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Sample records for brachyura

  1. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In additi...

  2. Evolutionary history of true crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) and the origin of freshwater crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Schubart, Christoph D; Ahyong, Shane T; Lai, Joelle C Y; Au, Eugene Y C; Chan, Tin-Yam; Ng, Peter K L; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-05-01

    Crabs of the infra-order Brachyura are one of the most diverse groups of crustaceans with approximately 7,000 described species in 98 families, occurring in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. The relationships among the brachyuran families are poorly understood due to the high morphological complexity of the group. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive phylogeny of Brachyura to date using sequence data of six nuclear protein-coding genes and two mitochondrial rRNA genes from more than 140 species belonging to 58 families. The gene tree confirms that the "Podotremata," are paraphyletic. Within the monophyletic Eubrachyura, the reciprocal monophyly of the two subsections, Heterotremata and Thoracotremata, is supported. Monophyly of many superfamilies, however, is not recovered, indicating the prevalence of morphological convergence and the need for further taxonomic studies. Freshwater crabs were derived early in the evolution of Eubrachyura and are shown to have at least two independent origins. Bayesian relaxed molecular methods estimate that freshwater crabs separated from their closest marine sister taxa ~135 Ma, that is, after the break up of Pangaea (∼200 Ma) and that a Gondwanan origin of these freshwater representatives is untenable. Most extant families and superfamilies arose during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

  3. Aspectos ecológicos dos Brachyura (Crustacea: Decapoda no manguezal do Itacorubi, SC - Brasil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies including occurrence, relative abundance and spatial distribution of 15 species of Brachyura, as well as the fluctuation in the annual cycle are carried out in mangrove (27º 34' 14" and 27º 35' 31" L.S.; 48º 30' 07"and 48º 31' 33" L. W., during the year 1986. The hydrological parameters temperature, salinity and pH of surface and intersticial waters were also studied. Chasmagnathus granulata was the most abundant specie, followed by Uça uruguayensis, Aratus pisonii and Callinectes danae. The number of males was higher than females. In the spring a larger rate of Catches occurred. The species Eurytium limosum, Cardisoma guanhumi that had the state of São Paulo as their austral boundaru and Uça maracoani the state of Paraná, have now their boundaries of distribution expanded is for as the City of Florianópolis, in the state of Santa Catarina.

  4. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura: evidence for aerial olfaction?

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    Jakob Krieger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura, a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal’s life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  5. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T; Schubart, Christoph D; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the "true crabs" (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal's life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  6. Some notes on the associated occurrence of the crab Cycloes Cristata (Brullé, 1837) (Brachyura: Calappidae) and two types of Benthic fish in the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A concise survey is presented of the species of the crab genus Cycloes De Haan, 1837 (Brachyura: Calappidae). Notes are presented on the associated ocurrence, on shallow sandy bottoms in the Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Gran Canaria), of the eastern Atlantic Cycloes cristata (Brullé, 1837) and the fis

  7. Muscular anatomy of the legs of the forward walking crab, Libinia emarginata (Decapoda, Brachyura, Majoidea).

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    Vidal-Gadea, A G; Belanger, J H

    2009-05-01

    Decapod crustaceans have been the focus of neuroethological studies for decades. With few exceptions, however, their musculature remains scarcely described. We study the neuroethology of legged locomotion in the portly spider crab, Libinia emarginata (Brachyura, Majoidea), which preferentially walks forward. Majoid crabs are thought to be among the first to have adopted the crab form (carcinification) from lobster-like ancestors, making them interesting subjects for comparative and phylogenetic studies. The radial arrangement of the legs around the thorax, coupled with its unidirectional walking modality makes L. emarginata a good candidate for the presence of anterior and posterior limb specializations. Here we describe the complete muscular anatomy of all the pereopods of L. emarginata and compare our findings with other decapods described in the literature. The number of proximal muscle bundles differs between the anterior and posterior pereopods of L. emarginata. We describe an intersegmental bundle of the flexor muscle similar to the one present in distantly related, forward walking macruran species. The behavioral repertoire, amenability to experimental investigations, and phylogenetic position make spider crabs useful species for the study of the neural control of legged locomotion. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of a complete description and comparison of the musculature in all the locomotor appendages of one species.

  8. Further observations on zooplankton of the Potengi Estuary (Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil with special reference to the larvae of Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda

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    C Sankarankutty

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with data on zooplankton collected from the estuary of Potengi, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil covering a period of one year from October 1992 to October 1993. Three fixed stations within the estuary located at varying distances from the mouth of the river were sampled. Sampling was done monthly when the tide was lowest. Analysis of the samples has shown clear pattern of seasonal variations in abundance of the dominant zooplankton components which are composed of Copepoda, Appendicularia, larvae of Brachyura, larvae of Cirripedia and Chaetognalha. A detailed study of the larvae of Brachyura was also attempted which showed that seven species can be identified in the samples, of which those of Aratus pisonii (H. Milne Edwards and Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille have already been described. Other five species are designated here numerically and description of various stages present in the samples are given.

  9. Local distribution and abundance of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1928 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in southern Brazil.

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    Oliveira-Neto, J F; Batista, E; Metri, R; Metri, C B

    2014-02-01

    The blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) is officially included in the list of over-exploited species in Brazil, although still abundantly found in the state of Santa Catarina, the southern limit of its distribution. This species was found in forested areas, gardens, and grassy areas, including crabs with carapace width larger than 80mm. The existence of this population with these characteristics is surprising, since there is only one official record of the species in the southern region. The objectives of this study are to estimate the abundance and occupation patterns of C. guanhumi in this region. Correlations with conservation were discussed. The absolute abundance of crabs in the middle of summer activity was established for an area of 100,000 m2. A smaller area was mapped and divided into sampling units for statistical analyses. We distributed approximately 240 crabs in a forested area of about 3,000 m2 and 150 crabs in grassy areas (90,000 m2). The statistical test of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences between the sizes of the openings of the galleries inside the forest and that located in grassy areas. In the forest, the openings tend to be much larger. Burrows were found at a distance of 150 metres from the channel. The number of galleries was higher in the forested area, although the burrows were more densely grouped in grassy areas. Although C. guanhumi seems to be adjusting well to changes caused by human occupation, small forested areas are more conducive to growth and conservation of this species.

  10. The complete mitogenome of the hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda, Brachyura) and comparison with brachyuran crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) obtained from the hydrothermal vents off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan, which extend from the deep sea Okinawa Trench. The mitogenome of X. testudinatus was 15,796 bp in length and contained the same 37 genes (e.g. 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 PCGs) found in other metazoan mitogenomes. Analysis of the structural mt gene order in X. testudinatus revealed that the 13 PCGs, excluding a translocation of ND6-Cyt b cluster, were similarly ordered when compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern; however the tRNAs were severely rearranged. Phylogenetic analysis of decapod mitogenomes showed that the molecular taxonomy of the vent crab was in accordance with its morphological systematics. Together, these findings suggest that the vent crab studied here has little mitochondrial genetic variation when compared with morphologically defined conspecifics from other marine habitats.

  11. Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda associated to Schizoporella unicornis (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata in Ubatuba bay (SP, Brazil

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    Fernando L. M. Mantelatto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work characterizes the composition of Brachyura from Schizoporella unicornis. The samples were collected in 1995 at Itaguá Beach, Ubatuba (SP, at three month intervals, during all seasons from January to December. The Bryozoa colonies were obtained by snorkeling at a depth of five meters in daylight. A total of 323 specimens were collected from four families (Xanthidae, Portunidae, Majidae and Grapsidae. Pachygrapsus transversus, Hexapanopeus schimitti, and Menippe nodifrons occurred in all seasons. The highest and lowest number of individuals occurred during the spring and autumn, respectively. Xanthidae exhibited the highest density during the summer, autumn, and spring, while Grapsidae exhibited the highest density in winter. It was noted the presence of Charibdis hellerii, an portunid from Indo-Pacific ocean. The diversity of species obtained, in addition to an accentuated number of immature and ovigerous females specimens, suggested that Schizoporella colonies were a place of reproduction and development.Este trabalho caracterizou a composição dos braquiúros em Schizoporella unicornis. As amostras foram coletadas na Praia do Itaguá, Ubatuba (SP, em intervalos de três meses, durante as estações climáticas de Janeiro a Dezembro/1995. As colônias de briozoários foram obtidas por mergulho livre, coletadas pela manhã. Um total de 323 espécimes foram coletados dentro de quatro famílias (Xanthidae, Portunidae, Majidae e Grapsidae. Pachygrapsus transversus, Hexapanopeus schimitti e Menippe nodifrons ocorreram em todas as estações. O maior e o menor número de indivíduos foram registrados na primavera e no outono, respectivamente. Xanthidae exibiu maior densidade no verão, outono e primavera, enquanto Grapsidae foi no inverno. Registrou-se a ocorrência de Charibdis hellerii, espécie originária do Indo-Pacífico. A diversidade de espécies obtida, juntamente com o acentuado número de indivíduos imaturos e fêmeas ov

  12. Efectos del rizocéfalo Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura en Chile Effects of the rhizocephalan Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala on the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura in Chile

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    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversas asociaciones biológicas de amplia distribución y alta especificidad en el ambiente marino han pasado casi desapercibidas para los estudiosos en Chile. Aquí se describe cuantitativamente la infección por Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura y se evalúa si el parásito produce efectos semejantes a los descritos para asociaciones similares. Para ello, 513 ejemplares del cangrejo fueron recolectados manualmente desde el submareal somero, entre septiembre y octubre de 2003, en Lenga, Octava Región de Chile. La prevalencia de rizocéfalos alcanzó valores máximos cercanos al 60 % en hospedadores de pequeño tamaño corporal, provocando castración, inhibiendo el desarrollo gonadal de las hembras y modificando el tamaño de los caracteres sexuales secundarios en ambos sexos, lo que sugiere que impone una gran demanda sobre su hospedador. Estos resultados muestran una gran similitud con otros estudios que involucran a rizocéfalos, y podrían, al incorporar a las simbiosis en el estudio de las comunidades bentónicas en Chile, conducir a que se reinterprete, por ejemplo, la abundancia y patrones de reproducción de P. barbiger, una especie de depredador prominente de esas comunidades bentónicasIn the marine realm, several biological associations are distributed worldwide and are highly specific, but remain poorly studied in Chile. Here, we describe quantitatively the infection by the barnacle Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala in the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura, and assess if the parasite effects are similar to rhizocephalan-decapod associations elsewhere. To do this, 513 crabs were collected by hand while scuba diving between September and October, 2003 in the shallow subtidal zone of Lenga (37° S, Chile. Maximum prevalence reached ca. 60 % in small body size hosts, producing total

  13. Male internal reproductive structures of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae): vas deferens morphology and spermatozoal ultrastructure.

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    Becker, Carola; Klaus, Sebastian; Tudge, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Pea crabs of the subfamily Pinnotherinae (Pinnotheridae) have a high investment in reproduction and an outstanding reproductive output, probably as an adaptation to the required increase in reproductive rate due to the pinnotherids small size and their parasitic, host-dependant way of life. In the present study, we investigate the male internal reproductive structures and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Pinnotheres pisum and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres by histological methods and both scanning- and transmission electron microscopy. In the Brachyura, the male internal reproductive systems generally consist of paired testes and corresponding vasa deferentia where spermatozoa develop and mature. Spermatozoal ultrastructure of the investigated pinnotherids conforms to the thoracotreme type, however, N. pinnotheres has an accessory opercular ring and a periopercular rim, neither of which are present in spermatozoa of P. pisum. Spermatozoa are enclosed within spermatophores in the secretory proximal vas deferens. Two types of secretions were observed in P. pisum and N. pinnotheres: an electron dense substance secreted in the proximal vas deferens involved in spermatophore formation, and large electron-luscent vesicles constituting the seminal plasma in the medial and distal vas deferens. The medial vas deferens is strongly widened compared to other brachyurans to purpose storing spermatophores embedded in seminal plasma. Tubular appendices, which produce and store large amounts of seminal plasma, arise from the distal region of the vas deferens. The appendices extend into the ventral cephalothorax and also in the first pleomere. The latter being an exceptional location for reproductive structures among male brachyurans.

  14. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa.

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    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The patterns of complexity of the male and female sexual openings in Brachyura, which have been the source of uncertainties and conflicting opinions, are documented, together with a study of the morphologies of the coxal and sternal gonopores in both sexes, penises, spermathecae, and gonopods. The vulvae, male gonopores and penises are described among selected taxa of Eubrachyura, and their function and evolution examined in the context of a wide variety of mating behaviours. The location of female and male gonopores, the condition of the penis (coxal and sternal openings and modalities of protection), and related configurations of thoracic sternites 7 and 8, which are modified by the intercalation of a wide sternal part (thoracic sternites 7 and 8) during carcinisation, show evidence of deep homology. They represent taxonomic criteria at all ranks of the family-series and may be used to test lineages. Of particular significance are the consequences of the posterior expansion of the thoracic sternum, which influences the condition, shape, and sclerotisation of the penis, and its emergence from coxal (heterotreme) to coxo-sternal, which is actually still coxal (heterotreme), in contrast to a sternal emergence (thoracotreme). The heterotreme-thoracotreme distinction results from two different trajectories of the vas deferens and its ejaculatory duct via the P5 coxa (Heterotremata) or through the thoracic sternum (Thoracotremata). Dissections of males of several families have demonstrated that this major difference not only affects the external surface (perforation of the coxa or the sternum by the ejaculatory duct) but also the internal anatomy. There is no evidence for an ejaculatory duct passing through the articular membrane between the P5 coxa and the thoracic sternum in any Brachyura, even when the sternal male gonopore is very close to the P5 coxa. Trends towards the coxo-sternal condition are exemplified by multistate characters, varying from a shallow

  15. Names and publication dates of the Brachyura in F.É. Guérin (Guérin-Méneville) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

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    Low, Martyn E Y; Ng, Peter K L; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2013-11-12

    The names and dates of the publications of Brachyura of Guérin (Guérin-Méneville from 1836) are reviewed, and previously unidentified or overlooked names are identified. Several identical new names used in multiple publications by Guérin (also under the name Guérin-Méneville), and others that appeared in the same year necessitated the accurate determination of publication dates to establish priority. The authorships of three names should be credited to Guérin (1832): Gecarcinus lateralis (Gecarcinidae), Halimus aries (Majidae), and Libinia spinosa (Epialtidae), the first previously attributed to Fréminville (1835), the last two to H. Milne Edwards (1834). The overlooked genus- and species-group names Cyclocarcinus pinnotheroides Guérin-Méneville, 1838, are determined to be senior subjective synonyms of the genus- and species-group names Hapalonotus reticulatus (De Man, 1879) (Pilumnidae). Applying Article 23.9.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, precedence is reversed between the genus-group names and the correct name is Hapalonotus pinnotheroides (Guérin-Méneville, 1838). Current and widespread use of the genus-group name Thalamita Latreille, 1829 (31 March) (Portunidae) is threatened by the overlooked Thalamites Guérin, 1829 (21 March), and the precedence of the names is also reversed to maintain usage of the former. The genus-group name Eurypodius Guérin (Inachidae) is shown to have been established in 1828, not 1825. Included is a complete bibliography of the publications in which Guérin (also under Guérin-Méneville) established new names for Brachyura, with their accurate publication dates.

  16. Characteristics and fate of the spermatozoa of Inachus phalangium (Decapoda, Majidae): description of novel sperm structures and evidence for an additional mechanism of sperm competition in Brachyura.

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    Rorandelli, Rocco; Paoli, Francesco; Cannicci, Stefano; Mercati, David; Giusti, Fabiola

    2008-03-01

    Various aspects of the reproductive anatomy of the spider crab Inachus phalangium are investigated utilizing light and electron microscopy. Spermatozoal ultrastructure reveals the presence of a glycocalyx in the peripheral region of the periopercular rim, never recorded before in crustacean sperm cells. Sperm cell morphological traits such as semi-lunar acrosome shape, centrally perforate and flat operculum, and absence of a thickened ring, are shared only with Macropodia longirostris, confirming a close phylogenetic relationship of these species and their separation from the other members of the family Majidae. Spermatozoa are transferred to females inside spermatophores of different sizes, but during ejaculate transfer, larger spermatophores might be ruptured by tooth-like structures present on the ejaculatory canal of the male first gonopod, releasing free sperm cells. Such a mechanism could represent the first evidence of a second form of sperm competition in conflict with sperm displacement, the only mechanism of sperm competition known among Brachyura, enabling paternity for both dominant and smaller, non-dominant, males. In addition, we propose several hypotheses concerning the remote and proximal causes of the existence of large seminal receptacles in females of I. phalangium. Among these, genetically diverse progeny, reduction of sexual harassment and phylogenetic retention seem the most plausible, while acquisition of nutrients from seminal fluids, demonstrated in other arthropods, and suggested by previous studies, could be discarded on the basis of the presented data.

  17. Comparative brain architecture of the European shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura) and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus (Anomura) with notes on other marine hermit crabs.

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    Krieger, Jakob; Sombke, Andy; Seefluth, Florian; Kenning, Matthes; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus are members of the sister taxa Brachyura and Anomura (together forming the taxon Meiura) respectively. Both species share similar coastal marine habitats and thus are confronted with similar environmental conditions. This study sets out to explore variations of general brain architecture of species that live in seemingly similar habitats but belong to different major malacostracan taxa and to understand possible differences of sensory systems and related brain compartments. We examined the brains of Carcinus maenas, Pagurus bernhardus, and three other hermit crab species with immunohistochemistry against tyrosinated tubulin, f-actin, synaptic proteins, RF-amides and allatostatin. Our comparison showed that their optic neuropils within the eyestalks display strong resemblance in gross morphology as well as in detailed organization, suggesting a rather similar potential of processing visual input. Besides the well-developed visual system, the olfactory neuropils are distinct components in the brain of both C. maenas and P. bernhardus as well as the other hermit crabs, suggesting that close integration of olfactory and visual information may be useful in turbid marine environments with low visibility, as is typical for many habitats such as, e.g., the Baltic and the North Sea. Comparing the shape of the olfactory glomeruli in the anomurans showed some variations, ranging from a wedge shape to an elongate morphology. Furthermore, the tritocerebrum and the organization of the second antennae associated with the tritocerebrum seem to differ markedly in C. maenas and P. bernhardus, indicating better mechanosensory abilities in the latter close to those of other Decapoda with long second antennae, such as Astacida, Homarida, or Achelata. This aspect may also represent an adaptation to the "hermit lifestyle" in which competition for shells is a major aspect of their life history. The shore

  18. Brachyuran crustaceans from the bycatch of prawn fisheries at the mouth of the Amazon river Crustáceos Brachyura da fauna acompanhante da pesca artesanal de camarões de água doce na foz do rio Amazonas

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    Jô de Farias Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a pioneering study on the Brachyura bycatch associated with the artisan prawn fisheries at the mouth of the Amazon River. The study was conducted at four collection sites distributed along the mouth of the Amazon River between the months of January/2009 and January/2010. The animals were caught using handcrafted traps called "matapi", which are used by prawn fisherman in the region. Twenty matapis were used at each collection site. A total of 145 specimens were captured and six species were identified, all belonging to the Trichodactylidae family - Sylviocarcinus maldonadoensis, S. pictus, S. devillei, Valdivia serrata, Dilocarcinus septemdentatus and D. pagei. The most representative species, S. maldonadoensis, S. pictus and S. devillei were classified as regular. Regarding the composition of the capture, there were three specimens of D. pagei , only one male specimen of D. septemdentatus, forty-eight specimens of S. maldonadoensis, sixty-eight specimens of S. pictus, twenty-two specimens of S. devillei and three specimens of V. serrata. In all months, the brachyuran fauna showed a considerably lower biomass when compared to the prawns, representing only 5% of the catch, in a ratio of 1:0.06. For most species, the number of males was always higher than the number of females in almost all collection months.O presente trabalho constitui um estudo inédito sobre a fauna de Brachyura associada à pesca artesanal de camarões na foz do rio Amazonas. Este estudo foi realizado em quatro pontos de coleta distribuídos na foz do Rio Amazonas, entre os meses de janeiro/2009 e janeiro/2010. Os animais foram capturados utilizando armadilhas artesanais denominadas "matapis" usados por pescadores de camarão na região. Em cada ponto da coleta foram usados 20 matapis. Foram identificados seis espécies em um total de 145 indivíduos capturados, sendo todos pertencentes a família Trichodactylidae: Sylviocarcinus maldonadoensis, S. pictus

  19. El rol de Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura en los ciclos de vida de Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: algunos aspectos de su ecologia parasitaria The role of Cytograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura in the life cycles of Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: some aspects of their ecological parasitology

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    Sergio R. Martorelli

    1989-12-01

    in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press appeared correlated with prevalence; c in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.

  20. Cymonomid crabs of the MAINBAZA Expedition (Decapoda: Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyong, Shane T

    2014-06-23

    Cymonomid crabs collected from the Mozambique Channel off Madagascar by the 2011 MAINBAZA Expedition are reported. Two species of Cymonomus A. Milne Edwards, 1880, are represented, of which one is new to science and the other, C. valdiviae Lankester, 1903, is rediscovered, being previously known only from the holotype. Three species of Cymonomidae are now known from the western Indian Ocean, including C. trifurcus Stebbing, 1920, from South Africa. 

  1. Macroepizoísmo em Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae Macroepizoites on Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae

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    Vanessa C. Winter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo de distribuição dos macroepizóicos foi realizado numa população do caranguejo-aranha Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 proveniente do litoral dos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. O material biológico foi obtido junto aos pescadores, e faz parte do rejeito de pesca. Os caranguejos foram mensurados e os macroepizóicos identificados e contados. Os seguintes macroepizóicos sésseis foram registrados: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia e duas espécies tubícolas de Gammaridea (Crustacea. Além destes organismos ocorreram dois tubos desabitados e quatro animais vágeis. A anêmona C. tricolor foi a espécie mais abundante e freqüente, sendo, provavelmente, utilizada como mecanismo de camuflagem pelo caranguejo. O macroepizoísmo em L. ferreirae está relacionado com a idade ou tamanho do caranguejo, tendo maior incidência naqueles mais velhos ou de maior porte. Entretanto, a densidade dos macroepizóicos por caranguejo se mantém em torno de três. Não há relação entre o macroepizoísmo e o sexo do hospedeiro; somente fêmeas ovígeras utilizam desse recurso mais freqüentemente do que as não-ovígeras. Devido à maior área de fixação, os macroepizóicos colonizam principalmente a carapaça do caranguejo, enquanto nos pereiópodos há predominância de Bryozoa.A study of the distribution of the macroepizoites was carried out on a population of the spider crab Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 from the Southern Brazilian coast. Crabs were obtained from shrimps and fishes by-catch. They were measured, and their macroepizoites were identified and counted. The following sessile macroepizoites were registered: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia and two species of Gammaridea (Crustacea. The sea anemone C. tricolor was the most frequent species and probably it is used as a mechanism of camouflage by crabs. Macroepizoites on L. ferreirae are related to its age or size, therefore, bigger or older crabs had greater incidence of macroepizoites. However, the density of macroepizoites is about three per crab. There is not a relationship between macroepizoism and sex of the host, but ovigerous females use this resource more frequently than non-ovigerous ones. Due to larger setting area, macroepizoites colonize mainly the carapace of the host; bryozoans predominate in hosts' pereiopods.

  2. Embriologia do siri Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae Embryology of the swimming crab Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae

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    Marcelo A.A. Pinheiro

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovigerous females of Arenaeus cribrarius were collected at Ubatuba, São Paulo, and maintaining in aquaria under controlled temperature (25±1ºC, salinity (35±1‰ and photoperiod (12:12. A small sample of eggs was collected for each 24h, for morphological description, chromatic changes and biometric analysis throughout the embryonic development. Eight egg stages were photographed and had their small and large diameters measured under a microscope provided with camera lucida. The egg's shape was low elliptical during all the embryogenesis and showed size increase (24.4% and volume (91.1 %, when the last stage were compared with the first one. According to mean egg diameter and volume, the eggs should be pooled in three different groups (1-3; 4-6; 7-8 corresponding to initial, intermediate and final stages. The attained results were compared with the literature which emphasizing the species of Portunidae's family.

  3. Crescimento do caranguejo de água doce, Dilocarcinus pagei Stimpson (Crustacea, Brachyura, Trichodactylidae Growth of the freshwater crab, Dilocarcinus pagei Stimpson (Crustacea, Brachyura, Trichodactylidae

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    Marcelo A. A. Pinheiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de caranguejos de água doce tem sido pouco enfocada na literatura carcinológica, especialmente em relação ao crescimento das espécies da família Trichodactylidae. Este estudo visa determinar as curvas de crescimento em tamanho e peso, bem como a longevidade e a idade na muda pubertária dos caranguejos de água doce Dilocarcinus pagei Stimpson, 1861. As amostras foram obtidas mensalmente na Represa Municipal de São José do Rio Preto (São Paulo, de outubro/1994 a setembro/1996. Os indivíduos tiveram o sexo determinado, sendo também mensurados (LC = largura do cefalotórax e pesados (PE = peso úmido. O crescimento dos indivíduos foi determinado pelo método de distribuição dos exemplares em classes de tamanho, sendo utilizado o programa FiSAT para a determinação das curvas através do ajuste não linear dos dados pelo modelo de Bertalanffy. Foram analisados 962 exemplares (534 machos e 428 fêmeas e as curvas de crescimento em tamanho foram expressas pelas equações LC Machos = 61,7[1-e-0,97(t+0,041] e LC Fêmeas = 57,1[1-e-1,41(t+0,031], enquanto o crescimento em peso foi melhor representado por PE Machos = 65,2[1-e-0,97(t+0,041]3,08 e PE Fêmeas = 44,9[1-e-1,41(t+0,031]2,82. O tamanho assintótico dos machos (61,66 mm foi pouco superior ao das fêmeas (57,09 mm, ocorrendo o inverso para a longevidade, estimada em 2,4 e 2,7 anos, respectivamente. O tamanho máximo estimado com base em 95% do tamanho assintótico foi de 58,6 mm para os machos e 54,2 mm para as fêmeas, valores muito próximos dos maiores tamanhos registrados na natureza para cada sexo (55,8 mm. A muda da puberdade dos machos ocorreu com idade superior à das fêmeas (tMachos = 1,2 anos e tFêmeas = 0,9 anos. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho são inéditos na literatura carcinológica, sendo de grande valia no manejo populacional e preservação desta espécie, que vem sendo intensamente explorada e usada como isca na pesca esportiva.The biology of freshwater crab Dilocarcinus pagei Stimpson, 1861 has been poorly studied, mainly in relation to growth in the Trichodactylidae species. This study aims to determine size/weight growth curves, longevity and age in the puberty molt of the freshwater crab Dilocarcinus pagei Stimpson, 1861. The samples were taken monthly in the São José do Rio Preto county dam (São Paulo, from October 1994 to September 1996, the individuals being sexed, measured (CW = cephalotorax width and weighed (WW = wet weight. Growth was determined by distribution of the specimens by size classes, where as the FiSAT program was used to determine non-linear estimation of growth parameters by the Bertalanffy equation. A total of 962 specimens (534 males and 428 females was analyzed. Growth size curves were expressed by the equations CW Males = 61.7[1-e-0.97(t+0.041] and CW Females = 57.1[1-e-1.41(t+0.031], while growth in weight was better represented by WW Males = 65.2[1-e-0.97(t+0.041]3.08 and WW Females = 44.9[1-e-1.41(t+0.031]2.82. Assintotic size of the males (61.7 mm was greater than that of the felamles (57.1 mm, the opposite occurring for longevity, estimated at 2.4 and 2.7 years, respectively. The maximum size (95% of the CW¥ was 58.6 mm for males and 54.2 mm for females, very close to maximum sizes recorded in nature to each sex (55.8 mm. The puberty molt in males occurred at a higher age level when compared to that of females (tMales = 1.2 years and tFemales = 0.9 years. The results present here are inedited in the carcinological literature, this being very important in population management and preservation of this species, as it is explored intensely and used as bait in fishing.

  4. [Abundance and body size of Menippe mercenaria (Crustacea: Brachyura), in artificial refuges in Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Martínez, A; Ramírez-González, A

    2001-01-01

    In Florida and Cuba the stone crab Menippe mercenaria (Say, 1818) is under strong fishing-pressure; nevertheless in the Mexican Caribbean it is considered as sub-utilized and poorly known resource. Artificial shelters ("condominios cubanos") were used to study relative abundance, age structure, claw length-carapace amplitude relation, and population in three seasons and four sectors at Bahía Ascension, Quintana Roo, Mexico. The abundance varied according to the sector and sampling season: population was higher in the south and during the north wind ("Nortes") season (January to March). The carapace amplitude was directly proportional to claw length (r2 = 0.83, 0.97 and 0.89; p < 0.05 in females, males and total, respectively). The results suggest that specimens with 37.5 and 67.5 mm of carapace amplitude are the most limited regarding refuge availability in the Bay.

  5. Larval development of Austinixa bragantina (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae reared in the laboratory

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    Jô de Farias Lima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The zoeal and megalopal stages of Austinixa bragantina Coelho, 2005, a small pinnotherid crab found in association with ghost shrimps Callichirus major (Say, 1818 and Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 in the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil, were reared in the laboratory from hatching to the megalopal stage. The duration of the larval period from hatching to megalopa was 28 days and the mean of duration for each larval stage was 6, 5, 5, 6, and 6 days, respectively. In the present study, the zoeal and megalopal stages are described and illustrated in detail.

  6. Progress on the fossil Xanthoidea MacLeay, 1838 (Decapoda, Brachyura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweitzer, Carrie E.

    2003-01-01

    Identification and utilization of proxy characters in extant families has been accomplished with success for fossil members of the Calappidae, Hepatidae, Necrocarcinidae, Matutidae, and Hexapodidae. The fossil and extant Raninidae have been revised using primarily hard-part morphology preserved in t

  7. Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

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    Hyžný, M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and comparatively longer carapace. Contrary to those two species, the new one makes up for just a small percentage in the decapod crustacean assemblages studied. PMID:25983383

  8. New record of Clypeasterophilus stebbingi (Rathbun, 1918 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae from the east coast of Nicaragua

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    Michel E. Hendrickx

    Full Text Available The pinnotherid crab Clypeasterophilus stebbingi (Rathbun, 1918, previously known from Florida, USA, Colombia and Brazil, is reported for the first time from Central America, on the east coast of Nicaragua. A single female specimen was collected on the sand dollar Clypeaster subdepressus (Gray, 1825, at 4 m depth, among turtle grass on sandy bottom. The specimen fits well with the description provided by M.J. Rathbun and observations made on photographs of the male holotype. Comparison of the material described from Florida (including the type material, Colombia and Brazil to the Nicaragua specimen, however, indicates that C. stebbingi shows some variation in the shape of the third maxilliped.

  9. Phylogenetic patterns and the adaptive evolution of osmoregulation in fiddler crabs (Brachyura, Uca)

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    Faria, Samuel Coelho; Provete, Diogo Borges; Thurman, Carl Leo

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is the primary driver of osmoregulatory evolution in decapods, and may have influenced their diversification into different osmotic niches. In semi-terrestrial crabs, hyper-osmoregulatory ability favors sojourns into burrows and dilute media, and provides a safeguard against hemolymph dilution; hypo-osmoregulatory ability underlies emersion capability and a life more removed from water sources. However, most comparative studies have neglected the roles of the phylogenetic and environmental components of inter-specific physiological variation, hindering evaluation of phylogenetic patterns and the adaptive nature of osmoregulatory evolution. Semi-terrestrial fiddler crabs (Uca) inhabit fresh to hyper-saline waters, with species from the Americas occupying higher intertidal habitats than Indo-west Pacific species mainly found in the low intertidal zone. Here, we characterize numerous osmoregulatory traits in all ten fiddler crabs found along the Atlantic coast of Brazil, and we employ phylogenetic comparative methods using 24 species to test for: (i) similarities of osmoregulatory ability among closely related species; (ii) salinity as a driver of osmoregulatory evolution; (iii) correlation between salt uptake and secretion; and (iv) adaptive peaks in osmoregulatory ability in the high intertidal American lineages. Our findings reveal that osmoregulation in Uca exhibits strong phylogenetic patterns in salt uptake traits. Salinity does not correlate with hyper/hypo-regulatory abilities, but drives hemolymph osmolality at ambient salinities. Osmoregulatory traits have evolved towards three adaptive peaks, revealing a significant contribution of hyper/hypo-regulatory ability in the American clades. Thus, during the evolutionary history of fiddler crabs, salinity has driven some of the osmoregulatory transformations that underpin habitat diversification, although others are apparently constrained phylogenetically. PMID:28182764

  10. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

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    Ingo S. Wehrtmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  11. On Parathelphusa ceophallus spec. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Parathelphiisidae) from Pulau Buton, Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1993-01-01

    A new species of parathelphusid freshwater crab, Parathelphusa ceophallus, is described from Pulau Buton, a small island southeast of the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. The species is differentiated from its allies in the P. celebensis complex by the form of its anterolateral margin, postorbital c

  12. Bornean freshwater crabs of the genus Arachnothelphusa gen. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1991-01-01

    A new genus, Arachnothelphusa gen. nov., is established for five species of Bornean freshwater crabs (Gecarcinucidae) previously placed in Thelphusula Bott, 1969. One species from Sabah, A. terrapes, is here described as new. The genus is characterised by its long ambulatory legs, shape of the carap

  13. Lunar rhythms in the egg hatching of the subtidal crustacean: Callinectes arcuatus Ordway (Decapoda: Brachyura)

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    DeVries, M. C.; Epifanio, C. E.; Dittel, A. I.

    1983-12-01

    Gravid female portunid crabs, Callinectes arcuatus, were held in a recirculating seawater system and the development of the eggs was observed. Based on morphological criteria, nine developmental stages were noted. The relationship between a given stage and the subsequent time to hatching was determined. Based on this, an index was devised that predicted hatching date from microscopic observation of an egg mass. This index was used to predict the date of hatching of eggs from 439 crabs collected in the Gulf of Nicoya, Central America, and the frequency of hatching was analysed in relation to the lunar and tidal cycles. Significantly more eggs hatched during periods of spring than neap tides. The adaptive significance of this rhythmicity is unclear at present.

  14. Fisheries assessment of Callinectes arcuatus (Brachyura, Portunidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Sönke; Wolff, Martha Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Callinectes arcuatus population of the Gulf of Nicoya and its current level of exploitation were investigated based on size frequencyanalysis of trap and trawl catches. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters (K= 0.89; CW∞ = 142mm for males) are in the range reported for otherspecies of this family and suggest that the male size at first maturity (CWmat = 94.3 mm) is reached in about a year. Total and natural mortality(Zyr = 2.49; Myr = 1.32) were derived from catch curve analysis and age...

  15. On two species of Archipelothelphusa Bott, 1969 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Sundathelphusidae) from Luzon, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The taxonomic problems concerning freshwater crabs of the genus Archipelothelphusa Bott, 1969 (Gecarcinucoidea: Sundathelphusidae) are discussed. The identity of Para-Bary-thelphusa grapsoides subsp. longipes Balss, 1937, is clarified, and a new species, A. celer spec. nov. is described from Luzon,

  16. Comparative reproductive effort and fecundity in the spider crabs, Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa (Majoidea, Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pisani, Ximena; Greco, Laura López

    2014-04-01

    A comparative analysis of reproductive effort, fecundity, and egg weight was conducted in two species of spider crabs, Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa, during one-year period. Ovigerous females were collected from Patagonia-Argentina (42°56'S, 64°21'W) and were measured (CW = carapace width). Each egg brood was weighed, dried and the number of eggs (F = fecundity) counted. Scatterplots of relative fecundity (RF = F/CW) were submitted to regression analyses. Mean F and RF was calculated for each season to assess seasonal variation of reproductive intensity. Mean F was 35,000 eggs in L. tuberculosus and 30,000 eggs in L. spinosa, with these values being intermediate in comparison with other Majoidea. The RF was approximately 18% higher in L. tuberculosus that presented an average dry weight egg 45% less than L. spinosa. Although in both species F showed a positive correlation with CW, less than the 20% of the variation in the number of eggs could be explained by female's size, suggesting there are other factors that influence F. The proportion of body energy devoted to reproduction (reproductive effort), exhibited significant differences between species. In Leurocyclus tuberculosus reproductive activity is significantly different along the 12-month suggesting that the conditions for 'optimal' egg production change throughout the year. In Libinia spinosa mean fecundity did not reveal significant differences over seasons. These results are central in studies of life-history theory and in the development of life history models, as it is directly related to energy allocation and partitioning.

  17. Leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Taiwan, with three new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Jia; Ho, Ping-Ho; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2015-12-01

    Four leucosiid species from Taiwan are presented. Ebalia nudipes Sakai, 1963, with its male first gonopod figured for the first time. Galilia petricola Komai & Tsuchida, 2014, is recorded on the basis of a larger specimen, and distinguishing features with its only congener, G. narusei Ng & Richer de Forges, 2007, reappraised. Nursia rhomboidalis (Miers, 1879), previously known only from Japan, Korea, and mainland China, is also recorded from Taiwan. Myra fugax (Fabricius, 1798) is now formally recorded from Taiwan, and female characters identified to help separate the three known Taiwanese species of Myra.

  18. Eight new species of the genus Sinopotamon from Jiangxi Province, China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ai-Yun, Dai; Xian-Min, Zhou; Wei-Dong, Peng

    1995-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater crabs belonging to the genus Sinopotamon are recorded from Jiangxi Province, S.E. China. Eight species are new to science and these are described: S. xiushuiense, S. jiujiangense, S. wanzaiense, S. anyuanense, S. siguqiaoense, S. linhuanense, S. yushanense and S ninggan

  19. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatophores of old world freshwater crabs (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Gecarcinucidae, Potamidae, and Potamonautidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Sebastian; Schubart, Christoph D; Brandis, Dirk

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatophores of 19 palaeotropical freshwater crab species [12 species of the Gecarcinucidae, 6 of the Potamidae (Potamiscinae), and 1 species of the Potamonautidae (Deckeniinae: Hydrothelphusini)]. The investigated Potamiscinae have densely packed coenospermic spermatophores with the exception of Thaiphusa sirikit and Johora singaporensis that exhibit cleistospermia. In contrast, in the Gecarcinucidae the spermatozoa are loosely embedded in a mucous matrix. The gecarcinucid and potamiscine sperm differ, furthermore, in acrosomal structure and size. The acrosome in the Gecarcinucidae is much smaller and spherical, while the larger acrosome in the Potamiscinae has the tendency to be depressed. In the Potamiscinae, an additional middle acrosomal zone evolved between the acrosome ray zone and the outer acrosomal zone. Within the Gecarcinucidae, a differentiation into two groups (Gecarcinucinae and Parathelphusinae) is not supported by the present spermatological data. The sperm morphology of Hydrothelphusa aff. madagascariensis (Potamonautidae: Deckeniinae) differs from Potamonautes sidneyi (Potamonautidae: Potamonautinae) in acrosomal size and shape, and in the absence of a periopercular rim. A closer relationship of Deckeniinae and Gecarcinucidae cannot be confirmed by spermatology.

  20. First complete mitochondrial genome of primitive crab Homologenus malayensis (Decapoda: Brachyura: Podotremata: Homolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Min; Liu, Yuan; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy and phylogeny of brachyuran crabs, and particularly of the Podotremata, have been the subjects of controversy due to their morphological diversity and complexity. The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of primitive crab Homologenus malayensis has been determined. The mitogenome is 15,793 bp in length, with A + T content 71.7%. The gene content and order are consistent with those in typical brachyuran crabs. A putative control region of 883 bp is identified due to its position (between srRNA and tRNA(Ile)) and AT richness (75.5%). Notably, the control region in H. malayensis contains nine identical specific repeat units of 42 bp and 11 identical repeat units of 2 bp with a total length of 400 bp, which is different from other crabs. These results are expected to provide useful information on both genomics and the future phylogenetic study of primitive crabs.

  1. Diversity, endemism and conservation of the freshwater crabs of China (Brachyura: Potamidae and Gecarcinucidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberlidge, Neil; Ng, Peter K L; Yeo, Darren C J; Naruse, Tohru; Meyer, Kirstin S; Esser, Lara J

    2011-03-01

    China lies at the heart of the global center of freshwater crab diversity in tropical Asia, where the 2 most diverse families occur: Potamidae (505 species, 95 genera) and Gecarcinucidae (344 species, 59 genera). China stands out as the country with the highest species richness of freshwater crabs globally. Its fauna comprises 243 species in 37 genera and in 2 families, and species discovery is still progressing at a rapid pace. The vast majority of the species are distributed in southwest, south central and eastern China in the Oriental zoogeographical region. China also stands out as having a highly endemic freshwater crab fauna at the species level (96%) and at the genus level (78%). Although the recent International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list conservation assessment found only 6 out of 228 species (2%) to be threatened (5 potamids and 1 gecarcinucid), the majority (more than 75%) of Chinese species are regarded as data deficient, so the number of threatened species is likely to be a serious underestimate. Threats from increasing habitat destruction and pollution are a major concern due to the rapidly growing economy and massive developments taking place in China. There is therefore an urgent need for increased species exploration and for the development of a conservation strategy for China's threatened (and potentially threatened) endemic freshwater crab species.

  2. Population structure of the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata (Brachyura, Varunidae in a southwestern Atlantic salt marsh

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    Sabrina Angeletti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neohelice granulata inhabits estuarine and protected coastal areas in temperate regions and is the most dominant decapod crustacean in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. The population structure was studied during a year in a SW Atlantic salt marsh located in the Bahía Blanca Estuary. Crabs were sampled monthly from August 2010 to July 2011. The maximum observed density was 30 crabs m-2 in February and 70 burrows m-2 in May. The maximum carapace width (CW was 32 and 27.5 mm in males and females respectively. Medium size crabs were between 16 and 20 mm CW. Significantly smaller sized crabs were observed at the lower intertidal regions (P < 0.05. The sex ratio was favorable for males and was significantly different from the expected 1:1 (P < 0.05. The recruitment of unsexed juveniles crabs (CW <6.5 mm was observed throughout the year and the presence of ovigerous females from October to February indicated seasonal reproduction. The average size of ovigerous females was CW = 20.8 mm and the smallest ovigerous female measured was 16 mm CW. For the first time, the population structure of the most important macro-invertebrate is analyzed in the Bahía Blanca Estuary. This study may help to make decisions in the area, where anthropic action is progressing day by day.

  3. Parasites in the thoracic ganglion of Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Brachyura: Grapsidae from the coast of Portugal

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    Kuris A.M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined 149 marbled shore crabs, Pachygrapsus marmoratus, from the coast of Portugal for parasites. In particular, we focused our effort on the crab thoracic ganglion. The thoracic ganglion is the largest concentration of nervous tissue in a crab and thus, parasites associated with this organ are well situated to influence host behavior. We found metacercariae of two microphallid trematode species in the thoracic ganglion. We also found a microsporan and an apicomplexan associated with the thoracic ganglion. Other parasites not associated with the thoracic ganglion included gregarine trophozoites which were present in the digestive diverticulae in some of the crabs and the entoniscid isopod, Grapsion cavolini.Metacercariae of one of the trematodes (probably Microphallus pachygrapsi (Deblock and Prevot, may influence the mortality of its host.

  4. The male copulatory system of European pea crabs (crustacea, brachyura, pinnotheridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carola; Türkay, Michael; Brandis, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    The male copulatory system of the European pinnotherid species Pinnotheres pisum, Pinnotheres pectunculi, and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres was investigated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, histological methods, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The brachyuran copulatory system is consistently formed by paired penes and two pairs of abdominal appendages, the gonopods, functioning in sperm transfer. In pinnotherids, the long first gonopods transfer the sperm mass into the female ducts. The first gonopod has the ejaculatory canal inside that opens both basally and distally. The second gonopod is solid, short, and conical. During copulation, the penis and the second gonopod are inserted into the basal lumen of the first gonopod. While the penis injects the sperm mass, the second gonopod functions in the transport of spermatozoa inside the ejaculatory canal toward its distal opening. The second gonopod is adapted for the sealing of the tubular system in the first gonopod by its specific shape and the ability to swell. Longitudinal cuticle foldings of the second gonopod hook into structures inside the first gonopod. The second gonopod can interact with the penis during copulation by a flexible flap separating the lumina in which the second gonopod and the penis are inserted.

  5. Morphology of the female reproductive system of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carola; Brandis, Dirk; Storch, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Commensal pea crabs inhabiting bivalves have a high reproductive output due to the extension andfecundity of the ovary. We studied the underlying morphology of the female reproductive system in the Pinnotheridae Pinnotheres pisum, Pinnotheres pectunculi and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eubrachyura have internal fertilization: the paired vaginas enlarge into storage structures, the spermathecae, which are connected to the ovaries by oviducts. Sperm is stored inside the spermathecae until the oocytes are mature. The oocytes are transported by oviducts into the spermathecae where fertilization takes place. In the investigated pinnotherids, the vagina is of the "concave pattern" (sensu Hartnoll1968): musculature is attached alongside flexible parts of the vagina wall that controls the dimension of its lumen. The genital opening is closed by a muscular mobile operculum. The spermatheca can be divided into two distinct regions by function and morphology. The ventral part includes the connection with vagina and oviduct and is regarded as the zone where fertilization takes place. It is lined with cuticle except where the oviduct enters the spermatheca by the "holocrine transfer tissue." At ovulation, the oocytes have to pass through this multilayered glandular epithelium performing holocrine secretion. The dorsal part of the spermatheca is considered as the main sperm storage area. It is lined by a highly secretory apocrine glandular epithelium. Thus, two different forms of secretion occur in the spermathecae of pinnotherids. The definite role of secretion in sperm storage and fertilization is not yet resolved, but it is notable that structure and function of spermathecal secretion are more complex in pinnotherids, and probably more efficient, than in other brachyuran crabs.

  6. A revision of the genus Matuta Weber, 1795 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Calappidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galil, B.S.; Clark, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction Amid the gaudily-coloured parade of tropical crabs few are more splendidly patterned than the matutine genera. But the patterns decorating these species brought about taxonomic disarray and from the very beginning they baffled their researchers. Already in 1817 Leach remarked: "the char

  7. Microcassiope minor (Dana, 1852: a description of the first stage zoea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Xanthidae

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    P.F. CLARK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first stage zoea of Microcassiope minor (Dana, 1852 is described, illustrated and compared with thirteen other known Xanthinae. This comparison suggests that M. minor is closely related to another Atlantic Ocean xanthid, Nanocassiope melanodactyla (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867. Such an affinity may indicate that the genus Nanocassiope Guinot, 1967 is not a homogenous taxon.

  8. The freshwater crabs of the genus Pseudothelphusa from northern Venezuela and Trinidad (Brachyura, Potamonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, G.

    1966-01-01

    During a study of collections of Venezuelan Pseudothelphusa deposited at the Museum of Biology of the Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, and at the La Salle Museum of Natural History, Caracas, examples of two new forms were discovered; one of these is here described as a new species, the othe

  9. Leucosiid crabs from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, Bella S; Ng, Peter K L

    2015-10-06

    Twenty-five species of leucosiid crabs are reported from Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Of these, seven are new to science: two each are included in Alox Tan & Ng, 1995 and Tanaoa Galil, 2003, and one each in Ryphila Galil, 2009, Seulocia Galil, 2005, and Urnalana Galil, 2005. Fifteen additional species are new records for Papua New Guinea: Alox rugosum (Stimpson, 1858), Ancylodactyla nana (Zarenkov, 1990), Arcania heptacantha De Man, 1907, Heterolithadia fallax (Henderson, 1893), Hiplyra longimana (A. Milne Edwards, 1874), Myra curtimana Galil, 2001, M. digitata Galil 2004, Nursilia dentata Bell, 1855, Oreotlos etor Tan & Richer de Forges, 1993, Parilia major Sakai, 1961, Raylilia coniculifera Galil, 2001, R. uenoi (Takeda, 1995), Toru pilus (Tan, 1996), Urashima pustuloides (Sakai, 1961) and Leucosia rubripalma Galil, 2003. The new species are described and illustrated, and their affinities with allied taxa discussed. Colour photographs are provided for 20 species.

  10. Fertilidade do caranguejo de mangue Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, em Iguape (São Paulo, Brasil Fertility of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, at Iguape (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gustavo Yomar Hattori

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 58 Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 ovigerous females in final embryonic stage were collected in mangrove forest at Iguape (São Paulo. Each female were kept in laboratory until the larvae hatching and had their carapace width (CW measured with caliper (0.05 mm and the larval number (LN calculated by volumetric method. The hatching rates (HR were calculated for each animal's size class (5 mm. The values of LN and CW obtained were subjected to regression analyses and the best fitting model was chosen by comparing the obtained determination coefficients (R². The fertility varied from 71,200 to 220,800 larvae (147,169 ± 32,070 larvae, corresponding to 41.7 to 76.8 mm CW (63.7±7.9 mm, respectively. The relationship LNxCW was expressed by the equation LN = 284.1CW1.5º¹ (N = 58; R² = 0.74; p < 0.01, that showed a positive correlation between the variables. Most part of ovigerous females (89.7% showed their hatching during the nightly period. A negative correlation between HR and CW was observed in these animals (p < 0.05, probably due to reduction of spermatophores in the seminal receptacle (multiparous females or due to senility in the females with large size. The biological studies of U. cordatus are very important for practices adoption that preserve and make the rational use of this recourse in Brazilian's mangrove forests.

  11. Sacculina nectocarcini, a new species of rhizocephalan, a new species of rhizocephalan(Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) parasitising the red rock crabNectocarcinus integrifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)(Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurney, Robert H.; Rybakov, Alexey V.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2006-01-01

    The parasitic barnacles, Rhizocephala, are a little known group within Australia with only seven described species from a coastline stretching approximately 59763 km. This study describes a new species of Rhizocephala, Sacculina nectocarcini. The description is based on a unique combination...

  12. Record of the freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon brachyura and P. motoro (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae in the lower Uruguay river, South America Registro das raias de água doce Potamotrygon brachyura e P. motoro (Potamotrygonidae no baixo rio Uruguai, America do Sul

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    María Cristina Oddone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater stingrays, or potamotrygonids, are restricted to Neotropical river drainages. These elasmobranchs are well adapted to freshwater environments and the number of described species gradually increases as further research is carried out. Some of the first studies on their systematics and natural history were carried out in the 1960s and 1970s in southern South America. However, there is no new published data on potamotrygonids from Uruguayan waters since then (except for local journal reports from sportive fishermen and specimens deposited in Uruguayan collections. The present study aims to record the recent occurrence of two species of potamotrygonids caught by sport fishermen, with comments on other published historical records for the same area. As many other elasmobranchs, these species have an important, but not always well understood, role in the Uruguayan rivers ecosystems.As raias de água doce ou potamotrigonídeos estão restritas às drenagens dos rios Neotropicais. Estas raias tem se adaptado bem aos ambientes de água doce e o número de espécies descritas aumenta gradualmente conforme as pesquisas na área se intensificam. Alguns dos primeiros estudos sobre a sistemática e a historia natural deste grupo foram realizados nas décadas de 1960 e 1970 na região Sul de América do Sul. Porém, há poucos dados publicados sobre potamotrigonídeos em águas uruguaias desde então (com exceção de registros de pescadores esportivos publicados em jornais locais, e espécimes depositados em coleções uruguaias. O presente estudo, portanto, tem como objetivo registrar a ocorrência de duas espécies de potamotrigonídeos no Uruguai capturados por pescadores esportivos assim como realizar uma compilação de ocorrências anteriores presentes na literatura. Como muitos outros elasmobrânquios, estas espécies possuem um papel importante nos ecossistemas dos rios uruguaios, embora não completamente compreendido.

  13. Maturidade sexual do caranguejo Armases rubripes (Rathbun (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Sexual maturity of the crab Armases rubripes (Rathbun (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Giovana V. Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a maturidade sexual de Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 em três diferentes ambientes (rio, praia arenosa e manguezal no sudeste do Brasil. Os caranguejos foram coletados mensalmente de julho/2002 a fevereiro/2004, utilizando-se peneiras no Rio Sahy durante as marés altas e, manualmente, na praia e no manguezal, durante as marés baixas. Os animais foram capturados por dois coletores num esforço de 15 minutos por estação de coleta. No laboratório, os exemplares foram separados por sexo e mensurados em relação a largura da carapaça, do abdome e comprimento do gonopódio. As gônadas, gonopódios e o abdome foram analisados segundo sua forma e seu aspecto. Um total de 4.051 indivíduos foram amostrados (1.067 machos, 1.563 fêmeas e 1.421 juvenis. Foram determinados cinco morfotipos: juvenis, machos imaturos, fêmeas imaturas, machos maduros e fêmeas maduras. O início da maturidade sexual fisiológica e morfológica ocorreu de forma assíncrona, com machos produzindo gametas mais cedo que as fêmeas. O tamanho da primeira maturidade sexual apresentou diferença significativa entre os ambientes analisados, exceção observada para o manguezal. Os indivíduos obtidos no manguezal apresentaram menores tamanhos para o início da maturidade sexual. Embora, estimados os tamanhos da maturidade sexual morfológica de machos e fêmeas, a análise do crescimento alométrico foi inadequado para a espécie.The present study analyzed the sexual maturity of Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 in three populations from different environmental conditions (river, beach and mangrove in the southeastern Brazilian coast. Crabs were sampled monthly from July 2002 to February 2004; they were captured with sieves at Sahy River, during the high tides, and by hand at beach and mangrove areas, during low tides. Animals were captured by establishing a catch effort of two collectors during 15 minutes for each station. At laboratory, all individuals were sexed and the carapace width measured. The gonads, gonopods and abdomen morphology were observed according to shape and macroscopic aspects. A total of 4,051 specimens were sampled (1,067males, 1,563 females and 1,421 juveniles. There were recognized five morphotypes: juveniles, immature males, immature females, mature males and mature females. The onset of physiological and morphological sexual maturity was asynchronous within sexes, of which, males reaching the ability to produce gametes earlier than females. The size at the onset of sexual maturity was significantly different among populations different coming from areas, except for mangrove area. The individuals obtained from mangrove showed the shortest size at the onset of sexual maturity. Therefore, estimates of males and females sizes at morphological sexual maturity the allometric growth analyses are inadequate in this species.

  14. Estrutura populacional de Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná Population structure of Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae from the tidal flat of Baixio Mirim, Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil

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    Mariângela Di Benedetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre a flutuação anual da abundância, composição de tamanho dos indivíduos, proporção de sexos, período reprodutivo e de recrutamento dos juvenis de uma população de Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 foi realizado no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Os animais foram coletados mensalmente, de fevereiro/2005 a janeiro/2006, durante as marés baixas de sizígia, e a sua largura da carapaça (LC medida. A temperatura pontual do ar variou de 17 a 29ºC, a luminosidade de 8.740 a 151.300 lux, a salinidade de 8 a 25 e a temperatura do solo (superfície, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm e 20 cm de profundidade de 18,3 a 28,9ºC. Foram analisados 7.120 indivíduos, dos quais, 2.578 juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2.377 machos e 2.165 fêmeas. A abundância da população variou de 341 (abril a 994 indivíduos (janeiro, mas a sua flutuação anual não esteve relacionada com a das variáveis abióticas estudadas. A proporção de sexos foi de 1:1 e a reprodução da espécie é do tipo contínuo, com dois picos de intensidade: um em abril e outro em novembro. O recrutamento de juvenis, também, é contínuo com dois períodos mais intensos no ano, um em julho e outro em dezembro-janeiro. A LC da população variou de 1,14 a 2,62 mm para juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2,58 a 17,83 mm para machos juvenis, 2,60 a 11,72 mm para fêmeas juvenis, 17,85 a 35,81 mm para machos maduros e 11,75 a 31,76 mm para fêmeas maduras. Os machos atingem tamanhos maiores do que as fêmeas.A study about the annual fluctuation of the abundance, size composition, sexual proportion, reproductive period and juvenile recruitment of the fiddler crab Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 was carried out in a population living in a tidal flat at Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Crabs were obtained from February 2005 to January 2006, during low spring tides, in monthly collections, and their carapace width was measured. Air temperature oscillated from 17 to 29ºC, luminosity from 8,740 to 151,300 lux, salinity from 8 to 25 and soil temperature (on surface, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm depth from 18.3 to 28.9ºC. A total of 7,120 individuals were analyzed, among them, 2,578 were sexually indefinite juveniles, 2,377 males (1,113 juveniles and 1,264 mature males and 2,165 females (944 juveniles, 1,135 mature and 86 ovigerous females. Population abundance oscillated 341 (April to 994 individuals (January, but its annual fluctuation was not correlated to the oscillation of the abiotic variables. The sexual proportion was 1:1 and the reproduction of the species is continuous type, with two peaks of intensity in the year: one in April and another in November. Juvenile recruitment is also continuous with two periods of intensity in the year: in July and in December-January. Sexually indefinite juveniles measured from 1.14 to 2.62 mm carapace width, juvenile males from 2.58 to 17.83 mm, juvenile females from 2.60 to 11.72 mm, mature males from 17.85 to 35.81 mm and mature females from 11.75 to 31.76 mm. Males reach larger sizes than females.

  15. Aspectos reprodutivos de Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Reproductive aspects of Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae at the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Zilanda de Souza Silva

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to get some knowledge about the reproductive aspects of Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803, concerning through sex ratio, morphological sexual maturity, reproductive period, fecundity and eggs size. The crabs were collected monthly in Itacuruçá's Mangroves from November, 1997 to November, 1998. Four hundred and seven crabs were caught and they were 47% males, 36% females and 17% ovigerous females. The sex ratio was 1:1.13 (male:female (X²= 1.54, p > 0.05. The relation of abdomen width (AW and carapace width (CW in females showed a positive allometric grow (b = 1.36, it suggests the size onset of maturity occur from 26.0 a 29.0 mm (CW in females. The ovigerous females occured during all the research period, except for the winter months (June to August. The size of these ovigerous females varied from 26.0 to 48.8 mm with mean size 35.1 + 5.2 mm. Individual fecundity varied from 29,975 to 142,050 eggs and mean fecundity was 74,751 ± 27 eggs. The mean diameter of the eggs was 300 ± 20 µm.

  16. Sexual maturity of the deep-sea royal crab Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae in southern Brazil Madurez sexual del cangrejo real Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae en el sur de Brasil

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    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The royal crab Chaceon ramosae is one of the three species of deep-sea crabs currently exploited in Brazil. The royal crab fishery started in 2001 with foreign vessels that were extensively monitored by observers and tracked by satellite. A management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on biomass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at that date. Samples taken aboard were used to determine size at first sexual maturity for males and females by studying the use of allometric growth of chelae and abdomen in relation to carapace width (CW, the proportion of females with opened vulvae and eggs in the pleopods, and males showing copula marks on the first ambulatory legs. Morphometric maturity was attained, on average, at 12.1 cm (males and 10.7 cm (females. The CW50% was estimated to be 10.9 cm and 12.2 cm for females, respectively considering the vulva condition and eggs in the pleopods, and 13.6 cm for males. By size class, the maximum estimated proportions of ovigerous females by size class was 0.4 and of males with copula marks was 0.6, suggesting a bi-annual reproductive cycle for individuals of the species. The size composition analysis showed that irnmature individuals may comprise up to 70% of the catches. These results indicate the need to consider enhanced trap selectivity and lower mortality of ovigerous females as new and immediate goals to improve resource management.El cangrejo real Chaceon ramosae corresponde a una de las tres especies de cangrejos de profundidad que actualmente se explotan en Brasil. La pesca de cangrejo real comenzó en el año 2001 por barcos extranjeros que eran intensamente supervisados por observadores y rastreados por satélites. En el año de 2005 se implemento un plan de manejo, considerando solamente el estudio de la dinámica de la biomasa del recurso, ya que el conocimiento biológico todavía era limitado. A partir de muestras obtenidas a bordo de los barcos de pesca, se estimó la talla de primera madurez de machos y hembras a través de la utilización del crecimiento alométrico de la quela y el abdomen con respecto al ancho del caparazón (CW, proporción de hembras con vulvas abiertas y huevos en los pleópodos, y machos con marcas de cópula en las primeras patas ambulatorias. La madurez morfométrica de los machos fue obtenida en promedio a 12,1 cm CW y en las hembras a 10,7 cm CW. El CW50% fue estimado en 13,6 cm en machos y, en hembras considerando la condición de la vulva o los huevos en los pleópodos, en 10,9 y 12,2 cm respectivamente. La máxima proporción estimada de hembras ovígeras y machos con marcas de cópula por talla fueron de 0,4 y 0,6 respectivamente, lo que sugiere que el ciclo reproductivo a nivel individual es bi-anual. El análisis de la composición de tallas evidenció que individuos inmaduros componen hasta el 70% de las capturas. A partir de estos resultados, se consideró incrementar el efecto selectivo de las trampas y disminuir la captura de hembras ovígeras, como objetivos nuevos e inmediatos para mejorar el manejo de este recurso.

  17. Sexual maturity of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae in southern Brazil Madurez sexual del cangrejo rojo de profundidad Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae al sur de Brasil

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    Rodrigo Sant'Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The red crab Chaceon notialis is one of the three deep-sea crab species currently exploited in Brazil. The red crab fishery started in 1998 with foreign vessels that, as of 2000, have been extensively moni-tored by observers and tracked by satellite. A management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on bio-mass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at that date. Samples taken aboard were used to determine size at first sexual maturity for males and females by studying the allometric growth of the chelae and abdomen in relation to the carapace width (CW, the proportion of females with opened vulvae and eggs in the pleopods, and males showing copula marks on the first ambulatory legs. Morphometric maturity was attained, on average, at 8.9 cm CW (males and 8.8 cm CW (females. The CW5% was estimated to be 6.9 and 9.7 cm CW for females, considering the vulva condition and eggs in the pleopods, respectively, and 8.4 cm CW for males. The maximum estimated proportions of ovigerous females and males with copula marks by size class were 0.8 and 0.7, respectively, suggesting an annual reproductive cycle for the species, both at the populational and individuals levels. The size composition analysis showed that up to 97% of the females caught in the fishery were immature. Given these results, enhancing trap selectivity and minimizing the mortality of ovigerous females should be considered as new and immediate goals for the management of the resource.El cangrejo-rojo Chaceon notialis corresponde a una de las tres especies de cangrejos de profundidad que actualmente se explotan en Brasil. La pesca de cangrejo-rojo comenzó en el año 1998 por barcos extranjeros que, desde 2000 fueron intensamente vigilados por observadores y rastreados por satélites. En el año de 2005 se implemento un plan de manejo, considerando solamente el estudio de la dinámica de la biomasa del recurso, ya que el conocimiento biológico todavía era limitado. A partir de muestras obtenidas a bordo de los barcos de pesca, se estimó la talla de primera madurez de machos y hembras mediante la utilización del crecimiento alométrico de la quela y el abdomen, con respecto al ancho del caparazón (CW, proporción de hembras con vulvas abiertas y huevos en los pleópodos y machos con marcas de cópula en las primeras patas ambulatorias. La madurez morfométrica para los machos fue obtenida en promedio a 8,9 cm de CW y para las hembras a 8,8 cm de CW. El CW50./d fue estimado en 8,4 cm para machos y para hembras, tomando en cuenta la condición de la vulva o los huevos en los pleópodos, en 6,9 y 9,7 cm respectivamente. Las maximas proporciones estimadas de hembras ovígeras y machos con marcas de cópula por talla fueron de 0,8 y 0,7 respectivamente, lo que sugiere que el ciclo reproductivo a nivel poblacional e individual es anual. El análisis de la composición de tallas indicó que el 97% de las hembras capturadas, eran inmaduras. A partir de estos resultados se consideró un aumento en la selectividad de las trampas y la disminución de las hembras ovígeras en las capturas como objetivos nuevos e inmediatos para el mejor manejo de este recurso.

  18. Estrutura populacional de Armases angustipes (Dana (Decapoda, Brachyura, Grapsidae na Ilha do Farol, Matinhos, Paraná Population structurc of Armases angustipes (Dana (Decapoda, Brachyura, Grapsidae from Farol Island, Matinhos, Paraná

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    Vânia G.L. Kowalczuk

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual fluetuation of densities and population strueture of Armases angustipes (Dana, 1852 from a rocky shore at Farol Island, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil (25º51'S and 48º32'W were studied. The population strueture was treated in the following aspects: sexual proportion, dial intensity of activities, size composition and its fluetuation, and general condition of the crabs. The collections were made monthly, from January to December 1991. The samples were obtained handly, in the morning and at night, at the supratidal zone during low tides. There were caught 1,139 crabs, among which 34 were juveniles, 544 males, 555 females and 4 ovigerous females. Population density was highest in April (19.56 ind.m"² and in October (23.86 ind.m"² . The sexual proportion was 1:1 in eleven months. Although the male crabs were more abundant than the females in May, there was not any statistical significam difference between the sexes. The activity of the population is intenser at night than at morning for both sexes. The recruitment of juveniles oceurs mainly in March, April and July. The condition factor in females is related to the reproduetive period. The population can migrate to the terrestrial habitat near the supratidal zone.

  19. The megalopa and early juvenile development of Hepatus pudibundus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Aethroidea reared from neuston samples A megalopa e o desenvolvimento juvenil inicial de Hepatus pudibundus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Aethroidea criado a partir de amostras de neuston

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    Maria L. Negreiros-Fransozo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatus pudibundus (Herbst, 1785 is a crab commonly found in shallow waters of the Western Atlantic. Its larval and early post-larval morphology have already been described from laboratory hatched material. Around 200 megalopae of H. pudibundus were collected in neuston samples from the Ubatuba region, Brazil, during the summer of 2005-2006 and were successfully reared under laboratory conditions. The size of the megalopae obtained in the neuston was similar to those specimens previously described in the literature, except that the juvenile crab stages reared in the laboratory were slightly larger, probably due to the better feeding conditions in the laboratory. The duration of the juvenile stages was shorter in the present study than in previous attempts at laboratory rearing, even if conditions appeared to be similar. The main differences observed between studies were in megalopal morphology, which may be attributable to intraspecific variation but, possibly, also due to differences in levels of detail than previously performed.Hepatus pudibundus (Herbst, 1785 é um caranguejo comumente encontrado em águas rasas do Atlântico Ocidental. O desenvolvimento larval completo e a sua morfologia pós-larval já são conhecidos a partir de fêmeas ovígeras. Cerca de 200 megalopas de H. pudibundus foram coletadas no neuston durante o verão de 2005-2006, na região de Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brasil e criadas com sucesso sob condições de laboratório. O tamanho da megalopa obtida no neuston foi semelhante àquela dos exemplares descritos previamente na literatura, mas os estágios juvenis criados no laboratório foram ligeiramente maiores na fase inicial, provavelmente devido às melhores condições de alimentação no laboratório. A duração dos estágios juvenis foi menor na presente investigação, do que no estudo anterior, mesmo sob condições laboratoriais similares. As principais diferenças entre os estudos foram com relação à morfologia da megalopa, as quais podem ser atribuídas às variações intra-específicas, mas possivelmente, também, ao nível de detalhe empregado previamente.

  20. Sacculina nectocarcini, a new species of rhizocephalan, a new species of rhizocephalan(Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) parasitising the red rock crabNectocarcinus integrifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)(Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurney, Robert H.; Rybakov, Alexey V.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald;

    2006-01-01

    The parasitic barnacles, Rhizocephala, are a little known group within Australia with only seven described species from a coastline stretching approximately 59763 km. This study describes a new species of Rhizocephala, Sacculina nectocarcini. The description is based on a unique combination...

  1. Observações sobre a ocorrência de Pilumnus floridanus Stimpson (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pilumnidae na costa do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Remarks about the Pilumnus floridanus Stimpson (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pilumnidae occurrence in Rio de Janeiro coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia M. S. Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os espécimes foram coletados na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro no inverno. Sua distribuição era conhecida para Off Cape Lookout, Carolina do Norte até a Flórida, Golfo do México, Canal de Yucatan, Honduras, Antilhas, Venezuela e Brasil (Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia.The specimens were collected in Sepetiba Bay during the winter. Their distribution was formerly known from Off Cape Lookout, North Carolina until Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan Channel, Honduras, Antilles, Venezuela and Brazil (Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia.

  2. On the morphology of the central nervous system in larval stages of Carcinus maenas L. (Decapoda, Brachyura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzsch, S.; Dawirs, R. R.

    1993-02-01

    We investigated the morphology of the central nervous system throughout the larval development of Carcinus maenas. For that purpose single larvae were reared in the laboratory from hatching through metamorphosis. Complete series of whole mout semithin sections were obtained from individuals of all successive larval stages and analysed with a light microscope. Morphological feature and spatial arrangement of discernable neural cell clusters, fibre tracts and neuropile are described and compared with the adult pattern. We found that most of the morphological features characterizing the adult nervous system are already present in the zoea-1. Nevertheless, there are marked differences with respect to the arrangement of nerve cell bodies, organization of cerebral neuropile, and disposition of ganglia in the ventral nerve cord. It appears that complexity of the central nervous neuropile is selectively altered during postmetamorphotic development, probably reflecting adaptive changes of sensory-motor integration in response to behavioural maturation. In contrast, during larval development there was little change in the overall structural organization of the central nervous system despite some considerable growth. However, the transition from zoea-4 to megalopa brings about multiple fundamental changes in larval morphology and behavioural pattern. Since central nervous integration should properly adapt to the altered behavioural repertoire of the megalopa, it seems necessary to ask in which respect synaptic rearrangement might characterize development of the central nervous system.

  3. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

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    de Magalhães Henrique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State.

  4. Integrative Taxonomic Study of the Purse Crab Genus Persephona Leach, 1817 (Brachyura: Leucosiidae): Combining Morphology and Molecular Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Tatiana; Robles, Rafael; Felder, Darryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Marine crabs of the genus Persephona Leach, 1817 are restricted to American waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Subfamilial assignment of this taxon has varied between authors and its species composition remain in question. We conducted a comparative study based on morphology and molecular phylogenetics for all ten recognized species of Persephona, along with Iliacantha hancocki. We tested whether Persephona finneganae, P. lichtensteinii, and P. crinita represent a single species as suggested by some authors; whether specimens identified as P. punctata, P. mediterranea, and P. aquilonaris warrant treatment as separate species; and whether I. hancocki should be regarded as a junior synonym of P. subovata. Diagnostic morphological characters (of the carapace, chelipeds, and third maxillipeds) were used along with gonopod (male first pleopod 1) features and live coloration. The 16S rRNA and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) (DNA barcoding) mitochondrial genes were used as molecular markers. Both morphological and molecular analyses revealed that putative specimens of P. crinita from Brazil and those assigned to P. finneganae were no different from specimens presently assignable to P. lichtensteinii. P. finneganae is regarded as a junior synonym of P. lichtensteinii, and we apply P. crinita only to specimens we examined from the Gulf of Mexico. Specimens from Brazil previously reported as P. crinita are herewith concluded to represent P. lichtensteinii. Additionally, P. townsendi is a junior synonym of P. orbicularis, Iliacantha hancocki is concluded to be a junior synonym of P. subovata, while P. aquilonaris and P. mediterranea are found to represent separate species. On the basis of our revisions, eight species of Persephona are considered valid, and the reported distribution for P. crinita is restricted. PMID:27099956

  5. Distribution and characteristic of deposit-feeder crabs (Crustacea: Brachyura in some mangrove ecosystem types in Lombok Island

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    Dewi Citra Murniati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lombok Island consists of five different mangrove forest types with various pattern of fauna distribution. These pattern variations were constructed by different type of substrates. Deposit feeder crabs play an important role in determination of substrate pattern. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution pattern of some crabs which their characteristics are correlated to the mangroves substrate. Crabs were collected from eight locations in Mangrove area of Lombok Island. Ten species of the deposit feeder crab were identified, their distribution pattern was illustrated based on the result of field observation on their morphological characteristics. The highest species diversity found in Teluk Rasu and Tanjung Luar. Both cheliped and maxilliped characteristics represent to habitat preference. Uca annulipes, U. perplexa, U. vocans, and Dotilla myctiroides inhabited sandy substrate, while U. bellator, U. demani, U. dussumieri, U. forcipata, U. triangularis, and Tmethypocoelis ceratophora inhabit muddy substrate.

  6. A new alien species in the Mediterranean? On the presence of Sirpus monodi Gordon, 1953 (Brachyura, Pirimelidae in Greece

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    M.A. PANCUCCI-PAPADOPOULOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sirpus monodi, first described from West Africa (Dakar, Senegal and later reported from Mauritania and Congo, has now been found in the eastern Mediterranean. This work reports on its occurrence in two Greek localities.

  7. Acute and chronic effects of parathion and 2,4 D on the oxygen consumption of Chasmagnathus granulata (Decapoda, Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, E M; Monserrat, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of two pesticides widely used in Argentina on the oxygen consumption of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata was studied. Constant pressure respirometers were employed to estimate the rate of oxygen consumption per weight unit of animals treated previously with each pesticide, both acute (96 h) and chronically (15 and 30 days). Crabs exposed to parathion -an organophosphorate insecticide that causes the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase- show an increase of oxygen consumption at 0.5 ppm under acute exposure, and at 10 ppb under a chronic one. On the other hand, crabs exposed to 2,4 D (an herbicide) did not show changes in their consumption after an acute exposure, but those exposed chronically did show an increase at low concentration (5 ppm) followed by a relative decrease at the highest concentration (50 ppm). The results obtained for parathion are in accordance with the abnormal cholinergic excitation that it may exert on crustacean nervous system. The effect of 2,4 D was consistent with its uncoupler action at respiratory chain level, at low concentrations, while a possible Krebs cycle enzymes inhibition might be occurring at higher concentrations of that pesticide, as in other crustacean species. The faster action of parathion, respect to 2,4 D, is explained by its neurotoxic nature.

  8. A new dromiid crab (Crustacea, Brachyura, Dromioidea) from the Upper Eocene of Huesca (Aragón, northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Pedro; Bakel, Barry W M Van; Domínguez, José L; Gómez, Guillermo

    2016-01-08

    A new genus and species of brachyuran crab from the Upper Eocene (Priabonian) strata in Basa Valley (Huesca, northern Spain) assignable to the superfamily Dromioidea, Basadromia longifrons n. gen., n. sp., adds to current knowledge of the morphological diversity and geographical-stratigraphical distribution of the superfamily. The main characters of the new form, such as the orbitofrontal construction with two median teeth and an rostral tooth situated in a lower plane, two minor frontal (inner orbital) teeth, well-marked cervical and branchial grooves, general carapace outline, and the shape and distribution of dorsal regions, confirm placement in Dromioidea. Unique features, such as the four conspicuous frontal teeth, lateral margins of carapace with small, subtle spines, the reduced length of the posterior margin, disposition of dorsal grooves, and peculiar shape and distribution of the dorsal regions (mainly protogastric and epibranchial), warrants the erection of a new genus and new species. In the absence of ventral features the new taxon is tentatively assigned to the family Dromiidae after detailed comparison with both fossil and extant members.

  9. New retroplumid crabs (Crustacea, Brachyura, Retroplumidae Gill, 1894) from the Eocene of Huesca (Aragón, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Pedro; Van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M

    2013-01-01

    Two new brachyurans assignable to the family Retroplumidae Gill, 1894, Serrablopluma diminuta n. gen., n. sp., and Gaudipluma bacamortensis n. gen., n. sp., from the Eocene of northern Spain (Huesca, Aragón), substantially enlarge our current knowledge of the morphological diversity of the family. The material, with well-preserved ventral surfaces, permits the erection of two new genera that can be referred to the family with confidence on the basis of the general carapace shape, narrow front, a reduced last pair of pereiopods and characteristic thoracic sternum (broad, trapezoidal sternites 3, 4, subrectangular sternites 5-7, sternite 8 conspicuously reduced and inclined). Serrablopluma diminuta n. gen., n. sp. co-occurs with two other retroplumids in the most diverse fossil assemblage of that family known to date.

  10. Condition factor of Goniopsis cruentata (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae from Mundaú/Manguaba estuarine complex, Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. P. R. Lira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The condition factor is a parameter which acts as a general indicator of the "well-being" of a species, and it can be obtained through the analysis of width vs. weight relationships. The present work aims to investigate size vs. weight relationship and the condition factor of the crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803. The study area was the Mundaú/Manguaba estuarine complex, Maceió, state of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. Samplings were monthly accomplished from August 2007 to July 2008. A total of 626 individuals were analyzed, being 309 males and 317 females. Males were larger and heavier than females, what is expected in many brachyuran. The growth was positive allometric to both males (b = 3.42 and females (b = 3.30, not obeying the "cube law". The condition factor of female was higher than that of male crabs, probably due to the gonad weight of females. It also varied seasonally for both sexes, being higher in the autumn and winter in males, and in the autumn and spring in females, and related to the molt and period of spawning intensification.

  11. Moult cycle and growth of the crab Halicarcinus planatus (Brachyura, Hymenosomatidae) in the Beagle Channel, southern tip of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2013-09-01

    The crab Halicarcinus planatus is the only hymenosomatid crab that inhabits the southern tip of South America and is the only decapod species that reproduces twice a year in the Beagle Channel. In this article, we study the moult cycle in the field (moult frequency, analysis of size frequency distribution) and linked it with growth studied in the laboratory (absolute and per cent growth increment, Hiatt function). Hiatt functions were similar for males and females. Moult frequency was seasonal: in early austral spring and in austral summer. In females, the pubertal moult is the terminal moult, whereas males continue moulting after attaining the size of morphometric maturity. Moult increment was highly variable. The relationship between absolute moult increment and crab size was described by a quadratic function. Per cent growth increment decreased with size, and relationships were different for each sex: linear for females and quadratic for males. Seven and eight modal groups explained the size frequency distributions for females and males from the field, respectively, and revealed the existence of two cohorts of recruits per year. Further modal analysis was mainly hampered by the high variability of size increment that could make any moulting individual fall in its own or one of two following modal groups. The antagonism between growth and reproduction was evident in small males. We hypothesize that the terminal pubertal moult is an advantageous feature that allows females to maximize their investment in reproduction after their terminal moult, which allows this species to have two spawnings per year.

  12. A new species of Trichopeltarion A. Milne-Edwards, 1880, from the Southwestern Atlantic (Crustacea: Brachyura: Atelecyclidae

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    Marcos Tavares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Trichopeltarion A. Milne-Edwards, 1880, is described from off coast of Brazil, namely Trichopeltarion pezzutoi n. sp. The new species is compared to its Atlantic congeners, Trichopeltarion nobile A. Milne-Edwards, 1880, and Trichopeltarion intesi (Crosnier, 1981. The record of T. nobile from Brazil should actually be attributed to T. pezzutoi n. sp. The differences between the genera Trichopeltarion and Peltarion Jacquinot, 1847 are discussed.Uma nova espécie do gênero Trichopeltarion A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 coligida no talude continental brasileiro é descrita e ilustrada, nomeadamente Trichopeltarion pezzutoi n. sp. A nova espécie é comparada às suas congêneres do oceano Atlântico, Trichopeltarion nobile A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 e Trichopeltarion intesi (Crosnier, 1981. O registro de T. nobile para o Brasil deve ser atribuído à T. pezzutoi n. sp. São discutidas as diferenças entre os gêneros Trichopeltarion e Peltarion Jacquinot, 1847.

  13. Receptivity of female Neohelice granulata (Brachyura, Varunidae): different strategies to maximize their reproductive success in contrasting habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sal Moyano, María Paz; Luppi, Tomás; Gavio, María Andrea; Vallina, Micaela; McLay, Colin

    2012-12-01

    The extent of the receptive period may determine the mating strategies employed by female crabs to obtain mates. Here, we studied the receptivity of female Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851) in the laboratory, including the form of the vulvae and the anatomy of the seminal receptacle (SR). We examined the factors that influence the duration of receptivity by comparing two populations inhabiting contrasting habitats: Mar Chiquita Coastal lagoon (MCL), which is an oligo-polyhaline estuary, and San Antonio Oeste (SAO), which is an eu-hyperhaline marine bay. Non-receptive females have immobile vulva opercula, while receptive females have mobile opercula. Histological sections of the SR showed that the degree of epithelium secretions was associated with the receptive stage of females, and they may be involved in the maintenance of viable sperm and in the dehiscence of spermatophores. The existence of a special tissue at the junction of the oviduct and the SR was described and proposed as an internal mechanism influencing the timing of ovulation. The duration of receptivity was dependent on the SR load and the capacity to lay eggs. Thus, females with empty SR exhibited longer receptivity and did not lay eggs, while those with full SR exhibited shorter receptivity and always laid eggs. Interpopulation differences showed that females from SAO had shorter receptivity and heavier SR and laid eggs more frequently than females from MCL. Based on our results, we suggest that N. granulata females can adjust the duration of their receptivity and control the moment of fertilization according to different internal mechanisms related to the morphology of the vulvae, the fullness of the SR and anatomical attributes of the SR. An important consequence of this control is greater sperm competition. The extent of the receptive period and the number of times that a female could become receptive in a single reproductive season may also depend on the habitat characteristics.

  14. A molecular method for the detection of sally lightfoot crab larvae (Grapsus grapsus, Brachyura, Grapsidae in plankton samples

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    Patrícia R. Ströher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The decapod Grapsus grapsus is commonly found on oceanic islands of the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Americas. In this study, a simple, quick and reliable method for detecting its larvae in plankton samples is described, which makes it ideal for large-scale studies of larval dispersal patterns in the species.

  15. Patterns of genetic and morphometric diversity in the marbled crab (Pachygrapsus marmoratus, Brachyura, Grapsidae) populations across the Tunisian coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Temim Deli; Hiba Bahles; Khaled Said; Noureddine Chatti

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on population structure analysis of the marbled crabPachygrapsus marmoratus (Fabricius, 1787) from the Tunisian coast, an appropriate location to study biogeographical processes because of the presence of a well-known discontinuous biogeographic area (the Siculo-Tunisian Strait). Patterns of morphological and genetic variation of this highly dispersive and continuously distributed decapod species were assessed among its geographically close populations which cover almost the entire Tunisian coastline. A total of 386 specimens from nine sites were collected and examined for morphometric variability at 14 morphometric traits. The results of multivariate analyses of linear morphometric traits showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in this species by PERMANOVA (Permutational multivariate analysis of variance). In addition, both CDA (Canonical discriminant analysis) and NPMANOVA (Non parametric MANOVA test) analyses revealed statistically significant differences among the studied locations for both sexes. Overall, the outcome of CDA analysis showed that over 87% of individuals could be assigned correctly to three regional groups in both sexes (North, Center and South). Specifically, SIMPER (Similarity Percentages) analysis showed that carapace length, carapace width and merus length were major contributors to the morphometric separation between populations. The pattern of phenotypic variation suggested by morphometric analyses was found to be highly discordant with that suggested by the analysis of a mitochondrial marker (cytochrome oxidase I, COI). Indeed, the results inferred from restriction fragment analysis of the COI in 180 crabs, suggested high genetic homogeneity. Very low levels of haplotype diversity (h) were found in almost all the studied populations, associated with non significant genetic distances for nearly all population comparisons. Explanations to these morphometric and mtDNA patterns as well as the discrepancy between them are discussed.

  16. On a collection of Leucosioidea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura from Papua New Guinea, with the description of a new species

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    Bella S. Galil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The collection of deep-sea pebble crabs (Leucosioidea during the BIOPAPUA Expedition, comprising 8 species, including a species new to science, is significant because although the previously described species had not been recorded from the Bismarck and western Solomon Seas, they occurred in at least one nearby location (New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is. Praebebalia fungifera sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It differs from its closest congener, P. septemspinosa Sakai, 1983, in bearing fungiform granules dorsally on carapace, shorter chelipeds, the relatively stout male first gonopod with a preapical row of setae and the beak-like tip, as compared to the rounded granules dorsally on the carapace, greatly elongate chelipeds and the slim, elongate, distally curved gonopod of P. septemspinosa, preapically set with very long setae and a hook-like tip.

  17. Relative growth, sexual dimorphism and morphometric maturity of Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Decapoda: Brachyura: Trichodactylidae from Santa Terezinha, Bahia, Brazil

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    Tiago Rozário da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are important elements in the aquatic biota of brooks, rivers, lakes and ponds, from both ecological and the socio-economic aspects. Trichodactylidae comprises 51 endemic species from the Neotropical region. Among all the species of this family, Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 has the widest geographic distribution throughout Brazil. Despite that, there are few published contributions on the biology of this species. The present study investigated the following aspects of T. fluviatilis: relative growth, mean size at onset of morphometric maturity, sexual dimorphism, laterality and heterochely. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2010 through August 2011, from the Velha Eugênia Brook, municipality of Santa Teresinha, State of Bahia. Carapace width (CW, carapace length (CL, major cheliped length (MaCL and minor cheliped length (MiCL, major cheliped height (MaCH and minor cheliped height (MiCH, and width of the fifth abdominal segment (5AB were measured to evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism; the major difference between the sexes was in the CW vs. 5AB ratio. Heterochely was observed in males and females,with the right cheliped larger than the left in 89% of males and 81% of females. Crab size at the onset of morphometric maturity (= puberty molt was estimated based on the ratio between CL, cheliped dimensions, 5AB and CW (independent variable. Females were larger than males when they reached morphometric maturity in all studied relations. We recommend the use of chelipeds and abdominal width relationships to estimate the size at the morphometric maturity in males and females, respectively.

  18. Morphology and function of the reproductive tract of the spider crab Libinia spinosa (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majoidea): pattern of sperm storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sal Moyano, M. P.; Gavio, M. A.; Cuartas, E. I.

    2010-09-01

    Morphology and function of the male reproductive tract, female spermatheca and patterns of sperm storage were assessed in the crab Libinia spinosa using histological methods. Testes are characterized by the presence of peripheral spermatogonia and different sequences of sperm maturity. Spermatophores begin to be packed in the last portion. The vas deferens consists of three sections: anterior, with undeveloped spermatophores and free sperm; median, with well-developed spermatophores; and posterior with granular secretions. Female spermathecae are of the ventral type, with a velum separating dorsal and ventral chambers. Live individuals were kept in the laboratory and arranged in pairs. An experiment was conducted toward the end of the reproductive season, in which males with the right gonopod excised were placed with receptive females. After mating, females were killed and the spermathecae dissected for histological study and observation of the pattern of sperm storage. Spermatozoa were found forming discrete sperm packages. New ejaculates can fill the entire spermatheca or be restricted to the ventral chamber; sperm are rounded, with a distinguishable acrosomal core. Old ejaculates are restricted to the dorsal chamber and are of irregular shape and larger size; an acrosomal core was not distinguishable. The secretions produced by the glandular epithelium of the dorsal chamber of the spermathecae are likely to have a role in the removal of dead sperm.

  19. A new species of Fizesereneia Takeda & Tamura, 1980 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea and Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meij, Sancia E T

    2015-03-16

    A new species of cryptochirid crab, Fizesereneia panda van der Meij, is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the scleractinian corals Lobophyllia cf. hemprichii and L. cf. corymbosa from the Farasan Banks, Farasan Islands, and the reefs off Thuwal in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, and from Symphyllia recta from reefs in the Gulf of Oman. This is the second cryptochirid species with the Red Sea as type locality. It can be separated from its congeners by the subrectangular carapace, raised midline and the complete division of the carapace depressions, and reddish black colour pattern of these concavities in live specimens. This new species is the seventh assigned to Fizesereneia. A DNA barcode for the new species has been deposited in GenBank. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.

  20. Morfología comparada del esqueleto axial en la familia de cangrejos de agua dulce Trichodactylidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura

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    Manuel Pedraza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El esqueleto axial es una estructura compleja de origen cuticular, formada a partir de las láminas esclerotizadas de los esternitos y pleuritos torácicos así como por sus invaginaciones internas. Los caracteres de la parte ventral del esqueleto axial, que se reflejan externamente en las líneas de sutura del esternón torácico, son criterios importantes en el actual sistema de supragenerico de Trichodactylidae: (Trichodactylinae y Dilocarcininae (Dilocarcinini + Valdiviini. Con el objetivo de probar esa hipótesis de clasificación fue realizado el estudio anatómico del esqueleto axial de 43 individuos adultos, tanto machos como hembras, pertenecientes a 17 especies de 10 géneros de Trichodactylidae. Para la preparación del material, los individuos fueron diseccionados y sus esqueletos sumergidos, por un periodo de 24 a 48 horas, en una solución caliente de Hidróxido de Potasio (KOH. El análisis anatómico permitió describir un grupo de variaciones en la forma, orientación y conformación del esternón torácico, techo pleural, fragmas ventrales y dorsales, así como de la lámina de unión. De acuerdo con esas características las especies estudiadas fueron reunidas en tres grupos, siendo esas agrupaciones consistentes con la actual propuesta de clasificación de Trichodactylidae en subfamilias y tribus. El presente trabajo resalta la importancia informativa de la morfología del esqueleto axial para la taxonomía de Trichodactylidae.

  1. A new species of portunid crab of the genus Charybdis (De Haan, 1833) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    of male and female specimens were drawn to illustrate the thoracic sternites and the abdominal cavity of male and female specimens, respectively. The specimens were stored in 5 % buffered formalin (buffered with hexamethylene tetramine to prevent....80 mm, CW 24.32 mm, Zuari Estuary, Goa, Central West coast of India (between 15˚24’41.2”N, 73˚48’56.6”E and 15˚24’41.9”N, 73˚51’11.0”E), 6-7 m depth, demersal trawl. Paratype: Zuari Estuary, Goa: one mature female (GUMS-2), CL 15.10 mm, CW 24.52 mm...

  2. The leucosiid crabs described by Thomas Bell in 1855: original description and dates of publication (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B Y; Low, Martyne E Y

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Bell proposed 37 species- and 5 genus-group names for the Leucosiidae in four publications that appeared in 1855. The version appearing in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London is the earliest of these publications and the first available description of these taxa.

  3. The freshwater crabs of Ethiopia, northeastern Africa, with the description of a new Potamonautes cave species (Brachyura: Potamonautidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumberlidge, N.; Clark, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    A recent collection of freshwater potamonautid crabs from a newly-explored cave in Ethiopia included a new species of Potamonautes MacLeay, 1838, which is described. The new species is associated with caves but is not troglobitic because it has no special morphological adaptations for life in caves

  4. On a collection of calappid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Fiji, with a description of a new species of Mursia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, Bella S

    2013-11-07

    Seven species of calappid crabs were identified from material collected during four IRD-MNHN expeditions conducted in 1998 and 1999 in shallow and deep waters off Fiji. Six species are reported for the first time from the islands. One new species, Mursia murimura n. sp., is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the closely related M. diwata Galil & Takeda, 2004, with which it shares a stout, distally auriculated first male pleopod, by possessing much longer lateral carapacial and cheliped spines.

  5. Two new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Sundathelphusa Bott, 1969 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from caves in Luzon, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husana, Daniel Edison M; Yamamuro, Masumi; Ng, Peter K L

    2014-06-17

    Two cave species of Sundathelphusa are described from a karst area in southern Luzon, Philippines. Both species have elongated ambulatory legs but the eyes and carapace pigmentation are well developed, indicating they are not troglobites. Sundathelphusa danae sp. nov. is superficially more similar to S. longipes (Balss, 1937) than to S. holthuisi Ng, 2010, which was described from the same locality. Sundathelphusa danae sp. nov. is distinguished from its closest congeners by its strongly convex anterolateral margin, more swollen branchial regions, possession of a complete frontal median triangle, laterally inflated subbranchial region and the more slender ambulatory legs. Sundathelphusa vienae sp. nov. is unusual among Sundathelphusa species in that its carapace is more quadrate, with the slender and almost straight male first gonopod tapered and having a pointed terminal segment. 

  6. Insular species of Afrotropical freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamonautidae and Potamidae) with special reference to Madagascar and the Seychelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumberlidge, N.

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary relationships between island and mainland faunas of the 24 species of insular freshwater crabs in the Afrotropical region are reviewed in the light of phylogenetic studies. Twenty insular species of freshwater crabs are endemic, and four are also found on the neighboring mainland of

  7. Redescriptions of three species of freshwater crabs from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Africa (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberlidge, Neil

    2015-06-16

    The taxonomy of three species of freshwater crabs from the Upper Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Potamonautes congoensis (Rathbun, 1921), P. langi (Rathbun, 1921), and P. stanleyensis (Rathbun, 1921), is revised based on examination of the holotypes. Updated diagnoses, illustrations, and distribution maps are provided for these species, and their conservation status is discussed.

  8. Integrative Taxonomic Study of the Purse Crab Genus Persephona Leach, 1817 (Brachyura: Leucosiidae): Combining Morphology and Molecular Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Tatiana; Robles, Rafael; Felder, Darryl L; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Marine crabs of the genus Persephona Leach, 1817 are restricted to American waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Subfamilial assignment of this taxon has varied between authors and its species composition remain in question. We conducted a comparative study based on morphology and molecular phylogenetics for all ten recognized species of Persephona, along with Iliacantha hancocki. We tested whether Persephona finneganae, P. lichtensteinii, and P. crinita represent a single species as suggested by some authors; whether specimens identified as P. punctata, P. mediterranea, and P. aquilonaris warrant treatment as separate species; and whether I. hancocki should be regarded as a junior synonym of P. subovata. Diagnostic morphological characters (of the carapace, chelipeds, and third maxillipeds) were used along with gonopod (male first pleopod 1) features and live coloration. The 16S rRNA and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) (DNA barcoding) mitochondrial genes were used as molecular markers. Both morphological and molecular analyses revealed that putative specimens of P. crinita from Brazil and those assigned to P. finneganae were no different from specimens presently assignable to P. lichtensteinii. P. finneganae is regarded as a junior synonym of P. lichtensteinii, and we apply P. crinita only to specimens we examined from the Gulf of Mexico. Specimens from Brazil previously reported as P. crinita are herewith concluded to represent P. lichtensteinii. Additionally, P. townsendi is a junior synonym of P. orbicularis, Iliacantha hancocki is concluded to be a junior synonym of P. subovata, while P. aquilonaris and P. mediterranea are found to represent separate species. On the basis of our revisions, eight species of Persephona are considered valid, and the reported distribution for P. crinita is restricted.

  9. Characterization and sequence analysis of manganese superoxide dismutases from Brachyura (Crustacea: Decapoda): hydrothermal Bythograeidae versus littoral crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, J; Leignel, V; Moreau, B; Chénais, B

    2009-06-01

    Hydrothermal vent conditions are particular and organisms living in these environments may have developed detoxification mechanisms and/or genetic adaptations. In particular, physico-chemical conditions are thought to generate reactive oxygen species, highly toxic for organisms. The enzyme superoxide dismutase constitutes the first line of defense against oxidative damage. To improve our understanding of the environmental impacts exerted on the vent organisms, we have characterized the two manganese superoxide dismutase cDNAs (mitochondrial: mMnSOD and cytoplasmic: cMnSOD) of three members of the Bythograeidae (Bythograea thermydron, Cyanagraea praedator and Segonzacia mesatlantica), the only endemic crab family living in hydrothermal vents. In comparison, the isolation of manganese superoxide dismutase cDNAs was also carried out in several littoral crab families. MnSOD signatures were found in both sequences from each species studied, as well as different residues involved in metal coordination and protein activity. The phylogenetic analysis performed confirms the probable ancient duplication that gave rise to the two MnSODs (cMnSOD and mMnSOD). This study describes two potential distinct mMnSOD isoforms presenting particular peptide signals. Nevertheless, no sequence particularity that could support the hypothesis of a genetic adaptation was found in Bythograeidae's MnSODs compared to the other sequences. The mRNA expression analysis performed by real-time PCR on B. thermydron and S. mesatlantica compared to Cancer pagurus and Necora puber revealed a higher cMnSOD and mMnSOD mRNA expression in hydrothermal crabs compared to littoral crabs.

  10. Out of the Sichuan Basin: Rapid species diversification of the freshwater crabs in Sinopotamon (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) endemic to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongkun; Sun, Yufang; Gao, Wei; Chu, Kelin; Wang, Ruicong; Zhao, Qiang; Sun, Hongying

    2016-07-01

    Sinopotamon Bott, 1967 is the most speciose and widely distributed freshwater crab genus in East Asia. Our extensive sampling includes about 76% of the known Sinopotamon taxa, and nearly covers its entire distribution area. Based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA, as well as nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3, we reconstructed the Sinopotamon phylogeny using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The divergence time was estimated and multiple methods were used to conduct diversification analyses. The ancestral geographic distribution and character state were reconstructed. Three main clades (Clades I, II and III) that roughly correspond to their main geographic distribution ranges were recovered. Our results challenge the current view of the four major species groups based on the morphological differences in the male first gonopod (G1). The most recent common ancestor of Sinopotamon most likely originated from the Sichuan Basin and surrounding mountains (SBSM) and subsequently dispersed throughout central and eastern China. The exceptionally rapid, recent diversification was detected in Clade II. The high incidence of species-level non-monophyly found in Clade II can be explained by recent rapid radiation. Climatic changes, morphological innovations, range expansion and geographical heterogeneity may all contribute to the diversification in Sinopotamon. This study contributes to our knowledge on diversification of freshwater benthic macro-invertebrates in the East Asian inland ecosystem.

  11. Reproductive cycle of the swimming crab Portunus spinimanus Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura from Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Sandro Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses some reproductive aspects of Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819, a crab usually commercialized in Ubatuba region. Monthly otter-trawl collections were taken for two years along the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. The reproductive period was studied based on the frequency of ovigerous females in the population along the year; the frequency of physiologically mature swimming crabs and the type of spawn. The condition of development of ovigerous females ovary was associated with the stage of eggs development. This species presents continuous reproduction in Ubatuba region and total spawn, but with successive broods, which suggests a multiple spawn during the reproduction period.

  12. A new species of Fizesereneia Takeda & Tamura, 1980 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Meij, Sancia E T; Berumen, Michael L; Paulay, Gustav

    2015-03-16

    A new species of cryptochirid crab, Fizesereneia panda van der Meij, is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the scleractinian corals Lobophyllia cf. hemprichii and L. cf. corymbosa from the Farasan Banks, Farasan Islands, and the reefs off Thuwal in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, and from Symphyllia recta from reefs in the Gulf of Oman. This is the second cryptochirid species with the Red Sea as type locality. It can be separated from its congeners by the subrectangular carapace, raised midline and the complete division of the carapace depressions, and reddish black colour pattern of these concavities in live specimens. This new species is the seventh assigned to Fizesereneia. A DNA barcode for the new species has been deposited in GenBank.

  13. A new species of Fizesereneia Takeda & Tamura, 1980 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea and Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der S.E.T.; Berumen, M.L.; Paulay, G.

    2015-01-01

    A new species of cryptochirid crab, Fizesereneia panda van der Meij, is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the scleractinian corals Lobophyllia cf. hemprichii and L. cf. corymbosa from the Farasan Banks, Farasan Islands, and the reefs off Thuwal in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea,

  14. Cytochemical characterization of gill and hepatopancreatic cells of the crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura validated by cell metal transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ortega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 is a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab possessing gills for respiratory and osmoregulatory processes, separated in anterior and posterior sections. They also have hepatopancreas, which is responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients and detoxification of toxic metals. Each of these organs has specific cells that are important for in vitro studies in cell biology, ion and toxic metals transport. In order to study and characterize cells from gills and hepatopancreas, both were separated using a Sucrose Gradient (SG from 10 to 40% and cells in each gradient were characterized using the vital mitochondrial dye DASPEI (2-(4-dimethylaminostyryl-N- ethylpyridinium iodide and Trichrome Mallory's stain. Both in 20 and 40% SG for gill cells and 30% SG for hepatopancreatic cells, a greater number of cells were colored with DASPEI, indicating a larger number of mitochondria in these cells. It is concluded that the gill cells present in 20% and 40% SG are Thin cells, responsible for respiratory processes and Ionocytes responsible for ion transport, respectively. For hepatopancreatic cells, the 30% SG is composed of Fibrillar cells that possess larger number of membrane ion and nutrient transporters. Moreover, the transport of toxic metal cadmium (Cd by isolated hepatopancreatic cells was performed as a way of following cell physiological integrity after cell separation and to study differences in transport among the cells. All hepatopancreatic cells were able to transport Cd. These findings are the first step for further work on isolated cells of these important exchange epithelia of crabs, using a simple separation method and to further develop successful in vitro cell culture in crabs.

  15. Digestive strategies in two species of leaf-eating land crabs (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in a rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, P; Raghaven, S

    1998-01-01

    Two species of herbivorous land crabs from Christmas Island, Cardisoma hirtipes and Gecarcoidea natalis, overlap in both diet and distribution. This study compared the dietary preferences and digestive capabilities of these two species on a diet of leaf litter to establish the digestive strategies each adopts and the likely degree of competition for food. C. hirtipes preferred green to yellow or brown leaves of Ficus macrophylla in short-term food-choice experiments. Brown leaves were least favoured. G. natalis showed no preference for the different leaf types and in the field ate chiefly brown and decomposing leaf litter. When fed green leaves, C. hirtipes had a low food intake (4.5+/-0.36 g kg-1 d-1) and a short retention time for food, and the readily digestible components of the diet constituted greater than 84% of the dry matter assimilated. When fed brown leaves, the intake was increased 3.3 times, but retention time remained short, and assimilation coefficients for all nutrients were low. The readily digestible fraction of the diet made the chief contribution to dry matter assimilation (69%), and hemicellulose (19%) and cellulose (21%) were also significantly used. This pattern of food intake and assimilation contrasts with that for G. natalis, which had a low intake of brown leaves and a longer retention time associated with higher nutrient assimilation, particularly of complex polysaccharides. It is suggested that through their feeding preferences and habits, these two sympatric species use opposite ends of the leaf litter quality spectrum on Christmas Island.

  16. Reproduction and management of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ucididae at Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil

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    BRUNO S. SANT'ANNA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is one of the most exploited crustaceans in Brazil. The present study investigated the breeding season of this species and the period of the “andada” phenomenon, when the crabs are active outside their burrows and perform agonistic behaviors. Furthermore related them to environmental factors, in a mangrove on the coast of Brazil, with inferences about management of this crab. The crabs reproduced from October through February. The “andada” occurred from November through February, with typical characteristics in the first two months, during the full and new moon periods, and was influenced positively by the air and soil temperature, luminosity, and tidal amplitude, and negatively by salinity. Based on the results of the present study, the period when the “andada” occurs in other parts of Brazil could be defined, which will aid in managing this fishery. For Iguape, state of São Paulo, Brazil, we suggest a legal off-season for both sexes in December or during the full and new moon, including January.

  17. Great unexpected differences between two populations of the intertidal crab Neohelice granulata inhabiting close but contrasting habitats (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura

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    Eduardo D. Spivak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two populations of the Southwestern Atlantic burrowing crab, Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851, are separated by only 190 km. They inhabit bays that drain into a Patagonian gulf in the southernmost limit of the geographical distribution of the species: San Antonio Bay (SAO and San José Gulf (RSJ. The population from SAO has been extensively studied, whereas that of RSJ has not. The main goal of this study is to compare the ecological and habitat characteristics of the two populations, based on samples collected on successive days during the middle of the reproductive season of the crab. The substrate of SAO is composed of a high proportion of gravel and scarce organic matter, whereas the substrate of RSJ presents twice as much silt and clay, and greater organic matter content. Crabs of both sexes were larger at RSJ. Fecundity and reproductive output were greater at RSJ. The size of females at maturity was smaller and their range was shorter at RSJ. Burrows were longer and wider at RSJ. Our results indicate that there are strong differences between the two populations, which might be correlated with local environmental differences, mainly substrate granulometry and food availability.

  18. Fatty acids dynamics during embryonic development in genus Uca (Brachyura: Ocypodidae), from the mangroves of Inhaca Island, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paulo; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Narciso, Luís; Macia, Adriano; Paula, José

    2008-11-01

    Variations in egg volume and fatty acid (FA) content through embryogenesis were evaluated in Uca species from Inhaca island, Mozambique. Egg volume increased 96.1%, 93.3%, 84.2%, 92.9%, 96.3%, respectively, in Uca annulipes, Uca inversa, Uca urvillei, Uca chlorophthalmus and Uca vocans ( p ecology, nutritional and physiological conditions, differential demands on resource allocation and geographic and seasonal variations in embryonic development.

  19. First occurrence of a Hymenosomatid crab Elamena mathoei (Desmarest, 1823 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura in the Mediterranean Sea

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    J. ZAOUALI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean fauna is undergoing drastic modifications as a result of anthropogenic activities and global warming. The most important of these is the colonization of the Mediterranean Sea by alien species, many of them entering through the Suez Canal. While many of them are still confined to the Levant Basin, several have extended their distribution westwards to Tunisian waters. The presence of the Indo-west Pacific hymenosomatid crab Elamena mathoei on a rocky shore at Sidi Daoud, Cape Bon Peninsula, Tunisia, is the first Mediterranean record of this species. It is a testimony to the changes in the patterns of invasion in the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Distribution notes on the Endangered freshwater crab Ceylonthelphusa armata Ng (1995 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae in Sri Lanka

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    U. S.C. Udagedera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are 52 species of freshwater crabs in Sri Lanka and 51 of them are endemic. There are several species that are known only from a single locality.  Ceylonthelphusa armata is such a species, and we have initiated a study to record the distribution of this species as its typical locality is heavily polluted at Kadugannawa.  At present C. armata is known from six localities, and this information will be useful to facilitate the conservation of the species by assessing the Red List.  

  1. New distribution records of the gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Meij, Sancia E. T.

    2016-11-12

    The gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 has been reported from various localities in Indonesia and Malaysia. Recent surveys in the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan yielded additional specimens of O. cathyae, considerably expanding the known distribution range of this species to the east and west. The identity of O. cathyae was confirmed based on COI sequence data, revealing identical haplotypes for the Red Sea, Maldivian and Japanese material and three haplotypes in the Indonesian material. Opecarcinus cathyae has one of the widest known recorded distribution ranges for all gall crab species.

  2. Macrophthalmus graeffei A. Milne Edwards, 1873 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae: a new Indo-Pacific guest off Rhodes Island (SE Aegean Sea, Greece

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    M.A. PANCUCCI-PAPADOPOULOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new alien crab, the macrophthalmid Macrophthalmus graeffei, is reported from the eastern coastline of Rhodes Island. The species, of Indo-West Pacific origin, is known from muddy sediments up to about 80 m depth. In the Mediterranean, its presence has been observed along Levantine coasts as well as along the Turkish coast of the Aegean Sea.Macrophthalmus graeffei increases to twelve the number of alien brachyurans present in the Hellenic SE Aegean Sea, ten of them having Indo-Pacific origin.

  3. Preservation of internal pleurites in a new palaeocorystid crab (Crustacea, Brachyura, Raninoidia) from the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) of Poitou-Charentes, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bakel, Barry W M

    2013-01-01

    A new palaeocorystid crab, Joeranina houssineaui n. sp., is described from upper Cenomanian strata in southwest France, Being apparently derived from J. broderipii, the new species inhabited a sandier substrate environment than its predecessor. The incomplete holotype reveals portions of the internal pleurites, which are rarely seen in extinct crabs.

  4. Results of the global conservation assessment of the freshwater crabs (Brachyura, Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae: The Neotropical region, with an update on diversity

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    Neil Cumberlidge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater crabs of the Neotropics comprise 311 species in two families (Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae and one or both of these families are found in all of the countries in the Neotropical region (except for Chile and some of the Caribbean islands. Colombia (102 species, 81% endemic and Mexico (67 species, 95% endemic are the biodiversity hotspots of freshwater crab species richness and country-level endemism for this region. The results of the IUCN Red List conservation assessments show that 34% of pseudothelphusids and 10% of trichodactylids have an elevated risk of extinction, 29% of pseudothelphusids and 75% of trichodactylids are not at-risk (Least Concern, and although none are actually extinct, 56% of pseudothelphusids and 17% of trichodactylids are too poorly known to assess (Data Deficient. Colombia (14 species, Venezuela (7 species, Mexico (6 species, and Ecuador (5 species are the countries with the highest number of threatened species of Neotropical freshwater crabs. The majority of threatened species are restricted-range semiterrestrial endemics living in habitats subjected to deforestation, alteration of drainage patterns, and pollution. This underlines the need to prioritize and develop conservation measures before species decline to levels from which they cannot recover. These results represent a baseline that can be used to design strategies to save threatened Neotropical species of freshwater crabs.

  5. The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of Johngarthiaplanata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and Johngarthiaplanata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinusquadratus.

  6. The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico

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    Robert Perger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860 has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of J. planata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and J. planata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinus quadratus.

  7. NOTES ON THE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF Sudanonautes floweri(DE MAN, 1901; CRUSTACEA: BRACHYURA: POTAMOIDEA: POTAMONAUTIDAE IN RIVER OGBOMWEN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

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    OROGUN ENAKEME O

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Investigation into some aspects of the biology and ecology of the freshwater crab, Sudanonautes floweri(De Man, 1901 in River Ogbomwen, Edo State, southern, Nigeria was carried out between February and July 2006. The study revealed that the crab species were widespread and abundant in the river. Abundance in terms of number and biomass was more during the wet season with at a peak in the months of June and July. The crab grew allometrically attaining a maximum total length and weight of 11.5 cm and 65 g respectively. The condition factor ranged from 8.60-9.45. These values did not vary with size and sex of the crab but showed seasonal variations. Females of Sudanonautes floweriwere more abundant although not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio. There were some sexually matured females with stages III gonad development. Fecundity estimate ranged from 400 to 650 eggs. The gonadosomatic index varied between 14.97 and 24.11%. Feeding habits varied slightly with size with larger sized crabs feeding on more and varied food particles. Generally, Sudanonautes flowerifed predominantly on detritus, crustaceans, fish, algae, filaments, diatoms and sand grains.

  8. Molt and reproduction enhancement together with hemolymph ecdysteroid elevation under eyestalk ablation in the female fiddler crab, Uca triangularis (Brachyura: Decapoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Nagathinkal T.; Sudha, Kappalli; Krishnakumar, Velayudhannair; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of eyestalk extirpation experiments performed on the fiddler crab, Uca triangularis at seasons of molting and reproduction, with a view to have a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of these two highly energy-demanding processes. Bilateral eyestalk ablation resulted in precocious acceleration of both molting and reproduction, irrespective of the season at which each experiment was conducted. The rate of accelerated ovarian growth, however, was maximum if the eyestalk ablation was conducted during August-January, the breeding season in the wild, or in February-May (molting-reproductive season), wherein a section of the wild population would be engaged in molting and another section in breeding. The highest degree of precocious molt acceleration, on the other hand, was obtained during June-July when the population was primarily engaged in molting, but with no reproductive activity. The precocious oocyte maturation (due to de-eyestalking) was minimal in June-July. Significantly, the eyestalk ablation also resulted in a dramatic increase in the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer, revealing that a high ecdysteroid titer would have no restraining influence on vitellogenesis. No spawning was, however, observed among de-eyestalked females, even though their final oocyte size surpassed the size of the normal mature oocytes, implying that spawning is not exclusively under the control of eyestalk hormones. A comparative study performed on the vitelline components of the experimentals and the controls revealed that the precociously incorporated yolk under eyestalk ablation was biochemically impoverished. These results indicate that throughout the annual cycle, both the somatic and the reproductive growth of U. triangularis are under the influence of inhibitory principles from the eyestalks. It is also revealing that mere deprival of the inhibitory principles does not culminate into successful vitellogenesis. Arguably, the inhibitory influence from the eyestalks could be a prerequisite for normal healthy maturation of the oocytes and spawning.

  9. Relative growth in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 (Brachyura, Ocypodidae from Garças River mangrove, Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil

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    Salise Brandt Martins

    Full Text Available A study on the relative growth was carried out in a population of the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis from the mangrove of Garças River, Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, southern Brazil. The dimensions analyzed were the length of the major chela (LMC of males and width of the abdomen (AW of females, because they are related to reproductive activities of waving (males and egg incubation (females. The cheliped handedness in males was also analyzed. The LMC was measured in 480 males, the AW in 566 females, and all crabs had the carapace width (CW measured that was considered as the reference dimension for both sexes. The inflection point in the graphs between each the dimensions and CW was calculated with the aid of the software REGRANS. The CW ranged from 2.33 to 8.33 mm in males and from 1.65 to 7.79 mm in females. The relationship between CW and LMC showed an inflection point at 4.14 mm CW among males, and between CW and AW at 3.52 mm CW among females. The allometric growth was positive for both dimensions throughout the entire ontogeny of both sexes, before and after the puberty. The equations describing the relationship between CW and LMC in males were: logLMC = - 0.695960 + 1.72.logCW for juveniles and logLMC = - 1.212513 + 2.5.logCW for adults. In females, the equations were logAW = - 0.519071 + 1.02.logCW and logAW = - 0.902874 + 1.73.logCW, respectively for juveniles and adults. The population of U. uruguayensis from Guaratuba Bay is composed of the smallest crabs, and it also attains morphological sexual maturity at smallest CW. The frequency of occurrence of right and left handed males was statistically the same (1:1 as in most population of fiddler crabs.

  10. Crabs of the families Palicidae and Crossotonotidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Palicoidea) from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masatsune; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-10

    Four species of palicoid crabs, Neopalicus jukesii (White, 1847) and Rectopalicus ampullatus Castro, 2000 of the family Palicidae, and Crossotonotus spinipes (De Man, 1888) and a new species of Pleurophricus A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 of the family Crossotonotidae, are recorded from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Diagnostics for the new species are the protruded bilobed front, six subacute lobate teeth at each lateral margin of the carapace, six rounded lobes at the posterior margin of the carapace, a crested armature of the cheliped carpus, and the strongly depressed ambulatory legs, which readily distinguish it from its two congeners, P. cristatipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 known by two males from Australia and the Kai Islands in Indonesia, and P. longirostris (Moosa & Serène, 1981) known by a female from the Sunda Strait, Indonesia.

  11. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

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    Timoteo T. Watanabe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay from March 2007 through February 2008. Specimens caught were identified, sexed and measured. Samples of bottom water were collected and the temperature and salinity measured. A total of 618 crabs were captured (332 males, 267 females and 19 ovigerous females, with a sex ratio close to 1:1. A large number of juveniles were captured (77.67%. Crab spatial distributions were positively correlated with salinity (Rs = 0.73, p = 0.0395 and temperature (Rs = 0.71, p = 0.0092. Two peaks of recruitment occurred, in summer and autumn, and ovigerous females were mostly captured during summer, showing a seasonal reproductive pattern. The results showed that C. ornatus uses the bay as a nursery area for juvenile development. Callinectes ornatus is not yet a legally protected species, and the minimum allowed size of crabs caught in the area, although already restricted, should be carefully evaluated since the removal of large numbers of juveniles could negatively impact the local population.

  12. Two new potamid crabs, Yuexipotamon arcophallus new genus, new species and Minutomon shanweiense new genus, new species, (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from southern China.

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    Huang, Chao; Mao, Si Ying

    2014-02-12

    Two new Chinese genera and species of freshwater crabs, Yuexipotamon arcophallus, new genus, new species, and Minutomon shanweiense, new genus, new species, are described from Zhaoqing City and Shanwei City, respectively. The former is superficially closest to Huananpotamon Dai & Ng, 1994, while the latter resembles Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, and Mediapotamon Dai, 1995. The two new genera, however, possess distinctive combinations of carapace, third maxilliped, male thoracic sternal and first gonopodal characters that easily distinguish them from other genera. Notes on the general biology of the two new species are also given.

  13. On one new genus and three new species of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae and Grapsidae) from Lanjak-Entimau, Sarawak, East Malaysia, Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The freshwater crabs obtained from the Lanjak-Entimau area in Sarawak, East Malaysia, Borneo, are reported upon. One new genus (Ibanum) and two new species of Potamidae (Ibanum aethes and Isolapotamon stuebingi) and a new species of Grapsidae (Geosesarma katibas) are described. The identity of Potam

  14. Patterns of diversity, areas of endemism, and multiple glacial refuges for freshwater crabs of the genus Sinopotamon in China (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Sun, Hongying; Zhao, Qiang; Lin, Congtian; Sun, Yufang; Gao, Wei; Xu, Juanjuan; Zhou, Junying; Ge, Feng; Liu, Naifa

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the geographical distribution patterns of freshwater fishes and amphibians have been influenced by past climatic oscillations in China resulting from Pleistocene glacial activity. However, it remains unknown how these past changes have impacted the present-day distribution of Chinese freshwater crabs. This work describes the diversity and endemism of freshwater crabs belonging to Sinopotamon, a highly speciose genus endemic to China, and evaluates its distribution in terms of topography and past climatic fluctuations. Species diversity within Sinopotamon was found to be concentrated in an area from the northeastern edge of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau to the Jiangnan Hills, and three areas of endemism were identified. Multiple regression analysis between current climatic variables and Sinopotamon diversity suggested that regional annual precipitation, minimum temperature in the coldest month, and annual temperature range significantly influenced species diversity and may explain the diversity patterns of Sinopotamon. A comparison of ecological niche models (ENMs) between current conditions and the last glacial maximum (LGM) showed that suitable habitat for Sinopotamon in China severely contracted during the LGM. The coincidence of ENMs and the areas of endemism indicated that southeast of the Daba Mountains, and central and southeastern China, are potential Pleistocene refuges for Sinopotamon. The presence of multiple Pleistocene refuges within the range of this genus could further promote inter- and intraspecific differentiations, and may have led to high Sinopotamon species diversity, a high endemism rate and widespread distribution.

  15. Semiterrestrial crabs of the genus Geosesarma De Man, 1892 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae) from western Borneo, Indonesia, with descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peter K L

    2015-11-24

    The poorly known semiterrestrial sesarmid crab, Geosesarma amphinome (De Man, 1899), from Kalimantan Barat in western Borneo, is redescribed and figured. Three other species from areas surrounding the town of Pontianak, are here described as new. Geosesarma ambawang sp. nov., G. pontianak sp. nov., and G. pylaemenes sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners on Borneo and adjacent areas by their colours in life, form of the carapaces and ambulatory legs, and the structures of the male abdomens and first gonopods.

  16. Embryology of the spider crabs Leurocyclus tuberculosus (H. Milne-Edwards & Lucas 1842) and Libinia spinosa (H. Milne-Edwards 1834) (Brachyura, Majoidea).

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    González-Pisani, Ximena; Gaspar Dellatorre, Fernando; López-Greco, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The embryonic development of the spider crabs Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa was divided into five periods based on the differentiation of: (I) cleavage, (II) embryonic primordium, III) optic lobes, (IV) optic lobes pigmented and (V) chromatophores presence. Different traits such as spines, setae and telson morphology distinguish the two species from period III until hatching. Egg volume was greater in Leurocyclus tuberculosus than in Libinia spinosa. The duration of each period was different during development. Whereas in Leurocyclus tuberculosus period II (morphogenesis) is the longest, in Libinia spinosa the period IV is the longest. Complete embryonic development at 14'C lasted 36.7 +/- 3.1 days in Leurocyclus tuberculosus and 57.4 +/- 4.4 days in Libinia spinosa.

  17. The nomenclatural status of the two "spiny-wristed" fiddler crabs: Uca spinicarpa Rathbun, 1900, and U. hesperiae Crane, 1975 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Ocypodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    A secondary homonymy is documented for Gelasimus [= Uca] tetragonon var. spinicarpa Kossmann, 1877 (a species from the Red Sea), and Uca spinicarpa Rathbun, 1900 (a species from the Gulf of Mexico). Although Kossmann's usage of the nomen spinicarpa has chronological priority, a reversal of precedence is required by Article 23.9 of the Code since Kossmann's use has not been applied as a valid name since the original publication in 1877, while Rathbun's use of the name has been applied over 50 times in the last half century. The species Kossmann was most likely referring to is today known as Uca hesperiae Crane, 1975, a name which may be retained in light of the reversal of precedence.

  18. A new genus and two new species of hymenosomatid crabs (Crustacea:Brachyura: Hymenosomatidae) from the southwestern Atlantic and eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Marcos; Santana, William

    2015-01-09

    A new genus, Teramnonotus n. gen., is erected for Elamena gordonae Monod, 1956. The new genus includes two new species, T. johnlucasi n. gen., n. sp. and T. monodi n. gen., n. sp., described herein from eastern Australia (Queensland) and the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil), respectively. Teramnonotus n. gen. superficially resembles Elamena H. Milne Edwards, 1837, and Trigonoplax H. Milne Edwards, 1853, of which it can be easily distinguished by a combination of characters: eyes and ocular peduncle, rostrum, carapace, thoracic sternite 8 and thoracic pleurite 8, and the inhalant water openings. The validity of the obscure species Elamena mexicana H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is not supported and it is synonymised with Halicarcinus planatus (Fabricius, 1775).

  19. Five new species of freshwater crabs of the genera Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014, and Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae Rathbun, 1904) from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, S K; Thackeray, T; Khaire, A

    2016-02-23

    Five new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crabs, Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp., Ghatiana splendida n. sp., Gubernatoriana alcocki Pati n. sp., Gubernatoriana thackerayi Pati n. sp., and Gubernatoriana waghi Pati n. sp. are described from the Western Ghats in Maharashtra and Goa states of India. Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp. can be differentiated from other species of Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014 by the shape and colour of its carapace, and the sigmoid-shaped male first pleopod (G1). Ghatiana splendida n. sp. is separated from its congeners mainly by its long anterolateral margin of the carapace and short terminal article of the G1. Besides, the colour pattern (deep pink carapace and chelipeds, orange ambulatory legs) of G. splendida n. sp. is exceptional among its congeners. Gubernatoriana alcocki n. sp. is unique among species of Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 due to its inwardly curved tip of the terminal article of the G1. The stout and cone-shaped terminal article of the G1 of G. thackerayi n. sp. is characteristic among its congeners. In addition, G. thackerayi n. sp. has a unique colouration amongst congeners (violet-red carapace and ambulatory legs, orange-red chelipeds). Gubernatoriana waghi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the quadrate-shaped carapace, narrow frontal margin, pointed tips of the cheliped fingers, short terminal article of the G1 and very short or vestigial terminal article of the male second pleopod (G2). The body colour (burnt orange carapace and ivory coloured chelipeds and ambulatory legs) of G. waghi n. sp. is also important to distinguish live crabs of the genus. Key to the species of Ghatiana and Gubernatoriana is provided.

  20. Two new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Heterochelamon Türkay & Dai, 1997 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Tohru; Zhu, Chunchao; Zhou, Xianmin

    2013-01-01

    Heterochelamon tessellatum n. sp. and H. castanea n. sp. are described trom the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. Heterochelamon tessellatum n. sp. and H. castanea n. sp. are morphologically most similar to H. yangshuoense Türkay & Dai, 1997, and H. guangxiense Türkay & Dai, 1997, respectively. The new species can be differentiated from these allied species by differences in the shape of external orbital tooth, epibranchial tooth, and male first gonopod. The present study brings the number of Heterochelamon species to five. A key to species of the genus Heterochelamon is provided.

  1. The land crabs of the Discoplax longipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1867 species group, with description of a new species from Guam (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peter K L; Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-06-30

    Specimens of the gecarcinid land crab Discoplax longipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1867, from the western Pacific, can be separated into two distinct groups on the basis of DNA (mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and structure of the male first gonopod. On the basis of this data, the material that occurs from the Loyalty Islands to French Polynesia is shown to be D. longipes s. str., whereas specimens from Guam are here referred to a new pseudocryptic species, D. michalis n. sp. The two species are described and figured; and a revised key to the long-legged Discoplax species is provided.

  2. Results of the global conservation assessment of the freshwater crabs (Brachyura, Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae): The Neotropical region, with an update on diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberlidge, Neil; Alvarez, Fernando; Villalobos, Jose-Luis

    2014-01-01

    The freshwater crabs of the Neotropics comprise 311 species in two families (Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae) and one or both of these families are found in all of the countries in the Neotropical region (except for Chile and some of the Caribbean islands). Colombia (102 species, 81% endemic) and Mexico (67 species, 95% endemic) are the biodiversity hotspots of freshwater crab species richness and country-level endemism for this region. The results of the IUCN Red List conservation assessments show that 34% of pseudothelphusids and 10% of trichodactylids have an elevated risk of extinction, 29% of pseudothelphusids and 75% of trichodactylids are not at-risk (Least Concern), and although none are actually extinct, 56% of pseudothelphusids and 17% of trichodactylids are too poorly known to assess (Data Deficient). Colombia (14 species), Venezuela (7 species), Mexico (6 species), and Ecuador (5 species) are the countries with the highest number of threatened species of Neotropical freshwater crabs. The majority of threatened species are restricted-range semiterrestrial endemics living in habitats subjected to deforestation, alteration of drainage patterns, and pollution. This underlines the need to prioritize and develop conservation measures before species decline to levels from which they cannot recover. These results represent a baseline that can be used to design strategies to save threatened Neotropical species of freshwater crabs.

  3. A new species of decorator crabs, genus Menaethiops Alcock, 1895 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Epialthidae), from Abu-Musa Island, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderloo, Reza

    2015-03-02

    Menaethiops abumusa n. sp. is closely similar to M. bicornis Alcock, 1985, and M. gadaniensis Kazmi & Tirmizi, 1999, regarding the relatively contiguous rostral spines. The new species is easily distinguishable from its two congeners by having distinctly round angles of orbital eaves and distally divergent rostral spines. Whereas in M. bicornis, and M. gadaniensis, the angles of orbital eaves are anteriorly produced and rostral spines are closely attached to each other along their entire length.  Other morphological differences include the carapace spination/granulation, basal antennal segments, and morphology of the male's first gonopod. Menaethiops gadaniensis was described from Gadani, Pakistan and was only known from the type locality, but is here recorded for the first time from the Gulf of Oman.

  4. Changes during late-stage embryonic development from egg-juvenile to free-living hatchling in Chinese freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense (Decapoda, Brachyura,Potamidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Junzeng; LIU Yan; Neil CUMBERLIDGE; WU Huixian

    2013-01-01

    This study expands on recent reports that direct development in the Chinese potamid freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense involves the completion of all brachyuran larval stages (nauplius,zoea,and megalopa) inside the egg case during embryonic development.Detailed studies of embryonic development in this species revealed the presence of an additional larval stage (the egg-juvenile) between the megalopa and the free-living hatchling crab.We described and compared the appendages of the head,thorax,and abdomen of the egg-juvenile with those of the hatchling crab in S.yangtsekiense.Significant differences were found between most of the appendages of these two stages with a soft exoskeleton in the egg-juvenile,no joint articulation,a slimmer appearance,and a lack of setae when compared with the newly emerged free-living hatchling crab.These modifications of the appendages are related to the confinement within the egg case of the egg-megalopa and egg-juvenile during direct development,and the need for the free-living hatchling freshwater crab to move,feed,and respire.In marine crabs,the megalopa gives rise to the first crab stage whereas in freshwater crabs the egg-juvenile follows the megalopa and immediately precedes the free-living first crab stage.

  5. Population characteristics of the swimming crab Callinectes amnicola De Rocheburne, 1883 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae in the Qua Iboe River estuary, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Udoh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of Callinectes amnicola, from the Qua Iboe River estuary, south-eastern Nigeria, was investigated for twelve months from June 2008 to May 2009, with respect to its size composition and population characteristics. A total of 1,193 specimens were obtained comprising 508males and 685 females with overall (1:1.35, χ2 = 26.26, 1 df, p 2 =2.17, I df, p 2 = 11.44, 1 df, p C. amnicola inhabiting the lower reaches of the Qua Iboe River estuary, Nigeria.

  6. First record of marine crab, Eucrate alcocki Serne, in Serène and Lohavanijaya, 1973 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Euryplacidae) from India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. RAJKUMAR; K. P. KUMARAGURU VASAGAM; LI Xinzheng; SUN Jun

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of a marine brachyuran crab species Eucrate alcocki Serène, in Serène et al., 1973, of the family Euryplacidae Stimpson, 1871, for first time from India, based on a male specimen from Parangipettai fish landing centre in Bay of Bengal, Southeast Coast of India. Although morphologically corresponding with what is currently defined as E. alcocki, the color pattern of the carapace of the present specimen is rather different from that of the Chinese material-only the anterior fifth of the carapace is marked with scattered red spots, the rest of the surface is yellowish, with four unusually shaped red blotches which almost look like Sanskrit characters.

  7. Population dynamics of the pea crab Austinixa aidae (Brachyura, Pinnotheridae: a symbiotic of the ghost shrimp Callichirus major (Thalassinidea, Callianassidae from the southwestern Atlantic

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    Douglas F Peiró

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pinnotheridae family is one of the most diverse and complex groups of brachyuran crabs, many of them symbionts of a wide variety of invertebrates. The present study describes the population dynamics of the pea crab Austinixa aidae (Righi, 1967, a symbiont associated with the burrows of the ghost shrimp Callichirus major (Say, 1818. Individuals (n = 588 were collected bimonthly from May, 2005 to September, 2006 along a sandy beach in the southwestern Atlantic, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Our data indicated that the population demography of A. aidae was characterized by a bimodal size-frequency distribution (between 2.0 and 4.0 mm and between 8.0 and 9.0 mm CW that remained similar throughout the study period. Sex ratio does not differ significantly from 1:1 (p > 0.05, which confirms the pattern observed in other symbiontic pinnotherids. Density values (1.72 ± 1.34 ind. • ap.-1 are in agreement with those found for other species of the genus. The mean symbiosis incidence (75.6% was one of the highest among species of the Pinnotheridae family, but it was the lowest among the three studied species of the genus. Recruitment pattern was annual, beginning in May and peaking in July, in both years, after the peak of ovigerous females in the population (from March to May. Our findings describe ecological and biological aspects of A. aidae similar to those of other species of this genus, even from different geographic localities.

  8. Multi-level biological responses in Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) (Brachyura, Ucididae) as indicators of conservation status in mangrove areas from the western atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luis Felipe de Almeida; Souza, Caroline Araújo de; Nobre, Caio Rodrigues; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Pinheiro, Marcelo Antonio Amaro

    2016-11-01

    There is a global lack of knowledge on tropical ecotoxicology, particularly in terms of mangrove areas. These areas often serve as nurseries or homes for several animal species, including Ucides cordatus (the uçá crab). This species is widely distributed, is part of the diet of human coastal communities, and is considered to be a sentinel species due to its sensitivity to toxic xenobiotics in natural environments. Sublethal damages to benthic populations reveal pre-pathological conditions, but discussions of the implications are scarce in the literature. In Brazil, the state of São Paulo offers an interesting scenario for ecotoxicology and population studies: it is easy to distinguish between mangroves that are well preserved and those which are significantly impacted by human activity. The objectives of this study were to provide the normal baseline values for the frequency of Micronucleated cells (MN‰) and for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in U. cordatus at pristine locations, as well to indicate the conservation status of different mangrove areas using a multi-level biological response approach in which these biomarkers and population indicators (condition factor and crab density) are applied in relation to environmental quality indicators (determined via information in the literature and solid waste volume). A mangrove area with no effects of impact (areas of reference or pristine areas) presented a mean value of MN‰120min, values which were assumed as baseline values representing genetic and physiological normality. A significant correlation was found between NRRT and MN, with both showing similar and effective results for distinguishing between different mangrove areas according to conservation status. Furthermore, crab density was lower in more impacted mangrove areas, a finding which also reflects the effects of sublethal damage; this finding was not determined by condition factor measurements. Multi-level biological responses were able to reflect the conservation status of the mangrove areas studied using information on guideline values of MN‰, NRRT, and density of the uçá crab in order to categorize three levels of human impacts in mangrove areas: PNI (probable null impact); PLI (probable low impact); and PHI (probable high impact). Results confirm the success of U. cordatus species' multi-level biological responses in diagnosing threats to mangrove areas. Therefore, this species represents an effective tool in studies on mangrove conservation statuses in the Western Atlantic.

  9. External factors determining breeding season in the red mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae on the São Paulo State northern coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobo Valter José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the water and air temperatures, pluviosity and photoperiod on the breeding season of Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803, in Ubatuba littoral, southeastern Brazilian coast. Monthly collections were conducted out from January/95 to December/96 in an estuarine area from 23º29'10"-23º29'45"S to 45º09'10"-45º10'00"W. Water and air temperature variation showed the highest correlation coefficient with the frequency of ovigerous females, r² = 0.73 and 0.68, respectively. However, an analysis of the set of environmental variables, revealed the photoperiod as the factor of highest association with the ovigerous frequency (r² = 0.68. This degree of association allow us to suggest that the breeding season duration of G. cruentata might have some variations over different latitudes, and such results could be quite diverse in populations from different latitudes.

  10. Estudos ecológicos dos crustáceos comestiveis Uça e Guaiamú, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille e Ucides cordatus (L. Gecarcinidae, Brachyura

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    Lejeune P. H. de Oliveira

    1946-06-01

    Full Text Available As observações que fizemos nos mostraram que: Guaiamú (Cardisoma guanhumi As tocas tem água quase doce; entre 2 partes de água do mar para 998 de água doce e 20 partes de água do mar para 980 de água doce. Agua de composição pouco variavel, a pequena concentração de sais cae mais por ocasião das chuvas. Toca sempre fresca, no verão atinge 23º C. Sem grandes variações. Toda escavada em terra arenosa. Não é invadida pelas aguas da maré. A toca é proxima a manguesais possue enxames de mosquitos. As larvas de insetos crescem bem nesta água. Toca com cheiro das valas de água doce. Frepentemente o guaiamú sáe de seu buraco e vae para longe do manguesal. Ucá (Ucides cordatus As tocas apresentam água salobra, de regime polihalino, com salinidade média anual variando entre 30 e 25 por mil. os uças na natureza não toleram a água de clorinidade 5, saem das tocas e passeiam pelo brejo procurando um local mais salgado (vimos isto em 4 set. 1939 e 6 abr. 1944. A toca do uça apresenta duas variações de salinidade em cada 24 horas, é levada duas vezes por dia pelas águas da preamar. os estuários as variações de salinidade são mais bruscas que nas ilhas, mesmo pouco afastadas das fozes de rios como a Ilha do Pinheiro. Toca muitas vêzes expostas ao sol, é quente de dia e fria de noite. No verão encontramos 44.5°C. A toca é escavada na argila preta macia, molhada pelas aguas da maré enchente. Toca dentro do manguesal, sem nenhuma larva de inseto. Toca em geral de cheiro particular, parecendo ao da marezia misturada com gazes sulfídricos e metânicos. Via de regra o uça se afasta pouco de seu buraco.

  11. New collections of freshwater crabs from northern Madagascar, with the description of a new species of Foza Reed & Cumberlidge, 2006 (Brachyura, Potamonautidae, and comments on their conservation status

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    Neil Cumberlidge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here on recent collections of freshwater crabs from Antsiranana Province, northern Madagascar. The specimens belong to three species, one of which is new to science and is described here. This raises the number of species of freshwater crabs found in Madagascar to 17. All are endemic to the island and all belong to the Afrotropical family Potamonautidae Bott, 1970. The new species, Foza manonae sp. nov., is compared to other species in this genus, and an updated key is provided. It is distinguished from the other three congeners by characters of the male first gonopod, sternum, carapace, and cheliped. The conservation status of the Malagasy freshwater crab fauna is summarized and discussed in light of the new material reported on here belonging to two other species, Madagapotamon humberti Bott, 1965 and Foza ambohitra Cumberlidge & Meyer, 2009.

  12. Feeding habits of the spider crab Libinia spinosa H. Milne Edwards, 1834 (Decapoda, Brachyura in Ubatuba bay, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Samara de Paiva Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was the identification of the items of the diet of the L. spinosa, based on the stomach contents analysis. The crabs were obtained from Ubatuba region north-eastern shore of São Paulo State. In the laboratory, all the individuals were dissected, the stomach was retreated and fixed in 10% formaline. The alimentary items were identified under stereomicroscope and analysed by the method of Frequency of Occurrence. A total of 194 stomachs was analysed and nine alimentary items were obtained. Unindentified material was found in 98% of analysed stomach and poriferan were present in less then 1% of stomachs. These results pointed a diversified diet explored by this crab, as well as the employment of some different methods for food intake. This suggested that these crabs could occupy different position in the trophic chain.O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os itens alimentares que compõem a dieta de L. spinosa, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. Os caranguejos foram coletados no litoral norte paulista (23º25’S-45º00’W. No laboratório, todos indivíduos foram dissecados, os estômagos foram retirados e fixados em formol 10%. Os itens alimentares foram identificados sob estereomicroscópio, sendo que para a análise foi utilizado o método Freqüência de Ocorrência. Foram analisados 194 estômagos, nos quais foram encontrados nove itens alimentares. A maior freqüência foi para material não identificado, ocorrendo em 98% dos estômagos analisados e Porifera foi o item com a menor freqüência, ocorrendo em menos de 1% dos estômagos. Com base nos resultados obtidos, sugere-se que o caranguejo L. spinosa apresenta uma dieta diversificada, sugerindo a utilização de diferentes métodos para a obtenção de alimento e por conseqüência podendo ocupar vários níveis na cadeia trófica.

  13. Larval development of Notolopas brasiliensis Miers, 1886 (Brachyura: Majoidea: Pisidae described from laboratory reared material and a reappraisal of the characters of Pisidae

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    William Santana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete larval stages of Notolopas brasiliensis are described from laboratory reared material, with emphasis on the external morphological features of Majoidea, and compare the morphology of N. brasiliensis with other genera of Pisidae. Larval development of N. brasiliensis consists of two zoeal stages and one megalopa. The duration mean of each zoeal stage was 4.2 ± 1.0 days for Zoea I and 3.8 ± 0.7 days for Zoea II, the megalopa instar appearing 8.1 ± 0.4 days after hatching. The characters previously used to define larval forms of Pisidae are either symplesiomorphic or potentially highly homoplastic. As well, was observed that there are no common sets of larval characters that would define Pisidae nowadays. However, was showed that only a combination of characters could differentiate Notolopas from other pisid genera.O completo desenvolvimento larval de Notolopas brasiliensis é descrito, a partir de material criado em laboratório, com ênfase na morfologia externa de Majoidea e comparado aos demais gêneros de Pisidae. O desenvolvimento larval de N. brasiliensis consiste em dois estágios de zoea e um de megalopa. A duração media de cada estágio foi de 4.2 ± 1.0 dias para a Zoea I e 3.8 ± 0.7 dias para a Zoea II, a megalopa aparece entre 8.1 ± 0.4 dias após a eclosão. Os caracteres previamente utilizados para definir as formas larvais de Pisidae ou são simplesiomórficos ou altamente homoplásticos. Foi observado que não existe um conjunto de caracteres capazes de definir Pisidae até o presente.Contudo foi mostrado que uma combinação de caracteres pode ser utilizada para diferenciar Notolopas dos demais gêneros da família.

  14. Distribution of decapod larvae in the Bombay Harbour-Thana-Bassein Creek regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Abbas, M.S.; Nair, V.R.

    and Brachyura. Among these, brachyurans were the most abundant in the entire study area indicating good potential for crab fishery. Penaeus, Metapenaeus and Parapenaeopsis were the genera recorded in the family Penaeidae of which Metapenaeus spp. were the most...

  15. Checklist of the freshwater decapod crustaceans from the Orontes River

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    Tahir Ozcan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provided an annoted list of decapod crustacean fauna of Orontes River, mainly based on previous study works. It included 6 species (3 Natantia, 3 Brachyura belonging 3 families.

  16. Biologia do caranguejo-uçá, Ucides cordatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura, na Baía da Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil Biology of the mangrove uçá crab, Ucides cordatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura, in Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Alison C. Wunderlich

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar pela primeira vez alguns aspectos da reprodução do caranguejo-uçá em manguezais da Baía da Babitonga (Santa Catarina. Além disso, a densidade e o tamanho do estoque deste recurso pesqueiro foram também estimados. Os exemplares foram coletados mensalmente, de maio de 2002 a abril de 2003, em duas áreas distintas: Iperoba e Palmital; um total de 2265 espécimes (1623 machos e 642 fêmeas foi analisado. Os machos com gônadas maturas foram registrados durante todo o ano, enquanto as fêmeas com gônadas maturas ocorreram em apenas cinco meses. As fêmeas ovígeras foram registradas apenas em dezembro e janeiro. O etograma do fenômeno de migração reprodutiva ("andada" esteve em concordância com a maior atividade de caranguejos associada às luas cheias e novas, com maior intensidade em dezembro e janeiro, relacionados ao verão austral. A densidade total no Manguezal de Iperoba foi de 2,05 ± 0,97 ind./m², não diferindo significativamente daquela registrada para o Manguezal do Palmital (2,06 ± 1,08 ind./m² (p The aim of this work is to characterize, for the first time, aspects of the reproduction of the mandrove-land crab in mangroves of the Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina. Furthermore, density and stock size of this fishery resource were also estimated. The specimens were sampled from May 2002 to April 2003, from two distinct locations: Iperoba and Palmital; a total of 2265 specimens (1623 males and 642 females were analyzed. Males with mature gonads were recorded throughout the year, while females with mature gonads were only recorded during a five-month period. Ovigerous females were recorded in December and January. The ethogram of the reproductive migration phenomenon ("andada" is in agreement of high crab activity associated to full- and new-moon, with higher intensity during December and January, also related to the austral summer season. The total sampling density on Iperoba Mangrove was 2.05 ± 0.97 individuals.m-2 and did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 from the density recorded on Palmital Mangrove (2.06 ± 1.08 individuals.m-2. The overall average of density estimation at Babitonga Bay was 2.05 ± 1.00 individuals.m-2, which corresponded to the density of open (1.42 ± 0.89 individuals.m-2 and closed burrows (0.64 ± 0.63 individuals.m-2.

  17. Population structure and sexual maturity of the calico box crab Hepatus epheliticus Linnaeus (Brachyura, Hepatidae from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico Estructura poblacional y madurez sexual en el cangrejo caja moteado Hepatus epheliticus Linnaeus (Brachyura, Hepatidae procedente de la Península del Yucatán, México

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    Patricio Hernáez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The calico box crab Hepatus epheliticus is an abundant species from shallow and continental shelf waters of the Atlantic coast of USA and Mexico. Information about population structure and sexual maturity is absent, even though this crab is caught to be used as bait for the octopus fishery in the Campeche Bank, Mexico. In order to achieve such information, a total of 768 individuals were collected from January to March 2010 through baited traps installed in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Our results showed that sex ratio is biased towards more males than females (1:0.55, contradicting to that reported in other brachyuran crabs. The absence of ovigerous females suggests that they did not enter into the traps during embryogenesis. Males reached a larger maximum size than females (64.0 ± 6.15 and 58.4 ± 5.60 mm carapace width, respectively. The general scheme of growth being positive allometric throughout ontogeny of both sexes. Males presented a transition phase from juveniles to adult corresponding to the puberty moult. The estimation of the onset of functional sexual maturity revealed a steady situation for the population, with 21.5 and 13.8% of males and females, respectively, morphologically immature at the time of catch. This study constitutes the first report on population structure and sexual maturity in a population of the calico box crab H. epheliticus.El cangrejo caja moteado Hepatus epheliticus es un abundante braquiuro perteneciente a la familia Hepatidae, distribuido desde aguas someras hasta la plataforma continental en la costa atlántica de Estados Unidos y México. La información sobre su demografía poblacional y madurez sexual es actualmente inexistente, aun cuando esta especie es intensamente capturada como carnada en la pesquería del pulpo del estado de Campeche, México. Entre enero y marzo de 2010, se colectaron 768 especímenes usando trampas instaladas en la Península de Yucatán, México. Los resultados mostraron una proporción sexual completamente inclinada hacia los machos (1:0,55, lo cual contradice el esquema general reportado en otras especies de braquiuros. La ausencia total de hembras ovígeras, sugiere su resistencia a ingresar a las trampas durante el periodo de incubación de los embriones. Los machos alcanzaron un tamaño promedio mayor que las hembras (64,0 ± 6,15 y 58,4 ± 5,60 mm de ancho del caparazón, respectivamente, siendo el crecimiento de tipo alométrico positivo a lo largo de la ontogenia de ambos sexos. Los machos presentaron una fase de transición desde juveniles a adultos correspondiente a la muda de pubertad. La estimación de la madurez sexual funcional mostró una situación normal para la población, con 21,5 y 13,8% de machos y hembras respectivamente, morfológicamente inmaduros al momento de ser capturados. Este estudio constituye la primera aproximación a la estructura poblacional y madurez sexual del cangrejo caja moteado H. epheliticus.

  18. Population dynamic of Sesarma rectum (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae from a muddy flat under human impact, Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Dinâmica populacional de Sesarma rectum (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae de uma área lodosa impactada, Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Stella Maris Januário da Silva

    Full Text Available A population of Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 under the influence of human impact was studied. Monthly sampling (CPUE, two people during 30 min took place from August/2001 to July/2002 at an impacted muddy flat in Paraty city, State of Rio de Janeiro (23º13'S, 44º42'W. At the laboratory, specimens were classified by sex and measured with a vernier caliper (0.01 mm. The size at the beginning of the sexual maturity was obtained by means of different techniques: in the case of males it was used the allometric procedure and the macroscopic analysis of gonads wile for females, the size of the smallest ovigerous female was also considered. The population structure was evaluated by means the analysis of the variations in the modes of the size frequency distribution. The fecundity was assessed using sub samples of the egg mass. For males, the macroscopic analyses of gonads revealed larger values of carapace width than those obtained with morphometric analysis. Males larger than 18.5 mm of carapace width can be considered as mature. For females, such size was 17.4 mm CW. Despite of the human impact in the habitat, the population presented to be stable, as indicated by a single mode on the size frequency distribution. The second mode that appeared in some months is probably related to the entrance of juveniles in the population. The sex ratio of this population is closely approximating to 1:1 until crabs reach a carapace width of about 28 mm; after that, males outnumbered females. Comparing the fecundity of the present population with a previous study from Ubatuba, it can be verified a difference in the number of eggs. The fecundity of Paraty's population is significantly lower than the Ubatuba's population. This is probably related to the scarcity of food resource in Paraty, once no vascular plant can be found in that place. The continuity of reproductive processes and the juvenile recruitment suggest this species is able to live in the area with human impact. The ability to obtaining nutrients from different source of food is probably a feature that allows S. rectum to occupy such impacted ecosystem.Estudou-se uma população do caranguejo Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 que está sob a influência direta do impacto humano. Coletas mensais (CPUE, duas pessoas durante 30 min foram realizadas de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002 numa área lodosa, localizada na cidade de Paraty, Estado do Rio de Janeiro (23º13'S, 44º42'W. No laboratório, os espécimes foram classificados quanto ao sexo e posteriormente medidos com um paquímetro (0,01 mm. O tamanho do início da maturidade sexual foi obtido por meio de diferentes técnicas: no caso dos machos, utilizaram-se técnicas alométrica e a análise macroscópica das gônadas, enquanto para as fêmeas, o tamanho da menor fêmea ovígera também foi considerado. A estrutura da população foi avaliada pela análise da variação das modas da distribuição de freqüência por classes de tamanho. A fecundidade foi obtida por meio de subamostragens das massas de ovos. Para os machos, a análise macroscópica das gônadas revelou valores da largura da carapaça maiores que os obtidos com as análises morfométricas. Machos maiores que 18,5 mm de largura da carapaça foram considerados maduros. Para as fêmeas, o tamanho da maturidade foi 17,4 mm de LC. Apesar do impacto humano sobre o ecossistema, a população apresenta-se estável, o que é indicado pela presença de uma única moda na distribuição de freqüência de tamanho. Uma segunda moda aparece somente em alguns meses e, provavelmente, está relacionada à entrada de juvenis na população. A razão sexual da população é próxima de 1:1 até os caranguejos alcançarem o tamanho em torno de 28 mm de LC. A seguir o número de machos ultrapassa o de fêmeas. Comparando a fecundidade da presente população com a estudada previamente em Ubatuba, verificaram-se diferenças no número de ovos. A fecundidade da população de Paraty foi significativamente menor do que a de Ubatuba. Isto provavelmente está relacionado à escassez de recursos alimentares em Paraty, uma vez que não se encontram plantas vasculares naquele local. O processo reprodutivo contínuo, como também o recrutamento juvenil sugere que a espécie está apta a viver nesta área mesmo sob impacto humano. A capacidade de obtenção de nutrientes a partir de diferentes tipos de alimentos é provavelmente uma característica que possibilita S. rectum ocupar um ecossistema impactado.

  19. Recent advances in the biology of the Neotropical freshwater crab family Pseudothelphusidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura Avanços recentes no estudo da biologia dos caranguejos de água doce neotropicais da família Pseudothelphusidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura

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    Gilberto Rodríguez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudothelphusidae is a well diversified group of Neotropical freshwater crabs currently comprising 40 genera and at least 255 species and subspecies. The biology of these crabs has been an active field of research in the last 20 years. The aim of the present contribution is to discuss the significance of the new knowledge on the biology of these freshwater crabs after September 1992, to stress the interconnection of the diverse lines of research and at the same time to suggest promising new lines of investigation. All taxa described from September 1992 to October 2004 are listed, including one genus, one subgenus, 62 species and five subspecies. The implications of this new knowledge on the taxonomy, systematic and biogeography of the family are commented.Pseudothelphusidae é um grupo bem diversificado de caranguejos de água doce neotropicais que compreende atualmente 40 gêneros e pelo menos 255 espécies e subespécies. A biologia desses caranguejos vem sendo um ativo campo de pesquisa nos últimos 20 anos. O objetivo desta contribuição é discutir o significado do conhecimento adquirido sobre a biologia desses caranguejos dulcícolas após setembro de 1992, enfatizar a relação das diversas linhas de pesquisa e, ao mesmo tempo, sugerir novas linhas promissoras de investigação. São relacionados todos os táxons descritos de setembro de 1992 a outubro de 2004, compreendendo um gênero, um subgênero, 62 espécies e cinco subespécies. São comentadas as implicações desse novo conhecimento na taxonomia, sistemática e biogeografia da família.

  20. Reproductive biology of the sesarmid crab Armases rubripes (Decapoda, Brachyura from an estuarine area of the Sahy River, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Biologia reprodutiva do caranguejo sesarmídeo Armases rubripes (Decapoda, Brachyura de uma área estuarina do rio Sahy, Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Giovana V. Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain knowledge about reproductive biology of the crab Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 from an estuarine area of the Sepetiba Bay. Samples were taken monthly from February 2003 to January 2004 in the Sahy River estuary (22º56'S; 44º01'W, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The crabs were collected by hand during 15-minute catch-effort sessions conducted by two people. In the laboratory, the specimens were separated by sex, carapace width was measured and gonadal stage was checked macroscopically. A total of 830 individuals were caught - 304 males, 373 females (60 ovigerous females and 153 juveniles. The ovigerous females were found almost year-round, except in November and April, showing a continuous reproductive period. They presented a size range from 8.2 to 15.0 mm carapace width (12.1 ± 1.7 mm. Color and macroscopical aspects determined five gonadal stages for males and females (immature, rudimentary, intermediary, developed and resting. First sexual maturity was estimated at 6.5 mm of carapace width for males and 8.1 mm for females. Individual fecundity varied from 200 to 11,460 eggs (4,458 ± 2,739 eggs. Mean egg size was 0.248 ± 0.026 mm, varying from 0.213 to 0.333 mm, while the volume ranged from 0.0051 to 0.0188 mm³ (0.0082 ± 0.0029 mm³.O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter informações sobre a biologia reprodutiva do caranguejo Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 numa área estuarina da Baía de Sepetiba. Exemplares foram obtidos mensalmente de fevereiro 2003 a janeiro 2004 no estuário do rio Sahy (22º56'S; 44º01'W, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os caranguejos foram coletados manualmente durante 15 minutos por estação de coleta e por dois coletores. Em laboratório, os indivíduos foram separados por sexos, mensurados em relação à largura da carapaça e os estágios gonadais observados macroscopicamente. Um total de 830 indivíduos foram obtidos - 304 machos, 373 fêmeas (60 fêmeas ovígeras e 153 juvenis. As fêmeas ovígeras foram encontradas durante todo o período de estudo, exceto em novembro e abril, demonstrando um período reprodutivo contínuo. O tamanho das fêmeas ovígeras variou entre 8,2 e 15,0 mm de largura da carapaça (12,1 ± 1,7 mm. As gônadas observadas apresentaram cinco estágios de desenvolvimento, de acordo com a coloração e o aspecto macroscópico (imatura, rudimentar, intermediária, desenvolvida e desovada. A maturidade sexual foi estimada aos 6,5 mm de largura da carapaça entre os machos e 8,1 mm entre as fêmeas. A fecundidade individual variou entre 200 e 11.460 ovos (4.458 ± 2.739 ovos. O tamanho médio dos ovos foi de 0,248 ± 0,026 mm, variando entre 0,213 e 0,333 mm, enquanto o volume variou entre 0,0051 e 0,0188 mm³ (0,0082 ± 0,0029 mm³.

  1. Ciclo reprodutivo do caranguejo violinista Uca rapax (Smith (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae habitante de um estuário degradado em Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Reproductive cicle of the fiddler crab Uca rapax (Smith (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae at a degraded estuary in Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Daniela da S. Castiglioni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve o ciclo reprodutivo de Uca rapax (Smith, 1870 baseado em observações do seu desenvolvimento gonadal e ciclo de muda em uma área de manguezal degradado em Paraty, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os caranguejos foram capturados por duas pessoas mensalmente (julho/2001 a junho/2002 durante 15 minutos por meio da técnica de esforço de captura em período de maré baixa. No laboratório, os caranguejos foram mensurados quanto à largura da carapaça (LC; sendo o sexo, a condição ovígera e o estágio gonadal anotados. Os estágios de desenvolvimento gonadal foram determinados por meio da observação macroscópica das gônadas e os estágios de muda através da observação do grau de enrijecimento do tegumento. Os caranguejos que apresentavam gônadas imaturas e rudimentares foram considerados imaturos enquanto os demais estágios gonadais, maduros. Obteve-se um total de 1558 espécimes, sendo 801 machos e 757 fêmeas (16 fêmeas ovígeras. As fêmeas ovígeras representaram apenas 3% da população, talvez pelo fato destas fêmeas permanecerem em suas tocas. Apesar de terem sido encontrados caranguejos com gônadas maduras ao longo de todo o ano, o período de maior atividade reprodutiva em U. rapax ocorre nos meses mais quentes do ano (primavera-verão. A freqüência de caranguejos em atividade de muda ao longo do período de estudo foi baixa (12,8% em relação aos caranguejos em intermuda. Provavelmente, U. rapax permaneça entocada nesse período crítico, que é a troca do exoesqueleto. Apesar de U.rapax ocorrer em um manguezal completamente degradado, o seu ciclo reprodutivo não foi afetado, quando comparado com de áreas não degradadas estudadas anteriormente. Tal fato pode ser sustentado pela presença de caranguejos potencialmente maduros ao longo do ano todo na área de estudo.This present work describes the reproductive cycle of Uca rapax (Smith, 1870 based on observations of their gonadal development and molt cycles in a degraded mangrove area in Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro. Two collectors captured the crabs monthly (from July 2001 to June 2002 during 15 minutes by procedure of capture per unit effort in low tide periods. Crabs were sexed, measured (carapace width - CW; 0.01 mm precision and females were checked for eggs. Crab' stages of gonad development of both sexes were determined by direct and macroscopic observation and molt stage was estimated by the hardness of the tegument. A total of 1,558 specimens were collected, being 801 males and 757 females (16 ovigerous females. Ovigerous females accounted only about 3% of the population, perhaps because females usually remain underground in closed burrows during the incubation, which can not be seen easily in the field. Crabs with mature gonads were found year-round, but most reproduction in U. rapax occurred during the warmer months of the year (spring-summer. The frequency of crabs in molt activity was lower (12.8% than intermolt crabs. Probably, U. rapax burrowed in this critic period that is the change of exoskeleton, minimizing the risks imposed by the occurrence of a soft skeleton. Despite of U. rapax be occurring in a properly degraded mangrove, its reproductive cycle seems to be not affected by the habitat condition, when it is compared with areas of the mangroves no impacted by human action. This fact is supported by the presence of potentially mature crabs year-round at the study area.

  2. Correct date and authorship of taxa of Middle American freshwater crabs described by Rodríguez & Smalley (1972) (not 1969) and included in Smalley (1970) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Danièle; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2014-06-24

    One subgenus and one genus of Pseudothelphusidae described by Gilberto Rodríguez and Alfred E. Smalley from Mexico have been erroneously referred to for over 40 years as variously described in 1968 and 1969. The review of the original publication indicates that these taxa were published in a journal dated 1969 that became available for distribution only in 1972. Smalley (1970), who believed that the original manuscript had been previously published, referred to some of these new taxa (i.e., Epithelphusa, E. mixtepensis, Tehuana and T. veracruzana) and provided sufficient information to make these names available in 1970, thus becoming the correct authorship for these four taxa. Therefore they must be referred to as "Rodríguez & Smalley in Smalley 1970". A list of all affected taxa with the correct publication date and authorship is given. A list of publications in which the taxa authored by Rodríguez and Smalley were erroneously referred to as published in 1969 is also provided.

  3. Acute toxicity of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, and potassium chloride and their effects on the hemolymph composition and gill structure of early juvenile blue swimmer crabs(Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nicholas; Zeng, Chaoshu

    2007-09-01

    Various nutrients, including K+ and NO3-, are increasingly being discharged into aquatic systems via anthropogenic sources, which may impact marine organisms. The present study was conducted on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) early juveniles to determine the acute toxicity of NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl; if a toxicity interaction exists between K+ and NO3-; the hemolymph Na+, K+, and Ca2+ changes; and the gill histopathological alterations following exposure to elevated NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl levels. A total of 20 replicate crabs were exposed to each of the five NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl concentrations for 96 h. After 96 h, the surviving crabs were sampled for hemolymph Na+, K+, and Ca2+ levels and fixed for histological examination of the anterior gills. The 96-h median lethal concentration of NaNO3-N, KNO3-N, KNO3-K, and KCl-K was 3,452, 112, 312, and 356 mg/L, respectively, for early P. pelagicus juveniles. The toxicity of NaNO3-N was significantly less (p crabs had significantly higher (p crabs had significantly higher (p crabs appeared to be similar, including lamellae swelling, epithelial thickening, pillar cell disruption, necrosis, and distortion.

  4. Calappid and leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Kerala, India, with the description of a new species of Mursia Desmarest, 1823, from the Arabian Sea and redescription of M. bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Biju A; Kumar, M Sushil; Galil, Bella S

    2013-12-13

    Eleven species of calappid and leucosiid crabs were identified from by-catch landed by trawlers at four fishing ports in Kerala, India that were surveyed in 2007 and supplemented by material obtained in January 2013. Four species are reported for the first time from India, six are new records for Kerala. The status of Mursia bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894, is clarified and the species redescribed. A new species of Mursia is described from the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea. 

  5. Two new species of freshwater crabs from the highlands of northern Uganda, East Africa and a redescription of Potamonautes amalerensis (Rathbun, 1935 stat. rev. from Mount Kadam (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae

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    Neil Cumberlidge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of potamonautid freshwater crabs are described from the Imatong Mountains and Mount Moroto in northern Uganda, East Africa, and a third highland species, Potamonautes amalerensis (Rathbun, 1935 stat. rev. from Mount Kadam is re-diagnosed based on examination of the holotype. All three species are endemic to a different mountain range and their collection localities indicate a distinct preference for higher altitudes. Diagnoses, illustrations and distribution maps are provided for these taxa, and they are compared to similar species from the region. The conservation status of all three species is discussed.

  6. Physiological maturity and relationships of growth and reproduction in the red mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Brachyura, Grapsidae on the coast of São Paulo, Brazil Maturidade fisiológica e as relações entre o crescimento e a reprodução do caranguejo de manguezal Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Brachyura, Grapsidae no litoral de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Valter José Cobo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation provided information on the physiological sexual maturity and relationships of growth and reproduction in Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803. Collections were made monthly from January 1995 through December 1996, on the northeastern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. The crabs were grouped into juvenile males; adult males; juvenile females, and adult females, including ovigerous ones. For each specimen the carapace width (CW was measured, and molt condition and macroscopic developmental stage of the gonad tissue were recorded. CWs of physiologically mature crabs were between 21.4 and 23.7 mm for both sexes. This population showed molt activity in all size groups throughout the study period, which suggests continuous growth and the absence of terminal anecdysis. This may be associated with the ability of these animals to copulate during the intermolt, supplying a high proportion of mature individuals over time and ensuring continuity of reproduction year-round.Este trabalho fornece informações sobre as relações entre a maturidade sexual e o crescimento do caranguejo Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803. Durante o período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 1996 foram realizadas coletas mensais na região de Ubatuba, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo. Os animais capturados foram reunidos em quatro grupos de interesse: macho jovem, macho adulto, fêmea jovem e fêmea adulta, em que estão incluídas as ovígeras. Para cada animal foi mensurada a largura da carapaça (LC e anotadas a condição de muda e o estágio do desenvolvimento gonadal. A maturidade fisiológica foi observada entre 21.4 e 23.7mmLC para ambos os sexos. A população amostrada apresentou atividade de muda em todas as classes de tamanho durante todo o período estudado, o que sugere o estabelecimento de um padrão de crescimento contínuo e ausência de anecdise terminal para essa espécie. Esse fato pode estar associado com a habilidade desses animais em copular durante a intermuda, gerando uma grande quantidade de indivíduos maduros durante todo o ano, garantindo a continuidade do processo reprodutivo.

  7. Características populacionais de Microphrys bicornutus (Brachyura, Mithracidae no fital Halimeda opuntia (Chlorophyta, Halimedaceae, em área recifal submetida à visitação humana, em João Pessoa, Paraíba Population characteristics of Microphrys bicornutus (Brachyura, Mithracidae on the phytal Halimeda opuntia (Chlorophyta, Halimedaceae, on reef area submitted to human visitation, in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Jefferson B. Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar e comparar a estrutura e a dinâmica populacional de Microphrys bicornutus Latreille, 1825 no fital Halimeda opuntia (Halimedaceae coletado nas formações recifais de Picãozinho (submetida à visitação turística e São Gonçalo (área controle, na costa de João Pessoa (Nordeste do Brasil, sob influência de fatores ambientais e do número de visitantes. Nas duas áreas de estudo as populações analisadas estiveram compostas por fêmeas e machos maduros e imaturos com significativa predominância de machos e de animais imaturos, freqüência de tamanho e períodos reprodutivos similares. O tamanho máximo dos exemplares, a freqüência de distribuição de tamanho e a razão sexual diferiram dos resultados obtidos para a espécie em outras latitudes e habitats. Dados de razão sexual evidenciam que independentemente do estágio de maturação, os machos apresentam predominância significativa (RS>1,0, e que a proporção de fêmeas diminui com o amadurecimento sexual. Sem sofrer influência da biomassa da alga, e da salinidade e temperatura da água, variações populacionais significativas foram associadas ao aumento de juvenis durante períodos chuvosos. A baixa densidade populacional e a maior desproporção da relação macho: fêmea em subárea de Picãozinho com maior fluxo de pessoas sugerem que estas variações podem ter sido induzidas pelo pisoteio das algas.The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the population structure and dynamic of Microphrys bicornutus Latreille, 1825 on the phytal Halimeda opuntia (Halimedaceae collected on the reef areas of Picãozinho (visited by tourists and São Gonçalo (control area, in João Pessoa coast (Northeastern of Brazil, under the influence of environmental conditions and visitant numbers. In both study areas the populations analyzed were composed similarly of mature and immature males and females, with predominance of males and immature animals, and similar size frequency and reproductive period. Sex-ratio, size frequency distribution, and size of the biggest specimens differed from those estimated in others latitudes and habitats for this species. Sex ratio estimation has made evident that independently of maturation stage, males tended to predominate significantly and the proportion of females to decrease with sexual maturation. Without exhibiting influence of the alga biomass, and of the salinity and temperature of the water, significant population variations were associated to the increase of juvenile during rainy periods. The low population density and the largest disproportion of the relationship male: female in Picãozinho subarea with larger flow of people, are suggestive that the trampling of the alga might have induced this population variation.

  8. Zoological results of the Dutch Scientific Expedition to Central Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, de J.G.

    1899-01-01

    Like the Macroura, also the Brachyura collected by Dr. Büttikofer in Central Borneo ought to be considered as a valuable contribution to the Carcinological Fauna of this Island. Fifteen species were collected, all but one freshwater forms, inhabitants of the Kapoeas-basin and of the Upper Mahakkam,

  9. Simbiontes associados com Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae na Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente, Santa Catarina, Brasil Symbionts associated with Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae on Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Guisla Boehs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Berbigões, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, de bancos naturais da Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente (SC, Brasil, foram examinados quanto a presença de simbiontes. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia e poliquetos espionídeos (Polychaeta foram observados macroscopicamente. A análise das secções histológicas evidenciou esporocistos de trematódeos (Digenea, um metacestóide (Cestoda e dois ciliados (Ciliophora.Pointed venus, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, from natural beds of Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region (SE Brazil were examined in respect of symbiotic associations. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia, and polychaete worms (Polychaeta were found by macroscopic diagnosis. By analysis of histological sections, it was noted trematode sporocysts (Digenea, a metacestode (Cestoda and two ciliates (Ciliophora.

  10. The first confirmed cases of full albinism in rajid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, R E; Jones, C S; Lynghammar, A; Noble, L R; Griffiths, A M

    2013-04-01

    Three albino skate specimens (Rajidae) were captured from the North Sea and English Channel between 2008 and 2011. Using DNA barcoding (COI gene) and morphometric analyses, species were identified as a spotted ray Raja montagui, a blonde ray Raja brachyura and a thornback ray Raja clavata. This finding represents the first record of full albinism (a lack of skin and retinal pigmentation) in rajid species.

  11. Relative growth and sexual dimorphism of Austinixa aidae (Brachyura: Pinnotheridae: a symbiont of the ghost shrimp Callichirus major from the southwestern Atlantic Crecimiento relativo y dimorfismo sexual en Austinixa aidae (Barchyura: Pinnotheridae: un simbionte del camarón fantasma Callichirus major del Atlántico sudoccidental

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    Douglas Fernando Peiró

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of the family Pinnotheridae constitute an ideal group for morphometric studies due to their complex morphological adaptations. These adaptations respond to the selective pressure of a symbiotic life style. This study describes the relative growth and morphometric features of the symbiotic pea crab Austinixa aidae (associated with the ghost shrimp Callichirus major, from the sandy beaches in the southwest Atlantic, Brazil. Significant differences were detected in the biometric proportions, particularly the chelar propodus length and carapace width, of each sex. These dimensions were also related to the size at which the individuals reached morphological sexual maturity (5.1 mm of carapace width for both sexes. Males and females were 2.4 times wider than long, which corresponds to the principal adaptation developed by Austinixa species to live in cryptic environments. Moreover, juveniles were proportionally more rounded. The changes in the biometric proportions of carapace length and width of A. aidae were more pronounced in males and females, adaptations that facilitate roaming within the galleries of their hosts.Las especies de la familia Pinnotheridae constituyen un grupo ideal para la realización de estudios morfométricos, debido a sus complejas adaptaciones morfológicas. Estas adaptaciones son respuesta a la presión de selección debida a su vida simbionte. En este estudio se describió el crecimiento relativo y las características morfométricas del cangrejo simbionte Austinixa aidae (asociado con el camarón fantasma Callichirus major, de una playa de arena del Atlántico suroeste de Brasil. Se determinaron diferencias significativas en las proporciones biométricas de cada sexo, entre la longitud del propodio y ancho del caparazón. Estas dimensiones estuvieron relacionadas también con la talla en que los individuos muestran cambios morfológicos en su madurez sexual (5.1 mm de ancho del caparazón en ambos sexos. Los machos y hembras fueron 2,4 veces más anchos que largos, lo que corresponde a la adaptación principal que las especies del género Austinixa, han desarrollado para vivir en ambientes crípticos. Además, los juveniles fueron proporcionalmente más redondeados. Los cambios en las proporciones biométricas de longitud y ancho del caparazón de A. aidae, fueron más pronunciados en machos y hembras, adaptaciones que facilitan el desplazamiento al interior de las galerías construidas por sus hospederos.

  12. Shallow-water anomuran and brachyuran crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda from southern Bahia, Brazi l Cangrejos anomuros y braquiuros (Crustacea: Decapoda de aguas someras del sur de Bahia, Brasil

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    Alexandre O Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the taxonomic composition and ecological aspects of decapods crustacean species belonging to the infraorders Anomura and Brachyura in shallow marine and estuarine waters from southern Bahia, a coastline about 640 km in extent, corresponding to approximately 7% of the Brazilian coast. Sixteen species of the infraorder Anomura and 68 of the infraorder Brachyura are reported for the study area. The most important families in terms of number of species were the Panopeidae with 11 species, and the Ocypodidae and Portunidae with 9. Among the Brachyura, the southern distribution of the species Austinixa leptodactyla Coelho, 1997 (Pinnotheridae, endemic to Brazil, is extended from the coast of Sergipe to Bahía (Prado, Cumuruxatiba Beach, 17°06'18.6"S, 39°10'50.4"W. The ocypodid Uca (Leptuca cumulanta Crane, 1943 and also the pinnotherids Austinixa aidae (Righi, 1967 and Fabia byssomiae (Say, 1818 are reported for the first time from the Bahia coast. The specimen of F. byssomiae examined was collected in the mantle cavity of the clam Macoma constrict (Bruchiére, 1792 (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, a new host record for the species.El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la composición taxonómica y aspectos ecológicos de los crustáceos decápodos pertenecientes a los infraórdenes Anomura y Brachyura, en aguas someras, marinas y estuarinas del sur de Bahia, Brasil, una línea costera con cerca de 640 km de extensión, que corresponde aproximadamente al 7% de la costa brasileña. Para esta area de estudio se registraron 16 especies del infraorden Anomura y 68 del infraorden Brachyura. Las familias más representativas en términos de número de especies fueron Panopeidae, con 11 especies, y Ocypodidae y Portunidae, ambas con nueve especies. Entre los Brachyura, la distribución meridional de Austinixa leptodactyla Coelho, 1997 (Pinnotheridae, endémica del Brasil, se extiende desde la costa de Sergipe

  13. Contribution to the feeding ecology of the banded puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae in north Brazilian mangrove creeks

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    U. Krumme

    Full Text Available Stomach contents were examined from 102 banded puffer, Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae, caught from intertidal mangrove creeks at diurnal neap tides between June and September, 1997 (early dry season near Bragança (north Brazil. The study found that C. psittacus were specialized predators of Cirripedia (Balanus spp. and Brachyuran crabs (Uca spp., Pachygrapsus gracilis (mean: 58 and 38% by dry weight, respectively, emphasizing a short food chain in the mangrove system. Cirripedia and Brachyura dominated the diet in all size classes, however, the prey spectrum narrowed with fish size. The mean daily consumption of Cirripedia and Brachyura was 6.2% body weight of C. psittacus. On average C. psittacus consumed 100.3 g.ha-1.d-1 of Cirripedia and 178.7 g.ha-1.d-1 of Brachyura (wet weight. The predation on Brachyuran crabs - a significant driver of fluxes of organic matter and energy in the system - provides C. psittacus with an important ecological function in the mangrove food web. A plant-animal interaction is proposed where C. psittacus exerts a mutually beneficial cleaning function on the Aufwuchs (Cirripedia and associated epibiota of Rhizophora mangle stilt roots. Our results and those of other studies suggest that C. psittacus encounter optimum foraging conditions in the mangrove at high inundations at daylight (spring tide-day whereas darkness and low inundations are linked to poor foraging conditions (neap tide-night. The C. psittacus resource could be used as an alternative income in the region in terms of i sustainable catch and filet processing for exports to East Asia, ii developing certified aquaculture methods for breeding puffers for the aquarium trade.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons: The phylogenetic position of the family Raninidae within Brachyuran crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guohui; Cui, Zhaoxia; Hui, Min; Liu, Yuan; Chan, Tin-Yam; Song, Chengwen

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of two primitive crabs, Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Raninidae) were determined. The mitogenomes of the two species are 15,466 and 16,112bp in length with AT content of 68.0% and 70.6%, respectively. Each genome contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. The gene arrangement of U. orientalis is the same with those reported for most brachyuran species. Nevertheless, the gene arrangement of L. brevifrons differs from that of U. orientalis in having an additional non-coding region. The newly found non-coding region is located between nad3 and trnA with 641bp in length. Its nucleotide composition and secondary structure are similar to the typical control region. In L. brevifrons, the secondary structures of trnS-AGN and trnI are significantly different from those in U. orientalis and other brachyuran species. The start codon for cox1 is ATG in all reported Eubrachyura mitogenomes, while a common start codon ACG is found in the Podotremata. Phylogenetic analyses for crustacean decapods based on the nucleotide and amino acid of 13 PCGs indicate that Homolidae is more primitive in Brachyura, and Raninidae is a sister group to Eubrachyura. This implies that Raninidae is closer to Eubrachyura than to Homolidae, and Podotremata may be a paraphyletic assemblage. The results also indicate that the subfamily Lyreidinae is closer to Notopodinae than to Ranininae within Raninidae. The novel mitogenome data provides useful information for refining the phylogenetic relationships within Brachyura.

  15. The diet of cubomedusae (cnidaria, cubozoa in southern Brazil

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    Miodeli Nogueira Júnior

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of cubomedusae Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 (Carybdeidae and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 (Chirodropidae was examined in specimens collected on the Southern Brazilian coast (25º20' - 25º55'S; 48º10' - 48º35'W, between December 1998 and December 2004. This is the first study to analyze this biological aspect in cubomedusae from the South Atlantic. The gastrovascular cavities of most (55%; n = 29 specimens of T. haplonema were empty while the remainder had teleosteans parts such as scales, vertebrae and otoliths. In C. quadrumanus (n = 726, the most important items were the pelagic sergestid shrimp Peisos petrunkevitchi Burkenroad, 1945 and Brachyura larvae, mainly megalops. Small crabs, isopods, fish, fish eggs and nematodes were less common. A dietary shift was clearly observed during C. quadrumanus growth. Smaller individuals consumed a greater variety of prey, mostly Brachyura larvae, and they also had higher frequencies of empty stomachs. As their size increased, megalopas decreased and P. petrunkevitchi became the most important item in their diet.A dieta das cubomedusas Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 (Carybdeidae e Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 (Chirodropidae foi analisada em espécimes coletados no litoral do Paraná (25º20' - 25º55'S; 48º10' - 48º35'W, sul do Brasil, entre dezembro de 1998 e dezembro de 2004, e é o primeiro estudo a abordar este aspecto da biologia de Cubozoa no Atlântico Sul. A cavidade gastrovascular da maioria (55% dos 29 exemplares de T. haplonema mostrou-se vazia, e dos demais continha partes corporais de peixes teleósteos, como escamas, vértebras e otólitos. Em 726 exemplares de C. quadrumanus os itens alimentares mais importantes foram o camarão sergestídeo Peisos petrunkevitchi Burkenroad, 1945 e larvas de Brachyura, principalmente megalopas. Pequenos caranguejos, isópodes, peixes, ovos de peixes e nematóides foram menos comuns. Mudanças na dieta evidenciaram

  16. Los crustáceos decápodos de aguas profundas del mar ecuatoriano.

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo Antepara, Matilde Elvira

    2010-01-01

    Se analizaron 63 muestras de crustáceos decápodos, colectados entre las latitudes 1º18’N y 3º12’S, en el talud continental, entre 500 a 1500 metros de profundidad. Identificándose 44 especies ubicadas así: del Suborden Dendrobranchiata, Superfamilia Penaeoidea 4, del Suborden Pleocyemata están los infraórdenes: Caridea con 18 especies, Astacidea 1, Palinura 3, Anomura 11 y de Brachyura 7. Se elaboró una clave para las familias encontradas; así como, para las especies identificadas. El an...

  17. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyžný, M.; Bakel, van B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and co

  18. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: New data on mid-Cretaceous dromioid crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura) from northwest Germany and southwest Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, J.W.M.; Bakel, van B.W.M.; Fraaije, R.H.B.; Neumann, C.

    2014-01-01

    A single, slightly laterally compressed carapace of a dromioid crab from the middle/upper Albian part of the Kazhdumi Formation in the Hamiran area (Hormozgan Province, southwest Iran) is described as a new species, which is tentatively assigned to the brachyuran genus Distefania Checchia-Rispoli, 1

  19. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: A new inachid crab (Brachyura, Majoidea) from the Middle Eocene of the provinces of Barcelona and Girona (Catalonia, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artal, P.; Bakel, van B.W.M.; Onetti, A.

    2014-01-01

    Marls assigned to the Coll de Malla Formation (Lutetian) in the area of Vic (Barcelona) and Sarrià de Ter (Girona) have yielded several specimens of a new brachyuran that can be assigned with confidence to the superfamily Majoidea. General carapace shape, the produced and bilobed front, with two lon

  20. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: A new genus and species of raninoidian crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new raninoidian crab, Bellcarcinus aptiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is described from the upper Aptian of Colombia. The new genus displays a combination of traits seen among some ancient species within the Necrocarcinidae and Orithopsidae, obscuring its family placement. This taxon represents the si

  1. Dynamic patterns of zooplankton transport and migration in Catuama Inlet (Pernambuco, Brazil, with emphasis on the decapod crustacean larvae Patrones dinámicos de transporte y migración de zooplancton en el estuario Catuama (Pernambuco, Brasil, con énfasis en las larvas de crustáceos decápodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Schwamborn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify and to model zooplankton transport with emphasis on decapod crustacean larvae. Sampling was carried out at three depths with a plankton pump coupled to a 300-/¿m mesh. Current data were obtained with an ADCP. Our data showed the existence of vertically and horizontally heterogeneous current and transport fields. We identified 27 groups of Decapoda (larvae of Sergestidae, Porcellanidae, Upogebiidae, Cari dea, Brachyura. Most of the species and larval phases showed characteristic vertical migration patterns, in phase with the diurnal tidal cycles, thus enhancing retention or export from the estuary.Esta investigación tiene como objetivo cuantificar y modelar el transporte de zooplancton, con énfasis en las larvas de Crustacea Decapoda. El muestreo se realizó a tres profundidades con una bomba de plancton acoplada a una red con malla de 300 /¿m. Se obtuvieron los datos de corrientes con un ADCP. Los datos mostraron la existencia de campos de corrientes y de transporte vertical y horizontal heterogéneos. Se identificaron 27 grupos de Decapoda (larvas de Sergestidae, Porcellanidae, Upogebiidae, Caridea, Brachyura. La mayoría de las especies y fases larvales mostraron patrones de migración vertical característicos, en fase con los ciclos de la marea diurnos, favoreciendo la retención o exportación del estuario.

  2. Phylogenetics of the brachyuran crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda): the status of Podotremata based on small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyong, Shane T; Lai, Joelle C Y; Sharkey, Deirdre; Colgan, Donald J; Ng, Peter K L

    2007-11-01

    The true crabs, the Brachyura, are generally divided into two major groups: Eubrachyura or 'advanced' crabs, and Podotremata or 'primitive' crabs. The status of Podotremata is one of the most controversial issues in brachyuran systematics. The podotreme crabs, best recognised by the possession of gonopores on the coxae of the pereopods, have variously been regarded as mono-, para- or polyphyletic, or even as non-brachyuran. For the first time, the phylogenetic positions of the podotreme crabs were studied by cladistic analysis of small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA sequences. Eight of 10 podotreme families were represented along with representatives of 17 eubrachyuran families. Under both maximum parsimony and Bayesian Inference, Podotremata was found to be significantly paraphyletic, comprising three major clades: Dromiacea, Raninoida, and Cyclodorippoida. The most 'basal' is Dromiacea, followed by Raninoida and Cylodorippoida. Notably, Cyclodorippoida was identified as the sister group of the Eubrachyura. Previous hypotheses that the dromiid crab, Hypoconcha, is an anomuran were unsupported, though Dromiidae as presently composed could be paraphyletic. Topologies constrained for podotreme monophyly were found to be significantly worse (P < 0.04) than unconstrained topologies under Templeton and S-H tests. The clear pattern of podotreme paraphyly and robustness of topologies recovered indicates that Podotremata as a formal concept is untenable. Relationships among the eubrachyurans were generally equivocal, though results indicate the majoids or dorippoids were the least derived of the Eubrachyura. A new high level classification of the Brachyura is proposed.

  3. Survey of genome size in 28 hydrothermal vent species covering 10 families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnivard, Eric; Catrice, Olivier; Ravaux, Juliette; Brown, Spencer C; Higuet, Dominique

    2009-06-01

    Knowledge of genome size is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources. To better understand the origins and effects of DNA gains and losses among species, it is important to collect data from a broad taxonomic base, but also from particular ecosystems. Oceanic thermal vents are an interesting model to investigate genome size in very unstable environments. Here we provide data estimated by flow cytometry for 28 vent-living species among the most representative from different hydrothermal vents. We also report the genome size of closely related coastal decapods. Haploid C-values were compared with those previously reported for species from corresponding orders or infraorders. This is the first broad survey of 2C values in vent organisms. Contrary to expectations, it shows that certain hydrothermal vent species have particularly large genomes. The vent squat lobster Munidopsis recta has the largest genome yet reported for any anomuran: 2C=31.1 pg=30.4x10(9) bp. In several groups, such as Brachyura, Phyllodocida, and Veneroida, vent species have genomes that clearly rank at the high end of published values for each group. We also describe the highest DNA content yet recorded for the Brachyura (coastal crabs Xantho pilipes and Necora puber). Finally, analysis of genome size variation across populations revealed unexpected intraspecific variation in the vent shrimp Mirocaris fortunata that could not be attributed simply to ploidy changes.

  4. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NICOLAIDOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.

  5. A 150-million-year-old crab larva and its implications for the early rise of brachyuran crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Joachim T; Martin, Joel W; Haug, Carolin

    2015-03-09

    True crabs (Brachyura) are the most successful group of decapod crustaceans. This success is most likely coupled to their life history, including two specialised larval forms, zoea and megalopa. The group is comparably young, starting to diversify only about 100 million years ago (mya), with a dramatic increase in species richness beginning approximately 50 mya. Early evolution of crabs is still very incompletely known. Here, we report a fossil crab larva, 150 mya, documented with up-to-date imaging techniques. It is only the second find of any fossil crab larva, but the first complete one, the first megalopa, and the oldest one (other fossil ca. 110 mya). Despite its age, the new fossil possesses a very modern morphology, being indistinguishable from many extant crab larvae. Hence, modern morphologies must have been present significantly earlier than formerly anticipated. We briefly discuss the impact of this find on our understanding of early crab evolution.

  6. FEEDING INTERACTION OF THE NON-NATIVE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822 IN ITANHÉM RIVER ESTUARY, BAHIA, BRAZIL

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    Leandro Bonesi Rabelo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 214 stomachs of Clarias gariepinus, Centropomus undecimalis and C. parallelus from the Itanhém and Caravelas Rivers, northeastern Brazil, were analyzed to investigate the impact of the non-native species Clarias gariepinus on the Itanhém River food web as compared to that of the adjacent Caravelas River, where this species has not been registered. In Itanhém River, shrimp was the most important food for C. gariepinus, and Teleostei for C. parallelus. In the Caravelas River, Brachyura was the main food item for C. parallelus, and Teleostei for C. undecimalis. There was no food overlap between the species within or between rivers. There is no evidence, in the results of this study, of changes in the diet of the Centropomus parallelus due to the presence of the non-native species.

  7. The diet and feeding ecology of Conger conger (L. 1758 in the deep waters of the Eastern Ionian Sea

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    A. ANASTASOPOULOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the European conger eel Conger conger was investigated for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean. Fish dominated the European conger eel diet in the deep waters of E. Ionian Sea. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. However, intestine analysis showed that Natantia, Brachyura and Cephalopoda might have a more important contribution in the diet of the species. C. conger exhibited a benthopelagic feeding behavior as it preyed upon both demersal and mesopelagic taxa. The high vacuity index and the low stomach and intestine fullness indicated that the feeding intensity of the species in the deep waters of Eastern Ionian Sea was quite low. C. conger feeding strategy was characterised by specialisation in various resource items. A between-phenotype contribution to niche width was observed for some prey categories. European Conger eel feeding specialisation seemed to be an adaptation to a food-scarce environment, as typified in deep-water habitats

  8. Feeding of guitarfish Rhinobatos percellens (Walbaum, 1972 (Elasmobranchii, Rhinobatidae, the target of artisanal fishery in Southern Brazil

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    Hugo Bornatowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhinobatos percellens is one of three species of Rhinobatidae found on Brazilian shores and is one of the most abundant species on the shallow continental shelf of Paraná and Santa Catarina States. Specimens caught by artisanal fishery between July/2001 and March/2003 by fishing communities located on the frontier between two southern Brazilian States (Paraná and Santa Catarina had their stomach contents analyzed. According to the Alimentary Index (IAi, Decapoda (69% and Teleostei (22% were the main items consumed. Polychaeta, a common prey consumed by several benthonic fishes, was poorly represented in the feeding of R. percellens. This fact may be related to the availability of prey in the environment, or to the size of the guitarfish analyzed (ontogeny. Seasonal variance of main preys (with higher IAi was observed: Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata displayed higher percentages in spring and autumn, Teleostei in the winter and Brachyura during the summer.Rhinobatos percellens é uma das três espécies de Rhinobatidae encontrada na costa brasileira e uma das espécies de elasmobrânquio mais abundante na plataforma continental dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina. Indivíduos capturados pela pesca artesanal entre Julho/2001 e Março/2003 nas comunidades pesqueiras localizadas entre o Paraná e Santa Catarina tiveram seus conteúdos estomacais analisados. O Índice de Importância Alimentar (IAi mostrou que as principais presas consumidas foram Decapoda (69% e Teleostei (22%. Polychaeta, principal presa ingerida por várias espécies de peixes bentônicos foi pouco expressiva na alimentação de R. percellens. Essa diferença pode estar relacionada com a disponibilidade de presas no ambiente ou com o tamanho das raias analisadas (ontogenia. De acordo com análises sazonais, observou-se que os camarões Dendrobranchiata e Pleocyemata foram as principais presas consumidas durante a primavera e outono, Teleostei durante o inverno e Brachyura

  9. Composição e distribuição dos Crustácea (Decapoda na Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Composition and distribution of Crustácea (Decapoda from Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Sandro Santos

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lagoa do Peixe ("Peixe's Lagoon" is located between Atlantic Ocean and Lagoa dos Patos and is 30 Km long and 0,5-2,0 Km wide (31º13'S, 50º55'W -31º26'S, 51º09'. For one year, the composition and distribution of Crustácea Decapoda were analyzed monthly (from July/1994 to June/1995, in seven subareas (terrestrial border and aquatic area and physical and chemical parameters (depth, salinity, sediment texture, oxygen in water, organic material of sediment and water temperature were registered. Decapoda from the families Grapsidae, Ocypodidae, Portunidae (Brachyura, Diogenidae (Anomura and Penaeidae (Penaeidea were captured. Chasmagnathus granulata Dana 1851 was found ali months near the canal connecting Atlantic Ocean and Lagoa do Peixe, but inside the lagoon it was collected only in October/94 and June/95, and in extreme subareas it was sampled in February/95 when the salinity was 31 ‰ at these sites. Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 and Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 were captured throughout the year, except October/94 and April/95, respectively. Both species were found in ali áreas of sample, indicating a high plasticity in relation to the factors analyzed in this study. Another species captured probably come in the lagoon in specific months, when the environment provides ideal conditions for their develo-pments.

  10. Width-weight relationship and condition factor of Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ucididae at tropical mangroves of Northeast Brazil

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    Marina S.L.C. Araújo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aims at evaluating the carapace width vs. humid weight relationship and the condition factor of Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763, in the mangrove forests of the Ariquindá and Mamucabas rivers, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. These two close areas present similar characteristics of vegetation and substrate, but exhibit different degrees of environmental conservation: the Ariquindá River is the preserved area, considered one of the last non-polluted of Pernambuco, while the Mamucabas River suffers impacts from damming, deforestation and deposition of waste. A total of 1,298 individuals of U. cordatus were collected. Males were larger and heavier than females, what is commonly observed in Brachyura. Ucides cordatus showed allometric negative growth (p < 0.05, which is probably related to the dilatation that this species develops in the lateral of the carapace, which stores six pairs of gills. The values of b were within the limit established for aquatic organisms. Despite of the condition factor being considered an important feature to confirm the reproductive period, since it varies with cyclic activities, in the present study it was not correlated to the abundance of ovigerous females. However, it was considered a good parameter to evaluate environmental impacts, being significantly lower at the impacted area.

  11. Decapod larvae dynamics on Berlengas Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO - Portugal

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    Lénia Da Fonseca Alexandre Rato

    2014-05-01

    Total decapoda abundance ranged from 0,06 ind.m-3 in May 2011 to 64,28ind.m-3 in August 2012, and significantly different between summer/winter and winter/spring months (P(perm≤0,05. The data obtained on this study revealed that Infraorders Brachyura, Anomura and Caridea are the most common. All three are significantly different between months (P(perm≤0,05 but not between sampling stations (P(perm>0,05. Brachyuran abundance was significantly affected by the Oceanograhic Conditions (P(perm≤0,05. Abundances were higher in spring and summer months, when Chlorophyl a values (mg.m-3, Temperature (ºC and Salinity (ppt were also higher. Decapoda community is directly affected by the surrounding environmental conditions in Berlengas Biosphere Reserve and abundance might also be related with specific larvae release throughout the year. Each sampling station was considered a replica from the study area. The ecological importance of Berlengas was also verified by the presence of non-frequent larvae of Achelata and Stomatopoda.

  12. Genetic analyses determine connectivity among cave and surface populations of the Jamaican endemic freshwater crab Sesarma fossarum in the Cockpit Country

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    Manuel Stemmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jamaican freshwater crab Sesarma fossarum (Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae is endemic to western central Jamaica where it occurs in cave and surface streams of karst regions. In the present study, we examine the population genetic structure of the species, providing evidence for intraspecific differentiation and genetic substructure among twelve sampled populations. Interestingly, crabs from caves appear genetically undistinguishable from representatives of nearby surface waters, despite previously observed and described morphometric differentiation. In contrast, genetic isolation takes place among populations from rivers and caves belonging to different watersheds. In one case, even populations from different tributaries of the same river were characterized by different genotypes. Overall, the species shows low haplotype and nucleotide diversities, which indicates a high homogeneity and point towards a relatively recent intraspecific radiation and diversification. Our results on the genetic diversification of S. fossarum helps to reconstruct unknown subterranean water flow and cave connections in its native range, allowing prediction of its further dispersal and differentiation potential. Unfortunately, its natural habitat of Jamaican cockpit karst, which also is home to several other endemic species and is a globally-recognized Key Biodiversity Area, is under imminent threat of intensive bauxite mining.

  13. Black yeast-like fungi associated with Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) in the mangrove-land crab, Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Vania A; Orélis-Ribeiro, R; Najafzadeh, M J; Sun, Jiufeng; Guerra, Raquel Schier; Miesch, Stephanie; Ostrensky, Antonio; Meis, Jacques F; Klaassen, Corné H; de Hoog, G S; Boeger, Walter A

    2012-07-06

    Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) caused extensive epizootic mortality of the mangrove land crab Ucides cordatus (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) along the Brazilian coast, mainly in the Northeastern region. The disease was named after the symptoms of slow movement of infected crabs. Causative agents were suspected to be two black yeast-like fungi of the family Herpotrichiellaceae (ascomycete order Chaetothyriales), judged by infected tissue biopsies from moribund U. cordatus. The aim of the present study is to prove that two species are involved in the disease: the recently described black yeast Exophiala cancerae, but also a less virulent, hitherto undescribed fonsecaea-like species, introduced here as the novel species Fonsecaea brasiliensis. Strains were identified by ITS rDNA sequencing, and species borderlines were established by multilocus sequencing and AFLP analysis. Fonsecaea brasiliensis proved to be closely related to the pathogenic species Cladophialophora devriesii which originally was isolated from a systemic infection in a human patient. The virulence of F. brasiliensis is lower than that of E. cancerae, as established by artificial inoculation of mangrove crabs.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of trypsin-like proteases from the gastric fluid of the marine crab Cancer pagurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Redecke, Lars [Center of Experimental Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, c/o DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Perbandt, Markus [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Saborowski, Reinhard [Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 27483 Helgoland (Germany); Betzel, Christian, E-mail: betzel@unisgi1.desy.de [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    Two trypsins from the gastric fluid of the marine crab C. pagurus were purified and crystallized and X-ray data were collected to 0.97 and 3.2 Å resolution. The digestive fluid of the marine crab Cancer pagurus (Decapoda, Brachyura) contains highly stable proteases which display enhanced activity in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents. Three trypsins were isolated from the gastric fluid and two of them, C.p.TryII and C.p.TryIII, were purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion. Diffraction data were collected at a synchrotron to 0.97 and 3.2 Å resolution, respectively. The crystal of C.p.TryII belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.06, b = 62.00, c = 71.66 Å. Based on the Matthews coefficient, one protein molecule per asymmetric unit is suggested. In contrast, crystals of C.p.TryIII, which belong to the cubic space group P2{sub 1}3 with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 215.4 Å, are assumed to contain 12 molecules per asymmetric unit.

  15. Estructura del aparato reproductor masculino de Uca uruguayensis (Decapoda, Ocypodidae Structure of the male reproductive tract of Uca uruguayensis (Decapoda, Ocypodidae

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    Elena Irene Cuartas

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las estructuras del sistema reproductor de machos de Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 y estudiar los cambios relacionados con la madurez sexual. Se trabajó con observación estereoscópica de material fresco, técnica histológica de rutina y observaciones en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido. Se incluyó la caracterización de los gonopodos 1 (G1 y 2 (G2. El tracto reproductor del macho se compone de un par de testículos (T, un vaso deferente (VD tubular y sinuoso y una ampolla terminal (AT. El VD tiene tres secciones, la anterior (VDA, la media (VDM y la posterior (VDP. El VDA y VDM están conformadas por un epitelio simple de células cúbicas. El epitelio del VDP es columnar y con núcleos basales y alongados. El diseño tubular se modifica al ocuparse el lumen del VDP con líquido espermático durante el verano y la musculatura circular se hace más evidente. La porción terminal del VDP se ensancha formando una ampolla (AT que comprende cuatro cámaras interconectadas. Todas las estructuras están rodeadas de una capa de tejido conectivo de poco espesor. Se identifican las modificaciones observadas en la histología de T y VD, definiendo como mas relevantes las observadas desde el mes de noviembre hasta marzo. Estas modificaciones sugieren que U. uruguayensis tiene, en la localidad estudiada, una única estación reproductiva durante el verano en esta latitud. La AT, tal como es descripta, es una estructura que hasta el momento no ha sido mencionada para los Brachyura.The structure of the male reproductive tract was described in Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901, by using histological methods, scanning electron microscopy techniques, and stereoscopic observations of fresh material. The aim of this work was to establish the functional changes associated with sexual maturation. The morphology of the first (G1 and second (G2 pair of gonopods was described. The male reproductive tract consists of paired

  16. Temporal dynamics of demersal chondrichthyan species in the central western Mediterranean

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    Antonello Mulas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of fisheries and globalized trade are emerging as the principal drivers of coastal and ocean threat. Considering the important role of Chondrichthyes as predators at the top of food chain in marine ecosystems, knowledge on their biology remains scarce in the Mediterranean. In this regard, our objective is to give information on their spatial distribution, abundance and population structure. Data were collected for 25 demersal species, including batoid species, sharks and holocephalans from 1994 to 2013 during scientific bottom trawl surveys (MEDITS project carried out around the Sardinian seas. The total frequency of occurrence (f%, the Biomass Index (BI, kg/km2, and the Density Index (DI, N/km2 were estimated for the continental shelf (10-200 m, slope (200-800 m, and overall (10-800 m depth strata. Size trends were also calculated for the most abundant species considering all depth strata. The correlation among MEDITS figures (f%, BI, DI, size structure and years were assessed by species computing the Pearson linear coefficient. From f% and abundance indexes investigation, only the small spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and the thornback ray Raja clavata were ubiquitous in all strata investigated, instead, all the other species showed a preferential distribution for the shelf or the slope. In general, the temporal trends of BI and DI were stable or positive for both macro-strata, except for the longnose spurdog Squalus blainville which seemed to show a statistically significant decreasing trend. All analyzed species displayed temporal stable trends in size structure analysis, apart from Raja brachyura and Dipturus oxyrinchus that showed a statistically significant increase. Despite the time series analysis revealed stable or positive trends, it appears clear the need of urgent management measures to protect the demersal chondrichthyan species extending the monitoring over time and implementing the data collected by

  17. Species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica

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    Luis Rólier Lara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, knowledge on biodiversity of freshwater decapods has increased considerably; however, information about ecology of these crustaceans is scarce. Currently, the freshwater decapod fauna of Costa Rica is comprised by representatives of three families (Caridea: Palaemonidae and Atyidae; Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae. The present study aims to describe the species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica, where the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE plans to implement one of the largest damming projects in the region. Samples were collected in 39 locations at an altitude ranging from 20 to 1,225 m. Sampling was carried out during several months in 2007, 2009 and 2010. We collected a total of 661 crabs, comprising eight species of Pseudothelphusidae of three genera, representing 53% of the 15 pseudothelphusid crab species currently recorded from Costa Rica. The most common species was Ptychophallus paraxanthusi followed by P. tristani. Freshwater crabs were more frequently encountered in the middle-low region of the basin (between 311 and 600 m and less frequently in the medium-high basin (between 601 and 1,225 m. Ptychophallus paraxanthusi showed the widest distribution and was collected in altitudes ranging from 20 to 700 m. The Rio Grande de Térraba region can be considered as a relatively small, but highly diverse system. Therefore, any alteration of the basin of Rio Grande de Térraba, and especially the possible construction of a hydroelectric power plant, needs to be carefully analyzed to mitigate the damaging effects of this project on the freshwater crabs. More ecological information about freshwater crabs from Costa Rica and the Central American region are needed to reach a first reasonable overview on the ecological role of these decapods in freshwater systems.

  18. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".

  19. DNA barcoding unveils skate (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae species diversity in ‘ray’ products sold across Ireland and the UK

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    Andrew Mark Griffiths

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Skates are widely consumed across the globe, but many large species are subject to considerable concern regarding their conservation and management. Within Europe such issues have recently driven policy changes so that, for the first time, reports of skate landings now have to be made under species-specific names. Total allowable catches have also been established for many groups, which have been set to zero for a number of the most vulnerable species (e.g., Dipturus batis, Raja undulata and Rostoraja alba. Whilst accurate species identification has become an important issue for landings, the sale of skates is still usually made under a blanket term of “skate” or “ray”. The matter of identifying species of skate is further complicated by their morphologically conservative nature and the fact that they are commercially valued for their wings. Thus, before sale their bodies are usually discarded (i.e., “winged” and often skinned, making morphological identification impossible. For the first time, DNA barcoding (of the mitochondrial COI gene was applied to samples of skate wings from retail outlets across the British Isles, providing insight into which species are sold for consumption. A total of 98 wing samples were analysed, revealing that six species were sold; blonde ray (Raja brachyura, spotted ray (Raja montagui, thornback ray (Raja clavata, cuckoo ray (Leucoraja naevus small-eyed ray (Raja microocellata and shagreen ray (Leucoraja fullonica. Statistical testing demonstrated that there were significant differences in the species sold in the distinct retail groups which suggests complex drivers behind the patterns of sale in skates. The results also indicate that endangered species are not commonly being passed on to consumers. In addition, the practice of selling skate wings under ambiguous labels is highlighted as it makes it extremely difficult for consumers to exercise a right to avoid species of conservation concern

  20. Portunoid crabs as indicators of the Red Sea fauna history and endemism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, Vassily; Türkay, Michael; Brösing, Andreas; Al-Aidaroos, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Peculiar environmental conditions and "turbulent" geological history make the Red Sea a laboratory of evolution and a significant area for understanding adaptation processes. To interpret the results of this basin-scale evolutionary experiment revised inventories of taxonomic diversity of particular groups of marine biota are essential. As one of the first results of the Red Sea Biodiversity Survey (RSBS) in the years 2011 - 2012 along the coast of Saudi Arabia (http://www.redseabiodiversity.org/) and examination of earlier collections and literature a revised species list is provided for the portunoid (swimming) crabs (Crustacea Decapoda Portunoidea). This superfamily is one of the most species rich and has one of the broadest habitat scopes among Brachyura in the global scale. The present assessment results in 54 shallow water species (including 2 recorded for the first time in the Red Sea during RSBS), 2 deep water species and 1 semipelagic species Charybdis smithii. Doubtful literature records of another 7 shallow water species remain unconfirmed. Among reliably recorded shallow water species 58 % belong to widespread Indo-West-Pacific (IWP) species, 13% are the species restricted to the western Indian Ocean, 11 % are endemics of the Arabian region (occurring also either in the western Gulf of Aden or along the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, or in both areas) which are usually vicariant to the widespread IWP species, 11% are taxa that are similar to the species occurring elsewhere in the IWP but have morphological peculiarities and probably deserve a specific or subspecific status. Finally 4% of species (Thalamita murinae and Liocarcinus subcorrugatus) appear to be endemic for the Red Sea and show remarkable disjunctions from most closely related species. Carcinus sp. (probably C. aestuarii) is an introduced (but not established) species in the northern Red Sea. The deep water fauna of the Red Sea is unique because it lives in the warm (20.5-21.5 ° C

  1. DNA barcoding unveils skate (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) species diversity in 'ray' products sold across Ireland and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrew Mark; Miller, Dana D; Egan, Aaron; Fox, Jennifer; Greenfield, Adam; Mariani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Skates are widely consumed across the globe, but many large species are subject to considerable concern regarding their conservation and management. Within Europe such issues have recently driven policy changes so that, for the first time, reports of skate landings now have to be made under species-specific names. Total allowable catches have also been established for many groups, which have been set to zero for a number of the most vulnerable species (e.g., Dipturus batis, Raja undulata and Rostoraja alba). Whilst accurate species identification has become an important issue for landings, the sale of skates is still usually made under a blanket term of "skate" or "ray". The matter of identifying species of skate is further complicated by their morphologically conservative nature and the fact that they are commercially valued for their wings. Thus, before sale their bodies are usually discarded (i.e., "winged") and often skinned, making morphological identification impossible. For the first time, DNA barcoding (of the mitochondrial COI gene) was applied to samples of skate wings from retail outlets across the British Isles, providing insight into which species are sold for consumption. A total of 98 wing samples were analysed, revealing that six species were sold; blonde ray (Raja brachyura), spotted ray (Raja montagui), thornback ray (Raja clavata), cuckoo ray (Leucoraja naevus) small-eyed ray (Raja microocellata) and shagreen ray (Leucoraja fullonica). Statistical testing demonstrated that there were significant differences in the species sold in the distinct retail groups which suggests complex drivers behind the patterns of sale in skates. The results also indicate that endangered species are not commonly being passed on to consumers. In addition, the practice of selling skate wings under ambiguous labels is highlighted as it makes it extremely difficult for consumers to exercise a right to avoid species of conservation concern. Interestingly, a single retailer

  2. DNA barcoding unveils skate (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) species diversity in ‘ray’ products sold across Ireland and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Aaron; Fox, Jennifer; Greenfield, Adam; Mariani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Skates are widely consumed across the globe, but many large species are subject to considerable concern regarding their conservation and management. Within Europe such issues have recently driven policy changes so that, for the first time, reports of skate landings now have to be made under species-specific names. Total allowable catches have also been established for many groups, which have been set to zero for a number of the most vulnerable species (e.g., Dipturus batis, Raja undulata and Rostoraja alba). Whilst accurate species identification has become an important issue for landings, the sale of skates is still usually made under a blanket term of “skate” or “ray”. The matter of identifying species of skate is further complicated by their morphologically conservative nature and the fact that they are commercially valued for their wings. Thus, before sale their bodies are usually discarded (i.e., “winged”) and often skinned, making morphological identification impossible. For the first time, DNA barcoding (of the mitochondrial COI gene) was applied to samples of skate wings from retail outlets across the British Isles, providing insight into which species are sold for consumption. A total of 98 wing samples were analysed, revealing that six species were sold; blonde ray (Raja brachyura), spotted ray (Raja montagui), thornback ray (Raja clavata), cuckoo ray (Leucoraja naevus) small-eyed ray (Raja microocellata) and shagreen ray (Leucoraja fullonica). Statistical testing demonstrated that there were significant differences in the species sold in the distinct retail groups which suggests complex drivers behind the patterns of sale in skates. The results also indicate that endangered species are not commonly being passed on to consumers. In addition, the practice of selling skate wings under ambiguous labels is highlighted as it makes it extremely difficult for consumers to exercise a right to avoid species of conservation concern. Interestingly, a

  3. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae: evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger Jakob

    2010-09-01

    suggest that B. latro has visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusions In parallel to previous behavioral findings that B. latro has aerial olfaction, our results indicate that their central olfactory pathway is indeed most prominent. Similar findings from the closely related terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus suggest that in Coenobitidae, olfaction is a major sensory modality processed by the brain, and that for these animals, exploring the olfactory landscape is vital for survival in their terrestrial habitat. Future studies on terrestrial members of other crustacean taxa such as Isopoda, Amphipoda, Astacida, and Brachyura will shed light on how frequently the establishment of an aerial sense of olfaction evolved in Crustacea during the transition from sea to land. Amounting to ca. 1,000,000, the numbers of interneurons that analyse the olfactory input in B. latro brains surpasses that in other terrestrial arthropods, as e.g. the honeybee Apis mellifera or the moth Manduca sexta, by two orders of magnitude suggesting that B. latro in fact is a land-living arthropod that has devoted a substantial amount of nervous tissue to the sense of smell.

  4. Forage fauna in the diet of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Vaske Júnior

    2012-03-01

    -do-Caribe, Brama caribbea, foi o item alimentar mais importante, seguida de outros peixes mesopelágicos como Alepisaurus ferox, Omosudis lowei, Gempylus serpens, Brama brama e Diretmus argenteus. A lula Ornithoteuthis antillarum foi o principal cefalópode predado, e os crustáceos Caridea e megalopas de Brachyura também foram itens importantes. A alimentação deve ocorrer de forma contínua, toda hora, ou pelo menos durante a maior parte do dia ou da noite, como parte da estratégia de predar sobre presas espalhadas na coluna d'água. A relativa equitabilidade de proporções de organismos de superfície, meia-água e água profunda na dieta refletem um comportamento de constante deslocamento vertical a procura de presas. Embora a albacora-bandolim prefira camadas subtermoclinais, a maioria de suas presas realiza migrações verticais diárias e podem então, serem predadas tanto próximas à superfície como em águas mais profundas.

  5. PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE CORRELATION BETWEEN MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND GROWTH TRAITS IN CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS)%中华绒螯蟹微卫星标记与生长性状相关性的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴滟; 付春鹏; 蒋速飞; 傅洪拓; 乔慧; 龚永生; 熊贻伟

    2011-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis), belong to order Brachyura, family Grapsiodea, is one of the most important species for aquaculture in China with an annual cultured production of about 518357 tons, especially in the Yangtze River valley. Chinese mitten crab has three main strains in China, including Yangtze River strain, Liaohe River strain and Oujiang River strain. The strain of Yangtze River exhibited excellent economical characters and is the best strain for aquaculture. However, genetic degeneration, such as low growth rate, small body size, weak disease-resistance,etc., emerged in Chinese mitten crab with the rapid development of its farming scale. Microsatellite marker is a very useful and powerful molecular marker due to its highly polymorphism, stable and co-dominance and it was widely applicated in researches of genetic diversity, kin discrimination, strain identification, genetic linkage map construction,trait-related marker screening, genetic evaluation, molecular taxonomy and so on. In this paper, Chinese mitten crabs of the Yangtze River strain were cultured in a 0.5 ha pond and 100 individuals were sampled at the same time in November.The growth traits of all individuals, including body weight, body width and body height, were measured separately. The results indicated that the growth traits were quantitative traits with the characteristic of continuous variation and complied with normal distribution according to the Kolmogorov-Smiromov normality test. Two extreme groups were chosen according to their body weight and used for primary screening of trait-related loci. The 15 individuals weighing more than 155g were selected as "maximal group" and another 15 individuals weighing less than 69 g were selected as "minimal group". Thirty microsatellite loci were used to analyse the differences between maximal and minimal groups.The results of Chi-Square test showed that 4 out of 30 loci showed significant variances of genotypes between groups

  6. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    recorded anymore in northern and central Germany, such as cave bears. References Begouen R. and Clottes J. 1987. Les Trois Frères after Breuil. Antiquity, 61: 180-187. Bosinski, G. 1987. Die große Zeit der Eiszeitjäger. Europa zwischen 40.000 und 10.000 v.Chr. Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, 34: 13-139. Breuil, H. 1952. Four Hundred Centuries of Cave Art. Montignac, Dordogne, 414 pp. Chauvet, J.-M., Deschamps B.E, and Hillaire C. 1995. Grotte Chauvet. Altsteinzeitliche Höhlenkunst im Tal der Ardèche. Thorbecke Speläo 1, Sigmaringen, 120 pp. Diedrich, C. 2005. Eine oberpleistozäne Population von Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) aus dem eiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänenhorst Perick-Höhlen von Hemer (Sauerland, NW Deutschland) und ihr Kannibalismus. Philippia, 12 (2): 93-115, Kassel. Diedrich, C. 2006. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) population from the early Upper Pleistocene hyena open air prey deposit site Biedensteg near Bad Wildungen (Hess, NW Germany) and the contribution to their phylogenetic position, coprolites and prey. Cranium, 23 (2): 39-53, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2007a. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) skeleton remains from Praha-Podbaba and the contribution to other lion finds from loess and river terrace sites in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 82 (2), 99-117, Prague. Diedrich, C. 2007b. Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) remains from the Upper Pleistocene hyaena Teufelskammer Cave den site near Hochdahl in the Neander valley (NRW, NW Germany). Cranium, 24 (2): 39-44, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2007c. The Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population and its prey from the gypsum karst den site Westeregeln near Magdeburg (Middle Germany). Abhandlungen und Berichte für Naturkunde, 30: 57-83, Magdeburg. Diedrich, C. 2008a. Late Pleistocene Hystrix (Acanthion) brachyura LINNAEUS 1758 from the Fuchsluken cave at the Rote Berg near Saalfeld (Thuringia