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Sample records for bracteatum extract protects

  1. 乌饭树树叶水提取物改善糖尿病小鼠血糖和血脂水平的研究%Effect of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.leaves aqueous extract on blood glucose and plasma lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立; 张雪彤; 章海燕; 程素娇; 钱海峰; 张晖; 张英

    2012-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.leaves(VBTL) aqueous extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice was studied.The aqueous extract of VBTL showed obviously hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects,but the effects were weaker than those of dimethylbiguanide.Compared with diabetic mice in model control group,body weights of aqueous extract group(AEG,diabetic mice treated with VBTL aqueous extract) were partly recovered.The BG levels of AEG were reduced 14.2%,and body weights were increased 61.0%.AEG had significantly lower(p0.05) TC or TG levels and similar HDL-cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol levels.In conclusion,research clearly indicated that the aqueous extract of VBTL possess a potential hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.%以链脲佐菌素造模糖尿病小鼠为研究对象,对乌饭树树叶水提取物的降血糖和血脂作用进行了研究,并与二甲双胍的效果进行了比较。结果表明,虽然效果没有二甲双胍明显,但水提物对糖尿病小鼠的血糖和血脂有明显的改善作用。相对模型对照组,灌胃四周水提物后糖尿病小鼠的体重增加了61.0%,血糖降低了14.2%,血脂水平也得到了明显的改善。

  2. Rapid identification of a narcotic plant Papaver bracteatum using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragane, Masako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Yoshida, Masao; Yoshizawa, Masao; Abe, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Rei; Suzuki, Jin; Moriyasu, Takako; Nakae, Dai; Sudo, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hishida, Atuyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Makabe, So; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    In May 2011, numerous poppy plants closely resembling Papaver bracteatum Lindl., a type of narcotic plant that is illegal in Japan, were distributed directly from several large flower shops or through online shopping throughout Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolitan area. In order to better identify the narcotic plants, the relative nuclear DNA content at the vegetative stage was measured by flow cytometric (FCM) analysis in 3 closely-related species of the genus Papaver section Oxytona, namely P. orientale, P. pseudo-orientale, and P. bracteatum, based on the difference between the chromosome numbers of these species. The results showed that the nuclear DNA content differed between these 3 species, and that most of the commercially distributed plants examined in this study could be identified as P. bracteatum. The remaining plants were P. pseudo-orientale, a non-narcotic plant. In addition, the FCM results for the identification of P. bracteatum completely agreed with the results obtained by the morphological analysis, the inter-genic spacer sequence of rpl16-rpl14 (PS-ID sequence) of chloroplast DNA, and the presence of thebaine. These results clearly indicate the usefulness of FCM analysis for the identification of P. bracteatum plants, including when they are in their vegetative stage. PMID:24952707

  3. Processing of Vaccinium Bracteatum Thunb Fruit Wine%乌饭子果酒的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡明; 郑宏岩; 王颖

    2014-01-01

    以乌饭子为主要原料,研究了乌饭子果酒的生产工艺,试验结果表明:利用0.04%的果胶酶可提高乌饭子果汁21.5%的出汁率;乌饭子果酒的最佳工艺条件为:酵母添加量为0.08%、含糖量为22%、pH为3.7、发酵温度为26℃。%The manufacturing processing of wine made of vaccinium bracteatum thunb fruit was researched. The results shown that juice yield could be elevated to 21.5%by treating with 0.04%pectinase. The optimal juice extracting processing were as follows:the juice was fermented by 0.08%yeast with 22%sugar at 26℃under neutral condition(pH3.7).

  4. New research on the preparation of the black pigment from vaccinium bracteatum thunb%关于乌饭树黑色素制备的新思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国华; 邵斌; 许新德

    2011-01-01

    乌饭树黑色素的研究虽然已经进行了多年,但其制备过程却一直没有受到应有的重视,从而使其成为制约乌饭树黑色素产业化的一个瓶颈.本文从乌饭树黑色素制备过程中的浸提、氧化发酵、纯化和干燥四个方面进行了必要的分析,并提出了一些较为新颖的观点:第一,氧化发酵过程是乌饭树黑色素形成的必要条件;第二,树脂是纯化乌饭树黑色素的更好选择;第三,不能用黄酮类物质的含量来度量乌饭树黑色素的含量.希望这些观点能为乌饭树黑色素的产业化提供一点新思路.%The study on the black pigment from Vaccinium Bracteatum Thunb has been investigated for many years. However, the preparation has not been given sufficient attention, thus prevents its industrialization. The process of preparation has been analyzed in this paper. It showed that; the oxidation was the necessary condition for preparing black pigment from Vaccinium Bracteatum Thunb; moreover, the resin is a good choice to purify the black pigment from Vaccinium Bracteatum Thunb; and the last, it was not appropriate to use the content of total flavonoids to evaluate the content of black pigment from Vaccinium Bracteatum Thunb.

  5. Protective Effects of Radix Pseudostellariae Extract Against Retinal Laser Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Rui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to analyze the protective effects of a saponin extract from Radix Pseudostellariae (RP on retinal laser injury based on a retinal photocoagulation model. Methods: Fifty-eight rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group A (saponin extract orally, Group B (physiological saline, and Group C (control. The animals were sacrificed 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days after photocoagulation and lesions were evaluated with fundus photography, light microscopy, and electron microscopy. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured, and expression levels of c-fos and Bax genes were also determined. Results: The lesion sizes in Group A were smaller than in Group B. The levels of SOD in Group B were significantly lower than in groups A and C (PConclusion: The saponin extract of RP can inhibit oxidative stress, downregulate the levels of c-fos and Bax gene expression, and inhibit apoptosis in the retina after photocoagulation.

  6. A Dyeing Experiment of Pure Silk Fabric Using Leaf Pigment of Vaccinium bracteatum as a Natural Dye%乌饭树叶色素作为天然染料用于真丝织物的染色试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田恬; 陈国强

    2011-01-01

    为开发适合于真丝织物染色的天然染料及其染色工艺,以乌饭树叶色素作为染料,研究其用于真丝织物染色的性能及染色工艺条件.测试结果表明,乌饭树叶色素的提取液具有良好的热稳定性,在30~ 100℃范围内的色光稳定性均较好;在酸性至弱酸性条件下具有稳定的颜色,而在中性至碱性条件下随pH值变化溶液显示不同的颜色.通过单因素试验确定最佳染色工艺条件为:染液pH 2 ~6或7~8,染色温度98℃,染色时间60 min,染液质量浓度60 ~80 g/L,染色次数1次.采用以上工艺以乌饭树叶色素提取液对真丝织物染色,不需添加其它化学助剂和金属盐,染色方法简单,在染液的2个pH值范围可分别将织物染成固定的颜色,染色后的真丝织物皂洗色牢度均可达到5级,日晒色牢度可达到3~4级,且保持了真丝织物特有的光泽度,因此认为乌饭树叶色素适用于高档真丝内衣的染色.%For the purpose of exploiting a natural dye and its dyeing technology for pure silk fabric, the leaf pigment of Vaccinium bracteatum was used to test its dyeing capability and dyeing technological condition. The experimental results showed that the leaf pigment extract of Vaccinium bracteatum had good thermal stability, which had good hue stability within the range of 30 -100 ℃. The extract had stable color under acid to weak acid condition, but showed different colors with the change of pH value under neutral to alkaline condition. Through single factor experiments, the best dyeing technological condition was set as follows: dye solution's pH value 2 -6 or 7 -8, dyeing temperature 98 ℃, dyeing duration 60 min, dye concentration 60-80 g/L, and dyeing times one. Under this technological condition, dyeing of pure silk fabric with leaf pigment extract of Vaccinium bracteatum did not need other chemical auxiliary agents or metallic salts. Nevertheless, the method of dyeing was simple. The fabric

  7. Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bravo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 μg/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 μM t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult.

  8. DETERMINATION OF IN-VTRO SUN PROTECTING FACTOR VALUE OF EUCHEUMA SPINOSUM EXTRACT CREAM

    OpenAIRE

    Pakki, Ermina; Fatmawaty, Aisyah; Syukur, Rahmawati; Afandi, Andi; Aswad, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    The research was aimed to determtne invitro SPF value of seaweed (Eucheuma spinosum) extract used as protection level of sunscreen Fresh Eucheuma spinosum sample was extracted by maceration method with metanol 80% and subsequently extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexan and 96Yo of ethanol. The extract was formulated as cream cosmetic at concentrations of 2Yo, 4yo, 6Vo, 8% and 10% and determined its SPF value using spectrophotometry method. The research data revealed that cream con...

  9. Protection of deoxyribose and DNA from degradation by using aqueous extracts of several wild plants

    OpenAIRE

    Maria S. Gião; González-Sanjose, M. L.; Muñiz, Pilar; Rivero-Pérez, M. D.; Kosinska, Monika; Pintado, Manuela E.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aqueous extracts of 48 herbal plants were obtained via alternative extraction protocols, and were assayed for their capacity to protect deoxyribose and DNA itself from degradation (or, conversely, for their capacity to promote DNA degradation), using electrophoresis as analytical tool. RESULTS: For a given (constant) volume of extract, deoxyribose protection ranged from 14.13 ± 1.35% (mean ± SD) inhibition by dwarf mallow powder infusion, up to 106.51 ± 15.93% inhibition by av...

  10. Characteristics of fracture development and gas extraction of a lower protected seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海锋

    2009-01-01

    To ensure the mining safety of working face in the protective seam and meanwhile extract pressure-relief gas of the lower protected seam and eliminate its outburst risk,the present study researched into fracture development of floor coal-rock mass of the protective seam and migration rule of pressure-relief gas from a protected seam so as to obtain an effective pressure- relief gas extraction method.The results show that after the upper protective seam was mined,mining-induced fracturing floor coal-rock mas...

  11. Dandelion Extracts Protect Human Skin Fibroblasts from UVB Damage and Cellular Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV irradiation causes damage in skin by generating excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS and induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, leading to skin photoageing. Dandelion extracts have long been used for traditional Chinese medicine and native American medicine to treat cancers, hepatitis, and digestive diseases; however, less is known on the effects of dandelion extracts in skin photoageing. Here we found that dandelion leaf and flower extracts significantly protect UVB irradiation-inhibited cell viability when added before UVB irradiation or promptly after irradiation. Dandelion leaf and flower extracts inhibited UVB irradiation-stimulated MMP activity and ROS generation. Dandelion root extracts showed less action on protecting HDFs from UVB irradiation-induced MMP activity, ROS generation, and cell death. Furthermore, dandelion leaf and flower but not root extracts stimulated glutathione generation and glutathione reductase mRNA expression in the presence or absence of UVB irradiation. We also found that dandelion leaf and flower extracts help absorb UVB irradiation. In addition, dandelion extracts significantly protected HDFs from H2O2-induced cellular senescence. In conclusion, dandelion extracts especially leaf and flower extracts are potent protective agents against UVB damage and H2O2-induced cellular senescence in HDFs by suppressing ROS generation and MMP activities and helping UVB absorption.

  12. A Novel Process for the Aqueous Extraction of Linseed Oil Based on Nitrogen Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Gao; Ning Wang; Lirong Xu; Xiuzhu Yu

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent the oxidation of linseed oil and emulsification during extraction process, Nitrogen-protected and Salt-Assisted Aqueous Extraction (NSAE) of linseed oil was investigated in this study. Nitrogen-protected and salt-assisted were found to be the most effectively in weakening oil oxidation and improving the oil yield, respectively. The highest oil recovery of 87.55% was achieved under optimal conditions of sodium carbonate solution concentration (2 mol/L), solution-to-flour ra...

  13. Radiation protection by botanical extract from Araliaceae family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single post-irradiation injection of a ginseng extract increased the 30-day survival ratios of X-ray irradiated mice, rats and guinea pigs. The injection accelerated the recovery of hemogram (erythrocyte, leukocyte and thrombocyte couts), particularly strongly that of thrombocyte count, commonly in the three species of the experimental animals. The extract increased the 30-day survival ratio, but stimulated recovery of only thrombocyte count in splenectomized mice. We consider that recovery of thrombocyte count is one of the most important factors for the decrease in bone marrow death after acute ionizing irradiation

  14. Protective effects of taraxaci Herba extract against {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Hwang, Seong Hye; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The expanding usage of radiation and radioisotopes in industry, medicine, and scientific research operations has entailed the necessity of efficient radioprotectors to reduce the biological damage during medical usage or after accidental exposure. Natural products such as herbal medicines, which are relatively less toxic, have recently begun to receive some attention as possible modifiers for radiation response. Taraxaci Herba (the aerial part of Taraxacum mongolicum, Compositae family) is a medicinal herb which has been traditionally used in Eastern Asia. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant and radioprotective activity of hot water extract of Traxaci Herba (TH extract) in vitro and in vivo models.

  15. Protective effects of taraxaci Herba extract against γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expanding usage of radiation and radioisotopes in industry, medicine, and scientific research operations has entailed the necessity of efficient radioprotectors to reduce the biological damage during medical usage or after accidental exposure. Natural products such as herbal medicines, which are relatively less toxic, have recently begun to receive some attention as possible modifiers for radiation response. Taraxaci Herba (the aerial part of Taraxacum mongolicum, Compositae family) is a medicinal herb which has been traditionally used in Eastern Asia. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant and radioprotective activity of hot water extract of Traxaci Herba (TH extract) in vitro and in vivo models

  16. Bits extraction for palmprint template protection with Gabor magnitude and multi-bit quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Shao, Xiaoying; Ruan, QiuQi; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of fixed-length binary string extraction (denoted by LogGM_DROBA) from low-resolution palmprint image for developing palmprint template protection technology. In order to extract reliable (stable and discriminative) bits, multi-bit equal-probability-interval quanti

  17. Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-03-01

    Flower extract of C. officinalis L. was evaluated for its protective effect against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The activities of serum marker enzymes of liver injury like glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which were increased by CCl4 injection was found to be significantly reduced by the pretreatment of the flower extract at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The lipid peroxidation in liver, the marker of membrane damage and the total bilirubin content in serum were also found to be at significantly low level in the extract pretreated group, indicating its protective role. The kidney function markers like urea and creatinine were significantly increased in cisplatin treated animals. However, their levels were found to be lowered in the extract pretreated groups (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight). Moreover, cisplatin induced myelosuppression was ameliorated by the extract pretreatment. Treatment with the extract produced enhancement of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase and glutathione. Results suggest a protective role of the flower extract of C. officinalis against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Extract has been found to contain several carotenoids of which lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene predominates. Possible mechanism of action of the flower extract may be due to its antioxidant activity and reduction of oxygen radicals. PMID:19405380

  18. Antioxidant, DNA protective efficacy and HPLC analysis of Annona muricata (soursop) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2015-04-01

    Annona muricata is a naturally occurring edible plant with wide array of therapeutic potentials. In India, it has a long history of traditional use in treating various ailments. The present investigation was carried out to characterize the phytochemicals present in the methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of A. muricata, followed by validation of its radical scavenging and DNA protection activities. The extracts were also analyzed for its total phenolic contents and subjected to HPLC analysis to determine its active metabolites. The radical scavenging activities were premeditated by various complementary assays (DRSA, FRAP and HRSA). Further, its DNA protection efficacy against H2O2 induced toxicity was evaluated using pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results revealed that the extracts were highly rich in various phytochemicals including luteolin, homoorientin, tangeretin, quercetin, daidzein, epicatechin gallate, emodin and coumaric acid. Both the extracts showed significant (p < 0.05) radical scavenging activities, while methanolic extract demonstrated improved protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage when compared to aqueous extract. A strong positive correlation was observed for the estimated total phenolic contents and radical scavenging potentials of the extracts. Further HPLC analysis of the phyto-constituents of the extracts provides a sound scientific basis for compound isolation.

  19. Biofunctional Activities of Equisetum ramosissimum Extract: Protective Effects against Oxidation, Melanoma, and Melanogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pin-Hui; Chiu, Yu-Pin; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Ibeto, Laura Kaodichi; Huang, Shu-Hung; Chiu, Chien Chih; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Chang, Yaw-Nan; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2016-01-01

    Equisetum ramosissimum, a genus of Equisetaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be separated into ethyl acetate (EA), dichloromethane (DM), n-hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), and water extracts. EA extract was known to have potent antioxidative properties, reducing power, DPPH scavenging activity, and metal ion chelating activity. This study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on three human malignant melanomas: A375, A375.S2, and A2058. MTT assay presented the notion that both EA and DM extracts inhibited melanoma growth but did not affect the viabilities of normal dermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) or fibroblasts. Western blot analyses showed that both EA and DM extracts induced overexpression of caspase proteins in all three melanomas. To determine their roles in melanogenesis, this study analyzed their in vitro suppressive effects on mushroom tyrosinase. All extracts except for water revealed moderate suppressive effects. None of the extracts affected B16-F10 cells proliferation. EA extract inhibited cellular melanin production whereas DM extract unexpectedly enhanced cellular pigmentation in B16-F10 cells. Data for modulations of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, and tyrosinase-related protein 2 showed that EA extract inhibited protein expression mentioned above whereas DM extract had the opposite effect. Overall, the experiments indicated that the biofunctional activities of EA extract contained in food and cosmetics protect against oxidation, melanoma, and melanin production. PMID:27403230

  20. 乌饭树果实大小的地理变异研究%Study on geographic variation of fruit sizes in Vaccinium bracteatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁林; 胡明娇; 李江; 刘江华

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinium bracteatum distributes widely in subtropical hilly and low mountains areas of China. Berry in V. bracteatum is a nutrition-rich and healthful food, and is most commonly used to eat as a traditional food in Chinese folks. In order to provide some scientific basis for selecting an breeding in V. bracteatum, fruits were collected from Jiangxi province (Huichang, Longnan, Ruijin, Jinggang Mountain, Pingxiang), Hunan province (Liuyang), and Jiangsu province (Yixing), fruit sizes and mass were determined, and the law of geographic variation was analyzed. The results showed that the fruit was of a type of small berry, average diameter of fruits was 0.790 2 cm, average mass of 1 000 seeds was 0.698 g. Diameter (y) and mass (x) of the fruit had significant relation of linear regression, and the equation was y = 0.603x -0.241. The results of variance analysis showed that sizes of the mixed fruits had no obvious differences among the areas at different latitudes, and fruit sizes from superior trees had significant differences among the areas at different latitudes, which indicated individual plant in V. bracteatum had a independent inheritance background. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that sizes of the mixed fruits collected from different latitudes had no significant linear regression relation with environment factors, and fruit sizes from superior trees had significant multiple linear regression relation with environment factors, for example, annual average temperature (x2) and frost free period (x4), and the linear regression equation was y = - 0.038x2 + 0.004x4 + 0.674. In a word, selecting and breeding of V. bracteatum plants with large fruit type should paid attention to the areas of Jinggang Mountain, Longnan and Pingxiang.%乌饭树广泛分布于我国亚热带丘陵—低山地区,是中国民间传统的健康食品“乌饭”的原料,其浆果酸甜可口,营养丰富,含有多种有益于人体健康的成分。为

  1. Evaluation of Sun Protection Factor of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Extract by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to evaluate the sun protection factor (SPF of aqueous and methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe by ultraviolet (UV spectroscopy method. Aqueous and Methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale having concentration of 200µg/ml and 400µg/ml was prepared respectively and the SPF values were evaluated by UV spectroscopy. In this study, it was found that aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale (200µg/ml have SPF value about 1.44±0.034 and aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale (400µg/ml haveSPF value about 1.82±0.150. Methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (200µg/ml have SPF value about 1.48±0.094 and methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (400µg/ml have SPF value about 1.99±0.033. Marketed sunscreen lotion having concentration 200µg/ml shows SPF value about 0.66±0.006. It shows that the aqueous and methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale may absorb the UV radiation and possess good sun protection activity against ultraviolet radiation. These results show that active components responsible for ultraviolet absorption may be isolated from Zingiber officinale and used in sunscreens preparations for better protection against sun rays.

  2. Energy Extracting and Quench Protection System in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Abu Siam, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    quadrupole magnets. The electromagnets are built of special cables that operate in superconducting state by cooling them to 1.9K (-271.3℃); the superconducting magnets of the LHC are powered in about 1700 electrical circuits. A phenomenon called quench can spontaneously occur in superconducting magnets, which means that the superconductivity is lost in part of their windings. The energy stored within the magnet, up to 1.3 GJ, can cause severe damage. In order to protect the superconducting elements after a resistive transition, the energy is dissipated into a dump resistor installed in series with the magnet chain that is switched into the circuit by opening circuit breakers. The system described above is utilized for magnets installed in the LHC that operate under currents ranging from 600A up to 13kA. For the next LHC upgrade (High Luminosity) there is a need for circuit breakers capable of interrupting high DC currents in a solely inductive circuit within one millisecond and under development of very hig...

  3. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Methods Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacy...

  4. Moricandia arvensis extracts protect against DNA damage, mutagenesis in bacteria system and scavenge the superoxide anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandrani, Ines; Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Kilani, Soumaya; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghedira-Chekir, Leila

    2009-02-01

    The mutagenic potential of total aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), petroleum ether (PE) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from aerial parts of Moricandia arvensis was assessed using Ames Salmonella tester strains TA100 and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9), and using plasmid pBluescript DNA assay. None of the different extracts produced a mutagenic effect, except aqueous extract when incubated with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 after metabolic activation. Likewise, the antimutagenicity of the same extracts was tested using the "Ames test". Our results showed that M. arvensis extracts possess antimutagenic effects against sodium azide (SA) in the two tested Salmonella assay systems, except metabolized aqueous and PE extracts when tested with S. typhimurium TA100 assay system. Different extracts were also found to be effective in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals, except PE and aqueous extracts. Antioxidant capacity of the tested extracts was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) (X/XOD) and the non enzymatic (NBT/Riboflavine assay) systems. TOF extract was the more effective one in inhibiting both xanthine oxidase activity and NBT reduction. PMID:19015021

  5. Protective effects of Urtica dioica seed extract in aflatoxicosis: histopathological and biochemical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, A; Yener, Z; Dogan, A

    2016-04-01

    The ameliorative potential and antioxidant capacity of an extract of Urtica dioica seeds (UDS) was investigated using histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) content in various tissues of broilers exposed to aflatoxin (AF). A total of 32 broilers were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, UDS extract-treated, AF-treated and AF+UDS extract-treated. Broilers in control and UDS extract-treated groups were fed on a diet without AF. The AF-treated group and AF+UDS extract-treated groups were treated with an estimated 1 mg total AF/kg feed. The AF+UDS extract groups received in addition 30 ml UDS extract/kg diet for 21 d. The AF-treated group had significantly decreased body weight gain when compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis showed a small increase in the concentrations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the AF-treated group compared to that of the control group, whereas concentrations of these enzymes were decreased in the AF+UDS group compared to that of the AF-treated group. Administration of supplementary UDS extract helped restore the AF-induced increase in MDA and reduced the antioxidant system towards normality, particularly in the liver, brain, kidney and heart. Hepatorenal protection by UDS extracts was further supported by the almost normal histology in AF+UDS extract-treated group as compared to the degenerative changes in the AF-treated broilers. It was concluded that UDS extract has a protective hepatorenal effect in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defence systems. PMID:26947348

  6. Evaluation of Sun Protection Factor of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Extract by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to evaluate the sun protection factor (SPF) of aqueous and methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy method. Aqueous and Methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale having concentration of 200µg/ml and 400µg/ml was prepared respectively and the SPF values were evaluated by UV spectroscopy. In this study, it was found that aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale (200µg/ml) have SPF value about 1.44±0....

  7. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papawee Suabjakyong

    Full Text Available The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L. Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi's group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A. We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke.

  8. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Saiki, Ryotaro; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Higashi, Kyohei; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi's group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A). We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke. PMID:25811373

  9. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Yanbo Cheng; Jiale Yin; Qian Lu; Xingshun Xu; Xiaoxing Yin

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzed the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cell apoptosis in a model of Parkinson's disease. The results showed that Ginkgo biloba extract had a potent cytoprotective action and inhibited apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Ginkgo biloba extract decreased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 and markedly inhibited the activation of p53 and caspase-3. These experimental findings indicate that Ginkgo biloba extract may significantly reduce the effects of oxidative stress induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in PC12 cells and suppress cell apoptosis. The potential effects of Ginkgo biloba extract might be greater than those of levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Protective effect of Artemisia annua L. extract against galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Hye Kim

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. (also called qinghao has been well known as a source of antimalarial drug artemisinins. In addition, the herb was reported to have in vitro antioxidative activity. The present study investigated the protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Qinghao (AA extract against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice. Feeding AA extract-containing diet lowered serum levels of malondialdehyde and 8-OH-dG that are biomarkers for lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, respectively. Furthermore, AA extract feeding enhanced the activity of NQO1, a typical antioxidant marker enzyme, in tissues such as kidney, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. In conclusion, AA extract was found to have antioxidative activity in mouse model.

  11. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. calyx extract on tetracycline induced testicular toxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaphat Taweebot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae calyx extract (HSE was evaluated for theprotective effect against testicular toxicity induced by tetracycline dose of 20 mg/100 gBW for 14 daysin mice. The extract doses of 20, 50 and 100 mg/100 gBW used in pretreatment by oral administrationfor 4 days and subsequent co-treatment with tetracycline for 14 days had the protective effectexhibiting significantly increasing quality of seminal fluid including an increase in total sperm count,percentage of mobile sperms and viable sperms when compared to the tetracycline treated group (p H. Sabdariffa. calyx extract may be used as protective agent againsttetracycline-induced reproductive toxicity in mice.

  12. Protective effect of Cardiospermum halicacabum leaf extract on glycoprotein components on STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnadurai Veeramani; Khalid S Al-Numair; Mohammed A Alsaif; Govindasamy Chandramohan; Nouf S Al-Numair; Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective role of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) leaf extract on glycoprotein metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods:Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitonial administration of STZ. TheC. halicacabum leaf extract (CHE) was administered orally to normal and STZ-diabetic rats for 45 days. The effects of C. halicacabum leaf extract (CHE) on plasma and tissue glycoproteins (hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) were determined. Results: The levels of plasma and tissues glycoproteins containing hexose, hexosamine and fucose were significantly increased in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the level of sialic acid significantly increased in plasma and liver while decreased in kidney of STZ-induced diabetic rats. After administration of CHE to diabetic rats, the metabolic alteration of glycoprotein reverted towards normal levels.Conclusions:The present study indicates that the CHE possesses a protective effect on abnormal glycoprotein metabolism in addition to its antihyperglycemic activity.

  13. Extract of Rhus verniciflua stokes protects the diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Park, Jong-Gil; Kim, Sinai; Kweon, Hyae Yon; Seo, Seungwoon; Na, Dae-Seung; Lee, Dongho; Hong, Cheol Yi; Na, Chun-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Oh, Goo Taeg

    2015-11-01

    Rhus verniciflua stokes (RVS) is a popular medicinal plant in oriental medicines which is commonly used to resolve extravasated blood. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the role of RVS extracts on the regulation of lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis, we investigated whether RVS extract protect the hyperlipidemia in western diet-induced C57BL6/J mice. Mice fed a western diet and additionally RVS extracts was administered orally at a dose of 0.1 or 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks respectively. Group with higher dose of RVS extract showed a significantly decreased body weight compared with western diet fed mice groups. And total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol levels and fatty liver formation were also improved especially in group of mice fed western diet supplemented high dose RVS extracts. Next, synthesis of hepatic bile acids were significantly increased in RVS extract fed groups. Furthermore, RVS extracts significantly increase promoter activity of Cyp7a1 via up-regulate the transcriptional expression level of LXRα. Our data suggest that RVS extracts could be a potent therapeutic ingredient for prevent a hyperlipidemia via increase of bile acids biosynthesis.

  14. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte membrane, treated as a model of the cell. An analysis of the extract's composition has shown that buckwheat husk and stalk extracts are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds, the stalk extracts showing more compounds than the husk extract. The study allowed to determine the location which incorporated polyphenols occupy in the erythrocyte membrane and changes in the membrane properties caused by them. It was found that the extracts do not induce hemolysis of red blood cells, causing an increase in osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. They affect mainly the hydrophilic region by changing the degree of order of the polar heads of lipids, but do little to change the fluidity of the membrane and its hydration. The results showed also that polyphenolic substances included in the extracts well protect the membranes of red blood cells against oxidation and exhibit anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:26581904

  15. Scutellaria radix Extract as a Natural UV Protectant for Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Choi, Go Woon; An, Sang Mi; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Hyeong-Ho; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces oxidative injury and inflammation in human skin. Scutellaria radix (SR, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) contains flavonoids with high UV absorptivity and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential use of SR extract as an additive in cosmetic products for UV protection. SR extract and its butanol (BuOH) fraction strongly absorbed UV radiation and displayed free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radials and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. They also attenuated the UV-induced death of HaCaT cells. Sunscreen creams, with or without supplementation of SR extract BuOH fraction, were tested in vivo in human trials to evaluate potential skin irritation and determine the sun protection factor (SPF). Both sunscreen creams induced no skin irritation. A sunscreen cream containing 24% ZnO showed an SPF value of 17.8, and it increased to 22.7 when supplemented with 5% SR extract BuOH fraction. This study suggests that SR-derived materials are useful as safe cosmetic additives that provide UV protection.

  16. In Vitro Protective Potentials of Annona muricata Leaf Extracts Against Sodium Arsenite-induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Vazhappilly Cijo; Kumar, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen; Suresh, Palamadai Krishnan; Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) is a metalloid which is present widely in the environment and its chronic exposure can contribute to the induction of oxidative stress, resulting in disturbances in various metabolic functions including liver cell death. Hence, there is a need to develop drugs from natural sources, which can reduce arsenic toxicity. While there have been reports regarding the antioxidant and protective potentials of Annona muricataleaf extracts, our study is the first ofits kind to extend these findings by specifically evaluating its ability to render protection against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced toxicity (10 μM) in WRL-68 (human hepatic cells) and human erythrocytes by employing XTT and haemolysis inhibition assays respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited higher activity than the aqueous extract in both assays. The results showed a dose-dependent decrease in arsenic toxicity in both WRL-68 cells and erythrocytes, suggesting the protective nature of Annona muricatato mitigate arsenic toxicity. Hence the bioactive extracts can further be scrutinized for the identification and characterization of their principal contributors.

  17. Protective effects of Sesamum indicum extract against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Shahraki, Jafar; Tafreshian, Saman; Salimi, Ahmad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium toxicity is a challenging problem to human and animal health with no entirely understanding cytotoxic mechanisms. Previous studies in vanadium toxicity showed involvement of oxidative stress in isolated liver hepatocytes and mitochondria via increasing of ROS formation, release of cytochrome c and ATP depletion after incubation with different concentrations (25-200 µM). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Sesamum indicum seed extract (100-300 μg/mL) against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that quite similar to Alpha-tocopherol (100 µM), different concentrations of extract (100-300 μg/mL) protected the isolated hepatocyte against all oxidative stress/cytotoxicity markers induced by vanadium in including cell lysis, ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease and lysosomal membrane damage. Besides, vanadium induced mitochondrial/lysosomal toxic interaction and vanadium reductive activation mediated by glutathione in vanadium toxicity was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by Sesamum indicum extracts. These findings suggested a hepato-protective role for extracts against liver injury resulted from vanadium toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 979-985, 2016. PMID:25727928

  18. Flavonoids of an extract of Pterospartum tridentatum showing endothelial protection against oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Rute F; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Teixeira, Generosa; Borges, Carlos; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Teixeira, Adriano; Paulo, Alexandra

    2004-08-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum is a Leguminosae that grows spontaneously in Portugal. The flowers are used in popular medicine for the treatment of throat irritation conditions and in herbal mixtures for diabetes. Diabetic vascular complications are due, among other reasons, to increased oxidative stress and for that reason antioxidants are believed to be beneficial for the diabetic patient. The flower water extract of this herbal drug showed dose-dependent protective effect of cultured human endothelial cells against oxidative injury induced by H2O2, at concentrations > or =0.3 mg/ml. This water extract, after liquid-liquid and chromatographic fractionation afforded one new isoflavone (5,5'-dihydroxy-3'-metoxi-isoflavone-7-O-beta-glucoside) and three other known isoflavones (prunetin, genistin and sissotrin). The structural characterisation of isolated compounds was achieved by UV, NMR and MS analysis. The flavonol glycoside isoquercitrin was also identified in the extract by HPLC analysis. Isoquercitrin is one of the active antioxidant principles of the extract since it showed dose-dependent protective effect against oxidative injury at concentrations > or =0.3 mM. Isoflavones were inactive at the same concentrations. The results suggest that the water extract of this herbal drug may prevent or reduce the development of diabetic vascular complications.

  19. Safety of Desmodium adscendens extract on hepatocytes and renal cells. Protective effect against oxidative stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, C.; Fares, M; Baiocchi, C.; Jean Michel Maixent

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The increased consumption of traditional medicinal plants has been driven by the notion that herbal products are safe and efficient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and the protective effect of a hydro alcoholic extract of Desmodium adscendens (DA) on liver (HEPG2) and kidney (LLC-PK1) cells. Materials and Methods: A hydro alcoholic extract of DA was used. HEPG2 or LLC-PK1 cells were treated with different does of DA, and viability test (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-...

  20. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  1. Grapevine fruit extract protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human lymphocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading the oxidative damage further to biomolecules. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) posses several bioactive phytochemicals and is the richest source of antioxidants. In this study, we investigated V. vinifera for its phytochemical content, enzymes profile and, ROS-and oxidant-scavenging activities. We have also studied the fruit extract of four different grapevine viz., Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe for their radioprotective actions in human lymphocytes. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (P < 0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuated the oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy γ-radiation in human lymphocytes in vitro. Further, γ-radiation-induced increase in caspase 3/7 activity was significantly attenuated by grape extracts. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. (author)

  2. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  3. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  4. Protection of radiation-induced DNA damage in albino rats by Zingiber Montanum extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tropical ginger, Zingiber montanum (J. König) A. Dietr, has potentials in scavenging free radicals and affording protection from radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. The present investigation aims at determining antioxidant and radioprotective properties of the rhizome extract. Sulphur free radical, DPPH and superoxide scavenging assays were carried out for assessing antioxidant activities. Radiation-induced (500 cGy) DNA damage in pBR322 in vitro could be significantly reduced upto 71% (P < 0.05) by treatment with 60% ethanol extract (20 μg). Acute toxicity of the 60% ethanol extract was determined and suitable injectable dose was selected for intra-peritoneal administration in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). The LD50 of extract calculated for 72 hrs was found to be 2.9 g/kg, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of rhizome extract was 1.3 g/kg. Rhizome extract (0.5 g/kg) in 60% ethanol was intra-peritoneally injected to albino rats and exposed to 100, 300 and 500 cGy. Radioprotective effect of the extract was determined by alkaline single cell comet assay. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) of comet DNA (68%) and length (61%)in rat bone marrow cells was observed at a radiation dose of 500 cGy. The results demonstrate that tropical ginger possess free radical scavenging properties and can protect bone marrow cells from radiation-induced DNA damages. The results on radiation induced DNA damage using plasmid pBR322 DNA obviously justify that the extract at a low dose can protect DNA from undergoing strand breakage due to gamma radiation exposure. Versatility of Zingiber montanum in different chemical assays in terms of its radical scavenging potential shows that this non-conventional food plant as a lot of potential in maintaining human health through dietary supplementation as nutraceutical. This candidate plant also can possibly be a promising candidate in clinical radiotherapy perhaps as a substitute of or the well-know radioprotector amifostine. (author)

  5. Protective effect of humus extract against Trypanosoma brucei infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Okazaki, Fumi; Ishida, Saeko

    2008-11-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms are present. Oral administration of humus extract to mice successfully induced effective protection against experimental challenge by the two subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and T. brucei gambiense. Mortality was most reduced among mice who received a 3% humus extract for 21 days in drinking water ad libitum. Spleen cells from humus-administered mice exhibited significant non-specific cytotoxic activity against L1210 mouse leukemia target cells. Also, spleen cells produced significantly higher amounts of Interferon-gamma when stimulated in vitro with Concanavalin A than cells from normal controls. These results clearly show that administration to mice of humus extract induced effective resistance against Trypanosoma infection. Enhancement of the innate immune system may be involved in host defense against trypanosomiasis.

  6. Design of the Injection and extraction system and related machine protection for the Clic Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Linear machines such as CLIC have relatively low rates of collision between bunches compared to their circular counterparts. In order to achieve the required luminosity, a very small spot size is envisaged at the interaction point, thus a low emittance beam is needed. Damping rings are essential for producing the low emittances needed for the CLIC main beam. It is crucial that the beams are injected and extracted from the damping rings in a stable and repeatable fashion to minimise emittance blow-up and beam jitter at the interaction point; both of these effects will deteriorate the luminosity at the interaction point. In this paper, the parameters and constraints of the injection and extraction systems are considered and the design of these systems is optimised within this parameter space. Related machine protection is considered in order to prevent damage from potential failure modes of the injection and extraction systems.

  7. Protective Effect of Plantago major Extract against t-BOOH-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage and Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Joyce C; Gonzalez, Mariano V D; Moraes, Vivian W R; Prieto, Tatiana; Nascimento, Otaciro R; Rodrigues, Tiago

    2015-09-25

    Plantago major L. produces several chemical substances with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and its use in the treatment of oral and throat inflammation in popular medicine is well described. In this study, the antioxidant potential of the Plantago major hydroethanolic extract was screened and its protective action was evaluated against t-BOOH-induced oxidative stress. The extract was obtained by fractionated percolation using 50% ethanolic solution and, after drying, suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide. The chromatographic profile of crude extract was obtained with the identification of some phytochemical markers and the total phenols and flavonoids were quantified. The scavenger activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals was determined and the antioxidant activity in biological systems was evaluated in isolated rat liver mitochondria and HepG2 cells. The extract exhibited a significant free radical scavenger activity at 0.1 mg/mL, and decreased the ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation in succinate-energized mitochondria. Such an effect was associated with the preservation of the intrinsic antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione and NAD(P)H) against the oxidation by t-BOOH, and also to the protection of membranes from lipid oxidation. The cytoprotective effect of PmHE against t-BOOH induced cell death was also shown. These findings contribute to the understanding of the health benefits attributed to P. major.

  8. Protective Effect of Plantago major Extract against t-BOOH-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage and Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce C. Mello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plantago major L. produces several chemical substances with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and its use in the treatment of oral and throat inflammation in popular medicine is well described. In this study, the antioxidant potential of the Plantago major hydroethanolic extract was screened and its protective action was evaluated against t-BOOH-induced oxidative stress. The extract was obtained by fractionated percolation using 50% ethanolic solution and, after drying, suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide. The chromatographic profile of crude extract was obtained with the identification of some phytochemical markers and the total phenols and flavonoids were quantified. The scavenger activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals was determined and the antioxidant activity in biological systems was evaluated in isolated rat liver mitochondria and HepG2 cells. The extract exhibited a significant free radical scavenger activity at 0.1 mg/mL, and decreased the ROS (reactive oxygen species generation in succinate-energized mitochondria. Such an effect was associated with the preservation of the intrinsic antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione and NAD(PH against the oxidation by t-BOOH, and also to the protection of membranes from lipid oxidation. The cytoprotective effect of PmHE against t-BOOH induced cell death was also shown. These findings contribute to the understanding of the health benefits attributed to P. major.

  9. Protective Effect of Plantago major Extract against t-BOOH-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage and Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Joyce C; Gonzalez, Mariano V D; Moraes, Vivian W R; Prieto, Tatiana; Nascimento, Otaciro R; Rodrigues, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    Plantago major L. produces several chemical substances with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and its use in the treatment of oral and throat inflammation in popular medicine is well described. In this study, the antioxidant potential of the Plantago major hydroethanolic extract was screened and its protective action was evaluated against t-BOOH-induced oxidative stress. The extract was obtained by fractionated percolation using 50% ethanolic solution and, after drying, suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide. The chromatographic profile of crude extract was obtained with the identification of some phytochemical markers and the total phenols and flavonoids were quantified. The scavenger activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals was determined and the antioxidant activity in biological systems was evaluated in isolated rat liver mitochondria and HepG2 cells. The extract exhibited a significant free radical scavenger activity at 0.1 mg/mL, and decreased the ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation in succinate-energized mitochondria. Such an effect was associated with the preservation of the intrinsic antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione and NAD(P)H) against the oxidation by t-BOOH, and also to the protection of membranes from lipid oxidation. The cytoprotective effect of PmHE against t-BOOH induced cell death was also shown. These findings contribute to the understanding of the health benefits attributed to P. major. PMID:26404215

  10. Protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract on bromobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Jalali, Mohammadtaha; Jalali, Amir; Salimi, Abobakr; Alhalvachi, Foad; Varga, Balazs; Juhasz, Bela; Jakab, Anita; Kemeny-Beke, Adam; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Tosaki, Arpad; Zsuga, Judit

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of a crude hydro-alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula (golden shower tree) fruit to protect the kidney against bromobenzene-induced toxicity was studied. Negative control mice received normal saline; positive control mice were given 460 mg/kg of bromobenzene; Cassia fistula treated mice received 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg of Cassia fistula fruit extract followed by 460 mg/kg bromobenzene (daily by oral gavage for 10 days). On the 11th day, the mice were sacrificed, blood samples were obtained to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, and kidneys were removed for histological examination. We found that bromobenzene induced significant nephrotoxicity reflected by an increase in levels of BUN and creatinine that was dose dependently prevented by the Cassia fistula fruit extract. The nephroprotective effect of the Cassia fistula fruit extract was confirmed by the histological examination of the kidneys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the protective effect of Cassia fistula in nephrotoxicity.

  11. Ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai; Nguyen; Thanh; Hue; Pham; Thi; Minh; Tuan; Anh; Le; Huong; Duong; Thi; Ly; Tung; Nguyen; Huu; Loi; Vu; Duc; Thu; Dang; Kim; Tung; Bui; Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the protective potential of ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis(S. baicalensis) against lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced liver injury. Methods: Dried roots of S. baicalensis were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg of the ethanol extracts orally once daily for one week. Animals were subsequently administered a single dose of LPS(5 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneal injection). Both protein and m RNA levels of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in liver tissues were evaluated by ELISA assay and quantitative PCR. C yclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-κB protein levels in liver tissues were analyzed by western blotting. Results: Liver injury induced by LPS signifi cantly increased necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-κB in liver tissues. Treatment with ethanol extracts of S. baicalensis prevented all of these observed changes associated with LPS-induced injury in liver mice.Conclusions: Our study showed that S. baicalensis is potentially protective against LPS-induced liver injury in mice.

  12. Ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Nguyen Thanh; Hue Pham Thi Minh; Tuan Anh Le; Huong Duong Thi Ly; Tung Nguyen Huu; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Dang Kim; Tung Bui Thanh

    2015-01-01

    To investigated the protective potential of ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis ) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury. Methods: Dried roots of S. baicalensis were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg of the ethanol extracts orally once daily for one week. Animals were subsequently administered a single dose of LPS (5 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneal injection). Both protein and mRNA levels of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in liver tissues were evaluated by ELISA assay and quantitative PCR. Cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-κB protein levels in liver tissues were analyzed by western blotting. Results: Liver injury induced by LPS significantly increased necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-κB in liver tissues. Treatment with ethanol extracts of S. baicalensis prevented all of these observed changes associated with LPS-induced injury in liver mice. Conclusions: Our study showed that S. baicalensis is potentially protective against LPS-induced liver injury in mice.

  13. In vitro free radical scavenging and DNA damage protective property of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, S N; Anilakumar, K R

    2014-08-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), an everyday spice in the Indian kitchen is known to add flavor to the cuisine. It is an annual herb belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbellifera) family. The hydro-alcohol extract of Coriandrum sativum L. at the dose of 1 mg/ml was subjected to a series of in vitro assays viz. 2, 2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid, reducing power and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging in order to study its antioxidant efficacy in detail. The amount of flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract was found to be 44.5 μg and that of the total phenols was 133.74 μg gallic acid equivalents per mg extract. The extracts of the leaves showed metal chelating power, with IC50 values, 368.12 μg/ml where as that of standard EDTA was 26.7 μg/ml. The IC50 values for 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging was 222 μg/ml where as that of standard ascorbic acid was 22.6 μg/ml. The NO scavenging activity of the extract of the leaves showed IC50 value of 815.6 μg/ml; at the same time the standard BHA had 49.1 μg/ml. All the plant extracts provided DNA damage protection; however, the protection provided at the dose of 8 μg/ml was comparable to that of standard gallic acid. The Coriandrum sativum leaf extract was able to prevent in vitro lipid peroxidation with IC50 values; 589.6 μg/ml where as that of standard BHA was 16.3 μg/ml. Our results also showed significant ferric reducing power indicating the hydrogen donating ability of the extract. This study indicated the potential of the leaf extract as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals that could be of use in food industry with potential application to reduce oxidative stress in living system. PMID:25114344

  14. Combinations of Ashwagandha leaf extracts protect brain-derived cells against oxidative stress and induce differentiation.

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    Navjot Shah

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays.We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach.Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health.

  15. Protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against bromobenzene-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Jalali, Mohammadtaha; Jalali, Amir; Mahdavinia, Masood; Salimi, Abobakr; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad; Gesztelyi, Rudolf

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, hepatoprotective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract was investigated in mice. Animals were divided into six groups receiving normal saline (1), bromobenzene (460 mg/kg) alone (2) and together with increasing doses (200, 400, 600, 800 mg/kg) of a crude hydro-alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula fruit (3-6, respectively). All administrations were carried out orally, daily, for 10 days. On the 11th day, animals were sacrificed. Serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT) were determined; serum levels of direct and total bilirubin were measured; furthermore, livers were prepared for histological examination. Our results showed that bromobenzene treatment alone elicited a significant increase in activities of AST, ALT, ALP (but not γGT), and it significantly elevated the levels of direct and total bilirubin. Co-treatment with Cassia fistula fruit extract, however, significantly and dose-dependently decreased the above-mentioned enzyme activities (with exception of γGT) and bilirubin levels, producing a recovery to the naive state. The protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against liver injury evoked by bromobenzene was confirmed by histological examination as well. In conclusion, the Cassia fistula fruit extract has significant hepatoprotective effect in our murine model.

  16. Protective effect of the n-butanol Toona sinensis seed extract on diabetic nephropathy rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W Z; Wang, X H; Zhang, H X; Mao, S M; Zhao, C Z

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the protective effect of the n-butyl alcohol phase of Toona sinensis seed extract on the kidneys of diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats and its preliminary mechanism. Male wistar rats were administered a normal or high-fat diet for 1 month. DN rats were divided into a model group and a petroleum ether phase of T. sinensis seed extract intervention group. The intervention group was administered 5 mg·100 g-1·day-1 extract. After treatment for 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples and the renal cortex were collected. Biochemical indicators in the serum and renal indices were assessed. Pathological changes of the renal tissues were also determined. Changes in the renal structure and protein levels were detected. Compared with the normal group, the blood glucose, urinary albumin, renal index, and oxidative stress index were sharply increased in the model group. The protein levels of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were increased. Compared with the model group, the n-butyl alcohol phase of T. sinensis seed extract significantly reduced the blood glucose, urinary albumin, renal index, oxidative stress index, serum creatinine, and urea nitrogen levels. The renal pathology abnormality was improved in DN rats. The protein levels of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and CTGF were increased. The expression of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and CTGF decreased. In conclusion, the n-butyl alcohol phase of T. sinensis seed extract has protective effects on DN rats via the inhibition of oxidative stress and protein expression of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and CTGF. PMID:27050993

  17. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of yeast extracts containing rotavirus-like particles: a potential veterinary vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Pastor, Ana Ruth; Esquivel-Soto, Ernesto; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2014-05-19

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in many animal species of economic interest. A simple, safe and cost-effective vaccine is required for the control and prevention of rotavirus in animals. In this study, we evaluated the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extracts containing rotavirus-like particles (RLP) as a vaccine candidate in an adult mice model. Two doses of 1mg of yeast extract containing rotavirus proteins (between 0.3 and 3 μg) resulted in an immunological response capable of reducing the replication of rotavirus after infection. Viral shedding in all mice groups diminished in comparison with the control group when challenged with 100 50% diarrhea doses (DD50) of murine rotavirus strain EDIM. Interestingly, when immunizing intranasally protection against rotavirus infection was observed even when no increase in rotavirus-specific antibody titers was evident, suggesting that cellular responses were responsible of protection. Our results indicate that raw yeast extracts containing rotavirus proteins and RLP are a simple, cost-effective alternative for veterinary vaccines against rotavirus.

  18. Protective Effect of Onion Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Hee; Lee, Joong Won; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Sunyeong; Kim, Yang Jee; Lee, Younghyun; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee; Chung, Hai Won

    2016-02-01

    Following one of the world's largest nuclear accidents, occured at Fukushima, Japan in 2011, a significant scientific effort has focused on minimizing the potential adverse health effects due to radiation exposure. The use of natural dietary antioxidants to reduce the risk of radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage is a simple strategy for minimizing radiation-related cancer rates and improving overall health. The onion is among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and is an important food for increasing their overall intake. Therefore, we examined the effect of an onion extract on cyto- and geno-toxicity in human lymphocytes treated with bleomycin (BLM), a radiomimetic agent. In addition, we measured the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and DNA damage following treatment with BLM using a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. We observed a significant increase in cell viability in lymphocytes treated with onion extract then exposed to BLM compared to cells treated with BLM alone. The frequency of BLM induced MN and DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner; however, when lymphocytes were pretreated with onion extract (10 and 20 μL/mL), the frequency of BLM-induced MN was decreased at all doses of BLM and DNA damage was decreased at 3 μg/mL of BLM. These results suggest that onion extract may have protective effects against BLM-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. PMID:26907305

  19. Protective Effect of Onion Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following one of the world’s largest nuclear accidents, occured at Fukushima, Japan in 2011, a significant scientific effort has focused on minimizing the potential adverse health effects due to radiation exposure. The use of natural dietary antioxidants to reduce the risk of radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage is a simple strategy for minimizing radiation-related cancer rates and improving overall health. The onion is among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and is an important food for increasing their overall intake. Therefore, we examined the effect of an onion extract on cyto- and geno-toxicity in human lymphocytes treated with bleomycin (BLM, a radiomimetic agent. In addition, we measured the frequency of micronuclei (MN and DNA damage following treatment with BLM using a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. We observed a significant increase in cell viability in lymphocytes treated with onion extract then exposed to BLM compared to cells treated with BLM alone. The frequency of BLM induced MN and DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner; however, when lymphocytes were pretreated with onion extract (10 and 20 μL/mL, the frequency of BLM-induced MN was decreased at all doses of BLM and DNA damage was decreased at 3 μg/mL of BLM. These results suggest that onion extract may have protective effects against BLM-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes.

  20. EVALUATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF WALNUT HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES FOR PROTECTION OF POPLAR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Khalil Hosseini Hashemi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Walnut (Juglans regia L. heartwood extractives were identified and their potential for protection of poplar wood was evaluated. Test specimens were prepared from poplar wood (Populus nigra L. to meet BS 838:1961 requirements. Samples were impregnated with heartwood extractive solution (1.5, 2.5, and 3.5% w/w in ethanol-toluene, followed by 5 hours vacuum desiccator technique to reach complete saturation. Impregnated specimens were exposed to white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor for 14 weeks according to BS 838:1961 applying the kolle-flask method. The weight loss of samples was determined after exposure to white-rot fungus. The highest weight loss (36.96% was observed for untreated control samples and the lowest weight loss (30.40% was measured in samples treated with 1.5% extractives solution. The analyses of the extracts using GC/MS indicated that major constituents are benzoic acid,3,4,5-tri(hydroxyl and gallic acid (44.57 %. The two toxic components in the heartwood are juglone (5.15 % and 2,7-dimethylphenantheren (5.81 %.

  1. Acetone Extract of Almond Hulls Provides Protection against Oxidative Damage and Membrane Protein Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkini, Azadeh

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have revealed that among foods, the consumption of edible nuts has beneficial effects on health which are attributed to their high content of potent antioxidants. Among nuts, the whole seed of the almond (Prunus dulcis) has been demonstrated to possess potent free radical scavenging activity, which is related to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the polyphenol content and the antioxidant ability of almond hull, which is an agriculture solid waste. The present results revealed that among different extraction methods, the acetone extract of almond hulls has a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and a high antioxidant ability, which were determined by using the phosphomolybdenum method and by measuring the potency of the antioxidant, respectively. Moreover, the experimental data disclosed that the acetone extract of almond hulls provides protection against the oxidative damage and the membrane protein degradation that are caused in human erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide. These phenomena may likely be due to the recruitment of antioxidants by cell membranes and/or translocation to cytosol. Overall, almond hull extract could be considered as a natural source of antioxidants, and its consumption could have a positive effect on human health. PMID:27342887

  2. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

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    Yoshinori Okada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alzheimer′s disease (AD is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds′ aqueous extracts (PSAE for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN. Materials and Methods: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce. PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. Results: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. Conclusion: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  3. Protective effects of pine bark extract against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Je-Won; Lee, In-Chul; Park, Sung-Hyuk; Moon, Changjong; Kang, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (pycnogenol®, PYC) against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into the following four groups: (1) vehicle control, (2) cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg), (3) cisplatin & PYC 10 (10 mg/kg/day), and (4) cisplatin & PYC 20 (20 mg/kg/day). A single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by an increase in serum aminotransferase and histopathological al...

  4. Protective Effect of Extract of Folium Ginkgo on Repeated Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effect of extract of Folium Ginkgo (FGE) on repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: The model in waking mice induced by repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were used in the experiment to observe the effect of FGE on behavior, oxygen free radical metabolism and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content by step-through experiment, diving stand and colorimetric method. Results: FGE could obviously improve the learning ability and memory of model animals, and could lower obviously the content of malonyldialdehyde, nitric oxide and PGE2, restore the lowered activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in cerebral tissue. Conclusion: FGE has highly protective effect against repeated ischemia-reperfusion injury, the mechanism might be related with its action on anti-lipid oxidatin, improve the activity of antioxidase and inhibit the producing of PGE2.

  5. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations.

  6. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations. PMID:26815913

  7. Juglans mandshurica leaf extract protects skin fibroblasts from damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Jang, Dae Sik; Oh, Myung Sook

    2012-05-01

    Skin is mainly damaged by genetic and environmental factors such as ultraviolet light, xenobiotics, hormonal changes, heat, and smoking. ROS production is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by these factors, causing skin aging, including wrinkling, by activating the metalloproteinases (MMP-1) that break down type I collagen (COL1A1). The walnut tree Juglans mandshurica MAX. (JM) is found in China, Siberia and Korea. JM has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of JM leaf extract (JME) against oxidative stress in HS68 human skin fibroblasts. JME significantly and dose-dependently protected HS68 cells against H₂O₂-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Other assays demonstrated that JME protected HS68 cells by regulating ROS production and increasing levels of glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and activated NF-E2-related factor 2. JME additionally prevented the elevation of MMP-1 and reduction of COL1A1 induced by H₂O₂. It also inhibited H₂O₂-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK. These results indicate that JME protects human skin fibroblasts from H₂O₂-induced damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  8. Protection by Mikania laevigata (guaco) extract against the toxicity of Philodryas olfersii snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaço, Rita de Cássia O; Cogo, José Carlos; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Rocha, Thalita; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; Randazzo-Moura, Priscila

    2012-09-15

    Philodryas olfersii is responsible for most colubrid snakebites in Brazil. In this work, we examined the ability of an ethanolic extract from Mikania laevigata (guaco) leaves to protect against the in vitro neuromuscular activity of P. olfersii venom in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) and chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparations. M. laevigata extract caused moderate twitch-tension facilitation at low concentrations (107.4 ± 6.2% with 20 μl/ml and 118.9 ± 9.3% with 40 μl/ml in PND, and 120.7 ± 7.7% with 40 μl/ml and 114.5 ± 4.4% with 50 μl/ml in BC after 120 min; n = 4-6, mean ± SEM). In PND, the ethanol alone (40 μl/ml, n = 4) did not change the twitch-tension when compared with control. However, in BC, the ethanol produced a higher facilitation when compared to control. At higher concentrations (>50 μl/ml) the extract caused total and reversible blockade in both preparations. Venom (50 μg/ml) caused partial blockade in PND (58.5 ± 12%, n = 4) and almost total blockade in BC (93.5 ± 2.2%, n = 4). Pretreatment of the preparations with extract (40 μl/ml) for 30 min before incubation with venom (50 μg/ml) completely protected PND from neuromuscular blockade and delayed the blockade in BC. The extract alone caused only mild morphological alterations (12.5 ± 0.5% and 10.9 ± 2.3% fiber damage in PND and BC, respectively, compared to 2.3 ± 0.3% and 3 ± 0 in controls; n = 3), with no increase in expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IFNγ. The ethanol alone also caused slight muscle damage: 4.3 ± 2.4% in PND and 6.7 ± 3.3% in BC (both n = 3) and little or no TNFα and IFNγ expression in both preparations as observed in control. Venom (50 μg/ml) caused 53.5 ± 8.5% and 55.8 ± 4.3% fiber damage in PND and BC, respectively; (n = 3, p < 0.05 vs. controls) and enhanced expression of TNFα and IFNγ. Pretreatment of the preparations with extract protected against venom

  9. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

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    Kittiyaporn Dondee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (P. berghei Methods: For extraction of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera leaves, microwave with hot water method was used and acute toxicity study was then be done. Standard Peters’ test was carried out to test the efficacy of M. oleifera extract in vivo. The ICR mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 red blood cells infected with P. berghei strain by intraperitoneal injection. They were subsequently given with 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of this extract by intragastric route once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia was estimated using microscopy and levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin were also measured. Results: The M. oleifera leaf extract showed the protective activity on liver damage in mice infected with P. berghei in a dose-dependent fashion. It can be indicated by normal levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin in mice treated with extract. The 1000 mg/kg of extract was observed to present the highest activity. Interestingly, the dosedependent antimalarial activity was also found in the mice treated with extract. Conclusions: The M. oleifera leaf extract presented protective effect on liver damage in mice infected with P. berghei.

  10. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A. P.; Brendel, Martin; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  11. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Carvalho-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test. In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay. Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application.

  12. Protective Effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract against Oxidative Renal Damage Caused by Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Poontawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium nephrotoxicity is a serious environmental health problem as it will eventually end up with end stage renal disease. The pathobiochemical mechanism of this toxic heavy metal is related to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala fruit extract (CNFE could protect the kidney against oxidative injury caused by cadmium. Initial analysis of the extract revealed antioxidant abilities and high levels of polyphenols, particularly catechin. Its potential renal benefits was further explored in rats treated with vehicle, CNFE, cadmium (2 mg/kg, and cadmium plus CNFE (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg for four weeks. Oxidative renal injury was developed after cadmium exposure as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine retention, glomerular filtration reduction, renal structural damage, together with increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, but decreased antioxidant thiols, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in renal tissues. Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity was diminished in rats supplemented with CNFE, particularly at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg. It is concluded that CNFE is able to protect against the progression of cadmium nephrotoxicity, mostly via its antioxidant power. The results also point towards a promising role for this naturally-occurring antioxidant to combat other human disorders elicited by disruption of redox homeostasis.

  13. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; Dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Henriques, João A P; Brendel, Martin; Pungartnik, Cristina; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as "mangosteen fruit," originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application.

  14. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; Dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Henriques, João A P; Brendel, Martin; Pungartnik, Cristina; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as "mangosteen fruit," originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  15. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  16. STUDY ON LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF RESVERATROL FROM GIANT KNOTWEED AND ITS PROTECTIVE EFFECT ON MYOCARDIUM INJURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玉海; 刘芸; 黄伟; 刘宏浪

    2002-01-01

    Objective An efficient extraction and separation method of resveratrol from a Chinese herb giant knotweed was developed and the protective effect of resveratrol on myocardium injury was investigated.Methods An orthogonal experiment was utilized to optimize the extraction conditions and the pure white crystal obtained utilizing the proposed method was used for the investigation of myocardium ischemic injury.Results Resveratrol was found to have many beneficial activities including the protective effect on the heart and the scavenging of free radical.Conclusion The protective effect of resveratrol on myocardium injury is related to the quenching of lipid peroxidation.

  17. Antioxidant and DNA damage protecting potentials of polysaccharide extracted from Phellinus baumii using a delignification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qun-Li; Zhang, Zuo-Fa; Lv, Guo-Ying; Cai, Wei-Ming; Cheng, Jun-Wen; Wang, Jian-Gong; Fan, Lei-Fa

    2016-11-01

    A delignification method was employed to extract the polysaccharide from the fruiting body of Phellinus baumii. The three parameters, processing temperature, ratio of water to raw material and amount of acetic acid every time were optimized using the Box-Behnken design. As a result, the optimal extraction conditions were: processing temperature 70.3°C, ratio of water to raw material of 34.7mL/g and amount of acetic acid of 0.32mL every time. Under these conditions, the highest yield of polysaccharide (10.28%) was obtained. The main fraction (PPB-2) purified from PPB was composed of fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and mannose, while glucose was the predominant monosaccharide. PPB-2 exhibited noticeable antioxidant activity and strong protection against oxidative DNA damage. These findings implied that acid-chlorite delignification was a superior method to extract the polysaccharide from P. baumii and PPB-2 may be useful for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:27516306

  18. Mushroom extract protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity in hepatic and neuronal human cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizani, Nejib; Waly, Mostafa I

    2012-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidative stress agent that is associated with depletion of intracellular glutathione and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes in different cell lines. Consumption of antioxidant-rich foods reduces cellular oxidative stress and its related health problems. This study aimed to assess the antioxidant properties of mushroom, Agaricus bisporous cultivar extract, against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in cultured human hepatic (HepG2) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. In this study, hydrogen peroxide caused significant oxidative stress in HepG2 and SH-SY5Y cells as demonstrated by glutathione depletion, impairment of total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase). Agaricusbisporous extract ameliorated the observed hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative cellular insult as indicated by restoring the activity of glutathione and the assayed antioxidant enzymes to control levels. The results suggest that mushroom extract as antioxidant properties and protects against the oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide-in cultured human hepatic and neuronal cells. PMID:24261122

  19. Protection of zonisamide induced memory impairment by tulsi extract and piracetam on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha J Bennadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Memory impairment is the major adverse effects associated with antiepileptic drug therapy. This study was designed to assess the memory impairment activity of zonisamide (ZNS, an antiepileptic drug, in mice. Memory deficit potential of ZNS was compared with phenytoin (PHT, a standard antiepileptic known for its memory impairment activity. The protective effect of Ocimum sanctum extract (OS and piracetam (PIR on memory impairment induced by ZNS was also assessed. Materials and Methods: ZNS was administered orally for 29 days and the extent of memory deficit was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM test on maximal electro shock-induced epileptic mice. The animals were observed for escape latency time (ELT and time spent in target quadrant (TSTQ on MWM test. The brain acetylcholinesterase level was estimated to determine the brain acetylcholine concentration. Result: Chronic administration of ZNS has shown memory deficit in mice and this was significantly restored by co-administration of OS extract and PIR. PIR showed best nootropic activity, whereas OS showed good nootropic as well as synergistic anti-convulsant activity. Conclusion: This study reveals that chronic administration of ZNS produces memory impairment in mice, which can be significantly minimized by co-administration of OS extract and PIR without compromising on ZNS antiepileptic potency. These results provide evidence for potential corrective effect of nootropics in cognitive deficit associated with ZNS.

  20. Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratchaya Kaewkaen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350 g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO. It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient.

  1. Protective effect of allium sativum ethanol extract on cultured human lymphocytes against electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radioprotective agent has been the subject of intense research because exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage which may cause mutation and ultimately leads to cancer, on the other hand radiotherapy has become an integral part in treatment of cancer which uses ionizing radiations like X rays, gamma rays to kill the cancer cells. Amifostine is a well-known radioprotector which is clinically approved. There are many other radioprotectors like cysteine, cystamine, serotine but they are not used because of its normal tissue toxicity. Allium sativum is commonly known as garlic which has already been reported for its medicinal properties. In this study we evaluated radioprotection property of Allium sativum on DNA damage caused by electron beam radiation in cultured human lymphocytes. Allium sativum ethanol extract was used for this study. Cell viability was performed by MTT assay. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The cultured lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of Allium sativum extracts for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hour time intervals. Treatment of lymphocytes with various concentration of Allium sativum extract resulted in significant decrease in the level of DNA damage (Percentage tail DNA 6%) and increase in cell viability 93% (p>0.05) compare to the radiation control group. Results of this study revealed that Allium sativum protects cultured lymphocytes when exposed to electron beam radiation at its sub lethal dose. (author)

  2. A garlic extract protects from ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyophilized aged garlic extract has been incorporated at concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 4% by weight into semi purified powdered diets and fed to hairless mice. Under moderate UVB exposure conditions resulting in 58% suppression of the systemic contact hypersensitivity response in control-fed mice, a dose-responsive protection was observed in the garlic-fed mice; contact hypersensitivity in the UVB-exposed mice fed 4% garlic extract was suppressed by only 19%. If the UVB exposure was replaced by topical application of one of a series of lotions containing increasing concentrations of cis-urocanic acid, a dose-responsive suppression of contact hypersensitivity was demonstrated in control-fed mice (urocanic acid at 25, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms per mouse resulting in 22-46% suppression). Mice fed a diet containing 1% aged garlic extract were partially protected from cis-urocanic acid-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity, with greater protection from the lower concentrations of urocanic acid. Mice fed a diet containing 4% aged garlic extract were protected from all concentrations of urocanic acid. The results indicate that aged garlic extract contains ingredient(s) that protect from UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity and suggest that the mechanism of protection is by antagonism of the cis-urocanic acid mediation of this form of immunosuppression

  3. Protection of DNA and erythrocytes from free radical induced oxidative damage by black gram (Vigna mungo L.) husk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Talakatta K; Vasudevaraju, Padmaraju; Prasada Rao, Ummiti J S

    2012-05-01

    Antioxidants present in various plant tissues exhibit health benefits by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated under various pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, bioactive compounds from black gram husk were extracted with water and the protection of black gram husk (BGH) extract against oxidative damage in DNA and erythrocytes were studied. BGH extract had total polyphenol content of 59 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The phenolic acids identified in the extract using RP-HPLC were gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and ferulic acids. The extract showed good antioxidant properties. The IC(50) value for DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 3.92 μg of GAE. The BGH extract also showed α-glucosidase inhibition and the IC(50) value was found to be 2.78 μg of GAE. The oxidative hemolysis caused by hydrogen peroxide in rat erythrocytes was inhibited by BGH extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) values for BGH extract and BHA for hemolysis were 11.5 and 14 μg of GAE, respectively. Morphological changes in erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by BGH extract. As BGH extract exhibited various antioxidant properties in different systems, it could be used as a functional food or nutraceutical product for health benefits.

  4. Protective effects of pine bark extract against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Je-Won; Lee, In-Chul; Park, Sung-Hyuk; Moon, Changjong; Kang, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (pycnogenol®, PYC) against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into the following four groups: (1) vehicle control, (2) cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg), (3) cisplatin & PYC 10 (10 mg/kg/day), and (4) cisplatin & PYC 20 (20 mg/kg/day). A single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by an increase in serum aminotransferase and histopathological alterations, including degeneration/necrosis of hepatocytes, vacuolation, and sinusoidal dilation. In addition, an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and a decrease in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were observed in the cisplatin-treated rat hepatic tissues. In contrast, PYC treatment effectively prevented cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, including the elevation of aminotransferase and histopathological lesions, in a dosedependent manner. Moreover, PYC treatment also induced antioxidant activity by decreasing MDA level and increasing GSH content and SOD and GST activities in liver tissues. These results indicate that PYC has a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rats, and that the protective effects of PYC may be due to inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity. PMID:25628728

  5. A mint purified extract protects human keratinocytes from short-term, chemically induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berselli, Patrizia Valeria Rita; Zava, Stefania; Montorfano, Gigliola; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Krzyzanowska, Justyna; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Berra, Bruno; Rizzo, Angela Maria

    2010-11-10

    Oxidative stress is strictly correlated to the pathogenesis of many diseases, and a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, or adequately integrated, is currently considered to be a protective and preventive factor. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a 1 h preincubation with the highest nontoxic dose of a characterized Mentha longifolia extract (80 μg/mL) in protecting human keratinocytes (NCTC2544) from chemically induced oxidative stress (500 μM H2O2 for 2, 16, and 24 h). As reference synthetic pure compounds rosmarinic acid (360.31 μg/mL), a major mint phenolic constituent, and resveratrol (31.95 mg/mL), a well-known antioxidant, were used. Cellular viability was significantly protected by mint, which limited protein and DNA damage, decreased lipid peroxidation, and preserved glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity in the shorter phases of oxidative stress induction, in extents comparable to or better than those of pure compounds. These data suggest that mint use as only a flavoring has to be revised, taking into consideration its enrichment in foodstuff and cosmetics.

  6. Pathogenesis-related protein expression in the apoplast of wheat leaves protected against leaf rust following application of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 μg/liter + cyproconazole at 4 μg/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy.

  7. Protective Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nasturtium officinale on Rat Blood Cells Exposed to Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felor Zargari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic is one of the most toxic metalloids. Anemia and leukopenia are common results of poisoning with arsenic, which may happen due to a direct hemolytic or cytotoxic effect on blood cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nasturtium officinale on blood cells and antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to sodium (metaarsenite. Methods: 32 Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups; Group I (normal healthy rats, Group II (treated with 5.5mg/kg of body weight of NaAsO2, Group III (treated with 500mg/kg of body weight of hydro-alcoholic extract of N. officinale, and Group IV (treated with group II and III supplementations. Blood samples were collected and red blood cell, white blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet, total protein and albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity were measured. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. Results: WBC, RBC and Hct were decreased in the rats exposed to NaAsO2 (p<0.05. A significant increase was seen in RBC and Hct after treatment with the plant extract (p<0.05. There was no significant decrease in serum albumin and total protein in the groups exposed to NaAsO2 compared to the group I, but NaAsO2 decreased the total antioxidant capacity, significantly. Conclusion: The Nasturtium officinale extract have protective effect on arsenic-induced damage of blood cells.

  8. Anti-peroxidative and Biochemical Protective Activity of Khaya Senegalensis Stem Bark Extract on Rats Fed Pesticideinfused feed

    OpenAIRE

    Mhya, DH; Umar, IA; Onyike E

    2014-01-01

    Anti-peroxidative and biochemical protective activity of aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem-bark on rats fed pesticide-infused feed was investigated. Animals were fed with cypermethrin-infused feed at a dose of 300mgkg-1 feed for 42 days. Different groups of animals were co-treated daily with 50mgkg-1, 100mgkg-1 and 200mgkg-1 body weight (bwt) of plant extract orally. The extract control group received 200mgkg-1 bwt plant extract while the pesticide control animals were fed with cyper...

  9. Water and methanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis protect HepG2 cells from t-BHP induced oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Cristovao F; Valentao, Patricia C R; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2007-04-25

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is an aromatic and medicinal plant well known for its antioxidant properties. Some in vivo studies have shown the biological antioxidant effects of sage. However, the intracellular antioxidant mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the cytoprotective effects of two sage extracts (a water and a methanolic extract) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. The most abundant phenolic compounds present in the extracts were rosmarinic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside. Both extracts, when co-incubated with the toxicant, protected significantly HepG2 cells against cell death. The methanolic extract, with a higher content of phenolic compounds than the water extract, conferred better protection in this in vitro model of oxidative stress with liver cells. Both extracts, tested in a concentration that protects 80% against cell death (IC(80)), significantly prevented t-BHP-induced lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion, but not DNA damage assessed by the comet assay. The ability of sage extracts to reduce t-BHP-induced GSH depletion by 62% was probably the most relevant contributor to the observed cytoprotection. A good correlation between the above cellular effects of sage and the effects of their main phenolic compounds was found. When incubated alone for 5h, sage extracts induced an increase in basal GSH levels of HepG2 cells, which indicates an improvement of the antioxidant potential of the cells. Compounds present in sage extracts other than phenolics may also contribute to this latter effect. Based in these results, it would be of interest to investigate whether sage has protective effects in suitable in vivo models of liver diseases, where it is known that oxidative stress is involved. PMID:17349617

  10. Exegetical Study of the Archaic Chinese Names of Garcinia Mangostana L., Bauhinia Variegate L., Sterculia Nobilis Smith and Vaccinium Bracteatum Thunb%海漆等几种植物的古汉名考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤产; 高明乾

    2013-01-01

    With the methods of exegetical and modern botany,we mainly research on the collected ancient Chinese names of Garcinia mangostana L.,Bauhinia variegate L.,Sterculia nobilis Smith and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.This research indicate some values and social significance in retrieval,continuing and developing Chinese ancient culture.%采用训诂学与现代植物学相结合的方法,就古代文献中的海漆、红荆树、罗望子树、乌饭树的古汉名进行考证,在继承与传播古典植物学文化方面具有一定的学术价值与社会意义.

  11. Antioxidant-mediated protective effect of potato peel extract in erythrocytes against oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nandita; Rajini, P S

    2008-05-28

    Potato peels are waste by-product of the potato processing industry. They are reportedly rich in polyphenols. Our earlier studies have shown that extracts derived from potato peel (PPE) possess strong antioxidant activity in chemical and biological model systems in vitro, attributable to its polyphenolic content. The main objective of this study was to investigate the ability of PPE to protect erythrocytes against oxidative damage, in vitro. The protection rendered by PPE in erythrocytes was studied in terms of resistance to oxidative damage, morphological alterations as well as membrane structural alterations. The total polyphenolic content in PPE was found to be 3.93 mg/g powder. The major phenolic acids present in PPE were predominantly: gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and protocatechuic acid. We chose the experimental prooxidant system: FeSO(4) and ascorbic acid to induce lipid peroxidation in rat RBCs and human RBC membranes. PPE was found to inhibit lipid peroxidation with similar effectiveness in both the systems (about 80-85% inhibition by PPE at 2.5 mg/ml). While PPE per se did not cause any morphological alteration in the erythrocytes, under the experimental conditions, PPE significantly inhibited the H(2)O(2)-induced morphological alterations in rat RBCs as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Further, PPE was found to offer significant protection to human erythrocyte membrane proteins from oxidative damage induced by ferrous-ascorbate. In conclusion, our results indicate that PPE is capable of protecting erythrocytes against oxidative damage probably by acting as a strong antioxidant. PMID:18452909

  12. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. PMID:27166540

  13. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.

  14. Protective role of coriandrum sativum oily extracts on ehrlich tumour bearing mice subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was planned to evaluate the potency of coriandrum, sativum oily extract [in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight; for six successive doses] as a chemopreventive agent against solid ehrlich tumour transplanted to the thigh of the left leg of mice subjected or not to gamma irradiation. The protective role of coriander oil was assessed through studying the level of serum phosphorus, calcium, prostaglandins, and anti-thyroid antibodies levels. Meanwhile, the content of cholesterol and triacylglycerols both in hepatic and tumor tissues were also measured. The levels of serum calcium ions revealed significant decline in the tested groups as compared with the control ones. Measurements of serum PGE2 and anti-thyroid antibodies levels exhibited significant fluctuated changes as compared with the control levels. Serum phosphorus levels induced only non-significant changes. The contents of cholesterol both in hepatic and tumor tissues induced significant decline in the tested proups as compared with the control ones

  15. Anti-peroxidative and Biochemical Protective Activity of Khaya Senegalensis Stem Bark Extract on Rats Fed Pesticideinfused feed

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    Mhya, DH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anti-peroxidative and biochemical protective activity of aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem-bark on rats fed pesticide-infused feed was investigated. Animals were fed with cypermethrin-infused feed at a dose of 300mgkg-1 feed for 42 days. Different groups of animals were co-treated daily with 50mgkg-1, 100mgkg-1 and 200mgkg-1 body weight (bwt of plant extract orally. The extract control group received 200mgkg-1 bwt plant extract while the pesticide control animals were fed with cypermethrin-infused feed. Serum biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation marker; malondialdehyde (MDA, and antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were measured. Serum levels of ALP, AST, ALT, Urea, and MDA were elevated in the pesticide control animals as well as decreased activities of CAT and SOD as compared to cotreated, normal, and extract control rats. Our investigation showed that daily oral dose of aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem-bark administered along pesticide-infused feed consumption produced significant (p<0.05 protection in a dose-dependent increase. The study shows that pesticide (cypermethrin induces lipid peroxidation and also alters biochemical parameters. Aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem-bark may contain biologically active components that play a protective role against pesticide-mediate alternation of biochemical parameters and also exhibit anti-peroxidative activity in rats.

  16. Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

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    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  17. Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties.

  18. Renal Protective Activity of Hsian-tsao Extracts in Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN YANG; ZHENG-PING XU; CAI-JU XU; JIA MENG; GANG-QIANG DING; XIAO-MING ZHANG; YAN WENG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the renal protective activity of Hsian-tsao Mesona procumbens Hemsl. water extracts in diabetic rats. Methods Thirty Sprague-dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each), "control group" with intraperitoneal saline injection, "diabetic group" with 60 mg of intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection per kg of body weight and "Hsian-tsao group" with intragastric administration of Hsian-tsao extraction everyday for 4 weeks after intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection. The body weight and blood sugar were measured before and after model induction in the three groups. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) expressions in the kidney were monitored by immunohistochemistry. Kidney ultrastructural changes were also analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy. Results Before diabetic model induction, there were no significant differences among the three groups in body weight and blood sugar. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, the differences became statistically significant. Electron microscopy also revealed disruption of the foot processes of the podocytes and other damages in diabetic group. These damages were significantly less severe in Hsian-tsao group when compared with the diabetic group. TSP-1 expressions in the kidney were significantly increased in both the diabetic group and Hsian-tsao group, but it was relatively lower in Hsian-tsao group than in diabetic group. Conclusion Our results showed that Hsian-tsao treatment in the diabetic rats effectively prevented the pathological alterations in the kidney and decreased the TSP-1 expression. It was suggested that Hsian-tsao had protective effect on the kidneys of the diabetic rats.

  19. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats

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    Bahram Amouoghli-Tabrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and one of its most important consequences is renal insufficiency. A multitude of herbs has been described for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present study was to assess the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE on early nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Method: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups including: healthy rats, normal healthy rats receiving TREE, diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving TREE. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg; i.p. The extract (200 mg/kg was gavaged to TREE treatment groups daily for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment; serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were assessed. The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in the renal tissue. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verification. Statistically, the quantitative data obtained, compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.Results: In the diabetic rats, TREE significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarkers of renal injury. Furthermore, TREE significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Histopathological findings were in agreement with the biochemical findings.Conclusion: TREE has protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats with experimentally induced diabetes

  20. Potent Antioxidative and UVB Protective Effect of Water Extract of Eclipta prostrata L.

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    Chin-Feng Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, including Ultraviolet (UV irradiation-induced skin damage, is involved in numerous diseases. This study demonstrates that water extract of Eclipta prostrata L. (WEP has a potent effect in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide radicals, and chelating ferrous ion, exhibiting IC50 values of 0.23 mg/mL, 0.48 mg/mL, and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively. The WEP total phenol content was 176.45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g sample. Chlorogenic acid, a component of the plant's active ingredients, was determined by HPLC and antioxidative assay. However, no caffeic acid, stigmasterol, or wedelolactone was present in WEP. WEP absorbs both UVA and UVB irradiation, and furthermore, the extract shows a dose-dependent response in the protection of HaCaT human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts 3T3 cells against UVB-induced cytotoxicity, which may result from a synergistic effect between chlorogenic acid and other active components present in WEP.

  1. The protective effects of black garlic extract for blood and intestinal mucosa to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Do Young; KIm, Joon Sun; Choi, Hyeong Seok [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Hyeok; Park, Won Suk; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The radiation has been utilized in a number of fields, even though the use of plenty cause a variety of side effects. This study was confirmed for radiation protective effects of aged garlic to contribute to the prevention of disasters that are radiation exposure. We studied the Complete Blood cell Count(CBC) and the small intestine after feeding aged garlic extract into Sprague Dawley Rat which irradiated X-ray beam 7 and 13 Gy. Garlic extract was administered to the results in the experimental group showed a notable difference in the CBC of platelets (p<0.05), red blood cells (p<0.05) and early damaged white blood cells (p<0.05). In addition, it was confirmed that experimental group's small intestine crypt is more survival than irradiation group significantly. And experimental group has small intestine villi length almost similar to the normal group. result of the aged garlic study will be able to be of great benefit for the radiation relevant emergency management.

  2. Opuntia ficus indica extract protects against chlorpyrifos-induced damage on mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncibi, Saida; Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Akacha, Amira; Krifi, Mohamed Naceur; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2008-02-01

    This original study investigates the role of Opuntia ficus indica (cactus) cladodes extract against liver damage induced in male SWISS mice by an organophosphorous insecticide, the chlorpyrifos (CPF). Liver damage was evaluated by the measure of its weight and the quantification of some biochemical parameters, such as alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), phosphatase alkaline (PAL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol and albumin in serum by spectrophotometric techniques. The experimental approach lasted 48 h and consisted of 6 treatments of six mice each one; (1) control, (2) 10 mg/kg (b.w) CPF, (3) 10mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 100 mg/kg (b.w) cactus, (4) 150 mg/kg (b.w)CPF, (5) 150 mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 1.5 g/kg cactus, (6) 1.5 g/kg cactus. Both chlorpyrifos and cactus were administrated orally via gavages. Our results showed that CPF affects significantly all parameters studied. However, when this pesticide was administrated associated to cactus, we noticed a recovery of all their levels. In the other hand, cactus alone did not affect the studied parameters. These results allow us to conclude firstly that CPF is hepatotoxic and secondly that Opuntia ficus indica stem extract protects the liver and decreases the toxicity induced by this organophosphorous pesticide.

  3. Protective effect of oat bran extracts on human dermal fibroblast injury induced by hydrogen peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing FENG; Lai-ji MA; Jin-jing YAO; Yun FANG; Yan-ai MEI; Shao-min WEI

    2013-01-01

    Oat contains different components that possess antioxidant properties;no study to date has addressed the antioxidant effect of the extract of oat bran on the cellular level.Therefore,the present study focuses on the investigation of the protective effect of oat bran extract by enzymatic hydrolysates on human dermal fibroblast injury induced by hydrogen peroxide(H2O2).Kjeldahl determination,phenol-sulfuric acid method,and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)analysis indicated that the enzymatic products of oat bran contain a protein amount of 71.93%,of which 97.43% are peptides with a molecular range from 438.56 to 1301.01 Da.Assays for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)radical scavenging activity indicate that oat peptide-rich extract has a direct and concentration-dependent antioxidant activity.3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide(MTT)colorimetric assay and the TdT-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL)assay for apoptosis showed that administration of H2O2 in human dermal fibroblasts caused cell damage and apoptosis.Pre-incubation of human dermal fibroblasts with the Oatp for 24 h markedly inhibited human dermal fibroblast injury induced by H2O2,but application oat peptides with H2O2 at same time did not.Pre-treatment of human dermal fibroblasts with Oatp significantly reversed the H2O2-induced decrease of superoxide dismutase(SOD)and the inhibition of malondialdehyde(MDA).The results demonstrate that oat peptides possess antioxidant activity and are effective against H2O2-induced human dermal fibroblast injury by the enhanced activity of SOD and decrease in MDA level.Our results suggest that oat bran will have the potential to be further explored as an antioxidant functional food in the prevention of aging-related skin injury.

  4. The protective effect of Aloysia triphylla aqueous extracts against brain lipid-peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagni Vitar, Romina M; Reides, Claudia G; Ferreira, Sandra M; Llesuy, Susana F

    2014-03-01

    In a normal diet, the use of herbs may contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants and even be a better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extracts of Aloysia triphylla (infusion and decoction) against lipid-peroxidation of brain homogenates and to determine changes in the prooxidant/antioxidant balance when the plant material is added. In order to elucidate a possible antioxidant mechanism in vitro evaluation of total antioxidant capacity, oxygen species scavenging ability and reducing power (RP) were studied. Tested extracts had shown a strong inhibition of lipid-peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive products of lipid-peroxidation (TBARS) and chemiluminescence. Furthermore, infusion and decoction exhibited free radical trapping ability, expressed by the capacity to scavenge superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, both aqueous extracts presented antioxidant activity measured as total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS) scavenging activity and RP. These results suggest that the lipid-peroxidation inhibition mechanism proposed is that the antioxidants present in Aloysia triphylla could act as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species not only at the initiation of the lipid-peroxidation chain reaction, but also at the propagation step. Therefore, they could be used as prophylactic and therapeutic agents for those diseases where the occurrence of oxidative stress and lipid-peroxidation contributes to the progression of damage. PMID:24477466

  5. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice

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    V. Tangpu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice, using four experimental models, i.e. measurement of faecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 enteropooling assay and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100 and ndash;3200 mg/kg. In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrhoeal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhoea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared to 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard anti-diarrhoeal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for the protection from diarrhoea. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 103-108

  6. Cordyceps militaris Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence

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    Jun Myoung Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS is the major cause of degenerative disorders including aging and disease. In this study, we investigated whether Cordyceps militaris extract (CME has in vitro protective effects on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs. Our results showed that the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of CME was increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that hydrogen peroxide treatment in HDFs increased ROS generation and cell death as compared with the control. However, CME improved the survival of HDFs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of intracellular ROS production. CME treatment inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death and apoptotic nuclear condensation in HDFs. In addition, CME prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced SA-β-gal-positive cells suggesting CME could inhibit oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Therefore, these results suggest that CME might have protective effects against oxidative stress-induced premature senescence via scavenging ROS.

  7. Ginger and Marshmallow Extracts Can Protect against Pyloric Ligation-Induced Peptic Ulcer in Rats

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    Sameh S. Zaghlool

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases over wide the world. There are many drugs used for the treatment of gastric ulcer, but most of these produce several adverse reactions. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of extracts of Ginger and Marshmallow on pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Animals were divided into 5 Groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, a standard treatment group receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg, and two treatment groups receiving Ginger (100 mg/kg and Marshmallow (100 mg/kg. Treatments were given orally for 14 days. On the 15th day, animals were subjected to pyloric ligation except for the normal control group. Four hours later, rat stomachs were excised and gastric juice and blood samples were collected. Pyloric ligation caused significant elevations in ulcer number, ulcer index, gastric volume, titratble acidity, acid output, mucin content and peptic activity, accompanied by significant decreases in blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD activity and gastric mucosal nitric oxide (NO and glutathione (GSH contents. In addition, elevations in gastric mucosal lipid peroxide and histamine contents were observed. Pretreatment with famotidine, ginger or marshmallow significantly corrected all blood and tissue parameters by varying degrees. Famotidine, ginger and marshmallow may protect against pyloric ligation-induced peptic ulcer in rats, being promising for further clinical trials.

  8. Safety of Desmodium adscendens extract on hepatocytes and renal cells. Protective effect against oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Francois

    2015-03-01

    RESULTS: A viability test (MTS, a cytotoxicity assay (LDH release and a study of the cell morphology revealed that pretreatment with 1 mg/ml or 10 mg/ml DA did not alter viability or LDH release in HEPG2 or LLCPK1 cells. However, DA at the dose of 100 mg/ml significantly decreased cell viability, by about 40% (P <0.05. Further, MTS studies revealed that DA 1 mg/ml or 10 mg/ml protected LLC-PK1 cells against a glucose-induced oxidative stress of 24 hours (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Hence, the lowest concentrations of DA (1mg/ml and 10mg/ml were safe for HEPG2 and LLCPK1 and protective against an oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 cells. These data suggest that DA extracts used as a traditional herbal as food health supplements should be used at the lowest dosage. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 1-5

  9. Ethanol Extract of Atractylodes macrocephala Protects Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation

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    Youn-Hwan Hwang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala has been used mainly in Traditional Chinese Medicine for invigorating the functions of the stomach and spleen. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala (AMEE on osteoclast differentiation. We found that AMEE inhibits osteoclast differentiation from its precursors induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, an essential cytokine required for osteoclast differentiation. AMEE attenuated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, subsequently inhibiting the induction of osteoclastogenic transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. Consistent with the in vitro results, administration of AMEE protected RANKL-induced bone loss in mice. We also identified atractylenolide I and II as active constituents contributing to the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of AMEE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMEE has a protective effect on bone loss via inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and suggest that AMEE may be useful in preventing and treating various bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.

  10. Protective effects of pine bark extract on developmental toxicity of cyclophosphamide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Moon, Changjong; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dong-Ho; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®, PYC) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced developmental toxicity in rats. A total of 44 mated females were randomly assigned to the following four experimental groups: (1) vehicle control, (2) CP, (3) CP&PYC, or (4) PYC. All dams were subjected to a Caesarean section on day 20 of gestation, and fetuses were examined for morphological abnormalities. Oxidative stress analysis was performed on maternal hepatic tissues. CP treatment caused decreased fetal and placental weights and increased embryonic resorptions and fetal malformations. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase activity were observed in the hepatic tissues. On the contrary, PYC treatment during pregnancy significantly ameliorated the CP-induced embryo-fetal developmental toxicity in rats. Moreover, MDA and GSH concentrations and catalase activity in hepatic tissues were not affected when PYC was administered in conjunction with CP. These results suggest that repeated administration of PYC has beneficial effects against CP-induced embryo-fetal developmental toxicity in rats, and that the protective effects of PYC may be due to both inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant activity. PMID:22036974

  11. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canales, Mario; Jimenez-Rivas, Ruben; Canales-Martinez, Maria Margarita; Garcia-Lopez, Ana Judith; Rivera-Yañez, Nelly; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as “cuachalalate.” Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index), antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis. PMID:27635116

  12. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodriguez-Canales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as “cuachalalate.” Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis.

  13. Protective effect of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hfaiedh, Najla; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Zourgui, Lazhar; Croute, Françoise

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily, for 10 days, with either NiCl(2) solution (4mg (30micromol)/kg body weight) or with the same volume of saline solution (300mM NaCl). Significant increases of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activities and of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were observed in blood of nickel-treated rats. In the liver, nickel chloride was found to induce an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidant enzymes activities. Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity was found to be increased whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased. These changes did not occur in animals previously given cactus juice, demonstrating a protective effect of this vegetal extract.

  14. Oenanthe Javanica Extract Protects Against Experimentally Induced Ischemic Neuronal Damage via its Antioxidant Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joon Ha Park; Jeong Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Jae-Chul Lee; Bai Hui Chen; Bich-Na Shin

    2015-01-01

    Background:Water dropwort (Oenanthejavanica) as a popular traditional medicine in Asia shows various biological properties including antioxidant activity.In this study,we firstly examined the neuroprotective effect of Oenanthejavanica extract (OJE) in the hippocampal cornus ammonis 1 region (CA1 region) of the gerbil subjected to transient cerebral ischemia.Methods:Gerbils were established by the occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min.The neuroprotective effect of OJE was estimated by cresyl violet staining.In addition,4 antioxidants (copper,zinc superoxide dismutase [SOD],manganese SOD,catalase,and glutathione peroxidase) immunoreactivities were investigated by immunohistochemistry.Results:Pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region showed neuronal death at 5 days postischemia;at this point in time,all antioxidants immunoreactivities disappeared in CA1 pyramidal neurons and showed in many nonpyramidal cells.Treatment with 200 mg/kg,not 100 mg/kg,OJE protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage.In addition,200 mg/kg OJE treatment increased or maintained antioxidants immunoreactivities.Especially,among the antioxidants,glutathione peroxidase immunoreactivity was effectively increased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the OJE-treated sham-operated and ischemia-operated groups.Conclusion:Our present results indicate that treatment with OJE can protect neurons from transient ischemic damage and that the neuroprotective effect may be closely associated with increased or maintained intracellular antioxidant enzymes by OJE.

  15. Protective Effect of Amphipterygium adstringens Extract on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canales, Mario; Jimenez-Rivas, Ruben; Canales-Martinez, Maria Margarita; Garcia-Lopez, Ana Judith; Rivera-Yañez, Nelly; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as "cuachalalate." Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity index), antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities in relation to the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and changes both macroscopic and microscopic of the colonic mucosa. AaEE significantly reduced the inflammation of colon and significantly increased SOD and GPx activities. AaEE also significantly decreased TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β cytokine levels compared to DSS-treated mice and reduced both infiltration of inflammatory cells and the mucosal damage in colon. The results suggested the protective potential of AaEE in DSS-induced colitis and this might be attributed to its phytochemicals compounds that have been found to induce a wide spectrum of activities such as reduction in oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, modulating numerous signal transduction pathways, and induction of apoptosis. The findings of this study suggest that AaEE has substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis. PMID:27635116

  16. NEURO-PROTECTION AND NEURO-THERAPY EFFECTS OF Acalypha indica Linn. WATER EXTRACT EX VIVO ON Musculus gastrocnemius Frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjo Tedjo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies of neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects of Acalypha indica Linn. water extract ex vivo on Musculus gastrocnemius frog have already done at three Departments in Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia. The experimental studies were done on 2 groups of frog for neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects. Each group of frog was divided into 7 subgroups of application, 4 samples each. There were 5 subgroups of doses: 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 mg and 2 subgroups as control. Pancuronium bromide 0.2%, 4 mg, was used for a positive control as muscle relaxant. Neuro-protection study was done as follow: ringer – extract – pancuronium bromide, and neuro-therapy study was ringer – pancuronium bromide – extract, respectively. The parameters measured in these studies were the electrical activities such as amount and duration (second of re-polarization; depolarization, resting potential, and the height of spike after electrical stimulation at 5 mV. Neuro-protection effect of extract was determined by the ability of muscle to show the electrical response after incubating with pancuronium bromide for 10 minutes, and after incubating with extract for 10 minutes for neuro-therapy effect. In the dose of 15 mg and 20 mg/mL of A. indica Linn. extract showed better activities than the dose of 25 mg of extract, both as neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects, but statistically its have not a significant difference. This study should be followed by an in vivo experiment on frog and it would be done in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on other animal models.

  17. Protective Effects of Tinospora crispa Stem Extract on Renal Damage and Hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nutham, Narain; Sakulmettatham, Sakuna; Klongthalay, Suwit; Chutoam, Palatip; Somsak, Voravuth

    2015-01-01

    Renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria are associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress condition induced by malaria infection is involved in its pathology. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tinospora crispa stem extract on renal damage and hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei infection. T. crispa stem extract was prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 1...

  18. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. calyx extract on tetracycline induced testicular toxicity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaphat Taweebot; Ampa Luangpirom

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae) calyx extract (HSE) was evaluated for theprotective effect against testicular toxicity induced by tetracycline dose of 20 mg/100 gBW for 14 daysin mice. The extract doses of 20, 50 and 100 mg/100 gBW used in pretreatment by oral administrationfor 4 days and subsequent co-treatment with tetracycline for 14 days had the protective effectexhibiting significantly increasing quality of seminal fluid including an increase in total sperm count,percentage...

  19. Aloe arborescens Extract Protects IMR-32 Cells against Alzheimer Amyloid Beta Peptide via Inhibition of Radical Peroxide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Maria Elisabetta; Tringali, Giuseppe; Triggiani, Doriana; Giardina, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Aloe arborescens is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. Besides, it is well known to have beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. In this study, we first provided evidence that A. arborescens extract protects IMR32, a neuroblastoma human cellular line, from toxicity induced by beta amyloid, the peptide responsible for Alzheimer's disease. In particular, pretreatment with A. arborescens maintains an elevated cell viability and exerts a protective effect on mitochondrial functionality, as evidenced by oxygen consumption experiments. The protective mechanism exerted by A. arborescens seems be related to lowering of oxidative potential of the cells, as demonstrated by the ROS measurement compared with the results obtained in the presence of amyloid beta (1-42) peptide alone. Based on these preliminary observations we suggest that use ofA. arborescens extract could be developed as agents for the management of AD. PMID:26749845

  20. Protective role of grape seed extract against the effect of electromagnetic radiation on retinal rhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent time, people exposure to blue light has increased. Much of the world of commercial display and industry is lit with cool white fluorescent tubes which emit a strong spike of light in the blue and ultraviolet ranges. Indeed many homes and offices are lit with cool white fluorescent tubes. No doubts, more people are spending more time in front of Video Display Terminals which produce blue light. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blue light and the combined effect of blue light and gamma radiation on retinal rhodopsin. Also, the possible protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) to retinal rhodopsin was tested. New zealand albino rabbits were used in this study. The rabbits were classified into five groups I, II, III, IV and V according to the following: Group I: used as control group. Group II: subdivided into four subgroups subgroups were exposed to blue light of intensity 3.9 lux and decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks respectively. Group III: subdivided into four subgroups. All rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. Rabbits were decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks of exposure to blue light respectively. Group IV: subdivided into two subgroups. The two subgroups were exposed to blue light of 3.9 lux for one week and two weeks, then irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays and decapitated. Group V: subdivided into two subgroups. The rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light for one week and two weeks respectively. After these periods, the rabbits were irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays then decapitated. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. At the end of each period, the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded. After the decapitation, the rhodopsin was extracted and the

  1. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.

  2. Uncaria tomentosa extracts protect human erythrocyte catalase against damage induced by 2,4-D-Na and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Bożena; Bors, Milena; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2012-06-01

    The effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from leaves and bark of Uncaria tomentosa was studied, with particular attention to catalase activity (CAT - EC. 1.11.1.6). We observed that all tested extracts, at a concentration of 250 μg/mL were not toxic to erythrocyte catalase because they did not decreased its activity. Additionally, we investigated the protective effect of extracts on changes in CAT activity in the erythrocytes incubated with sodium salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D-Na) and its metabolites i.e., 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and catechol. Previous investigations showed that these chemicals decreased activity of erythrocyte catalase (Bukowska et al., 2000; Bukowska and Kowalska, 2004). The erythrocytes were divided into two portions. The first portion was incubated for 1 and 5h at 37°C with 2,4-D-Na, 2,4-DCP and catechol, and second portion was preincubated with extracts for 10 min and then incubated with xenobiotics for 1 and 5h. CAT activity was measured in the first and second portion of the erythrocytes. We found a protective effect of the extracts from U. tomentosa on the activity of catalase incubated with xenobiotics studied. Probably, phenolic compounds contained in U. tomentosa scavenged free radicals, and therefore protected active center (containing -SH groups) of catalase.

  3. Protective effect of Tetracera scandens L.leaf extract against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tung; Bui; Thanh; Hai; Nguyen; Thanh; Hue; Pham; Thi; Minh; Huong; Le-Thi-Thu; Huong; Duong; Thi; Ly; Loi; Vu; Duc

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective potential of ethanolic extracts of Tetracera scandens L.(T.scandens) against CCl4 induced oxidative stress in liver tissues.Methods:Dried leaf powder of T.scandens was extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue.Rats were administered with 100 mg/kg of ethanolic extracts orally once daily for one week.Animals were subsequently administered with a single dose of CCl4(I mL/kg body weight,intraperitoneal injection).Various assays,such as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,lipid peroxidation,protein oxidation(carbonyl protein group),tumor necrosis factor alpha,catalase,superoxide dismutase,and glutathione peroxidase,were used to assess damage caused by CCl4 and the protective effects of the ethanol extract on liver tissues.Results:Hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 was evidenced by a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase level,lipid peroxidation,protein carbonyl group,and tumor necrosis factor alpha,as well as decreased activity of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes(catalase.superoxide dismutase.and glutathione peroxidase).Treatment with ethanolic T.scandens extracts prevented all of these typically observed changes in CCl4-treated rats.Conclusions:Our findings indicate that T.scandens has a significant protective effect against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rat.which may be due to its antioxidant properties.

  4. Protective Effects of Tinospora crispa Stem Extract on Renal Damage and Hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

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    Narain Nutham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria are associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress condition induced by malaria infection is involved in its pathology. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tinospora crispa stem extract on renal damage and hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei infection. T. crispa stem extract was prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 1×107 parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess renal damage and hemolysis, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, and hematocrit (%Hct levels were then evaluated, respectively. Malaria infection resulted in renal damage and hemolysis as indicated by increasing of BUN and creatinine and decreasing of %Hct, respectively. However, protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. In conclusion, T. crispa stem extract exerted protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria infection. This plant may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  5. Protective Effects of Tinospora crispa Stem Extract on Renal Damage and Hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutham, Narain; Sakulmettatham, Sakuna; Klongthalay, Suwit; Chutoam, Palatip; Somsak, Voravuth

    2015-01-01

    Renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria are associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress condition induced by malaria infection is involved in its pathology. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tinospora crispa stem extract on renal damage and hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei infection. T. crispa stem extract was prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess renal damage and hemolysis, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and hematocrit (%Hct) levels were then evaluated, respectively. Malaria infection resulted in renal damage and hemolysis as indicated by increasing of BUN and creatinine and decreasing of %Hct, respectively. However, protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. In conclusion, T. crispa stem extract exerted protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria infection. This plant may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment. PMID:26600953

  6. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed.

  7. Punica granatum peel extract protects against ionizing radiation-induced enteritis and leukocyte apoptosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a well-recognized sequel of therapeutic irradiation. Therefore we examined the radioprotective properties of Punica granatum peel extract (PPE) on the oxidative damage in the ileum. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body X-ray irradiation of 800 cGy. Irradiated rats were pretreated orally with saline or PPE (50 mg/kg/day) for 10 days before irradiation and the following 10 days, while control rats received saline or PPE but no irradiation. Then plasma and ileum samples were obtained. Irradiation caused a decrease in glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, which was accompanied by increases in malondialdehyde levels, myeloperoxidase activity, collagen content of the tissue with a concomitant increase 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (an index of oxidative DNA damage). Similarly, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated in irradiated groups as compared to control. PPE treatment reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by irradiation. Furthermore, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in irradiated animals, while PPE reversed these effects. PPE supplementation reduced oxidative damage in the ileal tissues, probably by a mechanism that is associated with the decreased production of reactive oxygen metabolites and enhancement of antioxidant mechanisms. Adjuvant therapy of PPE may have a potential to support a successful radiotherapy by protecting against radiation-induced enteritis. (author)

  8. Protective effect of Sida cordata leaf extract against CCl4 induced acute liver toxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Mistry; KR Dutt; J Jena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Sida cordata (Malvaceae) (S. cordata) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. Methods: Wister albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Group Ⅰ served as control; Group Ⅱ served as hepatotoxic (CCl4 treated) group;Group Ⅲ, Ⅳ and Ⅴ served as (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) S. cordata leaf extract (SCLE) treated groups; Group Ⅵ served as positive control (Silymarin) treated group. Liver marker enzymes serum glutamate oxyloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured and compared along with histopathological studies. Results:Obtained results show that the treatment with SCLE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently reduced CCl4 induced elevated serum level of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SCLE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels, which was confirmed by the histopathological studies. Conclusions: The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SCLE against CCl4 induced acute liver toxicity in rats and thereby scientifically support its traditional use.

  9. The protective effects of pomegranate extracts against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A Sancaktutar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the possible protective effect of pomegranate extract (PE on rats following renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Sham group underwent laparotomy then waited for 45 minutes without ischemia. I/R group were subjected to left renal ischemia for 45 minutes followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. I/R + PE group were subjected to the same renal I/R as the I/R group were also given 225 mg/kg PE peroral 30 minutes prior to the ischemia. Malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI were determined on the blood samples and kidney tissues. Histopathological analyses were conducted on the kidney tissues. Results: Serum TAC levels were significantly decreased in I/R group when compared with S group (P = 0.001. Serum MDA levels were increased in I/R group; however, it was not statistically significant. In rat kidney tissues, TOS levels and OSI index were significantly increased after I/R injury, while TAC levels were decreased. In I/R + PE group, PE reversed the negative effects of I/R injury. PE pretreatment was effective in decreasing tubular necrosis score. Conclusion: PE pretreatment ameliorated the oxidative damage and histopathological changes occurring following renal I/R injury.

  10. Protective Role of Black Tea Extract against Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-Induced Skeletal Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper aimed to examine the chemoprotective actions of aqueous black tea extract (BTE against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis- (NASH- induced skeletal changes in rats. Material. Wistar rats (body wt. 155–175 g of both sexes, aged 4–5 months, were randomly assigned to 3 groups; Group A (control, Group B (60% high-fat diet; HFD, and Group C (HFD + 2.5% BTE. Methods. Several urinary (calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and calcium-to-creatinine ratio serum (alkaline phosphatase and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and molecular markers of bone turnover (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG, and estrogen were tested. Also, several bone parameters (bone density, bone tensile strength, bone mineral content, and bone histology and calcium homeostasis were checked. Results. Results indicated that HFD-induced alterations in urinary, serum, and bone parameters as well as calcium homeostasis, all could be significantly ameliorated by BTE supplementation. Conclusion. Results suggest a potential role of BTE as a protective agent against NASH-induced changes in bone metabolism in rats.

  11. Protection against Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection (cold water disease) in Ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) by oral administration of humus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAGAWA, Jun; IWASAKI, Tadashi; KODAMA, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) induced effective protection against experimental Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection (cold water disease). Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions, such as erosion and hemorrhages on the skin, gill cover or mouth, were significantly suppressed in fish treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry pellets. Although F. psychrophilum was not re-isolated from gills and erosion lesions of the skin of dead fish, bacterial gyrB DNA could be amplified in these specimens from dead fish and surviving control fish using the polymerase chain reaction. The protective effect of the extract was not the results of direct killing of bacteria or antibiotic activity of the extract since no obvious reduction in the bacterial number was observed at 5 times to 5,000 times dilution of the humus extract having pH 5.45 to 7.40. These results clearly show that treating fish with humus extract is effective in preventing cold water disease.

  12. In-vitro Evaluation of Protective Effects on DNA Damage and Antioxidative Activities of Ilex Spinigera Loes. Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Vosoghi Roodgar, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Ilex spinigera (Aquifoliaceae) plant is an evergreen tree or shrub with thick glossy dark green leaves and red fruits. This plant has medicinal properties and has been used traditionally in northern Iran for malaria treatment. The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidative activities and the inhibitory effect of I. spinigera on the oxidation of DNA. We have found no reports about the popular use of I. spinigera in terms of its chemistry and biology. In this study we report the antioxidant activity of I. spinigera extracts for the first time. Water, ethanol and methanol were used as extraction solvents. Various experimental models including iron (III) reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, PAB assay and in-vitro inhibition of AAPH-induced oxidation of DNA were used for characterization of antioxidant activity of the extracts. The three extracts showed varying degrees of efficacy in each assay in a dose-dependent manner. The aqueous extract with the highest content of total phenolics, was the most potent antioxidant in all assays except in DPPH assay. The methanol extract with the highest amount of total flavonoids was the potent scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 value of 102.22 ± 0.001 μg/mL. Aqueous extract of I. spinigera also showed the protective effect on DNA damage-induced by AAPH. According to our results, I. spinigera leaves extract have the potential for chemoprotective studies. PMID:27610169

  13. Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by oral administration of humus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry feeding pellets. The median surviving days was also greater in fish treated with 10% or 5% humus extract than in untreated fish. Atypical A. salmonicida was isolated from ulcerative lesions of part of dead fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying bacterial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. These results clearly show that treatment of fish with humus extract is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease.

  14. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of Clitoria ternatea flower extract on testicular damage induced by ketoconazole in rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Burawat, Jaturon; Kanla, Pipatpong; Arun, Supatcharee; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Uabundit, Nongnut; Wattathorn, Jintanaporn; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Fongmoon, Duriya; Kondo, Hisatake

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ketoconazole (KET), an antifungal drug, has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. Pre-treatments with antioxidant plant against testicular damage induced by KET are required. The flowers of Clitoria ternatea (CT) are proven to have hepatoprotective potential. However, the protective effect on KET-induced testicular damage has not been reported. Objective: To investigate the protective effect of CT flower extracts with antioxidant activity on male reproductive parameters including sperm concentration, serum testosterone level, histopathology of the testis, and testicular tyrosine phosphorylation levels in rats induced with KET. Methods: The antioxidant activity of CT flower extracts was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Male rats were treated with CT flower extracts (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg BW) or distilled water via a gastric tube for 28 d (preventive period: Days 1–21) and induced by KET (100 mg/kg BW) via intraperitoneal injection for 7 d (induction period: Days 22–28). After the experiment, all animals were examined for the weights of the testis, epididymis plus vas deferens and seminal vesicle, serum testosterone levels, sperm concentration, histological structures and diameter of testis, and testicular tyrosine phosphorylation levels by immunoblotting. Results: The CT flower extracts had capabilities for DPPH scavenging and high reducing power. At 100 mg/kg BW, the extract had no toxic effects on the male reproductive system. Significantly, in CT+KET groups, CT flower extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) alleviated the reduction of reproductive organ weight parameters, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration. In addition, CT flower extracts gave protection from testicular damage in KET-induced rats. Moreover, in the CT100+KET group, CT flower extracts significantly enhanced the expression of a testicular 50-kDa tyrosine phosphorylated protein compared with that of

  15. Cratoxylum formosum Extract Protects against Amyloid-Beta Toxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keowkase, Roongpetch; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida

    2016-04-01

    Amyloid-β, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, is toxic to neurons and causes cell death in the brain. Oxidative stress is known to play an important role in Alzheimer's disease, and there is strong evidence linking oxidative stress to amyloid-β. The herbal plant "Tiew kon" (Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum) is an indigenous vegetable that is grown in Southeast Asia. Many reports suggested that the twig extract from C. formosum possesses an antioxidant property. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of the twig extract from C. formosum against amyloid-β toxicity using the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model. This study demonstrated that the extract significantly delayed amyloid-β-induced paralysis in the C. elegans model of Alzheimer's disease. Using a genetic approach, we found that DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor, heat shock factor 1, and SKN-1 (Nrf2 in mammals) were required for the extract-mediated delayed paralysis. The extract ameliorated oxidative stress by reducing the level of H2O2, which appeared to account for the protective action of the extract. The extract possesses antioxidant activity against juglone-induced oxidative stress as it was shown to increase survival of the stressed worms. In addition, C. formosum decreased the expression of the heat shock protein-16.2 gene which was induced by thermal stress, indicating its ability to reduce cellular stress. The results from this study support the C. elegans model in the search for disease-modifying agents to treat Alzheimer's disease and indicate the potential of the extract from C. formosum ssp. pruniflorum as a source for the development of anti-Alzheimer's drugs. PMID:26845710

  16. Reno-protective effect of garlic extract against immobilization stress induced changes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kashif Zaidi

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The extract treatment before and after the stress reverted the activities of above mentioned enzymes towards their control values. Hence, garlic extract can be given as nutritional supplement for scavenging the free radicals generated in rat kidney.

  17. Gamma irradiated antigen extracts improves the immune response and protection in experimental toxoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Andrea da; Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de, E-mail: andreacosta@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Medicina Tropical; Zorgi, Nahiara Estevez [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to use ionizing radiation on soluble extracts of T. gondii tachyzoites (AgTg) and tested the ability of these extracts to induce immunity in BALB/c mice against a challenge. T. gondii RH strain AgTg was irradiated with Co-60 at 0.25 to 4 kGy and were affected after 1 kGy, as evidenced by a progressive high molecular weight protein aggregates and no loss in antigenicity, as detected by immunoblotting, except after 4kGy. BALB/c mice were immunized with biweekly doses of 03 s.c. native or irradiated AgTg without adjuvants; the anti-T.gondii IgG production was detected by ELISA, and higher levels and avidity were detected in mice immunized with 1.5 kGy AgTg compared to controls (p<0.05). Mice immunized with native AgTg exhibited spleen CD19{sup +} B, CD3{sup +}CD4{sup +} or CD3{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cell proliferation levels of 5%, while 1.5 kGy-immunized mice exhibited spleen cell proliferation levels of 12.2%, primarily for CD19{sup +} or CD3{sup +}CD8{sup +} lymphocytes and less evidently for CD3{sup +}CD4{sup +} (8.8%) helper T lymphocytes. All cells from control mice showed little to no proliferation when stimulated with AgTg. These cells secreted more IFN-γ in the 1.5 kGy AgTg-immunized group (p<0.05). BALB/c mice immunized with 1.5 kGy and challenged with different strains of T. gondii were partially protected, as evidenced by survival after RH virulent strain challenge (p<0.0001) but also after ME-49 strain challenge: the brain cyst numbers (p<0.05) and the levels of T. gondii DNA measured by real-time PCR (p<0.05) decreased compared to non-immunized controls. (author)

  18. Gamma irradiated antigen extracts improves the immune response and protection in experimental toxoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to use ionizing radiation on soluble extracts of T. gondii tachyzoites (AgTg) and tested the ability of these extracts to induce immunity in BALB/c mice against a challenge. T. gondii RH strain AgTg was irradiated with Co-60 at 0.25 to 4 kGy and were affected after 1 kGy, as evidenced by a progressive high molecular weight protein aggregates and no loss in antigenicity, as detected by immunoblotting, except after 4kGy. BALB/c mice were immunized with biweekly doses of 03 s.c. native or irradiated AgTg without adjuvants; the anti-T.gondii IgG production was detected by ELISA, and higher levels and avidity were detected in mice immunized with 1.5 kGy AgTg compared to controls (p<0.05). Mice immunized with native AgTg exhibited spleen CD19+ B, CD3+CD4+ or CD3+CD8+ T cell proliferation levels of 5%, while 1.5 kGy-immunized mice exhibited spleen cell proliferation levels of 12.2%, primarily for CD19+ or CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes and less evidently for CD3+CD4+ (8.8%) helper T lymphocytes. All cells from control mice showed little to no proliferation when stimulated with AgTg. These cells secreted more IFN-γ in the 1.5 kGy AgTg-immunized group (p<0.05). BALB/c mice immunized with 1.5 kGy and challenged with different strains of T. gondii were partially protected, as evidenced by survival after RH virulent strain challenge (p<0.0001) but also after ME-49 strain challenge: the brain cyst numbers (p<0.05) and the levels of T. gondii DNA measured by real-time PCR (p<0.05) decreased compared to non-immunized controls. (author)

  19. Protective Effect of T. violacea Rhizome Extract Against Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olorunnisola Sinbad Olorunnisola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effect of methanolic extract of T. violacea rhizomes on high cholesterol (2% diet fed rats (HCD. At the end of 4 weeks, serum total protein, albumin, reduced glutathione (GSH, and markers of oxidative stress viz., catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS—a marker of lipid peroxidation, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the serum, aorta, liver and heart of HCD and normal rats were assessed and compared. A significant (p < 0.05 elevation in TBARS, and a reduction (p < 0.05 in serum total protein, albumin, GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in tissues of HCD fed rats compared with the normal group. Co-administration of crude extracts of T. violacea rhizomes protected the liver, heart, serum and aorta against HCD-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependant manner. The activities of the extract (500 mg/kg compared favorably with gemfibrozil. The extracts also protected against HCD-induced reduction in serum total protein, GSH and restored the activities of antioxidant tissues (liver, heart and aorta enzymes to near normal values. This result suggested that consumption of T. violacea rhizome may help to protect against hypercholesterolemia- induced oxidative stress diseases in the heart and liver.

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protection Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata L. Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendarrao Golla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae/Gramineae is an official drug of ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Various parts of this plant were used extensively in traditional and folklore medicine to cure various human ailments. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and DNA damage protection activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Desmostachya bipinnata both in vitro and in vivo, to provide scientific basis for traditional usage of this plant. The extract showed significant antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 264.18±3.47 μg/mL in H2O2 scavenging assay and prevented the oxidative damage to DNA in presence of DNA damaging agent (Fenton’s reagent at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. Also, the presence of extract protected yeast cells in a dose-dependent manner against DNA damaging agent (Hydroxyurea in spot assay. Moreover, the presence of extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity in vivo by protecting yeast cells against oxidative stressing agent (H2O2. Altogether, the results of current study revealed that Desmostachya bipinnata is a potential source of antioxidants and lends pharmacological credence to the ethnomedical use of this plant in traditional system of medicine, justifying its therapeutic application for free-radical-induced diseases.

  1. Underlying mechanism of protection from hypoxic injury seen with n-butanol extract of Potentilla anserine L. in hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Qin; Lingzhi Li; Qi Lv; Baoguo Yu; Shuwang Yang; Tao He; Yongliang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The alcohol and n-butanol extract of Potentilla anserine L.significantly protects myocardium from acute ischemic injury.However,its effects on rat hippocampal neurons and the mechanism of protection remain unclear.In this study,primary cultured hippocampal neurons from neonatal rats were incubated in 95% N2 and 5% CO2 for 4 hours.Results indicated that hypoxic injury decreased the viability of neurons,increased the expression levels of caspase-9 and caspase-3 mRNA,as well as cytochrome c,Caspase-9,and Caspase-3 protein.Pretreatment with 0.25,0.0625,0.0156 mg/mL n-butanol extract of Potentilla anserine L.led to a significant increase in cell viability.Expression levels of caspase-9 and caspase-3 mRNA,as well as cytochrome c,Caspase-9,andCaspase-3 protein,were attenuated.The neuroprotective effect of n-butanol extract of Potentillaanserine L.was equivalent to tanshinone IIA.Our data suggest that the n-butanol extract of Potentilla anserine L.could protect primary hippocampal neurons from hypoxic injury by deactivating mitochondrial cell death.

  2. Use of Extracted Green Inhibitors as a Friendly Choice in Corrosion Protection of Low Alloy Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of corrosion impact on environment is an important step in environmental protection. Use of environmentally friendly corrosion protection methods is very important. It is smart to choose cheap and safe to handle compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The use of green inhibitors (extracted inexpensively, from the seed endosperm of some Leguminosae plants, and investigation of their efficiency in corrosion protection is the aim of this study. As green inhibitor one kind of polysaccharides (galactomannan from locust bean gum (also known as carob gum, carob bean gum extracted from the seed of carob tree is used. Corrosion protection efficiency of these extracted green inhibitors was tested for carbon steel marked as: steel 39, steel 44, and iron B 500 (usually applied as reinforcing bars to concrete. Sulfuric acid solution in the presence of chloride ions was used as corrosion media. The composition of corrosion acid media used was 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 and 10-3 mol L-1 Cl- (in the form of NaCl. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization methods were used for inhibitor efficiency testing.

  3. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra;

    2016-01-01

    therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  4. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Raoofi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6. The first group (control was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl and experimental groups with CIS (E1, CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2, CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3, CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4 intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman′s capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  5. Protective effect of Acanthopanax gracilistylus-extracted Acankoreanogenin A on mice with fulminant hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Xin; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zu-Ping; Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Rong-Rong; Zhong, Bai-Yun; Zou, Ming-Xiang; Dai, Xia-Hong; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Liu, Xiang-Qian; Fan, Xue-Gong

    2011-08-01

    The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both acute (IL-1β and TNF-α) and chronic [high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)] phases, is thought to play important roles in the development of fulminant hepatitis (FH). Triterpenoid Acankoreanogenin A (AA) which is extracted from the leaves of the Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W. Smith (AGS) has shown its inhibiting effect on TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB1 release in vitro in our preliminary experiments. In present study, we investigated the effect of AA on mice with fulminant hepatitis in vivo. Fulminant hepatitis mice model was established by intraperitoneally injecting galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The levels of serum of TNF-α, IL-1β, ALT, AST and HMGB1 from AA-treated mice were measured at different time points. Our results demonstrated that pre-treatment of mice with AA markedly reduced the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, HMGB1, ALT and AST with the improvement in histological features. And the survival rate from AA-treated fulminant hepatitis mice was increased. Furthermore, delayed administration of AA after peak occurrence of the early pro-inflammatory cytokines still endowed significant protection against GalN/LPS-induced lethality. The post-treatment of AA could significantly attenuate the release of HMGB1, but not the TNF-α and IL-1β. These results indicate that AA inhibits the systemic release of pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB1, and dose-dependently rescue the mice from lethal GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis, which suggests this component as a candidate therapy for fulminant hepatitis. PMID:21356341

  6. NEURO-PROTECTION AND NEURO-THERAPY EFFECTS OF Acalypha indica Linn. WATER EXTRACT EX VIVO ON Musculus gastrocnemius Frog

    OpenAIRE

    Arjo Tedjo; Hamdani Zain; Nurhadi Ibrahim; Ernie H. Purwaningsih

    2008-01-01

    The studies of neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects of Acalypha indica Linn. water extract ex vivo on Musculus gastrocnemius frog have already done at three Departments in Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia. The experimental studies were done on 2 groups of frog for neuro-protection and neuro-therapy effects. Each group of frog was divided into 7 subgroups of application, 4 samples each. There were 5 subgroups of doses: 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 mg and 2 subgroups as control. Pancuro...

  7. Determination of singlet oxygen quenching and protection of biological systems by various extracts from seed of Rumex crispus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hwa-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Seong-Ryul; Shin, Myoung-Ho; Park, Sanggyu; Park, Shin

    2011-02-01

    The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and total phenolic contents were evaluated for the screening of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) quenching efficacy of various seed extracts from Rumex crispus L. The butanol and ethyl-acetate extracts displayed remarkable effect of DPPH as compared to positive control ascorbic acid. The concentrations (QC(50)) of butanol and ethyl-acetate extracts required to exert 50% reducing effect on (1)O(2) were found to be 116 and 82 μg mL(-1), respectively. Both extracts were also found to protect the in vitro biological system from the detrimental effect of (1)O(2) on type II photosensitization in Escherichia coli, red blood cell, lactate dehydrogenase and histidine. Among all the tested extracts, the ethyl-acetate and butanol extracts contained higher amount of total phenolic contents. The results suggest that our study may contribute to the development of new bioactive products with potential applications to reduce photo-produced oxidative stress involving reactive oxygen species in living organisms. PMID:21185197

  8. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on model rats of brain dysfunction induced by aluminum salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-haiGONG; QinWU; Dan-liYANG; Xie-nanHUANG; An-shengSUN; Jing-shanSHI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GbE) on the learning and memory in brain dysfunction model induced by aluminum salt in rats, and to investigate potential mechanisms. METHODS: Wistar rats were given daily aluminum chloride 500 mg·kg·d-1 ig, for one month, followed by continuous exposure via the drinking water containing 1600 ppm

  9. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata on ischaemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ojha, Shreesh Kumar; Bharti, Saurabh; Joshi, Sujata; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Protecting myocardium from ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury is important to reduce the complication of myocardial infarction (MI) and interventional revascularization procedures. In the present study, the cardioprotective potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata was evaluated against left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) ligation-induced I-R injury of myocardium in rats. Methods: MI was induced in rats by LADCA ligation for 45 min fo...

  10. Coffee and spent coffee extracts protect against cell mutagens and inhibit growth of food-borne pathogen microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cid, C.; Peña, M. P.; Arbillaga, L. (Leire); Vitas, A I; Bravo, J.; Monente, C. (Carmen)

    2015-01-01

    Coffee consumption decreases the risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The by-product obtained after brewing process (spent coffee) also has antioxidant capacity. Spent coffee and coffee brews (filter and espresso) extracts were obtained from Arabica and Robusta coffees, respectively. Spent coffee showed slightly high amounts in chlorogenic acids, but caffeine content was similar to their respective coffee brew. All samples exhibited strong protection activity against indirect acting mut...

  11. Dichlorvos-induced oxidative stress in rat brain: Protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Alstonia boonei stem bark

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo; Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye; Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye; Adebola Busola Ojo; Habiba Musa; Olaide Ibiwumi Olarewaju

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorous pesticides, commonly used in agriculture for achieving better-quality products, are toxic substances that have harmful effects on human health. Recent research on pesticides, especially pesticide mixtures, has shown that they are one of the key environmental health issues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Alstonia boonei ethanolic extract in dichlorvos-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats. Dichlorvos (50 mg/kg body weight) was orally ...

  12. Protective effect of C. sativa leaf extract against UV mediated-DNA damage in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I F; Pinto, A S; Monteiro, C; Monteiro, H; Belo, L; Fernandes, J; Bento, A R; Duarte, T L; Garrido, J; Bahia, M F; Sousa Lobo, J M; Costa, P C

    2015-03-01

    Toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on skin include protein and lipid oxidation, and DNA damage. The latter is known to play a major role in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Many plant extracts and natural compounds are emerging as photoprotective agents. Castanea sativa leaf extract is able to scavenge several reactive species that have been associated to UV-induced oxidative stress. The aim of this work was to analyze the protective effect of C. sativa extract (ECS) at different concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 μg/mL) against the UV mediated-DNA damage in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). For this purpose, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used. Elucidation of the protective mechanism was undertaken regarding UV absorption, influence on (1)O₂ mediated effects or NRF2 activation. ECS presented a concentration-dependent protective effect against UV-mediated DNA damage in HaCaT cells. The maximum protection afforded (66.4%) was achieved with the concentration of 0.1 μg/mL. This effect was found to be related to a direct antioxidant effect (involving (1)O₂) rather than activation of the endogenous antioxidant response coordinated by NRF2. Electrochemical studies showed that the good antioxidant capacity of the ECS can be ascribed to the presence of a pool of different phenolic antioxidants. No genotoxic or phototoxic effects were observed after incubation of HaCaT cells with ECS (up to 0.1 μg/mL). Taken together these results reinforce the putative application of this plant extract in the prevention/minimization of UV deleterious effects on skin.

  13. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

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    Bruno da Cruz Pádua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetaminophen (APAP is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose.

  14. Anti-oxidative protection against iron overload-induced liver damage in mice by Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2013-02-01

    In view of the contribution of iron deposition in the oxidative pathologic process of liver disease, the potential of 70% methanolic extract of C. cajan leaf (CLME) towards antioxidative protection against iron-overload-induced liver damage in mice has been investigated. DPPH radical scavenging and protection of Fenton reaction induced DNA damage was conducted in vitro. Post oral administration of CLME to iron overloaded mice, the levels of antioxidant and serum enzymes, hepatic iron, serum ferritin, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline contents were measured, in comparison to deferasirox treated mice. Oral treatment of the plant extract effectively lowered the elevated levels of liver iron, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline. There was notable increment in the dropped levels of hepatic antioxidants. The dosage of the plant extract not only made the levels of serum enzymes approach normal value, but also counteracted the overwhelmed serum ferritin level. The in vitro studies indicated potential antioxidant activity of CLME. The histopathological observations also substantiated the ameliorative function of the plant extract. Accordingly, it is suggested that Cajanus cajan leaf can be a useful herbal remedy to suppress oxidative damage caused by iron overload. PMID:23923610

  15. Methanolic leaf extract of Parkia biglobosa protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats

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    K Komolafe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Aqueous-methanolic leaf extract of Parkia biglobosa (PBE was investigated for its effects on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and phytochemical constituents. Adult albino rats weighing (200g-220g were pretreated with ramipril (10mg/kg/day or PBE (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg/day by gavage for 14 consecutive days before receiving single intraperitoneal (i.p dose of doxorubicin (15mg/kg on the 13th day.  Animals were sacrificed twenty hours after the last administration and the heart homogenate and serum were analysed for biochemical indices of oxidative stress, tissue markers of cardiotoxicity and serum lipid profile. Results revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, total flavonoid (121.30±3.2 mg Quercetin equivalent, total phenol (55.40±1.2 mg gallic acid equivalent, and dose-dependent reduction of iron-induced MDA formation in rat’s heart by PBE. Doxorubicin caused significant elevations (P<0.05 of cardiac MDA, serum creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and dyslipidemia while causing significant reduction in the levels/or activities of cardiac reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase  and superoxide dismutase. Pretreatment with PBE prevented most of these derangements in a comparable manner to that of ramipril. It may be concluded from the study that PBE can protect against doxorubicin-induced toxicity probably via antioxidative and antihyperlipidemic mechanisms.Industrial relevance. The use of plants and plant-products will continue to find relevance in the treatment and management of numerous diseases and /or pathological conditions especially in the low-income countries due to the ready accessibility and inexpensive nature of these materials.  Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth., is a common and widespread tree in tropical Africa where it is used for timber and food and also with popular ethnomedicinal applications in the

  16. Concentration-Dependent Protection by Ethanol Extract of Propolis against γ-Ray-Induced Chromosome Damage in Human Blood Lymphocytes

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    A. Montoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioprotection with natural products may be relevant to the mitigation of ionizing radiation-induced damage in mammalian systems; in this sense, propolis extracts have shown effects such as antioxidant, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulant. We report for the first time a cytogenetic study to evaluate the radioprotective effect, in vitro, of propolis against radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Lymphocytes were cultured with increasing concentrations of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP, including 20, 40, 120, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 2000 μg mL−1 and then exposed to 2 Gy γ-rays. A significant and concentration-dependent decrease is observed in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in samples treated with EEP. The protection against the formation of dicentrics was concentration-dependent, with a maximum protection at 120 μg mL−1 of EEP. The observed frequency of dicentrics is described as negative exponential function, indicating that the maximum protectible fraction of dicentrics is approximately 44%. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities are the mechanisms that these substances use to protect cells from ionizing radiation.

  17. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chiarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect.

  18. Reno-protective effect of garlic extract against immobilization stress induced changes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Kashif; Zaidi; Shakeel; Ahmed; Ansari; Ghulam; Md.Ashraf; Mohammad; Alam; Jafri; Shams; Tabrez; Naheed; Banu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine immobilization stress-induced antioxidant defense alterations in rat kidney and the antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract in pre and post stress extract treatments. Methods: Albino rats were treated with aqueous extract of garlic both before and 6 h of immobilization stress. Pro-oxidant eminence of rat kidney was assessed by determining the levels of glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and antioxidant enzymes activities. Results: In response to 6 h of immobilization stress, a significant rise in the level of kidney enzymes was recorded. However, antioxidant enzyme activities showed a sharp decline. Conclusions: The extract treatment before and after the stress reverted the activities of above mentioned enzymes towards their control values. Hence, garlic extract can be given as nutritional supplement for scavenging the free radicals generated in rat kidney.

  19. Alcoholic Extract of Ashwagandha Leaves Protects Against Amnesia by Regulation of Arc Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Akash; Kaul, Sunil C; Thakur, Mahendra K

    2016-04-01

    Our earlier report on scopolamine-induced amnesia and its improvement by pre-treatment with i-Extract (alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaf) suggested that the i-Extract mediated nootropic effect may involve neuronal immediate early gene, Arc. With a hypothesis that the i-Extract induced expression of Arc protein may cause augmentation in Arc function, we examined the effect of i-extract on a major function of Arc protein, i.e. F-actin expansion, using Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). Stereotaxic infusion of Arc antisense ODN in the CA1 region of hippocampus decreased the level of Arc protein as demonstrated by immunoblotting. However, this decrease was attenuated when treated with i-Extract prior to infusion of Arc antisense ODN. We noted a significant decrease in the polymerization of F-actin during scopolamine-induced amnesia as well as Arc antisense ODN infusion that was restored rather enhanced when pre-treated with i-Extract in both the cases. We also compared the corresponding changes between CA1 (the infusion site) and CA3 (neighbouring site of infusion) regions of hippocampus, and found more pronounced effects in CA1 than in the CA3 region. The extent of F-actin polymerization, as revealed by changes in the dendritic spine architecture through Golgi staining, showed that both scopolamine as well as Arc antisense ODN disrupted the spine density and mushroom-shaped morphology that was again regained if pre-treated with i-Extract. In conclusion, the findings reveal that the Arc helps in polymerization of F-actin and subsequent changes in the morphology of dendritic spines after pre-treatment with i-Extract in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice, suggesting an important role of Arc in scopolamine-induced amnesia and its recovery by i-Extract. PMID:25744565

  20. Labisia pumila extract protects skin cells from photoaging caused by UVB irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-kyung; Kim, Dong-hyun; Kim, Jin Wook; Ngadiran, Sulaiman; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Park, Chang Seo

    2010-03-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), known as "Kacip Fatimah," has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate child birth as well as a post partum medicine. However, its topical application on skin has not been reported yet. In this study, we have focused on the anti-photoaging effects of L. pumila. Extract of L. pumila was first analyzed for their antioxidant activities using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) since UV irradiation is a primary cause of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the skin. The 50% free radical scavenging activity (FSC(50)) of L. pumila extract was determined to be 0.006%, which was equal to that produced by 156 microM ascorbic acid. TNF-alpha and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) play a primary role in the inflammation process upon UV irradiation and are known to be stimulated by UVB. Treatment with L. pumila extract markedly inhibited the TNF-alpha production and the expression of COX-2. Decreased collagen synthesis of human fibroblasts by UVB was restored back to normal level after treatment with L. pumila extract. On the other hand, the enhanced MMP-1 expression upon UVB irradiation was down regulated by L. pumila extract in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of normal keratinocytes with L. pumila extract attenuated UVB-induced MMP-9 expression. These results collectively suggest L. pumila extract has tremendous potential as an anti-photoaging cosmetic ingredient. PMID:20159580

  1. Polyphenol-Rich Strawberry Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidative Damage and Improves Mitochondrial Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging.

  2. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Muniappan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Methods Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. Results A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage. Conclusions Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Protective Effects of Morus alba Leaves Extract on Ocular Functions of Pups from Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Mother Rats

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    H.I.H. El-Sayyad, M.A. El-Sherbiny, M.A. Sobh, A.M. Abou-El-Naga, M.A.N. Ibrahim, S.A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE, adrenaline (AD, nor-adrenaline (NAD, serotonin (5-HT, histamine (HS, dopamine (DA and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA. The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.

  4. Protective effect of supercritical fluid rosemary extract, , on antioxidants of major organs of aged rats

    OpenAIRE

    Posadas, S.J.; Caz, V.; Largo, C. (Cristina); De La Gándara, B.; Matallanas, B.; G. Reglero; Miguel, E.

    2009-01-01

    International audience Rosemary leaves, “”, possess a variety of antioxidant, anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. We hypothesized that rosemary extract could enhance antioxidant defenses and improve antioxidant status in aged rats.

  5. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte mem...

  6. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic root extract of Rubia cordifolia in indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    A T Pawar; Anap, R M; Ghodasara, J V; Kuchekar, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the possible effect of hydroalcoholic root extract of Rubia cordifolia against indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats. Male Wistar rats received vehicle or hydroalcoholic root extract of Rubia cordifolia (300 and 600 mg/kg) for 11 consecutive days. Enterocolitis was induced by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (7.5 mg/kg) on 8 th and 9 th day. The colonic mucosal injury was assessed by macroscopic scoring and histopathological examination...

  7. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Root Extract of Rubia cordifolia in Indomethacin-Induced Enterocolitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A T Pawar; Anap, R M; Ghodasara, J V; Kuchekar, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the possible effect of hydroalcoholic root extract of Rubia cordifolia against indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats. Male Wistar rats received vehicle or hydroalcoholic root extract of Rubia cordifolia (300 and 600 mg/kg) for 11 consecutive days. Enterocolitis was induced by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (7.5 mg/kg) on 8th and 9th day. The colonic mucosal injury was assessed by macroscopic scoring and histopathological examination. ...

  8. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance.

  9. β-Cell protective efficacy, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of extracts of Achillea millifolium in diabetic rats%β-Cell protective efficacy,hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of extracts of Achillea millifolium in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid G.Mustafa; Bashir A.Ganai; Seema Akbar; Mohamad Y.Dar; Akbar Masood

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the therapeutic uses of Achillea millifolium in diabetic rats.METHODS:Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared solution of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg·kg-1 body weight) in Wistar rats of 150-200 g body weight,In this study,the aqueous and methanolic extract ofAchillea millifolium was studied for its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties.The rats were divided into several groups,serving as Normal group,Diabetic Control group,Diabetic heated with glibenclamide,and extract treated groups.The blood serum collected from the various groups of rats was analysed for its various biochemical parameters like glucose,cholesterol,triglycerides,VLDL,SGOT,SGPT and ALP.On the 14th day of the experiment the rats were scarified and pancreas was collected for histopathological studies.RESULTS:The extracts at dose levels of 250and 500 mg·kg- 1 body weight showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in blood glucose level,TGL,VLDL,cholesterol,SGOT,SGPT,and ALP in diabetic rats.The extracts prevented the β-cells of pancreas from the cytotoxic effects of Alloxan monohydrate.CONCLUSION:The results indicate that the cxtracts as mentioned above are effective in hyperglycemia and caa effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by alloxan monohydrate.

  10. Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

  11. Interaction of a protecting wall with a soil massif in process extractions of Foundation pit

    OpenAIRE

    ABU MAHADI MOHAMED IBRAHIM; Elfimov, V.

    2013-01-01

    The computing procedure to determine the soil pressure on retaining structure and it’s displacements during earth excavation from a pit is developed. At the first stage the protecting construction (slurry wall, sheet piling, row of piles) is enclosed in a ground from the both sides, then the earth excavation from one side of the screen begins. The variations of soil pressure on the both sides of protecting screen are traced in the process of computing with proposed method. The critical depth ...

  12. Evaluation of cardio protective Activity of Methanolic Extract Of Solanum Nigrum Linn. in Rats

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    BHATIA NITISH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the cardioprotective and anti-oxidant activity of methanolic extract of berries of the plant Solanum nigrum belonging to family solanaceae. The cardioprotective activity of the extract was evaluated by using global in-vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury and tissue biochemical anti-oxidant profile respectively. The study was carried out using doses of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg for 6 days per week for 30 days. The results indicate that the extract exhibited significant (p<0.001 cardioprotective activity against global in-vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury. The extract also exhibited significant (p<0.001 antioxidant potential as evident from the cardiac tissue biochemical antioxidant profile. Overall, the activities occurred in a dose-independent manner. The present study demonstrated that the methanolic extract of berries of the plant Solanum nigrum possessed cardioprotective and anti-oxidant activity and confirmed the traditional claims.

  13. Protective effects of peony root extract and its components on neuron damage in the hippocampus induced by the cobalt focus epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, T; Sugaya, A; Ohguchi, H; Kishida, N; Sugaya, E

    1997-08-01

    Protective effects of peony root extract and its components on neuron damage in the CA1 area of the hippocampus induced by the cobalt focus epilepsy model were examined. Neuron damage in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and frequent spike discharges induced by application of metallic cobalt to the cerebral cortex of rats were completely prevented when peony root extract was continuously administered orally at 1 g/kg/day for 30 days prior to cobalt application. Component crude gallotannin fraction showed marked but incomplete protective action. A combination of crude gallotannin fraction and paeoniflorin showed complete protective action in the same way as peony root extract against neuron damage although use of paeoniflorin alone had no effect. These findings together with our previous reports indicate that peony root extract and its component, gallotannin, have excellent protective effects on neuron damage in addition to anticonvulsant action by prior oral administration.

  14. CARDIO-PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CYPERUS ROTUNDUS RHIZOME ON ISOPROTERENOL-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL NECROSIS IN RATS

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    Syed Mehdi Raza et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to scientifically evaluate the effect of alchoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes, a traditional medicinal herb, on isoproterenol-induce myocardial necrosis in rats model. The albino wistar rats were divided into five different groups with six animal in each group. Group I serves as a control group, group II were given isoproterenol (85 mg/kg s.c for 2 days while Group III was treated with metoprolol (10 mg/kg for 28 days and isoproterenol on last 2 days. This group serves as standard group and its effect was used for comparison with that of test drug (Cyperus rotundus extract. Group IV and V were given Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract (300 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg respectively for 28 days and isoproterenol on last 29th and 30th day. The level of enzymes transaminases (aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Cretinine kinase (CK were estimated in serum and the extent of necrosis was studied by grading. Isoproterenol significantly increased the activities of CK, LDH and the transaminases in serum. Pretreatment with the alchoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus had a significant effect on the activities of marker enzymes compared to the other groups. The effect was compared with the effect on marker enzymes in the group treated with Metaprolol. The metaprolol treated group shows reduced level of marker enzymes, nearer to the control group. The pretreatment with Cyperus rotundus extract at the dose 300 mg/kg shows more significant reduction then at the dose of 150 mg/kg. The study confirms the protective effects of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract against isoproterenol-induced biochemical alterations in rats.

  15. [Eupolyphaga frass and its extracts protected tomato from Meloidogyne incognita infestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiu-feng; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan

    2015-08-01

    The control effects of Eupolyphaga (Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker) frass and its extracts on Meloidogyne incognita were studied through laboratory assays and pot experiments, and the organic volatile compounds and oligochitosan contents in the frass were analyzed. The results indicated that the nematode immobility and mortality was significantly increased with increasing the extract concentration and treatment time. Compared with the control, egg hatching was significantly inhibited when the extract concentration was beyond 20%. Pot experiment indicated that root galling of tomato seedlings was reduced and the relative control effect was significantly improved with the increasing frass application. Meanwhile, plant height, stem diameter and leaf number of tomato increased with the increasing dosage of eupolyphaga frass. The ingredients analysis showed that the content of oligochitosan was about 4.35% and there were 9 categories and 110 kinds of volatile compounds in the frass. PMID:26685616

  16. [INFLUENCE OF MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON THE FUNCTIONS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROTECTION OF ERYTHROCYTES IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES MELLITUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerovskii, A I; Yakimova, T V; Nasanova, O N

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on rats with diabetes mellitus model induced by streptosotocin and high (30%) fat diet showed that the daily treatment with aqueous extracts of great nettle leaves (100 mg/kg) and common burdock roots (25 mg/kg) for a period of 10 days led to a decrease in the glycemic index and triglyceride level and produced protective action on erythrocytes both in animals kept on a fat-rich diet and on the background of a low-caloric ration. Both medicinal plant extracts were comparable with reference drug metformin in reducing the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (by 12-31%) and ectoglobular hemoglobin (1.7-1.8 times, p diet with usual (8%) fat content improved the metabolic indices to a lower degree (on the average by 13-21%, p < 0.05) than did the proposed phytotherapy.

  17. Protection against butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid induced oxidative stress by Ocimum sanctum extract in mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Komal; Verma, Ramtej J

    2012-01-01

    Prime focus of the present investigation was to evaluate hepatoprotective potency of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) aqueous extract against butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid (butylparaben) toxicity in mice. Oral treatment of butylparaben (1320 mg/kg b.w./day) to mice for 30 days resulted in significant (p sanctum extracts in three different doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w./day) resulted in significant (p sanctum with butylparaben resulted in dose-dependent and significant (p sanctum reduced butylparaben-induced changes in non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. The effect was significant (p sanctum ameliorated butylparaben-induced changes, showing maximum protection at 300 mg/kg b.w./day dose. Results of present study indicate that butylparaben-induced hepatotoxicity involves its ability to induce oxidative stress, whereas antihepatotoxic effect of O. sanctum was mainly due to its antioxidative potency. PMID:23061282

  18. Protective Effects of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea Extract against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Cyphomandra betacea in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. Rats were fed on either normal chow or high fat diet for 10 weeks for obesity induction phase and subsequently received C. betacea extract at low dose (150 mg kg−1, medium dose (200 mg kg−1, or high dose (300 mg kg−1 or placebo via oral gavages for another 7 weeks for treatment phase. Treatment of obese rats with C. betacea extracts led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL-C (p<0.05. Also there was a trend of positive reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-C with positive reduction of body weight detected in medium and high dosage of C. betacea extract. Interestingly, C. betacea treated rats showed positive improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity along with a significant increase of total antioxidant status (TAS (p<0.05. Further, rats treated with C. betacea show significantly lower in TNF-α and IL-6 activities (p<0.05. This study demonstrates the potential use of Cyphomandra betacea extract for weight maintenance and complimentary therapy to suppress some obesity complication signs.

  19. Protective effects of vitamin E and Cornus mas fruit extract on methotrexate-induced cytotoxicity in sperms of adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei, Leila; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Malekinejad, Hassan; Eilkhanizadeh, Behroz; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) and vitamin E (Vit E) on sperm quality parameters in the methotrexate (MTX)-treated mice. Forty-eight young adult male mice (8-12 weeks) were randomly divided into six groups including control and test groups. The control group received normal saline orally , and the test groups were treated MTX (20 mg kg-1, ip, once weekly), MTX + CMFE (250 mg kg-1), MTX + CMFE (500 mg kg-1), MTX + CMFE (1000 mg kg-1), a...

  20. MCI extraction from Turkish galls played protective roles against X-ray-induced damage in AHH-1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jianhua; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Huibin; Wang, Jianhua; Hu, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effects of MCI extract from Turkish galls against apoptosis induced by X-ray radiation in the AHH-1. Methods: The cells were divided into: control group; X-ray radiation group; MCI group, in which the confluent cells were preincubated with 5 μg/ml MCI for 2 h followed by radiation. For the radiation, cells preincubated with MCI were exposed to X-ray beams with a dose of 8 Gy in total. Cell viability, apoptosis and intracellular alteration of redox were...

  1. The Protective Effect of Grape-Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Oxidative Damage Induced by Zearalenone in Kunming Mice Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Miao; Yang, Shu-Hua; Han, Jian-Xin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Shuang; Chen, Xinliang; Guo, Jiayi; Wang, Jun; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) demonstrates strong anti-oxidant activity, little research has been done to clearly reveal the protective effects on the hepatotoxicity caused by zearalenone (ZEN). This study is to explore the protective effect of GSPE on ZEN-induced oxidative damage of liver in Kunming mice and the possible protective molecular mechanism of GSPE. The results indicated that GSPE could greatly reduce the ZEN-induced increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. GSPE also significantly decreased the content of MDA but enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px. The analysis indicated that ZEN decreased both mRNA expression levels and protein expression levels of nuclear erythroid2-related factor2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 is considered to be an essential antioxidative transcription factor, as downstream GSH-Px, γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased simultaneously, whereas the pre-administration of GSPE groups was shown to elevate these expressions. The results indicated that GSPE exerted a protective effect on ZEN-induced hepatic injury and the mechanism might be related to the activation of the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. PMID:27231898

  2. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA SEEDS IN GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahurkar N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to carry out the preliminary phytochemical studies and nephroprotective activity of metahanolic and aqueous extracts of Lagenaria siceraria seeds, family cucurbitaceae. These studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins (ellagitannins, saponins, polyphenols, triterpenes, lagenin (protein in the extracts. The extract was found to be potent diuretic which causes excretion of sodium and potassium. Gentamicin is an extensively used aminolgycoside antibiotic. It has been reported to produce nephrotoxicity even at normal therapeutic dose level. Gentamicin was administrated intraperitonealy at a dose of 80mg/kg body weight for 9 days. The biochemical parameters viz. serum createnine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum uric acid was found to be significantly increased whereas serum total protein was decreased. Histopathological sections showed marked glomerular, peritubular and blood vessel congestion. These increased levels of biochemical parameters and extent of renal damage were decreased by the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lagenaria siceraria seeds at a dose of 250mg/kg, Cystone tab. (500mg/kg was used as reference standard to compare with the toxicant and test group animals.

  3. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract against oxidative stress induced by gamma-irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract against redox imbalance induced by protracted exposure to γ -rays. Rats were exposed to γ-radiation at a dose 2 Gy / week for 4 weeks (γ-radiated group) Ginkgo biloba extract was administered in a dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt. for 7 days before the first dose of γ-radiation and contemned during for exposure period (Ginkgo biloba pre- treated group) and also after the last dose of γ-radiation (Ginkgo biloba post- treated group), these groups were compared with either control or Ginkgo biloba animals. The results reveal obtained significant increases in malondialdhyde and nitric oxide concentrations in blood and liver of γ-irradiated group with concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Histopathological examinations in the liver revealed a severe damage showed by dilated congested control vein with ruptured endothelium. Vacuolated hapatocytes and extensive cell necrosis were also seen. Note extravagated RBCs within sinusoidal spaces. In addition, the enzymes of liver function and bilirubin content were increased. DNA fragmentation percentage and tumor necrosis factor alpha concentration were also increased in liver. Ginkgo biloba extract administration significantly ameliorated the adverse effects of γ-irradiation in rats. It could be concluded that Ginkgo biloba extract has a role in reducing the oxidative stress of pre or post γ-irradiation on liver tissue of rats

  4. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  5. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  6. Walnut extracts protect cultured microglia against LPS-induced neurotoxicity via modulation of intracellular calcium concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), as compared to other edible plants. Previously, our laboratory had demonstrated that dietary walnut supplementation in aged animals enhanced protective signaling pathways, altered membrane microstructures, an...

  7. Defined plant extracts can protect human cells against combined xenobiotic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Emilie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollutants representative of common environmental contaminants induce intracellular toxicity in human cells, which is generally amplified in combinations. We wanted to test the common pathways of intoxication and detoxification in human embryonic and liver cell lines. We used various pollutants such as Roundup residues, Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, and five precise medicinal plant extracts called Circ1, Dig1, Dig2, Sp1, and Uro1 in order to understand whether specific molecular actions took place or not. Methods Kidney and liver are major detoxification organs. We have studied embryonic kidney and hepatic human cell lines E293 and HepG2. The intoxication was induced on the one hand by a formulation of one of the most common herbicides worldwide, Roundup 450 GT+ (glyphosate and specific adjuvants, and on the other hand by a mixture of Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, all found in surface waters, feed and food. The prevention and curative effects of plant extracts were also measured on mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, on the entry of radiolabelled glyphosate (in Roundup in cells, and on cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4 as well as glutathione-S-transferase. Results Clear toxicities of pollutants were observed on both cell lines at very low sub-agricultural dilutions. The prevention of such phenomena took place within 48 h with the plant extracts tested, with success rates ranging between 25-34% for the E293 intoxicated by Roundup, and surprisingly up to 71% for the HepG2. By contrast, after intoxication, no plant extract was capable of restoring E293 viability within 48 h, however, two medicinal plant combinations did restore the Bisphenol-A/Atrazine intoxicated HepG2 up to 24-28%. The analysis of underlying mechanisms revealed that plant extracts were not capable of preventing radiolabelled glyphosate from entering cells; however Dig2 did restore the CYP1A2 activity disrupted by Roundup, and had only a mild preventive effect

  8. Role of Rosemary Leaves Extract as A Protective Agent Against Azathioprine-Induced Toxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hala M T El-Mougy*, Gehan A Youssef

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rosemary is widely found along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. Its leaves or extract were found to have a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. It is also used as an antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic and expectorant. These actions are mainly due to its content of essential oils. Azathioprine (AZA) is an immunosuppressive drug. It is widely used in many diseases. A major drawback is the occurrence of side-effects, especially acute pancreatitis. Aim of the wor...

  9. Protective Effects of Punica Granatum Seeds Extract Against Aging and Scopolamine Induced Cognitive Impairments in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sokindra; Maheshwari, Kamal Kishore; Singh, Vijender

    2008-01-01

    Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. This impairment probably is due to the vulnerability of the brain cells to increased oxidative stress during aging process. Many studies have shown that certain phenolic antioxidants attenuate neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress. The present work was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum seeds on cognit...

  10. Methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves exerted antioxidant and liver protective activity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mamat, Siti Syariah; Kamarolzaman, Mohamad Fauzi Fahmi; Yahya, Farhana; Mahmood, Nur Diyana; Shahril, Muhammad Syahmi; Jakius, Krystal Feredoline; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Ching, Siew Mooi; Susanti, Deny; Taher, Muhammad; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2013-01-01

    Background Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomaceae) is a small shrub with various medicinal uses. The present study was carried out to determine the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) against the paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats model. Methods The respective chemicals and herbal solutions (10% DMSO, 200 mg/kg silymarin or MEMM (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg)) were administered orally to rats once everyday for 7 days followed by the hepatotoxici...

  11. Role of Rosemary Leaves Extract as A Protective Agent Against Azathioprine-Induced Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M T El-Mougy*, Gehan A Youssef

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rosemary is widely found along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. Its leaves or extract were found to have a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. It is also used as an antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic and expectorant. These actions are mainly due to its content of essential oils. Azathioprine (AZA is an immunosuppressive drug. It is widely used in many diseases. A major drawback is the occurrence of side-effects, especially acute pancreatitis. Aim of the work: This work was done to study the effect of dietary supplement of rosemary leaves as a strategy for amelioration of the side-effects of azathioprine. Material and Methods: Thirty-two adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were equally divided into four groups. Group I: control group, group II: rosemary group, the animals were given a daily oral dose of rosemary leaves extract. Group III: azathioprine group, the animals were given a single dose of AZA intraperitoneally. Group IV: rosemary azathioprine group: the rats were given daily doses of rosemary leaves extract then azathioprine in the last day of the experiment as in the previous regimen. The experiment continued for ten days. Blood samples were taken from all groups and examined for tumour necrosis factor alpha, serum amylase enzyme, C-reactive protein and renal function tests (serum urea and creatinine. Results: Rosemary significantly decreased the levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha, serum amylase enzyme and serum urea and C-reactive protein in rosemary AZA group compared to AZA group . Conclusion: The aqueous rosemary leaves extract has the ability to ameliorate the biochemical pathways of the side-effects of azathioprine, so it is advisable to give it concomitantly to patients treated by azathioprine.

  12. Protective Effects of Oyster Extract Against Hepatic Tissue Injury in Alcoholic Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cuiping; LI Xiaoyu; JING Xue; ZHANG Bo; ZHANG Qi; NIU Qinghui; WANG Jianjun; TIAN Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Oyster extract is an effective bioactivity component. It has abundant nutritional value and antiviral, antitumor and im-mune defense functions. The role of oyster extract in treating liver injury has been paid more attention. We use Wistar rats to make alcoholic liver disease model through injecting alcohol into rats’ stomachs. These rats were randomly divided into five groups:model group, control group, low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose experimental group with a dose of 0.12 g kg-1, 0.40 g kg-1, and 1.20 g kg-1 alcoholic. After nine weeks, serum biomarkers (ALT, AST, TG and TCHO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), C3a, C5a, IL-17, TNF-ɑ, anti-MAA-HAS IgG, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cell activation and zinc content were assessed. The results showed that the serum biomarkers(ALT, AST, TG and TCHO), MDA content, anti-MAA-HSA IgG, serum C3a, C5a IL-17 and TNF-ɑlevels of oyster extract treatment groups were significantly decreased in comparison with model group. On the contrary, GSH showed ad-verse trend. Serum CD3+, CD4+ and NK cell activation were significantly increased in middle-dose group and high-dose group compared with model group, and there was decrease of CD8+activity in high-dose group. Plasma Zn level was decreased in model group compared with that in control group. Meanwhile, Mean plasma Zn levels increased dramatically following the dose increase of a given oyster extract.

  13. Protective role of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract against streptozotocin induced sperm damage in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Siti Balkis; Idris, Muhd Hanis Md; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Osman, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus contributes to male sexual dysfunction and infertility by modulating oxidative damage. To date, a number of studies have demonstrated antioxidant properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. This study was designed to investigate the effects of H. sabdariffa UKMR-2 variety on sperm functioning of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allotted into four groups, namely control group (C), H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) group, diabetes group (D) and diabete...

  14. Protective effects of the extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kin Weng; Mat-Junit, Sarni; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman; Ismail, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Barringtonia racemosa is a tropical plant with medicinal values. In this study, the ability of the water extracts of the leaf (BLE) and stem (BSE) from the shoots to protect HepG2 cells against oxidative damage was studied. Five major polyphenolic compounds consisting of gallic acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were identified using HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. Cell viability assay revealed that BLE and BSE were non-cytotoxic (cell viabilities >80%) at concentration less than 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, respectively. BLE and BSE improved cellular antioxidant status measured by FRAP assay and protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. The extracts also inhibited lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. BLE and BSE could also suppress the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during oxidative stress. The shoots of B. racemosa can be an alternative bioactive ingredient in the prevention of oxidative damage. PMID:26839752

  15. Protection of trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats by turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is dependent on extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Laura E; Frye, Jennifer B; Timmermann, Barbara N; Funk, Janet L

    2010-09-01

    Extracts prepared from turmeric (Curcuma longa L., [Zingiberaceae]) containing bioactive phenolic curcuminoids were evaluated for bone-protective effects in a hypogonadal rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Three-month female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with a chemically complex turmeric fraction (41% curcuminoids by weight) or a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric fraction (94% curcuminoids by weight), both dosed at 60 mg/kg 3x per week, or vehicle alone. Effects of two months of treatment on OVX-induced bone loss were followed prospectively by serial assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) of the distal femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while treatment effects on trabecular bone microarchitecture were assessed at two months by microcomputerized tomography (microCT). Chemically complex turmeric did not prevent bone loss, however, the curcuminoid-enriched turmeric prevented up to 50% of OVX-induced loss of trabecular bone and also preserved the number and connectedness of the strut-like trabeculae. These results suggest that turmeric may have bone-protective effects but that extract composition is a critical factor.

  16. Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

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    Deborah S. B. S. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be found in the tropics and subtropics, including in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. It is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, agitation and insomnia. E. velutina has been known to present analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, however, it is unknown if this plant present a protective effect on DNA. We assessed the antigenotoxic effect of E. velutina against the genotoxic effects induced by MMS in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/L of this medicinal plant were used in three different types of treatment (pre-, post- and simultaneous. The effects of the extracts on the root meristem cells of A. cepa were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Protective effects were observed at higher concentrations in pre-treatment and in simultaneous treatment. The results suggest that E. velutina may present antigenotoxic properties and demonstrate its chemopreventive potential.

  17. Protective role of grape seed extract against radiation induced oxidative stress in rats: Role of endogenous antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed extract against γ-irradiation induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue. Animals were divided into four groups; Control group, Grape seed extract (GSE) group: animals were administered GSE for 14 consecutive days (100 mg/kg). Irradiated (IRR) group: rats were received dist. water for 7 days and then rats were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy and dist. water was maintained for 7 additional days. GSE-IRR group: rats were treated with GSE for 7 consecutive days, one hour later after the last dose of GSE, rats were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy and GSE was maintained for 7 additional days. Administration of GSE for 14 consecutive days resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in hepatic tissues which were reduced by radiation treatment. Also, GSE resulted in a significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic tissues and a significant decrease in Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities and NO(x) level compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicate that GSE could increase the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism in rat and thereby protect the animals from radiation-induced hepatotoxicity

  18. Osmanthus fragrans Flower Extract and Acteoside Protect Against d-Galactose-Induced Aging in an ICR Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lina; Mao, Shuqin; Lu, Baiyi; Yang, Jiajia; Zhou, Fei; Hu, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yirong; Shen, Canxi; Zhao, Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans flower extract (OFE) is an organic extract from O. fragrans flower, which exhibits neuroprotective, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant effects. Therefore, the protective effect of OFE and acteoside against aging was studied. An aging ICR mouse model was established by chronically administering d-galactose (250 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. d-galactose induced spatial learning and memory impairments that were successfully inhibited by OFE and acteoside, which could shorten escape latency, improve platform crossing times, and increase zone time. The antioxidant potential of OFE and acteoside in vivo was evaluated by estimating the following: activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase and aging-related enzyme, particularly monoamine oxidase; contents of lipid peroxidation methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, advanced glycation end products, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a DNA damage product); and levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. OFE and acteoside also inhibited d-galactose-induced neurological aging by suppressing the increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophin-3. Considering the dose-dependent protective effects of OFE and acteoside, we concluded that OFE, rich in acteoside, was a good source of natural antiaging compounds. PMID:26181905

  19. Osmanthus fragrans Flower Extract and Acteoside Protect Against d-Galactose-Induced Aging in an ICR Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lina; Mao, Shuqin; Lu, Baiyi; Yang, Jiajia; Zhou, Fei; Hu, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yirong; Shen, Canxi; Zhao, Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans flower extract (OFE) is an organic extract from O. fragrans flower, which exhibits neuroprotective, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant effects. Therefore, the protective effect of OFE and acteoside against aging was studied. An aging ICR mouse model was established by chronically administering d-galactose (250 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. d-galactose induced spatial learning and memory impairments that were successfully inhibited by OFE and acteoside, which could shorten escape latency, improve platform crossing times, and increase zone time. The antioxidant potential of OFE and acteoside in vivo was evaluated by estimating the following: activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase and aging-related enzyme, particularly monoamine oxidase; contents of lipid peroxidation methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, advanced glycation end products, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a DNA damage product); and levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. OFE and acteoside also inhibited d-galactose-induced neurological aging by suppressing the increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophin-3. Considering the dose-dependent protective effects of OFE and acteoside, we concluded that OFE, rich in acteoside, was a good source of natural antiaging compounds.

  20. Protective Effect of Momordica charantia Fruit Extract on Hyperglycaemia-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razif Abas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6 into control group (Ctrl, control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC, diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl, diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC, and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met. Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione contents (GSH, and catalase (CAT was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.

  1. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Hammada scoparia against hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourogaa, Ezzeddine; Jarraya, Raoudha Mezghani; Nciri, Riadh; Damak, Mohamed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2014-03-01

    Aqueous extract (AE) of Hammada scoparia leaves was chemically characterized and its hepatoprotective activities were investigated in vivo in rat model. Wistar rats were treated daily with 35% ethanol solution (3 g/kg/day) during 4 weeks and fed with basal diet or basal diet containing AE (200 mg/kg/day). Control rats were treated with saline solution and fed with basal diet. The bioactivity of AE against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver was studied in order to explore its hepatoprotective effects. H. scoparia extract used at 200 mg/kg body weight significantly prevented the effects of ethanol, which induced a hepatic pathological damage and increased the levels of the serum markers of the enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Concomitantly, with these changes, this extract also prevented ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver as evidenced by the decreased lipid peroxidation level, a considerable decrease in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP and restoring the activities of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the AE of H. scoparia. PMID:22778112

  2. Protective Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Extract Against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of pre-treatment with Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts (SMEE on renal function markers, immunity and antioxidant activities in renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR rats. Wistar rat kidneys were subjected to 60 min of global ischemia at 37 °C followed by 30 min of reperfusion, and were randomly assigned into the sham, IR model and three SMEE-treated groups (n = 8 per group. Results showed that high serum creatinin (Scr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and malondialhehyde (MDA levels, and low antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in IR rats compared to the sham rats. Pre-treatment of Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts for 20 days prior to IR operation improved renal function, reduced IR induced renal inflammatory and oxidative injury. It is concluded that Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts could be beneficial in the treatment of renal ischemic injury.

  3. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of rosemary against lead-induced hepato-renal damage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Wafaa A M; Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; Farouk, Sameh M

    2016-09-01

    In traditional medicine, Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf is used as a curative herbal therapy for the treatment of several diseases. The protective effects of rosemary in toxic effects of some environmental pollutants are known. However, there is paucity of information about its protective effects on lead acetate (LD) toxicity. To assess the protection of rosemary ethanolic extracts (REE) on LD-induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity, male albino rabbits were treated with REE (30mg/kg) and/or LD (30mg LD/kg) by gavage administration for 30 days. The total phenolic compound content in REE was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu's assay and phyto-constituents were isolated and identified using gas chromatographic and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The protective effect of REE in LD-induced liver and renal dysfunction and blood cells was evaluated by estimating blood biomarkers of liver and renal damage, histological, and biochemical examinations. Antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation biomarker, protein and glycogen contents were estimated in both liver and kidney homogenates. The GC-MS analysis revealed that REE is rich in phenolic compounds including camphor, phytol, borneol, caryophyllene oxide, isopulegol, thymol, and verbenone. REE pre-treatment significantly (P<0.05) suppressed levels of LD induced hepatic and renal damage products as well as lipid peroxidation. In contrast, pre-treatment using REE significantly (P<0.05) decreased LD-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes, protein, and glycogen content. Additionally, REE preserved blood cells and their structure and renal and hepatic architecture. In conclusion, these findings revealed that REE protects from toxic effects of LD possibly through its free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities. PMID:27449700

  4. Use of a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis as a protective agent during DNA extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Genelhu

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the use of a plant cysteine proteinase isolated from latex of Carica candamarcensis as a protective agent during isolation of bacterial DNA following growth in culture of these cells. Between 100 to 720 units of proteinase (1 µg = 6 units afforded good DNA protection when incubated with various kinds of microorganisms. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the resulting DNA was similar in size to DNA preparations obtained by treatment with proteinase K. The viability of the resulting material was checked by PCR amplification using species-specific primers. After standing at room temperature (25oC for 35 days, the enzyme lost 10% of its initial activity. The enzyme stability and good yield of DNA suggest the use of this proteinase as an alternative to proteinase K.

  5. Use of a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis as a protective agent during DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genelhu, M S; Zanini, M S; Veloso, I F; Carneiro, A M; Lopes, M T; Salas, C E

    1998-09-01

    We describe the use of a plant cysteine proteinase isolated from latex of Carica candamarcensis as a protective agent during isolation of bacterial DNA following growth in culture of these cells. Between 100 to 720 units of proteinase (1 microgram = 6 units) afforded good DNA protection when incubated with various kinds of microorganisms. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the resulting DNA was similar in size to DNA preparations obtained by treatment with proteinase K. The viability of the resulting material was checked by PCR amplification using species-specific primers. After standing at room temperature (25 degrees C) for 35 days, the enzyme lost 10% of its initial activity. The enzyme stability and good yield of DNA suggest the use of this proteinase as an alternative to proteinase K.

  6. Tea bag filter paper as a novel protective membrane for micro-solid phase extraction of butachlor in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelden, Tshering; Thammaknet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-01-01

    An innovative, cost-effective, simple, and environmental friendly tea bag filter paper protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) technique was developed for the first time with the aim to miniaturize and minimize the use of organic solvents for the extraction and determination of butachlor in aqueous samples. The μ-SPE device was produced by packing 3.0 mg of an easily synthesized new sorbent, hydroxyl-functionalized polypyrrole (OH-PPY), inside a small tea bag filter paper sachet (1.0 cm × 0.5 cm) that served as a protective envelope. Both the extraction and desorption procedures were facilitated by sonication. Due to the high porosity and the fast water absorption of the tea bag filter paper, the analyte could easily diffuse through and enhance the interaction with the sorbent. Under the optimized conditions for the GC-ECD and the μ-SPE, the limit of detection (S/N ≥ 3) was 2.0 μg L(-1) while the limit of quantitation (S/N ≥ 10) was 10.0 μg L(-1). The recoveries of the butachlor spiked at 0.050, 0.10, and 0.50 μg mL(-1) ranged from 77.9 ± 3.0 to 112.5 ± 2.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of butachlor in water samples from paddy cultivation sites. The levels found were from non-detectable to 24.71 ± 0.37 μg L(-1).

  7. Protective effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the functional status of liver and kidney against ethanol induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirunalini Sankaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The trend in using natural products has increased and the active plant extracts are frequently screened for new drug discoveries. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNFEt on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male albino wistar rats were intoxicated with ethanol and the effect of SNFEt on the levels of hepatic marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT and bilirubin, renal markers (urea, uric acid and creatinine and antioxidant status such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH were assessed in liver and kidney.  Ethanol intoxicated rats showed significant rise in hepatic marker enzymes, renal markers where the antioxidant status were found to be decreased. Supplementation of SNFEt altered these changes to near normal which was also compared with the standard drug silymarin. This beneficial activity of the extract might be considered as an adjuvant drug in the treatment of liver disorders. Thus we propose that dietary intake of Solanum nigrum fruits offers protection against toxicity.

  8. Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

    2015-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and β aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25829572

  9. Dichloromethane extracts of propolis protect cell from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress via reducing apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiang; Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Wang, Xin; Su, Kang-Yi; Chen, Yi-Lin S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bee propolis, a mixture of the secretion from bee tongue gland and wax gland, was collected from the tree bud and barked by bees. The components were rich in terpenes, phenolics, and flavonoids, and had anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotection abilities. However, the potential anti-oxidative stress of propolis was not well documented. This study aimed to study the protective effect of propolis on high-incident nonfatal diseases, such as stroke and cerebral infarction caused by ischemia. Objective Oxidative stress caused by acute stroke results in inflammation and injury followed by cell damage and apoptosis. Clarification of the anti-oxidative stress effect of propolis may contribute to stroke prevention and damage reduction. Design Propolis was separated and purified into 70% ethanol and dichloromethane extracts systematically. The fraction three (Fr.3) of dichloromethane was further separated into pinocembrin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin-3-acetate, chrysin, and galangin by chromatography. Compounds extracted from propolis were tested for cell-protection effects in an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) N2a cell model. MTT assay, oxidative stress markers measurement, flow cytometry, and QPCR were used to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis. Results All compounds, especially pinocembrin and galangin, enhanced cell viability in OGD-treated N2a cells. In addition, anti-oxidative enzymes were elevated and cellular Ca2+ was reduced. They also had extreme anti-apoptosis effects by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and down-regulating caspase-3 and Bax expression. Taken together, propolis had anti-oxidative effects on stress and protected cells from damage. Conclusion The anti-oxidative effect of propolis can be applied to daily food supplements and may benefit stroke patients. PMID:27329777

  10. Dichloromethane extracts of propolis protect cell from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress via reducing apoptosis

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    Li-Ping Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bee propolis, a mixture of the secretion from bee tongue gland and wax gland, was collected from the tree bud and barked by bees. The components were rich in terpenes, phenolics, and flavonoids, and had anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotection abilities. However, the potential anti-oxidative stress of propolis was not well documented. This study aimed to study the protective effect of propolis on high-incident nonfatal diseases, such as stroke and cerebral infarction caused by ischemia. Objective: Oxidative stress caused by acute stroke results in inflammation and injury followed by cell damage and apoptosis. Clarification of the anti-oxidative stress effect of propolis may contribute to stroke prevention and damage reduction. Design: Propolis was separated and purified into 70% ethanol and dichloromethane extracts systematically. The fraction three (Fr.3 of dichloromethane was further separated into pinocembrin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin-3-acetate, chrysin, and galangin by chromatography. Compounds extracted from propolis were tested for cell-protection effects in an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD N2a cell model. MTT assay, oxidative stress markers measurement, flow cytometry, and QPCR were used to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis. Results: All compounds, especially pinocembrin and galangin, enhanced cell viability in OGD-treated N2a cells. In addition, anti-oxidative enzymes were elevated and cellular Ca2+ was reduced. They also had extreme anti-apoptosis effects by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and down-regulating caspase-3 and Bax expression. Taken together, propolis had anti-oxidative effects on stress and protected cells from damage. Conclusion: The anti-oxidative effect of propolis can be applied to daily food supplements and may benefit stroke patients.

  11. Protection against carbofuran-induced toxicity in rat tissues and plasma by Ipomoea aquatica Forsk crude extract

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    Sanjukta Datta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate, a commonly used carbamate, induces oxidative stress through free radical generation. Role of green leafy vegetables against such toxic compounds have been well established. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the deleterious effects of carbofuran on brain and plasma in albino male rats of Charles Foster strain and whether Ipomoea aquatica crude extract (IAE can protect body cells and tissues against oxidative insult. Methods: The rats were divided into 4 groups: one was treated with an oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg b.wt of carbofuran alone; 20 mg of polyphenolic compound expressed as gallic acid equivalents per kg b.wt was fed to another group; a third group was gavaged both the doses; the final group served as control and provided normal diet. Results: Evaluations based on altered activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and non-enzymatic glutathione in carbofuran treated rats showed the protective side of IAE. Also, increase in the total cholesterol levels in brain and plasma and DNA fragmentation in bone marrow cells were attenuated positively in the presence of IAE. Conclusion: The present study gives an insight into the protective role of plant polyphenols in minimizing the ill-effects of carbofuran. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(4.000: 323-329

  12. The Protective Effects of Areca catechu Extract on Cognition and Social Interaction Deficits in a Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination Model

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    Abulimiti Adilijiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness with an unclear cause. One theory is that demyelination of white matter is one of the main pathological factors involved in the development of schizophrenia. The current study evaluated the protective effects of Areca catechu nut extract (ANE on a cuprizone-induced demyelination mouse model. Two doses of ANE (1% and 2% were administered orally in the diet for 8 weeks. Animals subjected to demyelination showed impaired spatial memory and less social activity. In addition, mice subjected to demyelination displayed significant myelin damage in cortex and demonstrated a higher expression of NG2 and PDGFRα and AMPK activation. ANE treatment not only significantly enhanced cognitive ability and social activity, but also protected myelin against cuprizone toxicity by promoting oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC differentiation. In addition, ANE treatment demonstrated significant dephosphorylation of AMPKα, indicating a regulatory role for ANE in schizophrenia. This study showed that ANE treatment may enhance cognitive ability and social activity by facilitating OPC differentiation and protecting against myelin damage in cortex. Results also suggest the AMPK signaling pathway may be involved in this process.

  13. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

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    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity. PMID:24730725

  14. Protection of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract against free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage in canine erythrocytes.

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    Phrueksanan, Wathuwan; Yibchok-anun, Sirinthorn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2014-10-01

    The present study assessed the antioxidant activity and protective ability of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract (CTE) against in vitro 2,2'-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage of canine erythrocytes. From the phytochemical analysis, CTE contained phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. In addition, CTE showed antioxidant activity as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. CTE (400 µg/ml) remarkably protected erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis at 4 h of incubation. Moreover, CTE (400 µg/ml) reduced membrane lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl group formation and prevented the reduction of glutathione concentration in AAPH-induced oxidation of erythrocytes. The AAPH-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes from a smooth discoid to an echinocytic form was effectively protected by CTE. The present results contribute important insights that CTE may have the potential to act as a natural antioxidant to prevent free radical-induced hemolysis, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes. PMID:25241390

  15. Calotropis procera Latex Extract Affords Protection against Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Freund's Complete Adjuvant-Induced Monoarthritis in Rats

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    Sanjeev Roy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the well-established anti-inflammatory properties of latex of Calotropis procera (DL, the present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of its methanol extract (MeDL against inflammation and oxidative stress in monoarthritis induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA in rats. Intra-articular injection of FCA produced inflammation of the joint with a peak effect occurring on day 4 where a maximum increase in the levels of myeloperoxidase and inflammatory mediators like PGE2, TNF-α, and nitric oxide was observed. This was associated with oxidative stress with a marked reduction in the levels of glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and an increase in the lipid peroxidation as indicated by the higher levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs. Subsequently on day 28 the histological analysis of the joint also revealed arthritic changes. Daily treatment of rats with MeDL (50 and 500 mg/kg and standard anti-inflammatory drug rofecoxib (20 and 100 mg/kg, produced a significant attenuation in the inflammatory response and ameliorated the arthritic changes in the joint. The protection afforded by MeDL and rofecoxib was more pronounced than that of phenylbutazone and was associated with normalization of the levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. However, the overall protection afforded by rofecoxib was better than that of MeDL.

  16. A Fingerprinting Method Based on Module Extraction Used to Protect Intellectual Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Sheng; DAI Guanzhong; LIU Hang; LI Meifeng

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual Property (IP) reuse methodology has been widely used in Integrate Circuit (IC) design. Meanwhile, the corresponding security problems caused by illegal IP distribution have aroused lots of attentions. Unlike using IP watermark to identify IP's ownership, IP fingerprinting can be used to trace illegal distributor. In this paper, IP buyer's fingerprint is mapped into different derived instances of extracted modules, and then is embedded into IP to identify distributor in case of illegal distribution. Comparing with other fingerprinting method, the proposed method has some good characteristics such as low design effort, small storage demand, high security and few physical overheads.

  17. Protective activity of the Uncaria tomentosa extracts on human erythrocytes in oxidative stress induced by 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and catechol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bors, Milena; Bukowska, Bożena; Pilarski, Radosław; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Oszmiański, Jan; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on human erythrocytes and additionally the assessment of protective effect of these extracts on hemolysis induction, hemoglobin oxidation, and changes in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, which were provoked by selected xenobiotics, i.e. 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and catechol. All tested extracts, even at a very high concentration of 500 μg/ml were not toxic to the erythrocytes because they did not cause lipid peroxidation, increase methemoglobin and ROS levels nor provoked hemolysis. The results of this study also revealed protective effect of extracts of U. tomentosa. The extracts studied depleted the extent of hemoglobin oxidation and lipid peroxidation as well as decreased the level of ROS and hemolysis, which was provoked by 2,4-DCP. No protective activity of the extracts against catechol action, which is a precursor of semiquinones in cell was found. A difference in the effect of the extracts studied was observed. Ethanol-based extracts revealed more pronounced ability to inhibit oxidation processes in human erythrocytes. PMID:21712061

  18. Protective activity of the Uncaria tomentosa extracts on human erythrocytes in oxidative stress induced by 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and catechol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bors, Milena; Bukowska, Bożena; Pilarski, Radosław; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Oszmiański, Jan; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on human erythrocytes and additionally the assessment of protective effect of these extracts on hemolysis induction, hemoglobin oxidation, and changes in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, which were provoked by selected xenobiotics, i.e. 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and catechol. All tested extracts, even at a very high concentration of 500 μg/ml were not toxic to the erythrocytes because they did not cause lipid peroxidation, increase methemoglobin and ROS levels nor provoked hemolysis. The results of this study also revealed protective effect of extracts of U. tomentosa. The extracts studied depleted the extent of hemoglobin oxidation and lipid peroxidation as well as decreased the level of ROS and hemolysis, which was provoked by 2,4-DCP. No protective activity of the extracts against catechol action, which is a precursor of semiquinones in cell was found. A difference in the effect of the extracts studied was observed. Ethanol-based extracts revealed more pronounced ability to inhibit oxidation processes in human erythrocytes.

  19. Protective effect of the methanolic extract of malva parviflora l. leaves on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

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    Aisha Dugani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a general term describing chronic, idiopathic relapsing, inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology. Previous studies have indicated that Malva parviflora leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity. activity. This work aimed to investigatee the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic (MEMP and aqueous (AEMP extracts of M. parviflora leaves on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups (n = 6. Group I: Normal saline control group with no colitis; Group II: Acetic acid colitis group; Group III: 100 mg/kg/5 d MEMP; Group IV: 200 mg/kg/5 d.MEMP; Group V: 100 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VI: 200 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VII: Prednisolone group (2 mg/kg/5 d. Treatments were followed by induction of colitis using intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid. Colon damage was evaluated macroscopically (spleen weight/body weight, colon weight/length ratio and the histological changes were also recorded. Results: The results of this study showed that acetic acid caused severe inflammation of the colon and a significant increase in spleen weight/body weight, and an increase in colon weight/length ratio compared with normal control group. Pretreatment with MEMP and AEMP for 5 days followed by induction of colitis resulted in a significant attenuation of spleen weight and colon weight/length ratio compared with acetic acid control group. Methanolic extract provided better anticolitic effect than aqueous extract; the effect was prominent at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Histopathological findings confirmed the protective effect of the MEMP. Conclusion: In conclusion, MEMP could ameliorate mucosal damage in experimentally induced colitis when given orally.

  20. Co-administration of sodium arsenite and ethanol: Protection by aqueous extract of Aframomum longiscapum seeds

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    Solomon E Owumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Human exposure to arsenicals, its toxicity, subsequent adverse effects on health has been widely reported and implicated in the etiology of several cancers. Objectives : We investigated the effect of Aframomum longiscapum (AL extracts on sodium arsenite (SA and ethanol (EtOH-induced toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods : Male rats were fed SA, EtOH, and SA + EtOH, with or without AL for 5 weeks. Hepatic transaminases were assessed in serum, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs from bone marrow, liver histopathology, and semen quality from caudal epididymis were assessed, respectively, and data were represented as mean ± SD, analyzed by ANOVA. Results : SA, SA + EtOH, and AL alone induced mPCEs formation in rat bone marrow (P 0.05 across the treated groups. Hepatic histopathology indicated mild mononuclear cellular infiltration in the control group. Necrotic hepatocyte were observed in SA, SA + EtOH treated groups, with no visible lesions seen in the AL treated group. Mild hepatocyte congestion of the portal vessels was observed in AL + SA + EtOH-treated groups. Conclusion : The AL extract exhibited anticlastogenic and hepatoprotective potentials, reduced sperm count, motility, with no effect on viability and morphology. Our findings suggest that AL may mitigate the effect of arsenicals-induced clastogenicity implicated in chemical carcinogenesis.

  1. Coffee Silverskin Extract Protects against Accelerated Aging Caused by Oxidative Agents

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    Amaia Iriondo-DeHond

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, coffee beans are almost exclusively used for the preparation of the beverage. The sustainability of coffee production can be achieved introducing new applications for the valorization of coffee by-products. Coffee silverskin is the by-product generated during roasting, and because of its powerful antioxidant capacity, coffee silverskin aqueous extract (CSE may be used for other applications, such as antiaging cosmetics and dermaceutics. This study aims to contribute to the coffee sector’s sustainability through the application of CSE to preserve skin health. Preclinical data regarding the antiaging properties of CSE employing human keratinocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans are collected during the present study. Accelerated aging was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH in HaCaT cells and by ultraviolet radiation C (UVC in C. elegans. Results suggest that the tested concentrations of coffee extracts were not cytotoxic, and CSE 1 mg/mL gave resistance to skin cells when oxidative damage was induced by t-BOOH. On the other hand, nematodes treated with CSE (1 mg/mL showed a significant increased longevity compared to those cultured on a standard diet. In conclusion, our results support the antiaging properties of the CSE and its great potential for improving skin health due to its antioxidant character associated with phenols among other bioactive compounds present in the botanical material.

  2. Coffee Silverskin Extract Protects against Accelerated Aging Caused by Oxidative Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo-DeHond, Amaia; Martorell, Patricia; Genovés, Salvador; Ramón, Daniel; Stamatakis, Konstantinos; Fresno, Manuel; Molina, Antonio; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, coffee beans are almost exclusively used for the preparation of the beverage. The sustainability of coffee production can be achieved introducing new applications for the valorization of coffee by-products. Coffee silverskin is the by-product generated during roasting, and because of its powerful antioxidant capacity, coffee silverskin aqueous extract (CSE) may be used for other applications, such as antiaging cosmetics and dermaceutics. This study aims to contribute to the coffee sector's sustainability through the application of CSE to preserve skin health. Preclinical data regarding the antiaging properties of CSE employing human keratinocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans are collected during the present study. Accelerated aging was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) in HaCaT cells and by ultraviolet radiation C (UVC) in C. elegans. Results suggest that the tested concentrations of coffee extracts were not cytotoxic, and CSE 1 mg/mL gave resistance to skin cells when oxidative damage was induced by t-BOOH. On the other hand, nematodes treated with CSE (1 mg/mL) showed a significant increased longevity compared to those cultured on a standard diet. In conclusion, our results support the antiaging properties of the CSE and its great potential for improving skin health due to its antioxidant character associated with phenols among other bioactive compounds present in the botanical material. PMID:27258247

  3. An Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract protects mice against ozone-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Francisco J; Jayo, Manuel; Niedziela, Linda

    2005-01-15

    Ozone (O(3)) inhalation has been associated with respiratory tract inflammation and lung functional alterations. To characterize the O(3)-induced lung inflammation in mice, the effective dose and exposure time were determined. Total protein levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), cytological smears, and lung histopathology and morphometry were used to assess and measure the degree of pulmonary inflammation in the mouse model. Ozone inhalation caused acute pneumonitis that was characterized by a high number of infiltrating neutrophils (PMNs) immediately after exposure and increased levels of protein in BALF in mice killed 8h after O(3) exposure. The anti-inflammatory properties of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) have been documented previously. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of UT, male mice were given an UT extract for 8 days, exposed to O(3), and killed 0 or 8 h after O(3) exposure. When compared to untreated controls, UT-treated mice had significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of protein in BALF, lower degree of epithelial necrosis, higher number of intact epithelial cell nuclei in bronchial wall, and decreased number of PMNs in the bronchiolar lumen. Therefore, UT extract appeared to prevent O(3)-induced respiratory inflammation in male mice.

  4. Intravenous Administration of Lycopene, a Tomato Extract, Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

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    Chao Tong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral uptake of lycopene has been shown to be beneficial for preventing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. However, the strong first-pass metabolism of lycopene influences its bioavailability and impedes its clinic application. In this study, we determined an intravenous (IV administration dose of lycopene protects against myocardial infarction (MI in a mouse model, and investigated the effects of acute lycopene administration on reactive oxygen species (ROS production and related signaling pathways during myocardial I/R. Methods: In this study, we established both in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R cell model and in vivo regional myocardial I/R mouse model by ligating left anterior artery descending. TTC dual staining was used to assess I/R induced MI in the absence and presence of acute lycopene administration via tail vein injection. Results: Lycopene treatment (1 μM before reoxygenation significantly reduced cardiomyocyte death induced by H/R. Intravenous administration of lycopene to achieve 1 μM concentration in circulating blood significantly suppressed MI, ROS production, and JNK phosphorylation in the cardiac tissue of mice during in vivo regional I/R. Conclusion: Elevating circulating lycopene to 1 μM via IV injection protects against myocardial I/R injury through inhibition of ROS accumulation and consequent inflammation in mice.

  5. Groundwater protection and unconventional gas extraction: the critical need for field-based hydrogeological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R E; Gorody, A W; Mayer, B; Roy, J W; Ryan, M C; Van Stempvoort, D R

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas extraction from tight sandstones, shales, and some coal-beds is typically accomplished by horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that is necessary for economic development of these new hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for contamination of shallow groundwater by stray gases, formation waters, and fracturing chemicals associated with unconventional gas exploration. A lack of sound scientific hydrogeological field observations and a scarcity of published peer-reviewed articles on the effects of both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities on shallow groundwater make it difficult to address these issues. Here, we discuss several case studies related to both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities illustrating how under some circumstances stray or fugitive gas from deep gas-rich formations has migrated from the subsurface into shallow aquifers and how it has affected groundwater quality. Examples include impacts of uncemented well annuli in areas of historic drilling operations, effects related to poor cement bonding in both new and old hydrocarbon wells, and ineffective cementing practices. We also summarize studies describing how structural features influence the role of natural and induced fractures as contaminant fluid migration pathways. On the basis of these studies, we identify two areas where field-focused research is urgently needed to fill current science gaps related to unconventional gas extraction: (1) baseline geochemical mapping (with time series sampling from a sufficient network of groundwater monitoring wells) and (2) field testing of potential mechanisms and pathways by which hydrocarbon gases, reservoir fluids, and fracturing chemicals might potentially invade and contaminate useable groundwater. PMID:23745972

  6. Biophysical mechanism of the protective effect of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast.) polyphenols extracts against lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte and lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonarska-Kujawa, D; Pruchnik, H; Cyboran, S; Żyłka, R; Oszmiański, J; Kleszczyńska, H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine the effect of blue honeysuckle fruit and leaf extracts components on the physical properties of erythrocyte and lipid membranes and assess their antioxidant properties. The HPLC analysis showed that the extracts are rich in polyphenol anthocyanins in fruits and flavonoids in leaves. The results indicate that both extracts have antioxidant activity and protect the red blood cell membrane against oxidation induced by UVC irradiation and AAPH. The extracts do not induce hemolysis and slightly increase osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. The research showed that extracts components are incorporated mainly in the external part of the erythrocyte membrane, inducing the formation of echinocytes. The values of generalized polarization and fluorescence anisotropy indicate that the extracts polyphenols alter the packing arrangement of the hydrophilic part of the erythrocyte and lipid membranes, without changing the fluidity of the hydrophobic part. The DSC results also show that the extract components do not change the main phase transition temperature of DPPC membrane. Studies of electric parameters of membranes modified by the extracts showed that they slightly stabilize lipid membranes and do not reduce their specific resistance or capacity. Examination of IR spectra indicates small changes in the degree of hydration in the hydrophilic region of liposomes under the action of the extracts. The location of polyphenolic compounds in the hydrophilic part of the membrane seems to constitute a protective shield of the cell against other substances, the reactive forms of oxygen in particular. PMID:24862869

  7. Extracts from Calendula officinalis offer in vitro protection against H2 O2 induced oxidative stress cell killing of human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuqaydan, Abdullah M; Lenehan, Claire E; Hughes, Rachel R; Sanderson, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro safety and antioxidant potential of Calendula officinalis flower head extracts was investigated. The effect of different concentrations (0.125, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0% (v/v)) of Calendula extracts on human skin cells HaCaT in vitro was explored. Doses of 1.0% (v/v) (0.88 mg dry weight/mL) or less showed no toxicity. Cells were also exposed to the Calendula extracts for either 4, 24 or 48 h before being exposed to an oxidative insult (hydrogen peroxide H2 O2 ) for 1 h. Using the MTT cytotoxicity assay, it was observed that two independent extracts of C. officinalis gave time-dependent and concentration-dependent H2 O2 protection against induced oxidative stress in vitro using human skin cells. Pre-incubation with the Calendula extracts for 24 and 48 h increased survival relative to the population without extract by 20% and 40% respectively following oxidative challenge. The antioxidant potential of the Calendula extracts was confirmed using a complimentary chemical technique, the DPPH(●) assay. Calendula extracts exhibited free radical scavenging abilities. This study demonstrates that Calendula flower extracts contain bioactive and free radical scavenging compounds that significantly protect against oxidative stress in a human skin cell culture model. PMID:25266574

  8. Extracts from Calendula officinalis offer in vitro protection against H2 O2 induced oxidative stress cell killing of human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuqaydan, Abdullah M; Lenehan, Claire E; Hughes, Rachel R; Sanderson, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro safety and antioxidant potential of Calendula officinalis flower head extracts was investigated. The effect of different concentrations (0.125, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0% (v/v)) of Calendula extracts on human skin cells HaCaT in vitro was explored. Doses of 1.0% (v/v) (0.88 mg dry weight/mL) or less showed no toxicity. Cells were also exposed to the Calendula extracts for either 4, 24 or 48 h before being exposed to an oxidative insult (hydrogen peroxide H2 O2 ) for 1 h. Using the MTT cytotoxicity assay, it was observed that two independent extracts of C. officinalis gave time-dependent and concentration-dependent H2 O2 protection against induced oxidative stress in vitro using human skin cells. Pre-incubation with the Calendula extracts for 24 and 48 h increased survival relative to the population without extract by 20% and 40% respectively following oxidative challenge. The antioxidant potential of the Calendula extracts was confirmed using a complimentary chemical technique, the DPPH(●) assay. Calendula extracts exhibited free radical scavenging abilities. This study demonstrates that Calendula flower extracts contain bioactive and free radical scavenging compounds that significantly protect against oxidative stress in a human skin cell culture model.

  9. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq., Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb. and Blueberry Cultivars

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    Hirotoshi Tsuda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.. The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract.

  10. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract. PMID:27137366

  11. Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and β-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury. PMID:21505008

  12. Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

  13. Protective action of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in gastric ulcer prevention induced by ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Guilherme Pires; de Carvalho, Nelson Rodrigues; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Portella, Rafael de Lima; da Silva, Michele Hinerasky; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Villetti, Marcos Antonio; Antunes Soares, Félix Alexandre; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2013-05-01

    The pathology of a gastric ulcer is complex and multifactorial. Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and its development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (eeRo); this plant, more commonly known as rosemary, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its numerous pharmacological properties and their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we tested the preventive effects of eeRo against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol in male Wistar rats. In addition, we aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the preventive action of the eeRo in gastric ulcers. Based on the analysis of markers of oxidative damage and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, the measurement of nitrite and nitrate levels and the assessment of the inflammatory response, the eeRo exhibited significant antioxidant, vasodilator and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:23279841

  14. Protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan fruit against colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Plant-derived products have proven to be valuable sources for discovery and development of unique anticancer drugs. In this study, the inhibitory effects of ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan fruit (EMTF), a traditional medicine in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against colon cancer. Human colon cancer cells SW480 and murine colorectal adenocarcinoma cells CT26 were used to investigate cell proliferation. The results showed that EMTF inhibited cell proliferation of SW480 and CT26 by promoting apoptosis as indicated by nuclear chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Through increasing mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, EMTF induced caspase-9 activity which further activated caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, leading the tumor cells to apoptosis. The in vivo results confirmed reduction of tumor volume and apoptotic effects and the side effects were not induced by EMTF. Therefore, EMTF may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer treatment. (author)

  15. Treatment with Rhizoma Dioscoreae Extract Has Protective Effect on Osteopenia in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous extract from Rhizoma Dioscoreae (RDE on rats with ovariectomy- (OVX- induced osteopenia. Our results show that RDE could inhibit bone loss of OVX rats after a 12-week treatment. The microarray analysis showed that 68 genes were upregulated and that 100 genes were downregulated in femurs of the RDE group rats compared to those in the OVX group. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA showed that several downregulated genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (Sost, Lrp6, Tcf7l2, and Alpl and the RANKL/RANK signaling pathway (Map2k6 and Nfatc4. These results revealed that the mechanism for an antiosteopenic effect of RDE might lie in the synchronous inhibitory effects on both the bone formation and the bone resorption, which is associated with modulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the RANKL/RANK signaling.

  16. Protective effects of Syzygium cumini seed extract against methylmercury-induced sistemic toxicity in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, F H; Bellé, L P; Bitencourt, P E R; De Bona, K S; Zanette, R A; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L; Pigatto, A S; Moretto, M B

    2011-04-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Sc) belongs to the medicinal plants with an important source of phenolic compounds. Sc has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Methylmercury (MeHg), a highly toxic environmental pollutant, induces oxidative stress and dysfunction in many cell types. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of Sc (ASc) on MeHg-induced toxicity in rats. Two-day-old rats (P2) received a single dose of MeHg (10 mg/kg) and two doses of ASc (0.9 mg/kg) per os. After two days, the effects of the treatment were investigated in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, kidney, liver and urine samples. Our results demonstrated that N-acetyl-β-D: -glucosaminidase (NAG) activity in the kidney and urine, the lipid peroxidation levels in the liver and kidney samples, as well as the adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the hippocampus, kidney and liver were higher in MeHg-group when compared to the control group. The administration of ASc reverted the toxic effects of MeHg. It is noteworthy to observe that the main compounds present in the ASc, as gallic acid (the major component), chlorogenic acid and rutin, might be the responsible for such benefit, since they were found to display antioxidant properties. PMID:21207116

  17. Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahdeo Prasad; Neetu Kalra; Madhulika Singh; Yogeshwer Shukla

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate antioxidant potential of lupeol/mango pulp extract (MPE) in testosterone induced oxidative stress in prostate of male Swiss albino mice. Methods: Oral treatment of lupeol (1 mg/animal) and MPE (1 mL [20% w/v]/animal) was given separately to animals along with subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight)consecutively for 15 days. At the end of the study period, the prostate was dissected out for the determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status (catalase, superoxide dismutase,glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). Results: In testosterone treated animals, increased ROS resulted in depletion of antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidation in mouse prostate. However, lupeol/MPE treatment resulted in a decrease in ROS levels with restoration in the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that lupeol/MPE are effective in combating oxidative stress-induced cellular injury of mouse prostate. Mango and its constituents, therefore, deserve study as a potential chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer.

  18. Hepato-protective Effect of Polysaccharides Extracted from Inula Britannica Flower for Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Tie; DONG Man; GAO Yan; ZHAO Jing; WU Yi

    2012-01-01

    The polysaccharides extracted from Inula britannica flower(IBP) exhibited a significant anti-liver injury activity.The properties and chemical compositions of IBP were analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and infrared spectroscopy(IR) methods.The results show that the molecular weight distribution of IBP is from 600 to 3500.The weight-average molecular weight is 1099.IBP consists of mannose,glucuronic acid,rhamnose,galacturonic acid,glucose,galactose and arabinose with a molar ratio of 4.1:1:1.4:2.7:14.6:6.3:7.9.The IR spectrum of IBP reveals the typical characteristics of polysaccharides and proteins.After administration of IBP with 100,50 and 25 mg/kg body mass to liver injury mice induced by CCl4 or bacillus calmette guerin-lipopolysaccharide (BCG-LPS),not only the blood alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels decreased significantly(P<0.05),but aslo the liver tissue malondialdehyde(MDA) level decreased significantly(P<0.01).The superoxide dismutase(SOD) level increased significantly(P<0.01).IBP shows significant anti-liver injury and antioxidation activity.

  19. Protective effects of polyphenols-enriched extract from Huangshan Maofeng green tea against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanmang; Yang, Xingbin; Lu, Xinshan; Chen, Jinwen; Zhao, Yan

    2014-09-01

    The study was to characterize the polyphenolic composition, antioxidant properties, and hepatoprotective effects of a polyphenols-enriched extract (HMTP) from Huangshan Maofeng green tea. HPLC analysis showed that three predominantly polyphenolic compounds present in HMTP were epigallocatechin (271.2 μg/mg extract), rutin (239.3 μg/mg) and epicatechin (89.3 μg/mg). HMTP was shown to exhibit strong scavenging activities against DPPH, O2(-), and OH, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power in vitro. Administration of HMTP at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw in mice prior to CCl4 injury significantly decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum ALT, AST and ALP activities, and prevented an increase in hepatic MDA levels (p<0.05). Mice with HMTP pretreatment displayed a better profile of hepatosomatic index and the improved GSH-Px and SOD activities in the liver, relative to CCl4-intoxicated mice. Liver pathological observation also confirmed the protection on CCl4-caused histological alteration, suggesting that HMTP has potential to be explored as valuable hepatoprotective function food.

  20. Antitumor and radiation protection effects of β-1,3-D-glucan extracted from yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various natural extracts are manufactured and on sale as health food products, which are raising popular consciousness of being fit, because they are considered effective or suppressible for cancer. In the current experiment, we measured the immunological activity, antitumor effects, and radioprotective effects of β-1,3-D-glucan (Macroglucan) extracted from bread yeast. Macroglucan of 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg were administered intraperitoneally to C3H/HeJ mice, respectively. The antitumor effects of Macroglucan were examined by measuring natural killer (NK) and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity and tumor volume. Change in weight, survival, and microscopic manifestation of the intestine were evaluated in the C3H/HeJ mice received total body irradiation to measure radioprotective effect of Macroglucan. According to measurements of cellular cytotoxicity, levels of NK and LAK cell activity were significantly higher in the group administered Macroglucan than in the control group. Macroglucan's role in immunological activity was suggested by the observed suppression of tumor growth in the Macroglucan-administered group. That group also experienced suppression of weight loss after irradiation in the experiment for radioprotection, and a consequent increase in the survival rate compared with the control group. Protective effects appeared in photomicrographs of the intestinal cells. These results confirmed Macroglucan's radioprotective effects. These effects may be related to the suppression of infection accompanying immunological activation due to Macroglucan administration, antioxidant activity, and radical scavenging capacity. (author)

  1. [INFLUENCE OF MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON THE FUNCTIONS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROTECTION OF ERYTHROCYTES IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES MELLITUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerovskii, A I; Yakimova, T V; Nasanova, O N

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on rats with diabetes mellitus model induced by streptosotocin and high (30%) fat diet showed that the daily treatment with aqueous extracts of great nettle leaves (100 mg/kg) and common burdock roots (25 mg/kg) for a period of 10 days led to a decrease in the glycemic index and triglyceride level and produced protective action on erythrocytes both in animals kept on a fat-rich diet and on the background of a low-caloric ration. Both medicinal plant extracts were comparable with reference drug metformin in reducing the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (by 12-31%) and ectoglobular hemoglobin (1.7-1.8 times, p <0.05), decreasing the content of malonic dialdehyde in erythrocytes (1.3 times, p < 0.05), and increasing erythrocyte deformability (1.3-1.4 times, p < 0.05) and activity of their antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and supe- roxide dismutase (1.2-2.6 times, p < 0.05). A diet with usual (8%) fat content improved the metabolic indices to a lower degree (on the average by 13-21%, p < 0.05) than did the proposed phytotherapy. PMID:27416680

  2. Role of Tomato Extract in Protection against Damage Caused by Mesenteric Ischemia/ Reperfusion Induced in gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Objective is, the protective effects of turmeric (Tur) as well as tomato extract (TE) against whole gamma-irradiation injury of rats subjected to mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Male Wistar rats were divided into shame and irradiated groups. Normal group subjected to sham-operation. Vitamin E (VE) treated-group served as a positive control. Ileal tissue samples were obtained to investigate glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite contents as well as activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In addition, cytokines; tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Intestinal I/R injury revealed a marked depletion in GSH, elevated TBARS and nitrite contents as well as low LDH activity. Moreover, there were remarkable increases in measured cytokines (TNF-αand IL-6). The ischemic insults were exacerbated by acute gamma-irradiation in most of measured parameters except for GSH and LDH activity. In I/R treated-groups, TE could restore GSH contents and LDH (cell membrane integrity) as compared with VE with no lipid peroxidation protection. However, both supplements corrected levels of nitrite and TNF-α. Either Tur or TE could correct most of biochemical changes in irradiated rats. In general, both supplements recorded antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects upon irradiation

  3. Black Hoof Medicinal Mushroom Phellinus linteus (Agaricomycetes) Extracts Protect Against Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Abnormality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jen-Yin; Chen, Chin-Chu; Su, Chih-Chung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Phellinus linteus extracts (PLEs) against radiation damage in mice. First, BALB/c mice were irradiated once with γ-rays at 4, 5, 6, or 8 Gy and allowed to recover for 20 days. Results reveal that 8-Gy radiation caused death in 100% of mice on day 13, and 6-Gy radiation caused death in 86.7% of mice (13/15) at the end of the experiment, whereas 4- and 5-Gy radiation did not result in any death. We then used 5-Gy γ-ray radiation to examine the protective effects of PLEs. Mice were orally administered a PLE (500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg) daily for 2 weeks before radiation and for 6 weeks after radiation. γ-Ray radiation significantly decreased body weight starting from week 2 after radiation. Supplementation with a median and high dose of PLE significantly restored body weights starting at weeks 5 and 3, respectively. The radiation-protective agent WR2721 (200 mg/kg intraperitoneally) restored body weights starting at week 4. White blood cells, platelets, red blood cells, and hemoglobin were significantly decreased by radiation, and PLEs (primarily at high doses) and WR2721 significantly prevented hematologic abnormality. These results suggest that PLE has potential as a radioprotective agent. PMID:27649604

  4. Dichlorvos-induced oxidative stress in rat brain: Protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Alstonia boonei stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous pesticides, commonly used in agriculture for achieving better-quality products, are toxic substances that have harmful effects on human health. Recent research on pesticides, especially pesticide mixtures, has shown that they are one of the key environmental health issues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Alstonia boonei ethanolic extract in dichlorvos-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats. Dichlorvos (50 mg/kg body weight was orally administered in Wistar rats for 14 days followed by the treatment of Alstonia boonei (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 14 days. The activities of lipid peroxidation (LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST level were measured to evaluate the toxicity of these pesticides in the brain. Histological examinations of the brain were monitored. Under the influence of dichlorvos, there was significant decrease in the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH, ALT and AST and significant increase in malondialdehyde. Alstonia boonei showed a significant brain-protective effect by decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation and elevating the activities of antioxidative enzymes and the level of GSH. Furthermore, histological alterations in the brain were observed in dichlorvos-untreated rats and were ameliorated in dichlorvos-induced treated rats with Alstonia boonei. The observations presented lead us to conclude the harmful effects of dichlorovos during the exposure and the protective role of Alstonia boonei in minimizing these effects.

  5. Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Daly, E S

    1998-01-01

    Cisplatin [cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II)] is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug that is toxic to the kidney. Concurrent administration of cysteine together with vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa reduced the toxicity of cisplatin in rats. When administered i.p. for 5 alternate days with 3 mg/kg cisplatin, cysteine (20 mg/kg) together with vitamin E (2 mg/rat) an extract of Crocus sativus stigmas (50 mg/kg) and Nigella sativa seed (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels as well as cisplatin-induced serum total lipids increases. In contrast, the protective agents given together with cisplatin led to an even greater decrease in blood glucose than that seen with cisplatin alone. The serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase of cisplatin-treated rats were significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione reductase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly increased. Addition of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa in combination with cisplatin partially prevented many changes in the activities of serum enzymes. In cisplatin-treated rats, the liver activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly increased, whereas much greater changes were found in the kidneys, with increased activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and decreased activities of alkaline phosphatase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, as well as a decreased phosphorylation to oxidation ratio in the mitochondria, indicating reduced adenosine triphosphate production. Also, administration of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa together with cisplatin partially reversed many of the kidney enzymes changes induced by cisplatin

  6. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Yu-Chih Liang; Jane CJ Chao; Li-Hsueh Tsai; Chun-Chao Chang; Chia-Chi Wang; Shiann Pan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo bilobaextract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats.METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gaveGbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers,gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1)GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH oontents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanolproduced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosawhich also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE;and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretionin pylorus-ligated rats.CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation;(2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3)blockade of cell apoptosis.

  7. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extract on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    K. Lakshmi Devi; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at...

  8. Protective Effects of Borago officinalis Extract on Amyloid β -Peptide(25–35)-Induced Memory Impairment in Male Rats: A Behavioral Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Ghahremanitamadon; Siamak Shahidi; Somayeh Zargooshnia; Ali Nikkhah; Akram Ranjbar; Sara Soleimani Asl

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and most common form of dementia that leads to memory impairment. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago officinalis (borage) extract on Amyloid β (A β )-Induced memory impairment. Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the A β (25–35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). Learning and memory functions in the rats were examined by the passive avoidance and the Morris ...

  9. Protective effect of methanolic extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. against cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage in mouse bone marrow cells using the micronucleus test

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Salmani; Ali Asghar Kosari; Aliyar Pirouzi; Marjan Omidi; Mehdi Mohsenzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is a chemo-therapeutic agent used in the treatment of various cancers and autoimmune diseases. This composition has cytotoxic and clastogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of methanol extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. against DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide in mouse bone marrow cells by the micronucleus test. The extract concentrations of 375, 750, 1500 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally (Ip) into mice for 7 consecutive day...

  10. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue. PMID:26513373

  11. Aldose reductase deficiency in mice protects from ragweed pollen extract (RWE-induced allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Umesh CS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood hospitalization related to asthma remains at historically high levels, and its incidence is on the rise world-wide. Previously, we have demonstrated that aldose reductase (AR, a regulatory enzyme of polyol pathway, is a major mediator of allergen-induced asthma pathogenesis in mouse models. Here, using AR null (AR-/- mice we have investigated the effect of AR deficiency on the pathogenesis of ragweed pollen extract (RWE-induced allergic asthma in mice and also examined the efficacy of enteral administration of highly specific AR inhibitor, fidarestat. Methods The wild type (WT and AR-/- mice were sensitized and challenged with RWE to induce allergic asthma. AR inhibitor, fidarestat was administered orally. Airway hyper-responsiveness was measured in unrestrained animals using whole body plethysmography. Mucin levels and Th2 cytokine in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL were determined using mouse anti-Muc5A/C ELISA kit and multiplex cytokine array, respectively. Eosinophils infiltration and goblet cells were assessed by H&E and periodic acid Schiff (PAS-staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung sections. T regulatory cells were assessed in spleen derived CD4+CD25+ T cells population. Results Deficiency of AR in mice led to significantly decreased PENH, a marker of airway hyper-responsiveness, metaplasia of airway epithelial cells and mucus hyper-secretion following RWE-challenge. This was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in infiltration of eosinophils into sub-epithelium of lung as well as in BAL and release of Th2 cytokines in response to RWE-challenge of AR-/- mice. Further, enteral administration of fidarestat significantly prevented eosinophils infiltration, airway hyper-responsiveness and also markedly increased population of T regulatory (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells as compared to RWE-sensitized and challenged mice not treated with fidarestat. Conclusion Our results using AR-/- mice strongly suggest the role

  12. Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom ethyl acetate extract protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating kinase phosphorylation in mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji-Su; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model. PMID:26726030

  13. Evaluation of Protective Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Fruit Peels of Punica granatum Linn against Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashar Kalangottil; Karunakar Hegde; Naseeb K M

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fruits peels of Punica granatum Linn. against acetic acid and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Acute oral toxicity study was performed to find out the test dose according to OECD guidelines 425 and hydro-alcoholic extract of P. granatum fruit peel (PGPE) was found to be safe at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. The animals pretreated with hydro-alcoholic extract of P....

  14. Bioactive Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Nitrite Scavenging Capacities and Protective Effects on H2O2-Injured PC12 Cells of Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Leaf and Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  15. [Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXVI. Protective effect of various extracts on crude drugs on skin injury induced by X-irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Ohta, S; Sakurai, N; Shinoda, M

    1989-02-01

    The protective potency against skin injury on mice induced by X-irradiation was studied by use of 72 extracts of crude drugs. The protective potency was determined according to the degrees on skin injury after irradiation of 1100R, 30 k Vp soft X-ray. As a result of these study, 16 kinds of crude drugs such as Rosae Fructus, Aloe arborescens (Herba), Citri Leiocarpae Exocarpium, Schizonepetae Spica, Evodiae Fructus, Bupleuri Radix, Corni Fructus, Perillae Herba, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Menthae Herba, Trapae Fructus, Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizoma, Ephedrae Herba, Acer nikoense (Cortex), Forsythiae Fructus, revealed protective potencies on skin injury. PMID:2746469

  16. The protective potential and possible mechanism of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. aqueous extract on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Apichat Muso

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective potential of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. was studied on paracetamolinduced hepatotoxicity in rats by measuring the levels of serum transaminase (SGOT and SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin, as well as by histopathological examination of the liver. Furthermore, the hepatoprotective mechanisms were investigated by determining the amount of paracetamol and its metabolites (glucuronide, sulfate, cysteine and mercapturic acid conjugates in urine and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time to indicate the inhibition on cytochrome P450. The involvement of glutathione was evaluated by determining hepatic reduced glutathione. Its radical scavenging activity, iron chelating activity and total phenolic content were also determined. P. amarus aqueous extracts (0.8, 1.6 or 3.2 g/kg were orally administered twice daily for 7 days prior, for 2 days after, or for 7 days prior and followed by 2 days after a single oral dose of paracetamol (3 g/kg. The results showed that the extract at the doses of 1.6 and 3.2 g/kg decreased the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by the decrease in SGOT, SGPT, bilirubin and histopathological score while the ALP did not change. Moreover, it is suggested that the hepatoprotective mechanism of this plant was related neither to the inhibition on cytochrome P450, nor to the induction on sulfate and/or glucuronide conjugation pathways of paracetamol, but partly due to the protective effect on the depletion of hepatic reduced glutathione and also its antioxidant activity, especially the radical scavenging and iron chelating activity, which might be related to the high polyphenolic contents. These results support the value of P. amarus, which has been used in Thai folk medicine for the treatment of liver diseases.

  17. The Protective Effects of Carrot Seed Extract on Spermatogenesis and Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserves in Gentamicin Treated Rats

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    Mohammad Nouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carrot (Daucus carota L. is known to possess antifertility properties in female.However, according to Iranian traditional medicine, it can increase the potency in men. Theaim of this study was to investigate the influence of carrot seed extract (CSE on spermatogenesis,number and motility of sperms in cauda epididyme in male rats.Materials and Methods: Forty adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: controlgroup, groups receiving low- and high doses of CSE, animals that received high-dose of CSEwith gentamicin, and a gentamicin only group. After 4 weeks treatment, fasting serum sampleswere obtained for the sex hormone analysis. Under anesthesia, testis, cauda epididymidesand sperm ducts were dissected and sperm count, motility and cauda epididymis spermreserves (CESR were determined. Histopathological changes of testis were also studied toassess spermatogenesis. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed byTukey HSD tests.Results: Administration of CSE caused a significant increase in CESR compared with thecontrol (28.2 ± 1.8 vs. 45.1 ± 2.0, ×106. The extract could also protect testis from the gentamicin-induced necrosis. The CSE administration caused about 3.5-times increase in theLH levels even in spite of receiving 5 mg/kg/day gentamicin with no significant effect on FSHlevels. The testosterone concentrations in the group received 400 mg/kg CSE were 30% and83% higher than its levels in the control and the gentamicin treated group, respectively.Conclusion: CSE can overcome reproductive toxicity of gentamicin and induces spermatogenesisprobably mainly through the elevation of testosterone levels.

  18. The Protective Effect of Liquorice Plant Extract on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

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    Hassan Malekinejad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of liquorice plant extract (LPE on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp was evaluated using fifty adult carps. The fish were cultured in a standard environment in terms of water flow rate, oxygen, pH, food and temperature. The fish were assigned into 5 groups (N = 10 as control, sham, and tests. The test groups were pre-treated for 3 h with various concentrations of LPE, 3 days before CCl4 exposure. The control and sham groups received normal saline before and after CCl4 exposure. To induce hepatotoxicity, animals in the sham and test groups were exposed against 100 l L-1 CCl4 for 45 min. The fish in all groups 1 h after CCl4 exposure were anesthetized and the blood samples were collected. Immediately the liver specimens were dissected out and were stored in 10 % formalin for further pathological studies. Determination of serum level of ALP and SGOT revealed that acute form of CCl4 exposure elevated significantly (P < 0.05 the serum level of either tested hepatic marker enzymes. While 3 days pretreatment with LPE prevented from ALP and SGOT enhancement. The pathological evaluation revealed that the CCl4 exposure resulted in a minor pathologic manifestation such as slight congestion, which the LPE pretreated groups showed the remarkable improvement. The anti-oxidant capacity of LPE was assayed by FRAP and DPPH methods. Both provided techniques showed that LPE exerts an excellent anti-oxidant effect. This data suggest that LPE exerts protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect of LPE may attribute to its antioxidant capacity.

  19. Lycium barbarum extracts protect the brain from blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral edema in experimental stroke.

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    Di Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke is a destructive cerebrovascular disease and a leading cause of death. Yet, no ideal neuroprotective agents are available, leaving prevention an attractive alternative. The extracts from the fruits of Lycium barbarum (LBP, a Chinese anti-aging medicine and food supplement, showed neuroprotective function in the retina when given prophylactically. We aim to evaluate the protective effects of LBP pre-treatment in an experimental stroke model. METHODS: C57BL/6N male mice were first fed with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 or 10 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Mice were then subjected to 2-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO by the intraluminal method followed by 22-hour reperfusion upon filament removal. Mice were evaluated for neurological deficits just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blot experiments. Evans blue (EB extravasation was determined to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption after MCAO. RESULTS: LBP pre-treatment significantly improved neurological deficits as well as decreased infarct size, hemispheric swelling, and water content. Fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated brains by TUNEL assay. Reduced EB extravasation, fewer IgG-leaky vessels, and up-regulation of occludin expression were also observed in LBP-treated brains. Moreover, immunoreactivity for aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly decreased in LBP-treated brains. CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day oral LBP pre-treatment effectively improved neurological deficits, decreased infarct size and cerebral edema as well as protected the brain from BBB disruption, aquaporin-4 up-regulation, and glial activation. The present study suggests that LBP may be used as a prophylactic neuroprotectant in patients at high risk for ischemic stroke.

  20. Protective effects of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and vitamin C against radiation-induced liver damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    catalase were obtained in animals treated with VIT C and extracts at 5 weeks. Taken together, the results suggest that the extracts of VA and HS, and VIT C could increase the antioxidant defense systems and may probably protect animals from radiation-induced liver damage. (author)

  1. Protective Effect of Areca catechu Leaf Ethanol Extract Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcers in ICR Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Pa; Choi, Nan Hee; Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani; Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Park, In-Sik; Lee, Sang-Rak; Hong, Heeok

    2016-02-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common digestive disorder that results in considerable suffering. Hence, this digestive pathology has been the focus of a number of recent studies. Although numerous drugs have been developed to treat gastric ulcers, therapeutic approaches for many of the complications associated with these drugs remain to be identified. For this reason, many natural compounds have been explored as alternatives for these drugs. In this study, we have investigated the effectiveness of Areca catechu leaf ethanol extract (ACE) for treating ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice. We performed histological as well as immunohistochemical examinations to explore the therapeutic properties of ACE. We also examined the levels of inflammatory signaling molecules to confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of ACE. The histochemical data demonstrate that ACE can protect the mucosal epithelium as well as the vascular supply in the gastric tract. Furthermore, ACE significantly reduced the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Taken together, these data suggest that ACE administration may have the potential as an alternative treatment for gastric ulcer because of its cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects and ability to promote the rejuvenation and revascularization of the damaged gastric epithelium. PMID:26540449

  2. Protective Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract on Learning and Memory Deficit Induced by Aluminum in Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GbE) on learning and memory deficit induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3), and explore its mechanisms. Methods: The rat models with learning and memory deficit were induced by administering via gastrogavage and drinking of AlCl3 solution. And the model rats were treated with GbE at the dose of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg every day for 2months accompanied with drinking of AlCl3 solution, respectively. Their abilities of spatial learning and memory were tested by Morris water maze, and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in serum was assayed with chemical method, the AChE expression in hippocampus was observed by immunohistochemistry assay,and then quantitative analysis was done by BI 2000 image analysis system. Results: Learning and memory deficit of rats could be induced by AlCl3 solution (P<0.01), and AChE expressions in rats hippocampus were increased (P<0.01); GbE ameliorated learning and memory deficit and reduced AChE expression in rats hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner, while GbE significantly increased serum AChE activity at the dose of 200 mg/kg each day (P<0.05). Conclusion: GbE can ameliorate learning and memory deficit induced by AlCl3, which may be due to its inhibition of the AChE expression in hippocampus.

  3. Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-06-01

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P<0.01) decreased the body, testis, and accessory sex organ weights, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, histological analysis revealed pronounced morphological alterations with tubular necrosis and reduction in the number of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of sodium dichromate-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, exposure to sodium dichromate significantly (P<0.01) increased LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testis. Interestingly, pretreatment with CCE significantly (P<0.01) restored the serum testosterone level, sperm count, and motility to the levels of the control group. Moreover, CCE administration was capable of reducing the elevated level of LPO and significantly (P<0.01) increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in testis. Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis. PMID:24752970

  4. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism

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    Aymn T. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  5. Quantitative Mitochondrial Proteomics Study on Protective Mechanism of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extracts Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Heart Injury in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-da; QIU Jie; ZHAO Gai-xia; QIE Liang-yi; WEI Xin-bing; GAO Hai-qing

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury is a critical condition,often associated with high morbidity and mortality.The cardioprotective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts(GSPE) against oxidant injury during I/R has been described in previous studies.However,the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.This study investigated the effect of GSPE on reperfusion arrhythmias especially ventricular tachycardia(VT)and ventricular fibrillation(VF),the lactic acid accumulation and the ultrastructure of ischemic cardiomyocytes as well as the global changes of mitochondria proteins in in vivo rat heart model against I/R injury.GSPE significantly reduced the incidence of VF and VT,lessened the lactic acid accumulation and attenuated the ultrastructure damage.Twenty differential proteins related to cardiac protection were revealed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation(iTRAQ) profiling.These proteins were mainly involved in energy metabolism.Besides,monoamine oxidase A(MAOA) was also identified.The differential expression of several proteins was validated by Western blot.Our study offered important information on the mechanism of GSPE treatment in ischemic heart disease.

  6. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron petals in prevention of acetaminophen-induced renal damages in rats

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    Arash Omidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more attention has been given to herbal drugs in the treatment and prevention of drug toxicity because of the harmful effects of chemical drugs. In this study, directed for this purpose, research was conducted on the protective effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of saffron petals (SPE against acetaminophen (APAP induced acute nephrotoxicity. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups of six each. Group I, as a control group, received normal saline (0.09% orally (PO. Group II, as an intoxicated group was treated with APAP, PO (600 mg/kg. In the groups III and IV, SPE in a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg along with APAP (600 mg/kg was administered, respectively. At the end of the trial (8th day, blood was taken from the heart of rats for assessment of biochemical parameters and the right kidney was placed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological evaluations. In the APAP treatment group, higher serum creatinine and uric acid were observed. SPE in a dose of 20 mg/kg significantly reduced serum creatinine and uric acid. In pathologic evaluation, a dose of 20 mg/kg of SPE prevented the kidney injuries induced by APAP. Tissues changes were in accordance with biochemical findings. It is likely that the SPE contributed to the prevention of acute nephrotoxicity induced by APAP.

  7. Root bark extracts of Juncus effusus and Paeonia suffruticosa protect salivary gland acinar cells from apoptotic cell death induced by cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukudai, Yoshiki; Kondo, Seiji; Shiogama, Sunao; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Li, Chunnan; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Shintani, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    Cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride (CDDP) is a platinum-based anticancer agent, and is often used for chemotherapy for malignant tumors, albeit CDDP has serious side-effects, including xerostomia (dry mouth). Since patients with xerostomia have reduced quality of life, it is urgent and important to identify nontoxic and natural agents capable of reducing the adverse effect of chemotherapy on salivary gland function. Therefore, we commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only on xerostomia, but also on oral diseases. In the present study, we report on two Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Juncus effusus and Paeonia suffruticosa. The two extracts showed a protective effect in NS-SV-Ac cells from the cytotoxicity and apoptosis caused by CDDP. The effect was dependent on the p53 pathway, protein kinase B/Akt 1 and mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins (i.e. Bcl-2 and Bax), but was not dependent on nuclear factor κB. Notably, the apoptosis-protective effect of the extracts was not observed in adenocystic carcinoma cell lines. Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects on xerostomia. Thus, in the present study, we elucidated the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for xerostomia to improve the quality of life of patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  8. Aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) protects against generalized seizures in pentylenetetrazole and electro-convulsive models in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, F P; Omogbai, E K I; Otokiti, I O

    2009-01-01

    Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 - 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Stereospermum kunthianum extract (200 - 400mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably protected (76.9% and 84.6 % respectively) the rats against electroshock-induced seizures. However, the extract (200- 400mg/kg) when administered orally showed a comparatively less effect (33.3% and 55.6% respectively) to the intraperitoneally administered extract in the maximal electroshock test. The extract (100-400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed (pbark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum produces its antiseizure effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The results indicate that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity in rodents and therefore tend to suggest that the shrub may be used as a natural supplementary remedy in the management, control and/or treatment of childhood convulsions. It can be concluded that the aqueous stem bark extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and therefore lend pharmacological credence to the traditionally claimed use in the treatment of childhood convulsions.

  9. Protective Effect of Antioxidant Extracts from Grey Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Agaricomycetes), Against Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Aortic Endothelial Cell Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohamad Hamdi Zainal; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Abidin, Nurhayati Zainal

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant capacities of extracts from Pleurotus pulmonarius via Folin-Ciocalteu, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, metal chelating, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Extract compositions were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid; Coomassie Plus (Bradford) protein; Spectroquant zinc, copper, and manganese test assays; and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Methanol-dichloromethane extract, water fraction, hot water, aqueous extract and hexane fraction exhibited the most potent extracts in the antioxidant activities. LC/MS/MS and GC/MS showed that the extracts contained ergothioneine, ergosterol, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds. The selected potent extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effect against oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins and protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxic injury in human aortic endothelial cells. The crude aqueous extract was deemed most potent for the prevention of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation and endothelial membrane damage. Ergothioneine might be the compound responsible for the activities, as supported by previous reports. Thus, P. pulmonarius may be a valuable antioxidant ingredient in functional foods or nutraceuticals. PMID:27279533

  10. Extracts of Renealmia alpinia (Rottb. MAAS Protect against Lethality and Systemic Hemorrhage Induced by Bothrops asper Venom: Insights from a Model with Extract Administration before Venom Injection

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    Arley Camilo Patiño

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renealmia alpinia (Rottb. MAAS, obtained by micropropagation (in vitro and wild forms have previously been shown to inhibit some toxic activities of Bothrops asper snake venom if preincubated before injection. In this study, assays were performed in a murine model in which extracts were administered for three days before venom injection. R. alpinia extracts inhibited lethal activity of B. asper venom injected by intraperitoneal route. Median Effective Dose (ED50 values were 36.6 ± 3.2 mg/kg and 31.7 ± 5.4 mg/kg (p > 0.05 for R. alpinia wild and in vitro extracts, respectively. At a dose of 75 mg/kg, both extracts totally inhibited the lethal activity of the venom. Moreover, this dose prolonged survival time of mice receiving a lethal dose of venom by the intravenous route. At 75 mg/kg, both extracts of R. alpinia reduced the extent of venom-induced pulmonary hemorrhage by 48.0% (in vitro extract and 34.7% (wild extract, in agreement with histological observations of lung tissue. R. alpinia extracts also inhibited hemorrhage in heart and kidneys, as evidenced by a decrease in mg of hemoglobin/g of organ. These results suggest the possibility of using R. alpinia as a prophylactic agent in snakebite, a hypothesis that needs to be further explored.

  11. Assessment of the ability of seaweed extracts to protect against hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced cellular damage in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, A M; O'Callaghan, Y C; O'Grady, M N; Queguineur, B; Hanniffy, D; Troy, D J; Kerry, J P; O'Brien, N M

    2012-09-15

    The ability of brown seaweed extracts, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria hyperborea, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus to protect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) induced stress in Caco-2 cells was investigated. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring alteration in the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutases (SOD) and cellular levels of glutathione (GSH). L. hyperborea, P. canaliculata and F. serratus significantly protected against tert-BOOH induced SOD reduction but did not protect against the reduction in CAT activity or the increased cellular levels of GSH. The ability of F. serratus and F. vesiculosus to protect against H(2)O(2) and tert-BOOH induced DNA damage was also assessed. The DNA protective effects of the two seaweed extracts was compared to those of three metal chelators; deferoxamine mesylate (DFO), 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen) and 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (BAPTA-AM). F. serratus and F. vesiculosus significantly protected (P<0.05) against H(2)O(2) (50 μM) induced DNA damage but not tert-BOOH induced damage. PMID:23107739

  12. Protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and ginger extracts on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Somaieh; Nikzad, Hossein; Mahabadi, Javad Amini; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Azami-Tameh, Abolfazl; Taherian, Aliakbar; Sajjadian, Seyyed Mohammad Sajjad; Kamani, Mehran

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive toxicity is one of the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in cancer treatment. Pumpkin seeds and Zingiber officinale are natural sources of antioxidants. We investigated the possible protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extracts on sperm characteristics, epididymal histology and biochemical parameters of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1, as a control, received an isotonic saline solution injection intraperitoneally (IP). Group 2 were injected IP with a single dose of CP (100 mg/kg) once. Groups 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract (50:50). Groups 5 and 6 received only 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, histopathological changes and biochemical parameters were assessed. In CP-treated rats, motile spermatozoa were decreased, and abnormal or dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.001) but administration of the mixed extract improved sperm parameters. Epididymal epithelium and fibromascular thickness were also improved in extract-treated rats compared to control or CP groups. Biochemical analysis showed that the administration of combined extracts could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the mixed extract could decrease most of the side effects of CP such as vacuolization and separation of epididymal tissue. Our findings indicated that the combined extracts might be used as a protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26714700

  13. Coadministration of Hedera helix L. Extract Enabled Mice to Overcome Insufficient Protection against Influenza A/PR/8 Virus Infection under Suboptimal Treatment with Oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eun-Hye; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Shim, Aeri; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Chang, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hyeon Gun; Kim, Jong Geal; Seo, Sang-Uk; Kim, HyunPyo; Kwon, YongSoo; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Several anti-influenza drugs that reduce disease manifestation exist, and although these drugs provide clinical benefits in infected patients, their efficacy is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic strategy of enhancing the antiviral efficacy of an existing neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, by coadministering with the leaf extract from Hedera helix L, commonly known as ivy. Ivy extract has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic properties. In the present study, we investigated its potential antiviral properties against influenza A/PR/8 (PR8) virus in a mouse model with suboptimal oseltamivir that mimics a poor clinical response to antiviral drug treatment. Suboptimal oseltamivir resulted in insufficient protection against PR8 infection. Oral administration of ivy extract with suboptimal oseltamivir increased the antiviral activity of oseltamivir. Ivy extract and its compounds, particularly hedrasaponin F, significantly reduced the cytopathic effect in PR8-infected A549 cells in the presence of oseltamivir. Compared with oseltamivir treatment alone, coadministration of the fraction of ivy extract that contained the highest proportion of hedrasaponin F with oseltamivir decreased pulmonary inflammation in PR8-infected mice. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, were reduced by treatment with oseltamivir and the fraction of ivy extract. Analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial alveolar of PR8-infected mice revealed that CD11b+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6Cint cells were recruited after virus infection; coadministration of the ivy extract fraction with oseltamivir reduced infiltration of these inflammatory cells. In a model of suboptimal oseltamivir treatment, coadministration of ivy extract fraction that includes hedrasaponin F increased protection against PR8 infection that could be

  14. Coadministration of Hedera helix L. Extract Enabled Mice to Overcome Insufficient Protection against Influenza A/PR/8 Virus Infection under Suboptimal Treatment with Oseltamivir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hye Hong

    Full Text Available Several anti-influenza drugs that reduce disease manifestation exist, and although these drugs provide clinical benefits in infected patients, their efficacy is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic strategy of enhancing the antiviral efficacy of an existing neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, by coadministering with the leaf extract from Hedera helix L, commonly known as ivy. Ivy extract has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic properties. In the present study, we investigated its potential antiviral properties against influenza A/PR/8 (PR8 virus in a mouse model with suboptimal oseltamivir that mimics a poor clinical response to antiviral drug treatment. Suboptimal oseltamivir resulted in insufficient protection against PR8 infection. Oral administration of ivy extract with suboptimal oseltamivir increased the antiviral activity of oseltamivir. Ivy extract and its compounds, particularly hedrasaponin F, significantly reduced the cytopathic effect in PR8-infected A549 cells in the presence of oseltamivir. Compared with oseltamivir treatment alone, coadministration of the fraction of ivy extract that contained the highest proportion of hedrasaponin F with oseltamivir decreased pulmonary inflammation in PR8-infected mice. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2, were reduced by treatment with oseltamivir and the fraction of ivy extract. Analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial alveolar of PR8-infected mice revealed that CD11b+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6Cint cells were recruited after virus infection; coadministration of the ivy extract fraction with oseltamivir reduced infiltration of these inflammatory cells. In a model of suboptimal oseltamivir treatment, coadministration of ivy extract fraction that includes hedrasaponin F increased protection against PR8

  15. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa L.and Portulaca oleracea L. on free radical induced hemolysis of RBCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Taghiabadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "n  Background and the purpose of the study: It has been shown that Nigella sativa L. and Portulaca oleracea L. have many antioxidant components. In the present study, the cytoprotective effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of N.sativa and P.oleracea against hemolytic damages induced by free radical initiator, AAPH [2, 2' azobis (2- amidinopropane hydrochloride] was evaluated. "n  Methods: Hemolysis was induced by addition of AAPH. To study the cytoprotective effect, aqueous (50, 200, 300, 400, 800 μg/ml and ethanolic (25, 100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml extracts of N. sativa and aqueous (25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml and ethanolic (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1800 μg/ml extracts of P. oleracea were employed. RBCs were incubated with both extracts and AAPH at 37 °C for 6 hrs. In order to evaluate the impact of the time of addition, extracts were added one and 2 hrs after AAPH. Samples of suspensions were removed at different times and the degree of hemolysis was assessed spectrophotometrically by reading the absorption of supernatants at 540 nm. "n  Results: Aqueous (300, 400 and 800 μg/ml and ethanolic (150, 200 and 400 μg/ml extracts of N.sativa and also, aqueous (100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml and ethanolic (1200, 1800 μg/ml extracts of P.oleracea showed concentration-dependent cytoprotective effects. Addition of extracts one hour after AAPH reduced but did not eliminate protective activities of extracts. "n  Conclusion: Cytorotective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa and P. oleracea against AAPH- induced hemolysis may be related to antioxidant properties of these plants.

  16. Syzygium cumini seed extract protects the liver against lipid peroxidation with concurrent amelioration of hepatic enzymes and lipid profile of alcoholic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Shahdat; Chowdhury, Imrul Hasan; Basunia, Mafroz Ahmed; Nahar, Taslima; Rahaman, Asiqur; Choudhury, Bazlur Karim; Choudhuri, Shahabuddin Kabir; Mahmud, Ishtiaq; Uddin, Borhan

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro oxidative stress induced by ethanol/Fenton's reaction in rat liver homogenates decreased significantly in the presence of Syzygium cumini seed extract, suggesting the protective effect of the seed extract against the oxidative stress in liver. To corroborate the in vitro effects by an in vivo experiment, 24 rats were divided into four groups: control, S. cumini seed-extract-administered (SE), 15% ethanol-fed (Alc) and Alc+SE rats. The oral administration of the extract (400 mg/kg BW.day) for 7 weeks significantly decreased the levels of liver LPO in the Alc+SE rats, suggesting that S. cumini seed not only obstructed the in vitro free radical production and subsequent oxidative stress, but also inhibited their in vivo formation. The oral administration of extract also reduced the enzyme activities of serum gammaglutamyl transferase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase and the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, serum/liver triglycerides and total cholesterol of the alcoholic rats. The levels of fecal cholesterol were increased by the extract. Fatty degenerations in liver and kidney were absent with S. cumini seed extract treatment. The results suggest that S. cumini seed may be a potential therapy for alcoholics and related dysfunctions by restraining oxidative stress. PMID:22754945

  17. Natural iron chelators: Protective role in A549 cells of flavonoids-rich extracts of Citrus juices in Fe(3+)-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Visalli, Giuseppa; Cirmi, Santa; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Laganà, Pasqualina; Di Pietro, Angela; Navarra, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Exogenous iron in particulate matter and imbalanced iron homeostasis cause deleterious effects on health. Natural and synthetic iron chelators may be of therapeutic benefit, therefore we evaluated the protective effect of Citrus flavonoids-rich extracts from bergamot and orange juices in iron overloaded human lung epithelial cells. Cytofluorimetric, biochemical and genotoxic analyses were performed in Fe2(SO4)3 exposed A549, pretreated with each extract whose chemical composition was previously detected. Chelating activity was assessed in cells by a calcein ester. Both extracts reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation, improved mitochondrial functionality, and prevented DNA-oxidative damage in iron-exposed cells. Antioxidant effects were attributed to the chelating property, blocking upstream the redox activity of iron. Flavonoid-rich extracts also induced antioxidant catalase. The bergamot and orange juice extracts had a broad-spectrum protective effect. Their use prevents iron oxidative injury and these natural iron chelators could be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:27037654

  18. Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

    2014-10-01

    Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:24124763

  19. Evaluation of Protective Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Fruit Peels of Punica granatum Linn against Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashar Kalangottil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fruits peels of Punica granatum Linn. against acetic acid and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Acute oral toxicity study was performed to find out the test dose according to OECD guidelines 425 and hydro-alcoholic extract of P. granatum fruit peel (PGPE was found to be safe at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. The animals pretreated with hydro-alcoholic extract of P. granatum fruit peel (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively significantly restored the altered hematological, biochemical parameters to normal levels when compared with control. The protective effect of P. granatum peel extract was comparable to standard sulfasalazine. The findings of the present study revealed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of P. granatum fruit peel possessed a dose dependent significant inhibitory activity against ulcerative colitis. The results obtained established the efficacy of the Punica granatum fruit peel against inflammatory bowel diseases possibly by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  20. Protective effects of anisodamine on cigarette smoke extract-induced airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and tracheal contractility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang-Ni; Yang, Kai; Xu, Zu-Peng; Zhu, Liang; Hou, Li-Na; Qi, Hong; Chen, Hong-Zhuan, E-mail: hongzhuan_chen@hotmail.com; Cui, Yong-Yao, E-mail: yongyaocui@yahoo.com.cn

    2012-07-01

    Anisodamine, an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), has been used therapeutically to improve smooth muscle function, including microvascular, intestinal and airway spasms. Our previous studies have revealed that airway hyper-reactivity could be prevented by anisodamine. However, whether anisodamine prevents smoking-induced airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation remained unclear. In this study, a primary culture of rat ASM cells was used to evaluate an ASM phenotype through the ability of the cells to proliferate and express contractile proteins in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and intervention of anisodamine. Our results showed that CSE resulted in an increase in cyclin D1 expression concomitant with the G0/G1-to-S phase transition, and high expression of M2 and M3. Functional studies showed that tracheal hyper-contractility accompanied contractile marker α-SMA high-expression. These changes, which occur only after CSE stimulation, were prevented and reversed by anisodamine, and CSE-induced cyclin D1 expression was significantly inhibited by anisodamine and the specific inhibitor U0126, BAY11-7082 and LY294002. Thus, we concluded that the protective and reversal effects and mechanism of anisodamine on CSE-induced events might involve, at least partially, the ERK, Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways associated with cyclin D1 via mAChRs. Our study validated that anisodamine intervention on ASM cells may contribute to anti-remodeling properties other than bronchodilation. -- Highlights: ► CSE induces tracheal cell proliferation, hyper-contractility and α-SMA expression. ► Anisodamine reverses CSE-induced tracheal hyper-contractility and cell proliferation. ► ERK, PI3K, and NF-κB pathways and cyclin D1 contribute to the reversal effect.

  1. A Standardized Composition from Extracts of Myristica Fragrans, Astragalus Membranaceus, and Poria Cocos Protects Liver from Acute Ethanol Insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Jia, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Despite the promising advances in therapeutic discovery, there still is a major challenge in the development of a safe, effective, and economical intervention for managing alcohol-related liver disorders. In this study, we describe the potential use of "MAP," a standardized composition comprising three extracts from Myristica fragrans, Astragalus membranaceus, and Poria cocos, in ameliorating alcohol-induced acute liver toxicity. Ethanol-induced acute hepatotoxicity as an animal model of binge drinking was utilized. Mice received oral doses of MAP at 300 mg/kg for four consecutive days. Mice were orally gavaged with 50% ethanol in 12 mL/kg dosing volume following the third dose of MAP every 12 h thereafter for a total of three doses. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T12, and hepatic glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutases (SODs), and triglyceride from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) scoring were also determined. Excessive increases of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly inhibited at 46.3% and 43.6%, respectively, when mice were treated with MAP. MAP replenished the depleted SOD by more than 60%, while causing significant stimulation of GSH productions. MAP showed statistically significant reduction in ballooning degeneration, vascular steatosis, cytoplasmic or nuclear condensation, and shrinkage, as well as inflammations when compared to vehicle-treated alcohol-induced liver toxicity model. Mice treated with MAP showed statistically significant reduction in ASH scoring when compared to vehicle control. Therefore, the composition MAP could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxifying agent for the protection of liver damage caused by alcohol consumptions. PMID:27355692

  2. Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against γ-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, γ-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, γ-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

  3. Eriocaulon buergerianum extract protects PC12 cells and neurons in zebrafish against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhixiu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ericaulon buergerianum (Gujingcao is an ophthalmic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial Chinese medicinal herb. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Ericaulon buergerianum ethanol extract (EBE and to elucidate its underlying action mechanism. Methods The viability of dopaminergic (DA neuron in zebrafish was examined by anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunostaining. The locomotor activity of zebrafish was assessed with a digital video tracking system. The viability and cellular damage of the PC12 cells were determined by MTT and LDH assays respectively. The nuclear morphological changes in apoptotic cells were evaluated with DNA staining by Hoechst 33342 dye. Intracellular nitric oxide (NO was quantified by DAF-FM diacetate staining. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS was determined by Western blot. Results EBE inhibited the 6-OHDA-induced decrease in total distance of movement in zebrafish. Pretreatments of EBE (25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml increased the viability of 6-OHDA-damaged PC12 cells in a dose dependent manner. Protection against 6-OHDA-induced nuclear fragmentation and accumulation of apoptotic bodies was also observed in EBE pretreated cells. Anti-oxidative (inhibition of NO production and iNOS expression in PC12 cells in vitro activities of EBE are related to its neuroprotective effects in 6-OHDA-induced DA neuron damage. Conclusion EBE exhibited significant neuroprotective activities in zebrafish, including recovery of dopaminergic neuron loss caused by 6-OHDA in a dose-dependent manner in vivo, inhibition of 6-OHDA-induced decrease of total distance in movement in zebrafish. The iNOS-NO pathway may be involved.

  4. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation, 29; Protective effects of methanol extracts of various Chinese traditional medicines on skin injury induced by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-Ming; Ohta, Setsuko; Shinoda, Masato (Hoshi Coll. of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-03-01

    In order to investigate useful protective medicines for the relief of skin injury induced by irradiation, 60 methanol extracts of Chinese traditional medicines were used in the test of protective potency on skin injury. ICR male mice at 6 weeks of age were whole-body irradiated with 1100R by using a soft X-ray generator (30 kVp, 10 mA, 190 R/min). Each methanol extract of these medicines was injected intraperitoneally into mice before or after irradiation. The degrees of skin injury were determined by a score system of skin reaction within the observation period from 21st to 40th day after irradiation. Protective potency of each medicine on skin injury was calculated from the maximum mean scores of administrated group and un-administrated group. As a result of these studies, the protective potency was detected in Unsei-in, Kumibinro-to, Keisi-syakuyaku-chimo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosyuyu-to, Koso-san, Saiko-seikan-to, Syo-kankyo-to, Syo-saiko-to, Syoma-kakkon-to, Sen-kan-meimoku-to, Zokumei-to, Sokei-kakketu-to, Bokuryo-in, Mao-to and Rikkunsi-to by intraperitoneal injection before irradiation. Of these effective medicines, only Unsei-in and Mao-to are shown to have a significant protective effect by intraperitoneal injection after irradiation. (author).

  5. Rice Germosprout Extract Protects Erythrocytes from Hemolysis and the Aorta, Brain, Heart, and Liver Tissues from Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdat Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying dietary alternatives for artificial antioxidants capable of boosting antihemolytic and antioxidative defense has been an important endeavor in improving human health. In the present study, we studied antihemolytic and antioxidative effects of germosprout (i.e., the germ part along with sprouted stems plus roots extract prepared from the pregerminated rice. The extract contained considerable amounts of antioxidant β-carotene (414±12 ng/g of extract and phytochemicals such as total polyphenols (12.0±1.1 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract and flavonoids (11.0±1.4 mg catechin equivalent/g of extract. The antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed by its DPPH- (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl- free radical scavenging activity where we observed that germosprout extract had considerable antioxidative potentials. To evaluate antihemolytic effect of the extract, freshly prepared erythrocytes were incubated with either peroxynitrite or Fenton’s reagent in the absence or presence of the extract. We observed that erythrocytes pretreated with the extract exhibited reduced degree of in vitro hemolysis. To support the proposition that germosprout extract could act as a good antioxidative agent, we also induced in vitro oxidative stress in erythrocyte membranes and in the aorta, brain, heart, and liver tissue homogenates in the presence of the extract. As expected, germosprout extract decreased oxidative stress almost to the same extent as that of vitamin E, as measured by lipid peroxide levels, in all the mentioned tissues. We conclude that rice germosprout extract could be a good natural source of antioxidants to reduce oxidative stress-induced hemolysis and damage of blood vessels and other tissues.

  6. Study of protective effect of Avicennia marina hydroethanolic leaf extract on testes tissue and spermatogenesis in male rat induced with carbon tetrachloride

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani, Z.; N Mirazi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The toxic chemical compounds are widelyused in the world. Carbon tetrachloride which is used in hygiene industries caused tissue disorders. Medicinal plants have protective effects in body tissues. In this study the protective effect of Avicennia marina leaf extract (MLE) on spermatogenesis in male rat were induced with ccl4 investigating. Method and materials: The 42 male rats with 220-250 gr body weight were divided randomly in 6 groups(n=7): control (taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,...

  7. Hericium erinaceus mushroom extracts protect infected mice against Salmonella Typhimurium-Induced liver damage and mortality by stimulation of innate immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Moon, Eunpyo; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of four extracts from the fruitbody of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus (hot water extract, HWE; microwave/50% ethanol extract, MWE; acid extract, ACE; and alkaline extract, AKE) against murine salmonellosis. The extracts had no effect on Salmonella ser. Typhimurium growth in culture. Nor were the extracts toxic to murine macrophage cells, RAW 264.7. HWE and MWE stimulated uptake of the bacteria into the macrophage cells as indicated by increased colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the contents of the lysed macrophages infected with Salmonella Typhimurium for 30 and 60 min. Two hours postinfection, the bacterial counts increased in the macrophages, but 4 and 8 h postinfection the HWE- and MWE-treated cells showed greater activity against the bacteria than the control. HWE- and MWE-treated noninfected macrophages had altered morphology and elevated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression. In the presence of S. Typhimurium, iNOS mRNA expression was further increased, accompanied by an increase in NO production. Histology assays of the livers of mice infected with a sublethal dose (1 × 10(4) CFU) of S. Typhimurium showed that HWE and MWE, administered by daily intraperitoneal injection, protected against necrosis of the liver, a biomarker of in vivo salmonellosis. The lifespans of mice similarly infected with a lethal dose of S. Typhimurium (1 × 10(5) CFU) were significantly extended by HWE and MWE. β-Glucan, known to stimulate the immune system, was previously found to be present in high amounts in the active extracts. These results suggest that the mushroom extract activities against bacterial infection in mice occur through the activation of innate immune cells.

  8. Protective effect of wild raspberry (Rubus hirsutus Thunb.) extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative damage is potentiated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry is well known as rich source of antioxidants, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, after consumption, the antioxidants are subjected to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that may result in structural and functional alterations. Our previous study indicated that acrylamide (AA)-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of wild raspberry extract produced before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage is unclear. In the present study, we found that wild raspberry extract produced after digestion (RD) had a pronounced protective effect against AA-induced cytotoxicity compared with that produced before digestion (RE). Further investigation indicated that RD significantly inhibited AA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, LC-MS analysis revealed that wild raspberry underwent gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the contents of esculin, kaempferol hexoside and pelargonidin hexoside.

  9. [Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

    2013-01-01

    Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts. PMID:24738237

  10. Antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of Acacia shaffneri and Acacia farnesiana pods extracts: in vitro and in vivo assays

    OpenAIRE

    Delgadillo Puga, Claudia; Cuchillo Hilario, Mario; Espinosa Mendoza, José Guillermo; Medina Campos, Omar; Molina Jijón, Eduardo; Díaz Martínez, Margarita; Álvarez Izazaga, Marsela Alejandra; Ledesma Solano, José Ángel; Pedraza Chaverri, José

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a worldwide public health issue, reaching epidemic condition in developing countries associated to chronic diseases. Oxidative damage is another side effect of obesity. Antioxidant activity from plant components regulates at some extent this imbalance. Main goal of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of Acacia shaffneri (AS) and Acacia farnesiana (AF) pods extracts. Methods To evaluated antioxidant a...

  11. Investigation of the protective effect of Cinnamomum cassia bark extract against H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sözer Karadağlı, Sumru; Agrap, Borte; Lermioğlu Erciyas, Ferzan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cinnamon, one of the most widely used spices in the world, has been shown tohave various biological functions including antidiabetic and antitumor activities. Its antidiabeticand antitumor effects were linked with its strong antioxidant activity. In the presentstudy we aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity and possible protective effect of Cinnamomumcassia bark water extract against H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage.Viability of lymphocytes was determined by Trypan Blue test...

  12. Physical chemistry evaluation of stability, spreadability, in vitro antioxidant, and photo-protective capacities of topical formulations containing Calendula officinalis L. leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Cecília Kessler Nunes Deuschle; Regis Augusto Norbert Deuschle; Mariana Rocha Bortoluzzi; Margareth Linde Athayde

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is used widely in cosmetic formulations that present phenolic compounds in their chemical constitution. The objective of our research was to develop and evaluate the stability of topical formulations containing 5% hydro-ethanolic extract of calendula leaves, including spreadability, and in vitro photo-protective, and antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the stability, we used organoleptic characteristics, pH, and viscosity parameters. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the DPPH (2,2-...

  13. Protective effects of Egyptian cloudy apple juice and apple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory status in diabetic rat pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Fathy, Samah M.; Drees, Ehab A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Apples possess rich content of varied polyphenolic compounds showing a variety of biological activities that may ascribe to worthy effects against some chronic diseases. The present study was designed to assess the protective effects of the cloudy apple juice (CAJ) and apple peel extract (APE) of Egyptian Anna apple on the complications in experimental diabetes. Materials and methods Four groups were studied. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) to only thr...

  14. Rice Germosprout Extract Protects Erythrocytes from Hemolysis and the Aorta, Brain, Heart, and Liver Tissues from Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shahdat; Bhowmick, Sujan; Sarkar, Marzan; Hassan, Mehedi; Hussain, Jakir; Islam, Saiful; Shahjalal, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Identifying dietary alternatives for artificial antioxidants capable of boosting antihemolytic and antioxidative defense has been an important endeavor in improving human health. In the present study, we studied antihemolytic and antioxidative effects of germosprout (i.e., the germ part along with sprouted stems plus roots) extract prepared from the pregerminated rice. The extract contained considerable amounts of antioxidant β-carotene (414±12 ng/g of extract) and phytochemicals such as tota...

  15. Protective Properties of Flavonoid Extract of Coagulated Tofu (Curdled Soy Milk) Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ndatsu Yakubu; Umaru Alhassan Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The total flavonoid contents of the various coagulated tofu and the hepatoprotective potential of all tofu flavonoid extracts were investigated. Tofu was prepared from locally sourced coagulants (steep water, alum, lemon, and lemon peel ash extract). Total flavonoid contents of all coagulated tofu were investigated as established in vitro flavonoid assay. The hepatoprotective activities of tofu flavonoid extracts against acetaminophen-induced hepatic cell toxicity in rats was also investigate...

  16. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Micucci; Marco Malaguti; Tullia Gallina Toschi; Giuseppe Di Lecce; Rita Aldini; Andrea Angeletti; Alberto Chiarini; Roberta Budriesi; Silvana Hrelia

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mix...

  17. In vitro evidence for the protective role of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjisinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate protective role of S. rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) leaf extract against in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) induced macrophage apoptosis. Copper and cell-mediated LDL oxidation, Ox-LDL-induced peroxyl radical generation, mitochondrial activity, and apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) were assessed in presence of SR extract. Results clearly indicated that SR was capable of reducing LDL oxidation and formation of intermediary oxidation products. Also, SR successfully attenuated peroxyl radical formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, nuclear condensation, and apoptosis in Ox-LDL-exposed HMDMs. This scientific report is the first detailed investigation that establishes anti-atherosclerotic potential of SR extract.

  18. The Effect of Leonurus sibiricus Plant Extracts on Stimulating Repair and Protective Activity against Oxidative DNA Damage in CHO Cells and Content of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Sitarek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leonurus sibiricus L. has been used as a traditional and medicinal herb for many years in Asia and Europe. This species is known to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity and has demonstrated a reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. All tested extracts of L. sibiricus showed protective and DNA repair stimulating effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells exposed to H2O2. Preincubation of the CHO cells with 0.5 mg/mL of plant extracts showed increased expression level of antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx. LC-MS/MS and HPLC analyses revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds in L. sibiricus plant extracts: catechin, verbascoside, two flavonoids (quercetin and rutin, and five phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The roots and aerial parts of in vitro L. sibiricus plant extracts, which had the strongest antioxidant properties, may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, as well as protecting DNA via enhanced activation of the antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx regulating intracellular antioxidant capacity. The content of phenolic compounds in in vitro raised plants was greater than the levels found in plants propagated from seeds.

  19. The Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Unripe Pulp of Carica papaya (Pawpaw Against Potassium Bromate Induced Tissue Damage in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Josiah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The protective role of ethanolic extract of unripe pulp of Carica papaya (fruit, against potassiumbromate induced tissue damage in wistar rats was investigated. The animals were grouped into four groups (A, B, C, D of five rats. Group A was administered 1 mL of 0.25 M sucrose solution. 60 mg/kg of Potassium bromate KBrO3 was administered orally to rats in groups B, C and D. Groups C and D were pretreated with 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extracts for fourteen (14 days, respectively. The organ to body-weight ratio, total amino acid, total protein and malondialdeyde (MDA concentration in the brain, spleen, kidney, liver, and heart were colorimetrically measured as an assessment of the level of tissue damage. All the parameters studied increases significantly in all the tissues of rats group B. There was significant decrease in the organ-to-body weight ratio and total protein level in all the tissues investigated (p<0.05, when compared with Group B at both doses of the extract. The total protein level of the stomach had a drastic reduction at 500 mg/kg. Also, the Amino acid level of investigated tissues decreased significantly, while malondialdeyde levels decreased significantly in a dose dependent manner. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of unripe pulp of Carica papaya may be protective against KBrO3 induced tissue damage in Wistar rats.

  20. Protective effect of methanolic extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. against cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage in mouse bone marrow cells using the micronucleus test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Salmani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide is a chemo-therapeutic agent used in the treatment of various cancers and autoimmune diseases. This composition has cytotoxic and clastogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of methanol extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. against DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide in mouse bone marrow cells by the micronucleus test. The extract concentrations of 375, 750, 1500 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally (Ip into mice for 7 consecutive days. One hour after the last injection, cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg Ip was injected. 24 hours after cyclophosphamide injection, the animals were killed and the samples of bone marrow were prepared and stained using the standard methods. For each sample, 1000 cells of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE and the same number of normochromatic erythrocyte (NCE and the cells containing their micronucleus were counted. Cyclophosphamide increased the frequency of micronuclei polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCE and decreased cell proliferation (PCE/PCE+NCE. All doses of extracts significantly reduced the micronucleus frequency ratio (P<0.05. The cells proliferation ratio (PCE/PCE+NCE was also increased. The best effect in reducing the micronucleus frequency was at 1500 mg/kg dosage. Thymus extract is able to reduce the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of cyclophosphamide, due to its antioxidant properties, playing a protective role.

  1. Protective effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside from blackberry extract against peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, Ivana; Dugo, Laura; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Mazzon, Emanuela; Dugo, Giovanni; Caputi, Achille Patrizio; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2003-07-18

    Anthocyanins are a group of naturally occurring phenolic compounds as colorants in several plants, flowers and fruits. These pigments have a great importance as quality indicators, as chemotaxonomic markers and antioxidants. The content of blackberry (Rubus species) juice was investigated by HPLC/ESI/MS using narrow bore HPLC columns. Using this method we demonstrated that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside represents about 80% of the total anthocyanin contents in blackberry extract. Here we investigated antioxidant activity of the blackberry juice and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on the endothelial dysfunction in cells and in vascular rings exposed to peroxynitrite. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro, peroxynitrite caused a significant suppression of mitochondrial respiration (38 +/- 2.1% of control cells), as measured by the mitochondrial-dependent conversion of the dye MTT to formazan. Peroxynitrite caused DNA strand breakage (63 +/- 1.9% single strand vs 3 +/- 0.9% single strand in control cells), as measured by the alkaline unwinding assay, and caused an activation of PARS, as measured by the incorporation of radiolabeled NAD(+) to nuclear proteins. Blackberry juice (different dilutions that contained 80 ppm;40 ppm;14.5 ppm of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (as chloride) (0.085 microM; 0.028 microM; 0.0085 microM) reduced the peroxynitrite-induced suppression of mitochondrial respiration, DNA damage and PARS activation in HUVECs. Vascular rings exposed to peroxynitrite exhibited reduced endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in response to acetylcholine as well as a vascular contractility dysfunction in response to norepinephrine. The development of this peroxynitrite-induced vascular dysfunction was ameliorated by the blackberry juice (different dilutions that contained 80 ppm;40 ppm;14.5 ppm of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (as chloride) (0.085 microM;0.028 microM;0.0085 microM). In conclusion our findings

  2. Protective effects of ginkgo biloba leaves extract on peroxide-induced oxidative stress damage in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiqiang Chen; Taiping Hu; Ying Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracts of ginkgo biloba leaves (EGB) and its metabolites have been reported to enhance brain function and nerve behavior. It has also been hypothesized that they can protect neurons from oxidative stress.OBJECTIVE: To investigate protective effects of EGB on peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress damage in PC12 cells.DESIGN: Observational contrast study.SETTING: Department of Pathophysiology, Guangdong Pharmacological College.MATERIALS: EGB was provided by Xi'an Fujie Biotechnological Development Company; 1640 culture medium, methylthiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), trypsin and dimathyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by Sigma Company;PC 12 cell strain by Cell Center of Medical College of Zhongshan University; calf serum by Hangzhou Sijiqing Bioengineering Company; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) kit by Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Research Institute.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in Department of Cell Biology of Guangdong Pharmacological College from June to December 2005.①Cell culture: PC 12 cells were cultured in 1640 medium containing 200 g/L fetal calf serum. The cells were diluted to 1×107 L-1 and washed every two days. Those cells were used to experiment until they grew in logarithm on solid wall.②Grouping and intervention: PC 12 cells(1×108L-1) were plated in 96-well plates with the density of 200 μL/hole and divided into three groups:normal control group (routinely adding media), H2O2 group (treating with media and H2O2 for 20 hours) and EGB group (adding media, 100 μ mol/L EGB and 100 μmol/L H2O2).③MTT assay: PC12 cells (1×108L-1) were plated in 96-well plates and divided into three groups with 8 holes for each group. Under sterile condition, cells were added with 5 g/L MTT (100 μ L) and cultured for 4 hours. And then, 200 μL DMSO fluid was added and shaken for 30 minutes until blue crystal products formed were dissolved soundly.④Experimental evaluation: Absorbance (A) at 630 nm was measured and LDH activity was measured at the same

  3. Effects of GA3 treatments on seed germination in Vaccinium bracteatum and Vaccinium carlesii at different temperatures%不同温度下赤霉素处理对乌饭树与短尾越橘种子发芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞雪; 潜伟平; 刘江华; 刘仁林

    2012-01-01

    In order to compare seed germination characteristics in Vaccinium bracteatum and Vaccinium carlesii, seeds of V. bracteatum and V. carlesii after soaked in different concentrations of GA3 solution were cultured at different temperatures. The results show that GA3 solution has significant effect on breaking seed dormancy, improving germination rate and shortening germination time, and the germination rate is 3-5 times more than CK. The soaked seeds have higher sensitive to temperature, and the best germination temperature is 25 ℃ . With raising temperature, the rate of germination reduces. The germination rate is at 25 ℃ is 2-4 times more than that at 27 ℃ , and 10 to dozens of times at 30 ℃ . Concentration of GA3 solution has little effect on seed germination in V. bracteatum, the highest germination rates are 60%, 65% and 64% respectively, after soaked in 200, 600 and 1 000 mg/L GA3. The germination rate of seeds in V. carlesii has some changes with GA3 concentration changing, and it is the highest in 1 000 mg/L GA3 treatment. The highest germination rates in 200, 600 and 1 000 mg/L GA3 treatments are 41%, 25% and 57%, respectively. Increasing temperature can inhibit germination of seeds. Almost no seeds in V. bracteatum germinate, and the highest germination rate of seeds in V. carlesii is 16%, when the temperature is 30 ℃ . It shows that V. carlesii seeds dormancy is more deeper than V. bracteatum seeds, which seems to have relationship with solider and denser seeds coat in V. carlesii.%为了比较分析乌饭树和短尾越橘种子的发芽特性,就不同温度条件下不同浓度赤霉素GA3溶液浸种处理对乌饭树和短尾越橘种子萌发的影响情况进行了恒温培养试验.结果表明:GA3溶液对打破乌饭树和短尾越橘种子休眠、提高发芽率、缩短发芽时间有显著的效果,发芽率比未经处理的高出3~5倍;处理后的乌饭树和短尾越橘种子对温度有很高的敏感度,25℃是最佳发

  4. Croton cajucara Benth. leaf extract scavenges the stable free radical DPPH and protects against oxidative stress induced by paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieppo, Marcelo; Porawski, Marilene; Salvador, Mirian; Moreira, Andrea Janz; Collado, Pilar Sanzchez; González-Gallego, Javier; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of extracts from Croton cajucara BENTH. leaves was investigated in different in vitro and in vivo models. Extracts showed inhibitory radical scavenging activity against the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (75%, 43% and 25% of the standard trolox at 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml, respectively; IC50 218 mg/ml). Percentage survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells treated with 10 mM paraquat increased by 21% and 55%, when 1 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extract, respectively, were added. The cytosolic concentration of TBARS increased in animals treated with paraquat (+283%), while values did not significantly differ from the controls in rats additionally receiving the leaf extract. Paraquat administration also induced a significant increase in hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminiscence (+76%), that was partially prevented by the leaf extract (+31%). Liver SOD activity was a 158% higher in animals receiving paraquat as compared to the controls. This effect was abolished by administration of the leaf extract. Paraquat administration did not significantly modify the activity of GPx or catalase. Croton cajucara extract increased GPx and catalase activities in paraquat treated-animals by 342% and 70%, respectively. Our results confirm that Croton cajucara leaf extract present radical scavenging activity and reduce oxidative stress induced by paraquat, suggesting the beneficial use as a potential source of antioxidant agents of natural origin. PMID:16394531

  5. Protective effect of supercritical fluid rosemary extract, Rosmarinus officinalis, on antioxidants of major organs of aged rats

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Rosemary leaves, ?Rosmarinus officinalis?, possess a variety of antioxidant, anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. We hypothesized that rosemary extract could enhance antioxidant defenses and improve antioxidant status in aged rats. This work evaluates whether supplementing their diet with supercritical fluid (SFE) rosemary extract containing 20% antioxidant carnosic acid (CA) reduces oxidative stress in aged rats. Aged Wistar rats (20 mon...

  6. Shale Gas Extraction in Europe and Germany - The Impacts of Environmental Protection and Energy Security on Emerging Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2016-01-01

    Shale gas extraction is a technology that is recently arriving in Europe and Germany. The technology brings about a considerable amount of potential environmental threats, but the extraction of shale gas also promises energy security rewards. When the European and German systems for energy and envir

  7. Identification of Plants That Inhibit Lipid Droplet Formation in Liver Cells: Rubus suavissimus Leaf Extract Protects Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Directly Affecting Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Wataru; Takiguchi, Yuya; Takizawa, Kento; Nakabayashi, Ami; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Nagano-Ito, Michiyo; Ichikawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease.

  8. Identification of Plants That Inhibit Lipid Droplet Formation in Liver Cells: Rubus suavissimus Leaf Extract Protects Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Directly Affecting Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Wataru; Takiguchi, Yuya; Takizawa, Kento; Nakabayashi, Ami; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Nagano-Ito, Michiyo; Ichikawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease. PMID:27429636

  9. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Micucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE, of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE, and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals.

  10. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Aldini, Rita; Angeletti, Andrea; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals. PMID:26180582

  11. Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa protects Fe(II) induced lipid peroxidation in rat's brain, kidney and liver homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Khalil, ShafqatUllah; Hussain, Arshad; Rehman, Shakilla; Sajjad, Shagufta; Rahman, Ataur; da Rocha, Joao B T

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa against Fe(II) induced lipid peroxidation. Basal and Fe(II) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production was significantly inhibited by the ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa at 25-200 μg/ml. Our data revealed that the extract has high DPPH radical scavenging activity at highest tested concentrations. The extract significantly chelated Fe(II) and scavenged hydroxyl (OH) radical at 25-200μg/ml concentration. The nutritional analysis was performed and carbohydrate, fats, fiber, protein, moisture and ash content were measured in the studied extract. The phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate & sugar, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, protein and amino acid, phytosterols, tannins, gum and mucilage. The extract also showed significant antimicrobial activities against 10 bacterial strains i.e. Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escheria coli, Xanthomonas, Salmonella heidelberg, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium and Escheria coli (human) and 5 fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Entomola, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium. This study confirms the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa which can be considered not only as a diet supplement but can be used against a variety of free radical induced damage diseases. PMID:26826815

  12. Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa protects Fe(II) induced lipid peroxidation in rat's brain, kidney and liver homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Khalil, ShafqatUllah; Hussain, Arshad; Rehman, Shakilla; Sajjad, Shagufta; Rahman, Ataur; da Rocha, Joao B T

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa against Fe(II) induced lipid peroxidation. Basal and Fe(II) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production was significantly inhibited by the ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa at 25-200 μg/ml. Our data revealed that the extract has high DPPH radical scavenging activity at highest tested concentrations. The extract significantly chelated Fe(II) and scavenged hydroxyl (OH) radical at 25-200μg/ml concentration. The nutritional analysis was performed and carbohydrate, fats, fiber, protein, moisture and ash content were measured in the studied extract. The phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate & sugar, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, protein and amino acid, phytosterols, tannins, gum and mucilage. The extract also showed significant antimicrobial activities against 10 bacterial strains i.e. Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escheria coli, Xanthomonas, Salmonella heidelberg, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium and Escheria coli (human) and 5 fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Entomola, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium. This study confirms the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa which can be considered not only as a diet supplement but can be used against a variety of free radical induced damage diseases.

  13. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Raoofi; Mozafar Khazaei; Ali Ghanbari

    2015-01-01

    Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg ...

  14. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tribulus Terrestris on Cisplatin Induced Renal Tissue Damage in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Raoofi, Amir; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg extr...

  15. Kale Extract Increases Glutathione Levels in V79 Cells, but Does not Protect Them against Acute Toxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B. Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. (kale and several materials of Pieris brassicae L., a common pest of Brassica cultures using a cellular model with hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cells under quiescent conditions and subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and glutathione was determined by the 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB-oxidized glutathione (GSSG reductase recycling assay. The phenolic composition of the extracts was also established by HPLC-DAD. They presented acylated and non acylated flavonoid glycosides, some of them sulfated, and hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides. All extracts were cytotoxic by themselves at high concentrations and failed to protect V79 cells against H2O2 acute toxicity. No relationship between phenolic composition and cytotoxicity of the extracts was found. Rather, a significant increase in glutathione was observed in cells exposed to kale extract, which contained the highest amount and variety of flavonoids. It can be concluded that although flavonoids-rich extracts have the ability to increase cellular antioxidant defenses, the use of extracts of kale and P. brassicae materials by pharmaceutical or food industries, may constitute an insult to health, especially to debilitated individuals, if high doses are consumed.

  16. The protective effects of pomelo extract (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) against fructose-mediated protein oxidation and glycation

    OpenAIRE

    Caengprasath, Natarin; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Mäkynen, Kittana; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic protein glycation, which plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications. Immense efforts have been made to determine effective antiglycation compounds from natural products. Pomelo has shown beneficial effects for human health. The objective of this study was to determine the antiglycation effect of pomelo extract against fructose-mediated protein oxidation and glycation. Our results showed that the pomelo extract (0.25 - 2.00 ...

  17. An extract of Polygonum multiflorum protects against free radical damage induced by ultraviolet B irradiation of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Hwang

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the incidence of ultraviolet B (UVB-related skin problems has been increasing. Damages induced by UVB radiation are related to mutations that occur as a result of direct DNA damage and/or the production of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the anti-oxidant effects of a Polygonum multiflorum thumb extract against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation. Female SKH-1 hairless mice were divided into three groups: control (N = 7, distilled water- (N = 10, and P. multiflorum extract-treated (PM, N = 10 groups. The PM (10 g was extracted with 100 mL distilled water, cryo-dried and 9.8 g was obtained. The animals received a topical application of 500 µL distilled water or PM extract (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16%, w/v, dissolved in distilled water for 30 min after UVB irradiation (wavelength 280-320 nm, 300 mJ/cm²; 3 min of the dorsal kin for 14 days, and skin immunohistochemistry and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 activity were determined. SOD1 immunoreactivity, its protein levels and activities in the skin were significantly reduced by 70% in the distilled water-treated group after UVB irradiation compared to control. However, in the PM extract-treated groups, SOD1 immunoreactivity and its protein and activity levels increased in a dose-dependent manner (1-16%, w/v, PM extract compared to the distilled water-treated group. SOD1 protein levels and activities in the groups treated with 8 and 16%, w/v, PM extract recovered to 80-90% of the control group levels after UVB. These results suggest that PM extract strongly inhibits the destruction of SOD1 by UV radiation and probably contains anti-skin photoaging agents.

  18. Protective effects of Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels leaf extracts on acetaminophen and thioacetamide induced hepatic injuries in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nilesh Kumar Jain; Abhay K Singhai

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels (P. acidus) leaves on acetaminophen (APAP) and thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver toxicity in wistar rats. Silymarin was the reference hepatoprotective agent. Methods:In two different sets of experiments, the P. acidus extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg, body weight) and silymarin (100 mg/kg, body weight) were given orally for 7 days and a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg, per oral) or TAA (100 mg/kg, subcutaneous) were given to rats. The level of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and total protein were monitored to assess hepatotoxicity and hepatoprotection. Results:APAP or TAA administration caused severe hepatic damage in rats as evident from significant rise in serum AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin and concurrent depletion in total serum protein. The P. acidus extracts and silymarin prevented the toxic effects of APAP or TAA on the above serum parameters indicating the hepatoprotective action. The aqueous extract was found to be more potent than the corresponding ethanolic extract against both toxicants. The phenolic and flavonoid content (175.02±4.35 and 74.68±1.28, respectively) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) [IC50=(33.2±0.31)μg/mL] scavenging potential was found maximum with aqueous extract as compared to ethanolic extract. Conclusions:The results of present study suggests that the aqueous extract of P. acidus leaves has significant hepatoprotective activity on APAP and TAA induced hepatotoxicity, which might be associate with its high phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant properties.

  19. Polyphenol-Rich Strawberry Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidative Damage and Improves Mitochondrial Functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Giampieri; Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Luca Mazzoni; Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernandez; Massimiliano Gasparrini; Gonzàlez-Paramàs, Ana M.; Celestino Santos-Buelga; Quiles, José L.; Stefano Bompadre; Bruno Mezzetti; Maurizio Battino

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and ??-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyani...

  20. An extract of Polygonum multiflorum protects against free radical damage induced by ultraviolet B irradiation of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang I.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the incidence of ultraviolet B (UVB-related skin problems has been increasing. Damages induced by UVB radiation are related to mutations that occur as a result of direct DNA damage and/or the production of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the anti-oxidant effects of a Polygonum multiflorum thumb extract against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation. Female SKH-1 hairless mice were divided into three groups: control (N = 7, distilled water- (N = 10, and P. multiflorum extract-treated (PM, N = 10 groups. The PM (10 g was extracted with 100 mL distilled water, cryo-dried and 9.8 g was obtained. The animals received a topical application of 500 µL distilled water or PM extract (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16%, w/v, dissolved in distilled water for 30 min after UVB irradiation (wavelength 280-320 nm, 300 mJ/cm²; 3 min of the dorsal kin for 14 days, and skin immunohistochemistry and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 activity were determined. SOD1 immunoreactivity, its protein levels and activities in the skin were significantly reduced by 70% in the distilled water-treated group after UVB irradiation compared to control. However, in the PM extract-treated groups, SOD1 immunoreactivity and its protein and activity levels increased in a dose-dependent manner (1-16%, w/v, PM extract compared to the distilled water-treated group. SOD1 protein levels and activities in the groups treated with 8 and 16%, w/v, PM extract recovered to 80-90% of the control group levels after UVB. These results suggest that PM extract strongly inhibits the destruction of SOD1 by UV radiation and probably contains anti-skin photoaging agents.

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae Roots Extract and Protective Effects on Astroglial Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Campisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily. We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress.

  2. Protective Effect of the Plant Extracts of Erythroxylum sp. against Toxic Effects Induced by the Venom of Lachesis muta Snake

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    Eduardo Coriolano de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins that induce toxic effects, such as edema, hemorrhage, and death. Lachesis muta has the highest lethality indices in Brazil. In most cases, antivenom fails to neutralize local effects, leading to disabilities in victims. Thus, alternative treatments are under investigation, and plant extracts are promising candidates. The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of crude extracts, fractions, or isolated products of Erythroxylum ovalifolium and Erythroxylum subsessile to neutralize some toxic effects of L. muta venom. All samples were mixed with L. muta venom, then in vivo (hemorrhage and edema and in vitro (proteolysis, coagulation, and hemolysis assays were performed. Overall, crude extracts or fractions of Erythroxylum spp. inhibited (20%–100% toxic effects of the venom, but products achieved an inhibition of 4%–30%. However, when venom was injected into mice before the plant extracts, hemorrhage and edema were not inhibited by the samples. On the other hand, an inhibition of 5%–40% was obtained when extracts or products were given before venom injection. These results indicate that the extracts or products of Erythroxylum spp. could be a promising source of molecules able to treat local toxic effects of envenomation by L. muta venom, aiding in the development of new strategies for antivenom treatment.

  3. Protective effect of an aqueous extract of Harpagophytum procumbens upon Escherichia coli strains submitted to the lethal action of stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M C; Soares, S F; Abreu, P R C; Jesus, L M; Brito, L C; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of its lethal effects upon Escherichia coli (E. coli) cultures trough the production of free radicals (FR), stannous chloride (SnCl2) remains to be the most used reducing agent on the production of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals, to obtain images on nuclear medicine. Moreover, authors have reported that vegetal extracts are able to protect Escherichia coli cultures against the cytotoxicity of this agent. Harpagophytum procumbens, also known as Devil's Claw, is a plant used in folk medicine, as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory in cases of joint and back pain, on the treatment of degenerative rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, kidney inflammation and heart diseases. The presence of this extract reduced the lesive effects of SnCl2 upon E. coli AB1157 (proficient in DNA repair), BW9091 (deficient in the xthA gene) and BH110 (deficient in the xthA, nfo and fpg genes) cultures, and the deficient strains (BW9091 e BH110) were more sensible to this SnCl2 action than the proficient one. The substances in the extract could be acting as: (i) chelator of the stannous ions, avoiding the generation of FR, (ii) FR scavenger, protecting the cells against the oxidation, and/or (iii) an oxidant compound acting upon the stannous ions, reducing the SnCl2 cytotoxicity. PMID:17531166

  4. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P group compared to HFD fed group. MoSE also protected hepatocytes nuclei from the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction. MoSE was found to be polyphenol rich with potent reducing power, free radicals and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Thus, MoSE exhibited robust antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders.

  5. Oral delivery of insulin withDesmodium gangeticum root aqueous extract protects rat hearts against ischemia reperfusion injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gino A Kurian; Jose Paddikkala

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of insulin administered via oral route with the help of aqueous extract ofDesmodium gangeticum (DG) root in rendering cardio protection against ischemia reperfusion injury in diabetic rats.Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by theβ-cell toxin, streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Isolated rat (IR) heart was used to investigate the effect of insulin mixed DG pretreatment on ischemia reperfusion injury. Mitochondrial respiratory enzymes and microsomal enzymes were used to assess the metabolic recovery of myocardium. Cardiac marker enzymes were used to find the functional recovery, which were compared with that of the STZ treated IR rats.Results: Compared with IR control group, rat treated with insulin mixed DG showed a significant functional and metabolic recovery of myocardium from the insult of ischemia reperfusion. Even though orally administered insulin mixed DG displayed a slow but prolonged hypoglycemic effect, the cardio protection it provided was more significant than when it was given intra peritoneal. Furthermore the above result indicates that insulin mixed DG can overcome the barriers in the gastrointestinal tract and be absorbed.Conclusions: The above results indicate the efficacy of insulin mixed DG in protecting the heart from ischemia reperfusion induced injury in diabetic rats. Furthermore the study gives additional information that herbal extracts can be used to transport insulin across the membrane and found to be a feasible approach for developing the oral delivery of insulin, as well as other peptide drugs.

  6. Protective effect of the methanol extract from Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk. against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo

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    Kang Hee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In folk medicine, the aerial part of Crytotaenia japonica Hassk. (CJ, is applied for treatment of the common cold, cough, urinary problems, pneumonia, and skin rashes. In this paper, the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of CJ methanol extract was tested using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory models. Methods We measured nitric oxide (NO, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and inflammatory cytokine levels from LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Also, several cellular signaling molecules which regulate the expressions of these inflammatory markers were examined. Finally, we tested whether oral administration of CJ methanol extract might affect the serum cytokine levels in LPS-injected mice. Results CJ methanol extract reduced NO release via iNOS protein inhibition. The extract was also shown to decrease the secretions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-12. Analysis of signaling molecules showed that CJ inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT1, p38, JNK and ERK1/2 as well as IκBα degradation. Finally, CJ decreased the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-injected mice. Conclusions Our results demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of CJ methanol extract and its possible underlying mechanisms that involve modulation of IκBα, MAPK, and STAT1 activities.

  7. Protective Properties of Flavonoid Extract of Coagulated Tofu (Curdled Soy Milk Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

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    Ndatsu Yakubu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoid contents of the various coagulated tofu and the hepatoprotective potential of all tofu flavonoid extracts were investigated. Tofu was prepared from locally sourced coagulants (steep water, alum, lemon, and lemon peel ash extract. Total flavonoid contents of all coagulated tofu were investigated as established in vitro flavonoid assay. The hepatoprotective activities of tofu flavonoid extracts against acetaminophen-induced hepatic cell toxicity in rats was also investigated in this study. The activity was analyzed by assessing the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. The concentrations of the serum sugar, total protein, albumin, and cholesterol as well as prothrombin time (PT of experimental rats with histopathological analysis were also conducted. The range of the total flavonoid contents of tofu was 4.3-6.4 mg/g. Tofu flavonoid extracts significantly reduced the activities of serum AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH; total cholesterol, and sugar levels, but total protein and albumin concentrations increased compared to acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. Also, the prothrombin time prolongation of serum in acetaminophen intoxicated rats was reduced. Histology of the liver tissue demonstrated that tofu flavonoid extracts inhibited the acetaminophen-induced hepatic cell necrosis, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and accelerated hepatocellular regeneration. Therefore, all tofus exhibited high total flavonoid contents, and the tofu supplement in human diets is highly recommended as it can be used as a functional food to prevent liver injuries.

  8. Effects of Initial Infestation Levels ofCallosobruchus maculatus(F.) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) on Cowpea and Use ofNicotiana tabacum L. Aqueous Extract as Grain Protectant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa A K; Odunayo A; Adeyeye O E

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of initial infestation of cowpea seeds (Ife brown variety) with different insect densities (0, 2, 4 and 6 pairs per 50 g seeds) ofCallosobruchus maculatus(F.) and evaluated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Nicotiana tabacum L. onC. maculatus in the laboratory. It was observed that adult beetle population increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in insect density. The increase in population of beetles and corresponding weight loss of the seeds in different levels of infestation showed that the cowpea variety was susceptible to beetle infestation, emergence and survival of progeny. Significantly more adults emerged on higher infestation compared to lower and no infestation. In Nigeria,Nicotiana tabacum L. is a locally available plant, with known insecticidal properties. The plant leaf extract was easily extracted with water and confirmed its effectiveness as a protective agent for stored cowpea seeds. Experiment was conducted to assess the effects of aqueous extracts of N. tabacumat 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mL•50 g-1 cowpea seeds onC. maculatus. Data was recorded and showed varying levels of effectiveness againstC. maculatus. Result showed that seed appearance was dependent on levels of insect population, while N. tabacum aqueous extract exerted effects on survival ofC. maculatus. Aqueous leaf extract ofN. tabacum probably contained some insecticidal properties which might have significantly conferred beetle mortality and reduced beetle emergence leading to a decrease in seed weight loss.

  9. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

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    Amel Amrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day, vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day and C (8.3mg/Kg per day were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of animals received plant extract, vitamin E and C, also treated with an oral administration of ethanol (0.02ml/g of 25% v/v absolute ethanol in water per day in same conditions. On day 18 of gestation, pregnant mice were killed, fetus, placenta, fetal liver, liver, kidneys and brain were removed, homogenised and used for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO using TBARS method. Embryotoxicity was assessed by counting the number of live and dead fetus and growth retardation. Results: Severe alterations in all biomarkers were observed after injury with ETOH. ETOH produced significant decreases in fetal weight and significant increases in embryolethality and lipid peroxidation relative to control values. Treatment with Chrysanthemum fontanesii extract, vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in markedly decreased embryolethality and fetal growth retardation, while increased fetal weight were observed. Conclusion: The butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C protected against ethanol induce fetal and maternal toxicity as revealed by the decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation. So that butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii posses in vivo antioxidant properties.

  10. Protective effects of potato extracts and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 on the induction of hepatic foci by cotreatment of gamma radiation and diethylnitrosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T H; Kim, S H; Lee, Y S; Choi, S Y; Yoo, S Y; Jang, J J

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the effect of potato extracts and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2) on the induction of glutathione S-transferase P-positive (GST-P+) altered hepatic foci in newborn Sprague-Dawley rats given single treatment with 60Co gamma irradiation and diethylnitrosamine (DEN) alone or in sequential combination. Intraperitoneal injection of 0.15 mumol/g body weight of DEN 1 hour after gamma radiation significantly increased the frequencies of GST-P+ hepatic foci compared to DEN or gamma radiation alone and DEN injection 1 hour before irradiation (p Potato extract was given at a dose of 2 mg/ml in drinking water for 3 weeks and DiPGE2 given at a dose of 10 micrograms/mouse 30 minutes before irradiation. Potato extracts and DiPGE2 decreased significantly the number (p potato extracts and DiPGE2 have radio-protective potential and further studies for underlying mechanisms will be necessary.

  11. Vaccination of feedlot cattle with extracts and membrane fractions from two Mycoplasma bovis isolates results in strong humoral immune responses but does not protect against an experimental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulongo, Musa; Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2013-02-27

    Mycoplasma bovis is one of the most significant contributors to the bovine respiratory syndrome (BRD) that causes major losses in feedlot and dairy farms. Current experimental vaccines against M. bovis are ineffective and in some cases seem to enhance disease. Experimental infection with M. bovis induces a predominantly Th2 response and high levels of IgG1, which is an inferior opsonin and hence lacks protective capacity. In an attempt to induce a balanced (Th1/Th2) immune response, we have used CpG ODN 2007 as an adjuvant in a trial involving vaccination of cattle with M. bovis total extracts and/or membrane fractions and subsequent intranasal inoculation with an infective dose of M. bovis prepared from two different clinical isolates. Significant IgG1 serum responses were observed against both, extracts and fractions while IgG2 responses were significant against the extracts only. Proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after incubation with M. bovis cells was only observed in post-challenge samples of cattle vaccinated with both extracts and fractions but not in samples of cattle immunized with the membrane fractions alone. All groups showed transient weight losses and increased temperatures however, there were no significant differences in clinical parameters and survival rates between the groups. PMID:23340004

  12. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  13. Evaluation of Safety and Protective Effect of Combined Extract of Cissampelos pareira and Anethum graveolens (PM52) against Age-Related Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Wipawee Thukham-mee; Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine acute toxicity, the protective effect, and underlying mechanism of PM52, a combined extract of Cissampelos pareira and Anethum graveolens, against age-related cognitive impairment in animal model of age-related cognitive impairment. PM52 was determined as acute toxicity according to OECD guideline. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–220 g, were orally given PM52 at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg at a period of 14 days before and 7 days after the bilateral admini...

  14. Mentha piperita as a pivotal neuro-protective agent against gamma irradiation induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis: Mentha extract as a neuroprotective against gamma irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Hanaa A.; Hafez, Hani S.; Goda, Mona S.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is classified as a potent carcinogen, and its injury to living cells, in particular to DNA, is due to oxidative stress enhancing apoptotic cell death. Our present study aimed to characterize and semi-quantify the radiation-induced apoptosis in CNS and the activity of Mentha extracts as neuron-protective agent. Our results through flow cytometry exhibited the significant disturbance and arrest in cell cycle in % of M1: SubG1 phase, M2: G0/1 phase of diploid cycle, M3: S phas...

  15. APO-9′-Fucoxanthinone Extracted from Undariopsis peteseniana Protects Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Jang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term cigarette smoking increases the risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, characterized by irreversible expiratory airflow limitation. The pathogenesis of COPD involves oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Various natural marine compounds possess both anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but few have been tested for their efficacy in COPD models. In this study, we conducted an in vitro screening test to identify natural compounds isolated from various brown algae species that might provide protection against cigarette smoke extract (CSE-induced cytotoxicity. Among nine selected natural compounds, apo-9′-fucoxanthinone (Apo9F exhibited the highest protection against CSE-induced cytotoxicity in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC2. Furthermore, the protective effects of Apo9F were observed to be associated with a significant reduction in apoptotic cell death, DNA damage, and the levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS released from CSE-exposed HBEC2 cells. These results suggest that Apo9F protects against CSE-induced DNA damage and apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial ROS production.

  16. APO-9′-Fucoxanthinone Extracted from Undariopsis peteseniana Protects Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Chand, Hitendra S.; Lee, Jong-Soo; Lin, Yong; Weathington, Nathaniel; Mallampalli, Rama; Jeon, You-Jin; Nyunoya, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking increases the risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by irreversible expiratory airflow limitation. The pathogenesis of COPD involves oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Various natural marine compounds possess both anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but few have been tested for their efficacy in COPD models. In this study, we conducted an in vitro screening test to identify natural compounds isolated from various brown algae species that might provide protection against cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytotoxicity. Among nine selected natural compounds, apo-9′-fucoxanthinone (Apo9F) exhibited the highest protection against CSE-induced cytotoxicity in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC2). Furthermore, the protective effects of Apo9F were observed to be associated with a significant reduction in apoptotic cell death, DNA damage, and the levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from CSE-exposed HBEC2 cells. These results suggest that Apo9F protects against CSE-induced DNA damage and apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial ROS production. PMID:27455285

  17. Aged garlic extract and its components protect cultured rat hippocampal neurons from amyloid β—protein—in—duced neuronal death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ItoY; KosuY

    2002-01-01

    Aged garlic extract and its components such as S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) and sllixin have been shown to possess various biological effects including neurotrophic activity.We characterized the neuronal death induced by amyloid β-protein (Aβ),4-hydroxynoenal (HNE),tunicamycin(TM),and trophic factor-deprivation (TFD),and ivestigated whether these garlic compounds could prevent this in cultured PC12 cells and rat hippocampal neurons.Treatment with SAC protected these cells against Aβ- and TM-induced neuronal death.SAC also attenuated the processing of procaspase-12 induced by Aβ25-35 or TM.In contrast,allixin and its analogue,DHP,afforded no protection against Aβ-induced cell death.SAC afforded no protection against HNE- and TFD-induced cell death,which has been shown to be mediated by caspase-3 dependent pathway.These results suggest that SAC protect against the neuronal cell death that is triggered by ER dysfunction.

  18. Protective effect of peach kernel extracts on radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood lymphocytes in the comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the comet assay, has been applied to the detection of DNA damage from a number of chemical and biological factors in vivo and in vitro. The comet assay is a novel method to assess DNA single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites in individual cells. We evaluated the effect of peach kernel extracts on radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood lymphocytes using the comet assay. The lymphocytes, with or without pretreatment of the extracts, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy of 60Co gamma ray. Significantly increased tail moment, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in the comet assay, showed an excellent dose-response relationship. The treatment of the peach kernel extracts prominently reduced the DNA damage in irradiated groups compared to that in non-treated control groups. The result indicated that the extracts showed radioprotective effect on lymphocyte DNA when assessed by the comet assay

  19. Evaluation of immunity and protection induced in experimental models by soluble extract of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites irradiated by 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxoplasmosis affects 1/3 of the human population and only a vaccine for veterinary use. Gamma radiation alters the proteins making them more immunogenic by oxidation and better antigen presentation in the absence of adjuvants. Radiate soluble extract of RH strain tachyzoites of T. gondii (AgTg), and evaluate its use as a vaccine in BALB/c. Doses below 500Gy not affected and destroyed 2000Gy doses above extract, whereas animals immunized with irradiated extract at 1000, 1500 and 2000Gy had more of specific IgG avidity , compared to native AgTg (p<0,05) . AgTg 1500GY the immunized animals had increased proliferation of splenocytes, phenotyped as CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and B-lymphocytes immunized animals compared to the native AgTg . Animals immunized by AgTg 1500GY after challenge with strain ME- 49 cystogenic showed lower number of brain cysts and greater survival after challenge with virulent RH. Ionizing radiation in extracts of T. gondii increases the immune response and immune memory in the absence of adjuvants. (author)

  20. Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Leaves Extract on Immobilization Stress Induced Changes in Rat’s Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kashif Zaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prophylactic or curative antioxidant efficacy of crude extract and the active constituent of S. nigrum leaves were evaluated in modulating inherent antioxidant system altered due to immobilization stress in rat brain tissues, in terms of measurement of glutathione (GSH, lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and free radical scavenging enzymes activities. Rats were treated with single dose of crude extract of S. nigrum prior to and after 6 h of immobilization stress exposure. Exposure to immobilization stress resulted in a decrease in the brain levels of glutathione, SOD, GST, and catalase, with an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels. Treatment of S. nigrum extract and its active constituents to both pre- and poststressed rats resulted in significant modulation in the above mentioned parameters towards their control values with a relative dominance by the latter. Brain is vulnerable to stress induced prooxidant insult due to high levels of fat content. Thus, as a safe herbal medication the S. nigrum leaves extract or its isolated constituents can be used as nutritional supplement for scavenging free radicals generated in the brain due to physical or psychological stress or any neuronal diseases per se.

  1. Rosmarinic Acid-Rich Extracts of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L. Protect Jurkat T Cells against Oxidative Stress

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    Irakli Chkhikvishvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L., Lamiaceae is used in several regions of the world as a spice and folk medicine. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of S. hortensis and of its rosmarinic acid-rich phenolic fraction have been demonstrated in animal trials. However, previous studies of rosmarinic acid in cell models have yielded controversial results. In this study, we investigated the effects of summer savory extracts on H2O2-challenged human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T cells. LC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of rosmarinic acid and flavonoids such as hesperidin and naringin in the phenolic fraction. Adding 25 or 50 µM of H2O2 to the cell culture caused oxidative stress, manifested as generation of superoxide and peroxyl radicals, reduced cell viability, G0/G1 arrest, and enhanced apoptosis. This stress was significantly alleviated by the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of S. hortensis and by the partially purified rosmarinic acid fraction. The application of an aqueous S. hortensis extract doubled the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the cells. The production of IL-2 and IL-10 interleukins was stimulated by H2O2 and was further enhanced by the addition of the S. hortensis extract or rosmarinic acid fraction. The H2O2-challenged Jurkat cells may serve as a model for investigating cellular mechanisms of cytoprotective phytonutrient effects.

  2. Protection against LPS-induced cartilage inflammation and degradation provided by a biological extract of Mentha spicata

    OpenAIRE

    Kott Laima S; Fletcher Ronald S; Pearson Wendy; Hurtig Mark B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A variety of mint [Mentha spicata] has been bred which over-expresses Rosmarinic acid (RA) by approximately 20-fold. RA has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in small rodents; thus it was hypothesized that this plant would demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The objectives of this study were: a) to develop an in vitro extraction procedure which mimics digestion and hepatic metabolism, b) to compare anti-inflammatory p...

  3. Protective effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract-EGb 761 on STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Arminder Singh; Taliyan, Rajeev; Sharma, Pyare Lal

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder which leads to development of various long-term complications including cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress due to hyperglycemia plays a key role in the development and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Oxidative stress causes the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) eventually leading to myocardium dysfunction. The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) has antioxidant and mitochondrial membrane potential stabili...

  4. Nardostachys jatamansi extract protects against cytokine-induced β-cell damage and streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi-Young; Song; Ui-Jin; Bae; Bong-Hee; Lee; Kang-Beom; Kwon; Eun-A; Seo; Sung-Joo; Park; Min-Sun; Kim; Ho-Joon; Song; Keun-Sang; Kwon; Jin-Woo; Park; Do-Gon; Ryu; Byung-Hyun; Park

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-diabetogenic mechanism of Nardostachys jatamansi extract (NJE). METHODS: Mice were injected with streptozotocin viaa tail vein to induce diabetes. Rat insulinoma RINm5F cells and isolated rat islets were treated with interleukin1β and interferon-γ to induce cytotoxicity. RESULTS: Treatment of mice with streptozotocin resulted in hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, which was conf irmed by immunohistochemical staining of the islets. The diabetogenic effects of streptozotocin were c...

  5. Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Benazir Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generation in vivo exert gastro-toxic side effects on piroxicam treatment. Leaves of curry plant are rich in antioxidants with prolific free radical scavenging activities. This led us to investigate the efficiency of the use of curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. Piroxicam was orally (30 mg per kg body weight administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous extract of curry or Murraya koenigii leaves (Cu LE prior to piroxicam administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, mucin content and nature, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histomorphology of gastric tissues were studied. Piroxicam treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, curry leaf extract pre-treated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Hence, the protective action of the antioxidant rich Cu LE was investigated to propose a new combination therapy or dietary management to arthritic patients using piroxicam.

  6. Antioxidant and cardio protective effect of palm oil leaves extract (standardized ethanolic fraction) in rats' model of saturated fats induced metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Zaid O; Satar, Munnavar; Abdullah, Nor A; Rathore, Hassaan; Tan, Young Chia; Uldin, Faiz; Basri, Rusliza; Abdullah, Mohammad H; John, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is suggested to use POLE (palm oil leaf extract) as a nutraceutical health product in food industry due to its newly discovered content of polyphenols and antioxidant vitamins. In the experiment, the antioxidant and anti-lipid-peroxidation activities of the extract were confirmed using; DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radical scavenging activity, ferric ion induced lipid peroxidation inhibition, reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity assays. The cardio-protective activity was studied in vivo using a model of metabolic syndrome induced by high fat diet. Lipid profile, obesity indices, renal tubular handling of water and electrolytes, blood pressure and arterial stiffness were measured at the end of the treatment period. Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into six groups, viz; group C; was treated as a negative control and fed with standard rodents chow, group H; was treated as a positive control and fed with an experimental diet enriched with saturated free fatty acids for 8 weeks, groups HP0.5, HP1 and HP2 which were fed with 0.5,1 and 2 g/kg (body weight) /day of POLE orally during the last 24 days of the high fat diet feeding period and group P; fed with highest dose of POLE. Results revealed that POLE possesses a cardio-protective effect which is ascribed to its content of polyphenols. PMID:24374430

  7. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders. PMID:26742324

  8. Extraction and Identification of Ginsenoside Re and Its Effects and Mechanism of Protecting Acute Renal Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xin-quan; CHEN Yan-ping; HU Ting-ting; LU Xiu-hua; LI Xi-qian1; DU Xiao-hui; CAO Xia; WANG Wei-hua; XU Zhong-gao

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the extraction and identification of ginsenoside Re from ginseng fruits and investigates the effect and mechanism of ginsenoside Re of protecting acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.Having been smashed,the ginseng fruits were ultrasonically extracted twice with 95% ethanol for 30 min each.Having been concentrated,the solution was dissolved with distilled water and separated by two-column chromatography,of which one was packed with macroporous resin D4020,and the other was packed with macroporous resin D941.The raw product was dissolved with methanol and was purified by elution on a Si gel column,finally ginsenoside Re was obtained.The structure of the ginsenoside Re was analyzed by the thin-layer chromatography and NMR methods,and HPLC was carried for the content determination.The model of acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats was established after ischemia for 1 h and reperfusion for 1 h or 24 h,serum SOD(superoxide dismutase),MDA(malondialdehyde) and plasma TXB2(thromboxane B2) and 6-keto-PGFlα were detected.The results show that it has accurately,fast,convenient merits and so on.Ginsenoside Re has a protective effect on acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats,the mechanism may be related to improving the imbalance of thromboxane A2(TXA2)/prostacyclin(PG12) and inhibiting lipid peroxidation reaction.

  9. Physical chemistry evaluation of stability, spreadability, in vitro antioxidant, and photo-protective capacities of topical formulations containing Calendula officinalis L. leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cecília Kessler Nunes Deuschle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Calendula is used widely in cosmetic formulations that present phenolic compounds in their chemical constitution. The objective of our research was to develop and evaluate the stability of topical formulations containing 5% hydro-ethanolic extract of calendula leaves, including spreadability, and in vitro photo-protective, and antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the stability, we used organoleptic characteristics, pH, and viscosity parameters. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, and the photo-protective capacity by SPF spectrophotometric measure. All formulations were stable. The calendula extract formulations in gel and cream showed no significant variations in pH, and the cream formulations presented lower viscosity variations than gel formulations. The spreadability of the gel formulations was superior to those in cream. The formulations also presented good antioxidant capacities and an FPS of around 1.75. In accordance with the results, the formulations can be used as antioxidants, but considering the low SPF obtained, calendula cannot be considered as a stand-alone sunscreen, yet may well be tested in future studies towards verifying enhancement of synthetic sunscreens.

  10. Protective effect of gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on high fat diet-induced obese diabetic wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate, serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose, cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na + /K + ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o. for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na + /K + ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ′s weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. The Aqueous Extract of Rhizome of Gastrodia elata Protected Drosophila and PC12 Cells against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fai Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the rhizome of Gastrodia elata (GE aqueous extract on beta-amyloid(Aβ-induced toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic Drosophila mutants with Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in pan-neuron and ommatidia were used to determine the efficacy of GE. The antiapoptotic and antioxidative mechanisms of GE were also studied in Aβ-treated pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that GE (5 mg/g Drosophila media-treated Drosophila possessed a longer lifespan, better locomotor function, and less-degenerated ommatidia when compared with the Aβ-expressing control (all P<0.05. In vitro studies illustrated that GE increased the cell viability of Aβ-treated PC12 cells in dose-dependent manner, probably through attenuation of Aβ-induced oxidative and apoptotic stress. GE also significantly upregulated the enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, leading to the decrease of reactive oxidation species production and apoptotic marker caspase-3 activity. In conclusion, our current data presented the first evidence that the aqueous extract of GE was capable of reducing the Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, possibly through inhibition of apoptosis and reduction of oxidative stress. GE aqueous extract could be developed as a promising herbal agent for neuroprotection and novel adjuvant therapies for Alzheimer’s disease.

  12. Protective effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod on immune function injury induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihui; Cheng, Yanxiang; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure (50Hz, 8mT, 28 days) and their protective mechanism against radiation damage. The results showed that LSPCs increased the organ index of mice and made the damaged blood-producing function and cytokine(INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in spleen) levels by ELF-EMF-irradiation recovered to normal appearance. And experimental results proved that dosing LSPCs inhibit more stagnation of splenocytes in G0/G1 phase caused by ELF-EMF, thus the spleen cells from G0/G1 phase to S phase shift, restore normal cell metabolism, promote the splenocytes proliferation, reduced the apoptosis of spleen cells, effective protect the damage induced by the ELF-EMF radiation. In addition, LSPCs prevented the decline of DNA content caused by ELF-EMF. Western blot determinated the levels of apoptosis genes including Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-cl, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. The results revealed that a significant suppression in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in splenic cells in ELF-EMF group. However, LSPCs restored these changes. Taking these results together, it may be summarized that LSPCs could protect hematopoietic tissues and the immune system from ELF-EMF. And it may be hypothesized that ELF-EMF-induced apoptosis in splenocytes might occur via triggers the trans-activation of Bax and activates caspases-3 and -9, which then cleaves the death substrates, leading to apoptosis in splenocytes of mice treated with ELF-EMF. PMID:27470374

  13. Protective effect of Viola tricolor and Viola odorata extracts on serum/glucose deprivation-induced neurotoxicity: role of reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Naghizade, Behnaz; Pourgonabadi, Solmaz; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Previous studies indicated that Viola tricolor and Viola odorata are rich sources of antioxidants. This study aimed to determine whether these plants protect neurons against serum/glucose deprivation (SGD)-induced cell death in an in vitro model of ischemia and neurodegeneration. Methods and Material: The PC12 neuronal cells were pretreated for 4 hr with 1 to 50 µg/ml of V. odorata or V. tricolor hydroalcoholic extracts followed by 24 hr incubation under SGD condition. Cell viability was evaluated by 4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was quantitated by flow cytometry using 2',7'- dichlorofluorescin diacetate as a probe. Results: SGD condition led to significant decrease in cell viability (p<0.001). Pretreatment with both V. tricolor and V. odorata extracts reduced the SGD-induced cytotoxicity. SGD resulted in a significant increase in intracellular ROS production (p<0.001). Both extracts at concentrations of 25 and 50 µg/ml could reverse the increased ROS production (p<0.05). Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that V. tricolor and V. odorata protect neuronal cells against SGD-induced cell death, at least in part, by their antioxidant activities. Further studies on the possible application of these plants in prevention or treatment of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases seem to be warranted.

  14. The protective effect of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2 against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2 against red blood cell (RBC membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 rats each: control group (N, roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-feeding with aqueous extracts of roselle (100 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the malondialdehyde levels of the red blood cell membranes in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the levels in the roselle-treated control and roselle-treated diabetic groups. The protein carbonyl level was significantly higher in the roselle-treated diabetic group than in the roselle-treated control group but lower than that in the diabetic group. A significant increase in the red blood cell membrane superoxide dismutase enzyme was found in roselle-treated diabetic rats compared with roselle-treated control rats and diabetic rats. The total protein level of the red blood cell membrane, osmotic fragility, and red blood cell morphology were maintained. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of roselle possess a protective effect against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These data suggest that roselle can be used as a natural antioxidative supplement in the prevention of oxidative damage in diabetic patients.

  15. Antioxidant effects of crude extracts from Baccharis species: inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity, protection against lipid peroxidation, and action as oxidative species scavenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago O. Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show a comparison of the antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Baccharis spicata (Lam. Baill. and Baccharis usterii Heering, Asteraceae, by several techniques covering a range of oxidant species and of biotargets. We have investigated the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical, action against lipid peroxidation of membranes including rat liver microsomes and soy bean phosphatidylcholine liposomes by ascorbyl radical and peroxynitrite. Hydroxyl radical scavenger activity was measured monitoring the deoxyribose oxidation. The hypochlorous acid scavenger activity was also evaluated by the prevention of protein carbonylation and finally the myeloperoxidase (MPO activity inhibition. The results obtained suggest that the Baccharis extracts studied present a significant antioxidant activity scavenging free radicals and protecting biomolecules from the oxidation. We can suggest that the supposed therapeutic efficacy of this plant could be due, in part, to these properties.

  16. The protective effect of Borago Officinalis extract on amyloid β (25-35)-induced long term potentiation disruption in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins with impairment in synaptic functions before developing into later neurodegeneration and neural loss. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago Officinalis (borage) extract on amyloid β (Aβ)--Induced long term potentiation (LTP) disruption in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the Aβ (25-35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). LTP in perforant path- DG synapses was assessed using electrophysiology method and field excitatory post- synaptic potential (fEPSP) slope and population spike (PS) amplitude were measured by 400 Hz tetanization. Finally, the total thiol content of hippocampus was measured using colorimetric reaction based on the Ellman's method. The results showed that Aβ (25-35) significantly decreased fEPSP slope and SP amplitude comparing with the control and sham group, whereas borage extract administration increased these parameters compared to the Aβ group. Aβ induced a remarkable decrease in total thiol content of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal total sulfhydryl (SH) groups. This data suggest that Aβ (25-35) can effectively inhibit LTP in the granular cells of the DG in hippocampus, and borage supplementation reverse the synaptic plasticity in DG following Aβ treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25060965

  17. Histological, Scanning And Transmission Electron Microscopic Studies On The Possible Protective Role Of Ginger Extract Against AcrylamideInduced Intestinal Damage In Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Galal El-Tantawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of ginger Zingeber officinale extract (ZOE against the acrylamide (AC which is an industrial chemical used in water treatment and it is synthesized during cooking of starch food at high temperature. Method: Thirty adult male albino mice, each weighs 20-25 g were divided into three groups (10 mice/group: (Icontrol group. (IIacrylamide treated group. (III acrylamide & ginger group. Acrylamide was given to experimental animals in the drinking water at a non-lethal dose of 200 p.p.m for 10 weeks (3 days/week. Ginger extract was orally administrated at 50 mg/L (~5 ml/day for 10 weeks (3 days/week. The ileum samples were collected for light microscope study and for scanning and transmission electron microscope examination. Results: This study revealed that acrylamide induces pathological changes of the ileum of the treated mice specially the absorptive epithelial cells. The scanning electron microscopic study revealed damage of the ileal villi, some red blood corpuscles appeared at the site of damage. The transmission electron microscopic examination clearly demonstrated degeneration of most cell organelles as mitochondria, deterioration and degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, dilatation of Golgi apparatus. Conclusion: The administration of ginger extract decreased the histological alterations and ensuring the anti-inflammatory, and antitoxic effects of ZOE at its chosen dosage level

  18. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PROPOLIS ON GAMMA- IRRADIATED NIGELLA SATIVA EXTRACT INDUCED BLOOD AND IMMUNE CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moseilhy Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted to test the effect of Nigella Sativa (NS, 5 mg kg-1 of body weight, or γ-irradiated Nigella Sativa (GRNS on the changes of blood component profiles, liver, kidney functions and immune cytokines secretion in male Wistar rats. Moreover, the possible protection by propolis (200 mg kg-1 B. W. on the changes induced by NS and GRNS was examined. Results revealed that both NS and GRNS administration for two weeks induced changes in blood, GPT, GOT and urea levels and co-administration with propolis significantly ameliorated such changes. Also, liver histology showed numerous vacuolar degeneration and fatty changes in γ-irradiated groups which disappeared in presence of propolis. Kidney histology of NS administered rats showed less lymphocytic infiltration, while GRNS groups showed desquamation in the cytoplasm of the renal tubules, hemorrhage in the renal corpuscle and lymphocytic infiltration which disappeared when propolis given together with GRNS. Finally propolis induced protective effect on the changes induced in TNF-α and IL-10 secretion by either NS or GRNS in Wistar rats. In conclusion, the findings of present study clarified the protective effect of propolis on changes induced by γ-irradiated NS on blood, liver, kidney and cytokines changes in Wistar rats.

  19. Study of protective effect of Avicennia marina hydroethanolic leaf extract on testes tissue and spermatogenesis in male rat induced with carbon tetrachloride

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    Z soleimani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The toxic chemical compounds are widelyused in the world. Carbon tetrachloride which is used in hygiene industries caused tissue disorders. Medicinal plants have protective effects in body tissues. In this study the protective effect of Avicennia marina leaf extract (MLE on spermatogenesis in male rat were induced with ccl4 investigating. Method and materials: The 42 male rats with 220-250 gr body weight were divided randomly in 6 groups(n=7: control (taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,p , sham(taking olive oil, 0.5ml/day, i,p single dose,group induced by ccl4(carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose, i,p, treated groups: (1,2 and3 by carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose and 200mg/Kg, 400mg/Kg and 800mg/kg MLE /day for 96 hrs, i,p. After the examination the blood samples were collected from heart directly and testosterone , FSH, LH , sperm count, sperm motility and GSI were analyzed and the microscopic studies of testes tissue were done. All data were expressed as mean±SEM. and statistical significance differences were accepted at P<0.05. Results: Our results showed that the carbon tetrachloride has necrotic effect in testes. The number of sperm and motility were increased and microscopic study of testes tissue showed the necrosis and inflammation with decrease in spermatogonia and spermatocytes comparedwith ccl4 induced only group significantly (P<0.001 and treated groups were no changed. Conclusion: the Avicennia marina hydroethanolic extract has antioxidant and flavonoids compounds which can protect the testes tissues from toxic chemical agents.

  20. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    of 50 ppm EDTA to samples with 6% fat was ineffective, but 750 ppm GTE (alone or in combination with EDTA) strongly reduced levels of hexanal and heptanal. Accumulation of primary lipid hydroperoxides was not affected by GTE, hence antioxidative activity was ascribed to scavenging of hexanal......The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...

  1. Protective effect of Croton caudatus Geisel leaf extract against experimental visceral leishmaniasis induces proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Somaditya; Mukherjee, Debarati; Chakraborty, Sondipon; Mallick, Suvadip; Dutta, Aritri; Ghosh, Joydip; Swapana, Ningombam; Maiti, Swatilekha; Ghorai, Narayan; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Pal, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    In the present state of overwhelming emergence of drug-unresponsive phenotypes of Leishmania donovani and persistent severe toxicity in conventional anti-leishmanial therapy, in search for novel leads, the aim of this study has been fixed to identify the active extract(s) of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook effective against the parasitic protozoans in vitro and in vivo. C. caudatus Geisel. is often used by Chakma and Hmar community, the local tribes of north-east India for medicinal and veterinary purposes. Among the five semi-purified extracts tested, C. caudatus leaves, extracted in hexane and subsequently semi-purified in a column packed with silica gel (70-130 µM; mesh size 60 A°) using ethyl acetate-hexane solvent (9:1), was found to be the most effective growth inhibitor (JDHex) against the Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes. JDHex significantly altered the biochemical parameters (protein, lipid and carbohydrates) in promastigotes followed by the morphological changes, DNA condensation and subsequent apoptosis in L. donovani. In consequent steps, it has been also proved that JDHex reduced the replication of intracellular amastigotes with concomitant release of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α in vitro. Significantly, the 50% inhibitory concentration of JDHex was estimated much lower against the intracellular amastigotes (2.5 µg/mL) in comparison to promastigotes (10 µg/mL). JDHex was also found efficient in reducing parasite burden in spleen and liver when treated in vivo and increased the intracellular IFN-γ and decreased the IL-10 in CD4+ T cells in splenocytes of orally treated animals. The results of this study support the importance in exploration of novel anti-leishmanial leads from C. caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. against the L. donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) infection. Partial chemical characterization of JDHex revealed the presence of terpenoids. However, the further chemical

  2. Protection against LPS-induced cartilage inflammation and degradation provided by a biological extract of Mentha spicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kott Laima S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of mint [Mentha spicata] has been bred which over-expresses Rosmarinic acid (RA by approximately 20-fold. RA has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in small rodents; thus it was hypothesized that this plant would demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The objectives of this study were: a to develop an in vitro extraction procedure which mimics digestion and hepatic metabolism, b to compare anti-inflammatory properties of High-Rosmarinic-Acid Mentha spicata (HRAM with wild-type control M. spicata (CM, and c to quantify the relative contributions of RA and three of its hepatic metabolites [ferulic acid (FA, caffeic acid (CA, coumaric acid (CO] to anti-inflammatory activity of HRAM. Methods HRAM and CM were incubated in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, liver microsomes (from male rat and NADPH. Concentrations of RA, CA, CO, and FA in simulated digest of HRAM (HRAMsim and CM (CMsim were determined (HPLC and compared with concentrations in aqueous extracts of HRAM and CM. Cartilage explants (porcine were cultured with LPS (0 or 3 μg/mL and test article [HRAMsim (0, 8, 40, 80, 240, or 400 μg/mL, or CMsim (0, 1, 5 or 10 mg/mL, or RA (0.640 μg/mL, or CA (0.384 μg/mL, or CO (0.057 μg/mL or FA (0.038 μg/mL] for 96 h. Media samples were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin 1β (IL-1, glycosaminoglycan (GAG, nitric oxide (NO and cell viability (differential live-dead cell staining. Results RA concentration of HRAMsim and CMsim was 49.3 and 0.4 μg/mL, respectively. CA, FA and CO were identified in HRAMsim but not in aqueous extract of HRAM. HRAMsim (≥ 8 μg/mL inhibited LPS-induced PGE2 and NO; HRAMsim (≥ 80 μg/mL inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. RA inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. No anti-inflammatory or chondroprotective effects of RA metabolites on cartilage explants were identified. Conclusions Our biological extraction procedure produces

  3. Protective effect of Croton caudatus Geisel leaf extract against experimental visceral leishmaniasis induces proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Somaditya; Mukherjee, Debarati; Chakraborty, Sondipon; Mallick, Suvadip; Dutta, Aritri; Ghosh, Joydip; Swapana, Ningombam; Maiti, Swatilekha; Ghorai, Narayan; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Pal, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    In the present state of overwhelming emergence of drug-unresponsive phenotypes of Leishmania donovani and persistent severe toxicity in conventional anti-leishmanial therapy, in search for novel leads, the aim of this study has been fixed to identify the active extract(s) of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook effective against the parasitic protozoans in vitro and in vivo. C. caudatus Geisel. is often used by Chakma and Hmar community, the local tribes of north-east India for medicinal and veterinary purposes. Among the five semi-purified extracts tested, C. caudatus leaves, extracted in hexane and subsequently semi-purified in a column packed with silica gel (70-130 µM; mesh size 60 A°) using ethyl acetate-hexane solvent (9:1), was found to be the most effective growth inhibitor (JDHex) against the Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes. JDHex significantly altered the biochemical parameters (protein, lipid and carbohydrates) in promastigotes followed by the morphological changes, DNA condensation and subsequent apoptosis in L. donovani. In consequent steps, it has been also proved that JDHex reduced the replication of intracellular amastigotes with concomitant release of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α in vitro. Significantly, the 50% inhibitory concentration of JDHex was estimated much lower against the intracellular amastigotes (2.5 µg/mL) in comparison to promastigotes (10 µg/mL). JDHex was also found efficient in reducing parasite burden in spleen and liver when treated in vivo and increased the intracellular IFN-γ and decreased the IL-10 in CD4+ T cells in splenocytes of orally treated animals. The results of this study support the importance in exploration of novel anti-leishmanial leads from C. caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. against the L. donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) infection. Partial chemical characterization of JDHex revealed the presence of terpenoids. However, the further chemical

  4. Protective Effect of Pinus koraiensis Needle Water Extract Against Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells and Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Sae Bom; Jung, Ga-young; Kim, Juhae; Chung, Young Shin; Hong, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Young Hye

    2013-01-01

    Needles of pine species are rich in polyphenols, which may exert beneficial effects on human health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of Pinus koraiensis needle water extracts (PKW). HepG2 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of PKW (from 10−3 to 1 mg/mL) and oxidative stress was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). In the animal model, male ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity, and then m...

  5. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Daleya Abdulaziz Bardi; Mohammed Farouq Halabi; Nor Azizan Abdullah; Elham Rouhollahi; Maryam Hajrezaie; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhos...

  6. Protective effect of the whole plant extract ofEvolvulus alsinoides on glycoprotein alterations in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraisamy Gomathi; Ganesan Ravikumar; Manokaran Kalaiselvi; Kanakasabapathi Devaki; Chandrasekar Uma

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To assess the effect ofEvolvulus alsinoides(E. alsinoides) on glycoprotein levels in liver, kidney and pancreas of control and diabetes induced rats.Methods:Wistar albino rats were used for the present study.The diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at45 mg/kg body weight.After the induction of diabetes the rats were treated with glibenclamiede andE. alsinoides for45 d.At the end of the experimental period the glycoprotein levels were estimated by using standard protocols.Results:Significantly higher levels of glycoproteins were observed in the tissues of diabetic rats when compared with the control rats. After treated with ethanolic extract ofE. alsinoides and standard drug resulted in the reduction of glycoproteins when compared with the diabetic control rats.Conclusion:The present study proved that that ethanolic extract ofE. alsinoides owned a beneficial effect on glycoprotein components.Hence, it can be used in the prevention of glycoprotein medicated complications in diabetes mellitus.

  7. Supported liquid membrane-protected molecularly imprinted beads for the solid phase micro-extraction of triazines from environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, E; Díaz-Álvarez, M; Martín-Esteban, A

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a novel methodology based on the combination of MIP technology with micro solid-phase extraction in a hollow fibre device for the trace enrichment and cleanup of triazines in environmental waters is described. All parameters affecting both migration of triazines from samples to the lumen of the fibre and rebinding into MIP sites have been carefully optimized. Final conditions included, addition of 20% NaCl to the sample to produce salting-out effect, extraction of analytes during 45min with orbital stirring at 750rpm, and then washing the fibre with toluene during 5min to allow selective recognition of triazines before elution in HPLC inserts containing 450μL of a methanol/acetic acid mixture (95/5, v/v). Under optimum conditions, quantitative recoveries for simazine, cyanazine, atrazine, propazine and terbutylazine, were achieved both in surface, ground and tap water samples, with relative standard deviations lower than 10.6%, and limits of detection in the low ngL(-1) concentration level. PMID:26777780

  8. In vivo evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes for its protective effect against liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2-5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38-60 μ g/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO. PMID:24396831

  9. Mechanisms of protection of pea plants by polysaccharides extracted from a strain of Rhizobium against Orobanche crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Broomrape causes notable damage on the leguminous crops and became major factor limiting production of pea in the Mediterranean region. The effect of the polysaccharides extracted from P.SOM Rhizobium strain on the development of Orobanche crenata on pea was studied. The results showed that the lipopolysaccharides significantly reduce the infestation of pea by O. crenata. This limitation of infestation results from the reduction of seeds germination rates of the parasite resulting in reduction of the tubercles number on pea roots. Moreover, necrosis of orobanche before or after attachment on pea roots treated by LPS can explain this reduction of parasitism. A correlation was observed between the reduction of pea infection by the broomrape and the activation phenolic compounds pathway. This activation resulted to increase of two enzymes (peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase) activities these enzymes are implicated in plant defense. The results of our study showed that the LPS seem implied in the induction of pea resistance against the broomrape.

  10. The protective effects of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract and its lignans against cardiovascular disease: a review of the molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jung Nyeo; Cho, Minsoo; So, Insuk; Jeon, Ju-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SCE) has traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Advances in scientific knowledge and analytical technologies provide opportunities for translational research involving S. chinensis; such research may contribute to future drug discovery. To date, emerging experimental evidence supports the therapeutic effects of the SCE or its bioactive lignan ingredients in cardiovascular disease, unraveling the mechanistic basis for their pharmacological actions. In the present review, we highlight SCE and its lignans as promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against cardiovascular disease. Moreover, we offer novel insight into future challenges and perspective on S. chinensis research to future clinical investigations and healthcare strategies.

  11. The Protective Efficacy Of Extract Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Karkade) Calyces Against Alcohol Toxicity In Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), Malvacea family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its benefit effect on some physiological parameters as blood picture, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions, electrolytes and antioxidant capacity is mentioned in several recent studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in protecting from alcohol toxicity in rats. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 received water orally for 30 days, group 2 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) for 30 days, both group 3 and group 4 received Hibiscus sabdariffa (100 mg/kg/day) orally for 30 days and then group 4 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) orally for another 30 days. Serum hepatic markers (aspartate and alanine minotransferases; AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were increased significantly by alcohol abuse with no observed improvement in treatment with HS. Significant reduction in total protein and albumin was observed in alcohol abuse which improved with HS treatment and showed significant increase as compared with both control and alcohol treated groups. Serum kidney markers (urea, creatinine and uric acid) were increased in alcohol abuse and only creatinine and uric acid nearly returned to normal levels with HS treatment while urea level remains high. Serum glucose was increased significantly in alcohol abuse and significantly decreased in group 3 (HS treated) and group 4 (HS + ethanol). Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index were increased significantly while HDL-C was significantly reduced in alcohol abuse. HS treatment resulted in significant increase in HDL-C and therefore decreased atherogenic index in both group 3 and group 4 which indicated protective effect of HS for coronary heart diseases. These results lead to the

  12. Protective role of Tinospora cordifolia extract against radiation-induced qualitative, quantitative and biochemical alterations in testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In today's changing global scenario, ionizing radiation is considered as most potent cause of oxidative stress mediated by free radical flux which induces severe damage at various hierarchical levels in the organization in the living organisms. Testis is a highly prolific tissue with fast cellular renewal and poor antioxidant defense; therefore it becomes an easy target for the radiation-induced free radicals that have long been suggested as major cause of male infertility. Chemical radioprotection is an important strategy to countermeasure the deleterious effects of radiation. Several Indian medicinal plants are rich source of antioxidants and these have been used for the treatment of ailments. Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as amrita, is one of the plants that have several pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the deleterious effects of semi lethal dose of gamma radiation on testicular tissue and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCE). For this purpose, healthy Swiss albino male mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) was administered double distilled water (DDW) volume equal to TCE (75 mg/kg.b.wt/animal) by oral gavage. Group II was orally supplemented TCE as 75 mg/kg. b.wt once daily for 5 consecutive days. Group III (irradiated control) received DDW orally equivalent to TCE for 5 days then exposed to 5 Gy gamma radiation. Group IV (experimental) was administered TCE as in Group II and exposed to radiation (as in Group III). Irradiation resulted into significant decrease in the frequency of different spermatogenic cell counts along with severe histo-pathological lesions up to 7th day of irradiation in testes of irradiated control animals, thereafter, recovery followed towards the normal architecture. TCE pretreatment effectively prevented radiation induced such alterations in cellular counts and testicular injuries by

  13. Protective Effect of a (Poly)phenol-Rich Extract Derived from Sweet Cherries Culls against Oxidative Cell Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Ana A; Rosado-Ramos, Rita; Nunes, Sara L; Figueira, Inês; Serra, Ana Teresa; Bronze, Maria R; Santos, Claúdia N; Duarte, Catarina M M

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key phenomena behind the most common types of chronic diseases. Therefore, the modulation of oxidative stress is an interesting target for acting either through prevention or as a therapeutic approach. In this work, a Portuguese variety of cherry (Saco Cherry) was processed in order to obtain a potent in vitro antioxidant phenolic-rich extract (Ch-PRE), which was further explored to evaluate its potential application as nutraceutical agent against cellular oxidative stress damage. Ch-PRE was mainly composed of anthocyanins, particularly cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and neochlorogenic acid, and exhibited a potent chemical antioxidant activity expressed by its oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) values. Ch-PRE also displayed effective intracellular radical scavenging properties in intestinal epithelial and neuronal cells challenged with oxidative stress but showed a different order of effectiveness regarding the modulation of endogenous antioxidant system. Ch-PRE could be an attractive candidate to formulate an agent for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced disorders such as intestinal inflammation disorders or with an appropriated delivery system for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27023500

  14. Oral supplementation of standardized extract of Withania somnifera protects against diabetes-induced testicular oxidative impairments in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara Nagaraj; Manjunath, Mallayya Jayawanth; Muralidhara

    2014-09-01

    Male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility are the common consequences of overt diabetes. Available evidence support oxidative stress to be the underlying mechanism for the manifestation of testicular complications during diabetes. In the present study, we assessed the attenuating effects of Withania somnifera root extract (WS) on diabetes-induced testicular oxidative disturbances in prepubertal rats. Four-week-old prepubertal rats were assigned into nondiabetic control, streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and STZ+WS supplemented (500 mg/kg b.w./d, oral, 15 days) groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (90 mg/kg b.w). Terminally, all animals were killed, and markers of oxidative stress were determined in the testis cytosol and mitochondrial fraction. Severe hyperglycemia and regression in testis size were apparent in diabetic rats. A decline in antioxidant defenses with subsequent elevation in the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was discernible in testis cytosol and mitochondria of diabetic prepubertal rats, which was significantly reversed by WS. However, there was partial restoration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in testis of diabetic prepubertal rats administered with WS. Taken together, data accrued suggest the potential of WS to improve diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in prepubertal rats. PMID:24488064

  15. Oral supplementation of standardized extract of Withania somnifera protects against diabetes-induced testicular oxidative impairments in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara Nagaraj; Manjunath, Mallayya Jayawanth; Muralidhara

    2014-09-01

    Male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility are the common consequences of overt diabetes. Available evidence support oxidative stress to be the underlying mechanism for the manifestation of testicular complications during diabetes. In the present study, we assessed the attenuating effects of Withania somnifera root extract (WS) on diabetes-induced testicular oxidative disturbances in prepubertal rats. Four-week-old prepubertal rats were assigned into nondiabetic control, streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and STZ+WS supplemented (500 mg/kg b.w./d, oral, 15 days) groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (90 mg/kg b.w). Terminally, all animals were killed, and markers of oxidative stress were determined in the testis cytosol and mitochondrial fraction. Severe hyperglycemia and regression in testis size were apparent in diabetic rats. A decline in antioxidant defenses with subsequent elevation in the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was discernible in testis cytosol and mitochondria of diabetic prepubertal rats, which was significantly reversed by WS. However, there was partial restoration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in testis of diabetic prepubertal rats administered with WS. Taken together, data accrued suggest the potential of WS to improve diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in prepubertal rats.

  16. Protective Effects of Borago officinalis Extract on Amyloid β-Peptide(25–35-Induced Memory Impairment in Male Rats: A Behavioral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghahremanitamadon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder and most common form of dementia that leads to memory impairment. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago officinalis (borage extract on Amyloid β (Aβ-Induced memory impairment. Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP injection of the Aβ(25–35 and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg. Learning and memory functions in the rats were examined by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze (MWM tasks. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of hippocampus was measured using ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. The results showed that Aβ(25–35 impaired step-through latency and time in dark compartment in passive avoidance task. In the MWM, Aβ(25–35 significantly increased escape latency and traveled distance. Borage administration attenuated the Aβ-induced memory impairment in both the passive avoidance and the MWM tasks. Aβ induced a remarkable decrease in antioxidant power (FRAP value of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal antioxidant status. This data suggests that borage could improve the learning impairment and oxidative damage in the hippocampal tissue following Aβ treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction.

  17. Protective Effects of Borago officinalis Extract on Amyloid β-Peptide(25–35)-Induced Memory Impairment in Male Rats: A Behavioral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and most common form of dementia that leads to memory impairment. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago officinalis (borage) extract on Amyloid β (Aβ)-Induced memory impairment. Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the Aβ(25–35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). Learning and memory functions in the rats were examined by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of hippocampus was measured using ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The results showed that Aβ(25–35) impaired step-through latency and time in dark compartment in passive avoidance task. In the MWM, Aβ(25–35) significantly increased escape latency and traveled distance. Borage administration attenuated the Aβ-induced memory impairment in both the passive avoidance and the MWM tasks. Aβ induced a remarkable decrease in antioxidant power (FRAP value) of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal antioxidant status. This data suggests that borage could improve the learning impairment and oxidative damage in the hippocampal tissue following Aβ treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25013802

  18. Protective effects of Borago officinalis extract on amyloid β-peptide(25-35)-induced memory impairment in male rats: a behavioral study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and most common form of dementia that leads to memory impairment. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago officinalis (borage) extract on Amyloid β (A β)-Induced memory impairment. Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the A β (25-35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). Learning and memory functions in the rats were examined by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of hippocampus was measured using ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The results showed that A β (25-35) impaired step-through latency and time in dark compartment in passive avoidance task. In the MWM, A β (25-35) significantly increased escape latency and traveled distance. Borage administration attenuated the A β-induced memory impairment in both the passive avoidance and the MWM tasks. A β induced a remarkable decrease in antioxidant power (FRAP value) of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal antioxidant status. This data suggests that borage could improve the learning impairment and oxidative damage in the hippocampal tissue following A β treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25013802

  19. Protective effects of fractions from Artemisia biennis hydro-ethanolic extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mojarrab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study was designed to indicate whether different fractions from Artemisia biennis hydroethanolic extract could provide cytoprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by doxorubicin (DOX in rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12. Material and Methods:Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Also, activation of caspase-3 and superoxide dismutase were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS and measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were performed by flowcytometry. Results:  Treatment of PC12 cells with DOX reduced viability dose dependently. For evaluation of the effect of fractions (A-G on DOX-induced cytotoxicity, PC12 cells were pretreated for 24 hr with the A. biennis fractions and then cells were treated with DOX.  The fractions C and D increased PC12 cells viability significantly compared to DOX treated cells.  Moreover, pretreatment with fractions C and D for 24 hr attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis and the anti-apoptotic action of A. biennis fractions was partially dependent on inhibition of caspase 3 activity and also increasing the  mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Selected A. biennis fractions also suppressed the generation of ROS and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Conclusion: Taken together our observation indicated that subtoxic concentration of aforementioned fractions of A. biennis hydroetanolic extract has protective effect against apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cell. The results highlighted that fractions C and D may exert cytoprotective effects through their antioxidant actions.

  20. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linjing; Wu, Hongbing; Qiu, Mingfeng; Sun, Wei; Wei, Runmin; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Yang, Yiting; Xin, Xue; Zou, Haimiao; Chen, Tianlu; Liu, Jiajian; Lu, Lina; Su, Jing; Ma, Chungwah; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang), a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine), lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol), gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid), biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine), and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH), and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). PMID:24159348

  1. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang, a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine, lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol, gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid, biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine, and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH, and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS.

  2. Dried Fruit Extract of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L) Protects Albino Rats from Adverse Effects of Whole Body gamma-Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Antioxidant effect of Sumac; Rhus coriaria L. against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in lung and liver tissues was investigated in albino rats. To achieve the ultimate goal of this study, 48 adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12 animals each. Group I: Control group. Group II: Irradiated with a single dose of 5Gy gamma-rays. Group III: Fed with sumac orally (300 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 days. Group IV: Fed sumac (300 mg/ kg body wt) for 3 days pre-irradiation and 7 days after-radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed 1 and 7 days after a single exposure to ?-rays. The animals exposed to gamma radiation recorded significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate oxide (NO) levels in both lung and liver tissues. Also the results revealed, significant decrease in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in lung and liver tissues. Moreover, a significant increase in plasma glucose accompanied with a significant decrease in insulin level was observed in irradiated rats. Administration of sumac for 10 days to rats prior and post gamma irradiation improved the tested parameters except glucose. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that sumac could increase the antioxidant defence mechanism in rat and there by protects the animals from radiation-induced organs toxicity but it may increase the blood sugar, therefore in diabetic patient be considered

  3. Protective effects of a Rhodiola crenulata extract and salidroside on hippocampal neurogenesis against streptozotocin-induced neural injury in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-qiang Qu

    Full Text Available Previously we have demonstrated that a Rhodiola crenulata extract (RCE, containing a potent antioxidant salidroside, promotes neurogenesis in the hippocampus of depressive rats. The current study was designed to further investigate the protective effect of the RCE on neurogenesis in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ, and to determine whether this neuroprotective effect is induced by the antioxidative activity of salidroside. Our results showed that pretreatment with the RCE significantly improved the impaired neurogenesis and simultaneously reduced the oxidative stress in the hippocampus of AD rats. In vitro studies revealed that (1 exposure of neural stem cells (NSCs from the hippocampus to STZ strikingly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, induced cell death and perturbed cell proliferation and differentiation, (2 hydrogen peroxide induced similar cellular activities as STZ, (3 pre-incubation of STZ-treated NSCs with catalase, an antioxidant, suppressed all these cellular activities induced by STZ, and (4 likewise, pre-incubation of STZ-treated NSCs with salidroside, also an antioxidant, suppressed all these activities as catalase: reduction of ROS levels and NSC death with simultaneous increases in proliferation and differentiation. Our findings indicated that the RCE improved the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in the rat model of AD through protecting NSCs by its main ingredient salidroside which scavenged intracellular ROS.

  4. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone protects mice from diet-induced obesity and modulates adipokines expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Mathé, Véronique; Lafont, René; Even, Patrick; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2012-02-01

    Besides their well-known effect in the molting control in insects, ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that display potential pharmacologic and metabolic properties in mammals. The most common ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is found in many plants such as quinoa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of quinoa extract (Q) enriched in 20E supplementation to prevent the onset of diet-induced obesity and to regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes in mice. Mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by 20E-enriched Q or pure 20E for 3 weeks. Supplementation with Q reduced adipose tissue development in HF mice without modification of their body weight gain. This adipose tissue-specific effect was mainly associated with a reduced adipocyte size and a decrease in the expression of several genes involved in lipid storage, including lipoprotein lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, Q-treated mice exhibited marked attenuation of mRNA levels of several inflammation markers (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, CD68) and insulin resistance (osteopontin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) as compared to HF mice. Q supplementation also reversed the effects of HF-induced downregulation of the uncoupling protein(s) (UCP(s)) mRNA levels in muscle. Similar results were obtained in mice fed a HF diet supplemented with similar amounts of pure 20E, suggesting that the latter accounted for most of the Q effects. Our study indicates that Q has an antiobesity activity in vivo and could be used as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders.

  5. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Stephen O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-25

    Extracts from various morphological parts of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) are widely used medicinally in many parts of the world for the management, control and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of A. muricata leaf aqueous extract (AME) in rat experimental paradigms of DM. The animals used were broadly divided into four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as 'control' animals and received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the administered volumes of AME and reference drugs' solutions intraperitoneally. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Groups B and C rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg kg(-1)). Group C rats were additionally treated with AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.) as from day 3 post STZ injection, for four consecutive weeks. Group D rats received AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) only for four weeks. Post-euthanization, hepatic tissues were excised and processed biochemically for antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles, such as catalase (CAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively. Treatment of Groups B and C rats with STZ (70 mg kg(-1) i. p.) resulted in hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, and increased TBARS, ROS, TC, TG and LDL levels. STZ treatment also significantly decreased (p<0.05) CAT, GSH, SOD, GSH-Px activities, and HDL levels. AME-treated Groups C and D rats showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in elevated blood glucose, ROS, TBARS, TC, TG and LDL. Furthermore, AME treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) antioxidant enzymes' activities, as well as serum insulin levels. The findings of this laboratory animal study

  6. In Vitro Ion Chelating, Antioxidative Mechanism of Extracts from Fruits and Barks of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Their Protective Effects against Fenton Mediated Toxicity of Metal Ions on Liver Homogenates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moukette Moukette

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and protective potential of T. tetraptera extracts against ion toxicity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was investigated spectrophotometrically against several radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•, hydroxyl radical (HO•, and nitric oxide (NO•, followed by the ferric reducing power, total phenols, flavonoid, and flavonol contents. The effects of the extracts on catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and peroxidase activities were also determined using the standard methods as well as the polyphenol profile using HPLC. The results showed that the hydroethanolic extract of T. tetraptera (CFH has the lowest IC50 value with the DPPH, ABTS, OH, and NO radicals. The same extract also exhibited the significantly higher level of total phenols (37.24 ± 2.00 CAE/g dried extract; flavonoids (11.36 ± 1.88 QE/g dried extract; and flavonols contents (3.95 ± 0.39 QE/g dried extract. The HPLC profile of T. tetraptera revealed that eugenol (958.81 ± 00 mg/g DW, quercetin (353.78 ± 00 mg/g DW, and rutin (210.54 ± 00 mg/g DW were higher in the fruit than the bark extracts. In conclusion, extracts from T. tetraptera may act as a protector against oxidative mediated ion toxicity.

  7. Protective effect of a bacterial extract against acute exacerbation in patients with chronic bronchitis accompanied by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李靖; 郑劲平; 袁锦屏; 曾广翘; 钟南山; 林材元

    2004-01-01

    Background Immunostimulating agents made from bacterial extracts represent a class of medications that contains antigens derived from several bacterial strains and their potential ability to prevent bacterial infections results from the stimulation of the nonspecific component of the immune system. The present study investigated the effect of the oral immunostimulant Broncho-Vaxom, which includes material from eight different species of bacteria that are frequently present in the lower respiratory tract, on the frequency and severity of acute exacerbation in patients with chronic bronchitis accompanied by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Ninety patients with chronic bronchitis complicated with COPD were randomly divided into groups A and B. Forty-nine subjects in group A received oral capsules containing 7mg Broncho-Vaxom, while 41 patients in group B received similar placebo capsules. Both groups took one capsule daily for the first 10 days of each month for 3 consecutive months. The frequency of acute exacerbation, symptom scores, and lung function were recorded for the following one year period.Results There was a significant decrease in the incidence, duration, and severity of acute exacerbation, as well as a reduction in the course of antibiotics administered and in the dosage of bronchodilator and mucolytic agent in group A, as compared to group B (P<0.05, respectively). Symptom scores for cough, sputum, dyspnea, as well as symptoms observed upon auscultation of the chest also improved significantly in group A as compared to group B (P<0.05, respectively). The bacterial clearance rate in sputum cultures from patients who received no antibiotics for the first 3 months was also significantly higher in group A compared to group B (P<0.01).Conclusions Orally administered Broncho-Vaxom is associated with a decrease in the incidence of acute exacerbation and a decrease in the need for antibiotics and symptomatic relief medications in patients

  8. Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite

  9. Cardio-protection by Ginkgo biloba extract 50 in rats with acute myocardial infarction is related to Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Hua; Bao, Yi-Min; Wang, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been used for medical purposes for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50) is a new standardized GBE product that matches the standardized German product as EGb761. This paper is aimed at studying the cardio-protection effects of GBE50 Salvia miltiorrhiza on myocardial function, area at risk, myocardial ultra-structure, and expression of calcium handling proteins in rat ischemic myocardium. Myocardium ischemia was induced by the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion and myocardial function was recorded by a transducer advanced into the left ventricle on a computer system. In vitro myocardial infarction was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Evans blue staining of heart sections. Morphological change was evaluated by electric microscopy and Western blotting was used for protein expression. Hemodynamic experiments in vivo showed that postischemic cardiac contractile function was reduced in ischemic rats. Salvia miltiorrhiza (7.5 g/kg/d×7) and Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50) (100 mg/kg/d×7) improved post-schemic cardiac diastolic dysfunction while not affecting the systolic function. In hearts of GBE50 group and Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) group, the area at risk was significantly reduced and myocardial structure was better-preserved. Moreover, Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchanger (NCX) expression increase and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase 2 (SERCA2), LTCC, and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) expression decreases were smaller than those in ischemia group. There was a significant difference between the GBE50 and ischemia group in NCX expression. GBE50 could improve recovery in contractile function and prevent myocardium from ischemia damage, which may be caused by attenuating the abnormal expression of NCX.

  10. 一种基于文本特征提取的版权保护方法%New Copyright Protection Method Based on Text Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷军程; 黄同成; 柳小文

    2012-01-01

    On the Internet, the illegal copying and piracy of text are becoming increasingly serious,so there is an urgent need for effective text copyright protection method. This paper proposed a new text copyright protection method based on text feature extraction and text classification techniques. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm can distinguish the different authors and can effectively classify a controversial literary works, and identify the real author. Therefore the method can assist to resolve the copyright disputes of dispute works (especially the famous works) to maintain integrity.%互联网上,文本非法复制和盗版现象日益严重,因此迫切需要有效的文本版权保护方案.借助于特征提取方法和文本分类技术,针对具有版权争议的文字作品,提出了一种基于文本特征提取的作者识别方法.实验结果表明,提出的算法能够区别出不同作者的文字作品,能有效地把一个具有争议的文字作品进行分类,并识别出作者.因此该方法可以辅助解决争议作品(特别是著名作者的争议作品)的版权纠纷,打击盗版,维护诚信.

  11. Composition of Herba Pogostemonis water extract and protection of infected mice against Salmonella Typhimurium-induced liver damage and mortality by stimulation of innate immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Moon, Eunpyo; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-12-12

    GC-MS analysis of a hot water extract of Herba Pogostemonis (HP) revealed the presence of 131 compounds. HP slightly inhibited Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria in culture and stimulated uptake of the bacteria into RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells as indicated by both increased fluorescence from internalized FITC-dextran and increased colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the lysed macrophages. Postinfection, the HP-treated cells showed lower bacterial counts than the control. HP elicited altered morphology, elevated inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophage cells. Salmonella induced increased expression of iNOS mRNA, cognate polypeptides, and NO. Histology of mice infected with a sublethal dose (1 × 10(4) CFU) of Salmonella showed that intraperitoneally administered HP protected against necrosis of the liver, a biomarker of in vivo salmonellosis. The lifespan of mice infected with a lethal dose (1 × 10(5) CFU) was significantly extended. These results suggest that the activity of HP against bacterial infection in mice occurs through the activation of innate immune macrophage cells. The relationship of composition of HP to bioactivity is discussed.

  12. Consumption of Polyphenol-Rich Zingiber Zerumbet Rhizome Extracts Protects against the Breakdown of the Blood-Retinal Barrier and Retinal Inflammation Induced by Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR by Zingiber zerumbet rhizome ethanol extracts (ZZRext in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats. ZZRext contains high phenolic and flavonoid contents. STZ-diabetic rats were treated orally with ZZRext (200, 300 mg/kg per day for three months. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB breakdown and increased vascular permeability were found in diabetic rats, with downregulation of occludin, and claudin-5. ZZRext treatment effectively preserved the expression of occludin, and claudin-5, leading to less BRB breakdown and less vascular permeability. Retinal histopathological observation showed that the disarrangement and reduction in thickness of retinal layers were reversed in ZZRext-treated diabetic rats. Retinal gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were all decreased in ZZRext-treated diabetic rats. Moreover, ZZRext treatment not only inhibited the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB activation, but also downregulated the protein expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in diabetic retina. In conclusion, the results suggest that the retinal protective effects of ZZRext occur through improved retinal structural change and inhibiting retinal inflammation. The antiretinopathy property of ZZRext might be related to the downregulation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB signal transduction induced by diabetes.

  13. Protection Efficacy of the Extract of Ginkgo biloba against the Learning and Memory Damage of Rats under Repeated High Sustained +Gz Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-En Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated high sustained positive Gz (+Gz exposures are known for the harmful pathophysiological impact on the brain of rats, which is reflected as the interruption of normal performance of learning and memory. Interestingly, extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and cognition-enhancing effects. In this study, we are interested in evaluating the protective effects of EGb toward the learning and memory abilities. Morris Water Maze Test (MWM was used to evaluate the cognitive function, and the physiological status of the key components in central cholinergic system was also investigated. Our animal behavioral tests indicated that EGb can release the learning and memory impairment caused by repeated high sustained +Gz. Administration of EGb to rats can diminish some of the harmful physiological effects caused by repeated +Gz exposures. Moreover, EGb administration can increase the biological activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px but reduce the production of malondialdehyde (MDA. Taken together, our study showed that EGb can ameliorate the impairment of learning and memory abilities of rats induced by repeated high sustained +Gz exposure; the underlying mechanisms appeared to be related to the signal regulation on the cholinergic system and antioxidant enzymes system.

  14. Protective effects of the antioxidant Ginkgo biloba extract and the protease inhibitor aprotinin against Leiurus quinquestriatus venom-induced tissue damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Fatani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and proteases have been implicated in several diseases and extensive evidence indicates that antioxidants and protease inhibitors help prevent organ functional damage. Leiurus quinquestriatus (LQQ scorpion venom causes cellular injuries that may lead to multiple organ failure. Thus, the capability of the antioxidant "natural standardized extract of Gingko biloba leaves (Gin, EGb 761" and the non-selective protease inhibitor, aprotinin, in ameliorating venom-induced biochemical alterations indicative of cellular injury and oxidative stress was studied to determine their effectiveness in protecting rats from venom-evoked cellular damages. Thus, in this study, rats were treated with LQQ venom (0.3mg.kg-1, subcutaneously alone or after Gin (150mg.kg-1, orally, daily for 2 weeks before venom and/or aprotinin (Apr, 46000 KIU.kg-1, intraperitoneally, 30 min before venom. Control groups were injected with saline or treatment modalities. Lungs and hearts were excised after decapitating rats (n=8/group 60 min after venom injection and the following activities were measured: reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA - an index of lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Our findings demonstrate that LQQ venomsignificantly elevated GSH (p<0.05 vs. control, MDA (p<0.05, G6PD (p<0.05, and LDH activities (p<0.001 in hearts of envenomed rats. The venom also elevated MDA (p<0.05 vs. control and reduced GSH and GPx (p<0.05 in the lungs of envenomed rats. In general, pretreatment with EGb761 attenuated LQQ venom-evoked increases in GSH (p<0.05 vs. venom, MDA in rat hearts and lungs (p<0.05 vs. venom, plus LDH in the heart (p<0.01. Aprotinin alone significantly reduced the venom-elicited increase in G6PD and LDH activities and the decrease in GPx levels (p<0.05. In general, these protective effects of EGb761 on GSH, MDA (p<0.01 vs. venom and LDH (p<0.001 in the

  15. Protective effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcelo L; Moreira, Luciana M; Arçari, Demetrius P; Dos Santos, Letícia França; Marques, Antônio Cezar; Pedrazzoli, José; Cerutti, Suzete M

    2016-10-15

    This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. (EGb) on short-term and long-term memory as well as on anxiety-like and locomotor activity using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT). Additionally, we evaluated the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of EGb on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) of middle-aged rats using the comet assay. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were administered vehicle or EGb (0.5mgkg(-1) or 1.0gkg(-1)) for 30days. Behavioural data showed that EGb treatment improved short-term memory. Neither an anti-anxiety effect nor a change in locomotor activity was observed. Twenty-four hours after the behavioural tests, the rats were decapitated, and the PFC and DH were quickly dissected out and prepared for the comet assay. The levels of DNA damage in the PFC were significantly lower in rats that were treated with 1.0gkg(-1) EGb. Both doses of EGb decreased H2O2-induced DNA breakage in cortical cells, whereas the levels of DNA damage in the EGb-treated animals were significantly lower than those in the control animals. No significant differences in the level of DNA damage in hippocampal cells were observed among the experimental groups. EGb treatment was not able to reduce H2O2-induced DNA damage in hippocampal cells. Altogether, our data provide the first demonstration that chronic EGb treatment improved the short-term memory of middle-aged rats, an effect that could be associated with a reduction in free radical production in the PFC. These data suggest that EGb treatment might increase the survival of cortical neurons and corroborate and extend the view that EGb has protective and therapeutic properties. PMID:27424157

  16. Coriander leaf extract exerts antioxidant activity and protects against UVB-induced photoaging of skin by regulation of procollagen type I and MMP-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Do-Gyeong; Park, Sin Hee; Oh, Myung Sook; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photodamage to the skin, which, in turn, leads to depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkles are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander leaf, cilantro; CS) has been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, liver disease, and cancer. In this study, we examined whether CS ethanol extract (CSE) has protective effects against UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro and in the skin of hairless mice in vivo. The main component of CSE, linolenic acid, was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. We measured the cellular levels of procollagen type I and MMP-1 using ELISA in NHDF cells after UVB irradiation. NHDF cells that were treated with CSE after UVB irradiation exhibited higher procollagen type I production and lower levels of MMP-1 than untreated cells. We found that the activity of transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) was also inhibited by CSE treatment. We measured the epidermal thickness, dermal collagen fiber density, and procollagen type I and MMP-1 levels in photo-aged mouse skin in vivo using histological staining and western blot analysis. Our results showed that CSE-treated mice had thinner epidermal layers and denser dermal collagen fibers than untreated mice. On a molecular level, it was further confirmed that CSE-treated mice had lower MMP-1 levels and higher procollagen type I levels than untreated mice. Our results support the potential of C. sativum L. to prevent skin photoaging. PMID:25019675

  17. Coriander leaf extract exerts antioxidant activity and protects against UVB-induced photoaging of skin by regulation of procollagen type I and MMP-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Do-Gyeong; Park, Sin Hee; Oh, Myung Sook; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photodamage to the skin, which, in turn, leads to depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkles are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander leaf, cilantro; CS) has been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, liver disease, and cancer. In this study, we examined whether CS ethanol extract (CSE) has protective effects against UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro and in the skin of hairless mice in vivo. The main component of CSE, linolenic acid, was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. We measured the cellular levels of procollagen type I and MMP-1 using ELISA in NHDF cells after UVB irradiation. NHDF cells that were treated with CSE after UVB irradiation exhibited higher procollagen type I production and lower levels of MMP-1 than untreated cells. We found that the activity of transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) was also inhibited by CSE treatment. We measured the epidermal thickness, dermal collagen fiber density, and procollagen type I and MMP-1 levels in photo-aged mouse skin in vivo using histological staining and western blot analysis. Our results showed that CSE-treated mice had thinner epidermal layers and denser dermal collagen fibers than untreated mice. On a molecular level, it was further confirmed that CSE-treated mice had lower MMP-1 levels and higher procollagen type I levels than untreated mice. Our results support the potential of C. sativum L. to prevent skin photoaging.

  18. Green tea extract protects against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in ob/ob mice by decreasing oxidative and nitrative stress responses induced by proinflammatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Yu; Park, Hea Jin; Manautou, Jose E; Koo, Sung I; Bruno, Richard S

    2012-04-01

    Oxidative and nitrative stress responses resulting from inflammation exacerbate liver injury associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by inducing lipid peroxidation and protein nitration. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the anti-inflammatory properties of green tea extract (GTE) would protect against NASH by suppressing oxidative and nitrative damage mediated by proinflammatory enzymes. Obese mice (ob/ob) and their 5-week-old C57BL6 lean littermates were fed 0%, 0.5% or 1% GTE for 6 weeks (n=12-13 mice/group). In obese mice, hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammatory infiltrates and serum alanine aminotransferase activity were markedly increased, whereas these markers of hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were significantly reduced among obese mice fed GTE. GTE also normalized hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitro-tyrosine (N-Tyr) concentrations to those observed in lean controls. These oxidative and nitrative damage markers were correlated with alanine aminotransferase (P<.05; r=0.410-0.471). Improvements in oxidative and nitrative damage by GTE were also associated with lower hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity. Likewise, GTE reduced protein expression levels of hepatic myeloperoxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase and decreased the concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites. Correlative relationships between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal (r=0.364) as well as nitric oxide metabolites and N-Tyr (r=0.598) suggest that GTE mitigates lipid peroxidation and protein nitration by suppressing the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Further study is warranted to determine whether GTE can be recommended as an effective dietary strategy to reduce the risk of obesity-triggered NASH. PMID:21543212

  19. Protective Effects of Periploca forrestii Schltr. Root Extract Against Cytotoxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in PC12 Cells%黑骨藤对PC12细胞氧化损伤的保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵源; 龚莉莉; 余跃生; 王恒; 陆玉炯; 杨再昌

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the protective effects of Periploca forrestii Schltr.root extract against cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in PC12 cells.[Method] The model of PC12 cells toxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide was established and the protective effects of Periploca forrestii Schltr.root extract on PC12 cells were detected.[Result] Compared to negative control,Periploca forrestii Schltr.root extract could protect PC12 cells at concentration ranges of 16-128 ug/mL at a dose-response manner.[Conclusion] Periploca forrestii Schltr.root extract showed anti-oxidative effect on PC12 cells.%[目的]研究黑骨藤提取物对H2O2诱导的PC12氧化损伤的保护作用。[方法]使用H2O2氧化压力诱导PC12出现氧化损伤,检测黑骨藤乙醇提取物对PC12细胞的保护作用。[结果]与模型对照组相比,黑骨藤乙醇提取物浓度在16~128μg/mL时,能显著提高PC12细胞的存活率,呈典型的量效关系。[结论]黑骨藤乙醇提取物具有抗氧化损伤作用。

  20. Aqueous extracts of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata are protective against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage, growth inhibition, and cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Iong; Yeh, Chi-Chen; Lee, Jin-Ching; Yi, Szu-Cheng; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Tseng, Chao-Neng; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2012-06-13

    Potential antioxidant properties of an aqueous extract of the edible red seaweed Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) against oxidative DNA damage were evaluated. The AEGT revealed several antioxidant molecules, including phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid. In a cell-free assay, the extract exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity that significantly reduced H₂O₂-induced plasmid DNA breaks in a dose-response manner (P Gracilaria water extract can prevent H₂O₂-induced oxidative DNA damage and its related cellular responses.

  1. Study of Fastness, UV Protection, Deodorization and Antimicrobial Properties of Silk Fabrics Dyed with the Liquids Extracted from the Gallnuts, Areca Nuts, and Pomegranate Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jin Soun.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the fastness, UVprotection, deodorization, and antimicrobial properties of silk fabrics dyed with liquids extracted from the gallnuts, areca nuts, and pomegranate peels.

  2. Study of Fastness, UV Protection, Deodorization and Antimicrobial Properties of Silk Fabrics Dyed with the Liquids Extracted from the Gallnuts, Areca Nuts, and Pomegranate Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Jin Soun.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fastness, UVprotection, deodorization, and antimicrobial properties of silk fabrics dyed with liquids extracted from the gallnuts, areca nuts, and pomegranate peels.

  3. Coadministration of Hedera helix L. Extract Enabled Mice to Overcome Insufficient Protection against Influenza A/PR/8 Virus Infection under Suboptimal Treatment with Oseltamivir

    OpenAIRE

    Eun-Hye Hong; Jae-Hyoung Song; Aeri Shim; Bo-Ra Lee; Bo-Eun Kwon; Hyuk-Hwan Song; Yeon-Jeong Kim; Sun-Young Chang; Hyeon Gun Jeong; Jong Geal Kim; Sang-Uk Seo; HyunPyo Kim; YongSoo Kwon; Hyun-Jeong Ko

    2015-01-01

    Several anti-influenza drugs that reduce disease manifestation exist, and although these drugs provide clinical benefits in infected patients, their efficacy is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic strategy of enhancing the antiviral efficacy of an existing neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, by coadministering with the leaf extract from Hedera helix L, commonly known as ivy. Ivy extract has anti-inflammatory, antiba...

  4. Collection of regulatory texts related to radiation protection (collection of legal and regulatory measures related to radiation protection). Part 1: laws and decrees (Extracts of the Public Health Code and of the Labour Code dealing with the protection of population, patients and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations); Part 2: orders, decisions, non codified decrees (Orders and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and of the Labour Code dealing with the protection of population, patients and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part contains legal and regulatory texts extracted from the Public Health Code and related to health general protection and to health products (medical devices), from the Social Security Code, and from the Labour Code related to individual work relationships, to health and safety at work, to work places, to work equipment and means of protection, to the prevention of some exposure risks and of risks related to some activities. The second part gathers texts extracted from the Public Health Code and related to ionizing radiations (general measures for the protection of the population, exposure to natural radiations, general regime of authorizations and declarations, purchase, retailing, importation, exportation, transfer and elimination of radioactive sources, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical or forensics purposes, situations of radiological emergency and of sustained exposure to ionizing radiations, control), to the safety of waters and food products, and to the control of medical devices, to the protection of patients. It also contains extracts for the Labour Code related to workers protection

  5. NEPHRO-PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MELIA AZADIRACHTA AGAINST H2O2 INDUCED TOXICITY IN VERO CELL LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Srinivasan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal disorders have become very common nowadays, which may also lead to kidney failure. The disorder may be caused by the commonly used chemicals such as acetaminophen, CCl4, streptromycin, H2O2 etc. The objective of this work is to determine the nephroprotective potential of ethanolic extract against H2O2induced toxicity in VERO cell line. Ethanolic extract is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects, which make it a most sought for herbal medicine. Its characteristic features have identified this compound as a potential hepatoprotective and nephroprotective agent. VERO cells are cells taken from the kidney of an African green monkey, which are used in our study. The matured leaves of Melia Azadirachtawere used to prepare ethanolic extract and the same was used to test for its inhibitory effect in 96 micro plate formats against in VERO cell lines. To study the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract against VERO cell line, we have tested the MTT assay with different concentrations in the range of 1000 to 62.5 μg/ml.From the performed assay, the effect of ethanolic extract drug reveals an enhanced activity on in VERO cell lines and that infers Melia Azadirachta, can be used as nephroprotective agent.

  6. Tannins extracted starting from residual bark of pinus caribaea morelet like protective of the adn before the damage induced by gamma rays a cellular cultivation of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was aimed to evaluate genotoxicity and anti genotoxicity activity against rays of the a tannins fraction obtained from barks of Pinus caribaea Morelet, as well as to elucidate the anti genotoxic mechanisms implicated in radioprotection using deferent's approaches as pre- co- and post-irradiation cell treatments with plant extract. The tannins fraction was not genotoxic to E. coli cells in experiments using different exposure times. This extract was anti genotoxic against rays when the cells were pre- or co-treated with this extracts, but not during post-irradiation treatments, suggesting a possibly anti genotoxic action through free radicals scavenging mechanisms. The results are discussed in relation to the chemo preventive and therapeutic potential of the studied plant species

  7. Protective effect of extract of Boerhaavia diffusa and Silybum marianum in combination against fructose induced non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken with a view to validate the traditional use of Boerhaavia diffusa (BEE root and Silybum marianum (SME seeds in combination as a hepatoprotective agent against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Materials and Methods: The alcoholic extracts of BEE roots (150 mg/kg, p.o. and SME (150 mg/kg, p.o. seeds were administered to the experimental rats individually and in combination (75 mg/kg + 75 mg/kg, p.o. by dispersing it in 1% tween 80, were given, of different groups respectively. After intoxication with high fructose diet (HFD fructose solution to the animals orally for 6 weeks serum levels of various enzymes were recorded. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine amino transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB, total protein and cholesterol (CHO level were assessed. Results: BEE roots and SME seeds extracts exhibited a significant hepatoprotective effect as evident from the decreases of serum AST, ALT, ALP, TB and CHO and increases in levels of TP compared with control group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05. The effect of combination of both the extract exerts more hepatoprotective as revealed by more level of significance. Conclusions: The present finding suggests that the hepatoprotective effect of BEE roots and SME seeds extract.

  8. Methanol extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis seeds enhances non-specific immune responses and protects Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, C John Wesly; Subramani, Parasuraman Aiya; Michael, R Dinakaran

    2016-04-01

    Immunostimulation using medicinal plant extracts is a promising approach for prevention and control of diseases with reference to sustainable fish farming. Oreochromis mossambicus, dubbed as aquatic chicken is a cultured fish worldwide and a laboratory model organism. Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the major bacterial pathogens in fish farming that causes huge loss to aquaculture industries. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of methanol extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis seeds on disease resistance of O. mossambicus against live virulent A. hydrophila. We also investigated its effect on the non-specific immune parameters such as serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, antiprotease and specific immune parameters in terms of specific serum antibody titres assayed by bacterial agglutination test. Our studies indicate that intra-peritoneal administration of 20mg/kg methanol extract increases the Relative Percent Survival (RPS) of O. mossambicus challenged with LD80 of A. hydrophila. Further, both non-specific and specific immune parameters were enhanced by the methanol extract. Further experiments at molecular levels in the laboratory and also efficacy testing at field level are essential before applying this plant product in aquaculture industry. PMID:27033940

  9. Protective effect of aqueous extract of Embelia ribes Burm fruits in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari Uma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Embelia ribes , in focal ischemic brain. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar albino rats were fed with the aqueous extract of Embelia ribes (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. for 30 days. After 30 days of feeding, all the animals were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg, i.p.. The right middle cerebral artery was occluded with a 4-0 suture for 2 h. The suture was removed after 2 h, to allow reperfusion injury. The animals were used for grip strength measurement, biochemical estimation in serum and brain tissue (hippocampus and frontal cortex and cerebral infarct size measurement. Results: In the ischemic group, a significant (P < 0.01 alteration in the markers of oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; reduced glutathione (GSH; glutathione peroxidase (GPx; glutathione reductase (GR; and, glutathione-S-transferase (GST was observed in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, as compared to sham operated rats. We observed that the animals treated with the aqueous extract of Embelia ribes had a significant (P < 0.01 increase in the poststroke grip strength activity. Further, supplementation with aqueous extract of Embelia ribes reversed the levels/activities of the above mentioned biochemical parameters significantly (P< 0.01 and also resulted in decreased cerebral infarct area, as compared to the ischemic group. Conclusion: The results of our study, for the first time, provide clear evidence that aqueous extract of Embelia ribes pretreatment ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and enhances the antioxidant defense against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced cerebral infarction in rats; it exhibits neuroprotective property.

  10. Protective role of Ashwagandha leaf extract and its component withanone on scopolamine-induced changes in the brain and brain-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Konar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scopolamine is a well-known cholinergic antagonist that causes amnesia in human and animal models. Scopolamine-induced amnesia in rodent models has been widely used to understand the molecular, biochemical, behavioral changes, and to delineate therapeutic targets of memory impairment. Although this has been linked to the decrease in central cholinergic neuronal activity following the blockade of muscarinic receptors, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanism(s particularly the effect on neuroplasticity remains elusive. In the present study, we have investigated (i the effects of scopolamine on the molecules involved in neuronal and glial plasticity both in vivo and in vitro and (ii their recovery by alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a drug model, scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally to mice and its effect on the brain function was determined by molecular analyses. The results showed that the scopolamine caused downregulation of the expression of BDNF and GFAP in dose and time dependent manner, and these effects were markedly attenuated in response to i-Extract treatment. Similar to our observations in animal model system, we found that the scopolamine induced cytotoxicity in IMR32 neuronal and C6 glioma cells. It was associated with downregulation of neuronal cell markers NF-H, MAP2, PSD-95, GAP-43 and glial cell marker GFAP and with upregulation of DNA damage--γH2AX and oxidative stress--ROS markers. Furthermore, these molecules showed recovery when cells were treated with i-Extract or its purified component, withanone. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that besides cholinergic blockade, scopolamine-induced memory loss may be associated with oxidative stress and Ashwagandha i-Extract, and withanone may serve as potential preventive and therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders and hence warrant further molecular analyses.

  11. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus petals on preventing of gentamicin induced peliosis hepatis and hepatic telangiectasis in rats: short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis is a rare liver disease characterized by blood-filled cavities scattered irregularly throughout the liver. Risk factors for peliosis include chronic illness such as AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer also use of some drugs such as anabolic steroids and azathioprine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curative properties of crocus sativus petals on induced peliosis hepatis in rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats (weight: 180-220 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: group 1 (healthy group received only IP normal saline, group2 received IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin, group3 IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract, and group 4 was given IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized and their blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for AST and ALT measurement.Then, the livers of the subjects were excised and fixed in formalin. It was found that AST significantly increased in gentamicin group (P<0.05 compared to the healthy group and groups treated by means of crocus sativus petal extract .Moreover, there was no significant differences between the groups administered the extract and those given gentamicin. Histologically,heterogeneous multiple blood-filled cavities were observed in gentamicin group (2 and the treatment groups (3 and 4. The results of the present study show that doses of hydroalcoholic extract of crocus sativus do not effect on peliosis hepatic and telangiectasis due to gentamicin sulfate in rats

  12. Coriander Leaf Extract Exerts Antioxidant Activity and Protects Against UVB-Induced Photoaging of Skin by Regulation of Procollagen Type I and MMP-1 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Do-Gyeong; Park, Sin Hee; Oh, Myung Sook; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photodamage to the skin, which, in turn, leads to depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkles are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander leaf, cilantro; CS) has been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, liver disease, and cancer. In this study, we examined whether CS ethanol extract (CSE) h...

  13. Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Stereospermum Kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) Protects Against Generalized Seizures in Pentylenetetrazole and Electro-Convulsive Models in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, F. P.; Omogbai, E. K. I.; Otokiti, I O

    2009-01-01

    Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 – 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvuls...

  14. Protective effect of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. ethanolic extracts in oxidant-induced DNA damage evaluated through comet assay with human peripheral lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Barreira, Joao C. M.; Carla Costa

    2015-01-01

    Much attention of preventive medicine research is focused on natural antioxidants. This interest refers not only to isolation and identification of new biologically active molecules for the pharmaceutical industry, but also because of the emergent public interest in using crude plant extracts, such as infusions for self-medication (Krishnaiah et al., 2011). The use of antioxidants, such as the well-known polyphenolic compounds, to prevent genetic damage induced by physical or chemical agents ...

  15. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO4 and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO4 on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO4, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO4 and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings suggest that ELF has a protective

  16. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings

  17. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity. PMID:27155802

  18. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative radiation protection analysis of mucosa of ICR strained mice using selected herbal extracts such as GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) and GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Earlier reports showed that ginseng has significant radioprotective and stimulatory effect on the recovery of the lymphocytes and leukocytes. Using graded absorbed doses of radiation (1.5, 5, 20, 50 Gy) applied in ICR strain male white mice which was injected with GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.) and GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) was tested to prove some radioprotective efficiency. The herbal extracts were injected intraperitoneally and the experimental mice were sacrificed 2 and 48 hrs post-irradiation. Factors such as analyzing kinetics of critical tissue parameters (length of villi, the number of crypt and villi cells and cell density) and determining the Relative Protection Efficiencies (RPE) using quantitative histopathological techniques were used to quantify the radiation protection assay in the duodenum of ICR strain mice. Results showed that GC-2112 and GX-2137 protected the villi structures. After 2 hrs. post irradiation, tissue degeneration was evident. RPE values of significant radioprotection of the crypts is demonstrated at absorbed dose. It was found that some villi cells are even viable at non-physiologic dose of 50 Gy. (author)

  20. Study of Protection of Aqueous Extract of Arctium lappa Root on Hyperuricemia Mice%牛蒡根水提物对高尿酸血症小鼠的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙源; 王晨静; 袁田道; 王美芝; 白红斌; 袁新道; 王春波; 韩志武

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究牛蒡根水提物对高尿酸血症模型小鼠的保护作用.方法:ip次黄嘌呤复制小鼠高尿酸血症模型.以高、中、低(6.67、3.33、1.67 g·kg-1)剂量牛蒡根水提物ig给药,每天1次,连续l0d,检测小鼠血尿酸水平.结果:高剂量牛蒡根水提物能显著降低高尿酸血症小鼠的血尿酸水平(P<0.01),而对正常小鼠的血尿酸水平无显著影响.结论:牛蒡根水提物对高尿酸血症模型小鼠具有降低血尿酸水平的作用,且具有剂量依赖性.%OBJECTIVE: To study the protection of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa root on hyperuricemia mice. METHODS: The hyperuricemia mice model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of hypoxanthine. The aqueous extract of A. Lappa root was investigated in the hyperuricemia mice model after intragastrical administration at the doses of 6.67, 3.33, 1.67 g·kg-1 · d-1 once a day for 10 days. The serum uric acid level was determined by the automatic biochemistry analyzer. RESULTS: The serum uric acid level of the hyperuricemic mice at the high dose was reduced obviously(P<0.01). In normal mice, however, high dose of aqueous extract of A. Lappa root didn't produce any obvious hypouricemic effects. CONCLUSION; The aqueous extract of A. Lappa root possesses potent hypouricemic effects on hyperuricemia mice in dose dependent manner.

  1. Aqueous Extracts of the Edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata are Protective Against H2O2-Induced DNA Damage, Growth Inhibition, and Cell Cycle Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chen Yeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Potential antioxidant properties of an aqueous extract of the edible red seaweed Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT against oxidative DNA damage were evaluated. The AEGT revealed several antioxidant molecules, including phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid. In a cell-free assay, the extract exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity that significantly reduced H2O2-induced plasmid DNA breaks in a dose-response manner (P < 0.001. The AEGT also suppressed H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage in H1299 cells by reducing the percentage of damaged DNA in a dose-response manner (P < 0.001 as measured by a modified alkaline comet-nuclear extract (comet-NE assay. The MTT assay results showed that AEGT confers significant protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and that AEGT itself is not cytotoxic (P < 0.001. Moreover, H2O2-induced cell cycle G2/M arrest was significantly released when cells were co-treated with different concentrations of AEGT (P < 0.001. Taken together, these findings suggest that edible red algae Gracilaria water extract can prevent H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage and its related cellular responses.

  2. Protective effect ofLuffa acutangula extracts on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats:Role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins and antioxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B P Pimple; P V Kadam; M J Patil

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the comparative gastroprotective effect ofLuffa acutangula methanolic extract(LAM) and aqueous extract(LAW) on typeII diabetes rats.Methods:Streptozotocin(65 mg/kg,i.p.) along with nicotinamide(120 mg/kg,i.p.) was used to induce non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) in rats.A daily oral dose of aspirin(200 mg/kg,i.p.) was administered for initial seven days to induce gastric ulcerations in the diabetic rats.LAM andLAW were administered orally in the doses of100,200 and400 mg/kg once daily for21 days.Glibenclamide and ranitidine were used as standards for comparing the antidiabetic and antiulcer effect respectively.Results:LAM significantly(P<0.01) increased mucosal glycoprotein and antioxidant enzyme level in gastric mucosa of diabetic rats thanLAW(P <0.05).LAM was efficient inreversing the delayed healing of gastric ulcer in diabetic rats close to the normal level.LAM exhibited better ulcer healing effect than glibenclamide andLAW, because of its both antihyperglycemic and mucosal defensive actions.Conclusions:Thus,LAM is proved to be a better alternative for treating gastric ulcers co-occurring with diabetes.

  3. Protective effect of Tremella fuciformis Berk extract on LPS-induced acute inflammation via inhibition of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangho; Ha, Su Jeong; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yun Tai; Song, Kyung-Mo; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hyun Ku; Jung, Sung Keun

    2016-07-13

    Tremella fuciformis Berk (TFB) has long been used as a traditional medicine in Asia. Although TFB exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, the mechanisms of action responsible have remained unknown. We confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of Tremella fuciformis Berk extract (TFE) in RAW 264.7 cells and observed significantly suppressed LPS-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production. TFE also suppressed LPS-induced IKK, IkB, and p65 phosphorylation, as well as LPS-induced translocation of p65 from the cytosol. Additionally, TFE inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs. In an acute inflammation study, oral administration of TFE significantly inhibited LPS-induced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production and iNOS and COX-2 expression. The major bioactive compounds from TFB extract were identified as gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and coumaric acid. Among these compounds, protocatechuic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. Overall, these results suggest that TFE is a promising anti-inflammatory agent that suppresses iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 expression, as well as the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27334265

  4. Polyphenolic extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protect colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co cells) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation--modulation of microRNA 126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Banerjee, Nivedita; Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Hachibamba, Twambo; Awika, Joseph M; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a drought tolerant crop with several agronomic advantages over other legumes. This study evaluated varieties from four major cowpea phenotypes (black, red, light brown and white) containing different phenolic profiles for their anti-inflammatory property on non-malignant colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co) cells challenged with an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on the LPS-stimulated cells revealed antioxidative potential of black and red cowpea varieties. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis in LPS-stimulated cells revealed down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, VCAM-1), transcription factor NF-κB and modulation of microRNA-126 (specific post-transcriptional regulator of VCAM-1) by cowpea polyphenolics. The ability of cowpea polyphenols to modulate miR-126 signaling and its target gene VCAM-1 were studied in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-126, and treated with 10 mg GAE/L black cowpea extract where the extract in part reversed the effect of the miR-126 inhibitor. This suggests that cowpea may exert their anti-inflammatory activities at least in part through induction of miR-126 that then down-regulate VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Overall, Cowpea therefore is promising as an anti-inflammatory dietary component. PMID:25300227

  5. A Study of the Protective Effects of Vitamin E and Fennel Extract on Mitochondria Changes in Mice Ovary Due to Electromagnetic Field Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Everyday use of different types of electrical instruments and appliances has caused a large number of people to constantly be under the influence of electromagnetic fields. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study, 40 female rats were randomly chosen from among 3 months old rats from the animals’ laboratory and they weighed 20 + 200 g. Then, they were randomly divided into 4 groups; control (n = 10, experiment 1 (Ex1 (n = 10, experiment 2 (Ex2 (n = 10, and experiment 3 (Ex3 (n = 10. During the experiment, all 4 groups were maintained in the same conditions and received the same feeding. The experiment groups 1, 2, and 3 were under the influence of a 50 Hz electromagnetic field (EMF for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the second and third groups were kept away from the EMF effect for another 8 weeks. At the end of the study, after removal of the ovaries by glutaraldehyde, they were prepared for examination using an electron microscope. Group Ex2 rats were not sacrificed and were maintained in the normal laboratory environment for another 8 weeks away from the impacts of EMF. The rats were fed vitamin E(100 mg/kg and fennel extract (1.5 g per body weight every day orally and at the end of the second 8 weeks samples were taken. During the second 8 weeks, group Ex3 was kept in normal conditions without the use of vitamin E and fed fennel extract, and then, samples were taken. Samples were taken simultaneously from 10 rats of the control group and Ex1 group. Results: The results from the mitochondria in the ovary in the groups under the influence of electromagnetic waves indicated that this intracellular organ, compared to samples from the control group, was deformed and the majority of the organs were vacuolated. The mitochondrial vacuolization of the first to fourth groups were 1 ± 0.55, 9 ± 0.55, 6 ± 0.55, and 11 ± 0.55, respectively. Conclusion: Vitamin E and fennel extract can reduce the damaging effects of non

  6. Protective action of a hexane crude extract of Pterodon emarginatus fruits against oxidative and nitrosative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Patrícia P

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of a hexane crude extract (HCE of Pterodon emarginatus on the oxidative and nitrosative stress induced in skeletal muscle, liver and brain of acutely exercised rats. Methods Adult male rats were subjected to acute exercise by standardized contractions of the tibialis anterior (TA muscle (100 Hz, 15 min and treated orally with the HCE (once or three times with a fixed dose of 498 mg/kg, before and after acute exercise. Serum creatine kinase activity was determined by a kinetic method and macrophage infiltration by histological analyses of TA muscle. Lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Nitric oxide production was evaluated by measuring nitrite formation, using Griess reagent, and nitrotyrosine was assessed by western blotting. Results Serum creatine kinase activities in the controls (111 U/L increased 1 h after acute exercise (443 U/L. Acute exercise also increased the infiltration of macrophages into TA muscle; lipid peroxidation levels in TA muscle (967%, liver (55.5% and brain (108.9%, as well as the nitrite levels by 90.5%, 30.7% and 60%, respectively. The pattern of nitrotyrosine formation was also affected by acute exercise. Treatment with HCE decreased macrophage infiltration, lipid peroxidation, nitrite production and nitrotyrosine levels to control values. Conclusion Acute exercise induced by functional electrical stimulation in rats resulted in increase in lipid peroxidation, nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels in brain, liver and skeletal muscle. The exercise protocol, that involved eccentric muscle contraction, also caused some muscle trauma, associated with over-exertion, leading to inflammation. The extract of P. emarginatus abolished most of these oxidative processes, thus confirming the high antioxidant activity of this oil which infusions are used in folk medicine against inflammatory processes.

  7. Puerarin extraction and identification of solution wine to protect liver function in mice%葛根素的提取及对小鼠解酒护肝功能的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 李洪敏; 艾芳; 曹雄; 吴爱娟; 韩琴

    2015-01-01

    water bath shaker at 30 min for optimal extraction conditions puerarin extraction. Compared with the positive control groups:low,medium and high doses of alcohol extract of pueraria can significantly shorten the time to sober up drunken mice,the dose of PRE could effectively inhibit the absorption of alcohol,reduce liver tissue ADH,GOT,GPT,the effects of high doses of PRE absorption of alcohol was small. Conclusion HPLC method capable of puerarin extract the qualitative and quantitative determination of puerarin on liver injury caused by acute alcoholism a protective regulatory role,and the hangover effect of puerarin dose showed a good positive correlation.

  8. Water extract from the leaves of Withania somnifera protect RA differentiated C6 and IMR-32 cells against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kataria

    Full Text Available Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Search for herbal remedies that may possibly act as therapeutic agents is an active area of research to combat these diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective role of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, also known as Indian ginseng, against glutamate induced toxicity in the retinoic acid differentiated rat glioma (C6 and human neuroblastoma (IMR-32 cells. The neuroprotective activity of the Ashwagandha leaves derived water extract (ASH-WEX was evaluated. Cell viability and the expression of glial and neuronal cell differentiation markers was examined in glutamate challenged differentiated cells with and without the presence of ASH-WEX. We demonstrate that RA-differentiated C6 and IMR-32 cells, when exposed to glutamate, undergo loss of neural network and cell death that was accompanied by increase in the stress protein HSP70. ASH-WEX pre-treatment inhibited glutamate-induced cell death and was able to revert glutamate-induced changes in HSP70 to a large extent. Furthermore, the analysis on the neuronal plasticity marker NCAM (Neural cell adhesion molecule and its polysialylated form, PSA-NCAM revealed that ASH-WEX has therapeutic potential for prevention of neurodegeneration associated with glutamate-induced excitotoxicty.

  9. 灵芝孢子提取物对Lactacystin致PC12细胞损伤的保护作用%PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM SPORE EXTRACT ON LACTACYSTIN INDUCED PC12 CELLS DAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 王芳; 刘湧; 王建东

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨灵芝孢子提取物对Lactacystin诱导PC12细胞损伤的保护作用.[方法]体外培养PC12细胞,建立Lactacystin诱导PC12细胞损伤的模型,观察细胞形态,用CCK-8法检测细胞活力,annexinV-FITC/PI流式细胞法检测细胞调亡.[结果]用不同浓度的灵芝孢子提取物处理PC12细胞时,细胞存活率与对照几乎一致,并未表现出细胞毒性.经20 μmol/L的Lactacystin处理24h后,PC12细胞活力比对照组降低,仅为对照组的63.2%.模型组经不同浓度的是芝孢子提取物预处理后,细胞活力明显提高,其保护作用随浓度升高而升高.Lactacystin诱导PC12细胞凋亡,处理24h后细胞凋亡率为48.86%,经灵芝孢子提取物处理后,细胞凋亡率明显降低.[结论]Lactacystin 能诱PC12细胞凋亡,灵芝孢子提取物能对Lactacystin致PC12细胞损伤有一定的保护作用.%[Objective] To investigate the effect of Ganodenna lucidum spore extract (GLS extract) on PC12 cells damage iduced by Lactacystin. [Methods] The toxicity model was established by treating PC12 cells with Lactacystin in vitro. Observed the morphological changes of cells by microscope. Cell viability was assayed with CCk-8 method. The cell apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) method. [Results] After being treated with different concentrations of GLS extract, the viability of PC12 cells as same as the cell control group tested by CCK-8 assay. After being treated with Lactacystin (20? Mol/L) for 24 h, the viability of PC12 cells depressed and the viable cells was only 63.2% when compared with cell control group. Pretreated with GLS extract at different concentrations, the cell viabilities were all increased significantly. The protective effect on cells increased with its concentration increased. Lactacystin induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, and the apoptotic rate was 48.86% after 24 h of treatment Pretreated with GLS extract, the cell apoptotic rates reduced. [Conclusion] Lactacystin

  10. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen; Chang, Hui-Hsien; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO(4); a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO(4) and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO(4) on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO(4), induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:23261976

  11. Determination of cocaine and its metabolites in plasma by porous membrane-protected molecularly imprinted polymer micro-solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Juan; García-Carballal, Sara; Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2016-06-17

    A selective molecularly imprinted polymer synthesized for the selective retention of cocaine (COC) and its metabolites [benzoylecgonine (BZE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and cocaethylene (CE)] was used as a solid adsorbent for assessing cocaine abuse by plasma analysis. The MIP beads (50mg) were loaded inside a cone shaped device made of a polypropylene (PP) membrane for micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE). High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used for quantifying the analytes after MIP-μ-SPE. The best retention capabilities were reached when loading plasma samples (within the 0.1-5.0mL range), previously adjusted to pH 5.5 by orbital-horizontal shaking (150rpm, 50°C) for 10min. Analyte elution was achieved by subjecting the MIP-μ-SPE device to ultrasound (37kHz, 325W) with 10mL of dichloromethane/2-propanol/ammonium hydroxide (76:20:4) for 8min. After eluate evaporation to dryness and re-dissolution in 100μL of mobile phase, the MIP-μ-SPE method yielded a pre-concentration factor of 50. Precision was assessed by intra-day and inter-day assays, and accuracy (intraday and inter-day analytical recovery, as well as the analysis of a BTMF 1/11-B control serum sample) show that the developed method is highly precise and accurate. In addition, the limits of detection, ranging from 0.061ngmL(-1) for COC to 0.87ngmL(-1) for BZE, were low enough for confirmative conclusions regarding cocaine abuse. The method was used for screening/quantifying cocaine and metabolites in plasma samples from poly-drug abusers. PMID:27207577

  12. Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response by ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia provides protection against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in liver by upregulation of glutathione metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2015-03-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia (SAE) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain were grouped into four: (1) control, (2) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight), (3) SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight), and (4) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight) + SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight). Alcohol and SAE were given orally each day by gastric intubation. The duration of treatment was 90 days. Results The activities of toxicity markers in liver and serum increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats and to a lesser extent in the group administered SAE + alcohol. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and the reactive oxygen species level were increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats but attenuated in the SAE co-administered group. Oxidative stress was increased in alcohol-treated rats as evidenced by the lowered activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased level of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased lipid peroxidation products, and decreased expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase in liver. The co-administration of SAE with alcohol almost reversed these changes. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase and translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus in the liver was increased in both the alcohol and alcohol + SAE groups, but the maximum changes were observed in the latter group. Discussion The SAE most likely elicits its antioxidant potential by reducing oxidative stress, enhancing the translocation of Nrf2 to nucleus and thereby regulating glutathione metabolism, leading to enhanced GSH content.

  13. Pinus densiflora extract protects human skin fibroblasts against UVB-induced photoaging by inhibiting the expression of MMPs and increasing type I procollagen expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoe-Yune Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet (UV light can cause skin photoaging, which is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and downregulation of collagen synthesis. It has been reported that MMPs, especially MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, decrease the elasticity of the dermis by degrading collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of Pinus densiflora extract (PDE on photoaging and investigated its mechanism of action in human skin fibroblast (Hs68 cells after UVB exposure using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity assays. PDE exhibited an antioxidant activity and inhibited elastase activities in vitro. We also found that PDE inhibited UVB-induced cytotoxicity, MMP-1 production and expression of MMP-1, -3 and -9 mRNA in Hs68 cells. In addition, PDE decreased UVB-induced MMP-2 activity and MMP-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, PDE prevented the decrease of type I procollagen mediated by exposure to UVB irradiation, an effect that is linked to the upregulation and downregulation of Smad3 and Smad7, respectively. Another effect of UV irradiation is to stimulate activator protein 1 (AP-1 activity via overexpression of c-Jun/c-Fos, which, in turn, upregulates MMP-1, -3, and -9. In this study, we found that PDE suppressed UV-induced c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PDE regulates UVB-induced expression of MMPs and type I procollagen synthesis by inhibiting AP-1 activity and restoring impaired Smad signaling, suggesting that PDE may be useful as an effective anti-photoaging agent.

  14. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  15. REC-2006-A Fractionated Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Protects Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage by Reducing the Initial Damage and Enhancing Its Repair In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum, a perennial herb commonly known as the Himalayan May Apple, is well known in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. P. hexandrum has been widely used for the treatment of venereal warts, skin infections, bacterial and viral infections, and different cancers of the brain, lung and bladder. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of REC-2006, a bioactive fractionated extract from the rhizome of P. hexandrum, on the kinetics of induction and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in murine thymocytes in vivo. We evaluated its effect on non-specific radiation-induced DNA damage by the alkaline halo assay in terms of relative nuclear spreading factor (RNSF) and gene-specific radiation-induced DNA damage via semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whole body exposure of animals with gamma rays (10 Gy) caused a significant amount of DNA damage in thymocytes (RNSF values 17.7 ± 0.47, 12.96 ± 1.64 and 3.3 ± 0.014) and a reduction in the amplification of β-globin gene to 0, 28 and 43% at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. Administrating REC-2006 at a radioprotective concentration (15 mg kg(-1) body weight) 1 h before irradiation resulted in time-dependent reduction of DNA damage evident as a decrease in RNSF values 6.156 ± 0.576, 1.647 ± 0.534 and 0.496 ± 0.012, and an increase in β-globin gene amplification 36, 95 and 99%, at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. REC-2006 scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner stabilized DPPH free radicals and also inhibited superoxide anions. Various polyphenols and flavonoides present in REC-2006 might contribute to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals, thereby preventing DNA damage and stimulating its repair. PMID:20008078

  16. Effect and mechanism of Coeloglossum viride var.bracteatum extract on scopolamine-induced deficits of learning and memory behavior of rodents%藏药旺拉提取物对东莨菪碱致动物学习记忆障碍的改善作用及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 王亚芳; 马波; 刘耕陶; 张建军

    2009-01-01

    观察藏药旺拉提取物(CE)对东莨菪碱致动物学习记忆障碍的改善作用并研究其作用机制.采用腹腔注射东莨菪碱造模,以跳台法测定小鼠的学习记忆能力,以电生理方法测定大鼠海马长时程增强(LTP)的诱导,分别以生化及放射性同位素分析法测定脑匀浆中乙酰且日碱酯酶(ACHE)及胆碱乙酰转移酶(ChAT)的活性.结果表明,模犁动物跳下平台的潜伏期明显缩短,LTP诱导受抑制.灌胃给予CE(5、10及20 mg·kg-1)可改善模型小鼠在跳台中的表现,腹腔注射CE(5 mg·kg-1)可逆转东莨菪碱对人鼠LTP诱导的抑制.此外,CE可显著增强ChAT活性,而对AChE活性无显著影响.CE可改善东莨菪碱致小鼠学习记忆障碍,其作用可能与改善海马LTP诱导及增强ChAT活性有关.

  17. Green Vehicle Guide Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. This data extraction tool allows...

  18. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  19. Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emitting Products Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Tanning Sun Protection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... for integrating sun protection into your daily routine. Sun Protection Tips Avoid overexposure to UV rays from ...

  20. Wuzhi tablet (Schisandra Sphenanthera extract) protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibition of CYP-mediated bioactivation and regulation of NRF2-ARE and p53/p21 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaomei; Jiang, Yiming; Wang, Ying; Tan, Huasen; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Yongtao; Chen, Pan; Qu, Aijuan; Gonzalez, Frank J; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2014-12-01

    Schisandra sphenanthera is widely used as a tonic and restorative in many countries to enhance the function of liver and other organs. Wuzhi tablet (WZ) is a preparation of an ethanol extract of Schisandra sphenanthera. Our previous study demonstrated that WZ exerted a protective effect toward acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of this protection remain unclear. This study aimed to determine what molecular pathways contributed to the hepatoprotective effects of WZ against APAP toxicity. Administration of WZ 3 days before APAP treatment significantly attenuated APAP hepatotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner and reduced APAP-induced JNK activation. Treatment with WZ resulted in potent inhibition of CYP2E1, CYP3A11, and CYP1A2 activities and then caused significant inhibition of the formation of the oxidized APAP metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine-reduced glutathione. The expression of NRF2 was increased after APAP and/or WZ treatment, whereas KEAP1 levels were decreased. The protein expression of NRF2 target genes including Gclc, Gclm, Ho-1, and Nqo1 was significantly increased by WZ treatment. Furthermore, APAP increased the levels of p53 and its downstream gene p21 to trigger cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas WZ pretreatment could inhibit p53/p21 signaling to induce cell proliferation-associated proteins including cyclin D1, CDK4, PCNA, and ALR to promote hepatocyte proliferation. This study demonstrated that WZ prevented APAP-induced liver injury by inhibition of cytochrome P450-mediated APAP bioactivation, activation of the NRF2-antioxidant response element pathway to induce detoxification and antioxidation, and regulation of the p53, p21, cyclin D1, CDK4, PCNA, and ALR to facilitate liver regeneration after APAP-induced liver injury.

  1. The Protective Effect of Haworth Fruit Extract on Caenorhabditis elegans in Acute Damages%山楂提取物对急性损伤线虫的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵江; 陈纯; 王轶菲; 王红; 黄杰; 王浩

    2016-01-01

    以秀丽隐杆线虫(Canorhabditis elegans)为模式生物研究山楂提取物(Haworth fruit extract,HFE)对其急性氧化损伤的保护作用及其可能的作用机制。饲喂线虫于含有不同浓度(0、25、50和100μg/mL)HFE的NGM(Nematode growth medium)培养基中,研究HFE对线虫急性应激耐受能力的影响。结果显示,饲喂HFE后,秀丽线虫表现出比正常组更高的寿命,并且在胡桃醌氧化应激、热应激及紫外辐射应激实验中寿命均明显延长,荧光显微镜观察发现HFE组线虫的脂褐素自发荧光明显减弱,并且与HFE浓度呈剂量依赖效应。HFE能够显著延长秀丽隐杆线虫的寿命,同时对多种氧化损伤具有较好的保护作用,改善机体的抗氧化能力,有效延缓衰老。%The work aims to study the protective effect of haworth fruit extract(HFE)on the acute oxidative damage and its possible protection mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans. The C. elegans were fed with nematode growth medium(NGM)containing different dose of HFE(0,25,50 and 100μg/mL)to study impacts of HFE on the acute stress tolerance. C. elegans with feeding in different dose of HFE had a longer lifespan than the normal group,moreover,their lifespans became significantly longer under the experiments of juglone oxidative stress, heat stress and UV radiation stress. Concurrently,the autofluorescence level of lipofuscin in HFE group of C. elegans significantly decreased and it was dose-dependent effect to the concentration of HFE. In conclusion,HFE significantly prolongs the lifespan of C. elegans and has a solid protection under a variety of oxidative stress conditions with improving the antioxidant capacity and efficient anti-aging.

  2. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  3. Protective effect of green tea extracts on photoaging and photo-immunosuppression%绿茶提取物对光老化、光免疫抑制的防护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远宏; 吴严; 徐宏慧; 贾丽丽; 董光辉; 高兴华; 陈洪铎

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨不同浓度的绿茶霜对光老化、光免疫抑制的防护作用.方法 招募20名健康志愿者,在背部7个非曝光部位分别涂抹以不同浓度(2%~5%)的绿茶霜(保湿霜基质中添加不同浓度的绿茶提取物配制而成)或基质,并予1.5倍最小红斑量的模拟日光照射.免疫组化染色观察细胞角蛋白5/6、16含量及CD1a、HLA-DR阳性细胞密度.结果 2%及3%的绿茶霜可有效地防护模拟日光照射引起的明显的红斑及色素沉着.模拟日光照射后CK5/6阳性+强阳性比例在只照光部位达50%,在3%绿茶霜的部位仅达25%.CK16阳性+强阳性比例在只照光部位达69%,在2%绿茶霜的部位仅达31%.与正常人对照相比,只照光部位表皮CDla+或HLA-DR+的朗格汉斯细胞密度下降75%以上.一定浓度的绿茶霜可较好地抑制这种密度下降,其中3%绿茶霜的防护效果最佳.结论 绿茶提取物可以有效地防护皮肤光老化、光免疫抑制.最适合的添加浓度为2%或3%.%Objective To investigate the protective effect of green tea-based cream at different con- centrations on photoaging and photo-immunosuppression. Methods Twenty healthy female volunteers were enrolled into this study with informed consent. Green tea-based cream with a mass fraction of 2%-5% (pre- pared by adding green tea extracts to an emollient formulation), excipient or green tea extracts alone were applied to six unexposed sites on the back of these volunteers. Thirty minutes later, these treated sites were subjected to solar-simulated ultraviolet irradiation (ssUVR) with a 1.5-fold minimal erythema dose once a day for 4 days. At 6, 24 and 48 hours after the last irradiation, green tea-based cream were applied repeatedly to the corresponding sites. Biopsy specimens were obtained from the seven sites 72 hours following the last irradiation, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect cytokeratin 5/6 and 16 expression, as well as the densities of CDla

  4. Beam Transfer and Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    Beam transfer, such as injection into or extraction from an accelerator, is one of the most critical moments in terms of machine protection in a high-intensity machine. Special equipment is used and machine protection aspects have to be taken into account in the design of the beam transfer concepts. A brief introduction of the principles of beam transfer and the equipment involved will be given in this lecture. The main concepts of machine protection for injection and extraction will be presented, with examples from the CERN SPS and LHC.

  5. 右归丸对二甲基亚硝胺诱导大鼠肝纤维化损伤的防护作用%Protection effect of Yougui pill extract on nitrosodimethylamine-induced liver damage rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶䁎杰; 闫晓风; 胡旭东; 王晓玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of You gui pill extract on Nitrosodimethylamine ( DMN) -induced liver fibro-sis damage rat.Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, treatment groups;DMN was used to induce liver damage on rats, and treatment groups were given the Yougui pill extract by gastric intervention.Observe the rats′weight, mortality, and cirrhosis with ascites.Sirius red staining of collagen, hydroxyproline ( Hyp) content determination were to observe the liver tissue pathological changes, and serum alanine transaminase ( ALT ) test was to examine liver function.Results:Compared with DMN model group, weight loss of Yougui pill treatment group rats recovered, mortality and cir-rhosis with ascites declined obviously, liver tissue collagen area of treatment group decreased (P<0.05), and serum ALT de-creased significantly ( P<0.05) .Conclusion: Yougui pill can significantly protect rats from liver fibrosis damage induced by DMN.%目的:观察右归丸对二甲基亚硝胺( DMN)诱导的肝纤维化大鼠的防护作用。方法: Wistar雄性大鼠随机分为正常组,模型组,治疗组3组,除正常组外,其余两组大鼠以DMN复制肝损伤模型,于造模第2周开始,用右归丸给予治疗组大鼠灌胃治疗。动态记录各组大鼠体重,死亡情况,计算腹水率;肝组织做天狼星红胶原染色,羟脯氨酸( Hyp)含量测定及血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶( ALT)检测。结果:与DMN模型组比较,治疗组大鼠体重下降有所恢复,死亡率明显降低,腹水率减小,肝组织胶原面积减小( P<0.05);血清ALT显著降低( P<0.05)。结论:右归丸对于DMN诱导的大鼠肝纤维化有显著的防护作用。

  6. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  7. 罗汉果叶黄酮对力竭大鼠组织细胞膜保护作用研究%Protection of Flavonoids Extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii Leaves to Different Tissue Membranes in Rats During Exhaustive Exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凤; 邓启烈; 陈梅; 莫伟彬; 杨永亮

    2013-01-01

    To provide a theoretic evidence for exploitation and application of Siraitia grosvenorii leaves resources,the protection effect of flavonoids extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii leaves in response to oxidative stress injury was studied.Forty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weigh of 180~220 g,aged 2~3 months) were randomized into five groups,each consisting of 8 rats:the quiet control group,the pro-quiet exhaustive group,the pro-administration exhaustive group,the pro-training exhaustive group and the pro-administration-training exhaustive group.Drug-treated groups were administrated (i.g.) the solution of physiological saline paired with flavonoids extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii leaves (20 g/L) at a dose of 10.0 mL/kg body weight per day;while other groups were administrated of pure physiological saline at the same dose.After the incremental swimming training of 28 d,rats in exhaustion groups were bore their own weight by 3% and swam to exhaustion.Rats (including the rats in quiet control group) were killed by decapitation immediately after accurately recorded the exhaustive time.Blood,heart,liver and quadriceps tissues were sampled for subsequent analysis of enzymes' activities (GOT,GPT and CK),and observation of histopathological changes with microscope.The results showed that flavonoids extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii leaves can obviously increase the activities of GOT,GPT and CK in heart,liver and quadriceps tissues,decrease these corresponding enzymes' activities in plasma.The cell membranes of heart,liver and quadriceps tissues in drug-treated groups are much more integrated than that of non drug-treated groups.The ratios of rupture and deformation are greatly reduced in drug-treated groups.The conclusion indicates that flavonoids extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii leaves can help to protect the cell membranes of heart,liver andquadriceps tissues,ensure the integrity and fluidity of the membranes.%为研究罗汉果叶黄酮提取物

  8. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  10. 水提乌药与醇提乌药对急性酒精性肝损伤模型大鼠的保护作用%Protective effect of the water extract and alcohol extract of Radix Linderae on acute alcoholic liver injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤小刚; 洪汝涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the protective effect of the water extract and alcohol extract of Radix Linderae on acute alcoholic liver injury in rats.Methods Forty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups:normal group ( n=10 ) , model group ( n=10 ) , the water extract of Radix Linderae group(WYSTW,n=10),and the alcohol ex-tract of Radix Linderae group (WYCTW,n=10).The normal group was given equal volume of water, while the other groups were given different concentrations of alcohol, twice a day, and company with the WYSTW and WYCTW ( both 1 g・ mL-1 ) for 10 days.Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride ( TG), alanine aminotransferase ( ALT), aspartate aminotransferase ( AST) , serum superoxide dismutase ( SOD) , malondi-aldehyde ( MDA) were measured.The expression of interleukin -1 beta ( IL-1β) , nuclear transfer factor kappa B( NF-κB) and tumor necro-sis factor -α( TNF-α) in liver tissue was observed by immuno histo-chemical method.Results Compared with model group, Radix Linderae extracts can effectively reduce the serum ALT, AST, MDA, TG contents ( P <0.05) ,and effectively increase the SOD activity in serum and liver tissue ( P <0.05).WYSTW and WYCTW can improve liver tissue pathological change and control expression of IL-1β, NF -κB, TNF -αin liver cells.Conclusion WYSTW and WYCTW have the protective effect on acute alcoholic liver injury in rats and have the effect of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation.%目的:研究水提乌药与醇提乌药对急性酒精性肝损伤模型大鼠的保护作用。方法将健康雄性SD大鼠按照体重随机分为4组:正常组、模型组、水提乌药组( WYSTW)、醇提乌药组( WYCTW),每组10只。正常组,灌胃等体积蒸馏水),其余各组,均梯度灌胃给予不同浓度的白酒,每日2次,灌胃容积10 mL・ kg-1,连续10 d造模结束。自造模第l天起,给药组(均1 g・ mL-1)分别灌胃给予相应的药物,每日1

  11. 杜仲叶水提物对肝线粒体的保护作用%Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Eucommia ulmiodes Oliver Leaves on Liver Mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 杨建雄

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extract of Eucommia ulmiodes Oliver leaves (AEO) on liver mitochondrial injury induced by free radicals.[Method] MDA content was determined by thiobarbituric acid colorimetric method; mitochondrial swelling degree was determined by spectrophotometry; the superoxide anion radical scavenging ability was determined using reduced coenzyme I-tetrazolium-phenazine methosulfate as the superoxide anion generation system.Mice were hypodermically injected in the back and neck with Dgalactose,after 50 d,the effects of AEO on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and anti-hydroxyl radicals in mouse liver were determined using kits.[Result] AEO can efficiently reduce the liver injury and inhibit mitochondrial swelling induced by Fe2+-L-Cys,which can also scavenge superoxide anion and improve the activities of antioxidant enzymes.[Conclusion] This study provided scientific basis for the development and application of AEO resources.%[目的]研究杜仲叶水提物对自由基所致的肝线粒体损伤的保护作用.[方法]采用硫代巴比妥酸比色法测定丙二醛含量、分光光度法测线粒体的肿胀度,并以还原型辅酶I-氮蓝四唑-吩嗪硫酸甲酯为超氧阴离子生成系统测定对超氧阴离子的清除能力.小鼠背部注射D-半乳糖50 d后,利用试剂盒测定杜仲叶水提物对小鼠肝脏超氧化物歧化酶、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶和抗羟自由基活性的影响.[结果]杜仲叶水提物可减轻肝脏的损伤,抑制线粒体肿胀,具有清除超氧阴离子,增强抗氧化酶的活性.[结论]该研究为杜仲叶资源的开发与应用提供了科学依据.

  12. 巴戟天醇提物对大鼠肾缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用%Protective effects of radix morindae officinalis ethanolic extracts on renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向前; 王雪侠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of radix morindae officinalis ethanolic extracts on renal is-chemia-reperfusion injury (IRL) in rats. Methods 80 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the sham operation group,the IRI model group,the radix morindae officinalis high dose group and the radix morindae officinalis low dose group,and each group had 20 rats. The rats in the radix morindae officinalis high dose group and the radix morindae officinalis low dose group were given with radix morindae officinalism,and the rats in the sham operation group and the IRI model were given with saline for 7 days. Then,the renal IRI model was established. The levels of urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in blood serum,superoxidase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in renal were measured. The renal cell apoptosis were determined by TUNEL method. Results Compared with the IRI group,the levels of BUN and Cr decreased significantly in the radix morindae officinalis high dose group and the radix morindae officinalis low dose group (P < 0.05); the levels of SOD and GSH-PX were increased significantly and the level of MDA decreased significantly (P < 0.05); the renal cell apoptotic indexes decreased significantly (P < 0.05). There were statistical differences in the serum levels of BUN and Cr,the levels of SOD,GSH-Px and MDA in the renal tissues,the cell apoptotic indexes between the radix morindae officinalis high dose group and the radix morindae officinalis low dose group (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Radix morindae officinalis ethanolic extracts can protect the renal after IRI in rats,this may be related to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis.%目的 探讨巴戟天醇提物对肾缺血再灌注损伤(IRI)的保护作用.方法 将80只健康雄性Wistar大鼠随机均分为假手术组、IRI模型组、巴戟天高剂量组和巴戟天低剂量组4组,每组各20只.巴戟天高、低剂量组大鼠均连续灌胃

  13. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of environment protection related to the use of nuclear energy aiming to power generation, based on the harmonic concept of economic and industrial development, preserving the environment, is discussed. A brief study of environmental impacts for some energy sources, including nuclear energy, to present the systems of a nuclear power plant which aim at environmental protection, is done. (M.C.K.)

  14. 银杏叶提取物对培养的人眼视网膜神经节细胞的保护作用%The protective effects of ginkgo biloba extract on cultured human retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云松; 徐亮; 马科; 王津津

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨银杏叶提取物(EGb761)对培养的人眼视网膜神经节细胞(RGC)的保护作用。方法 对照实验研究。将培养的人眼视网膜细胞分为对照组、谷氨酸组、EGb761组及谷氨酸+EGb761组,用Thy-1作为RGC特异性荧光抗体,以免疫流式细胞技术评价EGb761对人眼RGC的保护作用。多组间细胞存活率比较采用重复测量的方差分析,组间两两比较采用LSD t检验。结果 在不同干预因素作用下,RGC存活率呈现不同变化,对照组为(61.94±7.75)%,谷氨酸组为(44.59 +4.19)%,EGb761组为(75.05 +3.90)%,EGb761+谷氨酸组为(63.19±9.44)%;各组间RGC存活率比较差异有统计学意义(F=13.329,P<0.01)。各组与对照组RGC存活率两两比较,显示谷氨酸组RGC存活率降低(P =0.010),EGb761组RGC存活率升高(P=0.019),EGb761+谷氨酸组与对照组RGC存活率差异无统计学意义(P =0.801);与谷氨酸组相比EGb761组和EGb761+谷氨酸组RGC存活率明显升高(P=0.000,0.020)。死亡RGC中大RGC所占百分比,EGb761组为(24.63+7.21)%,EGb761+谷氨酸组为(25.99±5.05)%,与对照组(36.69±2.92)%比较,两组死亡RGC中大RGC所占百分比均降低(P=0.001,0.002);与谷氨酸组(40.78±3.34)%相比,两组大RGC死亡百分比亦降低(P =0.000,0.000)。结论 EGb761可对抗谷氨酸兴奋性毒性造成的RGC损伤,对体外培养的人眼RGC具有明显的保护作用。%Objective This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb)761 on human retinal ganglion cells(RGC). Methods It was an experimental study.Cultured human retinal cells were separated for four groups: control group, glutamate group, EGb761 group and EGb761 + glutamate group. RGC survival rate was determined by immune Flow cytometry using Thy-1 as a special fluorescent antibody of RGC. RGC survival rate in Multi groups were analysed by repetitive measure analysis of variance

  15. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...... of the scale. Main outcome measures. Consensus for the content of the scale. To test the scale Cronbachs alpha, interclass correlation and differential item function was calculated in the prospective study. Results. 89% completed the first and 61% completed the second Delphi round. Hereafter, consensus......Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  16. 银杏叶提取物对脑组织及脑神经细胞活性的保护机制研究%Research on the Protection of Ginkgo Biloba Extract in Brain Mechanisms and Brain Cell Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇君

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease related articles 25, 44 exclude data. ① protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on cerebral thrombosis; ② protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on cerebral ischemia and hypoxia, edema; ③influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the brain's memory;④preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Parkinson's disease;⑤protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the brain's. Ginkgo biloba extract in the repair of damaged brain cell viability and function, relieve local microcirculation, has a certain effect on the textile certain brain disorders.

  17. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  18. Negotiating Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel

    This thesis examines protection against risks as material and social phenomena among the Ammarin tribe in Petra - a settled Bedouin community in southern Jordan. By examining the active role of material culture that is often disregarded in risk studies, the thesis discusses how protective...... of architecture, the social use of luminosity, prophylactic items, saint veneration, Qur'anic items, and heritage production. The thesis challenges the preoccupation with "meaning" in material culture studies, by focusing on conceptualizations of "presence" and "absence" as equally important to protective...... strategies are confirming their efficacy, and act as material anchors for negotiating Bedouin identities in response to a rapid transformation from nomadic pastoralists to sedentary wageworkers. The tensions surrounding the materiality of protection, along with the role of the past in the present is further...

  19. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  20. Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on spinal cord injury in rats%原花青素对大鼠急性脊髓损伤的保护作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋佳; 齐慧慧; 贾连顺

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨原花青素对大鼠急性脊髓损伤(spinal cord injury,SCI)的保护作用.[方法]SD大鼠随机分为假手术组(A组)、脊髓打击损伤组(B组)、原花青素治疗组(C组).A组行T8椎板切除术,不伤及脊髓.B、C组采用改良Allens撞击法制备大鼠T8急性SCI模型.C组术后立即腹腔注射原花青素100 mg/kg,A、B组术后立即腹腔注射等量的生理盐水.分别于术后不同时间点评价大鼠后肢运动功能,检测脊髓匀浆超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)、髓过氧化物酶(myeloperoxidase,MPO)活性、丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量改变,观察脊髓组织病理学变化.[结果]术后A组大鼠后肢运动功能恢复.术后C组大鼠后肢运动功能较B组均有所改善,72 h后肢运动功能恢复更为显著(P<0.01).术后48 hB组脊髓组织SOD活性较A组明显降低(P<0.01),而MDA含量较A组明显增加(P<0.01);应用GSPE后,术后48hC组脊髓组织SOD活性较B组明显升高(P<0.01),脊髓组织MDA水平较B明显降低(P<0.01);SCI后脊髓组织TNF-α含量、MPO活性均随时间推移逐渐增高;各时间点C组脊髓TNF-α含量、MPO活性较B组均有统计学意义(P<0.01);A组大鼠各检测点脊髓组织形态结构均正常;B、C两组72 h切片变化最为显著;B组可见神经组织多灶性出血、大量神经元坏死、尼氏体溶解消失、核固缩变小及炎性细胞浸润;C组可见局部出血点、细胞轻度肿胀,胞质均匀及少量炎性细胞浸润.[结论] GSPE可明显改善大鼠运动功能,抑制氧化应激、炎症反应和细胞凋亡等,对SCI有神经保护作用.%[Objective]To study the protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on spinal cord injury(SCI) model with weight-dropping method in adult rats. [Method]Fifty-four SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operation group (group A) , spinal cord injury group (group B) ,and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE

  1. 论高层民用建筑的通风空调系统中的防火排烟措施%Measures on Fire Protection and Smoke Extraction of Ventilation and Air Conditioning System of High-rise Civil Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵沛毅

    2011-01-01

    火灾事故的经验证明,烟气危害已经成为火灾人员伤亡的主要原因.这就要求高层建筑的设计不仅要注重防火设计,更要注重防排烟设计.本文通过对高层建筑防排烟系统设计的分析,探讨了如何正确理解和执行现行防火规范有关要求.通过合理的设计确保火灾时的疏散通道安全可靠,以求减少高层民用建筑火灾的危害,保护人身和财产的安全.%The experience of the fire accident proved that smoke hazard has become the main cause of fire casualties. This requires that the design of smoke extraction of high-rise building should not only pay attention to fire prevention design, but also notice more smoke design. Through analyzing the design of fire protection and smoke extraction system of high-rise buildings, the paper discusses how to correctly understand and implement the requirements for fire protection. Through the reasonable design, we can ensure safety and reliability of the fire evacuation passageway in order to reduce the harm of high-rise civil buildings fire and protect the safety of life and property.

  2. Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Regina; Diewald, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Nature protection and conservation are fundamental elements of environmental protection as this is an important part of the human existence; it is a vital component of the present and future harmonious socio economic development. The ecosystems and the organisms, like the marine and atmospheric terrestrial resources used by humankind, must be administrated in such a way that their optimum and continuous productivity may be assured and maintained. It is necessary to take rigorous measures agai...

  3. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  4. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  5. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  6. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  7. Antioxidant activity, cito- and phototoxicity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed pulp extract

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Aparecida Pedriali; Adjaci Uchoa Fernandes; Patricia Araujo dos Santos; Moisés Melquíades da Silva; Divinomar Severino; Mauricio Baptista da Silva

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, a hydroethanolic extract was prepared from the entire seeds of pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)] with Cachaça, a distilled Brazilian alcoholic beverage, protected from light for an 80-hour period. The desorption curve of the seeds, presented an optimal time extraction of approximately 24 hours. The extract was divided into two samples: protected from light, (Extract 1), or not, (Extract 2). The extracts were characterized by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy,...

  8. Physical protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myre, W.C.; DeMontmollin, J.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Serious concern about physical protection of nuclear facilities began around 1972. R and D was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories which had developed techniques to protect weapons for many years. Special vehicles, convoy procedures, and a communications system previously developed for weapons shipments were improved and extended for shipments of other sensitive materials. Barriers, perimeter alarms, portal and internal control systems were developed, tested, and published in handbooks and presented at symposia. Training programs were initiated for U.S. and foreign personnel. Containment and surveillance techniques were developed for the IAEA. Presently emphasis is on computer security, active barriers, and techniques to prevent theft or sabotage by insiders .

  9. Protective effect of aqueous extract of seed of Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji and seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi, important medicinal plants widely used in India as folk medicine. Local people of West Bengal traditionally used the seeds of these plants to cure diabetes. Objective: Present study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of aqueous extract of seeds of these plants in separate or in composite manner in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rat. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intramuscular injection of STZ at the dose of 40 mg/ml of citrate buffer/kg body weight. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, glyclated hemoglobin (HbA 1C and activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase of liver in experimental animals were assessed. Hyperlipidemic state developed in the experimental diabetic rat was assessed by measuring the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins in serum. Results: There was significant increased in the levels of FBG, HbA 1C and lipid profiles along with diminution (P < 0.001 in the activities of hepatic hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and elevation in glucose-6-phosphatase in diabetic control animals in respect to the untreated control. Significant recovery (P < 0.05 in the activities of above mentioned enzymes along with the correction in the levels of FBG, HbA 1C and serum lipid profiles were noted towards the control level after the treatment of composite extract (i.e. 100 mg of Somraji: 100 mg of Methi, total 200 mg/kg body weight than the individual extract (i.e. 200 mg of Somraji or 200 mg of Methi, per kg body weight treatment. Conclusion: Results suggest that composite extract of above plant parts has more potent antidiabetic efficacy than the individual extract.

  10. Protection Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon; Li, Cher

    from having an orientation towards legal appropriability, we conjecture that protection myopia may lead some firms to allocate too much attention to legal appropriability, in particular when the behavioral and structural contingencies are unfavorable. Examining a panel of three successive waves...

  11. Protective effect of aqueous extract of seed of Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji) and seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: A comparative evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Jana, Kishalay; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Ghosh, Debidas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psoralea corylifolia (Somraji) and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi), important medicinal plants widely used in India as folk medicine. Local people of West Bengal traditionally used the seeds of these plants to cure diabetes. Objective: Present study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of aqueous extract of seeds of these plants in separate or in composite manner in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intr...

  12. Antibacterial and color protection of spice extracts on meat products%香辛料提取物在肉类食品中抑菌护色作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博文; 孔保华; 夏秀芳

    2012-01-01

    鲜肉以及肉制品的腐败和褪色作用会造成巨大的经济损失。香辛料提取物作为天然防腐护色剂的一种,既可以抑制肉制品中的腐败茵,又可以延缓肉制品发生褪色现象,最重要的是能够保证消费者的食用安全。本文详细论述了肉类食品氧化褪色的机理、香辛料提取物的制备、提取物的抑菌、保色机理,以及香辛料提取物在肉类食品中的应用和发展前景,为提高肉类制品品质和食品安全性提供了理论指导。%Financial losses are huge due to discoloration and perish of meat and meat products. The spoilage bacteria and the occurrence of discoloration in meat product can be inhibited by spice extracts,which is a kind of natural extract.The most important, consumer' s food safety can be insured.This article detailly discussed the mechanism of decoloration of meat products, the preparation of spice extracted, the antibacterial and color retention mechanism of spices,and the application prospect of spice extracted in meat industry .It could provide technical support to improve the quality of meat products and food safety.

  13. PENGARUH PERLINDUNGAN EKSTRAK RIMPANG BANGLE (Zingiber cassumunar ROXB TERHADAP KERUSAKAN HATI TIKUS YANG DIINDUKSI CCI4 [Protective Effect of Bangle (Zingiber cassumunar ROXB Rhizome Extract on CCl4-Induced Liver Damage of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmeizy Arafah1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber cassumunar Roxb known as Bangle, has antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities. It has been used for medicinal purposes traditionally. The aim of this study was to investigate whether administration of Z. cassumunar extracts orally may prevent acute liver damage induced by carbontetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. The study was carried out on 5 groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5. Group 1 was given ethyl acetate fraction of Bangle rhizome extract (30 mg/kg bw (KS, group 2 was given dry juice of Bangle rhizome (30 mg/kg bw (SK, group 3 was given curcuminoid (30 mg/kg bw (KUR, group 4 as negative control (KN given 5% Tween 80 solution (10 ml/kg bw and Group 5 as control (K. Carbontetrachloride 0,1 ml/kg bw was given orally after 7 days to group KS, SK, KUR and KN. Rats were terminated 24 hours after CCl4-induction. Liver injury was evaluated by analyzed SGPT and SGOT activities from the serum and histopathologycal examination was conducted on the liver. The results clearly indicated that extracts of Z. cassumunar could reduced significantly the degree of liver damage induced by CCl4. It may be concluded that Z. cassumunar rhizome could be used as substance for hepatoprotector

  14. Protective Effects of Ethanol Extract of Polygalae Radix on Depression Mice%远志醇提物对抑郁症模型小鼠的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕雯

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究远志醇提物对抑郁症模型小鼠的保护作用.方法:通过小鼠悬尾实验、强迫游泳实验、慢性不可预知性应激+开场实验分析远志醇提物的抗抑郁作用.各小实验中雄性小鼠均分为模型对照(等容生理盐水)、氯米帕明(20 mg·kg-1)和远志醇提物高、中、低剂量(10、5、2.5 g·kg-1)组.结果:高、中、低剂量远志醇提物均可缩短抑郁症模型小鼠悬尾不动时间、游泳不动时间和增加移动格数.结论:远志醇提物对模型小鼠抑郁症状态有一定的改善作用.%OBJECTIVE: To study the pharmacological effect of ethanol extract of Polygalae Radix on depression mice. METHODS: Antidepressant effects of ethanol extract of Polygalae Radix was analyzed through mice tail suspension test, forced swimming test and chronic unpredictable stress+opening test analysis. The male mice were randomly divided into model group (constant volume normal saline) , clomipramine group (20 mg-kg-1), ethanol extract of Polygalae Radix high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose groups(10,5,2.5 g-kg-1)- RESULTS: High-dose, medium-dose and low-dose ethanol extract of Polygalae Radix could decrease tail suspension time, immobility time and increase the number of mobile grid in depression mice. CONCLUSION: Ethanol extract of Radix Polygalae on has certain effect on depression of model mice.

  15. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Radioactive Shipping Service

    2005-01-01

    The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  16. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  17. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tel. 73171

  18. Corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention describes a corrosion protection device for long-term storage containers of radioactive matter, in particular of irradiated fuel elements stored in geological formations apt for the purpose. This device prevents corrosion of the containers even if water emerges unexpectedly, or, in any case, inhibits and minimizes corrosion. The device comprehends reactive anodes that are connected to the containers by means of conductive connections. (orig.)

  19. Protecting Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Galster, Kjeld Hald. Doctoral Student (History). Saxo Institute. May 2007. Protecting Democracy: Danish Defence Debate in Times of Change. Supervisor: Professor, Dr. Gunner Lind. Democratic debate on defence and democratic organisation of the forces are as central to the life of a democr......ABSTRACT Galster, Kjeld Hald. Doctoral Student (History). Saxo Institute. May 2007. Protecting Democracy: Danish Defence Debate in Times of Change. Supervisor: Professor, Dr. Gunner Lind. Democratic debate on defence and democratic organisation of the forces are as central to the life....... The dissertation addresses two essential problems of the correlation of democracy, the debate, and the current defence policy. Firstly, is democratic society capable of pursuing constantly a defence policy reflecting the classic, realist logic, or does this happen only sporadically, because the debate is being.......d.-studerende (historie). Saxo-Instituttet, maj 2007. Protecting Democracy: Danish Defence Debate in Times of Change. Vejleder: Professor, dr. phil. Gunner Lind. En forsvarsdebat hvilende på demokratisk debat og en demokratisk indretning af forsvaret er lige så selvfølgeligt for den demokratiske stat som forsvar i det...

  20. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of Clitoria ternatea flower extract on testicular damage induced by ketoconazole in rats%蝶豆花提取物的抗氧化活性及其对酮康唑诱导大鼠睾丸损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sitthichai IAMSAARD; Duriya FONGMOON; Hisatake KONDO; Jaturon BURAWAT; Pipatpong KANLA; Supatcharee ARUN; Wannisa SUKHORUM; Bungorn SRIPANIDKULCHAI; Nongnut UABUNDIT; Jintanaporn WATTATHORN; Wiphawi HIPKAEO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ketoconazole (KET), an antifungal drug, has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. Pre-treatments with antioxidant plant against testicular damage induced by KET are required. The flowers of Clitoria ternatea (CT) are proven to have hepatoprotective potential. However, the protective effect on KET-induced testicular damage has not been reported. Objective: To investigate the protective effect of CT flower extracts with antioxidant activity on male reproductive parameters including sperm concentration, serum testosterone level, histo-pathology of the testis, and testicular tyrosine phosphorylation levels in rats induced with KET. Methods: The anti-oxidant activity of CT flower extracts was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Male rats were treated with CT flower extracts (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg BW) or distil ed water via a gastric tube for 28 d (preventive period:Days 1-21) and induced by KET (100 mg/kg BW) via intraperi-toneal injection for 7 d (induction period:Days 22-28). After the experiment, al animals were examined for the weights of the testis, epididymis plus vas deferens and seminal vesicle, serum testosterone levels, sperm concentration, his-tological structures and diameter of testis, and testicular tyrosine phosphorylation levels by immunoblotting. Results:The CT flower extracts had capabilities for DPPH scavenging and high reducing power. At 100 mg/kg BW, the extract had no toxic effects on the male reproductive system. Significantly, in CT+KET groups, CT flower extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) al eviated the reduction of reproductive organ weight parameters, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration. In addition, CT flower extracts gave protection from testicular damage in KET-induced rats. Moreover, in the CT100+KET group, CT flower extracts significantly enhanced the expression of a testicular 50-kDa tyrosine phosphorylated protein compared with that of other

  1. Protecting Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  2. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  3. 通天草提取物对阿尔茨海默病大鼠脑氧化性损伤的保护作用%Protective Effect of Extracts from Waternut Herbs on Cerebral Oxidative Damage of Rats with Alzheimer's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝龙; 单毓娟; 刘旭; 贾博宇; 周忠光

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨通天草提取物对阿尔茨海默病大鼠脑氧化性损伤的保护作用.方法:以Aβ诱导大鼠老年痴呆为研究模型,探讨了通天草两种提取物成分(醇提物和水提物)对老年痴呆大鼠的治疗和改善作用.结果与结论:两种提取物成分均能在不同程度上改善老年痴呆模型大鼠的学习记忆功能,该作用与其增强总超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性,同时抑制谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶GSH-PX及脂质过氧化物丙二醛(MDA)的生成密切相关.%Waternut Herb, the overground stem of eleocharis dulci, has not been known for its effect on the nerve degenerative diseases at present. Our previous results show that the extracts of waternut herb own the powerful antioxidation which implied its potential in the prevention and therapy for nerve degenerative diseases. To test the hypothesis, this study is performed to explore the inhibitory effect of two extracts derived from waternut herb, alcohol and aqueous extracts on the Aβ - induced Alzheimer s disease ( AD) in rats. Our findings manifest that two extracts of waternut herb improve the capacities of study and memory in AD rats. The protective effect is involved in the reduction of glutathione peroxidase ( GSH — PX) activity and lipid peroxida-tion production of malondialdehyde (MDA)as well as the induction of total superoxide dismutase (T - SOD) activity. These results will provide the novel clues for exploiting drugs against AD from plants.

  4. Protective effect of pomegranate fruit extract against skin photodamage caused by ultraviolet%石榴提取物对紫外线致皮肤光损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明美; 郭盛华

    2013-01-01

    紫外线照射给皮肤造成许多有害影响,包括皮肤免疫抑制、光老化等.预防及治疗紫外线照射引起的皮肤损伤,是皮肤学界关注的课题.规则摄入或外用植物抗氧化产品预防紫外线损伤已成为共识.相关研究表明,石榴提取物含有多种活性成分,如石榴多酚、黄酮类和水解单宁等,具有强大的抗氧化活性和抗炎及免疫调节作用,是一类较为理想的防治皮肤光损伤药物.%Ultraviolet irradiation has many negative effects on skin,including immunosuppression,photoaging,etc.How to effectively prevent skin damage caused by solar radiation has remained a focus in dermatology.It has been generally recognized that regular intake or external application of plant antioxidants can prevent photodamage.Pomegranate fruit extract contains many kinds of active ingredients,including pomegranate polyphenols,flavonoids,hydrolysis tannin,etc.It has been revealed that pomegranate fruit extract has antioxidant,anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects,and can be exploited as an ideal agent for the prevention and treatment of skin photoaging.

  5. Enrichment and Purification of Polyphenol Extract from Sphallerocarpus gracilis Stems and Leaves and in Vitro Evaluation of DNA Damage-Protective Activity and Inhibitory Effects of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient preparative separation method for Sphallerocarpus gracilis stems and leaves polyphenols (SGslP was established in this study. An X-5 macroporous adsorption resin was selected for the purification of the SGslP, and the polyphenol content of the purified SGslP (PSGslP was increased 5.11-fold from 8.29% to 42.38% after one treatment run. The chemical composition of the PSGslP was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS, and the predominant compounds were found to be luteolin-7-glucoside, acacetin-7-acetyglycoside and its isomers. In addition, the PSGslP was evaluated in vitro to determine the DNA damage-protective activity and inhibitory effects of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The results indicated that the PSGslP exhibited significant protective activities against both ROO• and •OH radical-induced DNA damage. Moreover, the PSGslP exerted a dose-dependent inhibition effect on α-glucosidase but no inhibitory effect on α-amylase. These findings indicate that the Sphallerocarpus gracilis stems and leaves are good natural sources of antioxidants and are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase activity and are potential anti-diabetic inhibitor.

  6. Enrichment and Purification of Polyphenol Extract from Sphallerocarpus gracilis Stems and Leaves and in Vitro Evaluation of DNA Damage-Protective Activity and Inhibitory Effects of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Sun, Xiangyu; Tian, Chengrui; Luo, Jiyang; Zheng, Cuiping; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-01-01

    An efficient preparative separation method for Sphallerocarpus gracilis stems and leaves polyphenols (SGslP) was established in this study. An X-5 macroporous adsorption resin was selected for the purification of the SGslP, and the polyphenol content of the purified SGslP (PSGslP) was increased 5.11-fold from 8.29% to 42.38% after one treatment run. The chemical composition of the PSGslP was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS, and the predominant compounds were found to be luteolin-7-glucoside, acacetin-7-acetyglycoside and its isomers. In addition, the PSGslP was evaluated in vitro to determine the DNA damage-protective activity and inhibitory effects of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The results indicated that the PSGslP exhibited significant protective activities against both ROO• and •OH radical-induced DNA damage. Moreover, the PSGslP exerted a dose-dependent inhibition effect on α-glucosidase but no inhibitory effect on α-amylase. These findings indicate that the Sphallerocarpus gracilis stems and leaves are good natural sources of antioxidants and are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase activity and are potential anti-diabetic inhibitor. PMID:26633339

  7. The Protective Effect of Luffa Extract on Injury of PC12 Cells Induced by Aβ25-35%丝瓜提取物对Aβ25-35诱导的PC12细胞损伤的保护性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春杰; 董立珉; 郑亚萍; 康红钰

    2016-01-01

    观察丝瓜提取物(Luffa extract,LE)对β-淀粉样蛋白(Aβ25-35)诱导的PC12细胞损伤的保护作用。应用Aβ25-35造成神经细胞损伤模型,用四甲基偶氮唑盐微量酶反应(MTT)比色法检测各剂量组丝瓜提取物对PC12细胞活力的变化,检测过氧化氢酶(CAT)、谷胱甘肽过氧化氢酶(GSH-Px)活性水平,通过蛋白印迹试验(Western Blotting)来检测B细胞淋巴瘤基因-2(Bcl-2)和Bcl-2相关X蛋白(Bax)的表达水平。丝瓜提取物剂量组PC12细胞存活率高于模型组,GSH-Px活性显著增强,CAT含量显著增加(P<0.01或P<0.05),Bax表达水平降低,Bcl-2表达增高,与模型组比较,差异显著(P<0.05~P<0.01)。丝瓜提取物对Aβ25-35诱导的PC12细胞损伤有明显的保护作用。%To study the protective effect of luffa extract on injury of PC12 cells induced by amyloid βprotein (Aβ25-35). Neurons injury model was induced by Aβ25-35. MTT assay was used to detect the cellular viability after different concentrations of luffa extract. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were detected. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by Western Blotting. Compared with the control group, the cellular viability of luffa extract group was increased, the activity of GSH-Px and CAT were significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), the expression of Bax was decreased and Bcl-2 was increased (P<0.05-P<0.01). luffa extract can protect PC12 cells from Aβ25-35 induced cytotoxicity.

  8. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  9. Protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protective suit used for isolating its wearer from radioactively contaminated areas is described in three parts. The first part includes the covering for the wearer's head, arms and upper body and at the waist is releasably fitted around an opening into the contaminated area. The second part includes the legs of the suit and is releasably connectible to the first part of the suit to enclose the wearer who is then supplied with air through an umbilical pipe. A further part surrounds the second part and is releasably connectible to it, enclosing a space between the parts. This further part is also releasably connectible to the opening at the waist to prevent egress from the contaminated area. The releasable connections between the parts may be bayonet type fittings or may be rotating T-shaped projections which engage in T-shaped grooves. (author)

  10. Furfural Extraction of Liquid Heating Furnace Corrosion and Protection Measures%糠醛装置抽出液加热炉腐蚀分析与防护措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion often occurs in equipments of the furfural refining units. It seriously affected the normal production and causing many problems. Corrosion failure were analyzed typical elbows of the device pipeline Effective corrosion protection measures for furfural refining units have been proposed through the study of furfural corrosion of materials under different conditions.%糠醛装置加热炉糠焦腐蚀相当恶劣,本文对典型腐蚀弯头进行了宏观、微观腐蚀形貌分析和腐蚀沟槽能谱分析,针对糠焦腐蚀机理和腐蚀分析,从工艺、加剂和设备等方面提出了具体的防护措施。

  11. Protecting Identity Using Biometrics Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathimath Sabena, Ali Dehghantanha & Andy Seddon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics Identity Management (BIdM is a newly rising and developingdiscipline which could be expressed as the study of verification and validationmethods for the next generation. The two key terms enclosed in the title of thispaper are– “Biometrics Vulnerabilities” and “Identity Management”. Every one ofus has an identity. By utilizing this identity along with distinctive characteristicswe distinguish ourselves from one another. By cross referencing the data fromboth sources, a guideline that would adapt the best practices to maintain thesequence of BIdM and identity theft integrity was designed. Based on thefindings a guideline is proposed to the experts and end-users to use. A walkthrough with the BIdM consultant was done to identify areas of improvement tofine tune the artifact.For proper identity management this guideline can be used as the processes indata collection and data maintenance procedures are included. The proceduresinclude extracting the data from data collection for proofs, data matching andhandling the data in an appropriate way. The guideline will have its proper BIdMtechniques by having the best practices of tackling its vulnerabilities.Databases having biometric data are themselves a threat to privacy. Whiledistinguishing gaps in BIdM and discovering new approaches to tackle thevulnerabilities, issues and protect such databases and increasing the awarenessprograms, this research can be further extended.