a days pattern recognition for machine learning using artificial neural network got a significant achievement. For this reason many real world problem can be solve by modeling the pattern recognition process. The objective of this paper is to present the theoretical concept for pattern recognition design using Multi-Layer Perceptorn neural networkin the algorithm of artificial Intelligence as the best possible way of utilizing available resources to make a decision that can be a human like performance.

  5. Collaborative Multi-Layer Network Coding in Hybrid Cellular Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Moubayed, Abdallah J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, as an extension to [1], we propose a prioritized multi-layer network coding scheme for collaborative packet recovery in hybrid (interweave and underlay) cellular cognitive radio networks. This scheme allows the uncoordinated collaboration between the collocated primary and cognitive radio base-stations in order to minimize their own as well as each other\\'s packet recovery overheads, thus by improving their throughput. The proposed scheme ensures that each network\\'s performance is not degraded by its help to the other network. Moreover, it guarantees that the primary network\\'s interference threshold is not violated in the same and adjacent cells. Yet, the scheme allows the reduction of the recovery overhead in the collocated primary and cognitive radio networks. The reduction in the cognitive radio network is further amplified due to the perfect detection of spectrum holes which allows the cognitive radio base station to transmit at higher power without fear of violating the interference threshold of the primary network. For the secondary network, simulation results show reductions of 20% and 34% in the packet recovery overhead, compared to the non-collaborative scheme, for low and high probabilities of primary packet arrivals, respectively. For the primary network, this reduction was found to be 12%. © 2015 IEEE.

  6. Phase diagrams and capillarity condensation of methane confined in single- and multi-layer nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, V.; López-Álvarez, Y. M.; López, G. E.

    Using a newly developed algorithm in the Gibbs ensemble, the liquid-vapour phase diagram of methane adsorbed in single and multilayer nanotubes was considered. The method was based on improving statistical sampling by combining the cavity-bias and the parallel tempering formalisms in Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations (PTCBGMC). Two models were constructed in order to describe the liquid-vapour equilibrium of methane in nanotubes. The first model consisted of two simulated nanotube-shaped boxes, one containing the vapour and the other containing the liquid. The vapour and liquid were kept in thermodynamic equilibrium using the PTCBGMC algorithm. Cailletet-Mathias phase diagrams showed that upon adsorption of methane in the nanotubes, the critical temperature and density of methane decreased upon confinement. However, the behaviour of the liquid and vapour phases differed depending on whether the nanotube was single- or multi-layered. A second computational model was used to consider in detail the capillarity condensation of methane in the nanotubes. The results obtained were explained in terms of the difference in the strength of the intermolecular forces.

  7. Construction and Calibration of Optically Efficient LCD-based Multi-Layer Light Field Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew; Lanman, Douglas; Wetzstein, Gordon; Raskar, Ramesh

    2013-02-01

    Near-term commercial multi-view displays currently employ ray-based 3D or 4D light field techniques. Conventional approaches to ray-based display typically include lens arrays or heuristic barrier patterns combined with integral interlaced views on a display screen such as an LCD panel. Recent work has placed an emphasis on the co-design of optics and image formation algorithms to achieve increased frame rates, brighter images, and wider fields-of-view using optimization-in-the-loop and novel arrangements of commodity LCD panels. In this paper we examine the construction and calibration methods of computational, multi-layer LCD light field displays. We present several experimental configurations that are simple to build and can be tuned to sufficient precision to achieve a research quality light field display. We also present an analysis of moiré interference in these displays, and guidelines for diffuser placement and display alignment to reduce the effects of moiré. We describe a technique using the moiré magnifier to fine-tune the alignment of the LCD layers.

  8. Multi-layer film flow down an inclined plane: experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Henry, Daniel

    2014-11-19

    We report the results from an experimental study of the flow of a film down an inclined plane where the film itself is comprised of up to three layers of different liquids. By measuring the total film thickness for a broad range of parameters including flow rates and liquid physical properties, we provide a thorough and systematic test of the single-layer approximation for multi-layer films for Reynolds numbers Re = ρQ/μ≈0.03-60. In addition, we also measure the change in film thickness of individual layers as a function of flow rates for a variety of experimental configurations. With the aid of high-speed particle tracking, we derive the velocity fields and free-surface velocities to compare to the single-layer approximation. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence of small capillary ridge formations close to the point where two layers merge and compare our experimental parameter range for the occurrence of this phenomenon to those previously reported.

  9. A simple method for fabricating multi-layer PDMS structures for 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Mengying

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple methodology to fabricate PDMS multi-layer microfluidic chips. A PDMS slab was surface-treated by trichloro (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl) silane, and acts as a reusable transferring layer. Uniformity of the thickness of the patterned PDMS layer and the well-alignment could be achieved due to the transparency and proper flexibility of this transferring layer. Surface treatment results are confirmed by XPS and contact angle testing, while bonding forces between different layers were measured for better understanding of the transferring process. We have also designed and fabricated a few simple types of 3D PDMS chip, especially one consisting of 6 thin layers (each with thickness of 50 μm), to demonstrate the potential utilization of this technique. 3D fluorescence images were taken by a confocal microscope to illustrate the spatial characters of essential parts. This fabrication method is confirmed to be fast, simple, repeatable, low cost and possible to be mechanized for mass production. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  10. Inter-layer synchronization in non-identical multi-layer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, I; Sevilla-Escoboza, R; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Gutiérrez, R; Buldú, J M; Boccaletti, S

    2017-04-04

    Inter-layer synchronization is a dynamical process occurring in multi-layer networks composed of identical nodes. This process emerges when all layers are synchronized, while nodes in each layer do not necessarily evolve in unison. So far, the study of such inter-layer synchronization has been restricted to the case in which all layers have an identical connectivity structure. When layers are not identical, the inter-layer synchronous state is no longer a stable solution of the system. Nevertheless, when layers differ in just a few links, an approximate treatment is still feasible, and allows one to gather information on whether and how the system may wander around an inter-layer synchronous configuration. We report the details of an approximate analytical treatment for a two-layer multiplex, which results in the introduction of an extra inertial term accounting for structural differences. Numerical validation of the predictions highlights the usefulness of our approach, especially for small or moderate topological differences in the intra-layer coupling. Moreover, we identify a non-trivial relationship connecting the betweenness centrality of the missing links and the intra-layer coupling strength. Finally, by the use of multiplexed layers of electronic circuits, we study the inter-layer synchronization as a function of the removed links.

  11. Examining the impact of multi-layer graphene using cellular and amphibian models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzi, Laura; Mouchet, Florence; Cadarsi, Stéphanie; Janowska, Izabela; Russier, Julie; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Risuleo, Gianfranco; Soula, Brigitte; Galibert, Anne-Marie; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Pinelli, Eric; Gauthier, Laury; Bianco, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, graphene has been defined as the revolutionary material showing an incredible expansion in industrial applications. Different graphene forms have been applied in several contexts, spreading from energy technologies and electronics to food and agriculture technologies. Graphene showed promises also in the biomedical field. Hopeful results have been already obtained in diagnostic, drug delivery, tissue regeneration and photothermal cancer ablation. In view of the enormous development of graphene-based technologies, a careful assessment of its impact on health and environment is demanded. It is evident how investigating the graphene toxicity is of fundamental importance in the context of medical purposes. On the other hand, the nanomaterial present in the environment, likely to be generated all along the industrial life-cycle, may have harmful effects on living organisms. In the present work, an important contribution on the impact of multi-layer graphene (MLG) on health and environment is given by using a multifaceted approach. For the first purpose, the effect of the material on two mammalian cell models was assessed. Key cytotoxicity parameters were considered such as cell viability and inflammatory response induction. This was combined with an evaluation of MLG toxicity towards Xenopus laevis, used as both in vivo and environmental model organism.

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Multi-Layer Anodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Diana; Farmer, Serene C.; Setlock, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an energy device with abundant energy generation, ultra-high specific power density, high stability and long life is critical for enabling longer missions and for reducing mission costs. Of all different types of fuel cells, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is a promising high temperature device that can generate electricity as a byproduct of a chemical reaction in a clean way and produce high quality heat that can be used for other purposes. For aerospace applications, a power-to-weight of (is) greater than 1.0 kW/kg is required. NASA has a patented fuel cell technology under development, capable of achieving the 1.0 kW/kg figure of merit. The first step toward achieving these goals is increasing anode durability. The catalyst plays an important role in the fuel cells for power generation, stability, efficiency and long life. Not only the anode composition, but its preparation and reduction are key to achieving better cell performance. In this research, multi-layer anodes were prepared varying the chemistry of each layer to optimize the performance of the cells. Microstructure analyses were done to the new anodes before and after fuel cell operation. The cells' durability and performance were evaluated in 200 hrs life tests in hydrogen at 850 C. The chemistry of the standard nickel anode was modified successfully reducing the anode degradation from 40% to 8.4% in 1000 hrs and retaining its microstructure.

  13. Ganglion-Based Balance Design of Multi-Layer Model and Its Watchfulness-Keeping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Wei; Shang-Min Luan

    2005-01-01

    An important problem of machine vision is the balance among the efficiency, accuracy and computation cost.The visual system of man can keep watchfulness to the perimeter of a visual field and subtly process information emerging in the center of the visual field at the same time. This kind of requirement assignment of computation can virtually ease the demand of hardware both in quantity and complexity. Therefore designing an artificial model based on biological mechanism is an effective approach. In this paper a multi-layer neural model is designed based on the multi-scale receptive fields of ganglions in retina. The model can keep watch on the periphery part of a scene while processing the center information of the scene. And why it can balance the hardware complexity, processing precision and computational intensity is analyzed.An experiment is done to test the model's sensitivity in watchfulness keeping and its efficiency and veracity in environment sampling. This model may provide valuable inspiration in the implementation of real-time processing and the avoidance of expensive computation cost in machine vision.

  14. Multi-layered multi-pattern CPG for adaptive locomotion of humanoid robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassour, John; Hénaff, Patrick; Benouezdou, Fethi; Cheng, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present an extended mathematical model of the central pattern generator (CPG) in the spinal cord. The proposed CPG model is used as the underlying low-level controller of a humanoid robot to generate various walking patterns. Such biological mechanisms have been demonstrated to be robust in locomotion of animal. Our model is supported by two neurophysiological studies. The first study identified a neural circuitry consisting of a two-layered CPG, in which pattern formation and rhythm generation are produced at different levels. The second study focused on a specific neural model that can generate different patterns, including oscillation. This neural model was employed in the pattern generation layer of our CPG, which enables it to produce different motion patterns-rhythmic as well as non-rhythmic motions. Due to the pattern-formation layer, the CPG is able to produce behaviors related to the dominating rhythm (extension/flexion) and rhythm deletion without rhythm resetting. The proposed multi-layered multi-pattern CPG model (MLMP-CPG) has been deployed in a 3D humanoid robot (NAO) while it performs locomotion tasks. The effectiveness of our model is demonstrated in simulations and through experimental results.

  15. Mechanical loading regulates human MSC differentiation in a multi-layer hydrogel for osteochondral tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Neven J; Aisenbrey, Elizabeth A; Westbrook, Kristofer K; Qi, H Jerry; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2015-07-01

    A bioinspired multi-layer hydrogel was developed for the encapsulation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a platform for osteochondral tissue engineering. The spatial presentation of biochemical cues, via incorporation of extracellular matrix analogs, and mechanical cues, via both hydrogel crosslink density and externally applied mechanical loads, were characterized in each layer. A simple sequential photopolymerization method was employed to form stable poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels with a soft cartilage-like layer of chondroitin sulfate and low RGD concentrations, a stiff bone-like layer with high RGD concentrations, and an intermediate interfacial layer. Under a compressive load, the variation in hydrogel stiffness within each layer produced high strains in the soft cartilage-like layer, low strains in the stiff bone-like layer, and moderate strains in the interfacial layer. When hMSC-laden hydrogels were cultured statically in osteochondral differentiation media, the local biochemical and matrix stiffness cues were not sufficient to spatially guide hMSC differentiation after 21 days. However dynamic mechanical stimulation led to differentially high expression of collagens with collagen II in the cartilage-like layer, collagen X in the interfacial layer and collagen I in the bone-like layer and mineral deposits localized to the bone layer. Overall, these findings point to external mechanical stimulation as a potent regulator of hMSC differentiation toward osteochondral cellular phenotypes.

  16. A Robust Approach for the Background Subtraction Based on Multi-Layered Self-Organizing Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani, Giorgio; Rozza, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    Motion detection in video streams is a challenging task for several computer vision applications. Indeed, segmentation of moving and static elements in the scene allows to increase the efficiency of several challenging tasks, such as human-computer interface, robot visions, and intelligent surveillance systems. In this paper, we approach motion detection through a multi-layered artificial neural network, which is able to build for each background pixel a multi-modal color distribution evolving over time through self-organization. According to the winner-take-all rule, each layer of the network models an independent state of the background scene, in response to external disturbing conditions, such as illumination variations, moving backgrounds, and jittering. As a result, our background subtraction method exhibits high generalization capabilities that in combination with a post-processing filtering schema allow to produce accurate motion segmentation. Moreover, we propose an approach to detect anomalous events (such as camera motion) that require background model re-initialization. We describe our method in full details and we compare it against the most recent background subtraction approaches. Experimental results for video sequences from the 2012 and 2014 CVPR Change Detection data sets demonstrate how our methodology outperforms many state-of-the-art methods in terms of detection rate.

  17. Characterisation of group behaviour surface texturing with multi-layers fitting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhengyang; Fu, Yonghong; Ji, Jinghu; Wang, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Surface texturing was widely applied in improving the tribological properties of mechanical components, but study of measurement of this technology was still insufficient. This study proposed the multi-layers fitting (MLF) method to characterise the dimples array texture surface. Based on the synergistic effect among the dimples, the 3D morphology of texture surface was rebuilt by 2D stylus profiler in the MLF method. The feasible regions of texture patterns and sensitive parameters were confirmed by non-linear programming, and the processing software of MLF method was developed based on the Matlab®. The characterisation parameters system of dimples was defined mathematically, and the accuracy of MLF method was investigated by comparison experiment. The surface texture specimens were made by laser surface texturing technology, in which high consistency of dimples' size and distribution was achieved. Then, 2D profiles of different dimples were captured by employing Hommel-T1000 stylus profiler, and the data were further processed by MLF software to rebuild 3D morphology of single dimple. The experiment results indicated that the MLF characterisation results were similar to those of Wyko T1100, the white light interference microscope. It was also found that the stability of MLF characterisation results highly depended on the number of captured cross-sections.

  18. 3D Polygon Mesh Compression with Multi Layer Feed Forward Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Piperakis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experiment is conducted which proves that multi layer feed forward neural networks are capable of compressing 3D polygon meshes. Our compression method not only preserves the initial accuracy of the represented object but also enhances it. The neural network employed includes the vertex coordinates, the connectivity and normal information in one compact form, converting the discrete and surface polygon representation into an analytic, solid colloquial. Furthermore, the 3D object in its compressed neural form can be directly - without decompression - used for rendering. The neural compression - representation is viable to 3D transformations without the need of any anti-aliasing techniques - transformations do not disrupt the accuracy of the geometry. Our method does not su.er any scaling problem and was tested with objects of 300 to 107 polygons - such as the David of Michelangelo - achieving in all cases an order of O(b3 less bits for the representation than any other commonly known compression method. The simplicity of our algorithm and the established mathematical background of neural networks combined with their aptness for hardware implementation can establish this method as a good solution for polygon compression and if further investigated, a novel approach for 3D collision, animation and morphing.

  19. Experimental Study of Weepage in Multi-layer Glass Reinforced Piping

    KAUST Repository

    Al Sinan, Hussain

    2014-05-01

    Glass Reinforced Polymer pipes, commonly used in water transport applications, are prone to long term weepage. Weepage is defined as the transfer of fluid through the pipe and is considered a functional failure. An experimental investigation of weepage in multi-layered GRP pipes was carried out in two parts aiming to understand the phenomenon to help enhance the weepage resistance of manufactured pipes. First, liner surface profilometry investigation was carried out to identify microscopic features that might serve in initiating weepage. Second, MRI and x-ray tomography and SEM imaging of pipe samples aged with water and dye penetrant was carried out to capture weepage development through the pipe thickness. Diffusion through liner fiber/resin interface, propagation in the direction of poorly wetted hoop fibers and transverse cracks were found to be the likely causes of accelerating weepage in the samples. Fiber rich zones in the liner were considered weak spots that water can use for fast penetration of the liner. Finally, polyester netting used to hold core layer was found to help in water accumulation and transport through the pipe increasing the chances of failure.

  20. Collaborative Multi-Layer Network Coding For Hybrid Cellular Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Moubayed, Abdallah J.

    2014-05-01

    In this thesis, as an extension to [1], we propose a prioritized multi-layer network coding scheme for collaborative packet recovery in hybrid (interweave and underlay) cellular cognitive radio networks. This scheme allows the uncoordinated collaboration between the collocated primary and cognitive radio base-stations in order to minimize their own as well as each other’s packet recovery overheads, thus by improving their throughput. The proposed scheme ensures that each network’s performance is not degraded by its help to the other network. Moreover, it guarantees that the primary network’s interference threshold is not violated in the same and adjacent cells. Yet, the scheme allows the reduction of the recovery overhead in the collocated primary and cognitive radio networks. The reduction in the cognitive radio network is further amplified due to the perfect detection of spectrum holes which allows the cognitive radio base station to transmit at higher power without fear of violating the interference threshold of the primary network. For the secondary network, simulation results show reductions of 20% and 34% in the packet recovery overhead, compared to the non-collaborative scheme, for low and high probabilities of primary packet arrivals, respectively. For the primary network, this reduction was found to be 12%. Furthermore, with the use of fractional cooperation, the average recovery overhead is further reduced by around 5% for the primary network and around 10% for the secondary network when a high fractional cooperation probability is used.

  1. A multi-layered active target for the study of neutron-unbound nuclides at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jessica; Gueye, Paul; Redpath, Thomas; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of neutron-unbound nuclides were investigated using a multi-layered Si/Be active target designed for use with the MoNA/LISA setup at the National Superconducting Cyclotron (NSCL). The setup consists of the MoNA/LISA arrays (for neutron detection) and a superconducting sweeper magnet (for charged separation) to identify products following the decay of neutron unbound states. The segmented target consisted of three 700 mg/cm2 beryllium targets and four 0.14 mm thick 62x62 mm2 silicon detectors. As a commissioning experiment for the target the decay of two-neutron unbound 26O populated in a one-proton removal reaction from a radioactive 27F beam was performed. The 27F secondary radioactive beam from the NSCL's Coupled Cyclotron Facility was produced from the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u 48Ca beam incident on a thick beryllium target and then cleanly selected by the A1900 fragment separator. The energy loss and position spectra of the incoming beam and reaction products were used to calibrate the Silicon detectors to within 1.5% in both energy and position. A dedicated Geant4 model of the target was developed to simulate the energy loss within the target. A description of the experimental setup, simulation work, and energy and position calibration will be presented. DoE/NNSA - DE-NA0000979.

  2. Simulation of arrested salt wedges with a multi-layer Shallow Water Lattice Boltzmann model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestininzi, P.; Montessori, A.; La Rocca, M.; Sciortino, G.

    2016-10-01

    The ability to accurately and efficiently model the intrusion of salt wedges into river beds is crucial to assay its interaction with human activities and the natural environment. We present a 2D multi-layer Shallow Water Lattice Boltzmann (SWLB) model able to predict the salt wedge intrusion in river estuaries. The formulation usually employed for the simulation of gravity currents is here equipped with proper boundary conditions to handle both the downstream seaside outlet and the upstream river inlet. Firstly, the model is validated against highly accurate semi-analytical solutions of the steady state 1D two-layer Shallow Water model. Secondly, the model is applied to a more complex, fully 3D geometry, to assess its capability to handle realistic cases. The simple formulation proposed for the shear interlayer stress is proven to be consistent with the general 3D viscous solution. In addition to the accuracy, the model inherits the efficiency of the Lattice Boltzmann approach to fluid dynamics problems.

  3. MLDS: Multi-Layer Defense System for Preventing Advanced Persistent Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daesung Moon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on the issue of Advanced Persistent Threats (APT, which use malware for the purpose of leaking the data of large corporations and government agencies. APT attacks target systems continuously by utilizing intelligent and complex technologies. To overthrow the elaborate security network of target systems, it conducts an attack after undergoing a pre-reconnaissance phase. An APT attack causes financial loss, information leakage, etc. They can easily bypass the antivirus system of a target system. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Layer Defense System (MLDS that can defend against APT. This system applies a reinforced defense system by collecting and analyzing log information and various information from devices, by installing the agent on the network appliance, server and end-user. It also discusses how to detect an APT attack when one cannot block the initial intrusion while continuing to conduct other activities. Thus, this system is able to minimize the possibility of initial intrusion and damages of the system by promptly responding through rapid detection of an attack when the target system is attacked.

  4. Achievable Rates of Cognitive Radio Networks Using Multi-Layer Coding with Limited CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-03-01

    In a Cognitive Radio (CR) framework, the channel state information (CSI) feedback to the secondary transmitter (SU Tx) can be limited or unavailable. Thus, the statistical model is adopted in order to determine the system performance using the outage concept. In this paper, we adopt a new approach using multi-layer-coding (MLC) strategy, i.e., broadcast approach, to enhance spectrum sharing over fading channels. First, we consider a scenario where the secondary transmitter has no CSI of both the link between SU Tx and the primary receiver (cross-link) and its own link. We show that using MLC improves the cognitive rate compared to the rate provided by a singlelayer- coding (SLC). In addition, we observe numerically that 2-Layer coding achieves most of the gain for Rayleigh fading. Second, we analyze a scenario where SU Tx is provided by partial CSI about its link through quantized CSI. We compute its achievable rate adopting the MLC and highlight the improvement over SLC. Finally, we study the case in which the cross-link is perfect, i.e., a cooperative primary user setting, and compare the performance with the previous cases. We present asymptotic analysis at high power regime and show that the cooperation enhances considerably the cognitive rate at high values of the secondary power budget.

  5. Noisy contact interactions of multi-layer mechanical structures coupled by boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrejcewicz, J.; Krysko, V. A., Jr.; Yakovleva, T. V.; Krysko, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work mathematical models of temporal part of chaos at chosen spatial locations of a plate locally reinforced by ribs taking into account an interplay of their interactions are derived and studied numerically for the most relevant dynamical parameters. In addition, an influence of the additive external noise on chaotic vibrations of multi-layer beam-plate structures coupled only by boundary conditions is investigated. We illustrate and discuss novel nonlinear phenomena of the temporal regular and chaotic contact/no-contact dynamics with the help of Morlet wavelets and Fourier analysis. We show how the additive white noise cancels deterministic chaos close to the boundary of chaotic region in the space of parameters, and we present windows of on/off switching of the frequencies during the contact dynamics between structural members. In order to solve the mentioned design type nonlinear problem we apply methods of qualitative theory of differential equations, the Bubnov-Galerkin method in higher approximations, the Runge-Kutta methods of 4th, 6th and 8th order, as well as the computation and analysis of the largest Lyapunov exponent (Benettin's and Wolf's algorithms are used). The agreement of outcomes of all applied qualitatively different numerical approaches validate our simulation results. In particular, we have illustrated that the Fourier analysis of the studied mechanical structures may yield erroneous results, and hence the wavelet-based analysis is used to investigate chaotic dynamics in the system parameter space.

  6. Mechanical modeling of self-expandable stent fabricated using braiding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Kang, Tae Jin; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2008-11-14

    The mechanical behavior of a stent is one of the important factors involved in ensuring its opening within arterial conduits. This study aimed to develop a mechanical model for designing self-expandable stents fabricated using braiding technology. For this purpose, a finite element model was constructed by developing a preprocessing program for the three-dimensional geometrical modeling of the braiding structure inside stents, and validated for various stents with different braiding structures. The constituent wires (Nitinol) in the braided stents were assumed to be superelastic material and their mechanical behavior was incorporated into the finite element software through a user material subroutine (VUMAT in ABAQUS) employing a one-dimensional superelastic model. For the verification of the model, several braided stents were manufactured using an automated braiding machine and characterized focusing on their compressive behavior. It was observed that the braided stents showed a hysteresis between their loading and unloading behavior when a compressive load was applied to the braided tube. Through the finite element analysis, it was concluded that the current mechanical model can appropriately predict the mechanical behavior of braided stents including such hysteretic behavior, and that the hysteresis was caused by the slippage between the constituent wires and their superelastic property.

  7. DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL STRAIN IN 3-D BRAIDED COMPOSITES USING OPTIC FIBER STRAIN SENSORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuanShenfang; HuangRui; LiXianghua; LiuXiaohui

    2004-01-01

    A reliable understanding of the properties of 3-D braided composites is of primary importance for proper utilization of these materials. A new method is introduced to study the mechanical performance of braided composite materials using embedded optic fiber sensors. Experimental research is performed to devise a method of incorporating optic fibers into a 3-D braided composite structure. The efficacy of this new testing method is evaluated on two counts. First,the optical performance of optic fibers is studied before and after incorporated into 3-D braided composites, as well as after completion of the manufacturing process for 3-D braided composites,to validate the ability of the optic fiber to survive the manufacturing process. On the other hand,the influence of incorporated optic fiber on the original braided composite is also researched by tension and compression experiments. Second, two kinds of optic fiber sensors are co-embedded into 3-D braided composites to evaluate their respective ability to measure the internal strain.Experimental results show that multiple optic fiber sensors can be co-braided into 3-D braided composites to determine their internal strain which is difficult to be fulfilled by other current existing methods.

  8. Entangling qubits by Heisenberg spin exchange and anyon braiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuch, Daniel

    As the discovery of quantum mechanics signified a revolution in the world of physics more than one century ago, the notion of a quantum computer in 1981 marked the beginning of a drastic change of our understanding of information and computability. In a quantum computer, information is stored using quantum bits, or qubits, which are described by a quantum-mechanical superposition of the quantum states 0 and 1. Computation then proceeds by acting with unitary operations on these qubits. These operations are referred to as quantum logic gates, in analogy to classical computation where bits are acted on by classical logic gates. In order to perform universal quantum computation it is, in principle, sufficient to carry out single-qubit gates and two-qubit gates, where the former act on individual qubits and the latter, acting on two qubits, are used to entangle qubits with each other. The present thesis is divided into two main parts. In the first, we are concerned with spin-based quantum computation. In a spin-based quantum computer, qubits are encoded into the Hilbert space spanned by spin-1/2 particles, such as electron spins trapped in semiconductor quantum dots. For a suitable qubit encoding, turning on-and-off, or "pulsing,'' the isotropic Heisenberg exchange Hamiltonian JSi · Sj allows for universal quantum computation and it is this scheme, known as exchange-only quantum computation, which we focus on. In the second part of this thesis, we consider a topological quantum computer in which qubits are encoded using so-called Fibonacci anyons, exotic quasiparticle excitations that obey non-Abelian statistics, and which may emerge in certain two-dimensional topological systems such as fractional quantum-Hall states. Quantum gates can then be carried out by moving these particles around one another, a process that can be viewed as braiding their 2+1 dimensional worldlines. The subject of the present thesis is the development and theoretical understanding of

  9. Free vibration analysis of multi-layer graphene nanoribbons incorporating interlayer shear effect via molecular dynamics simulations and nonlocal elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazemnezhad, Reza, E-mail: rnazemnezhad@iust.ac.ir [School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh [School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence in Railway Transportation, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-12

    Free vibration of cantilever multi-layer graphene nanoribbons (MLGNRs) with interlayer shear effect is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations (MD) and nonlocal elasticity. Because of similarity of MLGNRs to sandwich structures, sandwich formulations are expressed in the nonlocal form. By comparing the first two frequencies of MLGNRs with various layers and lengths obtained using MD simulations with those of the nonlocal sandwich formulation; the nonlocal parameter is calibrated to match the results of two methods. The results reveal that the calibrated nonlocal parameter for predicting the second frequencies is dependent on the number of MLGNR layers, and it increases by increasing the number of layers. - Highlights: • Nonlocal parameter is calibrated for vibration of multi-layer graphene nanoribbons. • Interlayer shear effect between GNR layers is also considered. • Two first nonlocal frequencies are obtained using sandwich formulation. • Molecular dynamics simulations are done for nonlocal parameter calibration.

  10. Flaw investigation in a multi-layered, multi-material composite: Using air-coupled ultrasonic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livings, R. A.; Dayal, V.; Barnard, D. J.; Hsu, D. K.

    2012-05-01

    Ceramic tiles are the main ingredient of a multi-material, multi-layered composite being considered for the modernization of tank armors. The high stiffness, low attenuation, and precise dimensions of these uniform tiles make them remarkable resonators when driven to vibrate. Defects in the tile, during manufacture or after usage, are expected to change the resonance frequencies and resonance images of the tile. The comparison of the resonance frequencies and resonance images of a pristine tile/lay-up to a defective tile/lay-up will thus be a quantitative damage metric. By examining the vibrational behavior of these tiles and the composite lay-up with Finite Element Modeling and analytical plate vibration equations, the development of a new Nondestructive Evaluation technique is possible. This study examines the development of the Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Resonance Imaging technique as applied to a hexagonal ceramic tile and a multi-material, multi-layered composite.

  11. PREDICTION OF THE VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF THE EQUIVALENT PARTICLE FOR THE INTERCALATED MULTI-LAYER STACK OF NANOPLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Zhang; Ping Zhang; Xuhui Deng; Chunyuan Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply the asymptotic homogenization method to determining analytically and numerically the transversely isotropic viscoelastic relaxation moduli of the equivalent particle for the intercalated multi-layer stack of intercalated type nanoplastics. A two-phase multilayered material containing n layers is considered. The matrix is assumed to be an isotropic viscoelastic standard linear body and the reinforcement is assumed to be an isotropic elastic body. Final explicit analytical formulae for the effective elastic moduli of the multilayered material are derived first; and then the correspondence principle is employed to obtain the homogenized relaxation moduli of the equivalent intercalated particle. A numerical example is given. Final explicit analytical formulae in the time domain derived here make it convenient to estimate the influence of all the particle parameters of micro-structural details on the effective properties of the equivalent intercalated particle. The results of this paper can also be applied to multi-layer composites.

  12. Photon tunneling and transmittance resonance through a multi-layer structure with a left-handed material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ying; Zhang Xia; Yang Yan-Fang; Li Chun-Fang

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the photon tunneling and transmittance resonance through a multi-layer structure including a left-handed material(LHM). An analytical expression for the transmittance in a five-layer structure is given by the analytical transfer matrix method. The transmittance is studied as a function of the refractive index and the width of the LHM layer. The perfect photon tunneling results from the multi-layer structure, especially from the relation between the magnitude of the refractive index and the width of the LHM layer and those of the adjoining layers.Photons may tunnel through a much greater distance in this structure. Transmittance resonance happens, the peaks and valleys appear periodically at the resonance thickness. For an LHM with inherent losses, the perfect transmittance is suppressed.

  13. Analytical modeling of multi-layered printed circuit board using multi-stacked via clusters as component heat spreader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier-Vinard Eric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to help the electronic designer to early determine the limits of the power dissipation of electronic component, an analytical model was established to allow a fast insight of relevant design parameters of a multi-layered electronic board constitution. The proposed steady-state approach based on Fourier series method promotes a practical solution to quickly investigate the potential gain of multi-layered thermal via clusters. Generally, it has been shown a good agreement between the results obtained by the proposed analytical model and those given by electronics cooling software widely used in industry. Some results highlight the fact that the conventional practices for Printed Circuit Board modeling can be dramatically underestimate source temperatures, in particular with smaller sources. Moreover, the analytic solution could be applied to optimize the heat spreading in the board structure with a local modification of the effective thermal conductivity layers.

  14. Strain Rate Effect on the Tensile Behavior of Fibers and Its Application to Ballistic Perforation of Multi-layered Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Bo-hong; PAN Xiong-qi

    2002-01-01

    Rate-dependent property of material is very important in analysis of ballistic impact. The tensile property of Twaron(R) filaments at strain rate range from 0.01/s to1 000/s was obtained by MTS materials testing and split Hopkinson tension bar. Rate sensitivity of Twaron(R) filaments is discussed. Application of high strain rate property to ballistic perforation of multi- layered fabrics conforms to the actual situation than that of quasi-static property. The revised analytical model can be used to calculate the process of ballistic penetration and perforation on soft armour, such as fabric target plate,at intuitive approach and simple algorithm with a little computer process time. Predictions of the residual velocities and energy absorbed by the multi- layered fabric show good agreement with experimental data.

  15. Electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite/TiN multi-layer coatings on Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Ju [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative Science and Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium nitride (TiN) multi-layer coatings on Ti–Nb–Zr alloys was investigated by a variety of surface analytical methods. The HA/TiN layers were deposited using a magnetron sputtering system. The HA target was made of human tooth-ash sintered at 1300 °C for 1 h and had an average Ca/P ratio of 1.9. From X-ray diffraction patterns, the Ti–29Nb–5Zr alloy was composed entirely of equiaxed β-phase exhibiting the principal (110) reflection, and the coating exhibited the (111) and (200) reflections for TiN and the (112) and (202) reflections for HA. At the coating surface the HA films consisted of granular particles, and the surface roughness was 4.22 nm. The thickness of the coating layers increased in the order of HA/TiN (lowest), TiN, and HA (highest). Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the corrosion current density was the lowest, and the corrosion potential and polarization resistance the highest, when the Ti–29Nb–5Zr surface was covered by the HA/TiN film, compared to solely HA or TiN films. - Highlights: • HA/TiN films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on a Ti–29Nb–5Zr biomedical alloy. • The corrosion current density for the HA/TiN films was lower than that of the non-coated alloy. • The polarization resistance of the HA/TiN films was higher than that of the non-coated alloy.

  16. Multi-layered controllable stiffness beams for morphing: energy, actuation force, and material strain considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gabriel; Gandhi, Farhan

    2010-04-01

    Morphing aerospace structures could benefit from the ability of structural elements to transition from a stiff load-bearing state to a relatively compliant state that can undergo large deformation at low actuation cost. The present paper focuses on multi-layered beams with controllable flexural stiffness—comprising polymer layers affixed to the surfaces of a base beam and cover layers, in turn, affixed to the surfaces of the polymer layers. Heating the polymer through the glass transition reduces its shear modulus, decouples the cover layers from the base beam and reduces the overall flexural stiffness. Although the stiffness and actuation force required to bend the beam reduce, the energy required to heat the polymer layer must also be considered. Results show that for beams with low slenderness ratios, relatively thick polymer layers, and cover layers whose extensional stiffness is high, the decoupling of the cover layers through softening of the polymer layers can result in flexural stiffness reductions of over 95%. The energy savings are also highest for these configurations, and will increase as the deformation of the beam increases. The decoupling of the cover layers from the base beam through the softening of the polymer reduces the axial strains in the cover layers significantly; otherwise material failure would prevent large deformation. Results show that when the polymer layer is stiff, the cover layers are the dominant contributors to the total energy in the beam, and the energy in the polymer layers is predominantly axial strain energy. When the polymer layers are softened the energy in the cover layers is a small contributor to the total energy which is dominated by energy in the base beam and shear strain energy in the polymer layer.

  17. Characteristics of head wave in multi-layered half-space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坚; 张海明; 陈晓非

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the dynamic characteristics of head wave in multi-layered half-space media models with high-velocity layer or low-velocity layer, and the model with a continuous transition-zone between the crust and the mantle by using synthetic seismogram. It is concluded that the dynamic characteristics of head wave are sensitive to the thickness and velocity of the high-velocity layer. There is obvious diffraction phenomenon of seismic wave if the thickness of high-velocity layer is very small compared with the characteristic wavelength. In this case, the high-velocity layer cannot shield the head wave propagating along the upper interface of the media below it, and the amplitude of this head wave is proportional to the thickness or the velocity of the high-velocity layer. When the thickness of high-velocity layer is nearly identical to the characteristic wavelength of seismic wave, the wave phases reflected from the bottom of the high-velocity layer and the head wave phase may have very close arrival and weaken each other because of destructive interference. As to low-velocity layer, the amplitude of the head wave is weak and decreases with the velocity of this layer. It is also found that if a continuous transition-zone between the crust and the mantle is introduced, we can get a strong apparent head wave phase in synthetic seismogram and the amplitude of this phase increases with the thickness or velocity gradient of the transition-zone.

  18. A coupled atmosphere and multi-layer land surface model for improving heavy rainfall simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haggag

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-layer land surface model (SOLVEG is dynamically coupled to the non-hydrostatic atmospheric model (MM5 in order to represent better spatial variations and changes in land surface characteristics compared with the land surface parameterization schemes included in the MM5. In this coupling, calculations of the atmosphere and land surface models are carried out as independent tasks of different processors; a model coupler controls these calculations and data exchanges among models using Message Passing Interface (MPI. This coupled model is applied to the record-breaking heavy rain events occurred in Kyushu Island, the southernmost of Japan's main islands, from 20 July to 25 July in 2006. The test computations are conducted by using both the developed coupled model and the original land surface parameterization of MM5. The result of these computations shows that SOLVEG reproduce higher ground temperature than land surface parameterization schemes in the MM5. This result indicates the feedback of land surface processes between MM5 and SOLVEG plays an important role in the computation. The most pronounced difference is in the rainfall simulation that shows the importance of coupling SOLVEG and MM5. The coupled model accurately reproduces the heavy rainfall events observed in Kyushu Island compared to the original MM5 from both the spatial and temporal point of view. This paper clearly shows that realistic simulation of rainfall event strongly depends on land-surface processes interacting with cloud development that depends on surface heat and moisture fluxes, which in turn are mainly determined by land surface vegetation and soil moisture storage. Soil temperature/moisture changes significantly affect the localized precipitation and modest improvement in the land surface representation can enhance the heavy rain simulation. MM5-SOLVEG coupling shows a clear image of land surface-atmosphere interactions and the dynamic feedback on

  19. Assessing artificial neural networks coupled with waveletanalysis for multi-layer soil moisture dynamics pr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture simulation and prediction in semi-arid regions are important for agricultural production, soil conservation andclimate change. However, considerable heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of soil moisture, and poor ability of distributedhydrological models to estimate it, severely impact the use of soil moisture models in research and practical applications. Inthis study, a newly-developed technique of coupled (WA-ANN) wavelet analysis (WA) and artificial neural network (ANN)was applied for a multi-layer soil moisture simulation in the Pailugou catchment of the Qilian Mountains, Gansu Province,China. Datasets included seven meteorological factors: air and land surface temperatures, relative humidity, global radiation,atmospheric pressure, wind speed, precipitation, and soil water content at 20, 40, 60, 80, 120 and 160 cm. To investigate theeffectiveness of WA-ANN, ANN was applied by itself to conduct a comparison. Three main findings of this study were: (1)ANN and WA-ANN provided a statistically reliable and robust prediction of soil moisture in both the root zone and deepestsoil layer studied (NSE 〉0.85, NSE means Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient); (2) when input meteorological factors weretransformed using maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) and one-dimensional auto de-noising algorithm (heursure) in WA,the coupling technique improved the performance of ANN especially for soil moisture at 160 cm depth; (3) the results ofmulti-layer soil moisture prediction indicated that there may be different sources of water at different soil layers, and this canbe used as an indicator of the maximum impact depth of meteorological factors on the soil water content at this study site. Weconclude that our results show that appropriate simulation methodology can provide optimal simulation with a minimumdistortion of the raw-time series; the new method used here is applicable to soil sciences and management

  20. A design philosophy for multi-layer neural networks with applications to robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiee, Nader; Jamshidi, MO

    1989-01-01

    A system is proposed which receives input information from many sensors that may have diverse scaling, dimension, and data representations. The proposed system tolerates sensory information with faults. The proposed self-adaptive processing technique has great promise in integrating the techniques of artificial intelligence and neural networks in an attempt to build a more intelligent computing environment. The proposed architecture can provide a detailed decision tree based on the input information, information stored in a long-term memory, and the adapted rule-based knowledge. A mathematical model for analysis will be obtained to validate the cited hypotheses. An extensive software program will be developed to simulate a typical example of pattern recognition problem. It is shown that the proposed model displays attention, expectation, spatio-temporal, and predictory behavior which are specific to the human brain. The anticipated results of this research project are: (1) creation of a new dynamic neural network structure, and (2) applications to and comparison with conventional multi-layer neural network structures. The anticipated benefits from this research are vast. The model can be used in a neuro-computer architecture as a building block which can perform complicated, nonlinear, time-varying mapping from a multitude of input excitory classes to an output or decision environment. It can be used for coordinating different sensory inputs and past experience of a dynamic system and actuating signals. The commercial applications of this project can be the creation of a special-purpose neuro-computer hardware which can be used in spatio-temporal pattern recognitions in such areas as air defense systems, e.g., target tracking, and recognition. Potential robotics-related applications are trajectory planning, inverse dynamics computations, hierarchical control, task-oriented control, and collision avoidance.

  1. Generalized approach to design multi-layer stacks for enhanced optical detectability of ultrathin layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, A.; Matthus, C. D.; Rommel, M.; Frey, L.

    2017-01-01

    The optical detectability of ultrathin conductive films (down to one atomic layer) can be enhanced by choosing distinct layer-stacks. A simple analytical approach using the transfer matrix method is applied for calculating the reflectance of arbitrary multi-layer stack systems with and without the ultrathin layer of interest on top in a wide wavelength range, including both the visible spectrum and the ultraviolet spectrum. Then, the detectability defined by the Michelson contrast was calculated. Performing these calculations for thickness variations of the individual layers in the stack allows determining optimum layer thicknesses, e.g., maximum overall contrast or maximum contrast for a given wavelength. To demonstrate the validity of the methodology, two thin film stacks were investigated, which use p-type silicon as a substrate material and partially covered by a single-layer graphene as a top layer. For each stack, two samples with different layer thicknesses were fabricated and their experimentally determined reflectance was compared to the calculated values. The first system consists of a single SiO2 layer with a thickness of 147 nm and 304 nm, respectively, and the second is a double layer stack consisting of a Si3N4 layer with a thickness of 54 nm and 195 nm, respectively, on top of an 11 nm SiO2 film. The Michelson contrast of single-layer graphene flakes on the latter layer stacks becomes very high (absolute value of more than 0.3) in the visible wavelength range. Additionally, in the UV-B range a large difference in the reflection of selected SiO2 layer thicknesses on silicon substrates with and without single-layer graphene on top is found with a decrease in the measured reflectance of up to 33%. The measured and calculated values showed a high conformity suggesting this approach usable for the calculation of reflectance and transmittance properties of arbitrary layer stack systems including thin conductive layers.

  2. Effect of a Local Laser Heat Treatment on the Formability of Multi-layered 6000 Series Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklein, Marion; Herrmann, Jürgen

    The production of multi-layered aluminum alloys using the Accumulative Roll Bonding Process (ARB) is an auspicious possibility to fabricate nanostructured sheet material with enhanced mechanical properties. The increased strength qualifies these semi-finished products for lightweight applications in automotive industry. However, the ARB process also leads to a reduced ductility of the ultra-fine grained material. Furthermore, failure mechanisms like delamination can occur during forming operations. A local short term laser heat treatment according to the Tailor Heat Treated Blanks technology can be applied in order to enhance the formability and prevent failure. Multi-layered sheets of the aluminum alloy AA6014 were produced in a warm rolling process. The mechanical properties as well as the bond strength are investigated within this contribution using tensile tests and T-peel tests. The material characterization is carried out in dependency of the heat treatment temperature. Air bending tests in combination with a local laser heat treatment are used in order to investigate the formability of the multi-layered aluminum sheets.

  3. Efficient gas barrier properties of multi-layer films based on poly(lactic acid) and fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Fakhreddin; Javidi, Zahra; Rezaei, Masoud

    2016-11-01

    Multi-layer film structures of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and fish gelatin (FG), prepared using the solvent casting technique, were studied in an effort to produce bio-based films with low oxygen (OP) and water vapor permeability (WVP). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of triple-layer film showed that the outer PLA layers are being closely attached to the inner FG layer to make continuous film. The OP of multi-layer film (5.02cm(3)/m(2)daybar) decreased more than 8-fold compared with that of the PLA film, and the WVP of multi-layer film (0.125gmm/kPah m(2)) also decreased 11-fold compared with that of the FG film. Lamination with PLA profoundly increased the water resistance of the bare gelatin film. Meanwhile, the tensile strength of the triple-layer film (25±2.13MPa) was greater than that of FG film (7.48±1.70MPa). At the same time, the resulting film maintains high optical clarity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis also revealed that the materials were compatible showing only one Tg which decreased with FG deposition. This material exhibits an environmental-friendliness potential and a high versatility in food packaging.

  4. A complete topological invariant for braided magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Yeates, A R

    2013-01-01

    A topological flux function is introduced to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, whose integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Recognising that the topological flux function is an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, a simple formula for its differential is obtained. We use this to prove that the topological flux function uniquely characterises the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology. A simple example is presented.

  5. Yang-Baxter Systems, Algebra Factorizations and Braided Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin F. Nichita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Yang-Baxter equation first appeared in a paper by the Nobel laureate, C.N. Yang, and in R.J. Baxter’s work. Later, Vladimir Drinfeld, Vaughan F. R. Jones and Edward Witten were awarded Fields Medals for their work related to the Yang-Baxter equation. After a short review on this equation and the Yang-Baxter systems, we consider the problem of constructing algebra factorizations from Yang-Baxter systems. Our sketch of proof uses braided categories. Other problems are also proposed.

  6. Yang-Baxter Systems, Algebra Factorizations and Braided Categories

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Yang-Baxter equation first appeared in a paper by the Nobel laureate, C.N. Yang, and in R.J. Baxter’s work. Later, Vladimir Drinfeld, Vaughan F. R. Jones and Edward Witten were awarded Fields Medals for their work related to the Yang-Baxter equation. After a short review on this equation and the Yang-Baxter systems, we consider the problem of constructing algebra factorizations from Yang-Baxter systems. Our sketch of proof uses braided categories. Other problems are also proposed.

  7. Topological chaos and periodic braiding of almost-cyclic sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremler, Mark A; Ross, Shane D; Grover, Piyush; Kumar, Pankaj

    2011-03-18

    In certain (2+1)-dimensional dynamical systems, the braiding of periodic orbits provides a framework for analyzing chaos in the system through application of the Thurston-Nielsen classification theorem. Periodic orbits generated by the dynamics can behave as physical obstructions that "stir" the surrounding domain and serve as the basis for this topological analysis. We provide evidence that, even in the absence of periodic orbits, almost-cyclic regions identified using a transfer operator approach can reveal an underlying structure that enables topological analysis of chaos in the domain.

  8. COMPATIBILITY AND PHASE BEHAVIOR OF PS/SBR BLENDS Ⅱ. TORSIONAL BRAID ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yingkun; FENG Zhiliu

    1990-01-01

    The compatibility and phase behavior of PS/SBR blends was studied with torsional braid analysis technique. The technique used in this study for preparation of braids was first developed by one of the authors, which gives more precise phase diagram as compared to other conventional methods.The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained in our previous work.

  9. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Chris [ORNL; Yatsandra, Oyola [ORNL; Mayes, Richard [ORNL; none,; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Li-Jung, Kuo [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL; Sadananda, Das [ORNL

    2014-04-30

    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  10. Simulating ozone dry deposition at a boreal forest with a multi-layer canopy deposition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Putian; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Rannik, Üllar; Zhou, Luxi; Gierens, Rosa; Taipale, Ditte; Mammarella, Ivan; Boy, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A multi-layer ozone (O3) dry deposition model has been implemented into SOSAA (a model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours, Sulphuric Acid and Aerosols) to improve the representation of O3 concentration and flux within and above the forest canopy in the planetary boundary layer. We aim to predict the O3 uptake by a boreal forest canopy under varying environmental conditions and analyse the influence of different factors on total O3 uptake by the canopy as well as the vertical distribution of deposition sinks inside the canopy. The newly implemented dry deposition model was validated by an extensive comparison of simulated and observed O3 turbulent fluxes and concentration profiles within and above the boreal forest canopy at SMEAR II (Station to Measure Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II) in Hyytiälä, Finland, in August 2010. In this model, the fraction of wet surface on vegetation leaves was parametrised according to the ambient relative humidity (RH). Model results showed that when RH was larger than 70 % the O3 uptake onto wet skin contributed ˜ 51 % to the total deposition during nighttime and ˜ 19 % during daytime. The overall contribution of soil uptake was estimated about 36 %. The contribution of sub-canopy deposition below 4.2 m was modelled to be ˜ 38 % of the total O3 deposition during daytime, which was similar to the contribution reported in previous studies. The chemical contribution to O3 removal was evaluated directly in the model simulations. According to the simulated averaged diurnal cycle the net chemical production of O3 compensated up to ˜ 4 % of dry deposition loss from about 06:00 to 15:00 LT. During nighttime, the net chemical loss of O3 further enhanced removal by dry deposition by a maximum ˜ 9 %. Thus the results indicated an overall relatively small contribution of airborne chemical processes to O3 removal at this site.

  11. First-order differential calculi over multi-braided quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1996-01-01

    A differential calculus of the first order over multi-braided quantum groups is developed. In analogy with the standard theory, left/right-covariant and bicovariant differential structures are introduced and investigated. Furthermore, antipodally covariant calculi are studied. The concept of the *-structure on a multi-braided quantum group is formulated, and in particular the structure of left-covariant *-covariant calculi is analyzed. A special attention is given to differential calculi covariant with respect to the action of the associated braid system. In particular it is shown that the left/right braided-covariance appears as a consequence of the left/right-covariance relative to the group action. Braided counterparts of all basic results of the standard theory are found.

  12. A Study on the EM Leakage Arising from Braided Shielding Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-xin; L(U) Ying-hua; BAO Yong-fang; L(U) Jian-gang

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the electromagnetic leakage caused by braided shielding cable, the finite-difference formulation of braided shielding cable for both the inner shield-conductor circuit and outer shield-ground circuit are proposed. Then, the current in shield-ground circuit induced by the transmitting signal in the cable is computed in time-domain, and the shielding effectiveness of braided shield against trapezoid signals is studied. Further more, the video EM leakage in far zone is calculated. At last, the information leakage caused by EM radiation of braided cable is intercepted and recovered using the simulation platform. It is proved that EM radiation of braided cable can give rise to information leakage. It is a key factor that should be concerned in the information secure field.

  13. Critical factors in manufacturing multi-layer tablets--assessing material attributes, in-process controls, manufacturing process and product performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithiyalingam, Sivakumar R; Sayeed, Vilayat A

    2010-10-15

    Advancement in the fields of material science, analytical methodologies, instrumentation, automation, continuous monitoring, feed forward/feed back control and comprehensive data collection have led to continual improvement of pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing technology, notably the multi-layer tablets. This review highlights the material attributes, formulation design, process parameters that impact the performance, and manufacturability of the multi-layer tablets. It also highlights on critical-to-quality elements that needs to be addressed in the regulatory submission.

  14. First investigation of spider silk as a braided microsurgical suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbier, Joern W; Reimers, Kerstin; Kasper, Cornelia; Allmeling, Christina; Hillmer, Anja; Menger, Björn; Vogt, Peter M; Radtke, Christine

    2011-05-01

    Inhibition of axonal outgrowth accompanied by neuroma formation appears in microsurgical nerve repair as reaction to common microsuture materials like silk, nylon, or polyglycolic acid. In contrast, recent findings revealed advantages of spider silk fibers in guiding Schwann cells in nerve regeneration. Here, we asked if we could braid microsutures from native spider silk fibers. Microsutures braided of native spider dragline silk were manufactured, containing either 2 × 15 or 3 × 10 single fibres strands. Morphologic appearance was studied and tensile strength and stress-strain ratio (SSR) were calculated. The constructed spider silk sutures showed a median thickness of 25 μm, matching the USP definition of 10-0. Maximum load and tensile strength for both spider silk microsutures were significantly more than 2-fold higher than for nylon suture; SSR was 1.5-fold higher. All values except elasticity were higher in 3 × 10 strand sutures compared to 2 × 15 strand sutures, but not significantly. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the successful manufacture of microsutures from spider silk. With regards to the mechanical properties, these sutures were superior to nylon sutures. As spider silk displays high biocompatibility in nerve regeneration, its usage in microsurgical nerve repair should be considered.

  15. Factorization of differential expansion for antiparallel double-braid knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Continuing the quest for exclusive Racah matrices, which are needed for evaluation of colored arborescent-knot polynomials in Chern-Simons theory, we suggest to extract them from a new kind of a double-evolution — that of the antiparallel double-braids, which is a simple two-parametric family of two-bridge knots, generalizing the one-parametric family of twist knots. In the case of rectangular representations R = [ r s ] we found an evidence that the corresponding differential expansion miraculously factorizes and can be obtained from that for the twist knots. This reduces the problem of rectangular exclusive Racah to constructing the answers for just a few twist knots. We develop a recent conjecture on the structure of differential expansion for the simplest members of this family (the trefoil and the figure-eight knot) and provide the exhaustive answer for the first unknown case of R = [33]. The answer includes HOMFLY of arbitrary twist and double-braid knots and Racah matrices overline{S} and S — what allows to calculate [33]-colored polynomials for arbitrary arborescent (double-fat) knots. For generic rectangular representations fully described are only the contributions of the single-floor pyramids. One step still remains to be done.

  16. Macro Scale Independently Homogenized Subcells for Modeling Braided Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinzler, Brina J.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to analyze the impact response of triaxially braided carbon fiber composites, including the penetration velocity and impact damage patterns. In the analytical model, the triaxial braid architecture is simulated by using four parallel shell elements, each of which is modeled as a laminated composite. Currently, each shell element is considered to be a smeared homogeneous material. The commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA is used to conduct the simulations, and a continuum damage mechanics model internal to LS-DYNA is used as the material constitutive model. To determine the stiffness and strength properties required for the constitutive model, a top-down approach for determining the strength properties is merged with a bottom-up approach for determining the stiffness properties. The top-down portion uses global strengths obtained from macro-scale coupon level testing to characterize the material strengths for each subcell. The bottom-up portion uses micro-scale fiber and matrix stiffness properties to characterize the material stiffness for each subcell. Simulations of quasi-static coupon level tests for several representative composites are conducted along with impact simulations.

  17. Mathematical modeling to predict the sub-bandage pressure on a conical limb for multi-layer bandaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, M P; Ghosh, S; Mukhopadhyay, A

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of the compression treatment by a medical compression bandage is dependent on the pressure generated at the interface between the bandage and the skin. This pressure is called interface pressure or sub-bandage pressure. The performance of a bandage depends upon the level of interface pressure applied by the bandage and the sustenance of this pressure over time. The interface pressure exerted by the bandage depends on several other factors like limb shape or size, application technique, physical and structural properties of the bandage, physical activities taken by the patient, etc. The current understanding of how bandages apply pressure to a limb is based on the Law of Laplace, which states that tension in the walls of a container is dependent on both the pressure of the container's content and its radius. This concept was translated mathematically into equation relating pressure to tension and radius by Thomas. In addition, a modified equation was generated by multiplying the model with a constant that represents the number of bandage layers in order to use the model to estimate the pressure applied by multi-layer bandages. This simple multiplication adjustment was questioned by researchers. They had doubts about the model validity and whether it can be used to predict the sub-bandage pressure applied by pressure garments. One of the questions that were raised regarding the bandage thickness affecting the sub-bandage pressure has been recently explored by Al Khaburi where he used the thin and thick cylinder shell theory to study the effect of Multi Component Bandage's (MCB) thickness on the sub-bandage pressure. The model by Al Khaburi and the earlier models developed for pressure prediction are all based on calculations considering the cylindrical limb shapes although the human limb normally is wider at the calf and reduces in circumference towards the ankle. So in our approach, the bandage is assumed to take a conical shape during application

  18. Scattering from a Multi-Layered Sphere Located in a High-Order Hermite-Gaussian Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-Ying; WU Zhen-Sen; LI Zheng-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Scattering of a high-order Hermite-Gaussian beam by a multi-layered sphere is analyzed.The incident highorder Hermite-Gaussian beam field is expressed by the complex-source-point method and expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions.The beam shape coefficients of the Hermite-Gaussian beam are obtained.Under electromagnetic field boundary conditions, coefficients is the expressions of scattering fields are derived.Results of the numerical calculation of scattering intensity axe presented.The effects of the particle parameters and beam parameters on scattering intensity are discussed in detail.

  19. Modification of the composite multi-layer oxide ceramic coating on meteoroid shielding element by compression plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashinski, V. M.; Khramtsov, P. P.; Hryshchanka, U. M.; Chernik, M. Yu; Vasetskij, V. A.; Shikh, I. A.; Doroshko, M. V.; Makhnach, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is investigation of the influence of high-energy plasma impact on composite multi-layer coating (NiAl as a sublayer and Al2O3 as a top coat) on meteoroid shielding element. In order to reach this goal qausi-stationary plasma accelerator with impulse gas feeding was used. Experiments were conducted with use of helium and hydrogen gas mixture and nitrogen as plasma forming substance. Plasma accelerator generates plasma jet with electron temperature ≈ 150 kK and electron density (2.5-4) × 1016 cm-3. Visual examination, photography and spectral measurements were made through special vacuum chamber optical windows.

  20. Roughness Influence On Macro- And Micro-Tribology Of Multi-Layered Hard Coatings On Carbon Fibre Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackner J.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this work is the investigation of roughness influences on the abrasive wear behaviour of magnetron sputtered multi-layered, low-friction coatings on carbon-fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP. Higher coating roughness at similar CFRP quality was realized by higher deposition rates, leading to increased heat flux to the substrates during deposition. Thermal expansion of the epoxy matrix on the micro scale results in a wavy, wrinkled surface topography. Both in scratch and reciprocal sliding testing against alumina, the friction coefficients are lower for the smooth coatings, but their wear rate is higher due to low-cycle fatigue caused abrasion.

  1. Design and construction of a multi-layer CsI(Tl) telescope for high-energy reaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D.; Sun, Z. Y.; Yue, K.; Wang, S. T.; Zhang, X. H.; Yu, Y. H.; Chen, J. L.; Tang, S. W.; Fang, F.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Z. M.; Sun, Y. Z.

    2017-01-01

    A prototype of a new CsI(Tl) telescope, which will be used in the reaction studies of light isotopes with energy of several hundred AMeV, was constructed and tested at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The telescope has a multi-layer structure, and the range information was obtained to improve the particle identification performance. This prototype has seven layers of different thickness. An energy resolution of 5.0% (FWHM) was obtained for one of the layers in a beam test experiment. Positive improvement for the identification of 14O and 15O isotopes was achieved using the range information.

  2. Research on 3D Braided Nickel Plated Carbon Fiber/epoxy Resin Composites and Their Electromagnetic Protection Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Zhaoming; WANG Qingguo; LEI Yisan; ZHANG Ruigang

    2013-01-01

    To develop electromagnetic protection composites with integrated structure-function properties,the three-dimension (3D) braided nickel plated carbon fiber/epoxy resin (Ni-CF3D/EP) composites were prepared based on 3D five-directional braiding,unitary nickel plating and mold compression shaping.The electromagnetic protection properties of Ni-CF3D/EP composites including shielding effectiveness (SE) and reflection loss against plane electromagnetic wave,shielding properties against electromagnetic pulse (EMP) were investigated.The test results show that the novel composites have good electromagnetic protection properties in a wide frequency range of 14 kHz~ 18 GHz with SE of 42 dB~95 dB,the absorption bandwidth of-5 dB in 2 GHz~ 18 GHz can reach 10 GHz and the pulse peak SE against EMP is 43.7 dB which can reduce the electromagnetic energy greatly.Meanwhile,the mechanic properties were also investigated and the results indicate that the Ni-CF3D/EP composites can replace metal materials for loading-bearing structural applications because of their excellent mechanic properties.

  3. Multi-Scale Modeling of an Integrated 3D Braided Composite with Applications to Helicopter Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Diantang; Chen, Li; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Yifan; Qian, Kun

    2017-01-01

    A study is conducted with the aim of developing multi-scale analytical method for designing the composite helicopter arm with three-dimensional (3D) five-directional braided structure. Based on the analysis of 3D braided microstructure, the multi-scale finite element modeling is developed. Finite element analysis on the load capacity of 3D five-directional braided composites helicopter arm is carried out using the software ABAQUS/Standard. The influences of the braiding angle and loading condition on the stress and strain distribution of the helicopter arm are simulated. The results show that the proposed multi-scale method is capable of accurately predicting the mechanical properties of 3D braided composites, validated by the comparison the stress-strain curves of meso-scale RVCs. Furthermore, it is found that the braiding angle is an important factor affecting the mechanical properties of 3D five-directional braided composite helicopter arm. Based on the optimized structure parameters, the nearly net-shaped composite helicopter arm is fabricated using a novel resin transfer mould (RTM) process.

  4. Origins of massive-type sandstones in braided river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charlotte A. L.; Turner, Brian R.

    1998-07-01

    This study details largely ignored massive-type, predominantly structureless sandstones preserved within braided fluvial successions of Carboniferous to Triassic age. Architectural element analysis reveals that these sediments were deposited within sand-dominated perennial systems of low braiding index. Cross-stratified braid bar deposits are interbedded with, and laterally equivalent to geometrically distinct, largely structureless massive-type sandbodies identified as two separate architectural elements: channel-like (SMC) and sheet-like (SMS). Sub-divisions within these broad categories define six geometric units which are texturally distinct from each other and from the structured sediments of the same lithological unit. Since massive-type sandstone elements have many features in common with the deposits of highly concentrated, laminar sediment/water flows, they are interpreted in terms of similar depositional processes. SMC elements form elongate channel-like features which trend both at high angles to, and parallel with, the palaeoflow of host fluvial channels. The lower bounding surfaces of SMC elements may be either erosive or non-erosive, and describe symmetrical cross-sections with margins dipping debris flows related to fluvial bank and/or bar collapse. SMS elements form sandsheets up to 8 m in thickness which may be traced >250 m parallel and transverse to the fluvial palaeoflow direction established from cross-stratified sandstones of adjacent architectural elements. The basal surface of SMS elements may either be undulose (where the sandbodies are termed SMSU) or erosional (where they are termed SMSE). Internally SMSU elements preserve parallel laminae marginal to basal scours, diffuse sweeping laminae, isolated cross-sets and water escape structures. The SMSU sediments are compositionally identical to the structured sandstones with which they are associated and are interpreted as the result of deposition from highly concentrated stream flows

  5. Self-consistent treatment of electrostatics in molecular DNA braiding through external forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dominic J

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we consider a physical system in which two DNA molecules braid about each other. The distance between the two molecular ends, on either side of the braid, is held at a distance much larger than supercoiling radius of the braid. The system is subjected to an external pulling force, and a moment that induces the braiding. In a model, developed for understanding such a system, we assume that each molecule can be divided into a braided and unbraided section. We also suppose that the DNA is nicked so that there is no constraint of the individual linking numbers of the molecules. Included in the model are steric and electrostatic interactions, thermal fluctuations of the braided and unbraided sections of the molecule, as well as the constraint on the braid linking (catenation) number. We compare two approximations used in estimating the free energy of the braided section. One is where the amplitude of undulations of one molecule with respect to the other is determined only by steric interactions. The other is a self-consistent determination of the mean-squared amplitude of these undulations. In this second approximation electrostatics should play an important role in determining this quantity, as suggested by physical arguments. We see that if the electrostatic interaction is sufficiently large there are indeed notable differences between the two approximations. We go on to test the self-consistent approximation-included in the full model-against experimental data for such a system, and we find good agreement. However, there seems to be a slight left-right-handed braid asymmetry in some of the experimental results. We discuss what might be the origin of this small asymmetry.

  6. Elastic mesh braided worm robot for locomotive endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Thomas; Vítek, Tomáš; Ranzani, Tommaso; Menciassi, Arianna; Althoefer, Kaspar; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of worm robot whose body is constructed using a novel crimped elastic mesh braid inspired by the earthworm. The proposed worm robot is intended for inspection within the human body via natural orifices. The design and fabrication procedure of the worm robot are given in the paper. The imitation of peristalsis, used by natural worms, is used to control the worm robot for the purpose of producing motion while causing minimal trauma to biological tissue. The forward locomotive function of the worm robot has been tested on both a flat surface and in a rubber tube. It is shown that the worm robot is capable of propagating forwards for both test conditions in a form similar to the earthworm. The test results indicate the proposed worm robot design has promising application for natural tube inspection, like the colon and the esophagus.

  7. Factorization of differential expansion for antiparallel double-braid knots

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A

    2016-01-01

    Continuing the quest for exclusive Racah matrices, which are needed for evaluation of colored arborescent-knot polynomials in Chern-Simons theory, we suggest to extract them from a new kind of a double-evolution -- that of the antiparallel double-braids, which is a simple two-parametric family of two-bridge knots, generalizing the one-parametric family of twist knots. In the case of rectangular representations $R=[r^s]$ we found an evidence that the corresponding differential expansion miraculously factorizes and can be obtained from that for the twist knots. This reduces the problem of rectangular exclusive Racah to constructing the answers for just a few twist knots. We develop a recent conjecture on the structure of differential expansion for the simplest members of this family -- the trefoil and the figure-eight knot,-- but manage to guess the full answer only for contributions of single-floor pyramids. One step still remains to be done.

  8. Systematically Generated Two-Qubit Braids for Fibonacci Anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuch, Daniel; Carnahan, Caitlin; Bonesteel, N. E.

    We show how two-qubit Fibonacci anyon braids can be generated using a simple iterative procedure which, in contrast to previous methods, does not require brute force search. Our construction is closely related to that of, but with the new feature that it can be used for three-anyon qubits as well as four-anyon qubits. The iterative procedure we use, which was introduced by Reichardt, generates sequences of three-anyon weaves that asymptotically conserve the total charge of two of the three anyons, without control over the corresponding phase factors. The resulting two-qubit gates are independent of these factors and their length grows as log 1/ ɛ, where ɛ is the error, which is asymptotically better than the Solovay-Kitaev method.

  9. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  10. A novel alignment mechanism employing orthogonal connected multi-layered flexible hinges for both leveling and centering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Hongxi; Gao, Renjing; Hu, Ping; Yang, Yintang

    2012-06-01

    To eliminate the effects of motion coupling for measuring cylindrical work pieces, a novel alignment mechanism integrating functions of both leveling and centering is designed and fabricated by introducing multi-layered orthogonal connected flexible hinges as the key supporting and joining elements. Different from traditional leveling mechanisms with many separate parts fabricated together, all of the flexible hinges were integrated in one three-dimensioned machining part without assembling process, and thus synchronously simplifying the structure and reducing assembly errors. Based on the screw theory, the mathematic model of the proposed alignment mechanism is established for any resolution requirements depending on screw characteristics. A millimeter-sized device is fabricated with the alignment precision of 1.0 μm for centering within the range of ±1 mm and 1 in. for leveling within ±1°. The experiment results are in very close agreement to those obtained by simulation, which validate the feasibility of introducing multi-layered orthogonal flexible hinges in the centering and leveling mechanisms.

  11. A novel alignment mechanism employing orthogonal connected multi-layered flexible hinges for both leveling and centering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Hongxi; Gao, Renjing; Hu, Ping; Yang, Yintang

    2012-06-01

    To eliminate the effects of motion coupling for measuring cylindrical work pieces, a novel alignment mechanism integrating functions of both leveling and centering is designed and fabricated by introducing multi-layered orthogonal connected flexible hinges as the key supporting and joining elements. Different from traditional leveling mechanisms with many separate parts fabricated together, all of the flexible hinges were integrated in one three-dimensioned machining part without assembling process, and thus synchronously simplifying the structure and reducing assembly errors. Based on the screw theory, the mathematic model of the proposed alignment mechanism is established for any resolution requirements depending on screw characteristics. A millimeter-sized device is fabricated with the alignment precision of 1.0 μm for centering within the range of ±1 mm and 1 in. for leveling within ±1°. The experiment results are in very close agreement to those obtained by simulation, which validate the feasibility of introducing multi-layered orthogonal flexible hinges in the centering and leveling mechanisms.

  12. Measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of multi-layer insulation between 20 K and 90 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Joseph A.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has the need to efficiently store cryogenic propellants in space for long periods of time. One method to improve storage efficiency is to use multi-layer insulation (MLI), a technique that minimizes the boiling rate due to radiation heat transfer. Typically, the thermal performance of MLI is determined by measuring the rate of evaporation of liquid nitrogen from a calibrated cryostat. The main limitation with this method is that testing conditions are restricted by the boiling temperature of the LN2, which may not match the requirements of the application. The Multi-Layer Insulation Thermal Conductivity Experiment (MIKE) at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is capable of measuring the effective thermal conductivity of MLI at variable boundary temperatures. MIKE uses cryo-refrigerators to control boundary temperatures in the calorimeter and a calibrated thermal link to measure the heat load. To make the measurements requested by NASA, MIKE needed to be recalibrated for the 20 K to 90 K range. Also, due to the expectation of a lower heat transfer rate, the heat load support rod material was changed to one with a lower thermal conductivity to ensure the temperature difference seen on the cold rod could be measurable at the estimated heat load. Presented are the alterations to MIKE including calibration data and heat load measurements on new load-bearing MLI supplied by NASA.

  13. Optimum design of multi-layer K-edge filter and multi-stage detectors for triple energy bone densitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoochi, Alireza; Rahmani, Faezeh; Abbasi Davani, Fereydoun; Ghaderi, Ruhollah

    2014-03-01

    Dual X-ray bone densitometry may cause some errors in diagnosis due to heterogeneous distribution of adipose tissue. It is necessary to develop a more accurate technique to consider the effects of fat. In this research, a triple energy X-ray method has been introduced and conceptual design of a system consisting of 160 kV X-ray tube, multi-layer K-edge filter and multi-stage detector has been presented. Design calculations have been performed using MCNP4C Monte Carlo code to select the type of filters and detectors with the best thicknesses for better distinguishing materials. The energy peaks (37 keV, 50 keV and 105 keV) can be separated optimally with a multi-layer filter composed of barium (170 μm) and gadolinium (100 μm) as the first and second layers, respectively which are coated on a 1 mm aluminum plate placed between the source and tissue. The transmitted photons have been counted by a multi-stage linear array of detectors consisting of ZnSe(Te) and CsI(Tl) with 400 μm and 5 mm thicknesses, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations show that the triple energy X-ray technique has better accuracy than that of the standard dual energy X-ray technique.

  14. Multi-layer hydrostatic equilibrium of planets and synchronous moons: theory and application to Ceres and to solar system moons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tricarico, Pasquale [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    The hydrostatic equilibrium of multi-layer bodies lacks a satisfactory theoretical treatment despite its wide range of applicability. Here we show that by using the exact analytical potential of homogeneous ellipsoids we can obtain recursive analytical solutions and an exact numerical method for the hydrostatic equilibrium shape problem of multi-layer planets and synchronous moons. The recursive solutions rely on the series expansion of the potential in terms of the polar and equatorial shape eccentricities, while the numerical method uses the exact potential expression. These solutions can be used to infer the interior structure of planets and synchronous moons from their observed shape, rotation, and gravity. When applied to the dwarf planet Ceres, we show that it is most likely a differentiated body with an icy crust of equatorial thickness 30-90 km and a rocky core of density 2.4-3.1 g cm{sup –3}. For synchronous moons, we show that the J {sub 2}/C {sub 22} ≅ 10/3 and the (b – c)/(a – c) ≅ 1/4 ratios have significant corrections of order Ω{sup 2}/(πGρ), with important implications for how their gravitational coefficients are determined from fly-by radio science data and for how we assess their hydrostatic equilibrium state.

  15. Multi-Layer Hydrostatic Equilibrium of Planets and Synchronous Moons: Theory and Application to Ceres and to Solar System Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Tricarico, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    The hydrostatic equilibrium of multi-layer bodies lacks a satisfactory theoretical treatment despite its wide range of applicability. Here we show that by using the exact analytical potential of homogeneous ellipsoids we can obtain recursive analytical solutions and an exact numerical method for the hydrostatic equilibrium shape problem of multi-layer planets and synchronous moons. The recursive solutions rely on the series expansion of the potential in terms of the polar and equatorial shape eccentricities, while the numerical method uses the exact potential expression. These solutions can be used to infer the interior structure of planets and synchronous moons from the observed shape, rotation, and gravity. When applied to dwarf planet Ceres, we show that it is most likely a differentiated body with an icy crust of equatorial thickness 30-90 km and a rocky core of density 2.4-3.1 g/cm$^3$. For synchronous moons, we show that the $J_2/C_{22} \\simeq 10/3$ and the $(b-c)/(a-c) \\simeq 1/4$ ratios have significa...

  16. Effect of inter-layer strain interaction on the optical properties of Ge/Si(001) island multi-layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. De Seta; G. Capellini; F. Evangelieti; C. Ferrari; L. Lazzarini; G. Salviati; R. W. Peng; S. S.Jiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a study on the influence of the number and the thickness of silicon spacer layer on the optical properties of single- and multi-layers of self assembled Ge/Si (001) islands performed by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, high resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. In single-layer sample, we do not evidence dependence of the island no-phonon emission peak position on the silicon cap-layer thickness. In multi-layer samples having a thin (33 nm) silicon spacer layer the no-phonon emission energyvalue progressively blue-shifts for an increasing number of island layers. This is interpreted as an enhanced intermixing driven by the strain interaction existing between island layers. On the contrary, island emission energy position is independent on the number of layers in the sample series having a thicker spacer layer (60 nm). These findings are consistent with the X-ray diffraction observation that islands belonging to different layers have the same composition. As a consequence we can conclude that multilayers with 60-nm spaced islands layer are more homogeneous and ordered.

  17. Theoretical prediction of stiffness and strength of three-dimensional and four-directional braided composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on unit cell model,the 3D 4-directional braided composites can be simplified as unidirectional composites with different local axial coordinate system and the compliance matrix of unidirectional composites can be defined utilizing the bridge model.The total stiffness matrix of braided composites can be obtained by the volume average stiffness of unidirectional composites with different local axial coordinate system and the engineering elastic constants of braided composites were computed further.Based on the iso-strain assumption and the bridge model,the stress distribution of fiber bundle and matrix of different unidirectional composites can be determined and the tensile strength of 3D 4-directional braided composites was predicted by means of the Hoffman's failure criterion for the fiber bundle and Mises' failure criterion for the matrix.

  18. Software for Computing, Archiving, and Querying Semisimple Braided Monoidal Category Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-04

    This software package collects various open source and freely available codes and algorithms to compute and archive the categorical data for certain semisimple braided monoidal categories. In particular, it computes the data for of group theoretical categories for academic research.

  19. DAMAGE MECHANISM ANALYSIS OF 2D 1 × 1 BRAIDED COMPOSITES UNDER UNIDIRECTIONAL TENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 许希武; 陈康

    2013-01-01

    Coupling with the periodical displacement boundary condition ,a representative volume element (RVE) model is established to simulate the progressive damage behavior of 2D 1 × 1 braided composites under unidirection-al tension by using the nonlinear finite element method .Tsai-Wu failure criterion with various damage modes and Mises criterion are considered for predicting damage initiation and progression of yarns and matrix .The anisotropic damage model for yarns and the isotropic damage model for matrix are used to simulate the microscopic damage propagation of 2D 1 × 1 braided composites .Murakami′s damage tensor is adopted to characterize each damage mode .In the simulation process ,the damage mechanisms are revealed and the tensile strength of 2D 1 × 1 braided composites is predicted from the calculated average stress-average strain curve . Numerical results show good agreement with experimental data ,thus the proposed simulation method is verified for damage mechanism analysis of 2D braided composites .

  20. NASA Invention of the year Award - 2004. The revolutionary unique braided carbon-fiber thermal barr

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA Invention of the year Award - 2004. The revolutionary unique braided carbon-fiber thermal barrier is designed to with stand the extreme temperature environments in current and future solid rocket motors with application to industrial equipment

  1. Systematic Braiding of Two Evidence-Based Parent Training Programs: Qualitative Results from the Pilot Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastaferro, Kate; Miller, Katy; Shanley Chatham, Jenelle R.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; McGilly, Kate; Lutzker, John R.

    2017-01-01

    An effective approach in early intervention for children and families, including child maltreatment prevention, is home-based services. Though several evidence-based programs exist, they are often grouped together, despite having different foci. This paper describes an ongoing cluster randomized trial systematically braiding two evidence-based home-based models, SafeCare® and Parents as Teachers (PAT)®, to better meet the needs of families at-risk. We describe the methodology for braiding model implementation and curriculum, specifically focusing on how structured qualitative feedback from pilot families and providers was used to create the braided curriculum and implementation. Systematic braiding of two models at the implementation and curriculum levels is a mechanism that has the potential to meet the more comprehensive needs of families at-risk for maltreatment. PMID:27870760

  2. Mechanical and analytical screening of braided composites for transport fuselage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian; Ko, Frank K.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanics of materials progress in support of the goal of understanding the application of braided composites in a transport aircraft fuselage are summarized. Composites consisting of both 2-D and 3-D braid patterns are investigated. Both consolidation of commingled graphite/PEEK and resin transfer molding of graphite-epoxy braided composite processes are studied. Mechanical tests were used to examine unnotched tension, open hole tension, compression, compression after impact, in-plane shear, out-of-plane tension, bearing, and crippling. Analytical methods are also developed and applied to predict the stiffness and strengths of test specimens. A preliminary study using the test data and analytical results is performed to assess the applicability of braided composites to a commercial aircraft fuselage.

  3. Parameter Survey of Thermally Highly Loaded, Porous and Cooled Multi-Layer Systems for Turbine Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Shan; Dieter Bohn; Jing Ren; N.Surken

    2007-01-01

    This study is an advanced investigation for the cooling of high temperature turbine vanes and blades. The efficient heat exchanging near the surface of a blade may be achieved by forcing a cooling air flow emitting out of a thin layer of the porous metal which is pasted on the structural high strength metal. The contents include the consideration on the computational model of heat transfer through a layer of porous material, the concrete modeling and the analysis of the model, the numerical survey of key parameters for both the two-layer porous materials and the heat transfer fluid flow passing through the model channels. The results revealed that the constructed system is reasonable. Proposed an evaluation formula for the porous material heat transfer efficiency.

  4. Generalized virtual braid groups, quasi-shuffle product and quantum groups

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We introduce in this paper the generalized virtual braid group on n strands GVB_n, generalizing simultaneously the braid groups and their virtual versions. A Mastumoto-Tits type section lifting shuffles in a symmetric group S_n to the monoid associated to GVB_n is constructed, which is then applied to characterize the quantum quasi-shuffle product. A family of representations of GVB_n is constructed using quantum groups.

  5. Evaluation of Braided Stiffener Concepts for Transport Aircraft Wing Structure Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Dexter, H. Benson (Editor); Markus, Alan; Rohwer, Kim

    1995-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Stiffeners, wing spars, floor beams, and fuselage frames are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage requirements are met. Braiding is an automated process for obtaining near-net shape preforms for fabrication of components for structural applications. Previous test results on braided composite materials obtained at NASA Langley indicate that damage tolerance requirements can be met for some applications. In addition, the braiding industry is taking steps to increase the material through-put to be more competitive with other preform fabrication processes. Data are presented on the compressive behavior of three braided stiffener preform fabric constructions as determined from individual stiffener crippling test and three stiffener wide panel tests. Stiffener and panel fabrication are described and compression data presented for specimens tested with and without impact damage. In addition, data are also presented on the compressive behavior of the stitched stiffener preform construction currently being used by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace in the NASA ACT wing development program.

  6. Braiding of submarine channels controlled by aspect ratio similar to rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Brady Z.; Lai, Steven Y. J.; Komatsu, Yuhei; Paola, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The great majority of submarine channels formed by turbidity and density currents are meandering in planform; they consist of a single, sinuous channel that transports a turbid, dense flow of sediment from submarine canyons to ocean floor environments. Braided turbidite systems consisting of multiple, interconnected channel threads are conspicuously rare. Furthermore, such systems may not represent the spontaneous planform instability of true braiding, but instead result from erosive processes or bathymetric variability. In marked contrast to submarine environments, both meandering and braided planforms are common in fluvial systems. Here we present experiments of subaqueous channel formation conducted at two laboratory facilities. We find that density currents readily produce a braided planform for flow aspect ratios of depth to width that are similar to those that produce river braiding. Moreover, we find that stability model theory for river planform morphology successfully describes submarine channels in both experiments and the field. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the rarity of braided submarine channels is explained by the generally greater flow depths in submarine systems, which necessitate commensurately greater widths to achieve the required aspect ratio, along with feedbacks among flow thickness, suspended sediment concentration and channel relief that induce greater levee deposition rates and limit channel widening.

  7. Meso-Scale Damage Simulation of 3D Braided Composites under Quasi-Static Axial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Mao, Chunjian; Zhou, Yexin

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure of 3D braided composites is composed of three phases: braiding yarn, matrix and interface. In this paper, a representative unit-cell (RUC) model including these three phases is established. Coupling with the periodical boundary condition, the damage behavior of 3D braided composites under quasi-static axial tension is simulated by using finite element method based on this RUC model. An anisotropic damage model based on Murakami damage theory is proposed to predict the damage evolution of yarns and matrix; a damage-friction combination interface constitutive model is adopted to predict the interface debonding behavior. A user material subroutine (VUMAT) involving these damage models is developed and implemented in the finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit. The whole process of damage evolution of 3D braided composites under quasi-static axial tension with typical braiding angles is simulated, and the damage mechanisms are revealed in detail in the simulation process. The tensile strength properties of the braided composites are predicted from the calculated stress-strain curves. Numerical results agree with the available experiment data and thus validates the proposed damage analysis model. The effects of certain material parameters on the predicted stress-strain responses are also discussed by numerical parameter study.

  8. Theory of equilibria of elastic braids with applications to DNA supercoiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Gert; Starostin, Eugene

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by supercoiling of DNA and other filamentous structures, we formulate a new theory for equilibria of 2-braids, i.e., structures formed by two elastic rods winding around each other in continuous contact and subject to a local interstrand interaction. Unlike in previous work no assumption is made on the shape of the contact curve. Rather, this shape is solved for. The theory is developed in terms of a moving frame of directors attached to one of the strands with one of the directors pointing to the position of the other strand. The constant-distance constraint is automatically satisfied by the introduction of what we call braid strains. The price we pay is that the potential energy involves arclength derivatives of these strains, thus giving rise to a second-order variational problem. The Euler-Lagrange equations for this problem give balance equations for the overall braid force and moment referred to the moving frame as well as differential equations that can be interpreted as effective constitutive relations encoding the effect that the second strand has on the first as the braid deforms under the action of end loads. Both open braid and closed braid solutions (links and knots) are computed and current applications to DNA supercoiling are discussed. Research supported by EPSRC and HFSP.

  9. Photoelectrochemical performance of multi-layered BiOx-TiO2/Ti electrodes for degradation of phenol and production of molecular hydrogen in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunwoong; Bak, Ayoung; Ahn, Yong Yoon; Choi, Jina; Hoffmannn, Michael R

    2012-04-15

    Multi-layered BiO(x)-TiO(2) electrodes were used for the oxidation of chemical contaminants coupled with the production of H(2) characterized by a synergistic enhancement. The BiO(x)-TiO(2) electrodes were composed of a mixed-metal oxide array involving an under layer of TaO(x)-IrO(x), a middle layer of BiO(x)-SnO(2), and a top layer of BiO(x)-TiO(2) deposited in a series on both sides of Ti foil. Cyclic voltammograms showed that the BiO(x)-TiO(2) electrodes had an electrocatalytic activity for oxidation of phenol that was enhanced by 70% under illumination with AM 1.5 light. When the BiO(x)-TiO(2) anode was coupled with a stainless steel cathode in a Na(2)SO(4) electrolyte with phenol and irradiated with UV light at an applied DC voltage, the anodic phenol oxidation rate and the cathodic H(2) production rates were enhanced by factors of four and three, respectively, as compared to the sum of each light irradiation and direct DC electrolysis. These synergistic effects depend on the specific electrode composition and decrease on TaO(x)-IrO(x) and BiO(x)-SnO(2) anodes in the absence of a top layer of BiO(x)-TiO(2). These results indicate that the BiO(x)-TiO(2) layer functions as the key photo-electrocatalyst. The heavy doping level of Bi (25 mol%) in TiO(2) increases the electric conductivity of the parent TiO(2).

  10. 在一种扩展多层感知器模型中实现命题知识的语义推演%Implementing Semantic Deduction of Propositional Knowledge in an Extension Multi-layer Perceptron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天民; 裴峥

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an extension multi-layer perceptron model that is capable of representing and reasoning propositional knowledge base. An extended version of propositional calculus is developed, and its some properties is discussed. Formulas of the extended calculus can be expressed in the extension multi-layer perceptron. Naturally, semantic deduction of propositional knowledge base can be implement by the extension multi-layer perceptron, and by learning, an unknown formula set can be found.

  11. Study of multi-layer active magnetic regenerators using magnetocaloric materials with first and second order phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein;

    2016-01-01

    Magnetocaloric materials (MCM) with a first order phase transition (FOPT) usually exhibit a large, although sharp, isothermal entropy change near their Curie temperature, compared to materials with a second order phase transition (SOPT). Experimental results of applying FOPT materials in recent...... FOPT and SOPT materials is also of fundamental interest. We present modeling results of multi-layer AMRs using FOPT and SOPT materials based on a 1D numerical model. First the impact of isothermal entropy change, adiabatic temperature change and shape factor describing the temperature dependence...... magnetocaloric refrigerators (MCR) demonstrated the great potential for these materials, but a thorough study on the impact of the moderate adiabatic temperature change and strong temperature dependence of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is lacking. Besides, comparing active magnetic regenerators (AMR) using...

  12. An integral test of FLUKA nuclear models with 160 MeV proton beams in multi-layer Faraday cups

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, I; Parodi, K; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Mairani, A

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are useful tools to simulate the complex processes of proton beam interactions with matter. In proton therapy, nuclear reactions influence the dose distribution. Therefore, the validation of nuclear models adopted in MC codes is a critical requisite for their use in this field. A simple integral test can be performed using a multi-layer Faraday cup (MLFC). This method allows separation of the nuclear and atomic interaction processes, which are responsible for secondary particle emission and the finite primary proton range, respectively. In this work, the propagation of 160 MeV protons stopping in two MLFCs made of polyethylene and copper has been simulated by the FLUKA MC code. The calculations have been performed with and without secondary electron emission and transport, as well as charge sharing in the dielectric layers. Previous results with other codes neglected those two effects. The impact of this approximation has been investigated and found to be relevant only in the proximity ...

  13. A Reinforcement Learning Algorithm Using Multi-Layer Artificial Neural Networks for Semi-Markov Decision Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ahmet Beyazıt Ocaktan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Real life problems are generally large-scale and difficult to model. Therefore, these problems can't be mostly solved by classical optimisation methods. This paper presents a reinforcement learning algorithm using a multi-layer artificial neural network to find an approximate solution for large-scale semi Markov decision problems. Performance of the developed algorithm is measured and compared to the classical reinforcement algorithm on a small-scale numerical example. According to results of numerical examples, a number of hidden layer are the key success factors, and average cost of the solution generated by the developed algorithm is approximately equal to that generated by the classical reinforcement algorithm.

  14. The Centroid Shifts of Light Beams Reflected from Multi-Layers and the Effects of Angular Momentum Manifestations

    CERN Document Server

    Lusk, Mark T; Quinteiro, Guillermo F

    2016-01-01

    Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams reflected from a multi-layered dielectric experience a shift in their centroid that is different than that from a single interface. This has been previously investigated for linearly polarized beams and, to a much lesser extent, beams with spin angular momentum. Here a combination of perturbation and computational analyses is used to provide a unified quantification of these shifts in layered dielectrics with two parallel interfaces. The approach is then extended to consider the qualitatively new behavior that results when the light is endowed with an intrinsic orbital angular momentum--i.e. vortex beams. Destructive interference causes singular lateral shifts in the centroid of the reflected vortex beam for which spin alone produces only a mild modulation. In the case of total internal reflection, both spin and intrinsic orbital angular momentum contribute to an enhancement of these lateral shifts as the interlayer thickness is decreased. This is just the opposite of the trend as...

  15. Dependence of magnetic properties, texture and residual stresses on the deposition parameters of CoFe - single and multi - layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieter, S.; Wanderka, N. [Hahn-Meitner-Inst. Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Pyzalla, A.; Reimers, W. [Hahn-Meitner-Inst. Berlin, Berlin (Germany); TU Berlin, Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften und -technologien, Berlin (Germany); Seemann, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Materialforschung I (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    For electronic devices thin magnetic single and multi - layers, with a thickness below 2 {mu}m are increasingly used. The magnetic properties of the thin magnetic layers depend on their chemical composition, layer thickness, homogeneity and roughness as well as on the texture and the residual stress state. Layer thickness, homogeneity, roughness, texture and residual stress state essentially are determined by the process parameters of the manufacturing process. Here the dependence of the layer characteristics and their texture and residual stress state on the process parameters sputter power and argon partial pressure is investigated using transmission electron microscopy and diffraction methods and relations between texture and residual stress values of the layers and coercivity are shown. (orig.)

  16. The friction coefficient evolution of a MoS2/WC multi-layer coating system during sliding wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. Y.; Hu, Y.; Gharbi, Mohammad M.; Politis, D. J.; Wang, L.

    2016-08-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of friction coefficient for the multi-layered Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) and WC coated substrate during sliding against Aluminium AA 6082 material. A soft MoS2 coating was prepared over a hard WC coated G3500 cast iron tool substrate and underwent friction test using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The lifetime of the coating was reduced with increasing load while the Aluminium debris accumulated on the WC hard coating surfaces, accelerated the breakdown of the coatings. The lifetime of the coating was represented by the friction coefficient and the sliding distance before MoS2 coating breakdown and was found to be affected by the load applied and the wear mechanism.

  17. Vibratory response of a precision double-multi-layer monochromator positioning system using a generic modeling program with experimental verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraza, J.

    1998-07-29

    A generic vibratory response-modeling program has been developed as a tool for designing high-precision optical positioning systems. The systems are modeled as rigid-body structures connected by linear non-rigid elements such as complex actuators and bearings. The full dynamic properties of each non-rigid element are determined experimentally or theoretically, then integrated into the program as inertial and stiffness matrices. Thus, it is possible to have a suite of standardize structural elements for modeling many different positioning systems that use standardized components. This paper will present the application of this program to a double-multi-layer monochromator positioning system that utilizes standardized components. Calculated results are compared to experimental modal analysis results.

  18. Numerical study of the MHD flow characteristics in a three-surface-multi-layered channel with different inlet conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: mao@karma.qse.tohoku.ac.jp; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2014-10-15

    A 3D MHD flow simulation was conducted to clarify the effects of the inlet flow conditions on the results of the validation experiment carried out previously and on the design window of the first wall using a three-surface-multi-layered channel. MHD pressure drop was largely influenced by the inlet condition. The numerical model with turbulent velocity profile showed qualitatively good agreement with the experimental result. The first wall temperature and pressure distributions obtained by the 3D simulation corresponded well to those obtained by the 2D simulation assuming fully developed flow. This suggested that complicated three-dimensional inlet flow condition generated in the L-shape elbow would not affects the existing design window.

  19. Dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched solid-state laser with multi-layered graphene as saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongguang; Li, Xianlei; Xu, Miaomiao; Yu, Haohai; Wu, Yongzhong; Wang, Zhengping; Hao, Xiaopeng; Xu, Xinguang

    2013-02-11

    Using multilayered graphene as the saturable absorber (SA), Nd:LYSO crystal as the laser material, we demonstrated a laser-diode (LD) pumped, dual-wavelength passively Q-switched solid-state laser. The maximum average output power is 1.8 W, the largest pulse energy and highest peak power is 11.3 μJ, 118 W, respectively. As we have known, they are the best results for passively Q-switched operation of graphene. The pulse laser is strong enough to realize extra-cavity frequency conversions. With a KTP crystal as the sum-frequency generator, the dual wavelengths are proved to be well time overlapped, which manifests the synchronous modulation to the dual-wavelength with multi-layered graphene.

  20. Ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jang-Won; Choi, Yong-Seok; Goo Kang, Chang; Hun Lee, Byoung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byeong-Hyeok [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Tu, C. W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0407 (United States); Park, Seong-Ju, E-mail: sjpark@gist.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    We report on ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene (MLG)/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diodes (LED). The p-type MLG and MgZnO in the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED are used as transparent hole injection and electron blocking layers, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED show that current transport is dominated by tunneling processes in the MgZnO barrier layer under forward bias conditions. The holes injected from p-type MLG recombine efficiently with the electrons accumulated in ZnO, and the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED shows strong ultraviolet emission from the band edge of ZnO and weak red-orange emission from the deep levels of ZnO.

  1. Disordered 3 D Multi-layer Graphene Anode Material from CO2 for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kassiopeia; Parrish, Riley; Wei, Wei; Liu, Yuzi; Li, Tao; Hu, Yun Hang; Xiong, Hui

    2016-06-22

    We report the application of disordered 3 D multi-layer graphene, synthesized directly from CO2 gas through a reaction with Li at 550 °C, as an anode for Na-ion batteries (SIBs) toward a sustainable and greener future. The material exhibited a reversible capacity of ∼190 mA h g(-1) with a Coulombic efficiency of 98.5 % at a current density of 15 mA g(-1) . The discharge capacity at higher potentials (>0.2 V vs. Na/Na(+) ) is ascribed to Na-ion adsorption at defect sites, whereas the capacity at low potentials (CO2 gas makes it attractive not only as an anode material for SIBs but also to mitigate CO2 emission.

  2. Measurements of Multi-Layer Insulation at High Boundary Temperature, using a Simple Non-Calorimetric Method

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzone, L; Rieubland, Jean Michel; Vandoni, Giovanna

    2002-01-01

    In spite of abundant literature, the thermal performance of Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) still deserves dedicated investigation for specific applications, as the achievable insulation strongly depends on installation details. Furthermore, less accurate information is available for warm than for cold boundaries, since errors due to edge effects in small test benches increase strongly with warm boundary temperature. We establish here the thermal performance of MLI between 300 K and 77 K or 4 K, without bringing calorimetric methods into play, through the accurate measurement of a temperature profile. A cylinder in thin copper, wrapped with MLI, is cooled at one extremity while suspended under vacuum inside a sheath at room temperature. For known thermal conductivity and thickness of the tube, the heat flux can be inferred from the temperature profile. In-situ measurement of the thermal conductivity is obtained by applying a know heat flow at the warm extremity of the cylinder. Results, cross-checked with a cali...

  3. Cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence from multi-layered organic structures induced by field electron emission from carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetzov, Alexander A.; Zakhidov, Alexander A.; Ovalle, Raquel; Nanjundaswami, Rashmi; Williams, Christopher; Zhang, Mei; Lee, Sergey B.; Ferraris, John; Zakhidov, Anvar A.

    2005-10-01

    We report the observation of cathodoluminescence (CL) of organic multilayers of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) and 2- (4biphenyl)-5-(4-t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) deposited on ITO-coated glass, with and without hole transport layer and compare it with electroluminescence (EL) from similar devices. Excitation of the CL of such multilayer organic anodes was accomplished by low energy electrons field emitted by single walled carbon nanotube cathodes. The dependence of CL spectrum and intensity on voltage (V), current (I), type of transport layer and the cathode-anode geometry has been studied. We propose carbon nanotubes as efficient cathodes for stable CL emission from multi-layer anodes at small cathode-anode separations. The role of hole-transport layer is also discussed.

  4. Direct synthesis of multi-layer graphene film on various substrates by microwave plasma at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jae [Plasma Technology Research Center, 814-2 Osickdo-dong (SGFEZ), Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byung Wook; Kim, Tae Yoo; Lee, Jung Woo [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Research Center (AMPRC), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yong Ho; Choi, Yong Sup [Plasma Technology Research Center, 814-2 Osickdo-dong (SGFEZ), Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Il, E-mail: physein01@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Research Center (AMPRC), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Su Jeong, E-mail: suhsj@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Research Center (AMPRC), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    We introduce a possible route for vertically standing multi-layer graphene films (VMGs) on various substrates at low temperature by electron cyclone resonance microwave plasma. VMG films on various substrates, including copper sheet, glass and silicon oxide wafer, were analyzed by studying their structural, electrical, and optical properties. The density and temperature of plasma were measured using Cylindrical Langmuir probe analysis. The morphologies and microstructures of multi-layer graphene were characterized using field emission scattering electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectra measurement. The VMGs on different substrates at the same experimental conditions synthesized the wrinkled VMGs with different heights. In addition, the transmittance and electrical resistance were measured using ultra-violet visible near-infrared spectroscopy and 4 probe point surface resistance measurement. The VMGs on glass substrate obtained a transmittance of 68.8% and sheet resistance of 796 Ω/square, whereas the VMGs on SiO{sub 2} wafer substrate showed good sheet resistance of 395 Ω/square and 278 Ω/square. The results presented herein demonstrate a simple method of synthesizing of VMGs on various substrates at low temperature for mass production, in which the VMGs can be used in a wide range of application fields for energy storage, catalysis, and field emission due to their unique orientation. - Highlights: • We present for synthesis method of graphene at low temperature on various substrates. • We grow the graphene films at low temperature under of 432 °C. • Structural information of graphene films were studied upon Raman spectroscopy. • Inter-layer spacing of vertically standing graphene relies on synthesis time. • We measured a transmittance and a resistance for graphene films on difference substrate.

  5. Integrating cross-frequency and within band functional networks in resting-state MEG: A multi-layer network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewarie, Prejaas; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Dijk, Bob W; Stam, Cornelis J; O'Neill, George C; Van Mieghem, Piet; Meier, Jil M; Woolrich, Mark W; Morris, Peter G; Brookes, Matthew J

    2016-11-15

    Neuronal oscillations exist across a broad frequency spectrum, and are thought to provide a mechanism of interaction between spatially separated brain regions. Since ongoing mental activity necessitates the simultaneous formation of multiple networks, it seems likely that the brain employs interactions within multiple frequency bands, as well as cross-frequency coupling, to support such networks. Here, we propose a multi-layer network framework that elucidates this pan-spectral picture of network interactions. Our network consists of multiple layers (frequency-band specific networks) that influence each other via inter-layer (cross-frequency) coupling. Applying this model to MEG resting-state data and using envelope correlations as connectivity metric, we demonstrate strong dependency between within layer structure and inter-layer coupling, indicating that networks obtained in different frequency bands do not act as independent entities. More specifically, our results suggest that frequency band specific networks are characterised by a common structure seen across all layers, superimposed by layer specific connectivity, and inter-layer coupling is most strongly associated with this common mode. Finally, using a biophysical model, we demonstrate that there are two regimes of multi-layer network behaviour; one in which different layers are independent and a second in which they operate highly dependent. Results suggest that the healthy human brain operates at the transition point between these regimes, allowing for integration and segregation between layers. Overall, our observations show that a complete picture of global brain network connectivity requires integration of connectivity patterns across the full frequency spectrum.

  6. Influence of the type of fastening of multi-layered closing panels on the estimate of the sound transmission loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovadávia Aline de Jesus Ribas

    Full Text Available Abstract Industrialized closing systems appear as rational solutions in steel-structured construction. These closing systems, consisting of multi-layered panels, have been applied in projects where it is intended to obtain a high sound transmission loss without raising the cost and without using a lot of mass. However, acoustic isolation depends on several factors, including the type of connection between the panels, requiring a preliminary study of the acoustic performance of the closing system to prevent future interventions. This paper uses a simplified graphical method to evaluate the influence of the type of connection (line-line, line-punctual or punctual-punctual of industrialized closing panels on the estimation of the sound transmission loss that occurs across the wall constituted by these panels. The panels are combined, forming multi-layered closings interleaved by a layer of air, either without or with a sound-absorbing material between them. The results show that it is necessary to check the effectiveness of each type of fastening of the closing systems because, for example, for the frequency range between 500 and 2,000 Hz, the sound transmission loss of a closing system consisting of cementitious plate with glass wool and line-punctual and punctual-punctual connections exceeds in 6.25% the sound transmission loss of the same system with line-line fastening. For a system composed of expanded polystyrene with glass wool, the sound transmission loss provided by line-line fastening exceeds in 7.0% the sound transmission loss of the same closing system with line-punctual and punctual-punctual fastenings.

  7. Structural and magnetic features of oxygen inserted [Co-O/Pt]n multi-layer matrix for spin transfer torque memory applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Bin; An, Gwang Guk; Yang, Seung Mo; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-11-01

    We describe the influence of inserted oxygen atoms on the structural and magnetic properties of a [Co/Pt]n multi-layer matrix. The correlation of magnetic properties with oxygen gas flow rate was studied as an alternative perpendicular medium in spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory applications. Experimental analysis suggests that the addition of a small amount of oxygen atoms into the [Co/Pt]n multi-layer matrix leads to a high coercivity and proper magnetization performance, together with high thermal stability. Finally, the nature of the improved perpendicular medium behaviors is also discussed.

  8. Development of a multi-layer microfluidic array chip to culture and replate uniform-sized embryoid bodies without manual cell retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Edward; Choi, Yoon Young; Jun, Yesl; Chung, Bong Geun; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-10-21

    We have developed a multi-layer, microfluidic array platform containing concave microwells and flat cell culture chambers to culture embryonic stem (ES) cells and regulate uniform-sized embryoid body (EB) formation. The main advantage of this platform was that EBs cultured within the concave microwells of a bottom layer were automatically replated into flat cell culture chambers of a top layer, following inversion of the multi-layer microfluidic array platform. This allowed EB formation and EB replating to be controlled simultaneously inside a single microfluidic device without pipette-based manual cell retrieval, a drawback of previous EB culture methods.

  9. An Iterative Formula for the Reflection Coefficient of Multi-layer Thin Film and Its Application in the Design of Optical All Pass Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Yichao; TAN Weihan; HUANG Zhaoming

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an iterative formula for the reflection coefficient of the multi-layer thin film is deduced and the design of multi-layer thin film gires-tournois interferometer optical all pass filter(GTI-OAPF) is discussed. The group delay τm ranges from 0.06 to 460 ps and the bandwidth Δω ranges from 0.068 to 0.0000079 (1015 rad/s). By changing the incident angle θ0, the multi-channel dispersion compensation may be achieved.

  10. Mechanism of power consumption inhibitive multi-layer Zn:SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} structure resistance random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rui; Lou, Jen-Chung [School of Software and Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tsai, Tsung-Ming, E-mail: tmtsai@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Huang, Syuan-Yong; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Pan, Jhih-Hong; Tung, Cheng-Wei [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tmtsai@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 700, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kai-Huang [Department of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Tung-Fang Design Institute, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Young, Tai-Fa; Chen, Hsin-Lu [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jung-Hui [Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Min-Chen; Syu, Yong-En [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Sze, Simon M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-21

    In this paper, multi-layer Zn:SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} structure is introduced to reduce the operation power consumption of resistive random access memory (RRAM) device by modifying the filament formation process. And the configuration of multi-layer Zn:SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} structure is confirmed and demonstrated by auger electron spectrum. Material analysis together with conduction current fitting is applied to qualitatively evaluate the carrier conduction mechanism on both low resistance state and high resistance state. Finally, single layer and multilayer conduction models are proposed, respectively, to clarify the corresponding conduction characteristics of two types of RRAM devices.

  11. Modeling of Failure for Analysis of Triaxial Braided Carbon Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Littell, Justin D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.

    2010-01-01

    In the development of advanced aircraft-engine fan cases and containment systems, composite materials are beginning to be used due to their low weight and high strength. The design of these structures must include the capability of withstanding impact loads from a released fan blade. Relatively complex triaxially braided fiber architectures have been found to yield the best performance for the fan cases. To properly work with and design these structures, robust analytical tools are required that can be used in the design process. A new analytical approach models triaxially braided carbon fiber composite materials within the environment of a transient dynamic finite-element code, specifically the commercially available transient dynamic finite-element code LS-DYNA. The geometry of the braided composites is approximated by a series of parallel laminated composites. The composite is modeled by using shell finite elements. The material property data are computed by examining test data from static tests on braided composites, where optical strain measurement techniques are used to examine the local strain variations within the material. These local strain data from the braided composite tests are used along with a judicious application of composite micromechanics- based methods to compute the stiffness properties of an equivalent unidirectional laminated composite required for the shell elements. The local strain data from the braided composite tests are also applied to back out strength and failure properties of the equivalent unidirectional composite. The properties utilized are geared towards the application of a continuum damage mechanics-based composite constitutive model available within LS-DYNA. The developed model can be applied to conduct impact simulations of structures composed of triaxially braided composites. The advantage of this technology is that it facilitates the analysis of the deformation and damage response of a triaxially braided polymer matrix

  12. Investigation of structure and properties of novel multi-layer clay nanocomposite films produced controllably by continuous chaotic advection blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesha, Chaitra

    A unique processing technique based on chaotic advection developed at Clemson University and shown to controllably produce structured materials in the past was employed to produce structured nanocomposites with a high degree of clay orientation as well as localization of platelets within layers of nanoscale thicknesses. Continuous lengths of nanocomposites with different clay contents were extruded in the form of films by feeding separately melts of virgin polyamide-6 polymer and polyamide 6-clay masterbatch into a continuous chaotic advection blender. A variety of composite structures were producible at fixed clay compositions. The internal structure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nanocomposites with novel in-situ multi-layered structures and a high degree of platelet orientation were formed by the recursive stretching and folding of the melt domains due to chaotic advection. Clay platelets were localized within discrete regions to form alternating virgin and platelet-rich layers leading to a hierarchical structure with multiple nano-scales. The thicknesses of the layers reduced with prolonged chaotic advection, eventually leading to nanocomposites in which the multi-layering was no longer discernible. The oriented platelets appeared to be homogenously dispersed through the bulk of the nanocomposite. Investigation of the morphology of the matrix by XRD showed that the homogeneity of the crystalline phase and the orientation of polymer chains parallel to the film surface increased with increased chaotic advection. Also, as the layer thickness reduced, the number of polymer chains restricted by clay platelets increased causing the gamma-crystalline fraction to increase. While XRD results suggested a change in total crystallinity with chaotic advection and clay content but without a specific trend, no change in crystallinity was measured by DSC. Such contradictions are

  13. Prediction of gas hydrate saturation throughout the seismic section in Krishna Godavari basin using multivariate linear regression and multi-layer feed forward neural network approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, Y.; Nair, R.R.; Singh, H.; Datta, P.; Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.

    -Godavari basin. Log prediction process, with uncertainties based on root mean square error properties, was implemented by way of a multi-layer feed forward neural network. The log properties were merged with seismic data by applying a non-linear transform...

  14. Comparison of sulfuric acid treatment and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography in cleanup methods for determination of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Toyoda, Masatake; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-10-01

    Two typical cleanup methods, sulfuric acid treatment and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) in seventeen food samples were examined and compared. Vegetables, fruits, cereals, fish, meat and dairy foods were extracted by conventional methods (shaking with acetone/n-hexane or with n-hexane after alkaline treatment). The extracts were cleaned up by sulfuric acid treatment or multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, followed by several column chromatographic steps. Of the samples treated, the vegetable, fruit and cereal samples could be directly applied to the multi-layer silica gel column after extraction. However, the samples containing fats and oils such as fish, meat and dairy foods needed to be treated several times with concentrated sulfuric acid before multi-layer column chromatography, because these samples plugged the column with oily residues. Both cleanup methods gave similar values of isomeric concentrations and showed similar efficiency of purification, and the recoveries ranged from 40 to 120%. These results are considered to provide useful data for the efficient analysis of dioxins in foods which have wide-ranging compositions.

  15. Signal enhancement by a multi-layered substrate for mutagen detection using an SOS response-induced green fluorescent protein in genetically modified Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, Hiroki; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Akimoto, Takuo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method to enhance the fluorescence signal of mutagen detection using SOS response-induced green fluorescence protein (GFP) in genetically modified Escherichia coli using a multi-layered substrate. To generate E. coli that express SOS response-induced GFP, we constructed a plasmid carrying the RecA promoter located upstream of the GFP gene and used it to transform E. coli BL21. The transformed strain was incubated with mitomycin C (MMC), a typical mutagen, and then immobilized on a multi-layered substrate with Ag and a thin Al(2)O(3) layer on a glass slide. Since the multi-layered substrate technique is an optical technique with potential to enhance the fluorescence of fluorophore placed on top of the substrate, the multi-layered substrate was expected to improve the fluorescence signal of mutagen detection. We obtained an average 14-fold fluorescence enhancement of MMC-induced GFP in the concentration range 1 to 1000 ng/ml. In addition, the lower detection limit of MMC was improved using this technique, and was estimated to be 1 ng/ml because of an enlargement of the difference between the blank and the signal of 1 ng/ml of MMC.

  16. Cell-free multi-layered collagen-based scaffolds demonstrate layer specific regeneration of functional osteochondral tissue in caprine joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levingstone, Tanya J; Ramesh, Ashwanth; Brady, Robert T; Brama, Pieter A J; Kearney, Clodagh; Gleeson, John P; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2016-05-01

    Developing repair strategies for osteochondral tissue presents complex challenges due to its interfacial nature and complex zonal structure, consisting of subchondral bone, intermediate calcified cartilage and the superficial cartilage regions. In this study, the long term ability of a multi-layered biomimetic collagen-based scaffold to repair osteochondral defects is investigated in a large animal model: namely critical sized lateral trochlear ridge (TR) and medial femoral condyle (MC) defects in the caprine stifle joint. The study thus presents the first data in a clinically applicable large animal model. Scaffold fixation and early integration was demonstrated at 2 weeks post implantation. Macroscopic analysis demonstrated improved healing in the multi-layered scaffold group compared to empty defects and a market approved synthetic polymer osteochondral scaffold groups at 6 and 12 months post implantation. Radiological analysis demonstrated superior subchondral bone formation in both defect sites in the multi-layered scaffold group as early as 3 months, with complete regeneration of subchondral bone by 12 months. Histological analysis confirmed the formation of well-structured subchondral trabecular bone and hyaline-like cartilage tissue in the multi-layered scaffold group by 12 months with restoration of the anatomical tidemark. Demonstration of improved healing following treatment with this natural polymer scaffold, through the recruitment of host cells with no requirement for pre-culture, shows the potential of this device for the treatment of patients presenting with osteochondal lesions.

  17. The Acoustic Performance of Plane Laggings and Similar Multi-Layer Acoustic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Chak Kuen

    Acoustic laggings are used to inhibit the transmission of the sound radiated from the vibrating surfaces of machines, ducts, pipes, etc. They are formed of layers of porous materials such as fibreglass or mineral wool, layers of impervious materials such as metal cladding sheets and sometimes airspaces. A novel procedure for estimating the diffuse field 1/3 octave band insertion loss which a plane acoustic lagging produces when applied to a plane structure is developed. This novel procedure, which constitutes the major contribution of the work described in the thesis to new knowledge, is based on sets of formulae which describe how obliquely incident plane sound waves interact with the different basic layers, such as the porous layers and the impervious layers which form the lagging. The validity of the procedure is demonstrated by comparing the results it produces with measured results. The procedure is then used to undertake a parametric study to assess the effect of the properties of the various types of layers. Often the cladding sheet of a lagging is fastened to the base structure which is being lagged and an approximate analysis to consider the effect of such fastening is presented. The influence of corrugated cladding sheets is also considered. The principles used to predict the performance of plane acoustic laggings can be adapted to predict other acoustic properties such as the acoustic absorption of plane acoustic structures and this is done in the final part of the thesis. A comparison is made between the predicted and the measured performances of various types of acoustic structures.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Triaxially Braided Composites Utilizing a Modified Subcell Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Christopher; Xiao, Xinran; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical approach was performed for characterizing and modeling triaxially braided composites with a modified subcell modeling strategy. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on a [0deg/60deg/-60deg] braided composite at angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg relative to the axial tow of the braid. It was found that measured coupon strength varied significantly with the angle of the applied load and each coupon direction exhibited unique final failures. The subcell modeling approach implemented into the finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the various tensile coupon test angles. The modeling approach was successful in predicting both the coupon strength and reported failure mode for the 0deg, 30deg and 60deg loading directions. The model over-predicted the strength in the 90deg direction; however, the experimental results show a strong influence of free edge effects on damage initiation and failure. In the absence of these local free edge effects, the subcell modeling approach showed promise as a viable and computationally efficient analysis tool for triaxially braided composite structures. Future work will focus on validation of the approach for predicting the impact response of the braided composite against flat panel impact tests.

  19. Fusion and braiding in finite and affine Temperley-Lieb categories

    CERN Document Server

    Gainutdinov, A M

    2016-01-01

    Finite Temperley-Lieb (TL) algebras are diagram-algebra quotients of (the group algebra of) the famous Artin's braid group $B_N$, while the affine TL algebras arise as diagram algebras from a generalized version of the braid group. We study asymptotic `$N\\to\\infty$' representation theory of these quotients (parametrized by $q\\in\\mathbb{C}^{\\times}$) from a perspective of braided monoidal categories. Using certain idempotent subalgebras in the finite and affine algebras, we construct infinite `arc' towers of the diagram algebras and the corresponding direct system of representation categories, with terms labeled by $N\\in\\mathbb{N}$. The corresponding direct-limit category is our main object of studies. For the case of the finite TL algebras, we prove that the direct-limit category is abelian and highest-weight at any $q$ and endowed with braided monoidal structure. The most interesting result is when $q$ is a root of unity where the representation theory is non-semisimple. The resulting braided monoidal catego...

  20. Aligned-Braided Nanofibrillar Scaffold with Endothelial Cells Enhances Arteriogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Karina H; Hong, Guosong; Lee, Jerry C; Patel, Jay; Edwards, Bryan; Zaitseva, Tatiana S; Paukshto, Michael V; Dai, Hongjie; Cooke, John P; Woo, Y Joseph; Huang, Ngan F

    2015-07-28

    The objective of this study was to enhance the angiogenic capacity of endothelial cells (ECs) using nanoscale signaling cues from aligned nanofibrillar scaffolds in the setting of tissue ischemia. Thread-like nanofibrillar scaffolds with porous structure were fabricated from aligned-braided membranes generated under shear from liquid crystal collagen solution. Human ECs showed greater outgrowth from aligned scaffolds than from nonpatterned scaffolds. Integrin α1 was in part responsible for the enhanced cellular outgrowth on aligned nanofibrillar scaffolds, as the effect was abrogated by integrin α1 inhibition. To test the efficacy of EC-seeded aligned nanofibrillar scaffolds in improving neovascularization in vivo, the ischemic limbs of mice were treated with EC-seeded aligned nanofibrillar scaffold; EC-seeded nonpatterned scaffold; ECs in saline; aligned nanofibrillar scaffold alone; or no treatment. After 14 days, laser Doppler blood spectroscopy demonstrated significant improvement in blood perfusion recovery when treated with EC-seeded aligned nanofibrillar scaffolds, in comparison to ECs in saline or no treatment. In ischemic hindlimbs treated with scaffolds seeded with human ECs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-ECs), single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) fluorophores were systemically delivered to quantify microvascular density after 28 days. Near infrared-II (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) imaging of SWNT fluorophores demonstrated that iPSC-EC-seeded aligned scaffolds group showed significantly higher microvascular density than the saline or cells groups. These data suggest that treatment with EC-seeded aligned nanofibrillar scaffolds improved blood perfusion and arteriogenesis, when compared to treatment with cells alone or scaffold alone, and have important implications in the design of therapeutic cell delivery strategies.

  1. Finite Element Model for Failure Study of Two-Dimensional Triaxially Braided Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuetao; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    A new three-dimensional finite element model of two-dimensional triaxially braided composites is presented in this paper. This meso-scale modeling technique is used to examine and predict the deformation and damage observed in tests of straight sided specimens. A unit cell based approach is used to take into account the braiding architecture as well as the mechanical properties of the fiber tows, the matrix and the fiber tow-matrix interface. A 0 deg / plus or minus 60 deg. braiding configuration has been investigated by conducting static finite element analyses. Failure initiation and progressive degradation has been simulated in the fiber tows by use of the Hashin failure criteria and a damage evolution law. The fiber tow-matrix interface was modeled by using a cohesive zone approach to capture any fiber-matrix debonding. By comparing the analytical results to those obtained experimentally, the applicability of the developed model was assessed and the failure process was investigated.

  2. Bundles of spider silk, braided into sutures, resist basic cyclic tests: potential use for flexor tendon repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hennecke

    Full Text Available Repair success for injuries to the flexor tendon in the hand is often limited by the in vivo behaviour of the suture used for repair. Common problems associated with the choice of suture material include increased risk of infection, foreign body reactions, and inappropriate mechanical responses, particularly decreases in mechanical properties over time. Improved suture materials are therefore needed. As high-performance materials with excellent tensile strength, spider silk fibres are an extremely promising candidate for use in surgical sutures. However, the mechanical behaviour of sutures comprised of individual silk fibres braided together has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we characterise the maximum tensile strength, stress, strain, elastic modulus, and fatigue response of silk sutures produced using different braiding methods to investigate the influence of braiding on the tensile properties of the sutures. The mechanical properties of conventional surgical sutures are also characterised to assess whether silk offers any advantages over conventional suture materials. The results demonstrate that braiding single spider silk fibres together produces strong sutures with excellent fatigue behaviour; the braided silk sutures exhibited tensile strengths comparable to those of conventional sutures and no loss of strength over 1000 fatigue cycles. In addition, the braiding technique had a significant influence on the tensile properties of the braided silk sutures. These results suggest that braided spider silk could be suitable for use as sutures in flexor tendon repair, providing similar tensile behaviour and improved fatigue properties compared with conventional suture materials.

  3. Multi-layer Attribute Selection and Classification Algorithm for the Diagnosis of Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Based on HRV Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert F. Jelinek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN poses an important clinical problem, which often remains undetected due difficulty of conducting the current tests and their lack of sensitivity. CAN has been associated with growth in the risk of unexpected death in cardiac patients with diabetes mellitus. Heart rate variability (HRV attributes have been actively investigated, since they are important for diagnostics in diabetes, Parkinson's disease, cardiac and renal disease. Due to the adverse effects of CAN it is important to obtain a robust and highly accurate diagnostic tool for identification of early CAN, when treatment has the best outcome. Use of HRV attributes to enhance the effectiveness of diagnosis of CAN progression may provide such a tool. In the present paper we propose a new machine learning algorithm, the Multi-Layer Attribute Selection and Classification (MLASC, for the diagnosis of CAN progression based on HRV attributes. It incorporates our new automated attribute selection procedure, Double Wrapper Subset Evaluator with Particle Swarm Optimization (DWSE-PSO. We present the results of experiments, which compare MLASC with other simpler versions and counterpart methods. The experiments used our large and well-known diabetes complications database. The results of experiments demonstrate that MLASC has significantly outperformed other simpler techniques.

  4. Multi-layered nanoparticles for penetrating the endosome and nuclear membrane via a step-wise membrane fusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Hidetaka; Kudo, Asako; Minoura, Arisa; Yamaguti, Masaya; Khalil, Ikramy A; Moriguchi, Rumiko; Masuda, Tomoya; Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Kogure, Kentaro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2009-05-01

    Efficient targeting of DNA to the nucleus is a prerequisite for effective gene therapy. The gene-delivery vehicle must penetrate through the plasma membrane, and the DNA-impermeable double-membraned nuclear envelope, and deposit its DNA cargo in a form ready for transcription. Here we introduce a concept for overcoming intracellular membrane barriers that involves step-wise membrane fusion. To achieve this, a nanotechnology was developed that creates a multi-layered nanoparticle, which we refer to as a Tetra-lamellar Multi-functional Envelope-type Nano Device (T-MEND). The critical structural elements of the T-MEND are a DNA-polycation condensed core coated with two nuclear membrane-fusogenic inner envelopes and two endosome-fusogenic outer envelopes, which are shed in stepwise fashion. A double-lamellar membrane structure is required for nuclear delivery via the stepwise fusion of double layered nuclear membrane structure. Intracellular membrane fusions to endosomes and nuclear membranes were verified by spectral imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between donor and acceptor fluorophores that had been dually labeled on the liposome surface. Coating the core with the minimum number of nucleus-fusogenic lipid envelopes (i.e., 2) is essential to facilitate transcription. As a result, the T-MEND achieves dramatic levels of transgene expression in non-dividing cells.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Series And Finite Element Solutions For Flow In Multi-layer Aquifers With Contiguous Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S.; Craig, J. R.

    2009-05-01

    Recently, Wong S. & J.R. Craig [Computational Methods in Water Resources XVII International Conference, 2008] have developed a semi-analytic series (SAS) solution method for simulating 2D steady-state groundwater flow in multi-layer aquifers with natural unconformity. The advantages of the approach include the capability to predict groundwater flow in aquifer systems with a geometrically complex structure, i.e., layers that are contiguous but vary (sometimes dramatically) in thickness across the modelled domain. The SAS approach is unorthodox compared to numerical scheme such as finite element (FE) method when handling an aquifer basin with contiguous layers. This research attempts to compare the robustness of the SAS solution with that of the FE solution under variety of different geometric conditions, including the increasing of system aspect ratios and the inclusion of pinching layers. It was found that the SAS approach is a useful benchmarking tool and that for contiguous layers, both FE methods continue to be highly accurate at even large aspect ratios. Based on the benchmarking experiments, some rules of thumb for mesh generation in FE models of regional aquifer systems with both contiguous and discontiguous layering are identified.

  6. Thin Film, Near-Surface and Multi-Layer Investigations by Low-Energy {mu}{sup +}SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokscha, T., E-mail: thomas.prokscha@psi.ch; Morenzoni, E.; Suter, A.; Khasanov, R.; Luetkens, H.; Eshchenko, D.; Garifianov, N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI (Switzerland); Forgan, E. M. [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Keller, H. [Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Litterst, J. [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Niedermayer, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI (Switzerland); Nieuwenhuys, G. [Leiden University (Netherlands)

    2004-12-15

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) the beam of low-energy positive polarised muons (LE-{mu}{sup +}) with tunable energy between 0.5 and 30 keV allows the extension of the muon-spin-rotation technique ({mu}SR) to studies on thin films and multi-layers (LE-{mu}{sup +}SR). The range of these muons in solids covers the near-surface region up to implantation depths of about 300 nm. As a sensitive local magnetic probe with a complementary observational time window to other techniques LE-{mu}{sup +}SR offers the unique possibility to gain new insights in these nano-scale objects. After outlining the current status of the LE-{mu}{sup +} beam line we demonstrate the potential of this new technique by presenting the results of recent experiments: i) the direct observation of non-local effects in a superconducting Pb film, ii) the oxygen isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in optimally doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, and iii) the first observation of the conduction electron spin polarisation in the Ag spacer of a Fe/Ag/Fe tri-layer.

  7. Evaluating uncertainties in multi-layer soil moisture estimation with support vector machines and ensemble Kalman filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Mishra, Ashok K.; Yu, Zhongbo

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the combination of support vector machines (SVM) and the dual ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) technique to estimate root zone soil moisture at different soil layers up to 100 cm depth. Multiple experiments are conducted in a data rich environment to construct and validate the SVM model and to explore the effectiveness and robustness of the EnKF technique. It was observed that the performance of SVM relies more on the initial length of training set than other factors (e.g., cost function, regularization parameter, and kernel parameters). The dual EnKF technique proved to be efficient to improve SVM with observed data either at each time step or at a flexible time steps. The EnKF technique can reach its maximum efficiency when the updating ensemble size approaches a certain threshold. It was observed that the SVM model performance for the multi-layer soil moisture estimation can be influenced by the rainfall magnitude (e.g., dry and wet spells).

  8. Daily global solar radiation modelling using multi-layer perceptron neural networks in semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawloud GUERMOUI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of Daily Global Solar Radiation (DGSR has been a major goal for solar energy application. However, solar radiation measurements are not a simple task for several reasons. In the cases where data are not available, it is very common the use of computational models to estimate the missing data, which are based mainly of the search for relationships between weather variables, such as temperature, humidity, sunshine duration, etc. In this respect, the present study focuses on the development of artificial neural network (ANN model for estimation of daily global solar radiation on horizontal surface in Ghardaia city (South Algeria. In this analysis back-propagation algorithm is applied. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine duration was used as climatic inputs parameters, while the daily global solar radiation (DGSR was the only output of the ANN. We have evaluated Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP models to estimate DGSR using three year of measurement (2005-2008. It was found that MLP-model based on sunshine duration and mean air temperature give accurate results in term of Mean Absolute Bias Error, Root Mean Square Error, Relative Square Error and Correlation Coefficient. The obtained values of these indicators are 0.67 MJ/m², 1.28 MJ/m², 6.12%and 98.18%, respectively which shows that MLP is highly qualified for DGSR estimation in semi-arid climates.

  9. Design of roll-to-roll printing equipment with multiple printing methods for multi-layer printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Hwan; Jo, Jeongdai; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a novel design concept for roll-to-roll printing equipment used for manufacturing printed electronic devices by multi-layer printing is presented. The roll-to-roll printing system mainly consists of printing units for patterning the circuits, tension control components such as feeders, dancers, load cells, register measurement and control units, and the drying units. It has three printing units which allow switching among the gravure, gravure-offset, and flexo printing methods by changing the web path and the placements of the cylinders. Therefore, depending on the application devices and the corresponding inks used, each printing unit can be easily adjusted to the required printing method. The appropriate printing method can be chosen depending on the desired printing properties such as thickness, roughness, and printing quality. To provide an example of the application of the designed printing equipment, we present the results of printing tests showing the variations in the printing properties of the ink for different printing methods.

  10. A Reverse Numerical Approach to Determine Elastic-plastic Properties of Multi-layer Material Systems with Flat Cylindrical Indenters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the indentation testing with a flat cylindrical indenter on typical multi-layer material systems was simulated successfully by finite element method. The emphasis was put on the methods of extracting the yield stresses and strain-hardening modulus of upper and middle-layers of three-layer material systems from the indentation testing. The slope of the indentation depth to the applied indentation stress curve was found to have a turning point, which can be used to determine the yield stress of the upper-layer. Then, a different method was also presented to determine the yield stress of the middle-layer. This method was based on a set of assumed applied indentation stresses which were to be intersected by the experimental results in order to meet the requirement of having the experimental indentation depth. At last, a reverse numerical algorithm was explored to determine the yield stresses of upper and middle-layers simultaneously by using the indentation testing with two different size indenters. This method assumed two ranges of yield stresses to simulate the indentation behavior. The experimental depth behavior was used to intersect the simulated indentation behavior. And the intersection corresponded to the values of yield stresses of upper and middle-layers. This method was also used further to determine the strain-hardening modulus of upper and middle-layers simultaneously.

  11. Rural Sewage Treatment by using Combined Process of Multi-layer Bio-filter and Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xudong; Paul, Etienne; Qiu, Jiangping; Roustan, Michel; Wisniewski, Christelle; Mauviot, Patrice

    2010-11-01

    A combined process of multi-layer bio-filter and constructed wetland has been used to treat the rural sewage in eastern China. The capacity of the system was 60 m3/d, the hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of the bio-filter and the constructed wetland was 4.0 m3/(m3ṡd) and 0.50 m3/(m3ṡd), respectively. The system has been operated automatically for 2 years. The results showed that the average concentrations of COD, NH4+-N, TN and TP in the effluent were 58.2, 8.1, 12.1 and 0.9 mg/L with the removal efficiency of 79.2%, 62.8%, 55.1% and 77.1% respectively, which could meet the first grade of Chinese national pollutants discharge standard for municipal wastewater treatment plant (GB 18918-2002). The track studies showed that the organic pollutants were mainly removed in the first 4 layers and the ammonia was mainly removed in the 4th˜6th layers of the filter. It was observed that the COD removal efficiency in the whole system decreased from 84.6% to 73.3% following the sequences of summer, autumn, spring and winter. Comparing with traditional techniques, the combined process could provide a higher nitrogen and phosphorus removal capacity.

  12. Analytical Solution for Interference Fit for Multi-Layer Thick-Walled Cylinders and the Application in Crankshaft Bearing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interference fit is an important contact mode used for torque transmission existing widely in engineering design. To prevent trackslip, a certain magnitude of interference has to be ensured; meanwhile, the interference needs to be controlled to avoid failure of the mechanical components caused by high assembly stress. The finite element method (FEM can be used to analyze the stress, while the computational cost of FEM involving nonlinear contact algorithm is relatively high, and likely to come across low precision and convergence problems. Therefore, a rapid and accurate analytical method for estimation is of vital need, especially for the initial design stage when the parameters vary in a large range. In this study, an analytical method to calculate the contact pressure and stress between multi-layer thick-walled cylinders (MLTWC with multi-contact pairs and temperature-raising effect is proposed, and evaluated by FEM. The analytical solution of the interference for tri-layer thick-walled cylinders is applied to the design of engine crankshaft bearing. The results indicate that the analytical method presented in this study can reduce complexity of MLTWC problems and improve the computational efficiency. It is well suited to be used for the calculation model of parameter optimization in early design.

  13. Multi-layer TiO{sub 2} films prepared by aerosol deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Young Joon, E-mail: yjyoon@kicet.re.kr

    2013-11-29

    The control of microstructure, from a compact to a porous TiO{sub 2}layer, was investigated for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by employing aerosol deposition. A highly compact TiO{sub 2} layer that suppresses electron recombination was grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode by strong impact and the consolidation of sub-micron-size powders. By spraying a mixture powders with different diameters during the aerosol deposition, it was possible to grow a porous TiO{sub 2} layer on the compact layer without the need for binder components. The performance of DSSCs with as-deposited TiO{sub 2}layers produced by aerosol deposition was compared with corresponding values for an annealed sample. The effect of the compact layer on the conversion efficiency of DSSCs was also investigated. The conversion efficiency of DSSCs with a compact layer was enhanced by 62% compared to those without a compact layer. - Highlights: • A TiO{sub 2} multi-layer for dye-sensitized solar cell was grown by aerosol deposition. • A highly compact TiO{sub 2} layer was used to suppress electron recombination. • A porous TiO{sub 2} layer was grown using a mixture of 700 nm and 25 nm-diameter powders. • The conversion efficiency was enhanced by 62% after adding a compact TiO{sub 2} layer.

  14. The Multi-Layer Variable Absorbers in NGC 1365 Revealed by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, E.; Risaliti, G.; Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F.; Arevalo, P.; Baur, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brenneman, L. W.; Brightman, M.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2012 July and 2013 February, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton performed four long-look joint observations of the type 1.8 Seyfert, NGC 1365. We have analyzed the variable absorption seen in these observations in order to characterize the geometry of the absorbing material. Two of the observations caught NGC 1365 in an unusually low absorption state, revealing complexity in the multi-layer absorber that had previously been hidden. We find the need for three distinct zones of neutral absorption in addition to the two zones of ionized absorption and the Compton-thick torus previously seen in this source. The most prominent absorber is likely associated with broad-line region clouds with column densities of around approximately 10 (sup 23) per square centimeter and a highly clumpy nature as evidenced by an occultation event in 2013 February. We also find evidence of a patchy absorber with a variable column around approximately 10 (sup 22) per square centimeter and a line-of-sight covering fraction of 0.3-0.9, which responds directly to the intrinsic source flux, possibly due to a wind geometry. A full-covering, constant absorber with a low column density of approximately 1 by 10 (sup 22) per square centimeter is also present, though the location of this low density haze is unknown.

  15. Polar interface and surface optical vibration spectra in multi-layer wurtzite quantum wires:transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li

    2006-01-01

    The polar interface optical (IO) and surface optical (SO) phonon modes and the corresponding Frohlich electronphonon-interaction Hamiltonian in a freestanding multi-layer wurtzite cylindrical quantum wire (QWR) are derived and studied by employing the transfer matrix method in the dielectric continuum approximation and Loudon's uniaxial crystal model. A numerical calculation of a freestanding wurtzite GaN/AlN QWR is performed. The results reveal that for a relatively large azimuthal quantum number m or wave-number kz in the free z-direction, there exist two branches of IO phonon modes localized at the interface, and only one branch of SO mode localized at the surface in the system.The degenerating behaviours of the IO and SO phonon modes in the wurtzite QWR have also been clearly observed for a smallkz or m. The limiting frequency properties of the IO and SO modes for large kz and m have been explained reasonably from the mathematical and physical viewpoints. The calculations of electron-phonon coupling functions show that the high-frequency IO phonon branch and SO mode play a more important role in the electron-phonon interaction.

  16. A novel self-cleaning and anti-reflective multi-layer for thin-film solar PV module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.L.; Shiue, J.D. [Kun-Shan Univ., Yung-Kung City, Taiwan (China). Clean Energy Center; Li, M.; Huang, M.C. [NanoWinTechnology Co., Ltd., Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.S.; Wei, S.S. [National Univ. of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2007-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) acts as a photocatalyst, and can accelerate the decomposition of organic particulates and airborne pollutants that gather on solar arrays. In this study, a TiO{sub 2} film was coated on the outside surface of sodium glass in order to increase the self-cleaning ability of solar cells. DC magnetic sputtering was used to coat multi-layer thin films of silicon nitrides in order to increase their antireflective capabilities. The TiO{sub 2} thin film was fabricated using the sol-gel method. Optical properties of the microstructure and composition of the films were characterized using UV-V spectroscopy. Results showed that the best anti-reflection spectrum of the TiO{sub 2} was between 700 and 800 nm. Average transmission rates were 3.54 per cent higher than those observed in slide glass samples. It was concluded that overlapped titanium dioxide/silicon nitride thin films can achieve a very good anti-reflective effect as well as self-cleaning ability in the range of 400-800 nm. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Study of multi-layer active magnetic regenerators using magnetocaloric materials with first and second order phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Engelbrecht, K.; Nielsen, K. K.; Neves Bez, H.; Bahl, C. R. H.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetocaloric materials (MCM) with a first order phase transition (FOPT) usually exhibit a large, although sharp, isothermal entropy change near their Curie temperature, compared to materials with a second order phase transition (SOPT). Experimental results of applying FOPT materials in recent magnetocaloric refrigerators (MCR) demonstrated the great potential for these materials, but a thorough study on the impact of the moderate adiabatic temperature change and strong temperature dependence of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is lacking. Besides, comparing active magnetic regenerators (AMR) using FOPT and SOPT materials is also of fundamental interest. We present modeling results of multi-layer AMRs using FOPT and SOPT materials based on a 1D numerical model. First the impact of isothermal entropy change, adiabatic temperature change and shape factor describing the temperature dependence of the MCE are quantified and analyzed by using artificially built magnetocaloric properties. Then, based on measured magnetocaloric properties of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13H y and Gd, an investigation on how to layer typical FOPT and SOPT materials with different temperature spans is carried out. Moreover, the sensitivity of variation in Curie temperature distribution for both groups of AMRs is investigated. Finally, a concept of mixing FOPT and SOPT materials is studied for improving the stability of layered AMRs with existing materials.

  18. Using a multi-layered transducer model to estimate the properties of paraffin wax deposited on steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommetveit, Tarjei; Johansen, Tonni F; Johnsen, Roy

    2011-01-01

    When using ultrasound for detecting low impedance materials on the surface of high impedance materials, a major challenge is the contrast difference between the strong reverberations from the high impedance material and the weak echoes received from the low impedance material. The purpose of this work is to present the theoretical and experimental validation of an ultrasonic methodology for estimating the acoustical properties of paraffin wax on the surface of steel. The method is based on modeling and inversion of the complete electro-acoustic channel from the transmitted voltage over the active piezoelectric element, to the received voltage resulting from the acoustic reverberations in the multilayered structure. In the current work, two conceptually different models of the same multi-layer transducer structure attached to steel is developed and compared with measurements. A method is then suggested for suppressing the strong reverberations in steel, hence isolating the wax signals. This contrast enhancement method is fitted to the model of the structure, facilitating parameter inversion from the wax layer. The results show that the models agree well with measurements and that up to three parameters (travel time, impedance and attenuation) can be inverted from the wax simultaneously. Hence, given one of the three parameters, density, sound speed or thickness, the other two can be estimated in addition to the attenuation.

  19. The Multi-Layer Variable Absorbers in NGC 1365 Revealed by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, E; Walton, D J; Harrison, F; ArÉvalo, P; Baur, F E; Boggs, S E; Brenneman, L W; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; FÜrst, F; Hailey, C J; Hickox, R C; Marinucci, A; Reeves, J; Stern, D; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    Between July 2012 and February 2013, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton performed four long-look joint obser- vations of the type 1.8 Seyfert, NGC 1365. We have analyzed the variable absorption seen in these observations in order to characterize the geometry of the absorbing material. Two of the observations caught NGC 1365 in an unusually low absorption state, revealing complexity in the multi-layer absorber which had previously been hidden. We find the need for three distinct zones of neutral absorption in addition to the two zones of ionized absorption and the Compton-thick torus previously seen in this source. The most prominent absorber is likely associated with broad line region clouds with column densities of around $\\sim\\,$10$^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$ and a highly clumpy nature as evidenced by an occultation event in February 2013. We also find evidence of a patchy absorber with a variable column around $\\sim\\,10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ and a line of sight covering fraction of 0.3$-$0.9 which responds directly to the intrinsic sou...

  20. Multi-Layered Stratification in the Baltic Sea: Insight from a Modeling Study with Reference to Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Dargahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic and transport characteristics of the Baltic Sea in the period 2000–2009 were studied using a fully calibrated and validated 3D hydrodynamic model with a horizontal resolution of 4.8 km. This study provided new insight into the type and dynamics of vertical structure in the Baltic Sea, not considered in previous studies. Thermal and salinity stratification are both addressed, with a focus on the structural properties of the layers. The detection of cooler regions (dicothermal within the layer structure is an important finding. The detailed investigation of thermal stratification for a 10-year period (i.e., 2000–2009 revealed some new features. A multilayered structure that contains several thermocline and dicothermal layers was identified from this study. Statistical analysis of the simulation results made it possible to derive the mean thermal stratification properties, expressed as mean temperatures and the normalized layer thicknesses. The three-layered model proposed by previous investigators appears to be valid only during the winter periods; for other periods, a multi-layered structure with more than five layers has been identified during this investigation. This study provides detailed insight into thermal and salinity stratification in the Baltic Sea during a recent decade that can be used as a basis for diverse environmental assessments. It extends previous studies on stratification in the Baltic Sea regarding both the extent and the nature of stratification.

  1. Time series modeling with pruned multi-layer perceptron and 2-stage damped least-squares method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyant, Cyril; Tamas, Wani; Paoli, Christophe; Balu, Aurélia; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure; Notton, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) defines a family of artificial neural networks often used in TS modeling and forecasting. Because of its "black box" aspect, many researchers refuse to use it. Moreover, the optimization (often based on the exhaustive approach where "all" configurations are tested) and learning phases of this artificial intelligence tool (often based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm; LMA) are weaknesses of this approach (exhaustively and local minima). These two tasks must be repeated depending on the knowledge of each new problem studied, making the process, long, laborious and not systematically robust. In this paper a pruning process is proposed. This method allows, during the training phase, to carry out an inputs selecting method activating (or not) inter-nodes connections in order to verify if forecasting is improved. We propose to use iteratively the popular damped least-squares method to activate inputs and neurons. A first pass is applied to 10% of the learning sample to determine weights significantly different from 0 and delete other. Then a classical batch process based on LMA is used with the new MLP. The validation is done using 25 measured meteorological TS and cross-comparing the prediction results of the classical LMA and the 2-stage LMA.

  2. Development of SiPM-based scintillator tile detectors for a multi-layer fast neutron tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubek J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We are developing thin tile scintillator detectors with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM readout for use in a multi-layer fast-neutron tracker. The tracker is based on interleaved Timepix and plastic scintillator layers. The thin 15 × 15 × 2 mm plastic scintillators require suitable optical readout in order to detect and measure the energy lost by energetic protons that have been recoiled by fast neutrons. Our first prototype used dual SiPMs, coupled to opposite edges of the scintillator tile using light-guides. An alternative readout geometry was designed in an effort to increase the fraction of scintillation light detected by the SiPMs. The new prototype uses a larger SiPM array to cover the entire top face of the tile. This paper details the comparative performance of the two prototype designs. A deuterium-tritium (DT fast-neutron source was used to compare the relative light collection efficiency of the two designs. A collimated UV light source was scanned across the detector face to map the uniformity. The new prototype was found to have 9.5 times better light collection efficiency over the original design. Both prototypes exhibit spatial non-uniformity in their response. Methods of correcting this non-uniformity are discussed.

  3. Targeted kinetic strategy for improving the thermal conductivity of epoxy composite containing percolating multi-layer graphene oxide chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By adding 2 wt% multi-layer graphene oxide (MGO to an epoxy resin, the thermal conductivity of the composite reached a maximum, 2.03 times that of the epoxy. The presence of 2 wt%MGO percolating chains leads to an unprecedentedly sharp rise in energy barrier at final curing stage, but an increased epoxy curing degree (αIR is observed; however, this αIR difference nearly disappears after aging or thermal annealing. These results suggest that the steep concentration gradient of –OH, originated from the 2 wt%MGO percolating chains, exerts the vital driving force on the residual isolated/trapped epoxy to conquer barrier for epoxy-MGO reaction. A modified Shrinking Core Model customized for the special layered-structure of MGO sheet was proposed to understand the resistance variation during the intercalative epoxy-MGO reaction. It shows that the promoted intercalative crosslinking is highly desirable for further improving the thermal conductivity of the composite, but it meets with increased resistance. Guided by the kinetic studies, targeted optimization on the cure processing strategy was accordingly proposed to promote the intercalative crosslinking, a thermal conductivity, 2.96 times that of the epoxy, was got with only a small amount (30°C increase of the post-heating temperature.

  4. A study of narrow gap laser welding for thick plates using the multi-layer and multi-pass method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruoyang; Wang, Tianjiao; Wang, Chunming; Yan, Fei; Shao, Xinyu; Hu, Xiyuan; Li, Jianmin

    2014-12-01

    This paper details a new method that combines laser autogenous welding, laser wire filling welding and hybrid laser-GMAW welding to weld 30 mm thick plate using a multi-layer, multi-pass process. A “Y” shaped groove was used to create the joint. Research was also performed to optimize the groove size and the processing parameters. Laser autogenous welding is first used to create the backing weld. The lower, narrowest part of the groove is then welded using laser wire filling welding. Finally, the upper part of the groove is welded using laser-GMAW hybrid welding. Additionally, the wire feeding and droplet transfer behaviors are observed by high speed photography. The two main conclusions from this work are: the wire is often biased towards the side walls, resulting in a lack of fusion at the joint and the creation of other defects for larger groove sizes. Additionally, this results in the droplet transfer behavior becoming unstable, leading to a poor weld appearance for smaller groove sizes.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Multi-layer Insulation Effect on Damage of Stuffed Shield by High-velocity Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUAN Gong-shun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The stuffed shield with multi-layer insulation(MLI was designed by improving on Al Whipple shield, and a series of high-velocity impact tests were practiced with a two-stage light gas gun facility at vacuum environment. The damage model of the stuffed shield with different MLI location by Al-sphere projectile impacting was obtained. The effect of MLI on damage of the stuffed shield by high-velocity impact was studied. The results indicate when the MLI is located at front side of the first Al-plate, the protection performance of the stuffed shield is improved with the larger perforation diameter of the first Al-plate and more impact kinetic energy dissipation of the projectile. When MLI is arranged at back side of the first Al-plate, the expansion of the secondary debris cloud from projectile impacting the first Al-plate is restrained, it is not good to improve the protection performance of the stuffed shield. When MLI is arranged at front side of the stuffed wall, the perforation size of the stuffed wall increases; when MLI is arranged at front side of the rear wall, the distribution range of crater on the rear wall decreases.

  6. Collagen immobilization of multi-layered BCP-ZrO{sub 2} bone substitutes to enhance bone formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linh, Nguyen Thuy Ba [Department of Regenerative Medicine, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Dong-Woo [Department of Regenerative Medicine, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byong-Taek, E-mail: lbt@sch.ac.kr [Department of Regenerative Medicine, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, 330-090 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Col-BCP-ZrO. • Collagen fibers were formed and attached firmly on the surface of BCP-ZrO. • Highly interconnected but uniform porosity were obtained. • High biocompatible, strength scaffolds and new bone were evident in Col-BCP-ZrO{sub 2}. - Abstract: A porous microstructure of multi-layered BCP-ZrO{sub 2} bone substitutes was fabricated using the sponge replica method in which the highly interconnected structure was immobilized with collagen via ethyl(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide crosslinking. Their struts are combined with a three-layered BCP/BCP-ZrO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} microstructure. Collagen fibers were firmly attached to the strut surface of the BCP-ZrO{sub 2} scaffolds. With control of the three-layered microstructure and collagen immobilization, the compressive strength of the scaffolds increased significantly to 6.8 MPa compared to that of the monolithic BCP scaffolds (1.3 MPa). An in vitro study using MTT, confocal observation, and real-time polymer chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the proliferation and differentiation of the pre-osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells was improved due to the collagen incorporation. Remarkable enhancement of bone regeneration was observed without any immunological reaction in the femurs of rabbits during 1 and 5 months of implantation. Furthermore, the interfaces between new bone and the scaffold struts bonded directly without any gaps.

  7. Interleukin-8 responses of multi-layer gingival epithelia to subgingival biofilms: role of the "red complex" species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios N Belibasakis

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of the tooth-supporting (periodontal tissues. The Gram-negative anaerobic species Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, (also known as the "red complex" species are highly associated with subgingival biofilms at periodontitis-affected sites. A major chemokine produced by the gingival epithelium in response to biofilm challenge, is interleukin (IL-8. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the relative effect of the "red complex" species as constituents of subgingival biofilms, on the regulation of IL-8 by gingival epithelia. Multi-layered organotypic human gingival epithelial cultures were challenged with a 10-species in vitro subgingival biofilm model, or its 7-species variant, excluding the "red complex". IL-8 gene expression and secretion analyses were performed by qPCR and ELISA, respectively. After 3 h, both biofilms up-regulated IL-8 gene expression, but the presence of the "red complex" resulted in 3-fold greater response. IL-8 secretion was also up-regulated by both biofilms, with no differences between them. After 24 h, the 10-species biofilm reduced IL-8 secretion to 50% of the control, but this was not affected when the "red complex" was absent. In conclusion, as part of biofilms, "red complex" species differentially regulate IL-8 in gingival epithelia, potentially affecting the chemotactic responses of the tissue.

  8. A multi-layered protein network stabilizes the Escherichia coli FtsZ-ring and modulates constriction dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Buss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, forms a ring-like structure (FtsZ-ring at midcell. The FtsZ-ring establishes the division plane and enables the assembly of the macromolecular division machinery (divisome. Although many molecular components of the divisome have been identified and their interactions extensively characterized, the spatial organization of these proteins within the divisome is unclear. Consequently, the physical mechanisms that drive divisome assembly, maintenance, and constriction remain elusive. Here we applied single-molecule based superresolution imaging, combined with genetic and biophysical investigations, to reveal the spatial organization of cellular structures formed by four important divisome proteins in E. coli: FtsZ, ZapA, ZapB and MatP. We show that these interacting proteins are arranged into a multi-layered protein network extending from the cell membrane to the chromosome, each with unique structural and dynamic properties. Further, we find that this protein network stabilizes the FtsZ-ring, and unexpectedly, slows down cell constriction, suggesting a new, unrecognized role for this network in bacterial cell division. Our results provide new insight into the structure and function of the divisome, and highlight the importance of coordinated cell constriction and chromosome segregation.

  9. Force-free field modeling of twist and braiding-induced magnetic energy in an active-region corona

    CERN Document Server

    Thalmann, J K; Wiegelmann, T

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical concept that braided magnetic field lines in the solar corona may dissipate a sufficient amount of energy to account for the brightening observed in the active-region corona, has been substantiated by high-resolution observations only recently. From the analysis of coronal images obtained with the High Resolution Coronal Imager, first observational evidence of the braiding of magnetic field lines was reported by Cirtain et al. 2013 (hereafter CG13). We present nonlinear force-free reconstructions of the associated coronal magnetic field based on vector SDO/HMI magnetograms. We deliver estimates of the free magnetic energy associated to a braided coronal structure. Our model results suggest (~100 times) more free energy at the braiding site than analytically estimated by CG13, strengthening the possibility of the active-region corona being heated by field line braiding. We were able to assess the coronal free energy appropriately by using vector field measurements and attribute the lower energy...

  10. A hybrid surface modification method on copper wire braids for enhancing thermal performance of ultra-thin heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, W. K.; Lin, H. T.; Wu, C. H.; Kuo, L. S.; Chen, P. H.

    2017-02-01

    Copper is the most widely used material in heat pipe manufacturing. Since the capability of wick structures inside a heat pipe will dominate its thermal performance, in this study, we introduce a hybrid surface modification method on the copper wire braids being inserted as wick structure into an ultra-thin heat pipe. The hybrid method is the combination of a chemical-oxidation-based method and a sol-gel method with nanoparticles being dip-coated onto the braid. The experimental data show that braids under hybrid treatment perform higher water rising speed than the oxidized braids while owning higher water net weight than those braids being only dip-coated with nanoparticle.

  11. Review of the origin of the Braid Scarp near the Pebble prospect, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Waythomas, Christopher F.

    2011-01-01

    A linear geomorphic scarp, referred to as the 'Braid Scarp,' lies about 5 kilometers north of Iliamna Lake, Alaska, and has been identified as a possible seismically active fault. We examined the geomorphology of the area and an 8.5-meter-long excavation across the scarp. We conclude that the scarp was formed by incision of a glacial outwash braid plain into a slightly older outwash plain as ice stagnated in the region during deglaciation 11-15 thousand years ago. We found no evidence for active faulting along the scarp.

  12. New Turaev braided group categories and weak (co)quasi-Turaev group coalgebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaohui, E-mail: zxhhhhh@gmail.com; Wang, Shuanhong, E-mail: shuanhwang2002@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Southeast University, Jiangsu, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-11-15

    In order to construct a class of new braided crossed G-categories with nontrivial associativity and unit constraints, we study the G-graded monoidal category over a family of algebras (H{sub α}){sub α∈G} and introduce the notion of a weak (co)quasi-Turaev G-(co)algebra. Then we prove that the category of (co)representations of (co)quasitriangular weak (co)quasi-Turaev π-(co)algebras is exactly a braided crossed G-category. In fact, this (co)quasitriangular structure provides a solution to a generalized quantum Yang-Baxter type equation.

  13. Development of Hybrid Braided Composite Rods for Reinforcement and Health Monitoring of Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sohel Rana; Emilija Zdraveva; Cristiana Pereira; Raul Fangueiro; A. Gomes Correia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, core-reinforced braided composite rods (BCRs) were developed and characterized for strain sensing capability. A mixture of carbon and glass fibre was used in the core, which was surrounded by a braided cover of polyester fibres. Three compositions of core with different carbon fibre/glass fibre weight ratios (23/77, 47/53, and 100/0) were studied to find out the optimum composition for both strain sensitivity and mechanical performance. The influence of carbon f...

  14. Multi-layer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  15. Estimation of snow water equivalent using a radiance assimilation scheme with a multi-layered snow physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounirou Toure, Ally

    The feasibility of a radiance assimilation using a multi-layered snow physical model to estimate snow physical parameters is studied. The work is divided in five parts. The first two chapters are dedicated to the literature review. In the third chapter, experimental work was conducted in the alpine snow to estimate snow correlation (for microwave emission modelling) using near-infrared digital photography. We made microwave radiometric and near-infrared reflectance measurements of snow slabs under different experimental conditions. We used an empirical relation to link near-infrared reflectance of snow to the specific surface area (SSA), and converted the SSA into the correlation length. From the measurements of snow radiances at 21 and 35 GHz, we derived the microwave scattering coefficient by inverting two coupled radiative transfer models (RTM) (the sandwich and six-flux model). The correlation lengths found are in the same range as those determined in the literature using cold laboratory work. The technique shows great potential in the determination of the snow correlation length under field conditions. In the fourth chapter, the performance of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for snow water equivalent (SWE) estimation is assessed by assimilating synthetic microwave observations at Ground Based Microwave Radiometer (GBMR-7) frequencies (18.7, 23.8, 36.5, 89 vertical and horizontal polarization) into a snow physics model, CROCUS. CROCUS has a realistic stratigraphic and ice layer modelling scheme. This work builds on previous methods that used snow physics model with limited number of layers. Data assimilation methods require accurate predictions of the brightness temperature (Tb) emitted by the snowpack. It has been shown that the accuracy of RTMs is sensitive to the stratigraphic representation of the snowpack. However, as the stratigraphic fidelity increases, the number of layers increases, as does the number of state variables estimated in the assimilation

  16. The effect of temperature, defect and strain rate on the mechanical property of multi-layer graphene: Coarse-grained molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xinlu

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of temperature, defect, and strain rate on the mechanical properties of multi-layer graphene using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations. The simulation results reveal that the mechanical properties of multi-layer graphene tend to be less sensitive to temperature as the layer increases, but they are sensitive to the distribution and coverage of Stone-Wales (SW) defects. For the same number of defect, there is less decline in the fracture stress and Young's modulus of graphene when the defects have a regular distribution, in contrast to random distribution. In addition, Young's modulus is less influenced by temperature and defect, compared to fracture stress. Both the fracture stress and Young's modulus have little dependence on strain rate.

  17. Flaw detection in multi-layer, multi-material composites by resonance imaging: Utilizing Air-coupled Ultrasonics and Finite Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livings, Richard Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Ceramic tiles are the main ingredient of a multi-material, multi-layered composite being considered for the modernization of tank armors. The high stiffness, low attenuation, and precise dimensions of these uniform tiles make them remarkable resonators when driven to vibrate. Defects in the tile, during manufacture or after usage, are expected to change the resonance frequencies and resonance images of the tile. The comparison of the resonance frequencies and resonance images of a pristine tile/lay-up to a defective tile/lay-up will thus be a quantitative damage metric. By examining the vibrational behavior of these tiles and the composite lay-up with Finite Element Modeling and analytical plate vibration equations, the development of a new Nondestructive Evaluation technique is possible. This study examines the development of the Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Resonance Imaging technique as applied to a hexagonal ceramic tile and a multi-material, multi-layered composite.

  18. Synchronous chaos and broad band gamma rhythm in a minimal multi-layer model of primary visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Battaglia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visually induced neuronal activity in V1 displays a marked gamma-band component which is modulated by stimulus properties. It has been argued that synchronized oscillations contribute to these gamma-band activity. However, analysis of Local Field Potentials (LFPs across different experiments reveals considerable diversity in the degree of oscillatory behavior of this induced activity. Contrast-dependent power enhancements can indeed occur over a broad band in the gamma frequency range and spectral peaks may not arise at all. Furthermore, even when oscillations are observed, they undergo temporal decorrelation over very few cycles. This is not easily accounted for in previous network modeling of gamma oscillations. We argue here that interactions between cortical layers can be responsible for this fast decorrelation. We study a model of a V1 hypercolumn, embedding a simplified description of the multi-layered structure of the cortex. When the stimulus contrast is low, the induced activity is only weakly synchronous and the network resonates transiently without developing collective oscillations. When the contrast is high, on the other hand, the induced activity undergoes synchronous oscillations with an irregular spatiotemporal structure expressing a synchronous chaotic state. As a consequence the population activity undergoes fast temporal decorrelation, with concomitant rapid damping of the oscillations in LFPs autocorrelograms and peak broadening in LFPs power spectra. We show that the strength of the inter-layer coupling crucially affects this spatiotemporal structure. We predict that layer VI inactivation should induce global changes in the spectral properties of induced LFPs, reflecting their slower temporal decorrelation in the absence of inter-layer feedback. Finally, we argue that the mechanism underlying the emergence of synchronous chaos in our model is in fact very general. It stems from the fact that gamma oscillations induced by

  19. Representational Learning for Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Equipment: A Multi-Layered Extreme Learning Machines Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and quick response fault diagnosis is crucial for the wind turbine generator system (WTGS to avoid unplanned interruption and to reduce the maintenance cost. However, the conditional data generated from WTGS operating in a tough environment is always dynamical and high-dimensional. To address these challenges, we propose a new fault diagnosis scheme which is composed of multiple extreme learning machines (ELM in a hierarchical structure, where a forwarding list of ELM layers is concatenated and each of them is processed independently for its corresponding role. The framework enables both representational feature learning and fault classification. The multi-layered ELM based representational learning covers functions including data preprocessing, feature extraction and dimension reduction. An ELM based autoencoder is trained to generate a hidden layer output weight matrix, which is then used to transform the input dataset into a new feature representation. Compared with the traditional feature extraction methods which may empirically wipe off some “insignificant’ feature information that in fact conveys certain undiscovered important knowledge, the introduced representational learning method could overcome the loss of information content. The computed output weight matrix projects the high dimensional input vector into a compressed and orthogonally weighted distribution. The last single layer of ELM is applied for fault classification. Unlike the greedy layer wise learning method adopted in back propagation based deep learning (DL, the proposed framework does not need iterative fine-tuning of parameters. To evaluate its experimental performance, comparison tests are carried out on a wind turbine generator simulator. The results show that the proposed diagnostic framework achieves the best performance among the compared approaches in terms of accuracy and efficiency in multiple faults detection of wind turbines.

  20. Mechanical Fault Diagnosis of High Voltage Circuit Breakers Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Multi-Layer Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical fault diagnosis of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs based on vibration signal analysis is one of the most significant issues in improving the reliability and reducing the outage cost for power systems. The limitation of training samples and types of machine faults in HVCBs causes the existing mechanical fault diagnostic methods to recognize new types of machine faults easily without training samples as either a normal condition or a wrong fault type. A new mechanical fault diagnosis method for HVCBs based on variational mode decomposition (VMD and multi-layer classifier (MLC is proposed to improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis. First, HVCB vibration signals during operation are measured using an acceleration sensor. Second, a VMD algorithm is used to decompose the vibration signals into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. The IMF matrix is divided into submatrices to compute the local singular values (LSV. The maximum singular values of each submatrix are selected as the feature vectors for fault diagnosis. Finally, a MLC composed of two one-class support vector machines (OCSVMs and a support vector machine (SVM is constructed to identify the fault type. Two layers of independent OCSVM are adopted to distinguish normal or fault conditions with known or unknown fault types, respectively. On this basis, SVM recognizes the specific fault type. Real diagnostic experiments are conducted with a real SF6 HVCB with normal and fault states. Three different faults (i.e., jam fault of the iron core, looseness of the base screw, and poor lubrication of the connecting lever are simulated in a field experiment on a real HVCB to test the feasibility of the proposed method. Results show that the classification accuracy of the new method is superior to other traditional methods.

  1. Damage on multi-layer graphene by femtosecond laserablation%多层石墨烯在飞秒激光作用下的损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴家云; 吴鑫; 严冬; 赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    Multi-layer graphene generated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)was ablated by femtosecond laser,and the obtained single-pulse ablation threshold of multi-layer graphene was 0.22 mW.The samples before and after processing were characterized by optical microscopy,atomic force microscope (AFM),and Raman spectroscopy,and the damage effects of femtosecond laser ablation on multi-layer graphene were demonstrated.The results show that femtosecond laser remains potential advantagesin gra-phene micro pattern processing with the precision of sub-micro meter;meanwhile,thinning phenomenonfor multi-layer graphene occurs at the edge of ablation area.%使用飞秒激光对化学气相沉积(CVD)法制备的多层石墨烯进行辐照,得到了多层石墨烯的单脉冲破坏阈值为0.22 mW;利用光学显微镜、原子力显微镜(AFM)和拉曼光谱对加工前、后的试样进行表征,阐述了飞秒激光对多层石墨烯的烧蚀损伤效应,发现飞秒激光在石墨烯微图案化加工方面具有潜在的优势,能够达到亚微米级的加工精度;同时在烧蚀边缘区域,多层石墨烯出现减薄现象。

  2. A Modeling Technique and Representation of Failure in the Analysis of Triaxial Braided Carbon Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Quasi-static tests have been performed on triaxially braided carbon fiber composite materials with large unit cell sizes. The effects of different fibers and matrix materials on the failure mode were investigated. Simulations of the tests have been performed using the transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA. However, the wide range of failure modes observed for the triaxial braided carbon fiber composites during tests could not be simulated using composite material models currently available within LS-DYNA. A macroscopic approach has been developed that provides better simulation of the material response in these materials. This approach uses full-field optical measurement techniques to measure local failures during quasi-static testing. Information from these experiments is then used along with the current material models available in LS-DYNA to simulate the influence of the braided architecture on the failure process. This method uses two-dimensional shell elements with integration points through the thickness of the elements to represent the different layers of braid along with a new analytical method for the import of material stiffness and failure data directly. The present method is being used to examine the effect of material properties on the failure process. The experimental approaches used to obtain the required data will be described, and preliminary results of the numerical analysis will be presented.

  3. Full-Field Strain Methods for Investigating Failure Mechanisms in Triaxial Braided Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advancements in braiding technology have led to commercially viable manufacturing approaches for making large structures with complex shape out of triaxial braided composite materials. In some cases, the static load capability of structures made using these materials has been higher than expected based on material strength properties measured using standard coupon tests. A more detailed investigation of deformation and failure processes in large-unit-cell-size triaxial braid composites is needed to evaluate the applicability of standard test methods for these materials and to develop alternative testing approaches. This report presents some new techniques that have been developed to investigate local deformation and failure using digital image correlation techniques. The methods were used to measure both local and global strains during standard straight-sided coupon tensile tests on composite materials made with 12- and 24-k yarns and a 0 /+60 /-60 triaxial braid architecture. Local deformation and failure within fiber bundles was observed and correlations were made between these local failures and global composite deformation and strength.

  4. Symmetry-protected non-Abelian braiding of Majorana Kramers pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pin; He, Ying-Ping; Liu, Xiong-Jun

    2016-12-01

    We develop a complete theory for symmetry protected non-Abelian statistics of Majorana Kramers' pairs (MKPs) in time-reversal (TR) invariant topological superconductors, with fundamental results being uncovered. By introducing an effective Hamiltonian approach to describe the braiding of MKPs, we show that the non-Abelian braiding is protected when the effective Hamiltonian exhibits a new TR-like antiunitary symmetry, which is satisfied if the system is free of dynamical noise. Importantly, even the dynamical noise cannot cause error in braiding, unless the noise correlation function breaks a dynamical TR symmetry. This is a profound result and generalizes the TR symmetry protection of MKPs to the dynamical regime. Moreover, the resulted error by noise is shown to be a higher-order effect, compared with the decoherence of Majorana qubits without TR symmetry protection. This study completes the theory of symmetry-protected non-Abelian statistics of MKPs, and shows that the non-Abelian braiding of MKPs is well observable and may have versatile applications to future quantum computation technologies.

  5. (Re)braiding to Tell: Using "Trenzas" as a Metaphorical-Analytical Tool in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Metaphors can be used in qualitative research to illuminate the meanings of participant experiences and examine phenomena from insightful and creative perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how I utilized "trenzas" (braids) as a metaphorical and analytical tool for understanding the experiences and perspectives of…

  6. Effect of Microscopic Damage Events on Static and Ballistic Impact Strength of Triaxial Braid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Arnold, William A.; Roberts, Gary D.; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The reliability of impact simulations for aircraft components made with triaxial-braided carbon-fiber composites is currently limited by inadequate material property data and lack of validated material models for analysis. Methods to characterize the material properties used in the analytical models from a systematically obtained set of test data are also lacking. A macroscopic finite element based analytical model to analyze the impact response of these materials has been developed. The stiffness and strength properties utilized in the material model are obtained from a set of quasi-static in-plane tension, compression and shear coupon level tests. Full-field optical strain measurement techniques are applied in the testing, and the results are used to help in characterizing the model. The unit cell of the braided composite is modeled as a series of shell elements, where each element is modeled as a laminated composite. The braided architecture can thus be approximated within the analytical model. The transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA is utilized to conduct the finite element simulations, and an internal LS-DYNA constitutive model is utilized in the analysis. Methods to obtain the stiffness and strength properties required by the constitutive model from the available test data are developed. Simulations of quasi-static coupon tests and impact tests of a represented braided composite are conducted. Overall, the developed method shows promise, but improvements that are needed in test and analysis methods for better predictive capability are examined.

  7. Network response to internal and external perturbations in large sand-bed braided rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, F.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Middelkoop, H.

    2015-03-01

    The intrinsic instability of bars, bifurcations and branches in large braided rivers is a challenge to understand and predict. Even more, the reach-scale effect of human-induced perturbations on the braided channel network is still unresolved. In this study, we used a physics-based model to simulate the hydromorphodynamics in a large braided river and applied different types of perturbations. We analyzed the propagation of the perturbations through the braided channel network. The results showed that the perturbations initiate an instability that propagates in downstream direction by means of bifurcation instability. It alters and rotates the approaching flow of the bifurcations. The propagation celerity is in the same order of magnitude as the theoretical sand wave propagation rate. The adjustments of the bifurcations also change bar migration and reshape, with a feedback to the upstream bifurcation and alteration of the approaching flow to the downstream bifurcation. This way, the morphological effect of a perturbation amplifies in downstream direction. Thus, the interplay of bifurcation instability and asymmetrical reshaping of bars was found to be essential for propagation of the effects of a perturbation. The study also demonstrated that the large-scale bar statistics are hardly affected.

  8. Survival of flexible, braided, bonded stainless steel lingual retainers : a historic cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, D. J. Lie Sam; Ozcan, M.; Verkerke, G. J.; Sandham, John; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to retrospectively evaluate the clinical survival rate of flexible, braided, rectangular bonded stainless steel lingual retainers, and to investigate the influence of gender, age of the patient, and operator experience on survival after orthodontic treatment at the

  9. Energy release in the solar corona from spatially resolved magnetic braids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, J W; Golub, L; Winebarger, A R; De Pontieu, B; Kobayashi, K; Moore, R L; Walsh, R W; Korreck, K E; Weber, M; McCauley, P; Title, A; Kuzin, S; DeForest, C E

    2013-01-24

    It is now apparent that there are at least two heating mechanisms in the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona. Wave heating may be the prevalent mechanism in quiet solar periods and may contribute to heating the corona to 1,500,000 K (refs 1-3). The active corona needs additional heating to reach 2,000,000-4,000,000 K; this heat has been theoretically proposed to come from the reconnection and unravelling of magnetic 'braids'. Evidence favouring that process has been inferred, but has not been generally accepted because observations are sparse and, in general, the braided magnetic strands that are thought to have an angular width of about 0.2 arc seconds have not been resolved. Fine-scale braiding has been seen in the chromosphere but not, until now, in the corona. Here we report observations, at a resolution of 0.2 arc seconds, of magnetic braids in a coronal active region that are reconnecting, relaxing and dissipating sufficient energy to heat the structures to about 4,000,000 K. Although our 5-minute observations cannot unambiguously identify the field reconnection and subsequent relaxation as the dominant heating mechanism throughout active regions, the energy available from the observed field relaxation in our example is ample for the observed heating.

  10. Braiding and fusion properties of the Neveu-Schwarz super-conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Chorazkiewicz, Damian

    2009-01-01

    We construct, generalizing appropriately the method applied by J. Teschner in the case of the Virasoro conformal blocks, the braiding and fusion matrices of the Neveu-Schwarz super-conformal blocks. Their properties allow for an explicit verification of the bootstrap equation in the NS sector of the N=1 supersymmetric Liouville field theory.

  11. Braiding properties of the N=1 super-conformal blocks (Ramond sector)

    CERN Document Server

    Chorazkiewicz, Damian; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Using a super scalar field representation of the chiral vertex operators we develop a general method of calculating braiding matrices for all types of N=1 super-conformal 4-point blocks involving Ramond external weights. We give explicit analytic formulae in a number of cases.

  12. Research progress of Group Key Management for Multi-layered Satellite Networks%多层卫星网络组密钥管理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余哲赋; 周海刚; 吴兆峰; 朱晓薇

    2012-01-01

    为保证多层卫星网络的通信安全,使用组密钥对通信进行加密是一个普遍而有效的方法。设计适合卫星网络的组密钥管理方案,是确保卫星通信安全的关键问题之一。本文介绍了多层卫星网络的概况,对现有多层卫星网络组密钥管理方案进行了分类,详细分析了几类典型的组密钥管理方案,指出了存在的问题,并对以后的研究方向作了展望。%Encrypting the contents of communication by using group key is an universal and effective method to ensure the security of communication in the Multi-layered satellite networks,and the design of a group key management scheme suitable for satellite networks is one of the key problems.This article provides an introduction of multi-layered satellite networks and classifies the routing protocols.This paper details several existing typical group key management schemes,and points out the corresponding disadvantages.The trends of group key management for multi-layered satellite networks are analyzed briefly.

  13. 侵彻多层钢靶板过载测试技术%Overload Testing Technology of Penetrating Multi-Layer Steel Target Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美云; 王敬斌; 王丹; 石庚辰

    2016-01-01

    针对在弹丸侵彻钢靶板过程中高过载带来的问题,研究了一种能够抗高冲击作用的弹丸侵彻多层钢靶板过载测试装置。该装置采用灌封、多层材料组合缓冲以及二次电源的措施,能保证测试装置抗高冲击作用和可靠工作。对弹丸侵彻多层钢靶板的过载特性进行了测试,结果表明所研究的测试装置能够可靠获取与记录弹丸穿过各层靶板时的加速度。%This paper presented a testing device with the ability of resisting high shock while penetrating multi-layer steel target plate to guarantee the high overload problem with plate process in the projectile penetrating steel target. Combined with potting technology, multi-layer shock absorb materials and secondary electrical power source,the device shows resistance to high shock and the ability of reliable working.Experiments on overload characteristic further proved that the device can collect and store the acceleration of penetrating multi-layer target plate with high reliability.

  14. Effect of open hole on tensile failure properties of 2D triaxial braided textile composites and tape equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy L.; Anglin, Colin; Gaskin, David; Patrick, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The unnotched and notched (open hole) tensile strength and failure mechanisms of two-dimensional (2D) triaxial braided composites were examined. The effect of notch size and notch position were investigated. Damage initiation and propagation in notched and unnotched coupons were also examined. Theory developed to predict the normal stress distribution near an open hole and failure for tape laminated composites was evaluated for its applicability to triaxial braided textile composite materials. Four fiber architectures were considered with different combinations of braid angle, longitudinal and braider yam size, and percentage of longitudinal yarns. Tape laminates equivalent to textile composites were also constructed for comparison. Unnotched tape equivalents were stronger than braided textiles but exhibited greater notch sensitivity. Notched textiles and tape equivalents have roughly the same strength at large notch sizes. Two common damage mechanisms were found: braider yams cracking and near notch longitudinal yarn splitting. Cracking was found to initiate in braider yarns in unnotched and notched coupons, and propagate in the direction of the braider yarns until failure. Longitudinal yarn splitting occurred in three of four architectures that were longitudinally fiber dominated. Damage initiation stress decreased with increasing braid angle. No significant differences in prediction of near notch stress between measured and predicted stress were weak for textiles with large braid angle. Notch strength could not be predicted using existing anisotropic theory for braided textiles due to their insensitivity to notch.

  15. Final Closeout report for grant FG36-08GO18018, titled: Functional Multi-Layer Solution Processable Polymer Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam J. Moule

    2012-05-01

    The original objectives were: (1) Develop a method to deposit multiple conjugated polymer film layers and avoid the problem of dissolution from mutually solubility; (2) Use this deposition method to develop multi-layer polymer based solar cells with layers that are function specific; (3) characterize these layers and devices; (4) develop electrical and optical models that describe and predict the properties of the multi-layers; and (5) Ultimate efficiency goals are {approx}6.75% with J{sub sc} = 12 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.75, and V{sub oc} = 0.75. The question of whether photovoltaic (PV) cells will ever be able to replace fossil fuels as the main provider of electrical power is not just a question of device efficiency; it is a question of how much power can be provided for what price. It has been well documented that PV devices at 10% power efficiency can provide for all of the world's power needs without covering too much of the earth's surface. Assuming desert like cloud coverage, an area equivalent to the land area of Texas would have to be covered. However, it has also been shown that using the current state-of-the-art silicon devices, the price-per-Watt will never be low enough to be economically feasible for large-scale development. Solution-processable PV devices based on polymers are a very attractive alternative to traditional Silicon PV because this technology is much lower in materials cost and in environmentally toxic waste production. Solution-based polymers can be rapidly deposited using printing technologies and are compatible with light-weight flexible substrates that can increase the range of available PV applications. In the past ten years, the efficiency of polymer based PV devices has increased from {approx}1% to over 10%. The highest efficiency organic solar cells are based upon a single layer than consists of a mixture of donor and acceptor moieties. This one layer has multiple optical and electrical functions, so the design of a

  16. Radiative budget in the presence of multi-layered aerosol structures in the framework of AMMA SOP-0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Raut

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents radiative transfer calculations performed over Niamey in the UV-Visible range over the period 26th January – 1st February during the African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis (AMMA international program. Climatic effects of aerosols along the vertical column have required an accurate determination of their optical properties, which are presented in for a variety of instrumented platforms: Ultralight aircraft, Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM research aircraft, AERONET station. Measurements highlighted the presence of a multi-layered structure of mineral dust located below and biomass-burning particles in the more elevated layers. Radiative forcing was affected by both the scattering and absorption effects governed by the aerosol complex refractive index (ACRI. The best agreement between our results and AERONET optical thicknesses, ground-based extinction measurements and NO2 photolysis rate coefficient was found using the synergy between all the instrumented platforms. The corresponding averaged ACRI were 1.53 (±0.04–0.047i (±0.006 and 1.52 (±0.04–0.008i (±0.001 for biomass-burning and mineral dust aerosols, respectively. Biomass-burning aerosols were characterized by single-scattering albedo ranging from 0.78 to 0.82 and asymmetry parameter ranging from 0.71 to 0.73. For dust aerosols, single-scattering albedo (asymmetry parameter ranged from 0.9 to 0.92 (0.73 to 0.75. The solar energy depletion at the surface is shown to be ~ −21.2 (±1.7 W/m2 as a daily average. At the TOA, the radiative forcing appeared slightly negative but very close to zero (~ −1.4 W/m2. The corresponding atmospheric radiative forcing was found to be ~19.8 (±2.3 W/m2. Mineral dust located below a more absorbing layer act as an increase in surface reflectivity of ~3–4%. The radiative forcing is also shown to be highly sensitivity the optical features of the different

  17. Radiative budget in the presence of multi-layered aerosol structures in the framework of AMMA SOP-0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Raut

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents radiative transfer calculations performed over Niamey in the UV-Visible range over the period 26th January–1st February 2006 during the African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis (AMMA international program. Climatic effects of aerosols along the vertical column have required an accurate determination of their optical properties, which are presented here for a variety of instrumented platforms: Ultralight aircraft, Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM research aircraft, AERONET station. Measurements highlighted the presence of a multi-layered structure of mineral dust located below and biomass-burning particles in the more elevated layers. Radiative forcing was affected by both the scattering and absorption effects governed by the aerosol complex refractive index (ACRI. The best agreement between our results and AERONET optical thicknesses, ground-based extinction measurements and NO2 photolysis rate coefficient was found using the synergy between all the instrumented platforms. The corresponding averaged ACRI at 355 nm were 1.53 (±0.04 −0.047i (±0.006 and 1.52 (±0.04 −0.008i (±0.001 for biomass-burning and mineral dust aerosols, respectively. Biomass-burning aerosols were characterized by single-scattering albedo ranging from 0.78 to 0.82 and asymmetry parameter ranging from 0.71 to 0.73. For dust aerosols, single-scattering albedo (asymmetry parameter ranged from 0.9 to 0.92 (0.73 to 0.75. The solar energy depletion at the surface is shown to be ~−21.2 (±1.7 W/m2 as a daily average. At the TOA, the radiative forcing appeared slightly negative but very close to zero (~−1.4 W/m2. The corresponding atmospheric radiative forcing was found to be ~19.8 (±2.3 W/m2. Mineral dust located below a more absorbing layer act as an increase in surface reflectivity of ~3–4%. The radiative forcing is also shown to be highly sensitive to the optical features of the

  18. Evaluation of 1-D tracer concentration profile in a small river by means of Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Piotrowski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of temporal concentration profiles of a transported pollutant in a river is still a subject of ongoing research efforts worldwide. The present paper is aimed at studying the possibility of using Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks to evaluate the whole concentration versus time profile at several cross-sections of a river under various flow conditions, using as little information about the river system as possible. In contrast with the earlier neural networks based work on longitudinal dispersion coefficients, this new approach relies more heavily on measurements of concentration collected during tracer tests over a range of flow conditions, but fewer hydraulic and morphological data are needed. The study is based upon 26 tracer experiments performed in a small river in Edinburgh, UK (Murray Burn at various flow rates in a 540 m long reach. The only data used in this study were concentration measurements collected at 4 cross-sections, distances between the cross-sections and the injection site, time, as well as flow rate and water velocity, obtained according to the data measured at the 1st and 2nd cross-sections.

    The four main features of concentration versus time profiles at a particular cross-section, namely the peak concentration, the arrival time of the peak at the cross-section, and the shapes of the rising and falling limbs of the profile are modeled, and for each of them a separately designed neural network was used. There was also a variant investigated in which the conservation of the injected mass was assured by adjusting the predicted peak concentration. The neural network methods were compared with the unit peak attenuation curve concept.

    In general the neural networks predicted the main features of the concentration profiles satisfactorily. The predicted peak concentrations were generally better than those obtained using the unit peak attenuation method, and the method with mass

  19. Improving daily streamflow forecasts in mountainous Upper Euphrates basin by multi-layer perceptron model with satellite snow products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Gökçen; Şensoy, Aynur; Şorman, A. Arda

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the contribution of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite Snow Cover Area (SCA) product and in-situ snow depth measurements to Artificial Neural Network model (ANN) based daily streamflow forecasting in a mountainous river basin. In order to represent non-linear structure of the snowmelt process, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) Feed-Forward Backpropagation (FFBP) architecture is developed and applied in Upper Euphrates River Basin (10,275 km2) of Turkey where snowmelt constitutes approximately 2/3 of total annual volume of runoff during spring and early summer months. Snowmelt season is evaluated between March and July; 7 years (2002-2008) seasonal daily data are used during training while 3 years (2009-2011) seasonal daily data are split for forecasting. One of the fastest ANN training algorithms, the Levenberg-Marquardt, is used for optimization of the network weights and biases. The consistency of the network is checked with four performance criteria: coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (ME), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE). According to the results, SCA observations provide useful information for developing of a neural network model to predict snowmelt runoff, whereas snow depth data alone are not sufficient. The highest performance is experienced when total daily precipitation, average air temperature data are combined with satellite snow cover data. The data preprocessing technique of Discrete Wavelet Analysis (DWA) is coupled with MLP modeling to further improve the runoff peak estimates. As a result, Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency is increased from 0.52 to 0.81 for training and from 0.51 to 0.75 for forecasting. Moreover, the results are compared with that of a conceptual model, Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM), application using SCA as an input. The importance and the main contribution of this study is to use of satellite snow products and data

  20. Preparation and characterization of multi-layer biodegradable nanofibers by coaxial electrospinning and their potential for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwen

    As an evolution of conventional electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning became popular soon after its debut as a novel way to develop nanofibers with special structures, such as core-shell and hollow interior. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in a modified coaxial electrospinning, tri-layer coaxial electrospinning, to develop more complex structures, such as multi-layer and nanowire-in-microtube. Previous studies have primarily concentrated on the fabrication of tri-layered inorganic fibers while studies on tri-layered coaxial polymeric fibers has not been reported until very recently. Our research focuses on the fabrication of core-shell and tri-layer structured biodegradable polymeric nanofibers with coaxial electrospinning. Different characterization methods have been applied to observe the internal structure in single nanofibers and the potential application of tri-layer coaxial electrospinning has been discussed. The material system consists of biodegradable natural polymer gelatin, synthetic polymers poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). A uniquely designed three-needle concentric spinneret is developed to perform tri-layer coaxial electrospinning. Different kinds of core-shell structured nanofibers, including gelatin/PCL, PCL/gelatin, gelatin/PLGA and PCL/PLGA, have been fabricated with a customized coaxial electrospinning apparatus. Two kinds of tri-layer coaxial nanofibers, two-component ABA structured gelatin/PCL/gelatin biodegradable nanofibers and tri-component ABC structured gelatin/PCL/PLGA biodegradable nanofibers, have been developed with the customized three needle coaxial electrospinning setup. The core-shell and tri-layered structures of electrospun nanofibers have been characterized by several commonly used techniques, such as laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Besides the conventional methods, other newer techniques, including

  1. Interfacial and near interfacial crack growth phenomena in metal bonded alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzic, Jamie Joseph

    2002-03-01

    Metal/ceramic interfaces can be found in many engineering applications including microelectronic packaging, multi-layered films, coatings, joints, and composite materials. In order to design reliable engineering systems that contain metal/ceramic interfaces, a comprehensive understanding of interfacial and near interfacial failure mechanisms is necessary.

  2. 基于粒子群优化的磨矿分级过程多层数据协调%Multi-Layer Data Reconciliation for Grinding-Classification Process Based on Partical Swarm Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓丽; 刘国金; 阳春华; 王雅琳

    2012-01-01

    准确稳定的过程数据是选矿厂进行过程优化控制和决策管理的依据,今针对磨矿分级过程数据特点,建立了多层数据协调模型,包括总物料平衡层、粒度分布/品位层和不同粒度下的成分分析层(金属分布率层);针对模型维数较高的问题,引入粒子群优化(PSO)算法进行求解.根据不同的测量信息,可选择相应的层次进行协调,并采用从低层向高层逐层协调的方法,实现了部分非线性约束到线性约束的转化,提高了数据协调效率.将该多层模型和PSO算法用于某选矿厂磨矿分级过程实际生产数据的协调,结果表明协调后的数据更准确、更稳定,包含的信息更丰富完整.%The accurate and stable process data are the basis for the decision-making, management and process optimal control of the ore dressing plant. Based on the data characteristic of the grinding-classification process, a multi-layer data reconciliation model was proposed, which consists of global material balance layer, particle size distribution/grade layer and chemical compositions of different particle sizes layer (the metal distribution ratio layer). The particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) was introduced to solve the model with high-dimension. According to the difference of the measurement information, the proper layer can be selected. The data reconciliation was conducted from the bottom layer to the top layer so that the non-linear constraints were transformed to linear constraints, which improves the efficiency of the reconciliation process. The application of the multi-layer model proposed and the PSO algorithm to adjust the actual data of the grinding-classification process obtained from an ore dressing plant shows that the adjusted values of the data are more accurate and stable, and more complete information are obtained during the reconciliation process.

  3. Analysis of the spatiotemporal planform dynamics of braided rivers: a novel laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, Marco; Bertoldi, Walter; Tubino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Braided rivers are highly dynamic, labile environments which experience significant morphological changes even during moderate flow events. Recent remote sensing techniques enable to monitor the river morphology with great detail. However, capturing the rapid morphological changes of a large river with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is still very challenging. As a consequence, quantitative analysis of the braided channel dynamics is often limited to local processes (e.g. a single bifurcation or confluence) and short time periods (e.g. a single flood). This work aims at providing quantitative, statistical description of the channel network dynamics in a braided network at larger spatial and temporal scales, namely the reach scale and the multiple flood scale. This can be achieved using a new technique based on time lapse imagery that we recently developed at the University of Trento. This technique provides high frequency, two dimensional maps of the bed load transport in a large laboratory model, thus allowing to capture the spatiotemporal variability of the transport processes with unprecedented detail. We performed a set of laboratory experiments in a 23 m long, 3 m wide flume, sand bed load flume, where self-formed braided networks can be reproduced. We run several experiments with different discharges and channel widths, lasting for a long time (from 20 to 65 hours) to enable a robust statistical description of the equilibrium morphodynamics. High-resolution pictures were taken at 1 min interval from two SLR cameras, then rectified and merged in order to cover a 7 m long reach. We processed a large number of images to obtain maps of bed load transport, and we developed an algorithm to automatically identifies active (i.e. transporting) channels, bifurcations and confluences. The statistical analysis we performed includes two dimensional correlations, spatial and temporal scales, channel migration rate, avulsion frequency, bank erosion rate. This

  4. Paleotopographic controls on facies development in various types of braid-delta depositional systems in lacustrine basins in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Feng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Braid-delta depositional systems are widely developed in most continental basins in China. Research indicates that, for different types of braid delta, the facies sequence and association, which are critical to the prediction of the distribution of reservoirs, differ greatly. This study illustrates the differences in braid-delta depositional systems in terms of sedimentary characteristics, associated systems and reservoir distributions using three typical paleodeltas in western China: the Zhenbei delta of the upper Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin, the Yuanba delta of the upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the Sichuan Basin and the Jimsar delta of the upper Permian Wutonggou Formation in the Junggar Basin. A stratigraphic framework was established using seismic data, logs and cores by choosing stable mud sections as regional correlation markers and, topographies of these deltas were reconstructed based on the decompaction and paleobathymetric corrections. Based on both the paleotopography of these deltas and the differences of their sedimentary facies, these braided deltas can be classified into two systems: steep-gradient braid-delta-turbidite system and low-gradient braid-delta-lacustrine system. Moreover, the low-gradient braid-delta-lacustrine system can be further divided into interfingered and sharp contact sub-types according to the contact relation between the delta sands and lacustrine muds. This study shows that the paleotopography of basin margins strongly controls the accommodation as braid deltas prograde into lacustrine basins and, influences the location of the shoreline in response to changes in the lake level. Furthermore, paleotopography plays a significant role in facies and reservoir distribution which is important for petroleum exploration and development.

  5. ℓ1-norm and entanglement in screening out braiding from Yang-Baxter equation associated with Z3 parafermion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Wei; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2017-03-01

    The relationships between quantum entangled states and braid matrices have been well studied in recent years. However, most of the results are based on qubits. In this paper, we investigate the applications of 2-qutrit entanglement in the braiding associated with Z3 parafermion. The 2-qutrit entangled state | Ψ (θ) >, generated by the action of the localized unitary solution R ˘ (θ) of YBE on 2-qutrit natural basis, achieves its maximal ℓ1-norm and maximal von Neumann entropy simultaneously at θ = π / 3. Meanwhile, at θ = π / 3, the solutions of YBE reduces braid matrices, which implies the role of ℓ1-norm and entropy plays in determining real physical quantities. On the other hand, we give a new realization of 4-anyon topological basis by qutrit entangled states, then the 9 × 9 localized braid representation in 4-qutrit tensor product space (C3) ⊗ 4 is reduced to Jones representation of braiding in the 4-anyon topological basis. Hence, we conclude that the entangled states are powerful tools in analysing the characteristics of braiding and R ˘ -matrix.

  6. Mechanical characteristics of novel polyester/NiTi wires braided composite stent for the medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qiuhua; Xue, Wen; Lin, Jing; Fu, Yijun; Guan, Guoping; Wang, Fujun; Wang, Lu

    Stents have been widely used in percutaneous surgery to treat stenosis diseases. The braided NiTi stent, as a promising prototype, still has limitations of low radial force and loose structure. In the present study, a newly integrated composite stent was designed and braided with NiTi wires and polyester multifilament yarns by textile technology. The mechanical properties of four composite stents and the control bare NiTi stent were evaluated by in vitro compression, bending and anti-torsion tests. The results showed that integrated polyester/NiTi composite stents were superior in radial support. The stents could keep patency even when highly curved and had lower stent straightening force. Composite stents with certain structure stayed stable under twisting. The configuration of NiTi wires in composite stents could significantly impact stent deformation under twisting.

  7. The algebraic crossing number and the braid index of knots and links

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamuro, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    It has been conjectured that the algebraic crossing number of a link is uniquely determined in minimal braid representation. This conjecture is true for many classes of knots and links. The Morton-Franks-Williams inequality gives a lower bound for braid index. And sharpness of the inequality on a knot type implies the truth of the conjecture for the knot type. We prove that there are infinitely many examples of knots and links for which the inequality is not sharp but the conjecture is still true. We also show that if the conjecture is true for K and L, then it is also true for the (p,q)-cable of K and for the connect sum of K and L.

  8. Finite Element Modeling of Thermal Cycling Induced Microcracking in Carbon/Epoxy Triaxial Braided Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Morscher, Gregory; Martin, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The microcrack distribution and mass change in PR520/T700s and 3502/T700s carbon/epoxy braided composites exposed to thermal cycling was evaluated experimentally. Acoustic emission was utilized to record the crack initiation and propagation under cyclic thermal loading between -55 C and 120 C. Transverse microcrack morphology was investigated using X-ray Computed Tomography. Different performance of two kinds of composites was discovered and analyzed. Based on the observations of microcrack formation, a meso-mechanical finite element model was developed to obtain the resultant mechanical properties. The simulation results exhibited a decrease in strength and stiffness with increasing crack density. Strength and stiffness reduction versus crack densities in different orientations were compared. The changes of global mechanical behavior in both axial and transverse loading conditions were studied. Keywords: Thermal cycles; Microcrack; Finite Element Model; Braided Composite

  9. Sensitivity and specificity analysis of fringing-field dielectric spectroscopy applied to a multi-layer system modelling the human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huclova, Sonja; Baumann, Dirk; Talary, Mark S.; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2011-12-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of dielectric spectroscopy for the detection of dielectric changes inside a multi-layered structure is investigated. We focus on providing a base for sensing physiological changes in the human skin, i.e. in the epidermal and dermal layers. The correlation between changes of the human skin's effective permittivity and changes of dielectric parameters and layer thickness of the epidermal and dermal layers is assessed using numerical simulations. Numerical models include fringing-field probes placed directly on a multi-layer model of the skin. The resulting dielectric spectra in the range from 100 kHz up to 100 MHz for different layer parameters and sensor geometries are used for a sensitivity and specificity analysis of this multi-layer system. First, employing a coaxial probe, a sensitivity analysis is performed for specific variations of the parameters of the epidermal and dermal layers. Second, the specificity of this system is analysed based on the roots and corresponding sign changes of the computed dielectric spectra and their first and second derivatives. The transferability of the derived results is shown by a comparison of the dielectric spectra of a coplanar probe and a scaled coaxial probe. Additionally, a comparison of the sensitivity of a coaxial probe and an interdigitated probe as a function of electrode distance is performed. It is found that the sensitivity for detecting changes of dielectric properties in the epidermal and dermal layers strongly depends on frequency. Based on an analysis of the dielectric spectra, changes in the effective dielectric parameters can theoretically be uniquely assigned to specific changes in permittivity and conductivity. However, in practice, measurement uncertainties may degrade the performance of the system.

  10. 变电站内水平多层土壤参数反演%Parameter Estimation of Horizontal Multi-layer Earth in Substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何为; 张瑞强; 杨帆; 祝郦伟; 刘泽辉; 王晓宇

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Ground grid has great significance for substations. IEEE Std80-2000 points out that the characteristics of horizontal multilayered earth parameters have a great influence on the grounding performance of ground grids. Apparent resistivity is the direct electrical index, and its mathematical model based on Wenner method is an important means to study earth parameters; the corresponding formula in a generalized integral form can be established utilizing Poisson’s equation and the boundary conditions of point current source in multi-layered soil. With the combination of Prony expansion and Lipschitz integration, the equation for fast computation of apparent resistivity is deduced with the summation of limited polynomial terms. Afterwards, improved particle swarm optimization(IPSO) was adopted to solve the horizontal multi-layered earth model using the measured apparent resistivity while the fitness function is chosen as the RMSE between the measured and computed apparent resistivity. In the end of optimization, the particles corresponding to the minimized fitness function were output as the optimal earth parameters. Compared with those published algorithms, IPSO was verified by two-and three-layered earth model, which demonstrate that it is more effective and feasible to obtain horizontal multi-layered earth parameters. The equation of measured apparent resistivity is simplified under the assumption ofd>10t (d is electrode spacing andt is electrode buried depth); therefore, the measured apparent resistivity with respect tod10t(d为电极间距,t为电极入地深度)假设下进行简化得出的,所以提出剔除d<1m时无效的视在电阻率测量值的方法来提高水平多层土壤参数估计的精度,该方法也能够对采用Wenner法的视在电阻率现场测量提出指导意见。

  11. "Groundwater ages" of the Lake Chad multi-layer aquifers system inferred from 14C and 36Cl data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Camille; Deschamps, Pierre; Goncalves, Julio; Hamelin, Bruno; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Doumnang, Jean-Claude

    2014-05-01

    Assessment of recharge, paleo-recharge and groundwater residence time of aquifer systems of the Sahel is pivotal for a sustainable management of this vulnerable resource. Due to its stratified aquifer system, the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) offers the opportunity to assess recharge processes over time and to link climate and hydrology in the Sahel. Located in north-central Africa at the fringe between the Sahel and the Sahara, the lake Chad basin (LCB) is an endorheic basin of 2,5.106 km2. With a monsoon climate, the majority of the rainfall occurs in the southern one third of the basin, the Chari/Logone River system transporting about 90% of the runoff generated within the drainage basin. A complex multi-layer aquifer system is located in the central part of the LCB. The Quaternary unconfined aquifer, covering 500 000 km2, is characterized by the occurrence of poorly understood piezometric depressions. Artesian groundwaters are found in the Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine and deltaic sedimentary aquifers (early Pliocene and Continental Terminal). The present-day lake is in hydraulic contact with the Quaternary Aquifer, but during past megalake phases, most of the Quaternary aquifer was submerged and may experience major recharge events. To identify active recharge area and assess groundwater dynamics, one hundred surface and groundwater samples of all layers have been collected over the southern part of the LCB. Major and trace elements have been analyzed. Measurements of 36Cl have been carried out at CEREGE, on the French 5 MV AMS National Facility ASTER and 14C activities have been analyzed for 17 samples on the French AMS ARTEMIS. Additionally, the stable isotopic composition was measured on the artesian aquifer samples. In the Quaternary aquifer, results show a large scatter with waters having very different isotopic and geochemical signature. In its southern part and in the vicinity of the surface waters, groundwaters are predominantly Ca-Mg-HCO3 type waters with very

  12. Braided River Flow and Invasive Vegetation Dynamics in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Brian S.; Edmondson, Laura; Pithie, Callum

    2013-07-01

    In mountain braided rivers, extreme flow variability, floods and high flow pulses are fundamental elements of natural flow regimes and drivers of floodplain processes, understanding of which is essential for management and restoration. This study evaluated flow dynamics and invasive vegetation characteristics and changes in the Ahuriri River, a free-flowing braided, gravel-bed river in the Southern Alps of New Zealand's South Island. Sixty-seven flow metrics based on indicators of hydrologic alteration and environmental flow components (extreme low flows, low flows, high flow pulses, small floods and large floods) were analyzed using a 48-year flow record. Changes in the areal cover of floodplain and invasive vegetation classes and patch characteristics over 20 years (1991-2011) were quantified using five sets of aerial photographs, and the correlation between flow metrics and cover changes were evaluated. The river exhibits considerable hydrologic variability characteristic of mountain braided rivers, with large variation in floods and other flow regime metrics. The flow regime, including flood and high flow pulses, has variable effects on floodplain invasive vegetation, and creates dynamic patch mosaics that demonstrate the concepts of a shifting mosaic steady state and biogeomorphic succession. As much as 25 % of the vegetation cover was removed by the largest flood on record (570 m3/s, ~50-year return period), with preferential removal of lupin and less removal of willow. However, most of the vegetation regenerated and spread relatively quickly after floods. Some flow metrics analyzed were highly correlated with vegetation cover, and key metrics included the peak magnitude of the largest flood, flood frequency, and time since the last flood in the interval between photos. These metrics provided a simple multiple regression model of invasive vegetation cover in the aerial photos evaluated. Our analysis of relationships among flow regimes and invasive vegetation

  13. The Effects of Spatial Resolution and Dimensionality on Modeling Braided River Hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenau, E. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Braided rivers are challenging features to quantify due to their dynamic morphology and dominance in remote locations. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing over the past few decades offer opportunities to explore braided river processes at finer resolutions with increased efficiency. These methods allow us to address questions such as: What model structure is necessary to accurately reproduce inundation extent and water surface elevations in a braided river? What effects do the smaller channels within a braided river have on simulating wave propagation and slope? How much accuracy is lost as model resolution and dimension are decreased? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate water surface elevations, inundation extent, and slope at various resolutions and dimensions over a ~90 km reach of the Tanana River, Alaska. Model input and validation data were collected during two field campaigns in the summers of 2013 and 2015. Field data included water surface elevation, discharge, velocity, slope, and bathymetric measurements. Six models are run to simulate flood waves across the study reach over a two-month timespan. The model structures vary in complexity from a full 2D model at 10 m resolution to a coupled 1D/2D model at 100 m resolution where the channel is represented in 1D by an effective centerline within a 2D floodplain grid. Results from the different models are compared to assess the effects on inundation extent, wave celerity, water elevations and slope. Digital elevation model (DEM) quality and resolution have major effects on inundation extent and water surface elevations, while model dimensionality has a larger effect on wave celerity and slope. Future work will compare model outputs with AirSWOT data, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  14. Braid group representations from a deformation of the harmonic oscillator algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Tarlini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new technique to obtain representations of the braid group B_n from the R-matrix of a quantum deformed algebra of the one dimensional harmonic oscillator. We consider the action of the R-matrix not on the tensor product of representations of the algebra, that in the harmonic oscillator case are infinite dimensional, but on the subspace of the tensor product corresponding to the lowest weight vectors.

  15. Implement of Multi-layer Architecture for CMS by Using C#%使用C#构建CMS多层架构模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟军; 陈炳生

    2012-01-01

    Net平台下,使用C}}语言构建CMS(Content Management System,内容管理系统)多层架构模型,该模型的使用可大大提高系统模块的复用性,使系统的扩展性增强.%Based on NET, a multi-layer architecture model, was developed for CMS (Content Management System) by using c#, which can greatly improve the reusability and extensibility of each function module in CMS.

  16. A Novel 3D Thermal Impedance Model for High Power Modules Considering Multi-layer Thermal Coupling and Different Heating/Cooling Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Thermal management of power electronic devices is essential for reliable performance especially at high power levels. One of the most important activities in the thermal management and reliability improvement is acquiring the temperature information in critical points of the power module. However...... the multi-layer thermal coupling among chips is proposed. The impacts to the thermal impedance by various cooling and heating conditions are also studied. It is concluded that the heating and cooling conditions will have influence on the junction to case thermal impedances and need to be carefully...

  17. Electroluminescence of a Multi-Layered Organic Light-Emitting Diode Utilizing Trans-4-[p-[Nmethyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-Methylphridinium Tetraphenylborate as the Active Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xue-Yuan; ZHANG Jia-Yu; XU Chun-Xiang; QIAO Yi; GUI Yi-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Employing an organic dye salt oftrans-4-[p-[N-methyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-methylphridinium tetraphenylborate (ASPT) as the active layer, 8-hydrocyquinoline aluminium (Alqa) as the electron transporting layer and N,Nt-diphenyl-N,Nl-bis(3-methylphenyl)-[l,l'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine (TPD) as the hole transporting layer, respectively, we fabricate a multi-layered organic light-emitting diode and observe the colour tunable electroluminescence (EL). The dependence of the EL spectra on the applied voltage is investigated in detail, and the recombination mechanism is discussed by considering the variation of the hole-electron recombination region.

  18. Quantifying spatio-temporal stream-aquifer water exchanges along a multi-layer aquifer system using LOMOS and hydro-thermo modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhri, Amer; flipo, Nicolas; Rejiba, Fayçal; Bodet, Ludovic; Jost, Anne; Goblet, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the spatial and temporal variability of stream-aquifer water exchanges along a 6 km-stream network in a multi-layer aquifer system using both LOcal MOnitoring Stations (LOMOSs) coupled with the optimization of a hydro-thermo model per LOMOS. With an area of 45 km2, the Orgeval experimental basin is located 70 km east from Paris. It drains a multi-layer aquifer system, which is composed of two main geological formations: the Oligocene (upper aquifer unit) and the Eocene (lower aquifer unit). These two aquifer units are separated by a clayey aquitard. The connectivity status between streams and aquifer units has been evaluated using near surface geophysical investigations as well as drill cores. Five LOMOSs of the stream-aquifer exchanges have been deployed along the stream-network to monitor stream-aquifer exchanges over years, based on continuous pressure and temperature measurements (15 min-time step). Each LOMOS is composed of one or two shallow piezometers located 2 to 3 m away from the river edge; one surface water monitoring system; two hyporheic zone temperature profiles located close to each river bank. The five LOMOSs are distributed in two upstream, two intermediate, and one downstream site. The two upstream sites are connected to the upper aquifer unit, and the downstream one is connected to the lower aquifer unit. The 2012-April - 2013-december period of hydrological data are hereafter analyzed. We first focus on the spatial distribution of the stream-aquifer exchanges along the multi-layer aquifer system during the low flow period. Results display an upstream-downstream functional gradient, with upstream gaining stream and downstream losing stream. This spatial distribution is due to the multi-layer nature of the aquifer system, whose lower aquifer unit is depleted. Then it appears that the downstream losing streams temporally switch into gaining ones during extreme hydrological events, while the upstream streams

  19. In situ characterization of delamination and crack growth of a CGO–LSM multi-layer ceramic sample investigated by X-ray tomographic microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Esposito, Vincenzo; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal;

    2014-01-01

    The densification, delamination and crack growth behavior in a Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) and (La0.85Sr0.15)0.9MnO3 (LSM) multi-layer ceramic sample was studied using in situ X-ray tomographic microscopy (microtomography) to investigate the critical dynamics of crack propagation and delamination...... in a multilayered sample. Naturally occurring defects, caused by the sample preparation process, are shown not to be critical in sample degradation. Instead defects are nucleated during the debinding step. Crack growth is significantly faster along the material layers than perpendicular to them, and crack growth...

  20. Design of Light Multi-layered Shields for Use in Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine via MCNP5 Monte Carlo Code

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Zehtabian; Elham Piruzan; Zahra Molaiemanesh; Sedigheh Sina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lead-based shields are the most widely used attenuators in X-ray and gamma ray fields. The heavy weight, toxicity and corrosion of lead have led researchers towards the development of non-lead shields. Materials and Methods The purpose of this study was to design multi-layered shields for protection against X-rays and gamma rays in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. In this study, cubic slabs composed of several materials with high atomic numbers, i.e., lead, barium, bism...