Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with close evolutionary relationship to cool-season cereals, has recently emerged as a novel model plant. There are few reports of Brachypodium miRNAs. Results High-throughput sequencing and whole-genome-wide data mining led to the identification of 27 conserved miRNAs, as well as 129 predicted miRNAs in Brachypodium. For multiple-member conserved miRNA families, their sizes in Brachypodium were much smaller than those in rice and Populus. The genome organization of miR395 family in Brachypodium was quite different from that in rice. The expression of 3 conserved miRNAs and 25 predicted miRNAs showed significant changes in response to cold stress. Among these miRNAs, some were cold-induced and some were cold-suppressed, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated under cold stress condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that Brachypodium miRNAs are composed of a set of conserved miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved miRNAs with low expression levels. Both kinds of miRNAs were involved in cold stress response, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated, implying an important role for cold-induced miRNAs. The different size and genome organization of miRNA families in Brachypodium and rice suggest that the frequency of duplication events or the selection pressure on duplicated miRNAs are different between these two closely related plant species.
Wang, Hsiao-Lin V; Dinwiddie, Brandon L; Lee, Herman; Chekanova, Julia A
Exposure to abiotic stresses triggers global changes in the expression of thousands of eukaryotic genes at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Small RNA (smRNA) pathways and splicing both function as crucial mechanisms regulating stress-responsive gene expression. However, examples of smRNAs regulating gene expression remain largely limited to effects on mRNA stability, translation, and epigenetic regulation. Also, our understanding of the networks controlling plant gene expression in response to environmental changes, and examples of these regulatory pathways intersecting, remains limited. Here, to investigate the role of smRNAs in stress responses we examined smRNA transcriptomes of Brachypodium distachyon plants subjected to various abiotic stresses. We found that exposure to different abiotic stresses specifically induced a group of novel, endogenous small interfering RNAs (stress-induced, UTR-derived siRNAs, or sutr-siRNAs) that originate from the 3' UTRs of a subset of coding genes. Our bioinformatics analyses predicted that sutr-siRNAs have potential regulatory functions and that over 90% of sutr-siRNAs target intronic regions of many mRNAs in trans. Importantly, a subgroup of these sutr-siRNAs target the important intron regulatory regions, such as branch point sequences, that could affect splicing. Our study indicates that in Brachypodium, sutr-siRNAs may affect splicing by masking or changing accessibility of specific cis-elements through base-pairing interactions to mediate gene expression in response to stresses. We hypothesize that this mode of regulation of gene expression may also serve as a general mechanism for regulation of gene expression in plants and potentially in other eukaryotes. © 2015 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Kawaji, Hideya; Nakamura, Mari; Takahashi, Yukari
small RNA have focused on miRNA and/or siRNA rather than on the exploration of additional classes of RNAs. RESULTS: Here, we explored human small RNAs by unbiased sequencing of RNAs with sizes of 19-40 nt. We provide substantial evidences for the existence of independent classes of small RNAs. Our data...... directions by bidirectional promoters, indicating that the small RNAs are a product of dsRNA formation and their subsequent cleavage. Their partial similarity with ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) suggests unrevealed functions of ribosomal DNA or interstitial rRNA. Further examination revealed six novel mi...
Ramanjulu Sunkar; Jian-Kang Zhu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of mRNA degradation, translational repression, and chromatin modification...
Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites survive and replicate in the host by using mechanisms that aim to establish a successful infection and ensure parasite survival. Evidence points to microRNAs as new players in the host-parasite interplay. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that control proteins levels via post-transcriptional gene down-regulation, either within the cells where they were produced or in other cells via intercellular transfer. These microRNAs can be modulated in host cells during infection and are among the growing group of small regulatory RNAs, for which many classes have been described, including the transfer RNA-derived small RNAs. Parasites can either manipulate microRNAs to evade host-driven damage and/or transfer small RNAs to host cells. In this mini-review, we present evidence for the involvement of small RNAs, such as microRNAs, in trypanosomatid infections which lack RNA interference. We highlight both microRNA profile alterations in host cells during those infections and the horizontal transfer of small RNAs and proteins from parasites to the host by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles in a cell communication mechanism.
Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Johansen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Anders A
Gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs has been recognized as an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for several years. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, these RNAs control stress response and translation of outer membrane proteins and therefore...
Tesorero, Rafael A.; Yu, Ning; Wright, Jordan O.; Svencionis, Juan P.; Cheng, Qiang; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Cho, Kyu Hong
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that has shown complex modes of regulation of its virulence factors to cause diverse diseases. Bacterial small RNAs are regarded as novel widespread regulators of gene expression in response to environmental signals. Recent studies have revealed that several small RNAs (sRNAs) have an important role in S. pyogenes physiology and pathogenesis by regulating gene expression at the translational level. To search for new sRNAs in S. pyogenes, we performed a genomewide analysis through computational prediction followed by experimental verification. To overcome the limitation of low accuracy in computational prediction, we employed a combination of three different computational algorithms (sRNAPredict, eQRNA and RNAz). A total of 45 candidates were chosen based on the computational analysis, and their transcription was analyzed by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Northern blot. Through this process, we discovered 7 putative novel trans-acting sRNAs. Their abundance varied between different growth phases, suggesting that their expression is influenced by environmental or internal signals. Further, to screen target mRNAs of an sRNA, we employed differential RNA sequencing analysis. This study provides a significant resource for future study of small RNAs and their roles in physiology and pathogenesis of S. pyogenes. PMID:23762235
Armisen, Javier; Gilchrist, Michael J; Wilczynska, Anna; Standart, Nancy; Miska, Eric A
Small regulatory RNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. Here we used high-throughput sequencing to determine small RNA populations in the germline and soma of the African clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis. We identified a number of miRNAs that were expressed in the female germline. miRNA expression profiling revealed that miR-202-5p is an oocyte-enriched miRNA. We identified two novel miRNAs that were expressed in the soma. In addition, we sequenced large numbers of Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs) and other endogenous small RNAs, likely representing endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs). Of these, only piRNAs were restricted to the germline, suggesting that endo-siRNAs are an abundant class of small RNAs in the vertebrate soma. In the germline, both endogenous small RNAs and piRNAs mapped to many high copy number loci. Furthermore, endogenous small RNAs mapped to the same specific subsets of repetitive elements in both the soma and the germline, suggesting that these RNAs might act to silence repetitive elements in both compartments. Data presented here suggest a conserved role for miRNAs in the vertebrate germline. Furthermore, this study provides a basis for the functional analysis of small regulatory RNAs in an important vertebrate model system.
Green, Pamela J. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysis and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.
Choi, J-W; Kim, S-C; Hong, S-H; Lee, H-J
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be major regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. However, bacterial RNAs comparable in size to eukaryotic miRNAs (18-22 nucleotides) have received little attention. Recently, a novel class of small RNAs similar in size to miRNAs (miRNA-size, small RNAs or msRNAs) have also been found in several bacteria. Like miRNAs, msRNAs are approximately 15 to 25 nucleotides in length, and their precursors are predicted to form a hairpin loop secondary structure. Here, we identified msRNAs in the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola. We examined these msRNAs using a deep sequencing method and characterized dozens of msRNAs through bioinformatic analysis. Highly expressed msRNAs were selected for further validation. The findings suggest that this class of small RNAs is well conserved across the domains of life. Indeed, msRNAs secreted via bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were detected. The ability of bacterial OMVs to deliver RNAs into eukaryotic cells was also observed. These msRNAs in OMVs allowed us to identify their potential human immune-related target genes. Furthermore, we found that exogenous msRNAs could suppress expression of certain cytokines in Jurkat T cells. We propose msRNAs may function as novel bacterial signaling molecules that mediate bacteria-to-human interactions. Furthermore, this study may provide fresh insight into bacterial pathogenic mechanisms of periodontal diseases.
Khan, Aly A; Betel, Doron; Miller, Martin L
among the transfected small RNAs and the endogenous pool of miRNAs for the intracellular machinery that processes small RNAs. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide transcript responses from 151 published transfection experiments in seven different human cell types. We show that targets......Transfection of small RNAs (such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs)) into cells typically lowers expression of many genes. Unexpectedly, increased expression of genes also occurs. We investigated whether this upregulation results from a saturation effect--that is, competition...... of endogenous miRNAs are expressed at significantly higher levels after transfection, consistent with impaired effectiveness of endogenous miRNA repression. This effect exhibited concentration and temporal dependence. Notably, the profile of endogenous miRNAs can be largely inferred by correlating miRNA sites...
Han, Lu; Luan, Yu-Shi
Genetic information is traditionally thought to be transferred from parents to offspring. However, there is evidence indicating that gene transfer can also occur from microbes to higher species, such as plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. This horizontal transfer can be carried out by small RNAs (sRNAs). sRNAs have been recently reported to move across kingdoms as mobile signals, spreading silencing information toward targeted genes. sRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are non-coding molecules that control gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Some sRNAs act in a cross-kingdom manner between animals and their parasites, but little is known about such sRNAs associated with plants. In this report, we provide a brief introduction to miRNAs that are transferred from plants to mammals/viruses and siRNAs that are transferred from microbes to plants. Both miRNAs and siRNAs can exert corresponding functions in the target organisms. Additionally, we provide information concerning a host-induced gene silencing system as a potential application that utilizes the transgenic trafficking of RNA molecules to silence the genes of interacting organisms. Moreover, we lay out the controversial views regarding cross-kingdom miRNAs and call for better methodology and experimental design to confirm this unique function of miRNAs.
Full Text Available Genetic information is traditionally thought to be transferred from parents to offspring. However, there is evidence indicating that gene transfer can also occur from microbes to higher species, such as plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. This horizontal transfer can be carried out by small RNAs (sRNAs. sRNAs have been recently reported to move across kingdoms as mobile signals, spreading silencing information toward targeted genes. sRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, are non-coding molecules that control gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Some sRNAs act in a cross-kingdom manner between animals and their parasites, but little is known about such sRNAs associated with plants. In this report, we provide a brief introduction to miRNAs that are transferred from plants to mammals/viruses and siRNAs that are transferred from microbes to plants. Both miRNAs and siRNAs can exert corresponding functions in the target organisms. Additionally, we provide information concerning a host-induced gene silencing (HIGS system as a potential application that utilizes the transgenic trafficking of RNA molecules to silence the genes of interacting organisms. Moreover, we lay out the controversial views regarding cross-kingdom miRNAs and call for better methodology and experimental design to confirm this unique function of miRNAs.
Mierlo, J.T. van; Cleef, K.W.R. van; Rij, R.P. van
Virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the hallmark of RNAi-based antiviral immunity. Wu and colleagues demonstrate how viral genomes can be assembled from these small RNA sequences. Their results provide an approach for virus discovery as well as important insights into how these siRNAs
Hu, Hongtao; Yu, Dazhao; Liu, Hong
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are ~20 to 24 nucleotide single-stranded RNAs that play crucial roles in regulation of gene expression. In plants, sRNAs are classified into microRNAs (miRNAs), repeat-associated siRNAs (ra-siRNAs), phased siRNAs (pha-siRNAs), cis and trans natural antisense transcript siRNAs (cis- and trans-nat siRNAs). Pima (Gossypium barbadense L.) is one of the most economically important fiber crops, producing the best and longest spinnable fiber. Although some miRNAs are profiled in Pima, little is known about siRNAs, the largest subclass of plant sRNAs. In order to profile these gene regulators in Pima, a comprehensive analysis of sRNAs was conducted by mining publicly available sRNA data, leading to identification of 678 miRNAs, 3,559,126 ra-siRNAs, 627 pha-siRNAs, 136,600 cis-nat siRNAs and 79,994 trans-nat siRNAs. The 678 miRNAs, belonging to 98 conserved and 402 lineage-specific families, were produced from 2,138 precursors, of which 297 arose from introns, exons, or intron/UTR-exon junctions of protein-coding genes. Ra-siRNAs were produced from various repeat loci, while most (97%) were yielded from retrotransposons, especially LTRs (long terminal repeats). The genes encoding auxin-signaling-related proteins, NBS-LRRs and transcription factors were major sources of pha-siRNAs, while two conserved TAS3 homologs were found as well. Most cis-NATs in Pima overlapped in enclosed and convergent orientations, while a few hybridized in divergent and coincided orientations. Most cis- and trans-nat siRNAs were produced from overlapping regions. Additionally, characteristics of length and the 5’-first nucleotide of each sRNA class were analyzed as well. Results in this study created a valuable molecular resource that would facilitate studies on mechanism of controlling gene expression. PMID:25679373
Chen, Ho-Ming; Wu, Shu-Hsing
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that direct 2?-O-methylation or pseudouridylation on ribosomal RNAs or spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs. These modifications are needed to modulate the activity of ribosomes and spliceosomes. A comprehensive repertoire of snoRNAs is needed to expand the knowledge of these modifications. The sequences corresponding to snoRNAs in 18?26-nt small RNA sequencing data have been rarely explored and remain as a hidden treasure for snoRNA annotation. He...
Miesen, P.; Ivens, A.; Buck, A.H.; Rij, R.P. van
In Aedes mosquitoes, infections with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) trigger or modulate the expression of various classes of viral and host-derived small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Viral siRNAs are at the core of
Saramago, Margarida; Bárria, Cátia; Dos Santos, Ricardo F; Silva, Inês J; Pobre, Vânia; Domingues, Susana; Andrade, José M; Viegas, Sandra C; Arraiano, Cecília M
Ribonucleases (RNases) are key factors in the control of biological processes, since they modulate the processing, degradation and quality control of RNAs. This review gives many illustrative examples of the role of RNases in the regulation of small RNAs (sRNAs). RNase E and PNPase have been shown to degrade the free pool of sRNAs. RNase E can also be recruited to cleave mRNAs when they are interacting with sRNAs. RNase III cleaves double-stranded structures, and can cut both the sRNA and its RNA target when they are hybridized. Overall, ribonucleases act as conductors in the control of sRNAs. Therefore, it is very important to further understand their role in the post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Jie; Luo, Majing; Sheng, Yue; Hong, Qiang; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia
Understanding origin, evolution and functions of small RNA (sRNA) genes has been a great challenge in the past decade. Molecular mechanisms underlying sexual reversal in vertebrates, particularly sRNAs involved in this process, are largely unknown. By deep-sequencing of small RNA transcriptomes in combination with genomic analysis, we identified a large amount of piRNAs and miRNAs including over 1,000 novel miRNAs, which were differentially expressed during gonad reversal from ovary to testis via ovotesis. Biogenesis and expressions of miRNAs were dynamically changed during the reversal. Notably, phylogenetic analysis revealed dynamic expansions of miRNAs in vertebrates and an evolutionary trajectory of conserved miR-17-92 cluster in the Eukarya. We showed that the miR-17-92 cluster in vertebrates was generated through multiple duplications from ancestor miR-92 in invertebrates Tetranychus urticae and Daphnia pulex from the Chelicerata around 580 Mya. Moreover, we identified the sexual regulator Dmrt1 as a direct target of the members miR-19a and -19b in the cluster. These data suggested dynamic biogenesis and expressions of small RNAs during sex reversal and revealed multiple expansions and evolutionary trajectory of miRNAs from invertebrates to vertebrates, which implicate small RNAs in sexual reversal and provide new insight into evolutionary and molecular mechanisms underlying sexual reversal.
Bai, Baoyan; Laiho, Marikki
Small RNAs (size 20-30 nt) of various types have been actively investigated in recent years, and their subcellular compartmentalization and relative concentrations are likely to be of importance to their cellular and physiological functions. Comprehensive data on this subset of the transcriptome can only be obtained by application of high-throughput sequencing, which yields data that are inherently complex and multidimensional, as sequence composition, length, and abundance will all inform to the small RNA function. Subsequent data analysis, hypothesis testing, and presentation/visualization of the results are correspondingly challenging. We have constructed small RNA libraries derived from different cellular compartments, including the nucleolus, and asked whether small RNAs exist in the nucleolus and whether they are distinct from cytoplasmic and nuclear small RNAs, the miRNAs. Here, we present a workflow for analysis of small RNA sequencing data generated by the Ion Torrent PGM sequencer from samples derived from different cellular compartments.
Gomez-Lozano, Mara; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Molina-Santiago, Carlos
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revealed several hundreds of previously undetected small RNAs (sRNAs) in all bacterial species investigated, including strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas syringae. Nonetheless, only little is known about the extent of conservation of...
Grigory A. Stepanov
Full Text Available Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs are appreciable players in gene expression regulation in human cells. The canonical function of box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs is posttranscriptional modification of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, namely, 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively. A series of independent studies demonstrated that snoRNAs, as well as other noncoding RNAs, serve as the source of various short regulatory RNAs. Some snoRNAs and their fragments can also participate in the regulation of alternative splicing and posttranscriptional modification of mRNA. Alterations in snoRNA expression in human cells can affect numerous vital cellular processes. SnoRNA level in human cells, blood serum, and plasma presents a promising target for diagnostics and treatment of human pathologies. Here we discuss the relation between snoRNAs and oncological, neurodegenerative, and viral diseases and also describe changes in snoRNA level in response to artificial stress and some drugs.
Full Text Available Small RNAs are a group of regulatory RNA molecules that control gene expression at transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels among eukaryotes. The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., genome harbors abundant repetitive sequences derived from families of retrotransposons and transposons, which together constitute almost half of the genome space and provide ample resource for biogenesis of the three major small RNA families. We systematically discovered transposable-element (TE-associated small RNAs in B. mori genome based on a deep RNA-sequencing strategy and the effort yielded 182, 788 and 4,990 TE-associated small RNAs in the miRNA, siRNA and piRNA species, respectively. Our analysis suggested that the three small RNA species preferentially associate with different TEs to create sequence and functional diversity, and we also show evidence that a Bombyx non-LTR retrotransposon, bm1645, alone contributes to the generation of TE-associated small RNAs in a very significant way. The fact that bm1645-associated small RNAs partially overlap with each other implies a possibility that this element may be modulated by different mechanisms to generate different products with diverse functions. Taken together, these discoveries expand the small RNA pool in B. mori genome and lead to new knowledge on the diversity and functional significance of TE-associated small RNAs.
Gómez Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Molin, Søren
sequencing (RNA-seq) is described that involves the preparation and analysis of three different sequencing libraries. As a signifi cant number of unique sRNAs are identifi ed in each library, the libraries can be used either alone or in combination to increase the number of sRNAs identifi ed. The approach......Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria are known to modulate gene expression and control a variety of processes including metabolic reactions, stress responses, and pathogenesis in response to environmental signals. A method to identify bacterial sRNAs on a genome-wide scale based on RNA...... may be applied to identify sRNAs in any bacterium under different growth and stress conditions....
Weiberg, Arne; Wang, Ming; Bellinger, Marschal; Jin, Hailing
A never-ending arms race drives coevolution between pathogens and hosts. In plants, pathogen attacks invoke multiple layers of host immune responses. Many pathogens deliver effector proteins into host cells to suppress host immunity, and many plants have evolved resistance proteins to recognize effectors and trigger robust resistance. Here, we discuss findings on noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) from plants and pathogens, which regulate host immunity and pathogen virulence. Recent discoveries have unveiled the role of noncoding sRNAs from eukaryotic pathogens and bacteria in pathogenicity in both plant and animal hosts. The discovery of fungal sRNAs that are delivered into host cells to suppress plant immunity added sRNAs to the list of pathogen effectors. Similar to protein effector genes, many of these sRNAs are generated from transposable element (TE) regions, which are likely to contribute to rapidly evolving virulence and host adaptation. We also discuss RNA silencing that occurs between organisms.
Filip, Anca T; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Marian, Catalin; Anghel, Andrei
MiRNAs are a class of potential gene regulators of critical importance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). This review aims to present the connection between gut microbiota, probiotics administration and microRNA (miRNA) expression in IBD. It also brings into question cross-kingdom RNAi (RNA interference). Not only that gut host cells garden the intestinal microbiome via miRNA, but also strong evidence supports the idea that different species of bacteria have an impact on the intestinal immune response by modulating miRNA expression. Cross-kingdom RNAi refers to RNA silencing signals that travel between two unrelated, interacting organisms. RNAs communication between prokaryotes and eukaryotes (bacteria and nematodes) via RNAs transfer has been proved. Some authors also support the idea that non-coding RNAs are being transferred by bacterial pathogens to the host cells as part of the intracellular infection process. Further studies are required in order to clarify whether the mechanism by which bacteria modulate miRNA expression concerns RNAs transfer. These findings may lead to a different approach to IBD therapy in the future.
Le Rhun, Anaïs; Beer, Yan Yan; Reimegård, Johan; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Charpentier, Emmanuelle
Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation.
Full Text Available The precise establishment of gene expression patterns is a crucial step in development. Formation of a sharp boundary between high and low spatial expression domains requires a genetic mechanism that exhibits sensitivity, yet is robust to fluctuations, a demand that may not be easily achieved by morphogens alone. Recently, it has been demonstrated that small RNAs (and, in particular, microRNAs play many roles in embryonic development. Whereas some RNAs are essential for embryogenesis, others are limited to fine-tuning a predetermined gene expression pattern. Here, we explore the possibility that small RNAs participate in sharpening a gene expression profile that was crudely established by a morphogen. To this end, we study a model in which small RNAs interact with a target gene and diffusively move from cell to cell. Though diffusion generally smoothens spatial expression patterns, we find that intercellular mobility of small RNAs is actually critical in sharpening the interface between target expression domains in a robust manner. This sharpening occurs as small RNAs diffuse into regions of low mRNA expression and eliminate target molecules therein, but cannot affect regions of high mRNA levels. We discuss the applicability of our results, as examples, to the case of leaf polarity establishment in maize and Hox patterning in the early Drosophila embryo. Our findings point out the functional significance of some mechanistic properties, such as mobility of small RNAs and the irreversibility of their interactions. These properties are yet to be established directly for most classes of small RNAs. An indirect yet simple experimental test of the proposed mechanism is suggested in some detail.
Markus, Amos; Golani, Linoy; Ojha, Nishant Kumar; Borodiansky-Shteinberg, Tatiana; Kinchington, Paul R; Goldstein, Ronald S
Many herpesviruses express small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), that may play roles in regulating lytic and latent infections. None have yet been reported in varicella-zoster virus (VZV; also known as human herpesvirus 3 [HHV-3]). Here we analyzed next-generation sequencing (NGS) data for small RNAs in VZV-infected fibroblasts and human embryonic stem cell-derived (hESC) neurons. Two independent bioinformatics analyses identified more than 20 VZV-encoded 20- to 24-nucleotide RNAs, some of which are predicted to have stem-loop precursors potentially representing miRNAs. These sequences are perfectly conserved between viruses from three clades of VZV. One NGS-identified sequence common to both bioinformatics analyses mapped to the repeat regions of the VZV genome, upstream of the predicted promoter of the immediate early gene open reading frame 63 (ORF63). This miRNA candidate was detected in each of 3 independent biological repetitions of NGS of RNA from fibroblasts and neurons productively infected with VZV using TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR). Importantly, transfected synthetic RNA oligonucleotides antagonistic to the miRNA candidate significantly enhanced VZV plaque growth rates. The presence of 6 additional small noncoding RNAs was also verified by TaqMan qPCR in productively infected fibroblasts and ARPE19 cells. Our results show VZV, like other human herpesviruses, encodes several sncRNAs and miRNAs, and some may regulate infection of host cells. IMPORTANCE Varicella-zoster virus is an important human pathogen, with herpes zoster being a major health issue in the aging and immunocompromised populations. Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) are recognized as important actors in modulating gene expression, and this study demonstrates the first reported VZV-encoded sncRNAs. Many are clustered to a small genomic region, as seen in other human herpesviruses. At least one VZV sncRNA was expressed in productive infection of neurons and fibroblasts
Aug 24, 2011 ... Bandres E, Agirre X, Ramirez N, Zarate R, Garcia-Foncillas J (2007). MicroRNAs as cancer players: potential ... identification of individuals at risk for Lynch Syndrome. Fam. Cancer. 4(3): 255-265. ... microRNA genes are frequently located at fragile sites and genomic regions involved in cancers. Proc.
With the discovery of small regulatory RNAs, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of RNA sequencing projects. Meanwhile, novel high-throughput sequencing technologies, which can sequence as much as 500000 small RNA sequences in one run, have emerged. The challenge of processing this rapidly growing data can be addressed by optimizing current analysis approaches for small RNA sequences. We present fast register-level methods for small RNA pairwise alignment and small RNA to genom...
Small RNAs are important transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Many classes of small RNAs have been discovered, each carrying out specialized functions. siRNAs and miRNAs are best studies. siRNAs function in the process of RNAi and are thought to defend the genome
Full Text Available Abstract Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have facilitated the genome-wide studies of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs. Numerous studies have highlighted the role of various classes of sRNAs at different levels of gene regulation and disease. The fast growth of sequence data and the diversity of sRNA species have prompted the need to organise them in annotation databases. There are currently several databases that collect sRNA data. Various tools are provided for access, with special emphasis on the well-characterised family of micro-RNAs. The striking heterogeneity of the new classes of sRNAs and the lack of sufficient functional annotation, however, make integration of these datasets a difficult task. This review describes the currently available databases for human sRNAs that are accessible via the internet, and some of the large datasets for human sRNAs from high-throughput sequencing experiments that are so far only available as supplementary data in publications. Some of the main issues related to the integration and annotation of sRNA datasets are also discussed.
Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs represent a new class of antigene agents, which has emerged as a powerful tool for functional genomics and might serve as a potent therapeutic approach. However, several studies have showed that they could trigger several bystander effects, including immune activation and inhibition of unintended target genes. Although activation of innate immunity by siRNAs might be beneficial for therapy in some instances, uncontrolled activation can be toxic, and is therefore a major challenging problem. Interestingly, replacement of uridines in siRNA sequences with their 2′-modified counterparts abrogated siRNA bystander effects. Here we highlight these important findings that are expected to facilitate the rational design of siRNAs that avoid the induction of bystander effects.
Lewsey, Mathew G; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Melnyk, Charles W; Molnar, Attila; Valli, Adrián; Urich, Mark A; Nery, Joseph R; Baulcombe, David C; Ecker, Joseph R
RNA silencing at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels regulates endogenous gene expression, controls invading transposable elements (TEs), and protects the cell against viruses. Key components of the mechanism are small RNAs (sRNAs) of 21-24 nt that guide the silencing machinery to their nucleic acid targets in a nucleotide sequence-specific manner. Transcriptional gene silencing is associated with 24-nt sRNAs and RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) at cytosine residues in three DNA sequence contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH). We previously demonstrated that 24-nt sRNAs are mobile from shoot to root in Arabidopsis thaliana and confirmed that they mediate DNA methylation at three sites in recipient cells. In this study, we extend this finding by demonstrating that RdDM of thousands of loci in root tissues is dependent upon mobile sRNAs from the shoot and that mobile sRNA-dependent DNA methylation occurs predominantly in non-CG contexts. Mobile sRNA-dependent non-CG methylation is largely dependent on the DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASES 1/2 (DRM1/DRM2) RdDM pathway but is independent of the CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT)2/3 DNA methyltransferases. Specific superfamilies of TEs, including those typically found in gene-rich euchromatic regions, lose DNA methylation in a mutant lacking 22- to 24-nt sRNAs (dicer-like 2, 3, 4 triple mutant). Transcriptome analyses identified a small number of genes whose expression in roots is associated with mobile sRNAs and connected to DNA methylation directly or indirectly. Finally, we demonstrate that sRNAs from shoots of one accession move across a graft union and target DNA methylation de novo at normally unmethylated sites in the genomes of root cells from a different accession.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential role of RNA molecules as gene expression regulators has led to a new perspective on the intracellular control and genome organization. Because secondary structures are crucial for their regulatory role, we sought to investigate their robustness to mutations and environmental changes. Results Here, we dissected the structural robustness landscape of the small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs encoded in the genome of the bacterium Escherichia coli. We found that bacterial sncRNAs are not significantly robust to both mutational and environmental perturbations when compared against artificial, unbiased sequences. However, we found that, on average, bacterial sncRNAs tend to be significantly plastic, and that mutational and environmental robustness strongly correlate. We further found that, on average, epistasis in bacterial sncRNAs is significantly antagonistic, and positively correlates with plasticity. Moreover, the evolution of robustness is likely dependent upon the environmental stability of the cell, with more fluctuating environments leading to the emergence and fixation of more robust molecules. Mutational robustness also appears to be correlated with structural functionality and complexity. Conclusion Our study provides a deep characterization of the structural robustness landscape of bacterial sncRNAs, suggesting that evolvability could be evolved as a consequence of selection for more plastic molecules. It also supports that environmental fluctuations could promote mutational robustness. As a result, plasticity emerges to link robustness, functionality and evolvability.
Full Text Available Streptococci represent a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria, which colonize a wide range of hosts among animals and humans. Streptococcal species occur as commensal as well as pathogenic organisms. Many of the pathogenic species can cause severe, invasive infections in their hosts leading to a high morbidity and mortality. The consequence is a tremendous suffering on the part of men and livestock besides the significant financial burden in the agricultural and healthcare sectors. An environmentally stimulated and tightly controlled expression of virulence factor genes is of fundamental importance for streptococcal pathogenicity. Bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs modulate the expression of genes involved in stress response, sugar metabolism, surface composition, and other properties that are related to bacterial virulence. Even though the regulatory character is shared by this class of RNAs, variation on the molecular level results in a high diversity of functional mechanisms. The knowledge about the role of sRNAs in streptococci is still limited, but in recent years, genome-wide screens for sRNAs have been conducted in an increasing number of species. Bioinformatics prediction approaches have been employed as well as expression analyses by classical array techniques or next generation sequencing. This review will give an overview of whole genome screens for sRNAs in streptococci with a focus on describing the different methods and comparing their outcome considering sRNA conservation among species, functional similarities, and relevance for streptococcal infection.
The role of epigenetic modifications, for instance DNA methylation, in cell fate transition is tremendous. In this thesis we present two studies in which we present genome wide in vivo methylomes of the small intestinal (SI) stem cell, a close descendent and villus and of 4 stages during zebrafish
Nanoparticle (MPG)-mediated delivery of small RNAs into human mesenchymal stem cells. Nnaemeka Darlington Ndodo. 1,2*. 1Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria. 2Human Anatomy Department, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.
Bai, Baoyan; Laiho, Marikki
The nucleolus is a subcellular compartment with a key essential function in ribosome biogenesis. The nucleolus is rich in noncoding RNAs, mostly the ribosomal RNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. Surprisingly, also several miRNAs have been detected in the nucleolus, raising the question as to whether other small RNA species are present and functional in the nucleolus. We have developed a strategy for stepwise enrichment of nucleolar small RNAs from the total nucleolar RNA extracts and subsequent construction of nucleolar small RNA libraries which are suitable for deep sequencing. Our method successfully isolates the small RNA population from total RNAs and monitors the RNA quality in each step to ensure that small RNAs recovered represent the actual small RNA population in the nucleolus and not degradation products from larger RNAs. We have further applied this approach to characterize the distribution of small RNAs in different cellular compartments.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrient availabilities and needs have to be tightly coordinated between organs to ensure a balance between uptake and consumption for metabolism, growth, and defense reactions. Since plants often have to grow in environments with sub-optimal nutrient availability, a fine tuning is vital. To achieve this, information has to flow cell-to-cell and over long-distance via xylem and phloem. Recently, specific miRNAs emerged as a new type of regulating molecules during stress and nutrient deficiency responses, and miR399 was suggested to be a phloem-mobile long-distance signal involved in the phosphate starvation response. Results We used miRNA microarrays containing all known plant miRNAs and a set of unknown small (s RNAs earlier cloned from Brassica phloem sap 1, to comprehensively analyze the phloem response to nutrient deficiency by removing sulfate, copper or iron, respectively, from the growth medium. We show that phloem sap contains a specific set of sRNAs that is distinct from leaves and roots, and that the phloem also responds specifically to stress. Upon S and Cu deficiencies phloem sap reacts with an increase of the same miRNAs that were earlier characterized in other tissues, while no clear positive response to -Fe was observed. However, -Fe led to a reduction of Cu- and P-responsive miRNAs. We further demonstrate that under nutrient starvation miR399 and miR395 can be translocated through graft unions from wild type scions to rootstocks of the miRNA processing hen1-1 mutant. In contrast, miR171 was not transported. Translocation of miR395 led to a down-regulation of one of its targets in rootstocks, suggesting that this transport is of functional relevance, and that miR395, in addition to the well characterized miR399, could potentially act as a long-distance information transmitter. Conclusions Phloem sap contains a specific set of sRNAs, of which some specifically accumulate in response to nutrient deprivation. From
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA silencing is an important mechanism for regulation of endogenous gene expression and defense against genomic intruders in plants. This natural defense system was adopted to generate virus-resistant plants even before the mechanism of RNA silencing was unveiled. With the clarification of that mechanism, transgenic antiviral plants were developed that expressed artificial virus-specific hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs or microRNAs (amiRNAs in host plants. Previous works also showed that plant-mediated RNA silencing technology could be a practical method for constructing insect-resistant plants by expressing hpRNAs targeting essential genes of insects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we chose aphid Myzus persicae of order Hemiptera as a target insect. To screen for aphid genes vulnerable to attack by plant-mediated RNA silencing to establish plant aphid resistance, we selected nine genes of M. persicae as silencing targets, and constructed their hpRNA-expressing vectors. For the acetylcholinesterase 2 coding gene (MpAChE2, two amiRNA-expressing vectors were also constructed. The vectors were transformed into tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanti. Insect challenge assays showed that most of the transgenic plants gained aphid resistance, among which those expressing hpRNAs targeting V-type proton ATPase subunit E-like (V-ATPaseE or tubulin folding cofactor D (TBCD genes displayed stronger aphicidal activity. The transgenic plants expressing amiRNAs targeting two different sites in the MpAChE2 gene exhibited better aphid resistance than the plants expressing MpAChE2-specific hpRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated that plant-mediated insect-RNA silencing might be an effective way to develop plants resistant to insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, and both the selection of vulnerable target genes and the biogenetic type of the small RNAs were crucial for the effectiveness of aphid control. The expression of
Lau, Nelson C.
Germ cells must safeguard, apportion, package, and deliver their genomes with exquisite precision to ensure proper reproduction and embryonic development. Classical genetic approaches have identified many genes controlling animal germ cell development, but only recently have some of these genes been linked to the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, a gene silencing mechanism centered on small regulatory RNAs. Germ cells contain microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), and Piwi-intera...
Qu, Jibin; Zhao, Mengran; Hsiang, Tom; Feng, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Jinxia; Huang, Chenyang
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many fungi. However, no genome-scale identification of ncRNAs has been inventoried for basidiomycetes. In this research, we detected 254 small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in a genome assembly of an isolate (CCEF00389) of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible basidiomycetous fungus worldwide. The identified sncRNAs include snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, and miRNAs. SnRNA U1 was not found in CCEF00389 genome assembly and some other basidiomycetous genomes by BLASTn. This implies that if snRNA U1 of basidiomycetes exists, it has a sequence that varies significantly from other organisms. By analyzing the distribution of sncRNA loci, we found that snRNAs and most tRNAs (88.6%) were located in pseudo-UTR regions, while miRNAs are commonly found in introns. To analyze the evolutionary conservation of the sncRNAs in P. ostreatus, we aligned all 254 sncRNAs to the genome assemblies of some other Agaricomycotina fungi. The results suggest that most sncRNAs (77.56%) were highly conserved in P. ostreatus, and 20% were conserved in Agaricomycotina fungi. These findings indicate that most sncRNAs of P. ostreatus were not conserved across Agaricomycotina fungi.
Zhao, Mengran; Hsiang, Tom; Feng, Xiaoxing
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many fungi. However, no genome-scale identification of ncRNAs has been inventoried for basidiomycetes. In this research, we detected 254 small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in a genome assembly of an isolate (CCEF00389) of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible basidiomycetous fungus worldwide. The identified sncRNAs include snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, and miRNAs. SnRNA U1 was not found in CCEF00389 genome assembly and some other basidiomycetous genomes by BLASTn. This implies that if snRNA U1 of basidiomycetes exists, it has a sequence that varies significantly from other organisms. By analyzing the distribution of sncRNA loci, we found that snRNAs and most tRNAs (88.6%) were located in pseudo-UTR regions, while miRNAs are commonly found in introns. To analyze the evolutionary conservation of the sncRNAs in P. ostreatus, we aligned all 254 sncRNAs to the genome assemblies of some other Agaricomycotina fungi. The results suggest that most sncRNAs (77.56%) were highly conserved in P. ostreatus, and 20% were conserved in Agaricomycotina fungi. These findings indicate that most sncRNAs of P. ostreatus were not conserved across Agaricomycotina fungi. PMID:27703969
Liu, Hongjun; Ma, Langlang; Yang, Xuerong; Zhang, Lin; Zeng, Xing; Xie, Shupeng; Peng, Huanwei; Gao, Shibin; Lin, Haijian; Pan, Guangtang; Wu, Yongrui; Shen, Yaou
Maize (Zea mays) is an important model crop for transgenic studies. However, genetic transformation of maize requires embryonic calli derived from immature embryo, and the impact of utilizing tissue culture methods on the maize epigenome is poorly understood. Here, we generated whole-genome MeDIP-seq data examining DNA methylation in dedifferentiated and normal immature maize embryos. We observed that most of the dedifferentiated embryos exhibited a methylation increase compared to normal embryos. Increased methylation at promoters was associated with down-regulated protein-coding gene expression; however, the correlation was not strong. Analysis of the callus and immature embryos indicated that the methylation increase was induced during induction of embryonic callus, suggesting phenotypic consequences may be caused by perturbations in genomic DNA methylation levels. The correlation between the 21-24nt small RNAs and DNA methylation regions were investigated but only a statistically significant correlation for 24nt small RNAs was observed. These data extend the significance of epigenetic changes during maize embryo callus formation, and the methylation changes might explain some of the observed embryonic callus variation in callus formation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Escherichia coli, approximately 100 regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs have been identified experimentally and many more have been predicted by various methods. To provide a comprehensive overview of sRNAs, we analysed the low-molecular-weight RNAs (E. coli with deep sequencing, because the regulatory RNAs in bacteria are usually 50-200 nt in length. Results We discovered 229 novel candidate sRNAs (≥ 50 nt with computational or experimental evidence of transcription initiation. Among them, the expression of seven intergenic sRNAs and three cis-antisense sRNAs was detected by northern blot analysis. Interestingly, five novel sRNAs are expressed from prophage regions and we note that these sRNAs have several specific characteristics. Furthermore, we conducted an evolutionary conservation analysis of the candidate sRNAs and summarised the data among closely related bacterial strains. Conclusions This comprehensive screen for E. coli sRNAs using a deep sequencing approach has shown that many as-yet-undiscovered sRNAs are potentially encoded in the E. coli genome. We constructed the Escherichia coli Small RNA Browser (ECSBrowser; http://rna.iab.keio.ac.jp/, which integrates the data for previously identified sRNAs and the novel sRNAs found in this study.
Liu, Tao; Ren, Xianwen; Xiao, Tengfei; Yang, Jian; Xu, Xingye; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Chen, Runsheng; Jin, Qi
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are indispensable components of many organisms and play important roles in cellular events, regulation, and development. Here, we analysed the small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcriptome of Trichophyton rubrum by constructing and sequencing a cDNA library from conidia and mycelia. We identified 352 ncRNAs and their corresponding genomic loci. These ncRNA candidates included 198 entirely novel ncRNAs and 154 known ncRNAs classified as snRNAs, snoRNAs and other known ncRNAs. Further bioinformatic analysis detected 96 snoRNAs, including 56 snoRNAs that had been annotated in other organisms and 40 novel snoRNAs. All snoRNAs belonged to two major classes--C/D box snoRNAs and H/ACA snoRNAs--and their potential target sites in rRNAs and snRNAs were predicted. To analyse the evolutionary conservation of the ncRNAs in T. rubrum, we aligned all 352 ncRNAs to the genomes of six dermatophytes and to the NCBI non-redundant nucleotide database (NT). The results showed that most of the identified snRNAs were conserved in dermatophytes. Of the 352 ncRNAs, 102 also had genomic loci in other dermatophytes, and 27 were dermatophyte-specific. Our systematic analysis may provide important clues to the function and evolution of ncRNAs in T. rubrum. These results also provide important information to complement the current annotation of the T. rubrum genome, which primarily comprises protein-coding genes.
Miesen, Pascal; Ivens, Alasdair; Buck, Amy H; van Rij, Ronald P
In Aedes mosquitoes, infections with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) trigger or modulate the expression of various classes of viral and host-derived small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Viral siRNAs are at the core of the antiviral RNA interference machinery, one of the key pathways that limit virus replication in invertebrates. Besides siRNAs, Aedes mosquitoes and cells derived from these insects produce arbovirus-derived piRNAs, the best studied examples being viruses from the Togaviridae or Bunyaviridae families. Host miRNAs modulate the expression of a large number of genes and their levels may change in response to viral infections. In addition, some viruses, mostly with a DNA genome, express their own miRNAs to regulate host and viral gene expression. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of both viral and host-derived small RNAs in Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells infected with dengue virus 2 (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. Aag2 cells are competent in producing all three types of small RNAs and provide a powerful tool to explore the crosstalk between arboviral infection and the distinct RNA silencing pathways. Interestingly, besides the well-characterized DENV-derived siRNAs, a specific population of viral piRNAs was identified in infected Aag2 cells. Knockdown of Piwi5, Ago3 and, to a lesser extent, Piwi6 results in reduction of vpiRNA levels, providing the first genetic evidence that Aedes PIWI proteins produce DENV-derived small RNAs. In contrast, we do not find convincing evidence for the production of virus-derived miRNAs. Neither do we find that host miRNA expression is strongly changed upon DENV2 infection. Finally, our deep-sequencing analyses detect 30 novel Aedes miRNAs, complementing the repertoire of regulatory small RNAs in this important vector species.
Full Text Available Three small double strand siRNAs (506-MMP1, 859-MMP1 and 891-MMP1, each contains 25–26 nucleotides, with high specific to human MMP1 were designed according to mRNA sequence of human MMP1 (NCBI, NM_002421. To monitor the MMP1 gene expression, the total RNAs of human skin fibroblast (Detroit 551, BCRC 60118 were extracted. One human matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1 partial sequence cDNA, included all the three siRNA target sequences, amplified specifically via RT-PCR and PCR reactions, and three synthesized siRNA target DNAs were cloned individually into pAcGFP1-N3 with green fluorescent protein (GFP. These reporter plasmids were then transfected individually into malignant melanoma (MeWo, BCRC 60540 and the GFP was detected after 48 h. Fluorescence results indicated that the 859 siRNA revealed highest inhibitory ability (almost 90%, and was, accordingly, transfected into MeWo cells. According to the real-time quantitative PCR and western blot, the exhibition ability to silence MMP1 gene expression was 85–89%.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated that non-protein-coding RNAs (npcRNAs/ncRNAs play important roles during eukaryotic development, species evolution, and in the etiology of disease. Rhesus macaques are the most widely used primate model in both biomedical research and primate evolutionary studies. However, most reports on these animals focus on the functional roles of protein-coding sequences, whereas very little is known about macaque ncRNAs. Results In the present study, we performed the first systematic profiling of intermediate-size ncRNAs (50 to 500 nt from the rhesus monkey by constructing a cDNA library. We identified 117 rhesus monkey ncRNAs, including 80 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs, 29 other types of known RNAs (snRNAs, Y RNA, and others, and eight unclassified ncRNAs. Comparative genomic analysis and northern blot hybridizations demonstrated that some snoRNAs were lineage- or species-specific. Paralogous sequences were found for most rhesus monkey snoRNAs, the expression of which might be attributable to extensive duplication within the rhesus monkey genome. Further investigation of snoRNA flanking sequences showed that some rhesus monkey snoRNAs are retrogenes derived from L1-mediated integration. Finally, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that birds and primates share some snoRNAs and host genes thereof, suggesting that both the relevant host genes and the snoRNAs contained therein may be inherited from a common ancestor. However, some rhesus monkey snoRNAs hosted by non-ribosome-related genes appeared after the evolutionary divergence between birds and mammals. Conclusions We provide the first experimentally-derived catalog of rhesus monkey ncRNAs and uncover some interesting genomic and evolutionary features. These findings provide important information for future functional characterization of snoRNAs during primate evolution.
Leung, Yuk Yee; Ryvkin, Paul; Ungar, Lyle H; Gregory, Brian D; Wang, Li-San
The surprising observation that virtually the entire human genome is transcribed means we know little about the function of many emerging classes of RNAs, except their astounding diversities. Traditional RNA function prediction methods rely on sequence or alignment information, which are limited in their abilities to classify the various collections of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). To address this, we developed Classification of RNAs by Analysis of Length (CoRAL), a machine learning-based approach for classification of RNA molecules. CoRAL uses biologically interpretable features including fragment length and cleavage specificity to distinguish between different ncRNA populations. We evaluated CoRAL using genome-wide small RNA sequencing data sets from four human tissue types and were able to classify six different types of RNAs with ∼80% cross-validation accuracy. Analysis by CoRAL revealed that microRNAs, small nucleolar and transposon-derived RNAs are highly discernible and consistent across all human tissue types assessed, whereas long intergenic ncRNAs, small cytoplasmic RNAs and small nuclear RNAs show less consistent patterns. The ability to reliably annotate loci across tissue types demonstrates the potential of CoRAL to characterize ncRNAs using small RNA sequencing data in less well-characterized organisms.
Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Durán-Figueroa, Noé; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; de Folter, Stefan
Abstract Background Small RNAs emerged over the last decade as key regulators in diverse biological processes in eukaryotic organisms. To identify and study small RNAs, good and efficient protocols are necessary to isolate them, which sometimes may be challenging due to the composition of specific tissues of certain plant species. Here we describe a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species. Results We developed a simple and efficient method to isolate sma...
Bond, Donna M; Baulcombe, David C
Recent studies suggest that inheritance of phenotypes in plants is more likely to involve epigenetics than in mammals. There are two reasons for this difference. First, there is a RNA-based system in plants involving small (s)RNAs that influences de novo establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation at many sites in plant genomes. These regions of methylated DNA are epigenetic marks with the potential to affect gene expression that are transmitted between dividing cells of the same generation. Second, unlike mammals, DNA methyltransferases in plants are active during gametogenesis and embryogenesis so that patterns of DNA methylation can persist from parent to progeny and do not need to be reset. We discuss how the effects of stress and genome interactions in hybrid plants are two systems that illustrate how RNA-based mechanisms can influence heritable phenotypes in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ryvkin, Paul; Leung, Yuk Yee; Ungar, Lyle H.; Gregory, Brian D.; Wang, Li-San
Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing allow researchers to examine the transcriptome in more detail than ever before. Using a method known as high-throughput small RNA-sequencing, we can now profile the expression of small regulatory RNAs such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with a great deal of sensitivity. However, there are many other types of small RNAs (
Gupta, Praveen K; Sonwane, Arvind A; Singh, Niraj K; Meshram, Chetan D; Dahiya, Shyam S; Pawar, Sachin S; Gupta, Swatantra P; Chaturvedi, V K; Saini, Mohini
To investigate the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) as antiviral agent against rabies, two small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein (N) and polymerase (L) genes were designed and evaluated. Both siRNAs knockdown or silenced the target RABV genes as evaluated in a plasmid based transient expression model. For efficient delivery, adenoviruses expressing the siRNAs were constructed and antiviral potential of the delivered siRNAs was investigated in BHK-21 cells. When cells treated with adenoviruses expressing siRNAs were challenged with RABV, there was 88.35±2.4% and 41.52±9.3% reduction in RABV multiplication in infected cells with siRNAs targeting RABV-N and L genes, respectively. Relative quantification of RABV transcripts using real-time PCR revealed knockdown of both RABV-N and L gene transcripts, however, significant reduction was observed only with adenovirus expressing siRNA against RABV-N. When mice treated intracerebrally with adenoviruses expressing siRNAs were challenged peripherally with lethal RABV by the intramuscular route in masseter muscle, there was 66.6% and 33.3% protection with adenoviruses expressing siRNAs against RABV-N and L genes, respectively. These results demonstrated that adenovirus expressing siRNA against RABV-N efficiently inhibited the RABV multiplication both, in vitro and in vivo and conferred significant protection against lethal RABV challenge. This supported the hypothesis that RNAi, based on siRNA targeting RABV-N gene can prevent RABV infection and holds the potential of RNAi as an approach to prevent rabies infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meini; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Wang, Haixuan; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, Yunzhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), including host miRNAs and viral miRNAs, play vital roles in regulating host-virus interactions. DNA viruses encode miRNAs that regulate the viral life cycle. However, it is generally believed that cytoplasmic RNA viruses do not encode miRNAs, owing to inaccessible cellular miRNA processing machinery. Here, we provide a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identification of miRNAs that were derived from hepatitis A virus (HAV; Hu/China/H2/1982), which is a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus. Using deep-sequencing and in silico approaches, we identified 2 novel virally encoded miRNAs, named hav-miR-1-5p and hav-miR-2-5p. Both of the novel virally encoded miRNAs were clearly detected in infected cells. Analysis of Dicer enzyme silencing demonstrated that HAV-derived miRNA biogenesis is Dicer dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed that HAV mature miRNAs were generated from viral miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) in host cells. Notably, naturally derived HAV miRNAs were biologically and functionally active and induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Genomic location analysis revealed novel miRNAs located in the coding region of the viral genome. Overall, our results show that HAV naturally generates functional miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs during infection. This is the first report of miRNAs derived from the coding region of genomic RNA of a cytoplasmic RNA virus. These observations demonstrate that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally generate functional miRNAs, as DNA viruses do. These findings also contribute to improved understanding of host-RNA virus interactions mediated by RNA virus-derived miRNAs. © FASEB.
Full Text Available RNA silencing such as quelling and meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD and several other classes of special small RNAs have been discovered in filamentous fungi recently. More than four different mechanisms of microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs production have been illustrated in the model fungus Neurospora crassa including a dicer-independent pathway. To date, very little work focusing on small RNAs in fungi has been reported and no universal or particular characteristic of milRNAs were defined clearly. In this study, small RNA and degradome libraries were constructed and subsequently deep sequenced for investigating milRNAs and their potential cleavage targets on the genome level in the filamentous fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. As a result, there is no intersection of conserved miRNAs found by BLASTing against the miRBase. Further analysis showed that the small RNA population of F. oxysporum shared many common features with the small RNAs from N. crassa and other fungi. According to the known standards of miRNA prediction in plants and animals, milRNA candidates from 8 families (comprising 19 members were screened out and identified. However, none of them could trigger target cleavage based on the degradome data. Moreover, most major signals of cleavage in transcripts could not match appropriate complementary small RNAs, suggesting that other predominant modes for milRNA-mediated gene regulation could exist in F. oxysporum. In addition, the PAREsnip program was utilized for comprehensive analysis and 3 families of small RNAs leading to transcript cleavage were experimentally validated. Altogether, our findings provided valuable information and important hints for better understanding the functions of the small RNAs and milRNAs in the fungal kingdom.
Full Text Available RNA silencing, an evolutionarily conserved and sequence-specific gene-inactivation system, has a pivotal role in antiviral defense in most eukaryotic organisms. In plants, a class of exogenous small RNAs (sRNAs originating from the infecting virus called virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs are predominantly responsible for RNA silencing-mediated antiviral immunity. Nowadays, the process of vsiRNA formation and the role of vsiRNAs in plant viral defense have been revealed through deep sequencing of sRNAs and diverse genetic analysis. The biogenesis of vsiRNAs is analogous to that of endogenous sRNAs, which require diverse essential components including DICER-LIKE (DCL, ARGONAUTE (AGO, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR proteins. vsiRNAs trigger antiviral defense through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS or transcriptional gene silencing (TGS of viral RNA, and they hijack the host RNA silencing system to target complementary host transcripts. Additionally, several applications that take advantage of the current knowledge of vsiRNAs research are being used, such as breeding antiviral plants through genetic engineering technology, reconstructing of viral genomes, and surveying viral ecology and populations. Here, we will provide an overview of vsiRNA pathways, with a primary focus on the advances in vsiRNA biogenesis and function, and discuss their potential applications as well as the future challenges in vsiRNAs research.
Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs, are conventionally regarded as critical molecular regulators of various intracellular processes. However, recent accumulating evidence indicates that sRNAs can be transferred within cells and tissues and even across species. In plants, nematodes and microbes, these mobile sRNAs can mediate inter-kingdom communication, environmental sensing, gene expression regulation, host-parasite defense and many other biological functions. Strikingly, a recent study by our group suggested that ingested plant miRNAs are transferred to blood, accumulate in tissues and regulate transcripts in consuming animals. While our and other independent groups’ subsequent studies further explored the emerging field of sRNA-mediated crosstalk between species, some groups reported negative results and questioned its general applicability. Thus, further studies carefully evaluating the horizontal transfer of exogenous sRNAs and its potential biological functions are urgently required. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the field of the horizontal transfer of mobile sRNAs, suggest its future directions and key points for examination and discuss its potential mechanisms and application prospects in nutrition, agriculture and medicine.
Schrago Carlos EG
Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV, a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. Conclusions This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.
Background Small RNA mediated gene silencing is a well-conserved regulatory pathway. In the parasite Entamoeba histolytica an endogenous RNAi pathway exists, however, the depth and diversity of the small RNA population remains unknown. Results To characterize the small RNA population that associates with E. histolytica Argonaute-2 (EhAGO2-2), we immunoprecipitated small RNAs that associate with it and performed one full pyrosequencing run. Data analysis revealed new features of the 27nt small RNAs including the 5′-G predominance, distinct small RNA distribution patterns on protein coding genes, small RNAs mapping to both introns and exon-exon junctions, and small RNA targeted genes that are clustered particularly in sections of genome duplication. Characterization of genomic loci to which both sense and antisense small RNAs mapped showed that both sets of small RNAs have 5′-polyphosphate termini; strand-specific RT-PCR detected transcripts in both directions at these loci suggesting that both transcripts may serve as template for small RNA generation. In order to determine whether small RNA abundance patterns account for strain-specific gene expression profiles of E. histolytica virulent and non-virulent strains, we sequenced small RNAs from a non-virulent strain and found that small RNAs mapped to genes in a manner consistent with their regulation of strain-specific virulence genes. Conclusions We provided a full spectrum analysis for E. histolytica AGO2-2 associated 27nt small RNAs. Additionally, comparative analysis of small RNA populations from virulent and non-virulent amebic strains indicates that small RNA populations may regulate virulence genes. PMID:23347563
Pundhir, Sachin; Gorodkin, Jan
Post-transcriptional processing events related to short RNAs are often reflected in their read profile patterns emerging from high-throughput sequencing data. MicroRNA arm switching across different tissues is a well-known example of what we define as differential processing. Here, short RNAs from...... the nine cell lines of the ENCODE project, irrespective of their annotation status, were analyzed for genomic loci representing differential or coherent processing. We observed differential processing predominantly in RNAs annotated as miRNA, snoRNA or tRNA. Four out of five known cases of differentially...... processed miRNAs that were in the input dataset were recovered and several novel cases were discovered. In contrast to differential processing, coherent processing is observed widespread in both annotated and unannotated regions. While the annotated loci predominantly consist of ~24nt short RNAs...
Wei, W.; Ba, Z.; Wu, Y.
Eukaryotes have evolved complex mechanisms to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through coordinated actions of protein sensors, transducers, and effectors. Here we show that ∼21-nucleotide small RNAs are produced from the sequences in the vicinity of DSB sites in Arabidopsis and in human cells....... We refer to these as diRNAs for DSB-induced small RNAs. In Arabidopsis, the biogenesis of diRNAs requires the PI3 kinase ATR, RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), and Dicer-like proteins. Mutations in these proteins as well as in Pol V cause significant reduction in DSB repair efficiency. In Arabidopsis, di...
Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are important components of the regulatory network of biological systems and thousands have been discovered in both animals and plants. Systematic investigations performed in species with sequenced genomes such as Arabidopsis, rice, poplar and Brachypodium have provided insights into the evolutionary relationships of this class of small RNAs among plants. However, miRNAs from barley, one of the most important cereal crops, remain unknown. Results We performed a large scale study of barley miRNAs through deep sequencing of small RNAs extracted from leaves of two barley cultivars. By using the presence of miRNA precursor sequences in related genomes as one of a number of supporting criteria, we identified up to 100 miRNAs in barley. Of these only 56 have orthologs in wheat, rice or Brachypodium that are known to be expressed, while up to 44 appear to be specifically expressed in barley. Conclusions Our study, the first large scale investigation of small RNAs in barley, has identified up to 100 miRNAs. We demonstrate that reliable identification of miRNAs via deep sequencing in a species whose genome has not been sequenced requires a more careful analysis of sequencing errors than is commonly performed. We devised a read filtering procedure for dealing with errors. In addition, we found that the use of a large dataset of almost 35 million reads permits the use of read abundance distributions along putative precursor sequences as a practical tool for isolating miRNAs in a large background of reads originating from other non-coding and coding RNAs. This study therefore provides a generic approach for discovering novel miRNAs where no genome sequence is available.
Abendroth, Ulrike; Schmidtke, Cornelius; Bonas, Ulla
The genus Xanthomonas comprises a large group of plant-pathogenic bacteria. The infection and bacterial multiplication in the plant tissue depends on the type III secretion system and other virulence determinants. Recent studies revealed that bacterial virulence is also controlled at the post-transcriptional level by small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). In this review, we highlight our current knowledge about sRNAs and RNA-binding proteins in Xanthomonas species.
Liao, Jian-You; Guo, Yan-Hua; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Li, Yan; Xu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Yu-Chan; Zhou, Hui; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Ayala, Francisco J.; Qu, Liang-Hu
Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), regulate most important biologic processes in eukaryotes, such as cell division and differentiation. Although sRNAs have been extensively studied in various eukaryotes, the role of sRNAs in the early emergence of eukaryotes is unclear. To address these questions, we deep sequenced the sRNA transcriptome of four different stages in the differentiation of Giardia lamblia, one of the most primitive eukaryotes. We identified a large number of endo-siRNAs in this fascinating parasitic protozoan and found that they were produced from live telomeric retrotransposons and three genomic regions (i.e., endo-siRNA generating regions [eSGRs]). eSGR-derived endo-siRNAs were proven to target mRNAs in trans. Gradual up-regulation of endo-siRNAs in the differentiation of Giardia suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of this process. This hypothesis was supported by the impairment of the differentiation ability of Giardia when GLDICER, essential for the biogenesis of endo-siRNAs, was knocked down. Endo-siRNAs are not the only sRNA regulators in Giardia differentiation, because a great number of tRNAs-derived sRNAs showed more dramatic expression changes than endo-siRNAs in this process. We totally identified five novel kinds of tRNAs-derived sRNAs and found that the biogenesis in four of them might be correlated with that of stress-induced tRNA-derived RNA (sitRNA), which was discovered in our previous studies. Our studies reveal an unexpected complex panorama of sRNA in G. lamblia and shed light on the origin and functional evolution of eukaryotic sRNAs. PMID:25225396
Liao, Jian-You; Guo, Yan-Hua; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Li, Yan; Xu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Yu-Chan; Zhou, Hui; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Ayala, Francisco J; Qu, Liang-Hu
Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), regulate most important biologic processes in eukaryotes, such as cell division and differentiation. Although sRNAs have been extensively studied in various eukaryotes, the role of sRNAs in the early emergence of eukaryotes is unclear. To address these questions, we deep sequenced the sRNA transcriptome of four different stages in the differentiation of Giardia lamblia, one of the most primitive eukaryotes. We identified a large number of endo-siRNAs in this fascinating parasitic protozoan and found that they were produced from live telomeric retrotransposons and three genomic regions (i.e., endo-siRNA generating regions [eSGRs]). eSGR-derived endo-siRNAs were proven to target mRNAs in trans. Gradual up-regulation of endo-siRNAs in the differentiation of Giardia suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of this process. This hypothesis was supported by the impairment of the differentiation ability of Giardia when GLDICER, essential for the biogenesis of endo-siRNAs, was knocked down. Endo-siRNAs are not the only sRNA regulators in Giardia differentiation, because a great number of tRNAs-derived sRNAs showed more dramatic expression changes than endo-siRNAs in this process. We totally identified five novel kinds of tRNAs-derived sRNAs and found that the biogenesis in four of them might be correlated with that of stress-induced tRNA-derived RNA (sitRNA), which was discovered in our previous studies. Our studies reveal an unexpected complex panorama of sRNA in G. lamblia and shed light on the origin and functional evolution of eukaryotic sRNAs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs play key roles in plant development, growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. At least four classes of sRNAs have been well characterized in plants, including repeat-associated siRNAs (rasiRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs and natural antisense transcript-derived siRNAs. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata is one of the most important coniferous evergreen tree species in China. No sRNA from Chinese fir has been described to date. Results To obtain sRNAs in Chinese fir, we sequenced a sRNA library generated from seeds, seedlings, leaves, stems and calli, using Illumina high throughput sequencing technology. A comprehensive set of sRNAs were acquired, including conserved and novel miRNAs, rasiRNAs and tasiRNAs. With BLASTN and MIREAP we identified a total of 115 conserved miRNAs comprising 40 miRNA families and one novel miRNA with precursor sequence. The expressions of 16 conserved and one novel miRNAs and one tasiRNA were detected by RT-PCR. Utilizing real time RT-PCR, we revealed that four conserved and one novel miRNAs displayed developmental stage-specific expression patterns in Chinese fir. In addition, 209 unigenes were predicted to be targets of 30 Chinese fir miRNA families, of which five target genes were experimentally verified by 5' RACE, including a squamosa promoter-binding protein gene, a pentatricopeptide (PPR repeat-containing protein gene, a BolA-like family protein gene, AGO1 and a gene of unknown function. We also demonstrated that the DCL3-dependent rasiRNA biogenesis pathway, which had been considered absent in conifers, existed in Chinese fir. Furthermore, the miR390-TAS3-ARF regulatory pathway was elucidated. Conclusions We unveiled a complex population of sRNAs in Chinese fir through high throughput sequencing. This provides an insight into the composition and function of sRNAs in Chinese fir and sheds new light on land plant sRNA evolution.
Ryvkin, Paul; Leung, Yuk Yee; Ungar, Lyle H; Gregory, Brian D; Wang, Li-San
Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing allow researchers to examine the transcriptome in more detail than ever before. Using a method known as high-throughput small RNA-sequencing, we can now profile the expression of small regulatory RNAs such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with a great deal of sensitivity. However, there are many other types of small RNAs (small nucleolar RNAs), snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs), scRNAs (small cytoplasmic RNAs), tRNAs (transfer RNAs), and transposon-derived RNAs. Here, we present a user's guide for CoRAL (Classification of RNAs by Analysis of Length), a computational method for discriminating between different classes of RNA using high-throughput small RNA-sequencing data. Not only can CoRAL distinguish between RNA classes with high accuracy, but it also uses features that are relevant to small RNA biogenesis pathways. By doing so, CoRAL can give biologists a glimpse into the characteristics of different RNA processing pathways and how these might differ between tissue types, biological conditions, or even different species. CoRAL is available at http://wanglab.pcbi.upenn.edu/coral/. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The term RNA silencing (RNA interference, RNAi describes a set of mechanisms that regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Small interfering RNAs (siRNA and microRNAs (miRNAs are two major types of RNAi-associated small RNAs (smRNAs found in most eukaryotic organisms. Despite the presence of a plethora of non-coding RNAs longer than 50-nucleotide (nt in length in various species of Archaea, little is known about smRNAs in archaea that resemble the 20-24-nt long smRNAs found in eukaryotes, which have been implicated in the post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Here, we report the finding of a large number of smRNAs approximatelly 20-nt in length, including phased smRNAs and potential miRNAs, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus p2 (Ssp2 based on deep sequencing. The expression of some of the miRNA candidates in Ssp2 was confirmed. Consistent with the Ssp2 hyperthermophilic properties, we found that higher temperatures more efficiently induced the production of the miRNA candidates in an in vitro system using the putative foldback precursor transcripts incubated with Ssp2 extract. Although we initially predicted putative target genes of some miRNA candidates, further analysis mapped the cleavage sites downstream of the miRNA candidate complementary regions, similar to those involved in plant miRNA-mediated TAS transcript cleavage. We also identified smRNAs from clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR loci, which play important roles in prokaryotic microbial defense systems. Archaea represent a unique life form next to Bacteria and Eukarya, and our results may provide a useful resource for further in-depth study on the regulation and evolution of smRNAs in this special organism.
Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.
Schopman, Nick C. T.; Willemsen, Marcel; Liu, Ying Poi; Bradley, Ted; van Kampen, Antoine; Baas, Frank; Berkhout, Ben; Haasnoot, Joost
Small virus-derived interfering RNAs (viRNAs) play an important role in antiviral defence in plants, insects and nematodes by triggering the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The role of RNAi as an antiviral defence mechanism in mammalian cells has been obscure due to the lack of viRNA detection.
Althaus Claudia F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The various classes of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs are important regulators of gene expression across divergent types of organisms. While a rapidly increasing number of sncRNAs has been identified over recent years, the isolation of sncRNAs of low abundance remains challenging. Virally encoded sncRNAs, particularly those of RNA viruses, can be expressed at very low levels. This is best illustrated by HIV-1 where virus encoded sncRNAs represent approximately 0.1-1.0% of all sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected cells or were found to be undetected. Thus, we applied a novel, sequence targeted enrichment strategy to capture HIV-1 derived sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes and macrophages that allows a greater than 100-fold enrichment of low abundant sncRNAs. Results Eight hundred and ninety-two individual HIV-1 sncRNAs were cloned and sequenced from nine different sncRNA libraries derived from five independent experiments. These clones represent up to 90% of all sncRNA clones in the generated libraries. Two hundred and sixteen HIV-1 sncRNAs were distinguishable as unique clones. They are spread throughout the HIV-1 genome, however, forming certain clusters, and almost 10% show an antisense orientation. The length of HIV-1 sncRNAs varies between 16 and 89 nucleotides with an unexpected peak at 31 to 50 nucleotides, thus, longer than cellular microRNAs or short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs. Exemplary HIV-1 sncRNAs were also generated in cells infected with different primary HIV-1 isolates and can inhibit HIV-1 replication. Conclusions HIV-1 infected cells generate virally encoded sncRNAs, which might play a role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Furthermore, the enormous capacity to enrich low abundance sncRNAs in a sequence specific manner highly recommends our selection strategy for any type of investigation where origin or target sequences of the sought-after sncRNAs are known.
de Folter Stefan
Full Text Available Abstract Background Small RNAs emerged over the last decade as key regulators in diverse biological processes in eukaryotic organisms. To identify and study small RNAs, good and efficient protocols are necessary to isolate them, which sometimes may be challenging due to the composition of specific tissues of certain plant species. Here we describe a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species. Results We developed a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species by first comparing different total RNA extraction protocols, followed by streamlining the best one, finally resulting in a small RNA extraction method that has no need of first total RNA extraction and is not based on the commercially available TRIzol® Reagent or columns. This small RNA extraction method not only works well for plant tissues with high polysaccharide content, like cactus, agave, banana, and tomato, but also for plant species like Arabidopsis or tobacco. Furthermore, the obtained small RNA samples were successfully used in northern blot assays. Conclusion Here we provide a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species, such as cactus, agave, banana, tomato, Arabidopsis, and tobacco, and the small RNAs from this simplified and low cost method is suitable for downstream handling like northern blot assays.
Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Durán-Figueroa, Noé; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; de Folter, Stefan
Small RNAs emerged over the last decade as key regulators in diverse biological processes in eukaryotic organisms. To identify and study small RNAs, good and efficient protocols are necessary to isolate them, which sometimes may be challenging due to the composition of specific tissues of certain plant species. Here we describe a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species. We developed a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species by first comparing different total RNA extraction protocols, followed by streamlining the best one, finally resulting in a small RNA extraction method that has no need of first total RNA extraction and is not based on the commercially available TRIzol® Reagent or columns. This small RNA extraction method not only works well for plant tissues with high polysaccharide content, like cactus, agave, banana, and tomato, but also for plant species like Arabidopsis or tobacco. Furthermore, the obtained small RNA samples were successfully used in northern blot assays. Here we provide a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species, such as cactus, agave, banana, tomato, Arabidopsis, and tobacco, and the small RNAs from this simplified and low cost method is suitable for downstream handling like northern blot assays.
Full Text Available Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs constitute an important class of gene expression regulators that control different biological processes in most eukaryotes. In plants, several small RNA silencing pathways have evolved to produce a wide range of small RNAs (sRNAs with specialized functions. Evidence for the diverse mode of action of the small RNA pathways has been highlighted during plant-microbe interactions. Host sRNAs and small RNA silencing pathways have been recognized as essential components of plant immunity. One way plants respond and defend against pathogen infections is through the small RNA silencing immune system. To deal with plant defense responses, pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid and counterattack this defense strategy. The relevance of the small RNA-mediated plant defense responses during viral infections has been well established. Recent evidence points out its importance also during plant-bacteria interactions. Herein, this review discusses recent findings, similarities and differences about the small RNA-mediated arms race between plants and these two groups of microbes, including the small RNA silencing pathway components that contribute to plant immune responses, the pathogen-responsive endogenous sRNAs and the pathogen-delivered effector proteins.
Sheehan, Lauren M; Caswell, Clayton C
The AbcR small RNAs (sRNAs) are a fascinating example of two highly conserved sRNAs that differ tremendously at the functional level among organisms. From their transcriptional activation to their regulatory capabilities, the AbcR sRNAs exhibit varying characteristics in three well-studied bacteria belonging to the Rhizobiales order: the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the animal pathogen Brucella abortus. This review outlines the similarities and differences of the AbcR sRNAs between each of these organisms, and discusses reasons as to why this group of sRNAs has diverged in their genetic organization and regulatory functions across species. In the end, this review will shed light on how regulatory systems, although seemingly conserved among bacteria, can vary based on the environmental niche and lifestyle of an organism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Farra, Rossella; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant form of primary liver cancer and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current available therapeutic approaches are poorly effective, especially for the advanced forms of the disease. In the last year, short double stranded RNA molecules termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro interfering RNAs (miRNA), emerged as interesting molecules with potential therapeutic value for HCC. The practical use of these molecules is however limited by the identification of optimal molecular targets and especially by the lack of effective and targeted HCC delivery systems. Here we focus our discussion on the most recent advances in the identification of siRNAs/miRNAs molecular targets and on the development of suitable siRNA/miRNAs delivery systems.
Platini, Thierry; Kulkarni, Rahul V
Regulatory genes called small RNAs (sRNAs) are known to play critical roles in cellular responses to changing environments. For several sRNAs, regulation is effected by coupled stoichiometric degradation with messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The nonlinearity inherent in this regulatory scheme indicates that exact analytical solutions for the corresponding stochastic models are intractable. Here, we present a variational approach to analyze a well-studied stochastic model for regulation by sRNAs via coupled degradation. The proposed approach is efficient and provides accurate estimates of mean mRNA levels as well as higher order terms. Results from the variational ansatz are in excellent agreement with data from stochastic simulations for a wide range of parameters, including regions of parameter space where mean-field approaches break down. The proposed approach can be applied to quantitatively model stochastic gene expression in complex regulatory networks.
Hu, Hongtao; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Singh, Narendra K.; Weaver, David B.; Goertzen, Leslie R.; Singh, Shree R.; Locy, Robert D.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and secondary small interfering RNAs (principally phased siRNAs or trans-acting siRNAs) are two distinct subfamilies of small RNAs (sRNAs) that are emerging as key regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression in plants. Both miRNAs and secondary-siRNAs (sec-siRNAs) are processed from longer RNA precursors by DICER-LIKE proteins (DCLs). Gossypium arboreum L., also known as tree cotton or Asian cotton, is a diploid, possibly ancestral relative of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., the predominant type of commercially grown cotton worldwide known as upland cotton. To understand the biological significance of these gene regulators in G. arboreum, a bioinformatics analysis was performed on G. arboreum small RNAs produced from G. arboreum leaf, flower, and boll tissues. Consequently, 263 miRNAs derived from 353 precursors, including 155 conserved miRNAs (cs-miRNAs) and 108 novel lineage-specific miRNAs (ls-miRNAs). Along with miRNAs, 2,033 miRNA variants (isomiRNAs) were identified as well. Those isomiRNAs with variation at the 3’-miRNA end were expressed at the highest levels, compared to other types of variants. In addition, 755 pha-siRNAs derived 319 pha-siRNA gene transcripts (PGTs) were identified, and the potential pha-siRNA initiators were predicted. Also, 2,251 non-phased siRNAs were found as well, of which 1,088 appeared to be produced by so-called cis- or trans-cleavage of the PGTs observed at positions differing from pha-siRNAs. Of those sRNAs, 148 miRNAs/isomiRNAs and 274 phased/non-phased siRNAs were differentially expressed in one or more pairs of tissues examined. Target analysis revealed that target genes for both miRNAs and pha-siRNAs are involved a broad range of metabolic and enzymatic activities. We demonstrate that secondary siRNA production could result from initial cleavage of precursors by both miRNAs or isomiRNAs, and that subsequently produced phased and unphased siRNAs could result that also serve as triggers of a
Gu, Yong Q; Ma, Yaqin; Huo, Naxin; Vogel, John P; You, Frank M; Lazo, Gerard R; Nelson, William M; Soderlund, Carol; Dvorak, Jan; Anderson, Olin D; Luo, Ming-Cheng
Background Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has been recognized as a new model species for comparative and functional genomics of cereal and bioenergy crops because it possesses many biological attributes desirable in a model, such as a small genome size, short stature, self-pollinating habit, and short generation cycle. To maximize the utility of Brachypodium as a model for basic and applied research it is necessary to develop genomic resources for it. A BAC-based physical map is one of them. A physical map will facilitate analysis of genome structure, comparative genomics, and assembly of the entire genome sequence. Results A total of 67,151 Brachypodium BAC clones were fingerprinted with the SNaPshot HICF fingerprinting method and a genome-wide physical map of the Brachypodium genome was constructed. The map consisted of 671 contigs and 2,161 clones remained as singletons. The contigs and singletons spanned 414 Mb. A total of 13,970 gene-related sequences were detected in the BAC end sequences (BES). These gene tags aligned 345 contigs with 336 Mb of rice genome sequence, showing that Brachypodium and rice genomes are generally highly colinear. Divergent regions were mainly in the rice centromeric regions. A dot-plot of Brachypodium contigs against the rice genome sequences revealed remnants of the whole-genome duplication caused by paleotetraploidy, which were previously found in rice and sorghum. Brachypodium contigs were anchored to the wheat deletion bin maps with the BES gene-tags, opening the door to Brachypodium-Triticeae comparative genomics. Conclusion The construction of the Brachypodium physical map, and its comparison with the rice genome sequence demonstrated the utility of the SNaPshot-HICF method in the construction of BAC-based physical maps. The map represents an important genomic resource for the completion of Brachypodium genome sequence and grass comparative genomics. A draft of the physical map and its comparisons with rice and wheat
Bloch, Sylwia; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena
Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified in the wide range of bacteria (also pathogenic species) and found to play an important role in the regulation of many processes, including toxin gene expression. The best characterized prokaryotic sRNAs regulate gene expression by base pairing with mRNA targets and fall into two broad classes: cis-encoded sRNAs (also called antisense RNA) and trans-acting sRNAs. Molecules from the second class are frequently considered as the most related to eukaryotic microRNAs. Interestingly, typical microRNA-size RNA molecules have also been reported in prokaryotic cells, although they have received little attention up to now. In this work we have collected information about all three types of small prokaryotic RNAs in the context of the regulation of toxin gene expression. PMID:28556797
Bloch, Sylwia; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena
Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified in the wide range of bacteria (also pathogenic species) and found to play an important role in the regulation of many processes, including toxin gene expression. The best characterized prokaryotic sRNAs regulate gene expression by base pairing with mRNA targets and fall into two broad classes: cis -encoded sRNAs (also called antisense RNA) and trans -acting sRNAs. Molecules from the second class are frequently considered as the most related to eukaryotic microRNAs. Interestingly, typical microRNA-size RNA molecules have also been reported in prokaryotic cells, although they have received little attention up to now. In this work we have collected information about all three types of small prokaryotic RNAs in the context of the regulation of toxin gene expression.
Fei, Qili; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Rui; Meyers, Blake C
Plant small RNAs play important roles in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, with ongoing work demonstrating their functions in diverse pathways. Their roles in defense responses are a topic of active investigation, particularly the rich set of micro (mi)RNAs that target disease resistance genes such as nucleotide binding/leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) genes. The miRNA-NB-LRR interactions result in the production of phased, secondary small interfering (phasi)RNAs, and phasiRNAs function in both cis and trans to propagate negative regulatory effects across additional members of the target gene family. Yet, while phasiRNAs have the capacity to trigger targeted decay of specific targets, both in cis and trans, their functional relevance in NB-LRR regulation remains largely a matter of speculation.
Full Text Available Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, are important regulators of plant development and gene expression. The acquisition of high-quality small RNAs is the first step in the study of its expression and function analysis, yet the extraction method of small RNAs in recalcitrant plant tissues with various secondary metabolites is not well established, especially for tropical and subtropical plant species rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols. Here, we developed a simple and efficient method for high quality small RNAs extraction from recalcitrant plant species. Prior to RNA isolation, a precursory step with a CTAB-PVPP buffer system could efficiently remove compounds and secondary metabolites interfering with RNAs from homogenized lysates. Then, total RNAs were extracted by Trizol reagents followed by a differential precipitation of high-molecular-weight (HMW RNAs using polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000. Finally, small RNAs could be easily recovered from supernatant by ethanol precipitation without extra elimination steps. The isolated small RNAs from papaya showed high quality through a clear background on gel and a distinct northern blotting signal with miR159a probe, compared with other published protocols. Additionally, the small RNAs extracted from papaya were successfully used for validation of both predicted miRNAs and the putative conserved tasiARFs. Furthermore, the extraction method described here was also tested with several other subtropical and tropical plant tissues. The purity of the isolated small RNAs was sufficient for such applications as end-point stem-loop RT-PCR and northern blotting analysis, respectively. The simple and feasible extraction method reported here is expected to have excellent potential for isolation of small RNAs from recalcitrant plant tissues rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides.
Skippington, Elizabeth; Ragan, Mark A.
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are widespread in bacteria and play critical roles in regulating physiological processes. They are best characterized in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, where 83 sRNAs constitute nearly 2% of the gene complement. Most sRNAs act by base pairing with a target mRNA, modulating its translation and/or stability; many of these RNAs share only limited complementarity to their mRNA target, and require the chaperone Hfq to facilitate base pairing. Little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of bacterial sRNAs. Here, we apply phylogenetic and network analyses to investigate the evolutionary processes and principles that govern sRNA gene distribution in 27 E. coli and Shigella genomes. We identify core (encoded in all 27 genomes) and variable sRNAs; more than two-thirds of the E. coli K-12 MG1655 sRNAs are core, whereas the others show patterns of presence and absence that are principally due to genetic loss, not duplication or lateral genetic transfer. We present evidence that variable sRNAs are less tightly integrated into cellular genetic regulatory networks than are the core sRNAs, and that Hfq facilitates posttranscriptional cross talk between the E. coli–Shigella core and variable genomes. Finally, we present evidence that more than 80% of genes targeted by Hfq-associated core sRNAs have been transferred within the E. coli–Shigella clade, and that most of these genes have been transferred intact. These results suggest that Hfq and sRNAs help integrate laterally acquired genes into established regulatory networks. PMID:22223756
Full Text Available The discovery of small noncoding regulatory RNAs (sRNAs in bacteria has grown tremendously recently, giving new insights into gene regulation. The implementation of computational analysis and RNA sequencing has provided new tools to discover and analyze potential sRNAs. Small regulatory RNAs that act by base-pairing to target mRNAs have been found to be ubiquitous and are the most abundant class of post-transcriptional regulators in bacteria. The majority of sRNA studies has been limited to E. coli and other gram-negative bacteria. However, examples of sRNAs in gram-positive bacteria are still plentiful although the detailed gene regulation mechanisms behind them are not as well understood. Strict virulence control is critical for a pathogen’s survival and many sRNAs have been found to be involved in that process. This review outlines the targets and currently known mechanisms of trans-acting sRNAs involved in virulence regulation in various gram-positive pathogens. In addition, their shared characteristics such as CU interaction motifs, the role of Hfq, and involvement in two-component regulators, riboswitches, quorum sensing, or toxin/antitoxin systems are described.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite with a significant impact on human health. Inside the mammalian and avian hosts, the parasite can undergo rapid development or remain inactive in the cysts. The mechanism that regulates parasite proliferation has not been fully understood. Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA such as microRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous regulatory factors that can modulate cell differentiation and development. It is anticipated that hundreds of miRNAs regulate the expression of thousands of genes in a single organism. SncRNAs have been identified in T. gondii, however the profiles of sncRNAs expression and their potential regulatory function in parasites of distinct genotypes has largely been unknown. Methods The transcription profiles of miRNAs in the two genetically distinct strains, RH and ME49, of T. gondii were investigated and compared by a high-through-put RNA sequencing technique and systematic bioinformatics analysis. The expression of some of the miRNAs was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Results 1,083,320 unique sequences were obtained. Of which, 17 conserved miRNAs related to 2 metazoan miRNA families and 339 novel miRNAs were identified. A total of 175 miRNAs showed strain-specific expression, of which 155 miRNAs were up-regulated in RH strain and 20 miRNAs were up-regulated in ME49 strain. Strain-specific expression of miRNAs in T. gondii could be due to activation of specific genes at different genomic loci or due to arm-switching of the same pre-miRNA duplex. Conclusions Evidence for the differential expression of miRNAs in the two genetically distinct strains of T. gondii has been identified and defined. MiRNAs of T. gondii are more species-specific as compared to other organisms, which can be developed as diagnostic biomarkers for toxoplasmosis. The data also provide a framework for future studies on RNAi-dependent regulatory mechanisms in the zoonotic parasite.
Howe, J G; Shu, M D
Genes for the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs), two low-molecular-weight RNAs encoded by the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hybridize to two small RNAs in a baboon cell line that contains a similar virus, herpesvirus papio (HVP). The genes for the HVP RNAs (HVP-1 and HVP-2) are located together in the small unique region at the left end of the viral genome and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III in a rightward direction, similar to the EBERs. There is significant si...
Su, Xiu; Fu, Shuai; Qian, Yajuan; Xu, Yi; Zhou, Xueping
The advent of next generation sequencing technology has allowed for significant advances in plant virus discovery, particularly for identification of covert viruses and previously undescribed viruses. The Citrus limon Burm. f. (C. limon) is a small evergreen tree native to Asia, and . China is the world's top lemon-producing nation. In this work, lemon samples were collected from southwestern of China, where an unknown disease outbreak had caused huge losses in the lemon production industry. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing and the assembly of small RNAs, we showed that the Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) was present in C. limon leaf sample. The majority of it is a main lemon producing agricultural cultivarHop stunt viroid derived siRNAs (HSVd-siRNAs) in C. limon were 21 nucleotides in length, and nearly equal amount of HSVd-siRNAs originated from the plus-genomic RNA strand as from the complementary strand. A bias of HSVd-siRNAs toward sequences beginning with a 5'-Guanine was observed. Furthermore, hotspot analysis showed that a large amount of HSVd-siRNAs derived from the central and variant domains of the HSVd genome. Our results suggest that C. limon could set up a small RNA-mediated gene silencing response to Hop stunt viroid, Interestingly, based on bioinformatics analysis, our results also suggest that the large amounts of HSVd-siRNAs from central and variant domains might be involved in interference with host gene expression and affect symptom development.
Mikkelsen Jacob G
Full Text Available Abstract Intercellular signaling by cytokines is a vital feature of the innate immune system. In skin, an inflammatory response is mediated by cytokines and an entwined network of cellular communication between T-cells and epidermal keratinocytes. Dysregulated cytokine production, orchestrated by activated T-cells homing to the skin, is believed to be the main cause of psoriasis, a common inflammatory skin disorder. Cytokines are heavily regulated at the transcriptional level, but emerging evidence suggests that regulatory mechanisms that operate after transcription play a key role in balancing the production of cytokines. Herein, we review the nature of cytokine signaling in psoriasis with particular emphasis on regulation by mRNA destabilizing elements and the potential targeting of cytokine-encoding mRNAs by miRNAs. The proposed linkage between mRNA decay mediated by AU-rich elements and miRNA association is described and discussed as a possible general feature of cytokine regulation in skin. Moreover, we describe the latest attempts to therapeutically target cytokines at the RNA level in psoriasis by exploiting the cellular RNA interference machinery. The applicability of cytokine-encoding mRNAs as future clinical drug targets is evaluated, and advances and obstacles related to topical administration of RNA-based drugs targeting the cytokine circuit in psoriasis are described.
Gómez Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Molin, Søren
Bacterial small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) function in post‐transcriptional control of gene expression and control a variety of processes including metabolic reactions, stress responses and pathogenesis in response to environmental signals. A variety of approaches have been used previously to identify...... 44 sRNAs in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, RNA sequencing (RNA‐seq) is used to identify novel transcripts in P. aeruginosa involving a combination of three different sequencing libraries. Almost all known sRNAs and over 500 novel intergenic sRNAs are identified...... with this approach. Although the use of three libraries increased the number of novel transcripts identified, there were significant differences in the subset of transcripts detected in each library, underscoring the importance of library preparation strategy and relative sRNA abundance for successful sRNA detection...
Daugaard, Iben; Venø, Morten T; Yan, Yan
The majority of lung cancer deaths are caused by metastatic disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression and miRNA dysregulation can contribute to metastatic progression. Here, small RNA sequencing was used to profile the miRNA and piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA......) transcriptomes in relation to lung cancer metastasis. RNA-seq was performed using RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) lung adenocarcinomas (LAC) and brain metastases from 8 patients, and LACs from 8 patients without detectable metastatic disease. Impact on miRNA and piRNA transcriptomes...... was subtle with 9 miRNAs and 8 piRNAs demonstrating differential expression between metastasizing and non-metastasizing LACs. For piRNAs, decreased expression of piR-57125 was the most significantly associated with distant metastasis. Validation by RT-qPCR in a LAC cohort comprising 52 patients confirmed...
Full Text Available The interplay of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins has been shown to play crucial roles in almost all cellular processes. As key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, the mechanisms and roles of sRNAs in various cellular processes still need to be fully understood. When participating in cellular processes, sRNAs mainly mediate mRNA degradation or translational repression. Here, we show how the dynamics of two minimal architectures is drastically affected by these two mechanisms. A comparison is also given to reveal the implication of the fundamental differences. This study may help us to analyze complex networks assembled by simple modules more easily. A better knowledge of the sRNA-mediated motifs is also of interest for bio-engineering and artificial control.
Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs are a growing class of non-protein-coding transcripts that participate in the regulation of virtually every aspect of bacterial physiology. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic organisms that exhibit multicellular behaviour and developmental alternatives involving specific transcriptomes exclusive of a given physiological condition or even a cell type. In the context of our ongoing effort to understand developmental decisions in these organisms we have undertaken an approach to the global identification of sRNAs. Using differential RNA-Seq we have previously identified transcriptional start sites for the model heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Here we combine this dataset with a prediction of Rho-independent transcriptional terminators and an analysis of phylogenetic conservation of potential sRNAs among 89 available cyanobacterial genomes. In contrast to predictive genome-wide approaches, the use of an experimental dataset comprising all active transcriptional start sites (differential RNA-Seq facilitates the identification of bona fide sRNAs. The output of our approach is a dataset of predicted potential sRNAs in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, with different degrees of phylogenetic conservation across the 89 cyanobacterial genomes analyzed. Previously described sRNAs appear among the predicted sRNAs, demonstrating the performance of the algorithm. In addition, new predicted sRNAs are now identified that can be involved in regulation of different aspects of cyanobacterial physiology, including adaptation to nitrogen stress, the condition that triggers differentiation of heterocysts (specialized nitrogen-fixing cells. Transcription of several predicted sRNAs that appear exclusively in the genomes of heterocystous cyanobacteria is experimentally verified by Northern blot. Cell-specific transcription of one of these sRNAs, NsiR8 (nitrogen stress-induced RNA 8, in developing heterocysts is also
Full Text Available RNAi (RNA interference relies on the production of small RNAs (sRNAs from double-stranded RNA and comprises a major pathway in eukaryotes to restrict the propagation of selfish genetic elements. Amplification of the initial RNAi signal by generation of multiple secondary sRNAs from a targeted mRNA is catalyzed by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs. This phenomenon is known as transitivity and is particularly important in plants to limit the spread of viruses. Here we describe, using a genome-wide approach, the distribution of sRNAs in the glaucophyte alga Cyanophora paradoxa. C. paradoxa is a member of the supergroup Plantae (also known as Archaeplastida that includes red algae, green algae, and plants. The ancient (>1 billion years ago split of glaucophytes within Plantae suggests that C. paradoxa may be a useful model to learn about the early evolution of RNAi in the supergroup that ultimately gave rise to plants. Using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses we find that sRNAs in C. paradoxa are preferentially associated with mRNAs, including a large number of transcripts that encode proteins arising from different functional categories. This pattern of exonic sRNAs appears to be a general trend that affects a large fraction of mRNAs in the cell. In several cases we observe that sRNAs have a bias for a specific strand of the mRNA, including many instances of antisense predominance. The genome of C. paradoxa encodes four sequences that are homologous to RdRPs in Arabidopsis thaliana. We discuss the possibility that exonic sRNAs in the glaucophyte may be secondarily derived from mRNAs by the action of RdRPs. If this hypothesis is confirmed, then transitivity may have had an ancient origin in Plantae.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants contain significant quantities of small RNAs (sRNAs derived from various sRNA biogenesis pathways. Many of these sRNAs play regulatory roles in plants. Previous analysis revealed that numerous sRNAs in corn, rice and soybean seeds have high sequence similarity to animal genes. However, exogenous RNA is considered to be unstable within the gastrointestinal tract of many animals, thus limiting potential for any adverse effects from consumption of dietary RNA. A recent paper reported that putative plant miRNAs were detected in animal plasma and serum, presumably acquired through ingestion, and may have a functional impact in the consuming organisms. Results To address the question of how common this phenomenon could be, we searched for plant miRNAs sequences in public sRNA datasets from various tissues of mammals, chicken and insects. Our analyses revealed that plant miRNAs were present in the animal sRNA datasets, and significantly miR168 was extremely over-represented. Furthermore, all or nearly all (>96% miR168 sequences were monocot derived for most datasets, including datasets for two insects reared on dicot plants in their respective experiments. To investigate if plant-derived miRNAs, including miR168, could accumulate and move systemically in insects, we conducted insect feeding studies for three insects including corn rootworm, which has been shown to be responsive to plant-produced long double-stranded RNAs. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that the observed plant miRNAs in animal sRNA datasets can originate in the process of sequencing, and that accumulation of plant miRNAs via dietary exposure is not universal in animals.
McCue, Andrea D; Nuthikattu, Saivageethi; Slotkin, R Keith
Transposable elements (TEs) are known to influence the regulation of neighboring genes through a variety of mechanisms. Additionally, it was recently discovered that TEs can regulate non-neighboring genes through the trans-acting nature of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). When the epigenetic repression of TEs is lost, TEs become transcriptionally active, and the host cell acts to repress mutagenic transposition by degrading TE mRNAs into siRNAs. In this study, we have performed a genome-wide analysis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and found that TE siRNA-based regulation of genic mRNAs is more pervasive than the two formerly characterized proof-of-principle examples. We identified 27 candidate genic mRNAs that do not contain a TE fragment but are regulated through partial complementarity by the accumulation of TE siRNAs and are therefore influenced by TE epigenetic activation. We have experimentally confirmed several gene targets and demonstrated that they respond to the accumulation of specific 21 nucleotide TE siRNAs that are incorporated into the Arabidopsis Argonaute1 protein. Additionally, we found that one TE siRNA specifically targets and inhibits the formation of a host protein that acts to repress TE activity, suggesting that TEs harbor and potentially evolutionarily select short sequences to act as suppressors of host TE repression. PMID:23863322
Morales, Lucía; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Fernandez-Delgado, Raúl; tenOever, Benjamin Robert; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes lethal disease in humans, which is characterized by exacerbated inflammatory response and extensive lung pathology. To address the relevance of small non-coding RNAs in SARS-CoV pathology, we deep sequenced RNAs from the lungs of infected mice and discovered three 18-22 nt small viral RNAs (svRNAs). The three svRNAs were derived from the nsp3 (svRNA-nsp3.1 and -nsp3.2) and N (svRNA-N) genomic regions of SARS-CoV. Biogenesis of CoV svRNAs was RNase III, cell type, and host species independent, but it was dependent on the extent of viral replication. Antagomir-mediated inhibition of svRNA-N significantly reduced in vivo lung pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Taken together, these data indicate that svRNAs contribute to SARS-CoV pathogenesis and highlight the potential of svRNA-N antagomirs as antivirals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Imbar, Tal; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio; Laufer, Neri
MicroRNAs constitute a large family of approximately 21-nucleotide-long, noncoding RNAs. They emerged more than 20 years ago as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The regulatory role of these small RNA molecules has recently begun to be explored in the human reproductive system. In this issue's Views and Reviews, the authors present the current knowledge regarding the involvement of microRNAs in several aspects of human reproduction and discuss its future implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Harper, Scott J; Leonard, Michael T; Triplett, Eric W; Shilts, Turksen
Superinfection exclusion (SIE), a phenomenon in which a preexisting viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been described for different viruses, including important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. Several mechanisms acting at various stages of the viral life cycle have been proposed to explain SIE. Most cases of SIE in plant virus systems were attributed to induction of RNA silencing, a host defense mechanism that is mediated by small RNAs. Here we show that SIE by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) does not correlate with the production of viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). CTV variants, which differed in the SIE ability, had similar siRNAs profiles. Along with our previous observations that the exclusion phenomenon requires a specific viral protein, p33, the new data suggest that SIE by CTV is highly complex and appears to use different mechanisms than those proposed for other viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Larashati, Sekar; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels
RNA interference is a mechanism for silencing specific genes. It has been applied in cell culture to inhibit expression of genes involved in disease including viral genes as recently shown for the fish pathogenic rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus or VHSV (Bohle et al., 2011). But evidence of specific siRNA inhibition in living fish is still needed. Using the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), messenger RNA (mRNA) can be targeted resulting in degradation of targeted transcript or ...
Tim A Dahlmann
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs that regulate gene expression in a wide range of eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed regulatory sRNAs in Penicillium chrysogenum, the industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin. To identify sRNAs and microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs on a global approach, two sRNA sequencing libraries were constructed. One library was created with pooled total RNA, obtained from twelve differently grown cultures (RNA Mix, and the other with total RNA from a single submerged cultivation (∆ku70FRT2. Illumina sequencing of both RNA libraries produced 84,322,825 mapped reads. To distinguish between Dicer-dependent and independent sRNA formation, we further constructed two single dicer gene mutants (∆dcl2 and ∆dcl1 and a dicer double mutant (∆dcl2∆dcl1 and analyzed an sRNA library from the Dicer-deficient double-mutant. We identified 661 Dicer-dependent loci and in silico prediction revealed 34 milRNAs. Northern blot hybridization of two milRNAs provided evidence for mature milRNAs that are processed either in a complete or partial Dicer-dependent manner from an RNA precursor. Identified milRNAs share typical characteristics of previously discovered fungal milRNAs, like a strong preference for a 5' uracil and the typical length distribution. The detection of potential milRNA target sites in the genome suggests that milRNAs might play a role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Our data will further increase our knowledge of sRNA dependent gene regulation processes, which is an important prerequisite to develop more effective strategies for improving industrial fermentations with P. chrysogenum.
Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Auer, Katharina; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Aust, Stefanie; Deycmar, Simon; Reiner, Agnes T; Polterauer, Stephan; Dekan, Sabine; Pils, Dietmar
High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is among the most deadly malignancies in women, frequently involving peritoneal tumor spread. Understanding molecular mechanisms of peritoneal metastasis is essential to develop urgently needed targeted therapies. We described two peritoneal tumor spread types in HGSOC apparent during surgery: miliary (numerous millet-sized implants) and non-miliary (few big, bulky implants). The former one is defined by a more epithelial-like tumor cell characteristic with less immune cell reactivity and with significant worse prognosis, even if corrected for typical clinicopathologic factors.23 HGSOC patients were enrolled in this study. Isolated tumor cells from fresh tumor tissues of ovarian and peritoneal origin and from ascites were used for ribosomal RNA depleted RNA and small RNA sequencing. RT-qPCR was used to validate results and an independent cohort of 32 patients to validate the impact on survival. Large and small RNA sequencing data were integrated and a new gene-miRNA set analysis method was developed.Thousands of new small RNAs (miRNAs and piwi-interacting RNAs) were predicted and a 13 small RNA signature was developed to predict spread type from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Furthermore, integrative analyses of RNA sequencing and small RNA sequencing data revealed a global upregulation of the competing endogenous RNA network in tumor tissues of non-miliary compared to miliary spread, i.e. higher expression of circular RNAs and long non-coding RNAs compared to coding RNAs but unchanged abundance of small RNAs. This global deregulated expression pattern could be co-responsible for the spread characteristic, miliary or non-miliary, in ovarian cancer.
Hoeppner Marc P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Small nucleolar (snoRNAs are required for posttranscriptional processing and modification of ribosomal, spliceosomal and messenger RNAs. Their presence in both eukaryotes and archaea indicates that snoRNAs are evolutionarily ancient. The location of some snoRNAs within the introns of ribosomal protein genes has been suggested to belie an RNA world origin, with the exons of the earliest protein-coding genes having evolved around snoRNAs after the advent of templated protein synthesis. Alternatively, this intronic location may reflect more recent selection for coexpression of snoRNAs and ribosomal components, ensuring rRNA modification by snoRNAs during ribosome synthesis. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins of this genetic organization, we examined the antiquity of snoRNA families and the stability of their genomic location across 44 eukaryote genomes. Results We report that dozens of snoRNA families are traceable to the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA, but find only weak similarities between the oldest eukaryotic snoRNAs and archaeal snoRNA-like genes. Moreover, many of these LECA snoRNAs are located within the introns of host genes independently traceable to the LECA. Comparative genomic analyses reveal the intronic location of LECA snoRNAs is not ancestral however, suggesting the pattern we observe is the result of ongoing intragenomic mobility. Analysis of human transcriptome data indicates that the primary requirement for hosting intronic snoRNAs is a broad expression profile. Consistent with ongoing mobility across broadly-expressed genes, we report a case of recent migration of a non-LECA snoRNA from the intron of a ubiquitously expressed non-LECA host gene into the introns of two LECA genes during the evolution of primates. Conclusions Our analyses show that snoRNAs were a well-established family of RNAs at the time when eukaryotes began to diversify. While many are intronic, this association is not
Hackenberg, Michael; Shi, Bu-Jun; Gustafson, Perry; Langridge, Peter
Transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and other functional non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are important gene regulators. Comparison of sRNA expression profiles between transgenic barley over-expressing a drought tolerant TF (TaDREB3) and non-transgenic control barley revealed many group-specific sRNAs. In addition, 42% of the shared sRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups (|log2| >1). Furthermore, TaDREB3-derived sRNAs were only detected in transgenic barley despite the existence of homologous genes in non-transgenic barley. These results demonstrate that the TF strongly affects the expression of sRNAs and siRNAs could in turn affect the TF stability. The TF also affects size distribution and abundance of sRNAs including miRNAs. About half of the sRNAs in each group were derived from chloroplast. A sRNA derived from tRNA-His(GUG) encoded by the chloroplast genome is the most abundant sRNA, accounting for 42.2% of the total sRNAs in transgenic barley and 28.9% in non-transgenic barley. This sRNA, which targets a gene (TC245676) involved in biological processes, was only present in barley leaves but not roots. 124 and 136 miRNAs were detected in transgenic and non-transgenic barley, respectively. miR156 was the most abundant miRNA and up-regulated in transgenic barley, while miR168 was the most abundant miRNA and up-regulated in non-transgenic barley. Eight out of 20 predicted novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups. All the predicted novel miRNA targets were validated using a degradome library. Our data provide an insight into the effect of TF on the expression of sRNAs in barley. PMID:22870277
Quintana, Juan F; Makepeace, Benjamin L; Babayan, Simon A; Ivens, Alasdair; Pfarr, Kenneth M; Blaxter, Mark; Debrah, Alexander; Wanji, Samuel; Ngangyung, Henrietta F; Bah, Germanus S; Tanya, Vincent N; Taylor, David W; Hoerauf, Achim; Buck, Amy H
microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short, non-coding RNA can be found in a highly stable, cell-free form in mammalian body fluids. Specific miRNAs are secreted by parasitic nematodes in exosomes and have been detected in the serum of murine and dog hosts infected with the filarial nematodes Litomosoides sigmodontis and Dirofilaria immitis, respectively. Here we identify extracellular, parasite-derived small RNAs associated with Onchocerca species infecting cattle and humans. Small RNA libraries were prepared from total RNA extracted from the nodule fluid of cattle infected with Onchocerca ochengi as well as serum and plasma from humans infected with Onchocerca volvulus in Cameroon and Ghana. Parasite-derived miRNAs were identified based on the criteria that sequences unambiguously map to hairpin structures in Onchocerca genomes, do not align to the human genome and are not present in European control serum. A total of 62 mature miRNAs from 52 distinct pre-miRNA candidates were identified in nodule fluid from cattle infected with O. ochengi of which 59 are identical in the genome of the human parasite O. volvulus. Six of the extracellular miRNAs were also identified in sequencing analyses of serum and plasma from humans infected with O. volvulus. Based on sequencing analysis the abundance levels of the parasite miRNAs in serum or plasma range from 5 to 127 reads/per million total host miRNA reads identified, comparable to our previous analyses of Schistosoma mansoni and L. sigmodontis miRNAs in serum. All six of the O. volvulus miRNAs identified have orthologs in other filarial nematodes and four were identified in the serum of mice infected with L. sigmodontis. We have identified parasite-derived miRNAs associated with onchocerciasis in cattle and humans. Our results confirm the conserved nature of RNA secretion by diverse nematodes. Additional species-specific small RNAs from O. volvulus may be present in serum based on the novel miRNA sequences identified in the
Smalheiser, Neil R; Lugli, Giovanni; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Cook, Edwin H; Larson, John
We previously proposed that endogenous siRNAs may regulate synaptic plasticity and long-term gene expression in the mammalian brain. Here, a hippocampal-dependent task was employed in which adult mice were trained to execute a nose-poke in a port containing one of two simultaneously present odors in order to obtain a reward. Mice demonstrating olfactory discrimination training were compared to pseudo-training and nose-poke control groups; size-selected hippocampal RNA was subjected to Illumina deep sequencing. Sequences that aligned uniquely and exactly to the genome without uncertain nucleotide assignments, within exons or introns of MGI annotated genes, were examined further. The data confirm that small RNAs having features of endogenous siRNAs are expressed in brain; that many of them derive from genes that regulate synaptic plasticity (and have been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases); and that hairpin-derived endo-siRNAs and the 20- to 23-nt size class of small RNAs show a significant increase during an early stage of training. The most abundant putative siRNAs arose from an intronic inverted repeat within the SynGAP1 locus; this inverted repeat was a substrate for dicer in vitro, and SynGAP1 siRNA was specifically associated with Argonaute proteins in vivo. Unexpectedly, a dramatic increase with training (more than 100-fold) was observed for a class of 25- to 30-nt small RNAs derived from specific sites within snoRNAs and abundant noncoding RNAs (Y1 RNA, RNA component of mitochondrial RNAse P, 28S rRNA, and 18S rRNA). Further studies are warranted to characterize the role(s) played by endogenous siRNAs and noncoding RNA-derived small RNAs in learning and memory.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding mRNA targets via sequence complementary inducing translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. A current challenge in the field of miRNA biology is to understand the functionality of miRNAs under physiopathological conditions. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression is more complex than simple regulation at the transcriptional level. MiRNAs undergo complex post-transcriptional regulations such miRNA processing, editing, accumulation and re-cycling within P-bodies. They are dynamically regulated and have a well-orchestrated spatiotemporal localization pattern. Real-time and spatio-temporal analyses of miRNA expression are difficult to evaluate and often underestimated. Therefore, important information connecting miRNA expression and function can be lost. Conventional miRNA profiling methods such as Northern blot, real-time PCR, microarray, in situ hybridization and deep sequencing continue to contribute to our knowledge of miRNA biology. However, these methods can seldom shed light on the spatiotemporal organization and function of miRNAs in real-time. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to address these issues and are thus attracting increasing attention. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of methods used to detect miRNAs and discusses their contribution in the emerging field of miRNA biology and therapy.
Full Text Available Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that induces a wide range of effects in its insect hosts, including manipulation of reproduction and protection against pathogens. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying the insect-Wolbachia interaction, though it is likely to be mediated via the secretion of proteins or other factors. There is an increasing amount of evidence that bacteria regulate many cellular processes, including secretion of virulence factors, using small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs, but sRNAs have not previously been described from Wolbachia. We have used two independent approaches, one based on comparative genomics and the other using RNA-Seq data generated for gene expression studies, to identify candidate sRNAs in Wolbachia. We experimentally characterized the expression of one of these candidates in four Wolbachia strains, and showed that it is differentially regulated in different host tissues and sexes. Given the roles played by sRNAs in other host-associated bacteria, the conservation of the candidate sRNAs between different Wolbachia strains, and the sex- and tissue-specific differential regulation we have identified, we hypothesise that sRNAs may play a significant role in the biology of Wolbachia, and in particular in its interactions with its host.
Schuster, Andrew; Skinner, Michael K; Yan, Wei
Exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin during gestation promotes a higher incidence of various diseases in the subsequent unexposed F3 and F4 generations. This phenomenon is termed epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and has been shown to in part involve alterations in DNA methylation, but the role of other epigenetic mechanisms remains unknown. The current study investigated the alterations in small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) in the sperm from F3 generation control and vinclozolin lineage rats. Over 200 differentially expressed sncRNAs were identified and the tRNA-derived sncRNAs, namely 5' halves of mature tRNAs (5' halves), displayed the most dramatic changes. Gene targets of the altered miRNAs and tRNA 5' halves revealed associations between the altered sncRNAs and differentially DNA methylated regions. Dysregulated sncRNAs appear to correlate with mRNA profiles associated with the previously observed vinclozolin-induced disease phenotypes. Data suggest potential connections between sperm-borne RNAs and the vinclozolin-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance phenomenon.
Full Text Available Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1, based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5' RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3'-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of amiRNAs
Tessier, L H; Keller, M; Chan, R L; Fournier, R; Weil, J H; Imbault, P
Very closely related short sequences are present at the 5' end of cytoplasmic mRNAs in Euglena as evidenced by comparison of cDNA sequences and hybrid-arrested translation experiments. By cloning Euglena gracilis nuclear DNA and isolating the rbcS gene (encoding the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), we have shown that the short leader sequence does not flank the nuclear gene sequence. The leader sequences were found to constitute the 5' extremities of a family of small RNAs. Sequencing six members of this family revealed a striking similarity to vertebrate U snRNAs. We propose that a trans-splicing mechanism transfers the spliced leader (SL) sequence from these small RNAs (SL RNAs) to pre-mature mRNAs. Transfer of leader sequences to mRNAs by trans-splicing has been shown only in trypanosomes where cis-splicing is unknown, and in nematodes where not more than 10% of the mRNAs have leader sequences. Our results strongly suggest that Euglena is a unique organism in which both a widespread trans-splicing and a cis-splicing mechanism co-exist. Images PMID:1868836
Larashati, Sekar; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels
RNA interference is a mechanism for silencing specific genes. It has been applied in cell culture to inhibit expression of genes involved in disease including viral genes as recently shown for the fish pathogenic rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus or VHSV (Bohle et al., 2011......). But evidence of specific siRNA inhibition in living fish is still needed. Using the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), messenger RNA (mRNA) can be targeted resulting in degradation of targeted transcript or translational repression. Reporter genes such as luciferase and green fluorescence protein (GFP) can...... be used to observe the knock down effect by siRNAs designed to target these reporters. One aim of this project is to verify the specific knock down effect of siRNAs in cell culture and in living fish and to establish easy-read out models for testing the effect especially in vivo. Cell culture from human...
Kröger, Carsten; Dillon, Shane C.; Cameron, Andrew D. S.
for Salmonella infection, but basic genetic information such as the global locations of transcription start sites (TSSs) has been lacking. We combined three RNA-sequencing techniques and two sequencing platforms to generate a robust picture of transcription in S. Typhimurium. Differential RNA sequencing...... expresses 140 small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) at early stationary phase, including 60 newly identified sRNAs. Almost half of the experimentally verified sRNAs were found to be unique to the Salmonella genus, and...... identified 1,873 TSSs on the chromosome of S. Typhimurium SL1344 and 13% of these TSSs initiated antisense transcripts. Unique findings include the TSSs of the virulence regulators phoP, slyA, and invF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that RNA polymerase was bound to 70% of the TSSs, and two...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Small bacterial RNAs (sRNAs have been shown to participate in the regulation of gene expression and have been identified in numerous prokaryotic species. Some of them are involved in the regulation of virulence in pathogenic bacteria. So far, little is known about sRNAs in Bordetella, and only very few sRNAs have been identified in the genome of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Results An in silico approach was used to predict sRNAs genes in intergenic regions of the B. pertussis genome. The genome sequences of B. pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella avium were compared using a Blast, and significant hits were analyzed using RNAz. Twenty-three candidate regions were obtained, including regions encoding the already documented 6S RNA, and the GCVT and FMN riboswitches. The existence of sRNAs was verified by Northern blot analyses, and transcripts were detected for 13 out of the 20 additional candidates. These new sRNAs were named Bordetella pertussis RNAs, bpr. The expression of 4 of them differed between the early, exponential and late growth phases, and one of them, bprJ2, was found to be under the control of BvgA/BvgS two-component regulatory system of Bordetella virulence. A phylogenetic study of the bprJ sequence revealed a novel, so far undocumented repeat of ~90 bp, found in numerous copies in the Bordetella genomes and in that of other Betaproteobacteria. This repeat exhibits certain features of mobile elements. Conclusion We shown here that B. pertussis, like other pathogens, expresses sRNAs, and that the expression of one of them is controlled by the BvgA/BvgS system, similarly to most virulence genes, suggesting that it is involved in virulence of B. pertussis.
Lorrayne Gomes Molina
Full Text Available A large number of small RNAs unrelated to the soybean genome were identified after deep sequencing of soybean small RNA libraries. A metatranscriptomic analysis was carried out to identify the origin of these sequences. Comparative analyses of small interference RNAs (siRNAs present in samples collected in open areas corresponding to soybean field plantations and samples from soybean cultivated in greenhouses under a controlled environment were made. Different pathogenic, symbiotic and free-living organisms were identified from samples of both growth systems. They included viruses, bacteria and different groups of fungi. This approach can be useful not only to identify potentially unknown pathogens and pests, but also to understand the relations that soybean plants establish with microorganisms that may affect, directly or indirectly, plant health and crop production.
MicroRNAs and tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are the two most abundant groups of small non-coding RNAs. The potential for microRNAs and tRFs to be used as pathogen exposure indicators is yet to be fully explored. Our objective was to identify microRNAs and tRFs in cattle challenged with a non-cy...
de Ruiter Marjo
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding small RNAs play critical roles in various cellular processes in a wide spectrum of eukaryotic organisms. Their responses to abiotic stress have become a popular topic of economic and scientific importance in biological research. Several studies in recent years have reported a small number of non-coding small RNAs that map to chloroplast genomes. However, it remains uncertain whether small RNAs are generated from chloroplast genome and how they respond to environmental stress, such as high temperature. Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop, and heat stress usually causes great losses in yields and quality. Under heat stress, the leaves become etiolated due to the disruption and disassembly of chloroplasts. In an attempt to determine the heat-responsive small RNAs in chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage, we carried out deep sequencing, using heat-treated samples, and analysed the proportion of small RNAs that were matched to chloroplast genome. Results Deep sequencing provided evidence that a novel subset of small RNAs were derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage. The chloroplast small RNAs (csRNAs include those derived from mRNA, rRNA, tRNA and intergenic RNA. The rRNA-derived csRNAs were preferentially located at the 3'-ends of the rRNAs, while the tRNA-derived csRNAs were mainly located at 5'-termini of the tRNAs. After heat treatment, the abundance of csRNAs decreased in seedlings, except those of 24 nt in length. The novel heat-responsive csRNAs and their locations in the chloroplast were verified by Northern blotting. The regulation of some csRNAs to the putative target genes were identified by real-time PCR. Our results reveal that high temperature suppresses the production of some csRNAs, which have potential roles in transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions In addition to nucleus, the chloroplast is another important organelle that generates a number of small
Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN are chronic myeloid cancers thought to arise at the level of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. They include essential thrombocythemia (ET, polycythemia vera (PV and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. All can progress to acute leukemia, but PMF carries the worst prognosis. Increasing evidences indicate that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs might plays an important role in hematologic malignancies, including MPN. To attain deeper knowledge of short RNAs (sRNAs expression pattern in CD34+ cells and of their possible role in mediating post-transcriptional regulation in PMF, we sequenced with Illumina HiSeq2000 technology CD34+ cells from healthy subjects and PMF patients. We detected the expression of 784 known miRNAs, with a prevalence of miRNA up-regulation in PMF samples, and discovered 34 new miRNAs and 99 new miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs, in CD34+ cells. Thirty-seven small RNAs were differentially expressed in PMF patients compared with healthy subjects, according to microRNA sequencing data. Five miRNAs (miR-10b-5p, miR-19b-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-379-5p, and miR-543 were deregulated also in PMF granulocytes. Moreover, 3'-moR-128-2 resulted consistently downregulated in PMF according to RNA-seq and qRT-PCR data both in CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Target predictions of these validated small RNAs de-regulated in PMF and functional enrichment analyses highlighted many interesting pathways involved in tumor development and progression, such as signaling by FGFR and DAP12 and Oncogene Induced Senescence. As a whole, data obtained in this study deepened the knowledge of miRNAs and moRNAs altered expression in PMF CD34+ cells and allowed to identify and validate a specific small RNA profile that distinguishes PMF granulocytes from those of normal subjects. We thus provided new information regarding the possible role of miRNAs and, specifically, of new moRNAs in this disease.
Cabrera, Javier; Barcala, Marta; García, Alejandra; Rio-Machín, Ana; Medina, Clémence; Jaubert-Possamai, Stephanie; Favery, Bruno; Maizel, Alexis; Ruiz-Ferrer, Virginia; Fenoll, Carmen; Escobar, Carolina
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) induce inside the vascular cylinder the giant cells (GCs) embedded in the galls. The distinctive gene repression in early-developing GCs could be facilitated by small RNAs (sRNA) such as miRNAs, and/or epigenetic mechanisms mediated by 24nt-sRNAs, rasiRNAs and 21-22nt-sRNAs. Therefore, the sRNA-population together with the role of the miR390/TAS3/ARFs module were studied during early gall/GC formation. Three sRNA libraries from 3-d-post-inoculation (dpi) galls induced by Meloidogyne javanica in Arabidopsis and three from uninfected root segments were sequenced following Illumina-Solexa technology. pMIR390a::GUS and pTAS3::GUS lines were assayed for nematode-dependent promoter activation. A sensor line indicative of TAS3-derived tasiRNAs binding to the ARF3 sequence (pARF3:ARF3-GUS) together with a tasiRNA-resistant ARF3 line (pARF3:ARF3m-GUS) were used for functional analysis. The sRNA population showed significant differences between galls and controls, with high validation rate and correspondence with their target expression: 21-nt sRNAs corresponding mainly to miRNAs were downregulated, whilst 24-nt-sRNAs from the rasiRNA family were mostly upregulated in galls. The promoters of MIR390a and TAS3, active in galls, and the pARF3:ARF3-GUS line, indicated a role of TAS3-derived-tasiRNAs in galls. The regulatory module miR390/TAS3 is necessary for proper gall formation possibly through auxin-responsive factors, and the abundance of 24-nt sRNAs (mostly rasiRNAs) constitutes a gall hallmark. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
Su, Jian; Liao, Jeipi; Gao, Lu; Shen, Jun; Guarnera, Maria A; Zhan, Min; Fang, HongBin; Stass, Sanford A; Jiang, Feng
Molecular analysis of sputum presents a noninvasive approach for diagnosis of lung cancer. We have shown that dysregulation of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) plays a vital role in lung tumorigenesis. We have also identified six snoRNAs whose changes are associated with lung cancer. Here we investigated if analysis of the snoRNAs in sputum could provide a potential tool for diagnosis of lung cancer. Using qRT-PCR, we determined expressions of the six snoRNAs in sputum of a training set of 59 lung cancer patients and 61 cancer-free smokers to develop a biomarker panel, which was validated in a testing set of 67 lung cancer patients and 69 cancer-free smokers for the diagnostic performance. The snoRNAs were robustly measurable in sputum. In the training set, a panel of two snoRNA biomarkers (snoRD66 and snoRD78) was developed, producing 74.58% sensitivity and 83.61% specificity for identifying lung cancer. The snoRNA biomarkers had a significantly higher sensitivity (74.58%) compared with sputum cytology (45.76%) (P lung cancer (All P >0.05). The performance of the biomarker panel was confirmed in the testing cohort. We report for the first time that sputum snoRNA biomarkers might be useful to improve diagnosis of lung cancer.
Tsai, Chen-Hsun; Liao, Rick; Chou, Brendan; Contreras, Lydia M
Small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) are posttranscriptional regulators that have been identified in multiple species and shown to play essential roles in responsive mechanisms to environmental stresses. The natural ability of specific bacteria to resist high levels of radiation has been of high interest to mechanistic studies of DNA repair and biomolecular protection. Deinococcus radiodurans is a model extremophile for radiation studies that can survive doses of ionizing radiation of >12,000 Gy, 3,000 times higher than for most vertebrates. Few studies have investigated posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms of this organism that could be relevant in its general gene regulatory patterns. In this study, we identified 199 potential sRNA candidates in D. radiodurans by whole-transcriptome deep sequencing analysis and confirmed the expression of 41 sRNAs by Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). A total of 8 confirmed sRNAs showed differential expression during recovery after acute ionizing radiation (15 kGy). We have also found and confirmed 7 sRNAs in Deinococcus geothermalis, a closely related radioresistant species. The identification of several novel sRNAs in Deinococcus bacteria raises important questions about the evolution and nature of global gene regulation in radioresistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Shen, Yanyue; Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Wang, Wenliang; Gao, Yi; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jianbo
Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. We used high-throughput sequencing to compare miRNA expression profiles between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. A total of 613, 784 and 742 known miRNAs were identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica hexaploid, respectively. We detected 618 miRNAs were differentially expressed (log(2)Ratio ≥ 1, P ≤ 0.05) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 425 miRNAs were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggest a trend of non-additive miRNA regulation following hybridization and polyploidization. Remarkably, majority of the non-additively expressed miRNAs in the Brassica hexaploid are repressed, and there was a bias toward repression of B. rapa miRNAs, which is consistent with the progenitor-biased gene repression in the synthetic allopolyploids. In addition, we identified 653 novel mature miRNAs in Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Finally, we found that almost all the non-additive accumulation of siRNA clusters exhibited a low-parent pattern in Brassica hexaploid. Non-additive small RNA regulation is involved in a range of biological pathways, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids.
Full Text Available RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism that utilizes small RNAs (sRNAs to direct the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Plants utilizing RNA silencing machinery to defend pathogen attack was first identified in plant-virus interaction and later was observed in distinct plant-pathogen interactions. RNA silencing is not only response for suppressing RNA accumulation and movement of viral and viroid, but also response for facilitating plant immune responses to defend against bacterial, oomycete, and fungal pathogen attack. Interestingly, even the same plant sRNA can perform different roles during encounters with different pathogens. On the other side, pathogens counteract by generating sRNAs that directly regulate pathogen gene expression to increase virulence and also sRNAs that target host genes to facilitate pathogen infection. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the characterization and biogenesis of host- and pathogen-derived sRNAs, particularly the different RNA silencing machineries that plants utilize to defend against different pathogens. The functions of these sRNAs in defense and counter-defense and their mechanisms for regulation during different plant-pathogen interactions are also discussed.
Daniela Lopes Paim Pinto
Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries. We also investigated the presence of known and novel miRNAs and analyzed their accumulation profile. The results showed that the distribution of small RNA-producing loci is variable between the two cultivars, and that the level of variation depends on the vineyard. Differently, the profile of miRNA accumulation mainly depends on the developmental stage. The vineyard in Riccione maximizes the differences between the varieties, promoting the production of more than one thousand specific small RNA loci and modulating their expression depending on the cultivar and the maturation stage. In total, 89 known vvi-miRNAs and 33 novel vvi-miRNA candidates were identified in our samples, many of them showing the accumulation profile modulated by at least one of the factors studied. The in silico prediction of miRNA targets suggests their involvement in berry development and in secondary metabolites accumulation such as anthocyanins and polyphenols.
Smalheiser, Neil R; Lugli, Giovanni; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Cook, Edwin H; Larson, John
Adult mice were trained to execute a nose-poke in a port containing one of two simultaneously present odors in order to obtain a reward. Hippocampus RNA of trained mice vs. controls was subjected to Illumina deep sequencing. Two mitochondrial RNAs (a tRNA and Mt-1) gave rise to 25-30-nt. small RNAs that showed a dramatic and specific increase with training (>50-fold relative to controls). Mt-1 is encoded within the termination association sequence (TAS) of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Small RNAs may link behavioral plasticity to protein synthesis and replication of mitochondria to support dendritic growth, spine stabilization, and synapse formation. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a genetically tractable model organism for photosynthesis research. The genome of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 consists of a circular chromosome and seven plasmids. The importance of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs as mediators of a number of cellular processes in bacteria has begun to be recognized. However, little is known regarding sRNAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. To provide a comprehensive overview of sRNAs in this model organism, the sRNAs of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were analyzed using deep sequencing, and 7,951,189 reads were obtained. High quality mapping reads (6,127,890 were mapped onto the genome and assembled into 16,192 transcribed regions (clusters based on read overlap. A total number of 5211 putative sRNAs were revealed from the genome and the 4 megaplasmids, and 27 of these molecules, including four from plasmids, were confirmed by RT-PCR. In addition, possible target genes regulated by all of the putative sRNAs identified in this study were predicted by IntaRNA and analyzed for functional categorization and biological pathways, which provided evidence that sRNAs are indeed involved in many different metabolic pathways, including basic metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the citrate cycle, fatty acid metabolism and adaptations to environmentally stress-induced changes. The information from this study provides a valuable reservoir for understanding the sRNA-mediated regulation of the complex physiology and metabolic processes of cyanobacteria.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to genome sequencing, accurate functional annotation of genomes is required in order to carry out comparative and evolutionary analyses between species. Among primates, the human genome is the most extensively annotated. Human miRNA gene annotation is based on multiple lines of evidence including evidence for expression as well as prediction of the characteristic hairpin structure. In contrast, most miRNA genes in non-human primates are annotated based on homology without any expression evidence. We have sequenced small-RNA libraries from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan and rhesus macaque from multiple individuals and tissues. Using patterns of miRNA expression in conjunction with a model of miRNA biogenesis we used these high-throughput sequencing data to identify novel miRNAs in non-human primates. Results We predicted 47 new miRNAs in chimpanzee, 240 in gorilla, 55 in orangutan and 47 in rhesus macaque. The algorithm we used was able to predict 64% of the previously known miRNAs in chimpanzee, 94% in gorilla, 61% in orangutan and 71% in rhesus macaque. We therefore added evidence for expression in between one and five tissues to miRNAs that were previously annotated based only on homology to human miRNAs. We increased from 60 to 175 the number miRNAs that are located in orthologous regions in humans and the four non-human primate species studied here. Conclusions In this study we provide expression evidence for homology-based annotated miRNAs and predict de novo miRNAs in four non-human primate species. We increased the number of annotated miRNA genes and provided evidence for their expression in four non-human primates. Similar approaches using different individuals and tissues would improve annotation in non-human primates and allow for further comparative studies in the future.
Full Text Available The green bottle fly maggot, Lucilia sericata, is a species with importance in medicine, agriculture and forensics. Improved understanding of this species' biology is of great potential benefit to many research communities. MicroRNAs (miRNA are a short non-protein coding regulatory RNA, which directly regulate a host of protein coding genes at the translational level. They have been shown to have developmental and tissue specific distributions where they impact directly on gene regulation. In order to improve understanding of the biology of L. sericata maggots we have performed small RNA-sequencing of their secretions and tissue at different developmental stages.We have successfully isolated RNA from the secretions of L. sericata maggots. Illumina small RNA-sequencing of these secretions and the three tissues (crop, salivary gland, gut revealed that the most common small RNA fragments were derived from ribosomal RNA and transfer RNAs of both insect and bacterial origins. These RNA fragments were highly specific, with the most common tRNAs, such as GlyGCC, predominantly represented by reads derived from the 5' end of the mature maggot tRNA. Each library also had a unique profile of miRNAs with a high abundance of miR-10-5p in the maggot secretions and gut and miR-8 in the food storage organ the crop and salivary glands. The pattern of small RNAs in the bioactive maggot secretions suggests they originate from a combination of saliva, foregut and hindgut tissues. Droplet digital RT-PCR validation of the RNA-sequencing data shows that not only are there differences in the tissue profiles for miRNAs and small RNA fragments but that these are also modulated through developmental stages of the insect.We have identified the small-RNAome of the medicinal maggots L. sericata and shown that there are distinct subsets of miRNAs expressed in specific tissues that also alter during the development of the insect. Furthermore there are very specific RNA
Blenkiron, Cherie; Tsai, Peter; Brown, Lisa A; Tintinger, Vernon; Askelund, Kathryn J; Windsor, John A; Phillips, Anthony R
The green bottle fly maggot, Lucilia sericata, is a species with importance in medicine, agriculture and forensics. Improved understanding of this species' biology is of great potential benefit to many research communities. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a short non-protein coding regulatory RNA, which directly regulate a host of protein coding genes at the translational level. They have been shown to have developmental and tissue specific distributions where they impact directly on gene regulation. In order to improve understanding of the biology of L. sericata maggots we have performed small RNA-sequencing of their secretions and tissue at different developmental stages. We have successfully isolated RNA from the secretions of L. sericata maggots. Illumina small RNA-sequencing of these secretions and the three tissues (crop, salivary gland, gut) revealed that the most common small RNA fragments were derived from ribosomal RNA and transfer RNAs of both insect and bacterial origins. These RNA fragments were highly specific, with the most common tRNAs, such as GlyGCC, predominantly represented by reads derived from the 5' end of the mature maggot tRNA. Each library also had a unique profile of miRNAs with a high abundance of miR-10-5p in the maggot secretions and gut and miR-8 in the food storage organ the crop and salivary glands. The pattern of small RNAs in the bioactive maggot secretions suggests they originate from a combination of saliva, foregut and hindgut tissues. Droplet digital RT-PCR validation of the RNA-sequencing data shows that not only are there differences in the tissue profiles for miRNAs and small RNA fragments but that these are also modulated through developmental stages of the insect. We have identified the small-RNAome of the medicinal maggots L. sericata and shown that there are distinct subsets of miRNAs expressed in specific tissues that also alter during the development of the insect. Furthermore there are very specific RNA fragments derived from
Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is a process that continues in the adult and also aging brain. It generates functional neurons from neural stem cells present in specific brain regions. This phenomenon is largely confined to two main regions: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, in the hippocampus. With age, the hippocampus and particularly the dentate gyrus are affected. For instance, adult neurogenesis is decreased with aging, in both the number of proliferating cells as well as their neuronal differentiation, while in parallel an age-associated decline in cognitive performance is often seen. Surprisingly, the synaptogenic potential of adult-born neurons appears unaffected by aging. Therefore, although proliferation, differentiation, survival and synaptogenesis of adult-born new neurons in the dentate gyrus are closely related to each other, they appear differentially regulated with aging. In this review we discuss the crucial role of a novel class of recently discovered regulators of gene expression, i.e. the small non-coding RNAs, in the development of adult neurogenesis from neural stem cells to functionally integrated neurons. In particular, a subgroup of the small non-coding RNAs, the microRNAs, fine-tune many events during adult neurogenesis progression. Moreover, multiple small non-coding RNAs are differentially expressed in the aged hippocampus. This makes small non-coding RNAs appealing candidates to orchestrate, and possibly correct or prevent, the functional alterations in adult neurogenesis and cognition associated with aging. Finally, we briefly summarize observations that link changes in circulating levels of steroid hormones with alterations in adult neurogenesis and subsequent vulnerability to psychopathology in advanced age, and discuss a possible role of microRNAs in stress-associated alterations in adult neurogenesis during aging.
Spornraft, Melanie; Kirchner, Benedikt; Haase, Bettina; Benes, Vladimir; Pfaffl, Michael W; Riedmaier, Irmgard
There are several protocols and kits for the extraction of circulating RNAs from plasma with a following quantification of specific genes via RT-qPCR. Due to the marginal amount of cell-free RNA in plasma samples, the total RNA yield is insufficient to perform Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), the state-of-the-art technology in massive parallel sequencing that enables a comprehensive characterization of the whole transcriptome. Screening the transcriptome for biomarker signatures accelerates progress in biomarker profiling for molecular diagnostics, early disease detection or food safety. Therefore, the aim was to optimize a method that enables the extraction of sufficient amounts of total RNA from bovine plasma to generate good-quality small RNA Sequencing (small RNA-Seq) data. An increased volume of plasma (9 ml) was processed using the Qiagen miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit in combination with the QIAvac24 Plus system, a vacuum manifold that enables handling of high volumes during RNA isolation. 35 ng of total RNA were passed on to cDNA library preparation followed by small RNA high-throughput sequencing analysis on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Raw sequencing reads were processed by a data analysis pipeline using different free software solutions. Seq-data was trimmed, quality checked, gradually selected for miRNAs/piRNAs and aligned to small RNA reference annotation indexes. Mapping to human reference indexes resulted in 4.8±2.8% of mature miRNAs and 1.4±0.8% of piRNAs and of 5.0±2.9% of mature miRNAs for bos taurus.
Lenstra, Tineke L; Tudek, Agnieszka; Clauder, Sandra; Xu, Zhenyu; Pachis, Spyridon T; van Leenen, Dik; Kemmeren, Patrick; Steinmetz, Lars M; Libri, Domenico; Holstege, Frank C P
Transcription termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be performed by at least two distinct pathways and is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Late termination of mRNAs is performed by the CPF/CF complex, the recruitment of which is dependent on CTD-Ser2 phosphorylation (Ser2P). Early termination of shorter cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs) and small nucleolar/nuclear RNAs (sno/snRNAs) is performed by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) complex that binds phosphorylated CTD-Ser5 (Ser5P) via the CTD-interacting domain (CID) of Nrd1p. In this study, mutants of the different termination pathways were compared by genome-wide expression analysis. Surprisingly, the expression changes observed upon loss of the CTD-Ser2 kinase Ctk1p are more similar to those derived from alterations in the Ser5P-dependent NNS pathway, than from loss of CTD-Ser2P binding factors. Tiling array analysis of ctk1Δ cells reveals readthrough at snoRNAs, at many cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs) and stable uncharacterized transcripts (SUTs), but only at some mRNAs. Despite the suggested predominant role in termination of mRNAs, we observed that a CTK1 deletion or a Pol II CTD mutant lacking all Ser2 positions does not result in a global mRNA termination defect. Rather, termination defects in these strains are widely observed at NNS-dependent genes. These results indicate that Ctk1p and Ser2 CTD phosphorylation have a wide impact in termination of small non-coding RNAs but only affect a subset of mRNA coding genes.
Tineke L Lenstra
Full Text Available Transcription termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be performed by at least two distinct pathways and is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD of RNA polymerase II (Pol II. Late termination of mRNAs is performed by the CPF/CF complex, the recruitment of which is dependent on CTD-Ser2 phosphorylation (Ser2P. Early termination of shorter cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs and small nucleolar/nuclear RNAs (sno/snRNAs is performed by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS complex that binds phosphorylated CTD-Ser5 (Ser5P via the CTD-interacting domain (CID of Nrd1p. In this study, mutants of the different termination pathways were compared by genome-wide expression analysis. Surprisingly, the expression changes observed upon loss of the CTD-Ser2 kinase Ctk1p are more similar to those derived from alterations in the Ser5P-dependent NNS pathway, than from loss of CTD-Ser2P binding factors. Tiling array analysis of ctk1Δ cells reveals readthrough at snoRNAs, at many cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs and stable uncharacterized transcripts (SUTs, but only at some mRNAs. Despite the suggested predominant role in termination of mRNAs, we observed that a CTK1 deletion or a Pol II CTD mutant lacking all Ser2 positions does not result in a global mRNA termination defect. Rather, termination defects in these strains are widely observed at NNS-dependent genes. These results indicate that Ctk1p and Ser2 CTD phosphorylation have a wide impact in termination of small non-coding RNAs but only affect a subset of mRNA coding genes.
Roy, Jyoti; Sarkar, Arijita; Parida, Sibun; Ghosh, Zhumur; Mallick, Bibekanand
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), ∼23-36 nucleotide-long small non-coding RNAs, earlier believed to be germline-specific, have now been identified in somatic cells including neural cells. However, piRNAs have not yet been studied in the human brain (HB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-affected brain. In this study, by next-generation small RNA sequencing, 564 and 451 piRNAs were identified in the HB and AD-affected brain respectively. The majority of the neuronal piRNAs have intronic origin wherein primary piRNAs are mostly from the negative strand. piRNAs originating from the coding sequence of mRNAs and tRNAs are highly conserved compared to other genomic contexts. We found 1923 mRNAs significantly down-regulated in AD as the predicted targets of 125 up-regulated piRNAs. The filtering of targets based on our criteria coupled with pathway enrichment analysis of all the predicted targets resulted in five most significant AD-associated pathways enriched with four genes (CYCS, LIN7C, KPNA6, and RAB11A) found to be regulated by four piRNAs. The qRT-PCR study verified the reciprocal expression of piRNAs and their targets. This study provides the first evidence of piRNAs in the HB and AD which will provide the foundation for future studies to unravel the regulatory role of piRNAs in the human brain and associated diseases. The sequencing data have been submitted to the GEO database (Accession no. GSE85075).
Sharma, Akanksha; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L
Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as a model plant for the improvement of grain crops such as wheat, barley and oats and for understanding basic biological processes to facilitate the development of grasses as superior energy crops. Brachypodium is also the first species of the grass subfamily Pooideae with a sequenced genome. For obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling male gametophyte development in B. distachyon, here we report the cellular changes during the stages of anther development, with special reference to the development of the anther wall. Brachypodium anthers are tetrasporangiate and follow the typical monocotyledonous-type anther wall formation pattern. Anther differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells, which divide to generate primary parietal and primary sporogenous cells. The primary parietal cells form two secondary parietal layers. Later, the outer secondary parietal layer directly develops into the endothecium and the inner secondary parietal layer forms an outer middle layer and inner tapetum by periclinal division. The anther wall comprises an epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and the secretory-type tapetum. Major documented events of anther development include the degradation of a secretory-type tapetum and middle layer during the course of development and the rapid formation of U-shaped endothecial thickenings in the mature pollen grain stage. The tapetum undergoes degeneration at the tetrad stage and disintegrates completely at the bicellular stage of pollen development. The distribution of insoluble polysaccharides in the anther layers and connective tissue through progressive developmental stages suggests their role in the development of male gametophytes. Until sporogenous cell stage, the amount of insoluble polysaccharides in the anther wall was negligible. However, abundant levels of insoluble polysaccharides were observed during microspore mother cell and tetrad stages and gradually
The cellular membrane constitutes an effective barrier that protects the complex, yet highly ordered, intracellular compartment of the cell. Passage of molecules across this barrier is highly regulated and highly restricted. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of small cationic peptides that are able to defy the rules of ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background CRISPR/Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated sequences is a recently discovered prokaryotic defense system against foreign DNA, including viruses and plasmids. CRISPR cassette is transcribed as a continuous transcript (pre-crRNA, which is processed by Cas proteins into small RNA molecules (crRNAs that are responsible for defense against invading viruses. Experiments in E. coli report that overexpression of cas genes generates a large number of crRNAs, from only few pre-crRNAs. Results We here develop a minimal model of CRISPR processing, which we parameterize based on available experimental data. From the model, we show that the system can generate a large amount of crRNAs, based on only a small decrease in the amount of pre-crRNAs. The relationship between the decrease of pre-crRNAs and the increase of crRNAs corresponds to strong linear amplification. Interestingly, this strong amplification crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of pre-crRNA by an unidentified nuclease. We show that overexpression of cas genes above a certain level does not result in further increase of crRNA, but that this saturation can be relieved if the rate of CRISPR transcription is increased. We furthermore show that a small increase of CRISPR transcription rate can substantially decrease the extent of cas gene activation necessary to achieve a desired amount of crRNA. Conclusions The simple mathematical model developed here is able to explain existing experimental observations on CRISPR transcript processing in Escherichia coli. The model shows that a competition between specific pre-crRNA processing and non-specific degradation determines the steady-state levels of crRNA and is responsible for strong linear amplification of crRNAs when cas genes are overexpressed. The model further shows how disappearance of only a few pre-crRNA molecules normally present in the cell can lead to a large (two
Rij, R.P. van; Berezikov, E.
RNA interference (RNAi) - post-transcriptional gene silencing guided by small interfering RNA (siRNA) - is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects and plants. Several recent studies in Drosophila identified endogenous siRNAs corresponding to transposons, to structured cellular
Cass, Ashley A; Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Greer, Christopher; Lin, Xianzhi; Kim, Yong; Hsiao, Yun-Hua Esther; Xiao, Xinshu
In mammals, small RNAs are important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. While their roles in mRNA destabilization and translational repression are well appreciated, their involvement in endonucleolytic cleavage of target RNAs is poorly understood. Very few microRNAs are known to guide RNA cleavage. Endogenous small interfering RNAs are expected to induce target cleavage, but their target genes remain largely unknown. We report a systematic study of small RNA-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage in mouse through integrative analysis of small RNA and degradome sequencing data without imposing any bias toward known small RNAs. Hundreds of small cleavage-inducing RNAs and their cognate target genes were identified, significantly expanding the repertoire of known small RNA-guided cleavage events. Strikingly, both small RNAs and their target sites demonstrated significant overlap with retrotransposons, providing evidence for the long-standing speculation that retrotransposable elements in mRNAs are leveraged as signals for gene targeting. Furthermore, our analysis showed that the RNA cleavage pathway is also present in human cells but affecting a different repertoire of retrotransposons. These results show that small RNA-guided cleavage is more widespread than previously appreciated. Their impact on retrotransposons in non-coding regions shed light on important aspects of mammalian gene regulation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M
RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved eukaryotic mechanism that uses small RNA molecules to suppress gene expression through sequence-specific messenger RNA degradation, translational repression, or transcriptional inhibition. In filamentous fungi, the protective function of RNAi in the maintenance of genome integrity is well known. However, knowledge of the regulatory role of RNAi in fungi has had to wait until the recent identification of different endogenous small RNA classes, which are generated by distinct RNAi pathways. In addition, RNAi research on new fungal models has uncovered the role of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in the regulation of diverse biological functions. In this review, we give an up-to-date overview of the different classes of small RNAs and RNAi pathways in fungi and their roles in the defense of genome integrity and regulation of fungal physiology and development, as well as in the interaction of fungi with biotic and abiotic environments.
Schyth, Brian Dall; Hajiabadi, Seyed Amir Hossein Jalali; Kristensen, Lasse Bøgelund Juel
Small RNAs acting in the recently discovered gene regulatory mechanism called RNA interference has a potential as diagnostic signatures of disease and immunological state and when produced synthetically as prophylactic treatment of such diseases. In the RNAi mechanism the cell produces different...... small RNAs which inhibit gene expression through more or less specific interaction with messenger RNAs resulting in repression of translation to protein. In this way cells can turn of genes of specific pathways thereby leading to altered physiological stages of tissues and possibly of whole organisms....... The mechanism can be programmed with several types of small double stranded RNAs - the type of which defines the destiny of the target. One such class of regulatory RNAs called microRNAs are upregulated due to various physiological responses of the cell and they suppress many genes simultaneously believed...
Rath, Ethan C; Pitman, Stephanie; Cho, Kyu Hong; Bai, Yongsheng
Small noncoding regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators, regulating mRNAs, proteins, and DNA in bacteria. One class of sRNAs, trans-acting sRNAs, are the most abundant sRNAs transcribed from the intergenic regions (IGRs) of the bacterial genome. In Streptococcus pyogenes, a common and potentially deadly pathogen, many sRNAs have been identified, but only a few have been studied. The goal of this study is to identify trans-acting sRNAs that can be substrates of RNase III. The endoribonuclease RNase III cleaves double stranded RNAs, which can be formed during the interaction between an sRNA and target mRNAs. For this study, we created an RNase III null mutant of Streptococcus pyogenes and its RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data were analyzed and compared to that of the wild-type. First, we developed a custom script that can detect intergenic regions of the S. pyogenes genome. A differential expression analysis with Cufflinks and Stringtie was then performed to identify the intergenic regions whose expression was influenced by the RNase III gene deletion. This analysis yielded 12 differentially expressed regions with >|2| fold change and p ≤ 0.05. Using Artemis and Bamview genome viewers, these regions were visually verified leaving 6 putative sRNAs. This study not only expanded our knowledge on novel sRNAs but would also give us new insight into sRNA degradation.
Formey, Damien; Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Leija, Alfonso; Santana, Olivia; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis; Hernández, Georgina
A genome-wide analysis identified the set of small RNAs (sRNAs) from the agronomical important legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), including novel P. vulgaris-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially important for the regulation of the rhizobia-symbiotic process. Generally, novel miRNAs are difficult to identify and study because they are very lowly expressed in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. In this work, we aimed to analyze sRNAs from common bean root hairs (RH), a single-cell model, induced with pure Rhizobium etli nodulation factors (NF), a unique type of signal molecule. The sequence analysis of samples from NF-induced and control libraries led to the identity of 132 mature miRNAs, including 63 novel miRNAs and 1984 phasiRNAs. From these, six miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during NF induction, including one novel miRNA: miR-RH82. A parallel degradome analysis of the same samples revealed 29 targets potentially cleaved by novel miRNAs specifically in NF-induced RH samples; however, these novel miRNAs were not differentially accumulated in this tissue. This study reveals Phaseolus vulgaris-specific novel miRNA candidates and their corresponding targets that meet all criteria to be involved in the regulation of the early nodulation events, thus setting the basis for exploring miRNA-mediated improvement of the common bean-rhizobia symbiosis.
Patel, Prashanti; Yadav, Karuna; Ganapathi, Thumballi R
MicroRNAs are emerging players in plant development and response to stresses, both biotic and abiotic such as micronutrient deficiency. These small RNAs regulate cognate downstream targets either by transcript cleavage or translational inhibition. Micronutrient deficiencies lead to poor quality and yield of crops and impaired human health. Over the years several microRNAs have been identified which regulate expression of genes controlling uptake, mobilization and homeostasis of macronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur to ensure sufficiency without toxicity. This review attempts to understand the roles played by micro RNAs involved in homeostasis of the micronutrients boron, manganese, zinc, copper, iron, molybdenum and nickel and the cross talk between them upon perception of nutritional stress. Notably and surprisingly, several micro RNAs are not specific for a particular micronutrient stress and the challenge remains to uncover ones (if any) that are directly relevant to the micronutrient. Current findings of this yet infant field could potentiate biotechnological applications towards biofortification, plant innate immunity and remedy heavy metal toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.. sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive.
Full Text Available The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi which involves sequence specific gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs i.e small interfering RNA (siRNA and micro RNA (miRNA has emerged as one of most powerful approaches for crop improvement. RNAi based on siRNA is one of the widely used tools of reverse genetics which aid in revealing gene functions in many species. This technology has been extensively applied to alter the gene expression in plants with an aim to achieve desirable traits. RNAi has been used for enhancing the crop yield and productivity by manipulating the gene involved in biomass, grain yield and enhanced shelf life of fruits & vegetables. It has also been applied for developing resistance against various biotic (bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects and abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, cold etc.. Nutritional improvements of crops have also been achieved by enriching the crops with essential amino acids, fatty acids, antioxidants and other nutrients beneficial for human health or by reducing allergens or anti-nutrients. Micro RNAs are key regulators of important plant processes like growth, development and response to various stresses. In spite of similarity in size (20-24nt, miRNA differ from siRNA in precursor structures, pathway of biogenesis, and modes of action. This review also highlights the miRNA based genetic modification technology where various miRNAs/artificial miRNAs and their targets can be utilized for improving several desirable plant traits. Micro RNA based strategies are much efficient than siRNA-based RNAi strategies due to its specificity and less undesirable off target effects. As per the FDA guidelines, small RNA based transgenics are much safer for consumption than those over expressing proteins. This review thereby summarizes the emerging advances and achievement in the field of small RNAs and its application for crop improvement.
Schyth, Brian Dall
A novel in vivo-model composed of small juvenile rainbow trout and a fish-pathogenic virus is suggested to analyze delivery and antiviral effect of formulated siRNAs. This model was used for testing delivery of intraperitoneally injected siRNAs formulated in polycationic liposomes. These......RNAs was used and protection correlated with up-regulation of an interferon-related gene in the liver indicating a systemic interferon response. The results show the validity of the fish model for testing delivery and non-specific effects of siRNAs in a high throughput vertebrate model. The purchase...... of chemically synthesized siRNAs is expensive why the use of in vitro transcribed siRNAs was initially tested in fish cell culture. Transfection with three different in vitro transcribed siRNAs specific to the viral glycoprotein gene of the target-virus efficiently inhibited viral multiplication in infected...
Milanesi, Elena; Maj, Carlo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Maffioletti, Elisabetta
Preclinical Research Alterations in small non-coding RNAs have been observed in many human disease states including cancer, cardiovascular, developmental, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. These molecules have recently raised the interest of the scientific community for novel therapeutic approaches. Nanotechnologies, including the development of sophisticated nanoparticles, offer new ways for the delivery of small RNA-based therapies. The nanoparticle delivery method appears attractive, but so far most of the work in this area has been conducted in the context of cancer. New therapeutic strategies are needed for psychiatric disorders, where treatment is often ineffective, leading to frequent patient hospitalizations and a growing economic burden. In this article, we discuss the role of small RNAs in psychiatric diseases and how this new knowledge, combined with innovations in nanotechnologies, could lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Drug Dev Res 77 : 453-457, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tsui, Ho-Ching Tiffany; Mukherjee, Dhriti; Ray, Valerie A; Sham, Lok-To; Feig, Andrew L; Winkler, Malcolm E
We report a search for small RNAs (sRNAs) in the low-GC, gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on bioinformatic analyses by Livny et al. (J. Livny, A. Brencic, S. Lory, and M. K. Waldor, Nucleic Acids Res. 34:3484-3493, 2006), we tested 40 candidates by Northern blotting and confirmed the expression of nine new and one previously reported (CcnA) sRNAs in strain D39. CcnA is one of five redundant sRNAs reported by Halfmann et al. (A. Halfmann, M. Kovacs, R. Hakenbeck, and R. Bruckner, Mol. Microbiol. 66:110-126, 2007) that are positively controlled by the CiaR response regulator. We characterized 3 of these 14 sRNAs: Spd-sr17 (144 nucleotides [nt]; decreased in stationary phase), Spd-sr37 (80 nt; strongly expressed in all growth phases), and CcnA (93 nt; induced by competence stimulatory peptide). Spd-sr17 and CcnA likely fold into structures containing single-stranded regions between hairpin structures, whereas Spd-sr37 forms a base-paired structure. Primer extension mapping and ectopic expression in deletion/insertion mutants confirmed the independent expression of the three sRNAs. Microarray analyses indicated that insertion/deletion mutants in spd-sr37 and ccnA exerted strong cis-acting effects on the transcription of adjacent genes, indicating that these sRNA regions are also cotranscribed in operons. Deletion or overexpression of the three sRNAs did not cause changes in growth, certain stress responses, global transcription, or virulence. Constitutive ectopic expression of CcnA reversed some phenotypes of D39 Delta ciaR mutants, but attempts to link CcnA to -E to comC as a target were inconclusive in ciaR(+) strains. These results show that S. pneumoniae, which lacks known RNA chaperones, expresses numerous sRNAs, but three of these sRNAs do not strongly affect common phenotypes or transcription patterns.
Bowden, Michaela; Zhou, Chensheng W; Zhang, Sui; Brais, Lauren; Rossi, Ashley; Naudin, Laurent; Thiagalingam, Arunthi; Sicinska, Ewa; Kulke, Matthew H
Current diagnostic and prognostic blood-based biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumors are limited. MiRNAs have tumor-specific expression patterns, are relatively stable, and can be measured in patient blood specimens. We performed a multi-stage study to identify and validate characteristic circulating miRNAs in patients with metastatic small intestine neuroendocrine tumors, and to assess associations between miRNA levels and survival. Using a 742-miRNA panel, we identified candidate miRNAs similarly expressed in 19 small intestine neuroendocrine tumors and matched plasma samples. We refined our panel in an independent cohort of plasma samples from 40 patients with metastatic small intestine NET and 40 controls, and then validated this panel in a second, large cohort of 120 patients with metastatic small intestine NET and 120 independent controls. miRNA profiling of 19 matched small intestine neuroendocrine tumors and matched plasma samples revealed 31 candidate miRNAs similarly expressed in both tissue and plasma. We evaluated expression of these 31 candidate miRNAs in 40 independent cases and 40 normal controls, and identified 4 miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-29b-3p, and miR-150-5p) that were differently expressed in cases and controls (p<0.05). We validated these 4 miRNAs in a separate, larger panel of 120 cases and 120 controls. We confirmed that high circulating levels of miR-22-3p (p<0.0001), high levels of miR 21-5p, and low levels of miR-150-5p (p=0.027) were associated with the presence of metastatic small intestine NET. While levels of 29b-3p were lower in cases than in controls in both the initial cohort and the validation cohort, the difference in the validation cohort did not reach statistical significance. We further found that high levels of circulating miR-21-5p, high levels of circulating miR-22-3p and low levels of circulating miR-150-5p were each independently associated with shorter overall survival. A combined analysis using all three markers
Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever, undergoes a biphasic developmental cycle that alternates between a metabolically-active large cell variant (LCV and a dormant small cell variant (SCV. As such, the bacterium undoubtedly employs complex modes of regulating its lifecycle, metabolism and pathogenesis. Small RNAs (sRNAs have been shown to play important regulatory roles in controlling metabolism and virulence in several pathogenic bacteria. We hypothesize that sRNAs are involved in regulating growth and development of C. burnetii and its infection of host cells. To address the hypothesis and identify potential sRNAs, we subjected total RNA isolated from Coxiella cultured axenically and in Vero host cells to deep-sequencing. Using this approach, we identified fifteen novel C. burnetii sRNAs (CbSRs. Fourteen CbSRs were validated by Northern blotting. Most CbSRs showed differential expression, with increased levels in LCVs. Eight CbSRs were upregulated (≥2-fold during intracellular growth as compared to growth in axenic medium. Along with the fifteen sRNAs, we also identified three sRNAs that have been previously described from other bacteria, including RNase P RNA, tmRNA and 6S RNA. The 6S regulatory sRNA of C. burnetii was found to accumulate over log phase-growth with a maximum level attained in the SCV stage. The 6S RNA-encoding gene (ssrS was mapped to the 5' UTR of ygfA; a highly conserved linkage in eubacteria. The predicted secondary structure of the 6S RNA possesses three highly conserved domains found in 6S RNAs of other eubacteria. We also demonstrate that Coxiella's 6S RNA interacts with RNA polymerase (RNAP in a specific manner. Finally, transcript levels of 6S RNA were found to be at much higher levels when Coxiella was grown in host cells relative to axenic culture, indicating a potential role in regulating the bacterium's intracellular stress response by interacting with RNAP during
Paula J.M. Van Kleeff
Full Text Available The phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest to a broad range of host plants, including many economically important crops such as tomato. These insects serve as a vector for various devastating plant viruses. It is known that whiteflies are capable of manipulating host-defense responses, potentially mediated by effector molecules in the whitefly saliva. We hypothesized that, beside putative effector proteins, small RNAs (sRNA are delivered by B. tabaci into the phloem, where they may play a role in manipulating host plant defenses. There is already evidence to suggest that sRNAs can mediate the host-pathogen dialogue. It has been shown that Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold disease, takes advantage of the plant sRNA machinery to selectively silence host genes involved in defense signaling.Here we identified sRNAs originating from B. tabaci in the phloem of tomato plants on which they are feeding. sRNAs were isolated and sequenced from tomato phloem of whitefly-infested and control plants as well as from the nymphs themselves, control leaflets and from the infested leaflets. Using stem-loop RT-PCR, three whitefly sRNAs have been verified to be present in whitefly-infested leaflets that were also present in the whitefly-infested phloem sample. Our results show that whitefly sRNAs are indeed present in tomato tissues upon feeding, and they appear to be mobile in the phloem. Their role in the host-insect interaction can now be investigated.
Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Langum, Tanner J; Boken, Ashley K; Rushton, Deena L; Boomsma, Darius D; Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Jennifer; Reese, R Neil; Chen, Xianfeng; Rohila, Jai S; Rushton, Paul J
.... Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits...
Full Text Available Saccharopolyspora erythraea produces a large number of secondary metabolites with biological activities, including erythromycin. Elucidation of the mechanisms through which the production of these secondary metabolites is regulated may help to identify new strategies for improved biosynthesis of erythromycin. In this paper, we describe the systematic prediction and analysis of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs in S. erythraea, with the aim to elucidate sRNA-mediated regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In silico and deep-sequencing technologies were applied to predict sRNAs in S. erythraea. Six hundred and forty-seven potential sRNA loci were identified, of which 382 cis-encoded antisense RNA are complementary to protein-coding regions and 265 predicted transcripts are located in intergenic regions. Six candidate sRNAs (sernc292, sernc293, sernc350, sernc351, sernc361, and sernc389 belong to four gene clusters (tpc3, pke, pks6, and nrps5 that are involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Deep-sequencing data showed that the expression of all sRNAs in the strain HL3168 E3 (E3 was higher than that in NRRL23338 (M, except for sernc292 and sernc361 expression. The relative expression of six sRNAs in strain M and E3 were validated by qRT-PCR at three different time points (24, 48, and 72 h. The results showed that, at each time point, the transcription levels of sernc293, sernc350, sernc351, and sernc389 were higher in E3 than in M, with the largest difference observed at 72 h, whereas no signals for sernc292 and sernc361 were detected. sernc293, sernc350, sernc351, and sernc389 probably regulate iron transport, terpene metabolism, geosmin synthesis, and polyketide biosynthesis, respectively. The major significance of this study is the successful prediction and identification of sRNAs in genomic regions close to the secondary metabolism-related genes in S. erythraea. A better understanding of the sRNA-target interaction would help to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that shows as erythematous and scaly lesions. The pathogenesis of psoriasis is driven by a dysregulation of the immune system which leads to an altered cytokine production. Proinflammatory cytokines that are up-regulated in psoriasis include tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, interleukin-12 (IL-12, and IL-23 for which monoclonal antibodies have already been approved for clinical use. We have previously documented the therapeutic applicability of targeting TNFα mRNA for RNA interference-mediated down-regulation by anti-TNFα small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs delivered by lentiviral vectors to xenografted psoriatic skin. The present report aims at targeting mRNA encoding the shared p40 subunit (IL-12B of IL-12 and IL-23 by cellular transduction with lentiviral vectors encoding anti-IL12B shRNAs. Methods Effective anti-IL12B shRNAs are identified among a panel of shRNAs by potency measurements in cultured cells. The efficiency and persistency of lentiviral gene delivery to xenografted human skin are investigated by bioluminescence analysis of skin treated with lentiviral vectors encoding the luciferase gene. shRNA-expressing lentiviral vectors are intradermally injected in xenografted psoriatic skin and the effects of the treatment evaluated by clinical psoriasis scoring, by measurements of epidermal thickness, and IL-12B mRNA levels. Results Potent and persistent transgene expression following a single intradermal injection of lentiviral vectors in xenografted human skin is reported. Stable IL-12B mRNA knockdown and reduced epidermal thickness are achieved three weeks after treatment of xenografted psoriatic skin with lentivirus-encoded anti-IL12B shRNAs. These findings mimick the results obtained with anti-TNFα shRNAs but, in contrast to anti-TNFα treatment, anti-IL12B shRNAs do not ameliorate the psoriatic phenotype as evaluated by semi-quantitative clinical scoring and by
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small RNA (sRNA-guided RNA silencing is a critical antiviral defense mechanism employed by a variety of eukaryotic organisms. Although the induction of RNA silencing by bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses has been described in plants, the nature of begomovirus/betasatellite complexes remains undefined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Solanum lycopersicum plant leaves systemically infected with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV alone or together with its associated betasatellite (TYLCCNB, and Nicotiana benthamiana plant leaves systemically infected with TYLCCNV alone, or together with TYLCCNB or with mutant TYLCCNB were harvested for RNA extraction; sRNA cDNA libraries were then constructed and submitted to Solexa-based deep sequencing. Both sense and anti-sense TYLCCNV and TYLCCNB-derived sRNAs (V-sRNAs and S-sRNAs accumulated preferentially as 22 nucleotide species in infected S. lycopersicum and N. benthamiana plants. High resolution mapping of V-sRNAs and S-sRNAs revealed heterogeneous distribution of V-sRNA and S-sRNA sequences across the TYLCCNV and TYLCCNB genomes. In TYLCCNV-infected S. lycopersicum or N. benthamiana and TYLCCNV and βC1-mutant TYLCCNB co-infected N. benthamiana plants, the primary TYLCCNV targets were AV2 and the 5' terminus of AV1. In TYLCCNV and betasatellite-infected plants, the number of V-sRNAs targeting this region decreased and the production of V-sRNAs increased corresponding to the overlapping regions of AC2 and AC3, as well as the 3' terminal of AC1. βC1 is the primary determinant mediating symptom induction and also the primary silencing target of the TYLCCNB genome even in its mutated form. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report the first high-resolution sRNA map for a monopartite begomovirus and its associated betasatellite using Solexa-based deep sequencing. Our results suggest that viral transcript might act as RDR substrates resulting in dsRNA and secondary siRNA production. In
Full Text Available Current technologies that are used for genome-wide microRNA (miRNA prediction are mainly based on BLAST tool. They often produce a large number of false positives. Here, we describe an effective approach for identifying orthologous pre-miRNAs in several primates based on syntenic information. Some of them have been validated by small RNA high throughput sequencing data. This approach uses the synteny information and experimentally validated miRNAs of human, and incorporates currently available algorithms and tools to identify the pre-miRNAs in five other primates. First, we identified 929 potential pre-miRNAs in the marmoset in which miRNAs have not yet been reported. Then, we predicted the miRNAs in other primates, and we successfully re-identified most of the published miRNAs and found 721, 979, 650 and 639 new potential pre-miRNAs in chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan and rhesus macaque, respectively. Furthermore, the miRNA transcriptome in the four primates have been re-analyzed and some novel predicted miRNAs have been supported by the small RNA sequencing data. Finally, we analyzed the potential functions of those validated miRNAs and explored the regulatory elements and transcription factors of some validated miRNA genes of interest. The results show that our approach can effectively identify novel miRNAs and some miRNAs that supported by small RNA sequencing data maybe play roles in the nervous system.
Valledor, Luis; Escandón, Mónica; Meijón, Mónica; Nukarinen, Ella; Cañal, María Jesús; Weckwerth, Wolfram
Here, we describe a method for the combined metabolomic, proteomic, transcriptomic and genomic analysis from one single sample as a major step for multilevel data integration strategies in systems biology. While extracting proteins and DNA, this protocol also allows the separation of metabolites into polar and lipid fractions, as well as RNA fractionation into long and small RNAs, thus allowing a broad range of transcriptional studies. The isolated biomolecules are suitable for analysis with different methods that range from electrophoresis and blotting to state-of-the-art procedures based on mass spectrometry (accurate metabolite profiling, shot-gun proteomics) or massive sequencing technologies (transcript analysis). The low amount of starting tissue, its cost-efficiency compared with the utilization of commercial kits, and its performance over a wide range of plant, microbial, and algal species such as Chlamydomonas, Arabidopsis, Populus, or Pinus, makes this method a universal alternative for multiple molecular isolation from plant tissues. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van Balkom, Bas W. M.; Eisele, Almut S.; Pegtel, D. Michiel; Bervoets, Sander; Verhaar, Marianne C.
Exosomes are small vesicles that mediate cell–cell communication. They contain proteins, lipids and RNA, and evidence is accumulating that these molecules are specifically sorted for release via exosomes. We recently showed that endothelial-cell-produced exosomes promote angiogenesis in vivo in a small RNA-dependent manner. Recent deep sequencing studies in exosomes from lymphocytic origin revealed a broad spectrum of small RNAs. However, selective depletion or incorporation of small RNA species into endothelial exosomes has not been studied extensively. With next generation sequencing, we identified all known non-coding RNA classes, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs, yRNAs, vault RNAs, 5p and 3p fragments of miRNAs and miRNA-like fragments. In addition, we mapped many fragments of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and mitochondrial RNAs (mtRNAs). The distribution of small RNAs in exosomes revealed a considerable overlap with the distribution in the producing cells. However, we identified a remarkable enrichment of yRNA fragments and mRNA degradation products in exosomes consistent with yRNAs having a role in degradation of structured and misfolded RNAs in close proximity to endosomes. We propose that endothelial endosomes selectively sequester cytoplasmic RNA-degrading machineries taking part in gene regulation. The release of these regulatory RNAs via exosomes may have implications for endothelial cell–cell communication. PMID:26027894
Zeka, Fjoralba; Mestdagh, Pieter; Vandesompele, Jo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate messenger RNA (mRNA) translation into protein. MiRNAs play a key role in gene expression regulation, and their involvement in disease biology is well documented. This has fueled the development of numerous tools for the quantification of miRNA expression levels. These tools are based on three technologies: (microarray) probe hybridization, RNA sequencing, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In this chapter, we describe a quantification system based on RT-qPCR technology, which is currently considered as the most sensitive, flexible, and accurate method for quantification of not only miRNA but also RNA expression in general. To this purpose, we have divided the protocol in three sections: reverse transcription (RT) reaction, optional preamplification (PA), and finally qPCR. Three quality-control (QC) steps are implemented in this workflow for assessment of RNA extraction efficiency, sample purity (e.g., absence of inhibitors), and inter-run variations, by examining the detection level of different spike-in synthetic miRNAs. We conclude by demonstrating raw data preprocessing and normalization using expression data obtained from high-throughput miRNA profiling of human RNA samples.
Disney, Matthew D; Angelbello, Alicia J
The discovery of RNA catalysis in the 1980s and the dissemination of the human genome sequence at the start of this century inspired investigations of the regulatory roles of noncoding RNAs in biology. In fact, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has shown that only 1-2% of the human genome encodes protein, yet 75% is transcribed into RNA. Functional studies both preceding and following the ENCODE project have shown that these noncoding RNAs have important roles in regulating gene expression, developmental timing, and other critical functions. RNA's diverse roles are often a consequence of the various folds that it adopts. The single-stranded nature of the biopolymer enables it to adopt intramolecular folds with noncanonical pairings to lower its free energy. These folds can be scaffolds to bind proteins or to form frameworks to interact with other RNAs. Not surprisingly, dysregulation of certain noncoding RNAs has been shown to be causative of disease. Given this as the background, it is easy to see why it would be useful to develop methods that target RNA and manipulate its biology in rational and predictable ways. The antisense approach has afforded strategies to target RNAs via Watson-Crick base pairing and has typically focused on targeting partially unstructured regions of RNA. Small molecule strategies to target RNA would be desirable not only because compounds could be lead optimized via medicinal chemistry but also because structured regions within an RNA of interest could be targeted to directly interfere with RNA folds that contribute to disease. Additionally, small molecules have historically been the most successful drug candidates. Until recently, the ability to design small molecules that target non-ribosomal RNAs has been elusive, creating the perception that they are "undruggable". In this Account, approaches to demystify targeting RNA with small molecules are described. Rather than bulk screening for compounds that bind to singular
RNA silencing is a sequence-specific regulatory mechanism in development and maintenance of genome integrity and functions in plant antiviral defense mechanisms. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are key mediators of RNA silencing. To study CTV-host interactions and disease expression, profiles of v...
Bucher, E.C.; Hemmes, J.C.; Haan, de P.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.
RNA silencing comprises a set of sequence-specific RNA degradation pathways that occur in a wide range of eukaryotes, including animals, fungi and plants. A hallmark of RNA silencing is the presence of small interfering RNA molecules (siRNAs). The siRNAs are generated by cleavage of larger
Tsui, Ho-Ching Tiffany; Mukherjee, Dhriti; Ray, Valerie A.; Sham, Lok-To; Feig, Andrew L.; Winkler, Malcolm E.
We report a search for small RNAs (sRNAs) in the low-GC, Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on bioinformatic analyses by Livny et al. (J. Livny, A. Brencic, S. Lory, and M. K. Waldor, Nucleic Acids Res. 34:3484-3493, 2006), we tested 40 candidates by Northern blotting and confirmed the expression of nine new and one previously reported (CcnA) sRNAs in strain D39. CcnA is one of five redundant sRNAs reported by Halfmann et al. (A. Halfmann, M. Kovacs, R. Hakenbeck, an...
Upadhyay, Anamika; Kochar, Mandira; Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Tripathy, Soumya; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat; Srivastava, Sheela
The production of biocontrol factors by Pseudomonads is reported to be controlled at the post-transcriptional level by the GacS/GacA signal transduction pathway. This involves RNA-binding translational repressor proteins, RsmA and RsmE, and the small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) RsmX, RsmY, and RsmZ. While the former represses genes involved in secondary metabolite production, the latter relieves this repression at the end of exponential growth. We have studied the fluorescent Pseudomonas strain Psd, possessing good biocontrol potential, and confirmed the presence of rsmY and rsmZ by PCR amplification. Gene constructs for all the three small RNAs (RsmX, RsmY and RsmZ) carried on broad host-range plasmid, pME6032 were mobilized into strain Psd. Expression analysis of gacA in the recombinant strains over-expressing rsmX (Psd-pME7320), rsmY (Psd-pME6359) and rsmZ (Psd-pME6918) revealed a significant upregulation of the response regulator. Besides, a remarkable down-regulation of rsmA was also reported in all the strains. The variant strains were found to produce comparatively higher levels of phenazines. Indole acetic acid levels were higher to some extent, and strain Psd-pME6918 also showed elevated production of HCN. The tomato seedlings infected with Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in the presence of culture filtrate of the recombinant strains showed better plant protection response in comparison to the wild-type strain Psd. These results suggest that small RNAs are important determinants in regulation of the biocontrol property of strain Psd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Houri-Ze'evi, Leah; Rechavi, Oded
In Caenorhabditis elegans small RNAs can regulate genes across generations. The mysterious tendency of heritable RNA interference (RNAi) responses to terminate after 3-5 generations has been referred to as "the bottleneck to RNAi inheritance." We have recently shown that the re-setting of epigenetic inheritance after 3-5 generations is not due to passive dilution of the original RNA trigger, but instead results from an active, multigenerational, and small RNA-mediated regulatory pathway. In this "Point of View" manuscript we suggest that the process that leads to the erasure of the ancestral small RNA-encoded memory is a specialized type of germline reprogramming mechanism, analogous to the processes that robustly remove parental DNA methylation and histone modifications early in development in different organisms. Traditionally, germline reprogramming mechanisms that re-set chromatin are thought to stand in the way of inheritance of memories of parental experiences. We found that reprogramming of heritable small RNAs takes multiple generations to complete, enabling long-term inheritance of small RNA responses. Moreover, the duration of this reprogramming process can be prolonged significantly if new heritable RNAi responses are provoked. A dedicated signaling pathway that is responsive to environmental cues can tune the epigenetic state of the RNAi inheritance system, so that inheritance of particular small RNA species can be extended.
Yang, Ruirui; Zeng, Youling; Yi, Xiaoya; Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Yufang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), an extensive class of small regulatory RNAs, play versatile roles in plant growth and development as well as stress responses. However, the regulatory mechanism is unclear on miRNA-mediated response to abiotic stress in plants. Halostachys caspica is a halophytic plant species and a great model for investigating plant response to salinity stress. However, no research has been performed on miRNAs in H. caspica. In this study, we employed deep sequencing to identify both conserved and novel miRNAs from salinity-exposed H. caspica and its untreated control. Among the 13-19 million sequences generated from both treatments, a total of 170 conserved miRNAs, belonging to 151 miRNA families, were identified; among these miRNAs, 31 were significantly up-regulated and 48 were significantly down-regulated by salinity stress. We also identified 102 novel miRNAs from H. caspica; among them, 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 13 were significantly down-regulated by salinity. qRT-PCR expression analysis validated the deep sequencing results and also demonstrated that miRNAs and their targeted genes were responsive to high salt stress and existed a negative expression correlation between miRNAs and their targets. miRNA-target prediction, GO and KEGG analysis showed that miRNAs were involved in salt stress-related biological pathway, including calcium signalling pathway, MAPK signalling pathway, plant hormone signal transduction and flavonoid biosynthesis, etc. This suggests that miRNAs play an important role in plant salt stress tolerance in H. caspica. This result could be used to improve salt tolerance in crops and woods. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Khayrullina, G A; Raabe, C A; Hoe, C H; Becker, K; Reinhardt, R; Tang, T H; Rozhdestvensky, T S; Kopylov, A M
For decades ribosome biogenesis and translation represent key targets in the antimicrobial drug development to combat bacterial infections. Here we report a survey of various small non-protein coding (ncRNAs) associated with ribosomal protein (r-protein) operons in the bacterial pathogens S. aureus, V. cholerae, S. Typhi and M. tuberculosis. We identified four ncRNA candidates that overlap with important structural regions involved in translational feedback regulation. Most notable are the ncRNA 55 family containing the unique recognition site of the L10-(L12)4 complex that consequently might be involved in L10 operon regulation, and ncRNA StyR 337 that resembles the pseudoknot secondary structure of the S4 regulatory region. These findings potentially implicate the candidate ncRNAs in translational regulation of the corresponding operons. In total we report 28 intergenically encoded ncRNAs that map in sense orientation to 14 ribosomal protein operons and 13 cis-antisense encoded ncRNAs transcribed complementary to nine r-protein mRNAs. All ncRNA candidates were independently validated by extensive Northern blot hybridizations to account for growth-stage specific ncRNA transcription and to check ncRNA integrity. In addition we revisited the str-operon as experimental model to monitor internal initiation of transcription in the operon throughout bacterial growth by real-time PCR. Our data indicate additional facets of ribosomal protein operons transcription, and might lead to novel insights of ribosome biogenesis, as well as exploration of strategies involving differential drug development.
Evgeny A Glazov
Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA and other types of small regulatory RNAs play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Several distinct classes of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered in recent years. To extend the repertoire of small RNAs characterized in mammals and to examine relationship between host miRNA expression and viral infection we used Illumina's ultrahigh throughput sequencing approach. We sequenced three small RNA libraries prepared from cell line derived from the adult bovine kidney under normal conditions and upon infection of the cell line with Bovine herpesvirus 1. We used a bioinformatics approach to distinguish authentic mature miRNA sequences from other classes of small RNAs and short RNA fragments represented in the sequencing data. Using this approach we detected 219 out of 356 known bovine miRNAs and 115 respective miRNA* sequences. In addition we identified five new bovine orthologs of known mammalian miRNAs and discovered 268 new cow miRNAs many of which are not identifiable in other mammalian genomes and thus might be specific to the ruminant lineage. In addition we found seven new bovine mirtron candidates. We also discovered 10 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA loci that give rise to small RNA with possible miRNA-like function. Results presented in this study extend our knowledge of the biology and evolution of small regulatory RNAs in mammals and illuminate mechanisms of small RNA biogenesis and function. New miRNA sequences and the original sequencing data have been submitted to miRNA repository (miRBase and NCBI GEO archive respectively. We envisage that these resources will facilitate functional annotation of the bovine genome and promote further functional and comparative genomics studies of small regulatory RNA in mammals.
Howe, J G; Shu, M D
Genes for the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs), two low-molecular-weight RNAs encoded by the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hybridize to two small RNAs in a baboon cell line that contains a similar virus, herpesvirus papio (HVP). The genes for the HVP RNAs (HVP-1 and HVP-2) are located together in the small unique region at the left end of the viral genome and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III in a rightward direction, similar to the EBERs. There is significant similarity between EBER1 and HVP-1 RNA, except for an insert of 22 nucleotides which increases the length of HVP-1 RNA to 190 nucleotides. There is less similarity between the sequences of EBER2 and HVP-2 RNA, but both have a length of about 170 nucleotides. The predicted secondary structure of each HVP RNA is remarkably similar to that of the respective EBER, implying that the secondary structures are important for function. Upstream from the initiation sites of all four RNA genes are several highly conserved sequences which may function in the regulation of transcription. The HVP RNAs, together with the EBERs, are highly abundant in transformed cells and are efficiently bound by the cellular La protein.
Autour, Alexis; C Y Jeng, Sunny; D Cawte, Adam; Abdolahzadeh, Amir; Galli, Angela; Panchapakesan, Shanker S S; Rueda, David; Ryckelynck, Michael; Unrau, Peter J
Despite having many key roles in cellular biology, directly imaging biologically important RNAs has been hindered by a lack of fluorescent tools equivalent to the fluorescent proteins available to study cellular proteins. Ideal RNA labelling systems must preserve biological function, have photophysical properties similar to existing fluorescent proteins, and be compatible with established live and fixed cell protein labelling strategies. Here, we report a microfluidics-based selection of three new high-affinity RNA Mango fluorogenic aptamers. Two of these are as bright or brighter than enhanced GFP when bound to TO1-Biotin. Furthermore, we show that the new Mangos can accurately image the subcellular localization of three small non-coding RNAs (5S, U6, and a box C/D scaRNA) in fixed and live mammalian cells. These new aptamers have many potential applications to study RNA function and dynamics both in vitro and in mammalian cells.
Liu, Shanshan; Tao, Ye; Yu, Lixia; Zhuang, Peilin; Zhi, Qinghui; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Huancai
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major clinical pathogen responsible for dental caries. Its acid tolerance has been identified as a significant virulence factor for its survival and cariogenicity in acidic conditions. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are recognized as key regulators of virulence and stress adaptation. Here, we constructed three libraries of sRNAs with small size exposed to acidic conditions for the first time, followed by verification using qRT-PCR. The levels of two sRNAs and target genes predicted to be bioinformatically related to acid tolerance were further evaluated under different acid stress conditions (pH 7.5, 6.5, 5.5, and 4.5) at three time points (0.5, 1, and 2 h). Meanwhile, bacterial growth characteristics and vitality were assessed. We obtained 1879 sRNAs with read counts of at least 100. One hundred and ten sRNAs were perfectly mapped to reported msRNAs in S. mutans. Ten out of 18 sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The survival of bacteria declined as the acid was increased from pH 7.5 to 4.5 at each time point. The bacteria can proliferate under each pH except pH 4.5 with time. The levels of sRNAs gradually decreased from pH 7.5 to 5.5, and slightly increased in pH 4.5; however, the expression levels of target mRNAs were up-regulated in acidic conditions than in pH 7.5. These results indicate that some sRNAs are specially induced at acid stress conditions, involving acid adaptation, and provide a new insight into exploring the complex acid tolerance for S. mutans.
Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans is the major clinical pathogen responsible for dental caries. Its acid tolerance has been identified as a significant virulence factor for its survival and cariogenicity in acidic conditions. Small RNAs (sRNAs are recognized as key regulators of virulence and stress adaptation. Here, we constructed three libraries of sRNAs with small size exposed to acidic conditions for the first time, followed by verification using qRT-PCR. The levels of two sRNAs and target genes predicted to be bioinformatically related to acid tolerance were further evaluated under different acid stress conditions (pH 7.5, 6.5, 5.5, and 4.5 at three time points (0.5, 1, and 2 h. Meanwhile, bacterial growth characteristics and vitality were assessed. We obtained 1879 sRNAs with read counts of at least 100. One hundred and ten sRNAs were perfectly mapped to reported msRNAs in S. mutans. Ten out of 18 sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The survival of bacteria declined as the acid was increased from pH 7.5 to 4.5 at each time point. The bacteria can proliferate under each pH except pH 4.5 with time. The levels of sRNAs gradually decreased from pH 7.5 to 5.5, and slightly increased in pH 4.5; however, the expression levels of target mRNAs were up-regulated in acidic conditions than in pH 7.5. These results indicate that some sRNAs are specially induced at acid stress conditions, involving acid adaptation, and provide a new insight into exploring the complex acid tolerance for S. mutans.
Starch is one of the most abundant polysaccharides on the Earth, the principal energy storage of most plant species and of crucial significance for humans as a major nutrient in human diet. The majority of produced starch comes from cereals, domesticated grasses, characterized by specific en...... (1.9%). Brachypodium starch bioengineering was demonstrated by genetic transformation to provide transgenic Brachypodium lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the barley hordein promoter. Additionally, this thesis aims to introduce the starch-recognising probe carbohydrate...... binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for detecting different starch structures using carbohydrate microarray high throughput screening. The screening method was validated using transgenic barley grain analysed over development and germination and Brachypodium starch....
Wilms, Ina; Overlöper, Aaron; Nowrousian, Minou; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Narberhaus, Franz
Agrobacterium species are capable of interkingdom gene transfer between bacteria and plants. The genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens consists of a circular and a linear chromosome, the At-plasmid and the Ti-plasmid, which harbors bacterial virulence genes required for tumor formation in plants. Little is known about promoter sequences and the small RNA (sRNA) repertoire of this and other α-proteobacteria. We used a differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) approach to map transcriptional start sites of 388 annotated genes and operons. In addition, a total number of 228 sRNAs was revealed from all four Agrobacterium replicons. Twenty-two of these were confirmed by independent RNA gel blot analysis and several sRNAs were differentially expressed in response to growth media, growth phase, temperature or pH. One sRNA from the Ti-plasmid was massively induced under virulence conditions. The presence of 76 cis-antisense sRNAs, two of them on the reverse strand of virulence genes, suggests considerable antisense transcription in Agrobacterium. The information gained from this study provides a valuable reservoir for an in-depth understanding of sRNA-mediated regulation of the complex physiology and infection process of Agrobacterium. PMID:22336765
Qiu, Yang; Xu, Yanpeng; Zhang, Yao; Zhou, Hui; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Feng; Miao, Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhong, Bo; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Wu, Ligang; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhou, Xi
RNA interference (RNAi) functions as a potent antiviral immunity in plants and invertebrates; however, whether RNAi plays antiviral roles in mammals remains unclear. Here, using human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) as a model, we showed HEV71 3A protein as an authentic viral suppressor of RNAi during viral infection. When the 3A-mediated RNAi suppression was impaired, the mutant HEV71 readily triggered the production of abundant HEV71-derived small RNAs with canonical siRNA properties in cells and mice. These virus-derived siRNAs were produced from viral dsRNA replicative intermediates in a Dicer-dependent manner and loaded into AGO, and they were fully active in degrading cognate viral RNAs. Recombinant HEV71 deficient in 3A-mediated RNAi suppression was significantly restricted in human somatic cells and mice, whereas Dicer deficiency rescued HEV71 infection independently of type I interferon response. Thus, RNAi can function as an antiviral immunity, which is induced and suppressed by a human virus, in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nikolay V Rozhkov
Full Text Available Transposition of two retroelements (Ulysses and Penelope mobilized in the course of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis has been investigated by in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes in two D. virilis strains of different cytotypes routinely used to get dysgenic progeny. The analysis has been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, and has revealed transpositions of Penelope in one of the strains, while, in the other strain, the LTR-containing element Ulysses was found to be transpositionally active. The gypsy retroelement, which has been previously shown to be transpositionally inactive in D. virilis strains, was also included in the analysis. Whole mount is situ hybridization with the ovaries revealed different subcellular distribution of the transposable elements transcripts in the strains studied. Ulysses transpositions occur only in the strain where antisense piRNAs homologous to this TE are virtually absent and the ping-pong amplification loop apparently does not take place. On the other hand small RNAs homologous to Penelope found in the other strain, belong predominantly to the siRNA category (21nt, and consist of sense and antisense species observed in approximately equal proportion. The number of Penelope copies in the latter strain has significantly increased during the last decades, probably because Penelope-derived siRNAs are not maternally inherited, while the low level of Penelope-piRNAs, which are faithfully transmitted from mother to the embryo, is not sufficient to silence this element completely. Therefore, we speculate that intrastrain transposition of the three retroelements studied is controlled predominantly at the post-transcriptional level.
Rozhkov, Nikolay V.; Zelentsova, Elena S.; Shostak, Natalia G.; Evgen'ev, Michael B.
Transposition of two retroelements (Ulysses and Penelope) mobilized in the course of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis has been investigated by in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes in two D. virilis strains of different cytotypes routinely used to get dysgenic progeny. The analysis has been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, and has revealed transpositions of Penelope in one of the strains, while, in the other strain, the LTR-containing element Ulysses was found to be transpositionally active. The gypsy retroelement, which has been previously shown to be transpositionally inactive in D. virilis strains, was also included in the analysis. Whole mount is situ hybridization with the ovaries revealed different subcellular distribution of the transposable elements transcripts in the strains studied. Ulysses transpositions occur only in the strain where antisense piRNAs homologous to this TE are virtually absent and the ping-pong amplification loop apparently does not take place. On the other hand small RNAs homologous to Penelope found in the other strain, belong predominantly to the siRNA category (21nt), and consist of sense and antisense species observed in approximately equal proportion. The number of Penelope copies in the latter strain has significantly increased during the last decades, probably because Penelope-derived siRNAs are not maternally inherited, while the low level of Penelope-piRNAs, which are faithfully transmitted from mother to the embryo, is not sufficient to silence this element completely. Therefore, we speculate that intrastrain transposition of the three retroelements studied is controlled predominantly at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21779346
Orum, H; Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J
organisms. Furthermore, secondary structures closely similar to phylogenetically proven models can be inferred from the T. thermophila data. Analysis of the snRNA sequences identifies three potential snRNA-snRNA base-pairing interactions, all of which are consistent with available phylogenetic data. Two......We have identified and characterized the full set of spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs; U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6) from the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. With the exception of U4 snRNA, the sizes of the T. thermophila snRNAs are closely similar to their metazoan homologues. The T....... thermophila snRNAs all have unique 5' ends, which start with an adenine residue. In contrast, with the exception of U6, their 3' ends show some size heterogeneity. The primary sequences of the T. thermophila snRNAs contain the sequence motifs shown, or proposed, to be of functional importance in other...
Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke; Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup; Boysen, Anders
and adhesive state that enables biofilm formation on surfaces. For this, the bacterium needs to reprogramme its gene expression, and in many E. coli and Salmonella strains the lifestyle shift relies on control cascades that inhibit flagellar expression and activate the synthesis of curli, extracellular...... adhesive fibres important for co-aggregation of cells and adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces. By combining bioinformatics, genetic and biochemical analysis we identified three small RNAs that act by an antisense mechanism to downregulate translation of CsgD, the master regulator of curli synthesis...
Sheehan, Lauren M.
ABSTRACT In Brucella abortus, two small RNAs (sRNAs), AbcR1 and AbcR2, are responsible for regulating transcripts encoding ABC-type transport systems. AbcR1 and AbcR2 are required for Brucella virulence, as a double chromosomal deletion of both sRNAs results in attenuation in mice. Although these sRNAs are responsible for targeting transcripts for degradation, the mechanism utilized by the AbcR sRNAs to regulate mRNA in Brucella has not been described. Here, two motifs (M1 and M2) were identified in AbcR1 and AbcR2, and complementary motif sequences were defined in AbcR-regulated transcripts. Site-directed mutagenesis of M1 or M2 or of both M1 and M2 in the sRNAs revealed transcripts to be targeted by one or both motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed direct, concentration-dependent binding of both AbcR sRNAs to a target mRNA sequence. These experiments genetically and biochemically characterized two indispensable motifs within the AbcR sRNAs that bind to and regulate transcripts. Additionally, cellular and animal models of infection demonstrated that only M2 in the AbcR sRNAs is required for Brucella virulence. Furthermore, one of the M2-regulated targets, BAB2_0612, was found to be critical for the virulence of B. abortus in a mouse model of infection. Although these sRNAs are highly conserved among Alphaproteobacteria, the present report displays how gene regulation mediated by the AbcR sRNAs has diverged to meet the intricate regulatory requirements of each particular organism and its unique biological niche. PMID:28588127
Lauren M. Sheehan
Full Text Available In Brucella abortus, two small RNAs (sRNAs, AbcR1 and AbcR2, are responsible for regulating transcripts encoding ABC-type transport systems. AbcR1 and AbcR2 are required for Brucella virulence, as a double chromosomal deletion of both sRNAs results in attenuation in mice. Although these sRNAs are responsible for targeting transcripts for degradation, the mechanism utilized by the AbcR sRNAs to regulate mRNA in Brucella has not been described. Here, two motifs (M1 and M2 were identified in AbcR1 and AbcR2, and complementary motif sequences were defined in AbcR-regulated transcripts. Site-directed mutagenesis of M1 or M2 or of both M1 and M2 in the sRNAs revealed transcripts to be targeted by one or both motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed direct, concentration-dependent binding of both AbcR sRNAs to a target mRNA sequence. These experiments genetically and biochemically characterized two indispensable motifs within the AbcR sRNAs that bind to and regulate transcripts. Additionally, cellular and animal models of infection demonstrated that only M2 in the AbcR sRNAs is required for Brucella virulence. Furthermore, one of the M2-regulated targets, BAB2_0612, was found to be critical for the virulence of B. abortus in a mouse model of infection. Although these sRNAs are highly conserved among Alphaproteobacteria, the present report displays how gene regulation mediated by the AbcR sRNAs has diverged to meet the intricate regulatory requirements of each particular organism and its unique biological niche.
Full Text Available Autosomal-recessive loss of the NSUN2 gene has been identified as a causative link to intellectual disability disorders in humans. NSun2 is an RNA methyltransferase modifying cytosine-5 in transfer RNAs (tRNAs, yet the identification of cytosine methylation in other RNA species has been hampered by the lack of sensitive and reliable molecular techniques. Here, we describe miCLIP as an additional approach for identifying RNA methylation sites in transcriptomes. miCLIP is a customized version of the individual-nucleotide-resolution crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP method. We confirm site-specific methylation in tRNAs and additional messenger and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs. Among these, vault ncRNAs contained six NSun2-methylated cytosines, three of which were confirmed by RNA bisulfite sequencing. Using patient cells lacking the NSun2 protein, we further show that loss of cytosine-5 methylation in vault RNAs causes aberrant processing into Argonaute-associated small RNA fragments that can function as microRNAs. Thus, impaired processing of vault ncRNA may contribute to the etiology of NSun2-deficiency human disorders.
Full Text Available All types of small RNAs in plants, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs in animals and a subset of siRNAs in Drosophila and C. elegans are subject to HEN1 mediated 3' terminal 2'-O-methylation. This modification plays a pivotal role in protecting small RNAs from 3' uridylation, trimming and degradation. In Arabidopsis, HESO1 is a major enzyme that uridylates small RNAs to trigger their degradation. However, U-tail is still present in null hen1 heso1 mutants, suggesting the existence of (an enzymatic activities redundant with HESO1. Here, we report that UTP: RNA uridylyltransferase (URT1 is a functional paralog of HESO1. URT1 interacts with AGO1 and plays a predominant role in miRNA uridylation when HESO1 is absent. Uridylation of miRNA is globally abolished in a hen1 heso1 urt1 triple mutant, accompanied by an extensive increase of 3'-to-5' trimming. In contrast, disruption of URT1 appears not to affect the heterochromatic siRNA uridylation. This indicates the involvement of additional nucleotidyl transferases in the siRNA pathway. Analysis of miRNA tailings in the hen1 heso1 urt1 triple mutant also reveals the existence of previously unknown enzymatic activities that can add non-uridine nucleotides. Importantly, we show HESO1 may also act redundantly with URT1 in miRNA uridylation when HEN1 is fully competent. Taken together, our data not only reveal a synergistic action of HESO1 and URT1 in the 3' uridylation of miRNAs, but also independent activities of multiple terminal nucleotidyl transferases in the 3' tailing of small RNAs and an antagonistic relationship between uridylation and trimming. Our results may provide further insight into the mechanisms of small RNA 3' end modification and stability control.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are highly conserved ∼22-mer RNA molecules, encoded by plants and animals that regulate the expression of genes binding to the 3′-UTR of specific target mRNAs. The amount of miRNAs in a total RNA sample depends on the recovery efficiency that may be significantly affected by the different purification methods employed. Traditional approaches may be inefficient at recovering small RNAs, and common spectrophotometric determination is not adequate to quantify selectively these low molecular weight (LMW species from total RNA samples. Here, we describe the use of qualitative and quantitative lab-on-a-chip tools for the analysis of these LMW RNA species. Our data emphasize the close correlation of LMW RNAs with the expression levels of some miRNAs. We therefore applied our result to the comparison of some miRNA expression profiles in different tissues. Finally, the methods we used in this paper allowed us to analyze the efficiency of extraction protocols, to study the small (but significant differences among various preparations and to allow a proper comparison of some miRNA expression profiles in various tissues.
Huang, Yuan-Pin; Lin, I.-Jou; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lee, Mon-Juan
Carbon nanotubes are capable of penetrating the cell membrane and are widely considered as potential carriers for gene or drug delivery. Because the C-C and C=C bonds in carbon nanotubes are nonpolar, functionalization is required for carbon nanotubes to interact with genes or drugs as well as to improve their biocompatibility. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI)-functionalized single-wall (PEI-NH-SWNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (PEI-NH-MWNTs) were produced by direct amination method. PEI functionalization increased the positive charge on the surface of SWNTs and MWNTs, allowing carbon nanotubes to interact electrostatically with the negatively charged small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and to serve as nonviral gene delivery reagents. PEI-NH-MWNTs and PEI-NH-SWNTs had a better solubility in water than pristine carbon nanotubes, and further removal of large aggregates by centrifugation produced a stable suspension of reduced particle size and improved homogeneity and dispersity. The amount of grafted PEI estimated by thermogravimetric analysis was 5.08% ( w/ w) and 5.28% ( w/ w) for PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs, respectively. For the assessment of cytotoxicity, various concentrations of PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs were incubated with human cervical cancer cells, HeLa-S3, for 48 h. PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs induced cell deaths in a dose-dependent manner but were less cytotoxic compared to pure PEI. As determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, siRNAs directed against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (siGAPDH) were completely associated with PEI-NH-SWNTs or PEI-NH-MWNTs at a PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH or PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratio of 80:1 or 160:1, respectively. Furthermore, PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs successfully delivered siGAPDH into HeLa-S3 cells at PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH and PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratios of 1:1 to 20:1, resulting in suppression of the mRNA level of GAPDH to an extent similar to that of DharmaFECT, a common transfection
Vainio, Eeva J; Jurvansuu, Jaana; Streng, Janne; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Hantula, Jarkko; Valkonen, Jari P T
Analysis of virus-derived small RNAs with high-throughput sequencing has been successful for detecting novel viruses in plants and invertebrates. However, the applicability of this method has not been demonstrated in fungi, although fungi were among the first organisms reported to utilize RNA silencing. Here, we used virus-infected isolates of the fungal species complex Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato as a model system to test whether mycovirus genome segments can be detected with small RNA deep sequencing. Species of the genus Heterobasidion are some of the most devastating forest pathogens in boreal forests. These fungi cause wood decay and are commonly infected with species of the family Partitiviridae and the unassigned virus species Heterobasidion RNA virus 6. Small RNA deep sequencing allowed the simultaneous detection of all eight double-stranded RNA virus strains known to be present in the tested samples and one putative mitovirus species (family Narnaviridae) with a single-stranded RNA genome, designated here as Heterobasidion mitovirus 1. Prior to this study, no members of the family Narnaviridae had been described as infecting species of Heterobasidion. Quantification of viral double- and single-stranded RNA with quantitative PCR indicated that co-infecting viral species and viruses with segmented genomes can be detected with small RNA deep sequencing despite vast differences in the amount of RNA. This is the first study demonstrating the usefulness of this method for detecting fungal viruses. Moreover, the results suggest that viral genomes are processed into small RNAs by different species of Heterobasidion. © 2015 The Authors.
The hexaploid nature of the oat (Avena sativa) genome, coupled with its large genome and high repetitive element content, presents an obstacle to genome research in this crop. We assessed the potential value of the model grass Brachypodium as a surrogate genome for oat genome research, through compa...
Daniel H Buitrago
Full Text Available The preservation of microRNAs in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue makes them particularly useful for biomarker studies. The utility of small RNA sequencing for microRNA expression profiling of FFPE samples has yet to be determined.Total RNA was extracted from de-paraffinized and proteinase K-treated FFPE specimens (15-20 years old of 8 human lung adenocarcinoma tumors by affinity chromatography on silica columns. MicroRNAs in the RNA preparations were quantified by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform with sequencing libraries prepared with the TruSeq Small RNA Sample Preparation Kit (version 2.0 to obtain unpaired reads of 50 b for small RNA fragments. MicroRNAs were also quantified using Agilent Human miRNA (release 16.0 microarrays that can detect 1,205 mature microRNAs and by quantitative reverse transcription (RT-PCR assays.Between 9.1-16.9 million reads were obtained by small RNA sequencing of extracted RNA samples. Of these, only 0.6-2.3% (mean = 1.5% represented microRNAs. The sequencing method detected 454-625 microRNAs/sample (mean = 550 compared with 200-349 (mean = 286 microRNAs detected by microarray. In Spearman correlation analyses, the average correlation coefficient for the 126 microRNAs detected in all samples by both methods was 0.37, and >0.5 for 63 microRNAs. In correlation analyses of the sequencing- and RT-PCR-based measurements, the coefficients were 0.19-0.95 (mean = 0.73 and >0.7, respectively, for 7 of 9 examined microRNAs. The average inter-replicate Spearman correlation coefficient for the sequencing method was 0.81.Small RNA sequencing can be used to obtain microRNA profiles of FFPE tissue specimens with performance characteristics similar to those of microarrays, in spite of the fragmentation of ribosomal and messenger RNAs that reduces the method's informative capacity. The accuracy of the method can conceivably be improved by increasing sequencing depth and/or depleting FFPE tissue RNAs of
Özkan, Selin; Mohorianu, Irina; Xu, Ping; Dalmay, Tamas; Coutts, Robert H A
Mycoviruses are viruses that naturally infect and replicate in fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic pathogen causing fungal lung diseases in humans and animals, was recently shown to harbour several different types of mycoviruses. A well-characterised defence against virus infection is RNA silencing. The A. fumigatus genome encodes essential components of the RNA silencing machinery, including Dicer, Argonaute and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) homologues. Active silencing of double-stranded (ds)RNA and the generation of small RNAs (sRNAs) has been shown for several mycoviruses and it is anticipated that a similar mechanism will be activated in A. fumigatus isolates infected with mycoviruses. To investigate the existence and nature of A. fumigatus sRNAs, sRNA-seq libraries of virus-free and virus-infected isolates were created using Scriptminer adapters and compared. Three dsRNA viruses were investigated: Aspergillus fumigatus partitivirus-1 (AfuPV-1, PV), Aspergillus fumigatus chrysovirus (AfuCV, CV) and Aspergillus fumigatus tetramycovirus-1 (AfuTmV-1, NK) which were selected because they induce phenotypic changes such as coloration and sectoring. The dsRNAs of all three viruses, which included two conventionally encapsidated ones PV and CV and one unencapsidated example NK, were silenced and yielded characteristic vsiRNAs together with co-incidental silencing of host fungal genes which shared sequence homology with the viral genomes. Virus-derived sRNAs were detected and characterised in the presence of virus infection. Differentially expressed A. fumigatus microRNA-like (miRNA-like) sRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were detected and validated. Host sRNA loci which were differentially expressed as a result of virus infection were also identified. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the sRNA profiles of A. fumigatus isolates.
Statham Emily R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachypodium distachyon constitutes an excellent model species for grasses. It is a small, easily propagated, temperate grass with a rapid life cycle and a small genome. It is a self-fertile plant that can be transformed with high efficiency using Agrobacteria and callus derived from immature embryos. In addition, considerable genetic and genomic resources are becoming available for this species in the form of mapping populations, large expressed sequence tag collections, T-DNA insertion lines and, in the near future, the complete genome sequence. The development of Brachypodium as a model species is of particular value in the areas of cell wall and biomass research, where differences between dicots and grasses are greatest. Here we explore the effect of mild conditions of pretreatment and hydrolysis in Brachypodium stem segments as a contribution for the establishment of sensitive screening of the saccharification properties in different genetic materials. Results The non-cellulosic monosaccharide composition of Brachypodium is closely related to grasses of agricultural importance and significantly different from the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. Diluted acid pretreatment of stem segments produced significant release of sugars and negatively affected the amount of sugars obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. Monosaccharide and oligosaccharide analysis showed that the hemicellulose fraction is the main target of the enzymatic activity under the modest hydrolytic conditions used in our assays. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the treated materials showed progressive exposure of fibrils in the stem segments. Conclusion Results presented here indicate that under mild conditions cellulose and hemicellulose are hydrolysed to differing extents, with hemicellulose hydrolysis predominating. We anticipate that the sub-optimal conditions for hydrolysis identified here will provide a sensitive assay to detect variations in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Small untranslated RNAs (sRNAs seem to be far more abundant than previously believed. The number of sRNAs confirmed in E. coli through various approaches is above 70, with several hundred more sRNA candidate genes under biological validation. Although the total number of sRNAs in any one species is still unclear, their importance in cellular processes has been established. However, unlike protein genes, no simple feature enables the prediction of the location of the corresponding sequences in genomes. Several approaches, of variable usefulness, to identify genomic sequences encoding sRNA have been described in recent years. Results We used a combination of in silico comparative genomics and microarray-based transcriptional profiling. This approach to screening identified ~60 intergenic regions conserved between Sinorhizobium meliloti and related members of the alpha-proteobacteria sub-group 2. Of these, 14 appear to correspond to novel non-coding sRNAs and three are putative peptide-coding or 5' UTR RNAs (ORF smaller than 100 aa. The expression of each of these new small RNA genes was confirmed by Northern blot hybridization. Conclusion Small non coding RNA (sra genes can be found in the intergenic regions of alpha-proteobacteria genomes. Some of these sra genes are only present in S. meliloti, sometimes in genomic islands; homologues of others are present in related genomes including those of the pathogens Brucella and Agrobacterium.
Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J
Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Small noncoding antisense RNAs (sasRNAs guide epigenetic silencing complexes to target loci in human cells and modulate gene transcription. When these targeted loci are situated within a promoter, long-term, stable epigenetic silencing of transcription can occur. Recent studies suggest that there exists an endogenous form of such epigenetic regulation in human cells involving long noncoding RNAs. In this article, we present and validate an algorithm for the generation of highly effective sasRNAs that can mimic the endogenous noncoding RNAs involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We validate this algorithm by targeting several oncogenes including AKT-1, c-MYC, K-RAS, and H-RAS. We also target a long antisense RNA that mediates the epigenetic repression of the tumor suppressor gene DUSP6, silenced in pancreatic cancer. An algorithm that can efficiently design small noncoding RNAs for the epigenetic transcriptional silencing or activation of specific genes has potential therapeutic and experimental applications.
Peláez, Pablo; Hernández-López, Alejandrina; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Sanchez, Federico
Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a pathogenic bacteria that causes hairy root disease by transferring bacterial DNA into the plant genome. It is an essential tool for industry and research due to its capacity to produce genetically modified roots and whole organisms. Here, we identified and characterized small RNAs generated from the transfer DNA (T-DNA) of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Distinct abundant A. rhizogenes T-DNA-derived small RNAs (ArT-sRNAs) belonging to several oncogenes were detected in hairy roots using high-throughput sequencing. The most abundant and diverse species of ArT-sRNAs were those of 21- and 22-nucleotides in length. Many T-DNA encoded genes constituted phasiRNA producing loci (PHAS loci). Interestingly, degradome analysis revealed that ArT-sRNAs potentially target genes of P. vulgaris. In addition, we detected low levels of ArT-sRNAs in the A. rhizogenes-induced calli generated at the wound site before hairy root emergence. These results suggest that RNA silencing targets several genes from T-DNA of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean. Therefore, the role of RNA silencing observed in this study has implications in our understanding and usage of this unique plant-bacteria interaction. PMID:28203245
Recent studies point to the existence of poorly characterized small regulatory RNAs generated from mRNAs, rRNAs and tRNAs. To explore the subcellular location of tRNA-derived small RNAs, 0–1 and 7–8 h Drosophila embryos were fractionated on sucrose density gradients. Analysis of 12,553,921 deep-sequencing reads from unfractionated and fractionated Drosophila embryos has revealed that tRFs, which are detected mainly from the 5’ends of tRNAs, co-sediment with the non-polysomal fractions. Interestingly, the expression levels of a subset of tRFs change temporally following the maternal-to-zygotic transition in embryos. We detected non-polysomal association of tRFs in S2 cells as well. Differential tRF expression pattern points to developmental significance at the organismal level. These results suggest that tRFs are associated primarily with the non-polysomal complexes in Drosophila embryos and S2 cells. PMID:29156628
Orum, H; Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J
We report the sequences of the genes encoding the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) U1 to U6 of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. The genes of the individual snRNAs exist in two to six slightly different copies per haploid genome. Sequence analyses of the gene-flanking regions indicate that there ar......We report the sequences of the genes encoding the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) U1 to U6 of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. The genes of the individual snRNAs exist in two to six slightly different copies per haploid genome. Sequence analyses of the gene-flanking regions indicate...
Lukasik, Anna; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by inhibiting the protein translation or targeting the mRNA cleavage. They play many important roles in living organism cells; however, the knowledge on miRNAs functions has become more extensive upon their identification in biological fluids and recent reports on plant-origin miRNAs abundance in human plasma and serum. Considering these findings, we performed a rigorous bioinformatics analysis of publicly available, raw data from high-throughput sequencing studies on miRNAs composition in human and porcine breast milk exosomes to identify the fraction of food-derived miRNAs. Several processing and filtering steps were applied to increase the accuracy, and to avoid false positives. Through aforementioned analysis, 35 and 17 miRNA species, belonging to 25 and 11 MIR families, were identified, respectively. In the human samples the highest abundance levels yielded the ath-miR166a, pab-miR951, ptc-miR472a and bdi-miR168, while in the porcine breast milk exosomes, the zma-miR168a, zma-miR156a and ath-miR166a have been identified in the largest amounts. The consensus prediction and annotation of potential human targets for select plant miRNAs suggest that the aforementioned molecules may interact with mRNAs coding several transcription factors, protein receptors, transporters and immune-related proteins, thus potentially influencing human organism. Taken together, the presented analysis shows proof of abundant plant miRNAs in mammal breast milk exosomes, pointing at the same time to the new possibilities arising from this discovery.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by inhibiting the protein translation or targeting the mRNA cleavage. They play many important roles in living organism cells; however, the knowledge on miRNAs functions has become more extensive upon their identification in biological fluids and recent reports on plant-origin miRNAs abundance in human plasma and serum. Considering these findings, we performed a rigorous bioinformatics analysis of publicly available, raw data from high-throughput sequencing studies on miRNAs composition in human and porcine breast milk exosomes to identify the fraction of food-derived miRNAs. Several processing and filtering steps were applied to increase the accuracy, and to avoid false positives. Through aforementioned analysis, 35 and 17 miRNA species, belonging to 25 and 11 MIR families, were identified, respectively. In the human samples the highest abundance levels yielded the ath-miR166a, pab-miR951, ptc-miR472a and bdi-miR168, while in the porcine breast milk exosomes, the zma-miR168a, zma-miR156a and ath-miR166a have been identified in the largest amounts. The consensus prediction and annotation of potential human targets for select plant miRNAs suggest that the aforementioned molecules may interact with mRNAs coding several transcription factors, protein receptors, transporters and immune-related proteins, thus potentially influencing human organism. Taken together, the presented analysis shows proof of abundant plant miRNAs in mammal breast milk exosomes, pointing at the same time to the new possibilities arising from this discovery.
Overgaard, Martin; Kallipolitis, Birgitte; Valentin-Hansen, Poul
Summary In recent years, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as important regulatory components in bacterial stress responses and in bacterial virulence. Many of these are conserved in related species and act on target mRNAs by sequence complementarity. They are tightly controlled...... at the transcription level, and are frequently elements of global regulatory systems. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella, almost one-third of the functional characterized small RNAs participate in control of outer membrane protein production. A subset of these genes is under the control of the sigma......(E)-signalling system that monitors the folding status of the envelope and interacts with other regulatory systems to integrate multiple signals into a co-ordinated cellular response. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Moon and Gottesman describe a novel baseparing small RNA that participates in modulation...
Shah, Ravi; Yeri, Ashish; Das, Avash; Courtright-Lim, Amanda; Ziegler, Olivia; Gervino, Ernest; Ocel, Jeffrey; Quintero-Pinzon, Pablo; Wooster, Luke; Bailey, Cole Shields; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Beaulieu, Lea M; Freedman, Jane E; Ghiran, Ionita; Lewis, Gregory D; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Das, Saumya
Exercise improves cardiometabolic and vascular function, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Our objective was to demonstrate the diversity of circulating extracellular RNA (ex-RNA) release during acute exercise in humans and its relevance to exercise-mediated benefits on vascular inflammation. We performed plasma small RNA sequencing in 26 individuals undergoing symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise, with replication of our top candidate miRNA in a separate cohort of 59 individuals undergoing bicycle ergometry. We found changes in miRNAs and other ex-RNAs with exercise (e.g., Y RNAs and tRNAs) implicated in cardiovascular disease. In two independent cohorts of acute maximal exercise, we identified miR-181b-5p as a key ex-RNA increased in plasma after exercise, with validation in a separate cohort. In a mouse model of acute exercise, we found significant increases in miR-181b-5p expression in skeletal muscle after acute exercise in young (but not older) mice. Previous work revealed a strong role for miR-181b-5p in vascular inflammation in obesity, insulin resistance, sepsis, and cardiovascular disease. We conclude that circulating ex-RNAs were altered in plasma after acute exercise target pathways involved in inflammation, including miR-181b-5p. Further investigation into the role of known (e.g., miRNA) and novel (e.g., Y RNAs) RNAs is warranted to uncover new mechanisms of vascular inflammation on exercise-mediated benefits on health.NEW & NOTEWORTHY How exercise provides benefits to cardiometabolic health remains unclear. We performed RNA sequencing in plasma during exercise to identify the landscape of small noncoding circulating transcriptional changes. Our results suggest a link between inflammation and exercise, providing rich data on circulating noncoding RNAs for future studies by the scientific community. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Jaclyn C Scott
Full Text Available The exogenous RNA interference (RNAi pathway is an important antiviral defense against arboviruses in mosquitoes, and virus-specific small interfering (siRNAs are key components of this pathway. Understanding the biogenesis of siRNAs in mosquitoes could have important ramifications in using RNAi to control arbovirus transmission. Using deep sequencing technology, we characterized dengue virus type 2 (DENV2-specific small RNAs produced during infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and A. aegypti Aag2 cell cultures and compared them to those produced in the C6/36 Aedes albopictus cell line. We show that the size and mixed polarity of virus-specific small RNAs from DENV-infected A. aegypti cells indicate that they are products of Dicer-2 (Dcr2 cleavage of long dsRNA, whereas C6/36 cells generate DENV2-specific small RNAs that are longer and predominantly positive polarity, suggesting that they originate from a different small RNA pathway. Examination of virus-specific small RNAs after infection of the two mosquito cell lines with the insect-only flavivirus cell fusing agent virus (CFAV corroborated these findings. An in vitro assay also showed that Aag2 A. aegypti cells are capable of siRNA production, while C6/36 A. albopictus cells exhibit inefficient Dcr2 cleavage of long dsRNA. Defective expression or function of Dcr2, the key initiator of the RNAi pathway, might explain the comparatively robust growth of arthropod-borne viruses in the C6/36 cell line, which has been used frequently as a surrogate for studying molecular interactions between arboviruses and cells of their mosquito hosts.
Scott, Jaclyn C; Brackney, Doug E; Campbell, Corey L; Bondu-Hawkins, Virginie; Hjelle, Brian; Ebel, Greg D; Olson, Ken E; Blair, Carol D
The exogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is an important antiviral defense against arboviruses in mosquitoes, and virus-specific small interfering (si)RNAs are key components of this pathway. Understanding the biogenesis of siRNAs in mosquitoes could have important ramifications in using RNAi to control arbovirus transmission. Using deep sequencing technology, we characterized dengue virus type 2 (DENV2)-specific small RNAs produced during infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and A. aegypti Aag2 cell cultures and compared them to those produced in the C6/36 Aedes albopictus cell line. We show that the size and mixed polarity of virus-specific small RNAs from DENV-infected A. aegypti cells indicate that they are products of Dicer-2 (Dcr2) cleavage of long dsRNA, whereas C6/36 cells generate DENV2-specific small RNAs that are longer and predominantly positive polarity, suggesting that they originate from a different small RNA pathway. Examination of virus-specific small RNAs after infection of the two mosquito cell lines with the insect-only flavivirus cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) corroborated these findings. An in vitro assay also showed that Aag2 A. aegypti cells are capable of siRNA production, while C6/36 A. albopictus cells exhibit inefficient Dcr2 cleavage of long dsRNA. Defective expression or function of Dcr2, the key initiator of the RNAi pathway, might explain the comparatively robust growth of arthropod-borne viruses in the C6/36 cell line, which has been used frequently as a surrogate for studying molecular interactions between arboviruses and cells of their mosquito hosts.
Chaves, Inês; Costa, Bruno Vasques; Rodrigues, Andreia S; Bohn, Andreas; Miguel, Célia M
miRPursuit is a pipeline developed for running end-to-end analyses of high-throughput small RNA (sRNA) sequence data in model and nonmodel plants, from raw data to identified and annotated conserved and novel sequences. It consists of a series of UNIX shell scripts, which connect open-source sRNA analysis software. The involved parameters can be combined with convenient workflow management by users without advanced computational skills. miRPursuit presents several advantages when compared to other tools, including the possibility of processing several sRNA libraries in parallel, thus easily allowing a comparison of the differences in sRNA read accumulation among sRNA libraries. We validate miRPursuit by using datasets from a model plant and discuss its performance with the analysis of sRNAs from non-model species. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Williams, Sarah; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Pappu, Hanu R
RNA silencing mechanism functions as a major defense against invading viruses. The caveat in the RNA silencing mechanism is that the effector small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) act on any RNA transcripts with sequence complementarity irrespective of target's origin. A subset of highly expressed viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) derived from the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae) genome was analyzed for their propensity to downregulate the tomato transcriptome. A total of 11898 putative target sites on tomato transcripts were found to exhibit a propensity for down regulation by TSWV-derived vsiRNAs. In total, 2450 unique vsiRNAs were found to have potential cross-reacting capability with the tomato transcriptome. VsiRNAs were found to potentially target a gamut of host genes involved in basal cellular activities including enzymes, transcription factors, membrane transporters, and cytoskeletal proteins. KEGG pathway annotation of targets revealed that the vsiRNAs were mapped to secondary metabolite biosynthesis, amino acids, starch and sucrose metabolism, and carbon and purine metabolism. Transcripts for protein processing, hormone signalling, and plant-pathogen interactions were the most likely targets from the genetic, environmental information processing, and organismal systems, respectively. qRT-PCR validation of target gene expression showed that none of the selected transcripts from tomato cv. Marglobe showed up regulation, and all were down regulated even upto 20 folds (high affinity glucose transporter). However, the expression levels of transcripts from cv. Red Defender revealed differential regulation as three among the target transcripts showed up regulation (Cc-nbs-lrr, resistance protein, AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor, and heat stress transcription factor A3). Accumulation of tomato target mRNAs of corresponding length was proved in both tomato cultivars using 5' RACE analysis. The TSWV-tomato interaction at
Liu, Shan Shan; Zhu, Wen Hui; Zhi, Qing Hui; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yan; Lin, Huan Cai
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major pathogen contributing to dental caries. Sucrose is an important carbohydrate source for S. mutans and is crucial for dental caries. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are key post-transcriptional regulators of stress adaptation and virulence in bacteria. Here, for the first time, we created three replicate RNA libraries exposed to either 1 or 5% sucrose. The expression levels of sRNAs and target genes (gtfB, gtfC, and spaP) related to virulence were assessed. In addition, some phenotypic traits were evaluated. We obtained 2125 sRNA candidates with at least 100 average reads in 1% sucrose or 5% sucrose. Of these candidates, 2 were upregulated and 20 were downregulated in 1% sucrose. Six of these 22 differentially expressed sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The expression level of target gene gtfB was higher in 1% sucrose. The adherence ratio of S. mutans was higher in 1% sucrose than in 5% sucrose. The synthesis of water-insoluble glucans (WIGs) was significantly higher in 5% sucrose than in 1% sucrose. These data suggest that a series of sRNAs can be induced in response to sucrose, and that some sRNAs might be involved in the regulation of phenotypes, providing new insight into the prevention of caries.
Full Text Available Increasing evidence has demonstrated that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs play important roles in tumorigenesis. We systematically investigated the expression landscape and clinical relevance of snoRNAs in >10,000 samples across 31 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We observed overall elevated expression of snoRNAs and their ribonucleoproteins in multiple cancer types. We showed complex regulation of snoRNA expression by their host genes, copy number variation, and DNA methylation. Unsupervised clustering revealed that the snoRNA expression subtype is highly concordant with other molecular/clinical subtypes. We further identified 46 clinically relevant snoRNAs and experimentally demonstrated functional roles of SNORD46 in promoting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. We developed a user-friendly data portal, SNORic, to benefit the research community. Our study highlights the significant roles of snoRNAs in the development and implementation of biomarkers or therapeutic targets for cancer and provides a valuable resource for cancer research.
Sun, Zongtao; He, Yuqing; Li, Junmin; Wang, Xu; Chen, Jianping
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs which typically function by guiding cleavage of target mRNAs. They play important roles in development, abiotic stress and responses to pathogens. Four small RNA libraries and four degradome libraries were constructed from the leaves and roots of healthy rice and plants infected with Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). Analysis of the deep sequencing results showed that the expression patterns of 14 miRNAs in leaves and 16 miRNAs in roots changed significantly in response to RBSDV infection. Some responses were similar in roots and leaves, but many miRNAs responded differently in different tissues. The results were confirmed for selected miRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR. By using degradome sequencing, a total of 104 target transcripts for 17 conserved and 16 non-conserved miRNAs were shown to be responsive to RBSDV infection. Fifteen novel miRNAs were also identified by small RNA and degradome sequencing. The results provide new insights into the regulatory networks of miRNAs and their targets in different plant tissues in response to virus infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Tanackovic, Vanja; Svensson, Jan T.; Jensen, Susanne Langgård
Brachypodium distachyon is a non-domesticated cereal. Nonetheless, Brachypodium was recently introduced as a model plant for temperate cereals. This study compares grain starch metabolism in Brachypodium and barley (Hordeum vulgare). In Brachypodium, we identified and annotated 28 genes involved...
Gómez Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise
regulatory functions. Results: In this study we used RNA-seq to identify 232 antisense RNAs (asRNAs) in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under 13 different conditions. The conditions studied include exponential and stationary growth as well as osmotic, oxidative and antibiotic stress...... their expression under osmotic, oxidative and antibiotic stress, suggesting that asRNAs may play regulatory roles during these conditions. We also made a comparison between the asRNAs detected in this study in P. aeruginosa PAO1 with the asRNAs detected in two previous studies in P. aeruginosa PA14, and found...... that the extent of overlap between the studies is very limited. Conclusions: RNA-seq experiments are revealing hundreds of novel transcripts in all bacterial genomes investigated. The comparison between independent studies that used RNA-seq to detect novel asRNAs in P. aeruginosa shows that the overlap between...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs in the infected host can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates, self-complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action of host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. The vsiRNA abundance and profile as well as the endogenous small RNA population can vary between different hosts infected by the same virus influencing viral pathogenicity and host response. There are no reports on the analysis of vsiRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, a segmented negative stranded RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae, with two of its gene segments showing ambisense gene arrangement. The virus causes significant economic losses to numerous field and horticultural crops worldwide. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV-specific vsiRNAs were characterized by deep sequencing in virus-infected experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana and a commercial, susceptible host tomato. The total small (s RNA reads in TSWV-infected tomato sample showed relatively equal distribution of 21, 22 and 24 nt, whereas N. benthamiana sample was dominated by 24 nt total sRNAs. The number of vsiRNA reads detected in tomato was many a magnitude (~350:1 higher than those found in N. benthamiana, however the profile of vsiRNAs in terms of relative abundance 21, 22 and 24 nt class size was similar in both the hosts. Maximum vsiRNA reads were obtained for the M RNA segment of TSWV while the largest L RNA segment had the least number of vsiRNAs in both tomato and N. benthamiana. Only the silencing suppressor, NSs, of TSWV recorded higher antisense vsiRNA with respect to the coding frame among all the genes of TSWV. SIGNIFICANCE: Details of the origin, distribution and abundance of TSWV vsiRNAs could be useful in designing efficient targets for exploiting RNA interference for virus resistance. It also has major implications toward our understanding of the differential processing of vsiRNAs
Mitter, Neena; Koundal, Vikas; Williams, Sarah; Pappu, Hanu
Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) in the infected host can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates, self-complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action of host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. The vsiRNA abundance and profile as well as the endogenous small RNA population can vary between different hosts infected by the same virus influencing viral pathogenicity and host response. There are no reports on the analysis of vsiRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a segmented negative stranded RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae, with two of its gene segments showing ambisense gene arrangement. The virus causes significant economic losses to numerous field and horticultural crops worldwide. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)-specific vsiRNAs were characterized by deep sequencing in virus-infected experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana and a commercial, susceptible host tomato. The total small (s) RNA reads in TSWV-infected tomato sample showed relatively equal distribution of 21, 22 and 24 nt, whereas N. benthamiana sample was dominated by 24 nt total sRNAs. The number of vsiRNA reads detected in tomato was many a magnitude (~350:1) higher than those found in N. benthamiana, however the profile of vsiRNAs in terms of relative abundance 21, 22 and 24 nt class size was similar in both the hosts. Maximum vsiRNA reads were obtained for the M RNA segment of TSWV while the largest L RNA segment had the least number of vsiRNAs in both tomato and N. benthamiana. Only the silencing suppressor, NSs, of TSWV recorded higher antisense vsiRNA with respect to the coding frame among all the genes of TSWV. Details of the origin, distribution and abundance of TSWV vsiRNAs could be useful in designing efficient targets for exploiting RNA interference for virus resistance. It also has major implications toward our understanding of the differential processing of vsiRNAs in antiviral defense and viral pathogenicity.
Catalan, Pilar; Chalhoub, Boulos; Chochois, Vincent
The scientific presentations at the First International Brachypodium Conference (abstracts available at http://www.brachy2013.unimore.it) are evidence of the wide-spread adoption of Brachypodium distachyon as a model system. Furthermore, the wide range of topics presented (genome evolution, roots...
Cooper, Edwin L.; Overstreet, Nicola
Recent evidence supports that prokaryotes exhibit adaptive immunity in the form of CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats) and Cas (CRISPR associated proteins). The CRISPR-Cas system confers resistance to exogenous genetic elements such as phages and plasmids by allowing for the recognition and silencing of these genetic elements. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas serves as a memory of past exposures. This suggests that the evolution of the immune system has counterparts among the prokaryotes, not exclusively among eukaryotes. Mathematical models have been proposed which simulate the evolutionary patterns of CRISPR, however large gaps in our understanding of CRISPR-Cas function and evolution still exist. The CRISPR-Cas system is analogous to small RNAs involved in resistance mechanisms throughout the tree of life, and a deeper understanding of the evolution of small RNA pathways is necessary before the relationship between these convergent systems is to be determined. Presented in this review are novel RNAi therapies based on CRISPR-Cas analogs and the potential for future therapies based on CRISPR-Cas system components.
Neil A Smith
Full Text Available The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat has a small non-protein-coding RNA genome that induces yellowing symptoms in infected Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco. How this RNA pathogen induces such symptoms has been a longstanding question. We show that the yellowing symptoms are a result of small interfering RNA (siRNA-directed RNA silencing of the chlorophyll biosynthetic gene, CHLI. The CHLI mRNA contains a 22-nucleotide (nt complementary sequence to the Y-Sat genome, and in Y-Sat-infected plants, CHLI expression is dramatically down-regulated. Small RNA sequencing and 5' RACE analyses confirmed that this 22-nt sequence was targeted for mRNA cleavage by Y-Sat-derived siRNAs. Transformation of tobacco with a RNA interference (RNAi vector targeting CHLI induced Y-Sat-like symptoms. In addition, the symptoms of Y-Sat infection can be completely prevented by transforming tobacco with a silencing-resistant variant of the CHLI gene. These results suggest that siRNA-directed silencing of CHLI is solely responsible for the Y-Sat-induced symptoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that two Nicotiana species, which do not develop yellowing symptoms upon Y-Sat infection, contain a single nucleotide polymorphism within the siRNA-targeted CHLI sequence. This suggests that the previously observed species specificity of Y-Sat-induced symptoms is due to natural sequence variation in the CHLI gene, preventing CHLI silencing in species with a mismatch to the Y-Sat siRNA. Taken together, these findings provide the first demonstration of small RNA-mediated viral disease symptom production and offer an explanation of the species specificity of the viral disease.
Pri-Tal, Oded; Shaar-Moshe, Lidor; Wiseglass, Gil; Peleg, Zvi; Mosquna, Assaf
Abiotic stresses have severe detrimental effects on agricultural productivity worldwide. Abscisic acid (ABA) levels rise in response to abiotic stresses, and play a role in coordinating physiological responses. ABA elicits its effects by binding a family of soluble receptors, increasing affinity of the receptors to type 2C phosphatases (PP2Cs) leading to phosphatase inhibition. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the ABA signaling pathway in the cereal model grass Brachypodium distachyon. The Brachypodium genome encodes a family of 10 functionally conserved ABA receptors. The 10th in the series, BdPYL10, encodes a defective receptor and is likely a pseudogene. Combinatorial protein interaction assay further validated computational analysis, which grouped Brachypodium ABA receptors into three subfamilies, similarly to Arabidopsis classification. Brachypodium subfamily III receptors inhibited PP2C activity in vitro and complemented Arabidopsis quadruple (pyr1/pyl1/pyl2/pyl4) mutant. BdPYL1 T-DNA mutant exhibited clear ABA hyposensitivity phenotypes during seedling establishment and in mature plants. Single receptor predominance is in agreement with high transcriptional abundance of only a small Brachypodium ABA receptors subset, harboring the higher marginal significance of BdPYL1. Our findings suggest that unlike the highly redundant ABA core signaling components of Arabidopsis, Brachypodium encompasses a more compact and specialized ABA receptor apparatus. This organization may contribute to plant adaptations to ecological niches. These results lay the groundwork for targeting the prominent ABA receptors for stress perception in grasses, and reveal functional differences and commonalities between monocots and eudicots. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, E V
Small RNAs derived from ribosomal RNAs (srRNAs) are rarely explored in the high-throughput data of plant systems. Here, we analyzed srRNAs from the deep-sequenced small RNA libraries of Piper nigrum, a unique magnoliid plant. The 5' end of the putative long form of 5.8S rRNA (5.8SLrRNA) was identified as the site for biogenesis of highly abundant srRNAs that are unique among the Piperaceae family of plants. A subsequent comparative analysis of the ninety-seven sRNAomes of diverse plants successfully uncovered the abundant existence and precise cleavage of unique rRF signature small RNAs upstream of a novel 5' consensus sequence of the 5.8S rRNA. The major cleavage process mapped identically among the different tissues of the same plant. The differential expression and cleavage of 5'5.8S srRNAs in Phytophthora capsici infected P. nigrum tissues indicated the critical biological functions of these srRNAs during stress response. The non-canonical short hairpin precursor structure, the association with Argonaute proteins, and the potential targets of 5'5.8S srRNAs reinforced their regulatory role in the RNAi pathway in plants. In addition, this novel lineage specific small RNAs may have tremendous biological potential in the taxonomic profiling of plants.
Hou, Yanming; Zhai, Lulu; Li, Xuyan; Xue, Yu; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Pengjie; Cao, Chunmei; Li, Hongxue; Cui, Yuhai; Bian, Shaomin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in the regulation of fruit development and ripening. Blueberry is an important small berry fruit crop with economical and nutritional value. However, nothing is known about the miRNAs and their targets involved in blueberry fruit ripening. In this study, using high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs, 84 known miRNAs belonging to 28 families and 16 novel miRNAs were identified in white fruit (WF) and blue fruit (BF) libraries, which represent fruit ripening onset and in progress, respectively. Among them, 41 miRNAs were shown to be differentially expressed during fruit maturation, and 16 miRNAs representing 16 families were further chosen to validate the sRNA sequencing data by stem-loop qRT-PCR. Meanwhile, 178 targets were identified for 41 known and 7 novel miRNAs in WF and BF libraries using degradome sequencing, and targets of miR160 were validated using RLM-RACE (RNA Ligase-Mediated (RLM)-Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) approach. Moreover, the expression patterns of 6 miRNAs and their targets were examined during fruit development and ripening. Finally, integrative analysis of miRNAs and their targets revealed a complex miRNA-mRNA regulatory network involving a wide variety of biological processes. The findings will facilitate future investigations of the miRNA-mediated mechanisms that regulate fruit development and ripening in blueberry.
Lee, Yun-Gyoo; Kim, Inho; Oh, Somi; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Koh, Youngil; Lee, Keun-Wook
To evaluate and select microRNAs relevant to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathogenesis, we analyzed differential microRNA expression by quantitative small RNA next-generation sequencing using duplicate marrow samples from individual AML patients. For this study, we obtained paired marrow samples at two different time points (initial diagnosis and first complete remission status) in patients with AML. Bone marrow microRNAs were profiled by next-generation small RNA sequencing. Quantification of microRNA expression was performed by counting aligned reads to microRNA genes. Among 38 samples (32 paired samples from 16 AML patients and 6 normal marrow controls), 27 were eligible for sequencing. Small RNA sequencing showed that 12 microRNAs were selectively expressed at higher levels in AML patients than in normal controls. Among these 12 microRNAs, mir-181, mir-221, and mir-3154 were more highly expressed at initial AML diagnosis as compared to first complete remission. Significant correlations were found between higher expression levels of mir-221, mir-146, and mir-155 and higher marrow blast counts. Our results demonstrate that mir-221 and mir-181 are selectively enriched in AML marrow and reflect disease activity. mir-3154 is a novel microRNA that is relevant to AML but needs further validation.
Levels of some miRNAs are found altered in cancers, so we might expect these regulatory molecules to be involved in the development of different carcinomas. The differential expression of certain miRNAs in various tumors might become a powerful tool to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. The precise ...
Valen, Eivind; Preker, Pascal; Andersen, Peter Refsing
-100 nucleotides in length from cells depleted of major RNA degradation enzymes and RNAs associated with Argonaute (AGO1/2) effector proteins, we provide mechanistic models for sRNA production. We suggest that neither splice site-associated (SSa) nor transcription start site-associated (TSSa) RNAs arise from...
Balmer, Dirk; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs of 20-24nt in length mediating RNA silencing, a eukaryotic, sequence-specific repressive gene regulation mechanism. In plants, miRNAs have a pivotal role during fundamental processes such as development, maintenance of genome integrity and abiotic stress responses. They originate from MIRNA genes that are transcribed by RNA polymerase II; MIRNA transcripts form imperfect fold-back structures that are further processed to miRNA duplexes. In Arabidopsis, over 180 MIRNA loci have been identified. Recent evidence shows that miRNAs are substantially implicated in regulating plant immunity. Pathogen attack triggers massive changes in the miRNA transcriptome; many of the altered miRNAs participate in controlling plant hormone pathways. Moreover, microorganisms are known to manipulate silencing pathways to counteract miRNA-mediated defenses. Thus far, miRNAs are believed to likely function as cardinal players in the concert of broad-spectrum disease resistance. Here, we summarize the highlights and latest findings of miRNAs as molecular regulators during plant-microbe interactions.
Robertson, Kelly L; Vora, Gary J
We describe the development and testing of a high-throughput method that enables the detection of small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from single bacterial cells using locked nucleic acid probes (LNA) and flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow-FISH). The LNA flow-FISH method and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to monitor the expression of three ncRNAs (6S, CsrB, and TPP-2) in Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 cultures during lag phase, mid-log phase, and stationary phase. Both LNA flow-FISH and qRT-PCR revealed that CsrB and TPP-2 were highly expressed during lag phase but markedly reduced in mid-log phase and stationary phase, whereas 6S demonstrated no to little expression during lag phase but increased thereafter. Importantly, while LNA flow-FISH and qRT-PCR demonstrated similar overall expression trends, only LNA flow-FISH, which enabled the detection of ncRNAs in individual cells as opposed to the lysate-based ensemble measurements generated by qRT-PCR, was able to capture the cell-to-cell heterogeneity in ncRNA expression. As such, this study demonstrates a new method that simultaneously enables the in situ detection of ncRNAs and the determination of gene expression heterogeneity within an isogenic bacterial population.
Teimouri, Hamid; Korkmazhan, Elgin; Stavans, Joel; Levine, Erel
Small non-coding RNAs can exert significant regulatory activity on gene expression in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding bacterial gene expression by sRNAs. However, recent findings that demonstrate that families of mRNAs show non-trivial sub-cellular distributions raise the question of how localization may affect the regulatory activity of sRNAs. Here we address this question within a simple mathematical model. We show that the non-uniform spatial distributions of mRNA can alter the threshold-linear response that characterizes sRNAs that act stoichiometrically, and modulate the hierarchy among targets co-regulated by the same sRNA. We also identify conditions where the sub-cellular organization of cofactors in the sRNA pathway can induce spatial heterogeneity on sRNA targets. Our results suggest that under certain conditions, interpretation and modeling of natural and synthetic gene regulatory circuits need to take into account the spatial organization of the transcripts of participating genes.
Zhao, Dongyan; Song, Guo-Qing
Hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-mediated gene silencing has proved to be an efficient approach to develop virus-resistant transgenic plants. To characterize small RNA molecules (sRNAs) derived from an hpRNA expression vector in transgenic cherry rootstock plants, we conducted small RNA sequencing of (1) a transgenic rootstock containing an inverted repeat of the partial coat protein of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV-hpRNA); (2) a nontransgenic rootstock; and (3) a PNRSV-infected sweet cherry plant. Analysis of the PNRSV sRNA pools indicated that 24-nt (nucleotide) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were the most prevalent sRNAs in the transgenic rootstock whereas the most abundant sRNAs in the PNRSV-infected nontransgenic rootstock were 21-nt siRNAs. In addition, the 24-nt siRNAs of the PNRSV-hpRNA were more abundant on the sense strand than those on the antisense strand in the transgenic rootstock. In contrast, preference in generating PNRSV sRNAs, ranging from 19-nt to 30-nt for sense and antisense strands, was not distinct in the PNRSV-infected nontransgenic sweet cherry. Taken together, this is the first report on profiling hpRNA-derived sRNAs in woody plants using high-throughput sequencing technology, which is an efficient way to verify the presence/absence, the abundance, and the sequence features of certain sRNAs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zou, Angela E; Ku, Jonjei; Honda, Thomas K; Yu, Vicky; Kuo, Selena Z; Zheng, Hao; Xuan, Yinan; Saad, Maarouf A; Hinton, Andrew; Brumund, Kevin T; Lin, Jonathan H; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Ongkeko, Weg M
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma persists as one of the most common and deadly malignancies, with early detection and effective treatment still posing formidable challenges. To expand our currently sparse knowledge of the noncoding alterations involved in the disease and identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets, we globally profiled the dysregulation of small nucleolar and long noncoding RNAs in head and neck tumors. Using next-generation RNA-sequencing data from 40 pairs of tumor and matched normal tissues, we found 2808 long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts significantly differentially expressed by a fold change magnitude ≥2. Meanwhile, RNA-sequencing analysis of 31 tumor-normal pairs yielded 33 significantly dysregulated small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA). In particular, we identified two dramatically down-regulated lncRNAs and one down-regulated snoRNA whose expression levels correlated significantly with overall patient survival, suggesting their functional significance and clinical relevance in head and neck cancer pathogenesis. We confirmed the dysregulation of these noncoding RNAs in head and neck cancer cell lines derived from different anatomic sites, and determined that ectopic expression of the two lncRNAs inhibited key EMT and stem cell genes and reduced cellular proliferation and migration. As a whole, noncoding RNAs are pervasively dysregulated in head and squamous cell carcinoma. The precise molecular roles of the three transcripts identified warrants further characterization, but our data suggest that they are likely to play substantial roles in head and neck cancer pathogenesis and are significantly associated with patient survival. © 2015 Zou et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Full Text Available It has become increasingly clear that microbes form close associations with the vast majority of animal species, especially insects. In fact, an array of diverse microbes is known to form shared metabolic pathways with their insect hosts. A growing area of research in insect-microbe interactions, notably for hemipteran insects and their mutualistic symbionts, is to elucidate the regulation of this inter domain metabolism. This review examines two new emerging mechanisms of gene regulation and their importance in host-microbe interactions. Specifically, we highlight how the incipient areas of research on regulatory 'dark matter' such as epigenomics and small RNAs, can play a pivotal role in the evolution of both insect and microbe gene regulation. We then propose specific models of how these dynamic forms of gene regulation can influence insect-symbiont-plant interactions. Future studies in this area of research will give us a systematic understanding of how these symbiotic microbes and animals reciprocally respond to, and regulate their shared metabolic processes.
Harris, Edouard A; Buzina, Alla; Moffat, Jason; McMillen, David R
It is increasingly practical to co-opt many native cellular components into use as elements of synthetic biological systems. We present the design and experimental investigation of the first exogenous genetic construct to be successfully targeted by RNA activation, a phenomenon whereby small double-stranded RNAs increase gene expression from sequence-similar promoters by a mechanism thought to be related to that of RNA interference. Our selection of activating RNA candidates was informed by a custom-written computer program designed to choose target sites in the promoter of interest according to a set of empirical optimality criteria drawn from prior research. Activating RNA candidates were assessed for activity against two exogenously derived target promoters, with successful candidates being subjected to further rounds of validation as a precaution against potential off-target effects. A genetic platform was assembled that allowed activating RNA candidates to be simultaneously screened both for positive activity on the target reporter gene and for possible nonspecific effects on cell metabolism. Several candidate sequences were tested to appraise the utility of this platform, with the most successful achieving a moderate activation level with minimal off-target effects.
Parrott, Andrew M.; Tsai, Michael; Batchu, Priyanka; Ryan, Karen; Ozer, Harvey L.; Tian, Bin; Mathews, Michael B.
We recently identified the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs that associate in vivo with the nuclear factor 90 (NF90/ILF3) protein. The major human species, snaR-A, is an RNA polymerase III transcript with restricted tissue distribution and orthologs in chimpanzee but not rhesus macaque or mouse. We report their expression in human tissues and their evolution in primates. snaR genes are exclusively in African Great Apes and some are unique to humans. Two novel families of snaR-related genetic elements were found in primates: CAS (catarrhine ancestor of snaR), limited to Old World Monkeys and apes; and ASR (Alu/snaR-related), present in all monkeys and apes. ASR and CAS appear to have spread by retrotransposition, whereas most snaR genes have spread by segmental duplication. snaR-A and snaR-G2 are differentially expressed in discrete regions of the human brain and other tissues, notably including testis. snaR-A is up-regulated in transformed and immortalized human cells, and is stably bound to ribosomes in HeLa cells. We infer that snaR evolved from the left monomer of the primate-specific Alu SINE family via ASR and CAS in conjunction with major primate speciation events, and suggest that snaRs participate in tissue- and species-specific regulation of cell growth and translation. PMID:20935053
Tsui, Ho-Ching Tiffany; Mukherjee, Dhriti; Ray, Valerie A.; Sham, Lok-To; Feig, Andrew L.; Winkler, Malcolm E.
We report a search for small RNAs (sRNAs) in the low-GC, Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on bioinformatic analyses by Livny et al. (J. Livny, A. Brencic, S. Lory, and M. K. Waldor, Nucleic Acids Res. 34:3484-3493, 2006), we tested 40 candidates by Northern blotting and confirmed the expression of nine new and one previously reported (CcnA) sRNAs in strain D39. CcnA is one of five redundant sRNAs reported by Halfmann et al. (A. Halfmann, M. Kovacs, R. Hakenbeck, and R. Bruckner, Mol. Microbiol. 66:110-126, 2007) that are positively controlled by the CiaR response regulator. We characterized 3 of these 14 sRNAs: Spd-sr17 (144 nucleotides [nt]; decreased in stationary phase), Spd-sr37 (80 nt; strongly expressed in all growth phases), and CcnA (93 nt; induced by competence stimulatory peptide). Spd-sr17 and CcnA likely fold into structures containing single-stranded regions between hairpin structures, whereas Spd-sr37 forms a base-paired structure. Primer extension mapping and ectopic expression in deletion/insertion mutants confirmed the independent expression of the three sRNAs. Microarray analyses indicated that insertion/deletion mutants in spd-sr37 and ccnA exerted strong cis-acting effects on the transcription of adjacent genes, indicating that these sRNA regions are also cotranscribed in operons. Deletion or overexpression of the three sRNAs did not cause changes in growth, certain stress responses, global transcription, or virulence. Constitutive ectopic expression of CcnA reversed some phenotypes of D39 ΔciaR mutants, but attempts to link CcnA to -E to comC as a target were inconclusive in ciaR+ strains. These results show that S. pneumoniae, which lacks known RNA chaperones, expresses numerous sRNAs, but three of these sRNAs do not strongly affect common phenotypes or transcription patterns. PMID:19854910
Gómez Lozano, María
and RNA sequencing (RNAseq) technologies. The latter approach, in particular, has revolutionized sRNA discovery by enabling interrogation of the transcriptome at unprecedented depths. The size and complexity of the P. aeruginosa genome suggests that it encodes many hitherto undetected sRNAs. In this study......, RNA-seq is used to identify sRNAs in P.aeruginosa using a combination of three different sequencing libraries. Over 750 novel sRNAs (including intergenic and cis-encoded sRNAs) have been identified with this approach in this study. The results also reflect that although the use of three libraries...... of regulatory sRNAs in P. aeruginosa and the approach described here may be applied to identify sRNAs in any bacterium under different growth and stress conditions. In addition the role of sRNA OsiS was investigated. OsiS was identified in our genome-wide search of sRNAs in P. aeruginosa. OsiS is highly...
Tang, Siuwah; Bonaroti, Jillian; Unlu, Sebnem; Liang, Xiaoyan; Tang, Daolin; Zeh, Herbert J; Lotze, Michael T
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18- to 22-nucleotide-long, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs that regulate important biological processes including differentiation, proliferation, and response to cellular stressors such as hypoxia, nutrient depletion, and traversion of the cell cycle by controlling protein expression within the cell. Many investigators have profiled cancer tissue and serum miRNAs to identify potential therapeutic targets, understand the pathways involved in tumorigenesis, and identify diagnostic tumor signatures. In the setting of pancreatic cancer, obtaining pancreatic tissue is invasive and impractical for early diagnosis. Several groups have profiled miRNAs that are present in the blood as a means to diagnose tumor progression and predict prognosis/survival or drug resistance. Several miRNA signatures found in pancreatic tissue and the peripheral blood, as well as the pathways that are associated with pancreatic cancer, are reviewed here in detail. Three miRNA biomarkers (miR-21, miR-155, and miR-200) have been repetitively identified in both pancreatic cancer tissue and patients' blood. Those miRNAs regulate and are regulated by the central genetic and epigenetic changes observed in pancreatic cancer including p53, transforming growth factor β, p16(INK4A), BRCA1/2, and Kras. These miRNAs are involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, and cell invasion and also play important roles in promoting metastases.
Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Lin; Tang, Sha; Liu, Jianguang; Zhang, Hanshuang; Zhi, Hui; Jia, Guanqing; Diao, Xianmin
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is a diploid C4 panicoid species. Because of its prominent drought resistance, small genome size, self-pollination, and short life cycle, foxtail millet has become an ideal model system for studying drought tolerance of crops. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small RNAs that play important regulatory roles in the development and stress response in plants. In this study, we applied Illumina sequencing to systematically investigate the drought-responsive miRNAs derived from S. italica inbred An04-4783 seedlings grown under control and drought conditions. Degradome sequencing was applied to confirm the targets of these miRNAs at a global level. A total of 81 known miRNAs belonging to 28 families were identified, among which 14 miRNAs were upregulated and four were downregulated in response to drought. In addition, 72 potential novel miRNAs were identified, three of which were differentially expressed under drought conditions. Degradome sequencing analysis showed that 56 and 26 genes were identified as targets of known and novel miRNAs, respectively. Our analysis revealed post-transcriptional remodeling of cell development, transcription factors, ABA signaling, and cellar homeostasis in S.italica in response to drought. This preliminary characterization provided useful information for further studies on the regulatory networks of drought-responsive miRNAs in foxtail millet.
Weissenmayer, Barbara A
Second generation sequencing has prompted a number of groups to re-interrogate the transcriptomes of several bacterial and archaeal species. One of the central findings has been the identification of complex networks of small non-coding RNAs that play central roles in transcriptional regulation in all growth conditions and for the pathogen\\'s interaction with and survival within host cells. Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative facultative intracellular human pathogen with a distinct biphasic lifestyle. One of its primary environmental hosts in the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and its infection by L. pneumophila mimics that seen in human macrophages. Here we present analysis of strand specific sequencing of the transcriptional response of L. pneumophila during exponential and post-exponential broth growth and during the replicative and transmissive phase of infection inside A. castellanii. We extend previous microarray based studies as well as uncovering evidence of a complex regulatory architecture underpinned by numerous non-coding RNAs. Over seventy new non-coding RNAs could be identified; many of them appear to be strain specific and in configurations not previously reported. We discover a family of non-coding RNAs preferentially expressed during infection conditions and identify a second copy of 6S RNA in L. pneumophila. We show that the newly discovered putative 6S RNA as well as a number of other non-coding RNAs show evidence for antisense transcription. The nature and extent of the non-coding RNAs and their expression patterns suggests that these may well play central roles in the regulation of Legionella spp. specific traits and offer clues as to how L. pneumophila adapts to its intracellular niche. The expression profiles outlined in the study have been deposited into Genbank\\'s Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under the series accession GSE27232.
Alabi, Olufemi J; Zheng, Yun; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Naidu, Rayapati A
Grapevine leafroll disease (GLRD) is one of the most economically important virus diseases of grapevine (Vitis spp.) worldwide. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries made from small RNAs (sRNAs) to compare profiles of sRNA populations recovered from own-rooted Merlot grapevines with and without GLRD symptoms. The data revealed the presence of sRNAs specific to Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd), Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) and Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2 (GYSVd-2) in symptomatic grapevines and sRNAs specific only to HpSVd, GYSVd-1 and GYSVd-2 in nonsymptomatic grapevines. In addition to 135 previously identified conserved microRNAs in grapevine (Vvi-miRs), we identified 10 novel and several candidate Vvi-miRs in both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic grapevine leaves based on the cloning of miRNA star sequences. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of selected conserved Vvi-miRs indicated that individual members of an miRNA family are differentially expressed in symptomatic and nonsymptomatic leaves. The high-resolution mapping of sRNAs specific to an ampelovirus and three viroids in mixed infections, the identification of novel Vvi-miRs and the modulation of certain conserved Vvi-miRs offers resources for the further elucidation of compatible host-pathogen interactions and for the provision of ecologically relevant information to better understand host-pathogen-environment interactions in a perennial fruit crop. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.
Martínez de Alba, A. E.; Flores, R.; Hernández, C.
In plants, posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been reported for cytoplasmic RNAs from endogenous nuclear genes, transgenes, viruses, and, recently, for a viroid with nuclear replication and accumulation. However, phenomena of this kind have not been described for mitochondrial or chloroplastic RNAs. Here we show that viroids that replicate and accumulate in the chloroplast are also targets of PTGS and this process may control viroid titer. PMID:12438638
Disney, Matthew D; Winkelsas, Audrey M; Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Southern, Mark; Fallahi, Mohammad; Childs-Disney, Jessica L
The development of small molecules that target RNA is challenging yet, if successful, could advance the development of chemical probes to study RNA function or precision therapeutics to treat RNA-mediated disease. Previously, we described Inforna, an approach that can mine motifs (secondary structures) within target RNAs, which is deduced from the RNA sequence, and compare them to a database of known RNA motif-small molecule binding partners. Output generated by Inforna includes the motif found in both the database and the desired RNA target, lead small molecules for that target, and other related meta-data. Lead small molecules can then be tested for binding and affecting cellular (dys)function. Herein, we describe Inforna 2.0, which incorporates all known RNA motif-small molecule binding partners reported in the scientific literature, a chemical similarity searching feature, and an improved user interface and is freely available via an online web server. By incorporation of interactions identified by other laboratories, the database has been doubled, containing 1936 RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including 244 unique small molecules and 1331 motifs. Interestingly, chemotype analysis of the compounds that bind RNA in the database reveals features in small molecule chemotypes that are privileged for binding. Further, this updated database expanded the number of cellular RNAs to which lead compounds can be identified.
Francesco Di Serio
Full Text Available Northern-blot hybridization and low-scale sequencing have revealed that plants infected by viroids, non-protein-coding RNA replicons, accumulate 21-24 nt viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs similar to the small interfering RNAs, the hallmarks of RNA silencing. These results strongly support that viroids are elicitors and targets of the RNA silencing machinery of their hosts. Low-scale sequencing, however, retrieves partial datasets and may lead to biased interpretations. To overcome this restraint we have examined by deep sequencing (Solexa-Illumina and computational approaches the vd-sRNAs accumulating in GF-305 peach seedlings infected by two molecular variants of Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd inciting peach calico (albinism and peach mosaic. Our results show in both samples multiple PLMVd-sRNAs, with prevalent 21-nt (+ and (- RNAs presenting a biased distribution of their 5' nucleotide, and adopting a hotspot profile along the genomic (+ and (- RNAs. Dicer-like 4 and 2 (DCL4 and DCL2, respectively, which act hierarchically in antiviral defense, likely also mediate the genesis of the 21- and 22-nt PLMVd-sRNAs. More specifically, because PLMVd replicates in plastids wherein RNA silencing has not been reported, DCL4 and DCL2 should dice the PLMVd genomic RNAs during their cytoplasmic movement or the PLMVd-dsRNAs generated by a cytoplasmic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR, like RDR6, acting in concert with DCL4 processing. Furthermore, given that vd-sRNAs derived from the 12-14-nt insertion containing the pathogenicity determinant of peach calico are underrepresented, it is unlikely that symptoms may result from the accidental targeting of host mRNAs by vd-sRNAs from this determinant guiding the RNA silencing machinery.
Zhang, Hanbang; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M; Pompey, Justine M; Hackney, Jason A; Singh, Upinder
Small interfering RNAs regulate gene expression in diverse biological processes, including heterochromatin formation and DNA elimination, developmental regulation, and cell differentiation. In the single-celled eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica, we have identified a population of small RNAs of 27 nt size that (i) have 5'-polyphosphate termini, (ii) map antisense to genes, and (iii) associate with an E. histolytica Piwi-related protein. Whole genome microarray expression analysis revealed that essentially all genes to which antisense small RNAs map were not expressed under trophozoite conditions, the parasite stage from which the small RNAs were cloned. However, a number of these genes were expressed in other E. histolytica strains with an inverse correlation between small RNA and gene expression level, suggesting that these small RNAs mediate silencing of the cognate gene. Overall, our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has an abundant 27 nt small RNA population, with features similar to secondary siRNAs from C. elegans, and which appear to regulate gene expression. These data indicate that a silencing pathway mediated by 5'-polyphosphate siRNAs extends to single-celled eukaryotic organisms.
Zhang, Hanbang; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M.; Pompey, Justine M.; Hackney, Jason A.; Singh, Upinder
Small interfering RNAs regulate gene expression in diverse biological processes, including heterochromatin formation and DNA elimination, developmental regulation, and cell differentiation. In the single-celled eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica, we have identified a population of small RNAs of 27 nt size that (i) have 5′-polyphosphate termini, (ii) map antisense to genes, and (iii) associate with an E. histolytica Piwi-related protein. Whole genome microarray expression analysis revealed that essentially all genes to which antisense small RNAs map were not expressed under trophozoite conditions, the parasite stage from which the small RNAs were cloned. However, a number of these genes were expressed in other E. histolytica strains with an inverse correlation between small RNA and gene expression level, suggesting that these small RNAs mediate silencing of the cognate gene. Overall, our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has an abundant 27 nt small RNA population, with features similar to secondary siRNAs from C. elegans, and which appear to regulate gene expression. These data indicate that a silencing pathway mediated by 5′-polyphosphate siRNAs extends to single-celled eukaryotic organisms. PMID:19043551
Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs regulate gene expression in diverse biological processes, including heterochromatin formation and DNA elimination, developmental regulation, and cell differentiation. In the single-celled eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica, we have identified a population of small RNAs of 27 nt size that (i have 5'-polyphosphate termini, (ii map antisense to genes, and (iii associate with an E. histolytica Piwi-related protein. Whole genome microarray expression analysis revealed that essentially all genes to which antisense small RNAs map were not expressed under trophozoite conditions, the parasite stage from which the small RNAs were cloned. However, a number of these genes were expressed in other E. histolytica strains with an inverse correlation between small RNA and gene expression level, suggesting that these small RNAs mediate silencing of the cognate gene. Overall, our results demonstrate that E. histolytica has an abundant 27 nt small RNA population, with features similar to secondary siRNAs from C. elegans, and which appear to regulate gene expression. These data indicate that a silencing pathway mediated by 5'-polyphosphate siRNAs extends to single-celled eukaryotic organisms.
Heera, Rajandas; Sivachandran, Parimannan; Chinni, Suresh V; Mason, Joanne; Croft, Larry; Ravichandran, Manickam; Yin, Lee Su
Next-generation transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become the standard practice for studying gene splicing, mutations and changes in gene expression to obtain valuable, accurate biological conclusions. However, obtaining good sequencing coverage and depth to study these is impeded by the difficulties of obtaining high quality total RNA with minimal genomic DNA contamination. With this in mind, we evaluated the performance of Phenol-free total RNA purification kit (Amresco) in comparison with TRI Reagent (MRC) and RNeasy Mini (Qiagen) for the extraction of total RNA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was grown in glucose-supplemented (control) and polyethylene-supplemented (growth-limiting condition) minimal medium. All three extraction methods were coupled with an in-house DNase I treatment before the yield, integrity and size distribution of the purified RNA were assessed. RNA samples extracted with the best extraction kit were then sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. TRI Reagent gave the lowest yield enriched with small RNAs (sRNAs), while RNeasy gave moderate yield of good quality RNA with trace amounts of sRNAs. The Phenol-free kit, on the other hand, gave the highest yield and the best quality RNA (RIN value of 9.85 ± 0.3) with good amounts of sRNAs. Subsequent bioinformatic analysis of the sequencing data revealed that 5435 coding genes, 452 sRNAs and 7 potential novel intergenic sRNAs were detected, indicating excellent sequencing coverage across RNA size ranges. In addition, detection of low abundance transcripts and consistency of their expression profiles across replicates from the same conditions demonstrated the reproducibility of the RNA extraction technique. Amresco's Phenol-free Total RNA purification kit coupled with DNase I treatment yielded the highest quality RNAs containing good ratios of high and low molecular weight transcripts with minimal genomic DNA. These RNA extracts gave excellent non-biased sequencing coverage useful
Thomas K. Sin
Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents about 85% of the reported cases of lung cancer. Acquired resistance to targeted therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs, such as gefitinib, is not uncommon. It is thus vital to explore novel strategies to restore sensitivity to gefitinib. Provided that microRNAs (miRNAs negatively regulate their gene targets at the transcriptional level, it is speculated that miRNA mimetics may reduce the expression, activity and signal transduction of EGFR so that sensitization of tumour sites to gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity can be achieved. Indeed, a growing body of evidence has shown that the manipulation of endogenous levels of miRNA not only attenuates the EGFR/PI3K/Akt phosphorylation cascade, but also restores apoptotic cell death in in vitro models of experimentally-induced gefitinib resistance and provoked tumour regression/shrinkage in xenograft models. These data are in concordant with the clinical data showing that the differential expression profiles of miRNA in tumour tissues and blood associate strongly with drug response and overall survival. Furthermore, another line of studies indicate that the chemopreventive effects of a variety of natural compounds may involve miRNAs. The present review aims to discuss the therapeutic capacity of miRNAs in relation to recent discoveries on EGFR-TKI resistance, including chronic drug exposure and mutations.
Long, Rui-Cai; Li, Ming-Na; Kang, Jun-Mei; Zhang, Tie-Jun; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qing-Chuan
Small 21- to 24-nucleotide (nt) ribonucleic acids (RNAs), notably the microRNA (miRNA), are emerging as a posttranscriptional regulation mechanism. Salt stress is one of the primary abiotic stresses that cause the crop losses worldwide. In saline lands, root growth and function of plant are determined by the action of environmental salt stress through specific genes that adapt root development to the restrictive condition. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in salt stress regulation in Medicago, we used a high-throughput sequencing approach to analyze four small RNA libraries from roots of Zhongmu-1 (Medicago sativa) and Jemalong A17 (Medicago truncatula), which were treated with 300 mM NaCl for 0 and 8 h. Each library generated about 20 million short sequences and contained predominantly small RNAs of 24-nt length, followed by 21-nt and 22-nt small RNAs. Using sequence analysis, we identified 385 conserved miRNAs from 96 families, along with 68 novel candidate miRNAs. Of all the 68 predicted novel miRNAs, 15 miRNAs were identified to have miRNA*. Statistical analysis on abundance of sequencing read revealed specific miRNA showing contrasting expression patterns between M. sativa and M. truncatula roots, as well as between roots treated for 0 and 8 h. The expression of 10 conserved and novel miRNAs was also quantified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The miRNA precursor and target genes were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. We concluded that the salt stress related conserved and novel miRNAs may have a large variety of target mRNAs, some of which might play key roles in salt stress regulation of Medicago. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.
Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels; Pedersen, Finn Skou
RNA interference by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is considered to be a highly specific method for knockdown of gene expression in eukaryotic cells via degradation of target mRNA. Mutated siRNA molecules with 1–4 mismatching nucleotides compared to the target mRNA are regularly used...... as specificity controls. Using siRNAs for inhibition of a fish-pathogenic rhabdovirus, we report that inclusion of a heterologous virus, as target control is essential for verification of the specificity of siRNA-induced interference with virus multiplication. Transfection with three different siRNAs specific...... to the viral glycoprotein gene of the target-virus efficiently inhibited viral multiplication in infected cell cultures, while two of three corresponding mismatched siRNAs did not have this effect. This suggested specific interference, but similar results were obtained when the same siRNAs were tested against...
Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Pakula, Malgorzata Maria
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are promising new active compounds in gene medicine but the induction of non-specific immune responses following their delivery continues to be a serious problem. With the purpose of avoiding such effects chemically modified siRNAs are tested in screening assay...... antiviral effect of siRNAs is functionally monitored as reduced mortality in challenge studies involving an interferon sensitive virus. Modifications with locked nucleic acid (LNA), altritol nucleic acid (ANA) and hexitol nucleic acid (HNA) reduced the antiviral protection in this model indicative...... of altered immunogenicity. For LNA modified siRNAs, the number and localization of modifications in the single strands was found to be important and a correlation between antiviral protection and the thermal stability of siRNAs was found. The previously published sisiRNA will in some sequences, but not all...
Jiang, Shan; Wu, Hao; Liu, Haoju; Zheng, Jie; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao
The striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice insect pest worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi) has become a promising strategy for developing insect-resistant crops. In a previous study, five double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting important SSB housekeeping genes were overexpressed in rice, but none of the acquired dsRNA-transgenic rice plants showed significant effects on SSB. Thirteen selected SSB endogenous small RNAs, predicted as SSB novel microRNAs (miRNAs), were overexpressed in rice using artificial miRNA (amiRNA) expression technology. Feeding tests showed that two out of 13 selected SSB novel miRNAs caused significant growth inhibition for feeding SSB larvae based on transgenic rice expression. Pupation was delayed 4 days when SSB larvae consecutively fed on transgenic rice expressing the SSB novel miRNA candidate csu-novel-miR15 (csu-15 rice). Gene expression analysis confirmed that the expression levels of at least six SSB unigenes significantly changed (i.e., were up- or down-regulated) after feeding on csu-15 rice. Our research demonstrated a novel RNAi strategy using SSB endogenous small RNAs to develop RNAi crops for pest management; this strategy is different from the common RNAi resulting from transgenic dsRNAs or amiRNAs targeting certain insect endogenous genes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Nosaka, Misuzu; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo; Ono, Akemi; Ishiwata, Aiko; Sato, Yutaka
RNA silencing is a defense system against "genomic parasites" such as transposable elements (TE), which are potentially harmful to host genomes. In plants, transcripts from TEs induce production of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and are processed into small RNAs (small interfering RNAs, siRNAs) that suppress TEs by RNA-directed DNA methylation. Thus, the majority of TEs are epigenetically silenced. On the other hand, most of the eukaryotic genome is composed of TEs and their remnants, suggesting that TEs have evolved countermeasures against host-mediated silencing. Under some circumstances, TEs can become active and increase in copy number. Knowledge is accumulating on the mechanisms of TE silencing by the host; however, the mechanisms by which TEs counteract silencing are poorly understood. Here, we show that a class of TEs in rice produces a microRNA (miRNA) to suppress host silencing. Members of the microRNA820 (miR820) gene family are located within CACTA DNA transposons in rice and target a de novo DNA methyltransferase gene, OsDRM2, one of the components of epigenetic silencing. We confirmed that miR820 negatively regulates the expression of OsDRM2. In addition, we found that expression levels of various TEs are increased quite sensitively in response to decreased OsDRM2 expression and DNA methylation at TE loci. Furthermore, we found that the nucleotide sequence of miR820 and its recognition site within the target gene in some Oryza species have co-evolved to maintain their base-pairing ability. The co-evolution of these sequences provides evidence for the functionality of this regulation. Our results demonstrate how parasitic elements in the genome escape the host's defense machinery. Furthermore, our analysis of the regulation of OsDRM2 by miR820 sheds light on the action of transposon-derived small RNAs, not only as a defense mechanism for host genomes but also as a regulator of interactions between hosts and their parasitic elements.
Full Text Available RNA silencing is a defense system against "genomic parasites" such as transposable elements (TE, which are potentially harmful to host genomes. In plants, transcripts from TEs induce production of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs and are processed into small RNAs (small interfering RNAs, siRNAs that suppress TEs by RNA-directed DNA methylation. Thus, the majority of TEs are epigenetically silenced. On the other hand, most of the eukaryotic genome is composed of TEs and their remnants, suggesting that TEs have evolved countermeasures against host-mediated silencing. Under some circumstances, TEs can become active and increase in copy number. Knowledge is accumulating on the mechanisms of TE silencing by the host; however, the mechanisms by which TEs counteract silencing are poorly understood. Here, we show that a class of TEs in rice produces a microRNA (miRNA to suppress host silencing. Members of the microRNA820 (miR820 gene family are located within CACTA DNA transposons in rice and target a de novo DNA methyltransferase gene, OsDRM2, one of the components of epigenetic silencing. We confirmed that miR820 negatively regulates the expression of OsDRM2. In addition, we found that expression levels of various TEs are increased quite sensitively in response to decreased OsDRM2 expression and DNA methylation at TE loci. Furthermore, we found that the nucleotide sequence of miR820 and its recognition site within the target gene in some Oryza species have co-evolved to maintain their base-pairing ability. The co-evolution of these sequences provides evidence for the functionality of this regulation. Our results demonstrate how parasitic elements in the genome escape the host's defense machinery. Furthermore, our analysis of the regulation of OsDRM2 by miR820 sheds light on the action of transposon-derived small RNAs, not only as a defense mechanism for host genomes but also as a regulator of interactions between hosts and their parasitic elements.
Pappas, Marília de Castro Rodrigues; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Grattapaglia, Dario
Micro RNAs are a class of small non coding RNAs of 20-24 nucleotides transcribed as single stranded precursors from MIR gene loci. Initially described as post-transcriptional regulators involved in development, two decades ago, miRNAs have been proven to regulate a wide range of processes in plants such as germination, morphology and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Despite wide conservation in plants, a number of miRNAs are lineage specific. We describe the first genome wide survey of Eucalyptus miRNAs based on high throughput sequencing. In addition to discovering small RNA sequences, MIR loci were mapped onto the reference genome and interspecific variability investigated. Sequencing was carried out for the two most world widely planted species, E. grandis and E. globulus. To maximize discovery, E. grandis samples were from BRASUZ1, the same tree whose genome provided the reference sequence. Interspecific analysis reinforces the variability in small RNA repertoire even between closely related species. Characterization of Eucalyptus small RNA sequences showed 95 orthologous to conserved miRNAs and 193 novel miRNAs. In silico target prediction confirmed 163 novel miRNAs and degradome sequencing experimentally confirmed several hundred targets. Experimental evidence based on the exclusive expression of a set of small RNAs across 16 species within Myrtaceae further highlighted variable patterns of conservation and diversity of these regulatory elements. The description of miRNAs in Eucalyptus contributes to scientific knowledge of this vast genre, which is the most widely planted hardwood crop in the tropical and subtropical world, adding another important element to the annotation of Eucalyptus grandis reference genome.
Full Text Available Background: RNA interference (RNAi has tremendous potential for investigating gene function and for developing new therapies. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH are the “gold standard” for studying the regulation of hepatic metabolism in vitro. However, application of RNAi in PHH has some technical hurdles. The objective of this study was to develop effective and robust protocol for transduction of PHH with lentiviral vectors. Methods: We used lentiviral vectors to transduce PHH for introduction of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs targeting constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα, and microRNA, miR-143. Infection efficiency was quantitatively analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Target gene expression was assessed using quantitative real-time (qRT-PCR method. Results: Lentiviral vector transduction resulted in ≥95% of infected cells at low multiplicity of infection (MOI of 3, which did not impair cellular viability. We demonstrated the feasibility of this technique in studies on targeting nuclear receptors, PPARα and CAR, with shRNAs as well as in lentivirus-mediated overexpression and knock-down of miRNA-143 experiments. Conclusions: We developed an efficient and robust protocol with standardized procedures for virus production, method of titer determination, and infection procedure for RNAi in primary human hepatocytes based on delivery of shRNAs, microRNAs or anti-microRNAs in different laboratory settings. This approach should be useful to study not only the regulation via nuclear receptors but also other biological, pharmacological, and toxicological aspects of drug metabolism.
Ong, Seong Siang; Wickneswari, Ratnam
Lignin, after cellulose, is the second most abundant biopolymer accounting for approximately 15-35% of the dry weight of wood. As an important component during wood formation, lignin is indispensable for plant structure and defense. However, it is an undesirable component in the pulp and paper industry. Removal of lignin from cellulose is costly and environmentally hazardous process. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to understand the role of enzymes and genes in controlling the amount and composition of lignin to be deposited in the cell wall. However, studies on the impact of downregulation and overexpression of monolignol biosynthesis genes in model species on lignin content, plant fitness and viability have been inconsistent. Recently, non-coding RNAs have been discovered to play an important role in regulating the entire monolignol biosynthesis pathway. As small RNAs have critical functions in various biological process during wood formation, small RNA profiling is an important tool for the identification of complete set of differentially expressed small RNAs between low lignin and high lignin secondary xylem. In line with this, we have generated two small RNAs libraries from samples with contrasting lignin content using Illumina GAII sequencer. About 10 million sequence reads were obtained in secondary xylem of Am48 with high lignin content (41%) and a corresponding 14 million sequence reads were obtained in secondary xylem of Am54 with low lignin content (21%). Our results suggested that A. mangium small RNAs are composed of a set of 12 highly conserved miRNAs families found in plant miRNAs database, 82 novel miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved small RNAs with low expression levels. The predicted target genes of those differentially expressed conserved and non-conserved miRNAs include transcription factors associated with regulation of the lignin biosynthetic pathway genes. Some of these small RNAs play an important role in epigenetic silencing
Shlomai, Amir; Lubelsky, Yoav; Har-Noy, Ofir; Shaul, Yosef
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small virus that infects the liver. The major obstacle in applying the RNA interference method as an anti-HBV weapon is the challenge to deliver the small interfering RNA molecules to the liver efficiently and specifically. Here we show that HBV-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) are efficiently expressed from a recombinant HBV into which an shRNA-expressing cassette was inserted, resulting in a significant knock-down of HBV gene expression. Notably, this recombinant HBV still expresses the HBV Core protein, which is targeted by the shRNAs produced by the same vector. Our results set the stage for further use of this recombinant HBV virus with the potential to function as a "Trojan horse"; one that specifically targets the liver and uses the resident virus as an helper for its own propagation, and at the same time eliminate itself and the resident HBV by knocking-down their gene expression.
Accurate detection of viruses in plants and animals is critical for agriculture production and human health. Deep sequencing and assembly of virus-derived siRNAs has proven to be a highly efficient approach for virus discovery. However, to date no computational tools specifically designed for both k...
Kellogg, Elizabeth A
Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as a powerful model system for studying the genetics of flowering plants. Originally chosen for its phylogenetic proximity to the large-genome cereal crops wheat and barley, it is proving to be useful for more than simply providing markers for comparative mapping. Studies in B. distachyon have provided new insight into the structure and physiology of plant cell walls, the development and chemical composition of endosperm, and the genetic basis for cold tolerance. Recent work on auxin transport has uncovered mechanisms that apply to all angiosperms other than Arabidopsis. In addition to the areas in which it is currently used, B. distachyon is uniquely suited for studies of floral development, vein patterning, the controls of the perennial versus annual habit, and genome organization.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. Results We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86 becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3% do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors
Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Langum, Tanner J; Boken, Ashley K; Rushton, Deena L; Boomsma, Darius D; Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Jennifer; Reese, R Neil; Chen, Xianfeng; Rohila, Jai S; Rushton, Paul J
A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86) becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3%) do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors. The description of the WRKY transcription factor
Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transcriptional regulation by small RNAs (sRNAs in bacteria is now recognized as a wide-spread regulatory mechanism modulating a variety of physiological responses including virulence. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, the first sRNAs to be described were found in the regulon of the CiaRH two-component regulatory system. Five of these sRNAs were detected and designated csRNAs for cia-dependent small RNAs. CiaRH pleiotropically affects β-lactam resistance, autolysis, virulence, and competence development by yet to be defined molecular mechanisms. Since CiaRH is highly conserved among streptococci, it is of interest to determine if csRNAs are also included in the CiaRH regulon in this group of organisms consisting of commensal as well as pathogenic species. Knowledge on the participation of csRNAs in CiaRH-dependent regulatory events will be the key to define the physiological role of this important control system. Results Genes for csRNAs were predicted in streptococcal genomes and data base entries other than S. pneumoniae by searching for CiaR-activated promoters located in intergenic regions that are followed by a transcriptional terminator. 61 different candidate genes were obtained specifying csRNAs ranging in size from 51 to 202 nt. Comparing these genes among each other revealed 40 different csRNA types. All streptococcal genomes harbored csRNA genes, their numbers varying between two and six. To validate these predictions, S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. sanguinis were subjected to csRNA-specific northern blot analysis. In addition, a csRNA gene from S. thermophilus plasmid pST0 introduced into S. pneumoniae was also tested. Each of the csRNAs was detected on these blots and showed the anticipated sizes. Thus, the method applied here is able to predict csRNAs with high precision. Conclusions The results of this study strongly suggest that genes for small non-coding RNAs, csRNAs, are part of
Sripada, Lakshmi; Tomar, Dhanendra; Prajapati, Paresh; Singh, Rochika; Singh, Arun Kumar; Singh, Rajesh
Mitochondria are one of the central regulators of many cellular processes beyond its well established role in energy metabolism. The inter-organellar crosstalk is critical for the optimal function of mitochondria. Many nuclear encoded proteins and RNA are imported to mitochondria. The translocation of small RNA (sRNA) including miRNA to mitochondria and other sub-cellular organelle is still not clear. We characterized here sRNA including miRNA associated with human mitochondria by cellular fractionation and deep sequencing approach. Mitochondria were purified from HEK293 and HeLa cells for RNA isolation. The sRNA library was generated and sequenced using Illumina system. The analysis showed the presence of unique population of sRNA associated with mitochondria including miRNA. Putative novel miRNAs were characterized from unannotated sRNA sequences. The study showed the association of 428 known, 196 putative novel miRNAs to mitochondria of HEK293 and 327 known, 13 putative novel miRNAs to mitochondria of HeLa cells. The alignment of sRNA to mitochondrial genome was also studied. The targets were analyzed using DAVID to classify them in unique networks using GO and KEGG tools. Analysis of identified targets showed that miRNA associated with mitochondria regulates critical cellular processes like RNA turnover, apoptosis, cell cycle and nucleotide metabolism. The six miRNAs (counts >1000) associated with mitochondria of both HEK293 and HeLa were validated by RT-qPCR. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study demonstrating the associations of sRNA including miRNA with mitochondria that may regulate site-specific turnover of target mRNA important for mitochondrial related functions. PMID:22984580
Kumar, Ranjit; Shah, Pratik; Swiatlo, Edwin; Burgess, Shane C; Lawrence, Mark L; Nanduri, Bindu
The identification of non-coding transcripts in human, mouse, and Escherichia coli has revealed their widespread occurrence and functional importance in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic life. In prokaryotes, studies have shown that non-coding transcripts participate in a broad range of cellular functions like gene regulation, stress and virulence. However, very little is known about non-coding transcripts in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), an obligate human respiratory pathogen responsible for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. Tiling microarrays enable genome wide mRNA profiling as well as identification of novel transcripts at a high-resolution. Here, we describe a high-resolution transcription map of the S. pneumoniae clinical isolate TIGR4 using genomic tiling arrays. Our results indicate that approximately 66% of the genome is expressed under our experimental conditions. We identified a total of 50 non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) from the intergenic regions, of which 36 had no predicted function. Half of the identified sRNA sequences were found to be unique to S. pneumoniae genome. We identified eight overrepresented sequence motifs among sRNA sequences that correspond to sRNAs in different functional categories. Tiling arrays also identified approximately 202 operon structures in the genome. In summary, the pneumococcal operon structures and novel sRNAs identified in this study enhance our understanding of the complexity and extent of the pneumococcal 'expressed' genome. Furthermore, the results of this study open up new avenues of research for understanding the complex RNA regulatory network governing S. pneumoniae physiology and virulence.
Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier
Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.
Vitsios, Dimitrios M; Kentepozidou, Elissavet; Quintais, Leonor; Benito-Gutiérrez, Elia; van Dongen, Stijn; Davis, Matthew P; Enright, Anton J
The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) remains an important problem, particularly given the growth of high-throughput sequencing, cell sorting and single cell biology. While a large number of miRNAs have already been annotated, there may well be large numbers of miRNAs that are expressed in very particular cell types and remain elusive. Sequencing allows us to quickly and accurately identify the expression of known miRNAs from small RNA-Seq data. The biogenesis of miRNAs leads to very specific characteristics observed in their sequences. In brief, miRNAs usually have a well-defined 5' end and a more flexible 3' end with the possibility of 3' tailing events, such as uridylation. Previous approaches to the prediction of novel miRNAs usually involve the analysis of structural features of miRNA precursor hairpin sequences obtained from genome sequence. We surmised that it may be possible to identify miRNAs by using these biogenesis features observed directly from sequenced reads, solely or in addition to structural analysis from genome data. To this end, we have developed mirnovo, a machine learning based algorithm, which is able to identify known and novel miRNAs in animals and plants directly from small RNA-Seq data, with or without a reference genome. This method performs comparably to existing tools, however is simpler to use with reduced run time. Its performance and accuracy has been tested on multiple datasets, including species with poorly assembled genomes, RNaseIII (Drosha and/or Dicer) deficient samples and single cells (at both embryonic and adult stage). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that bind to the mRNA of the target genes and regulate the expression of the gene at the post-transcriptional level. Zebrafish is an economically important freshwater fish species globally considered as a good predictive model for studying human diseases and development. The present study focused on uncovering known as well as novel miRNAs, target prediction of the novel miRNAs and the differential expression of the known miRNA using the small RNA sequencing data of the brain and pineal gland (dark and light treatments obtained from NCBI SRA. A total of 165, 151 and 145 known zebrafish miRNAs were found in the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment and pineal gland (light treatment, respectively. Chromosomes 4 and 5 of zebrafish reference assembly GRCz10 were found to contain maximum number of miR genes. The miR-181a and miR-182 were found to be highly expressed in terms of number of reads in the brain and pineal gland, respectively. Other ncRNAs, such as tRNA, rRNA and snoRNA, were curated against Rfam. Using GRCz10 as reference, the subsequent bioinformatic analyses identified 25, 19 and 9 novel miRNAs from the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment and pineal gland (light treatment, respectively. Targets of the novel miRNAs were identified, based on sequence complementarity between miRNAs and mRNA, by searching for antisense hits in the 3′-UTR of reference RNA sequences of the zebrafish. The discovery of novel miRNAs and their targets in the zebrafish genome can be a valuable scientific resource for further functional studies not only in zebrafish but also in other economically important fishes.
Agarwal, Suyash; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Prachi; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra; Pandey, Manmohan; Srivastava, Shreya
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that bind to the mRNA of the target genes and regulate the expression of the gene at the post-transcriptional level. Zebrafish is an economically important freshwater fish species globally considered as a good predictive model for studying human diseases and development. The present study focused on uncovering known as well as novel miRNAs, target prediction of the novel miRNAs and the differential expression of the known miRNA using the small RNA sequencing data of the brain and pineal gland (dark and light treatments) obtained from NCBI SRA. A total of 165, 151 and 145 known zebrafish miRNAs were found in the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Chromosomes 4 and 5 of zebrafish reference assembly GRCz10 were found to contain maximum number of miR genes. The miR-181a and miR-182 were found to be highly expressed in terms of number of reads in the brain and pineal gland, respectively. Other ncRNAs, such as tRNA, rRNA and snoRNA, were curated against Rfam. Using GRCz10 as reference, the subsequent bioinformatic analyses identified 25, 19 and 9 novel miRNAs from the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Targets of the novel miRNAs were identified, based on sequence complementarity between miRNAs and mRNA, by searching for antisense hits in the 3'-UTR of reference RNA sequences of the zebrafish. The discovery of novel miRNAs and their targets in the zebrafish genome can be a valuable scientific resource for further functional studies not only in zebrafish but also in other economically important fishes.
Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Pakula, Malgorzata Maria; Larashati, Sekar; Kjems, Jørgen; Wengel, Jesper; Lorenzen, Niels
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are promising new active compounds in gene medicine but the induction of non-specific immune responses following their delivery continues to be a serious problem. With the purpose of avoiding such effects chemically modified siRNAs are tested in screening assay but often only examining the expression of specific immunologically relevant genes in selected cell populations typically blood cells from treated animals or humans. Assays using a relevant physiological state in biological models as read-out are not common. Here we use a fish model where the innate antiviral effect of siRNAs is functionally monitored as reduced mortality in challenge studies involving an interferon sensitive virus. Modifications with locked nucleic acid (LNA), altritol nucleic acid (ANA) and hexitol nucleic acid (HNA) reduced the antiviral protection in this model indicative of altered immunogenicity. For LNA modified siRNAs, the number and localization of modifications in the single strands was found to be important and a correlation between antiviral protection and the thermal stability of siRNAs was found. The previously published sisiRNA will in some sequences, but not all, increase the antiviral effect of siRNAs. The applied fish model represents a potent tool for conducting fast but statistically and scientifically relevant evaluations of chemically optimized siRNAs with respect to non-specific antiviral effects in vivo.
Full Text Available Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs have received much attention in recent years due to their unique biological properties, which can efficiently and specifically tune target gene expressions in bacteria. Inspired by natural sRNAs, recent works have proposed the use of artificial sRNAs (asRNAs as genetic tools to regulate desired gene that has been applied in several fields, such as metabolic engineering and bacterial physiology studies. However, the rational design of asRNAs is still a challenge. In this study, we proposed structure and length as two criteria to implement rational visualized and precise design of asRNAs. T7 expression system was one of the most useful recombinant protein expression systems. However, it was deeply limited by the formation of inclusion body. To settle this problem, we designed a series of asRNAs to inhibit the T7 RNA polymerase (Gene1 expression to balance the rate between transcription and folding of recombinant protein. Based on the heterologous expression of Aspergillus oryzae Li-3 glucuronidase in E. coli, the asRNA-antigene1-17bp can effectively decrease the inclusion body and increase the enzyme activity by 169.9%.
After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.
Mockler, Todd [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
Brachypodium distachyon is the premier experimental model grass platform and is related to candidate feedstock crops for bioethanol production. Based on the DOE-JGI Brachypodium Bd21 genome sequence and annotation we designed a whole genome DNA microarray platform. The quality of this array platform is unprecedented due to the exceptional quality of the Brachypodium genome assembly and annotation and the stringent probe selection criteria employed in the design. We worked with members of the international community and the bioinformatics/design team at Affymetrix at all stages in the development of the array. We used the Brachypodium arrays to interrogate the transcriptomes of plants grown in a variety of environmental conditions including diurnal and circadian light/temperature conditions and under a variety of environmental conditions. We examined the transciptional responses of Brachypodium seedlings subjected to various abiotic stresses including heat, cold, salt, and high intensity light. We generated a gene expression atlas representing various organs and developmental stages. The results of these efforts including all microarray datasets are published and available at online public databases.
Full Text Available As virus diseases cannot be controlled by traditional plant protection methods, the risk of their spread have to be minimized on vegetatively propagated plants, such as grapevine. Metagenomic approaches used for virus diagnostics offer a unique opportunity to reveal the presence of all viral pathogens in the investigated plant, which is why their application can reduce the risk of using infected material for a new plantation. Here we used a special branch, deep sequencing of virus-derived small RNAs, of this high-throughput method for virus diagnostics, and determined viromes of vineyards in Hungary. With NGS of virus-derived small RNAs we could detect not only the viruses tested routinely, but also new ones, which had never been described in Hungary before. Virus presence did not correlate with the age of the plantation, moreover phylogenetic analysis of the identified virus isolates suggests that infections are mostly caused by the use of infected propagating material. Our results, validated by other molecular methods, raised further questions to be answered before this method can be introduced as a routine, reliable test for grapevine virus diagnostics.
Alan M Zahler
Full Text Available Ciliated protozoans possess two types of nuclei; a transcriptionally silent micronucleus, which serves as the germ line nucleus, and a transcriptionally active macronucleus, which serves as the somatic nucleus. The macronucleus is derived from a new diploid micronucleus after mating, with epigenetic information contributed by the parental macronucleus serving to guide the formation of the new macronucleus. In the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax, the macronuclear DNA is highly processed to yield gene-sized nanochromosomes with telomeres at each end. Here we report that soon after mating of Oxytricha trifallax, abundant 27 nt small RNAs are produced that are not present prior to mating. We performed next generation sequencing of Oxytricha small RNAs from vegetative and mating cells. Using sequence comparisons between macronuclear and micronuclear versions of genes, we found that the 27 nt RNA class derives from the parental macronucleus, not the developing macronucleus. These small RNAs are produced equally from both strands of macronuclear nanochromosomes, but in a highly non-uniform distribution along the length of the nanochromosome, and with a particular depletion in the 30 nt telomere-proximal positions. This production of small RNAs from the parental macronucleus during macronuclear development stands in contrast to the mechanism of epigenetic control in the distantly related ciliate Tetrahymena. In that species, 28-29 nt scanRNAs are produced from the micronucleus and these micronuclear-derived RNAs serve as epigenetic controllers of macronuclear development. Unlike the Tetrahymena scanRNAs, the Oxytricha macronuclear-derived 27 mers are not modified by 2'O-methylation at their 3' ends. We propose models for the role of these "27macRNAs" in macronuclear development.
Full Text Available The ability to produce recombinant proteins by utilizing different “cell factories” revolutionized the biotherapeutic and pharmaceutical industry. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are the dominant industrial producer, especially for antibodies. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK, while not being as widely used as CHO cells, are used where CHO cells are unable to meet the needs for expression, such as growth factors. Therefore, improving recombinant protein expression from mammalian cells is a priority, and continuing effort is being devoted to this topic. Non-coding RNAs are RNA segments that are not translated into a protein and often have a regulatory role. Since their discovery, major progress has been made towards understanding their functions. Non-coding RNA has been investigated extensively in relation to disease, especially cancer, and recently they have also been used as a method for engineering cells to improve their protein expression capability. In this review, we provide information about methods used to identify non-coding RNAs with the potential of improving recombinant protein expression in mammalian cell lines.
Fan, Cuiqing; Xiong, Yuan; Zhu, Ning; Lu, Yabin; Zhang, Jiewen; Wang, Song; Liang, Zicai; Shen, Yan; Chen, Meihong
Cancers are characterized by poor differentiation. Differentiation therapy is a strategy to alleviate malignant phenotypes by inducing cancer cell differentiation. Here we carried out a combinatorial high-throughput screen with a random siRNA library on human erythroleukemia K-562 cell differentiation. Two siRNAs screened from the library were validated to be able to induce erythroid differentiation to varying degrees, determined by CD235 and globin up-regulation, GATA-2 down-regulation, and cell growth inhibition. The screen we performed here is the first trial of screening cancer differentiation-inducing agents from a random siRNA library, demonstrating that a random siRNA library can be considered as a new resource in efforts to seek new therapeutic agents for cancers. As a random siRNA library has a broad coverage for the entire genome, including known/unknown genes and protein coding/non-coding sequences, screening using a random siRNA library can be expected to greatly augment the repertoire of therapeutic siRNAs for cancers.
Full Text Available The genetic transformation of monocot grasses is a resource intensive process, the quality and efficiency of which is dependent in part upon the method of DNA introduction, as well as the ability to effectively separate transformed from wildtype tissue. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brachypodium has relied mainly on Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1. Currently the antibiotic hygromycin B has been the selective agent of choice for robust identification of transgenic calli in Brachypodium distachyon and Brachypodium sylvaticum but few other chemicals have been shown to work as well for selection of transgenic Brachypodium cells in tissue culture. This study demonstrates that Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 18r12v and paromomycin selection can be successfully used for the efficient generation of transgenic B. distachyon and B. sylvaticum. Additionally we observed that the transformation rates were similar to or higher than those obtained with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 and hygromycin selection. The A. rhizogenes strain 18r12v harboring the pARS1 binary vector and paromomycin selection is an effective means of generating transgenic Brachypodium plants. This novel approach will facilitate the transgenic complementation of T-DNA knockout mutants of B. distachyon which were created using hygromycin selection, as well as aid the implementation of more complex genome manipulation strategies which require multiple rounds of transformation.
Joseph M. Dhahbi
Full Text Available Small noncoding RNAs circulating in the blood may serve as signaling molecules because of their ability to carry out a variety of cellular functions. We have previously described tRNA- and YRNA-derived small RNAs circulating as components of larger complexes in the blood of humans and mice; the characteristics of these small RNAs imply specific processing, secretion, and physiological regulation. In this study, we have asked if changes in the serum abundance of these tRNA and YRNA fragments are associated with a diagnosis of cancer. We used deep sequencing and informatics analysis to catalog small RNAs in the sera of breast cancer cases and normal controls. 5′ tRNA halves and YRNA fragments are abundant in both groups, but we found that a breast cancer diagnosis is associated with changes in levels of specific subtypes. This prompted us to look at existing sequence datasets of serum small RNAs from 42 breast cancer cases, taken at the time of diagnosis. We find significant changes in the levels of specific 5′ tRNA halves and YRNA fragments associated with clinicopathologic characteristics of the cancer. Although these findings do not establish causality, they suggest that circulating 5′ tRNA halves and YRNA fragments with known cellular functions may participate in breast cancer syndromes and have potential as circulating biomarkers. Larger studies with multiple types of cancer are needed to adequately evaluate their potential use for the development of noninvasive cancer screening.
Bevan, Michael W; Garvin, David F; Vogel, John P
Grass crops are the most important sources of human nutrition, and their improvement is centrally important for meeting the challenges of sustainable agriculture, for feeding the world's population and for developing renewable supplies of fuel and industrial products. We describe the complete sequence of the compact genome of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) the first pooid grass to be sequenced. We demonstrate the many favorable characteristics of Brachypodium as an experimental system and show how it can be used to navigate the large and complex genomes of closely related grasses. The functional genomics and other experimental resources that are being developed will provide a key resource for improving food and forage crops, in particular wheat, barley and forage grasses, and for establishing new grass crops for sustainable energy production. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pyott, Douglas E; Molnar, Attila
RNA silencing is a form of genetic regulation, which is conserved across eukaryotes and has wide ranging biological functions. Recently, there has been a growing appreciation for the importance of mobility in RNA silencing pathways, particularly in plants. Moreover, in addition to the importance for mobile RNA silencing in an evolutionary context, the potential for utilizing mobile short silencing RNAs in biotechnological applications is becoming apparent. This review aims to set current knowledge of this topic in a historical context and provides examples to illustrate the importance of mobile RNA silencing in both natural and artificially engineered systems in plants. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs are involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways and in responses to stress and virulence. We analyzed the expression levels of five sRNAs of Staphylococcus aureus during human colonization or infection. Total RNA was isolated from nasal carriers, abscesses and cystic fibrosis patients (20 subjects per condition. The expression levels of the sRNAs were measured in the clinical samples and compared with those of the corresponding strains grown in vitro. Five sRNAs were encoded and expressed in all clinical strains in vitro. In vivo, the global expression of the five sRNAs was extremely variable in the abscessed patients, more homogeneous in the cystic fibrosis patients, and highly uniform in the nasal carrier samples. The expression levels of the sRNAs in vivo resembled those obtained at exponential phase or late exponential phase of growth in vitro, for three and one sRNA respectively; while for one sRNA, the expression was always higher in vivo as compared to in vitro growth. The in vitro conditions do not uniformly mimic the in vivo conditions for sRNA expression. Nasal colonization is associated with a unique expression pattern of sRNA that might reflect the commensalism of S. aureus in this niche.
Idziak, Dominika; Hazuka, Iwona; Poliwczak, Beata; Wiszynska, Anna; Wolny, Elzbieta; Hasterok, Robert
Paleogenomic studies based on bioinformatic analyses of DNA sequences have enabled unprecedented insight into the evolution of grass genomes. They have revealed that nested chromosome fusions played an important role in the divergence of modern grasses. Nowadays, studies on karyotype evolution based on the sequence analysis can also be effectively complemented by the fine-scale cytomolecular approach. In this work, we studied the karyotype evolution of small genome grasses using BAC-FISH based comparative chromosome barcoding in four Brachypodium species: diploid B. distachyon (2n = 10) and B. sylvaticum (2n = 18), diploid (2n = 18) and allopolyploid (2n = 28) B. pinnatum as well as B. phoenicoides (2n = 28). Using BAC clones derived from the B. distachyon genomic libraries for the chromosomes Bd2 and Bd3, we identified the descending dysploidy events that were common for diploids with x = 9 and B. distachyon as well as two nested chromosome fusions that were specific only for B. distachyon. We suggest that dysploidy events that are shared by different lineages of the genus had already appeared in their common ancestor. We also show that additional structural rearrangements, such as translocations and duplications, contributed to increasing genome diversification in the species analysed. No chromosomes structured exactly like Bd2 and Bd3 were found in B. pinnatum (2n = 28) and B. phoenicoides. The structure of Bd2 and Bd3 homeologues belonging to the two genomes in the allopolyploids resembled the structure of their counterparts in the 2n = 18 diploids. These findings reinforce the hypothesis which excludes B. distachyon as a potential parent for Eurasian perennial Brachypodium allopolyploids. Our cytomolecular data elucidate some mechanisms of the descending dysploidy in monocots and enable reconstructions of the evolutionary events which shaped the extant karyotypes in both the genus Brachypodium and in grasses as a whole. PMID
Full Text Available Paleogenomic studies based on bioinformatic analyses of DNA sequences have enabled unprecedented insight into the evolution of grass genomes. They have revealed that nested chromosome fusions played an important role in the divergence of modern grasses. Nowadays, studies on karyotype evolution based on the sequence analysis can also be effectively complemented by the fine-scale cytomolecular approach. In this work, we studied the karyotype evolution of small genome grasses using BAC-FISH based comparative chromosome barcoding in four Brachypodium species: diploid B. distachyon (2n = 10 and B. sylvaticum (2n = 18, diploid (2n = 18 and allopolyploid (2n = 28 B. pinnatum as well as B. phoenicoides (2n = 28. Using BAC clones derived from the B. distachyon genomic libraries for the chromosomes Bd2 and Bd3, we identified the descending dysploidy events that were common for diploids with x = 9 and B. distachyon as well as two nested chromosome fusions that were specific only for B. distachyon. We suggest that dysploidy events that are shared by different lineages of the genus had already appeared in their common ancestor. We also show that additional structural rearrangements, such as translocations and duplications, contributed to increasing genome diversification in the species analysed. No chromosomes structured exactly like Bd2 and Bd3 were found in B. pinnatum (2n = 28 and B. phoenicoides. The structure of Bd2 and Bd3 homeologues belonging to the two genomes in the allopolyploids resembled the structure of their counterparts in the 2n = 18 diploids. These findings reinforce the hypothesis which excludes B. distachyon as a potential parent for Eurasian perennial Brachypodium allopolyploids. Our cytomolecular data elucidate some mechanisms of the descending dysploidy in monocots and enable reconstructions of the evolutionary events which shaped the extant karyotypes in both the genus Brachypodium and in grasses as a whole.
Idziak, Dominika; Hazuka, Iwona; Poliwczak, Beata; Wiszynska, Anna; Wolny, Elzbieta; Hasterok, Robert
Paleogenomic studies based on bioinformatic analyses of DNA sequences have enabled unprecedented insight into the evolution of grass genomes. They have revealed that nested chromosome fusions played an important role in the divergence of modern grasses. Nowadays, studies on karyotype evolution based on the sequence analysis can also be effectively complemented by the fine-scale cytomolecular approach. In this work, we studied the karyotype evolution of small genome grasses using BAC-FISH based comparative chromosome barcoding in four Brachypodium species: diploid B. distachyon (2n = 10) and B. sylvaticum (2n = 18), diploid (2n = 18) and allopolyploid (2n = 28) B. pinnatum as well as B. phoenicoides (2n = 28). Using BAC clones derived from the B. distachyon genomic libraries for the chromosomes Bd2 and Bd3, we identified the descending dysploidy events that were common for diploids with x = 9 and B. distachyon as well as two nested chromosome fusions that were specific only for B. distachyon. We suggest that dysploidy events that are shared by different lineages of the genus had already appeared in their common ancestor. We also show that additional structural rearrangements, such as translocations and duplications, contributed to increasing genome diversification in the species analysed. No chromosomes structured exactly like Bd2 and Bd3 were found in B. pinnatum (2n = 28) and B. phoenicoides. The structure of Bd2 and Bd3 homeologues belonging to the two genomes in the allopolyploids resembled the structure of their counterparts in the 2n = 18 diploids. These findings reinforce the hypothesis which excludes B. distachyon as a potential parent for Eurasian perennial Brachypodium allopolyploids. Our cytomolecular data elucidate some mechanisms of the descending dysploidy in monocots and enable reconstructions of the evolutionary events which shaped the extant karyotypes in both the genus Brachypodium and in grasses as a whole.
Full Text Available The implications of global population growth urge transformation of current food and bioenergy production systems to sustainability. Members of the family Poaceae are of particular importance both in food security and for their applications as biofuel substrates. For centuries, rust fungi have threatened the production of valuable crops such as wheat, barley, oat and other small grains; similarly, biofuel crops can also be susceptible to these pathogens. Emerging rust pathogenic races with increased virulence and recurrent rust epidemics around the world point out the vulnerability of monocultures. Basic research in plant immunity, especially in model plants, can make contributions to understanding plant resistance mechanisms and improve disease management strategies. The development of the grass Brachypodium distachyon as a genetically tractable model for monocots, especially temperate cereals and grasses, offers the possibility to overcome the experimental challenges presented by the genetic and genomic complexities of economically valuable crop plants. The numerous resources and tools available in Brachypodium have opened new doors to investigate the underlying molecular and genetic bases of plant-microbe interactions in grasses and evidence demonstrating the applicability and advantages of working with B. distachyon is increasing. Importantly, several interactions between B. distachyon and devastating plant pathogens, such rust fungi, have been examined in the context of non-host resistance. Here, we discuss the use of B. distachyon in these various pathosystems. Exploiting B. distachyon to understand the mechanisms underpinning disease resistance to non-adapted rust fungi may provide effective and durable approaches to fend off these pathogens. The close phylogenetic relationship among Brachypodium spp. and grasses with industrial and agronomic value support harnessing this model plant to improve cropping systems and encourage its use in
CLARA ISABEL BERMÚDEZ SANTANA
identification of ncRNAs and ncRNA-derived small RNAs is a major issue in genetic analysis. One of the most important recent advances of transcriptome analysis focuses, for example, on RNA interference (RNAi biology and its clinical application. High-performance computing, storage capability and computational modeling have been continuously developed during last years to process and model large amounts of products of next generation sequencing methods. As consequence this review describes transcriptome sequencing analysis from a historical perspective to its link to computational approaches to model ncRNAs from small RNA library data.
Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R
Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic
Full Text Available In recent years, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC targeted therapy, especially in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations, EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI more and more come into the clinical treatment, but EGFR-TKI resistance not only influence the drug sensitivity, appear even disease progression, become the main bottleneck of its curative effect. MicroRNAs (miRNAs is a non coding RNA and protein involved in regulating gene expression in the transcription level. Recent studies found that miRNAs involved in EGFR-TKIs resistance, which affect the sensitivity of tumor cells to treatment. In this paper, we reviewed briefly advance in miRNAs and EGFR-TKIs secondary resistance research in NSCLC.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs present in tissues and biofluids are emerging as sensitive and specific safety biomarkers. MiRNAs have not been thoroughly described in M. fascicularis, an animal model used in pharmaceutical industry especially in drug safety evaluation. Here we investigated the miRNAs in M. fascicularis. For Macaca mulatta, a closely related species of M. fascicularis, 619 stem-loop precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs and 914 mature miRNAs are available in miRBase version 21. Using M. mulatta miRNAs as a reference list and homology search tools, we identified 604 pre-miRNAs and 913 mature miRNAs in the genome of M. fascicularis. In order to validate the miRNAs identified by homology search we attempted to sequence miRNAs expressed in kidney cortex from M. fascicularis. MiRNAs expressed in kidney cortex may indeed be released in urine upon kidney cortex damage and be potentially used to monitor drug induced kidney injury. Hence small RNA sequencing libraries were prepared using kidney cortex tissues obtained from three naive M. fascicularis and sequenced. Analysis of sequencing data indicated that 432 out of 913 mature miRNAs were expressed in kidney cortex tissues. Assigning these 432 miRNAs to pre-miRNAs revealed that 273 were expressed from both the -5p and -3p arms of 150 pre-miRNAs and 159 miRNAs expressed from either the -5p or -3p arm of 176 pre-miRNAs. Mapping sequencing reads to pre-miRNAs also facilitated the detection of twenty-two new miRNAs. To substantiate miRNAs identified by small RNA sequencing, 313 miRNAs were examined by RT-qPCR. Expression of 262 miRNAs in kidney cortex tissues ware confirmed by TaqMan microRNA RT-qPCR assays. Analysis of kidney cortex miRNA targeted genes suggested that they play important role in kidney development and function. Data presented in this study may serve as a valuable resource to assess the renal safety biomarker potential of miRNAs in Cynomolgus monkeys.
Skalsky, Rebecca L; Cullen, Bryan R
EBV expresses a number of viral noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) during latent infection, many of which have known regulatory functions and can post-transcriptionally regulate viral and/or cellular gene expression. With recent advances in RNA sequencing technologies, the list of identified EBV ncRNAs continues to grow. EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) , the BamHI-A rightward transcripts (BARTs) , a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) , and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) are all expressed during EBV infection in a variety of cell types and tumors. Recently, additional novel EBV ncRNAs have been identified. Viral miRNAs, in particular, have been under extensive investigation since their initial identification over ten years ago. High-throughput studies to capture miRNA targets have revealed a number of miRNA-regulated viral and cellular transcripts that tie into important biological networks. Functions for many EBV ncRNAs are still unknown; however, roles for many EBV miRNAs in latency and in tumorigenesis have begun to emerge. Ongoing mechanistic studies to elucidate the functions of EBV ncRNAs should unravel additional roles for ncRNAs in the viral life cycle. In this chapter, we will discuss our current knowledge of the types of ncRNAs expressed by EBV, their potential roles in viral latency, and their potential involvement in viral pathogenesis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs have attracted attention as a new class of gene regulators in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Genome-wide screening methods have been successfully applied in Gram-negative bacteria to identify sRNA regulators. Many sRNAs are well characterized, including their target mRNAs and mode of action. In comparison, little is known about sRNAs in Gram-positive pathogens. In this study, we identified novel sRNAs in the exclusively human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes M49 (Group A Streptococcus, GAS M49, employing a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. GAS is an important pathogen that causes diseases ranging from mild superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes of the naso-pharynx, to severe toxic and invasive diseases. Results We identified 55 putative sRNAs in GAS M49 that were expressed during growth. Of these, 42 were novel. Some of the newly-identified sRNAs belonged to one of the common non-coding RNA families described in the Rfam database. Comparison of the results of our screen with the outcome of two recently published bioinformatics tools showed a low level of overlap between putative sRNA genes. Previously, 40 potential sRNAs have been reported to be expressed in a GAS M1T1 serotype, as detected by a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. Our screen detected 12 putative sRNA genes that were expressed in both strains. Twenty sRNA candidates appeared to be regulated in a medium-dependent fashion, while eight sRNA genes were regulated throughout growth in chemically defined medium. Expression of candidate genes was verified by reverse transcriptase-qPCR. For a subset of sRNAs, the transcriptional start was determined by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR analysis. Conclusions In accord with the results of previous studies, we found little overlap between different screening methods, which underlines the fact that a comprehensive analysis of sRNAs
Nicolas A Gillet
Full Text Available Retroviruses are not expected to encode miRNAs because of the potential problem of self-cleavage of their genomic RNAs. This assumption has recently been challenged by experiments showing that bovine leukemia virus (BLV encodes miRNAs from intragenomic Pol III promoters. The BLV miRNAs are abundantly expressed in B-cell tumors in the absence of significant levels of genomic and subgenomic viral RNAs. Using deep RNA sequencing and functional reporter assays, we show that miRNAs mediate the expression of genes involved in cell signaling, cancer and immunity. We further demonstrate that BLV miRNAs are essential to induce B-cell tumors in an experimental model and to promote efficient viral replication in the natural host.
The transition to reproductive development is a crucial step of a plant’s life cycle, and the timing of this transition is an important factor in crop yields. Here, we report new insights into the genetic control of natural variation in flowering time in Brachypodium distachyon, a non-domesticated c...
Koukiekolo, Roger; Jakubek, Zygmunt J; Cheng, Jenny; Sagan, Selena M; Pezacki, John Paul
Eukaryotes have evolved complex cellular responses to double-stranded RNA. One response that is highly conserved across many species is the RNA silencing pathway. Tombusviruses have evolved a mechanism to evade the RNA silencing pathway that involves a small protein, p19, that acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing. This protein binds specifically to small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with nanomolar affinity in a sequence-independent manner and with size selectivity. Here we demonstrate a new approach for rapidly determining the quantities of siRNA using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) p19-CFP fusion protein and Cy3-labeled siRNA. The CIRV p19 fusion protein binds double-stranded siRNAs with nanomolar affinity as determined by FRET. [corrected
Wang, Xian-Bing; Jovel, Juan; Udomporn, Petchthai; Wang, Ying; Wu, Qingfa; Li, Wan-Xiang; Gasciolli, Virginie; Vaucheret, Herve; Ding, Shou-Wei
Arabidopsis thaliana defense against distinct positive-strand RNA viruses requires production of virus-derived secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by multiple RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, little is known about the biogenesis pathway and effector mechanism of viral secondary siRNAs. Here, we describe a mutant of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Δ2b) that is silenced predominantly by the RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6)-dependent viral secondary siRNA pathway. We show that production of the viral secondary siRNAs targeting CMV-Δ2b requires SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 and DICER-LIKE4 (DCL4) in addition to RDR6. Examination of 25 single, double, and triple mutants impaired in nine ARGONAUTE (AGO) genes combined with coimmunoprecipitation and deep sequencing identifies an essential function for AGO1 and AGO2 in defense against CMV-Δ2b, which act downstream the biogenesis of viral secondary siRNAs in a nonredundant and cooperative manner. Our findings also illustrate that dicing of the viral RNA precursors of primary and secondary siRNA is insufficient to confer virus resistance. Notably, although DCL2 is able to produce abundant viral secondary siRNAs in the absence of DCL4, the resultant 22-nucleotide viral siRNAs alone do not guide efficient silencing of CMV-Δ2b. Possible mechanisms for the observed qualitative difference in RNA silencing between 21- and 22-nucleotide secondary siRNAs are discussed. PMID:21467580
Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Fierro, Francisco; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Rufino-González, Yadira; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio
Stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a molecular technique used for identification and quantification of individual small RNAs in cells. In this work, we used a Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL)-based design to detect—in a rapid, sensitive, specific, and reproducible way—the small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) GlsR17 and its derived miRNA (miR2) of Giardia lamblia using a stem-loop RT-qPCR approach. Both small RNAs could be isolated from both total RNA and small RNA samples. Identification of the two small RNAs was carried out by sequencing the PCR-amplified small RNA products upon ligation into the pJET1.2/blunt vector. GlsR17 is constitutively expressed during the 72 h cultures of trophozoites, while the mature miR2 is present in 2-fold higher abundance during the first 48 h than at 72 h. Because it has been suggested that miRNAs in G. lamblia have an important role in the regulation of gene expression, the use of the stem-loop RT-qPCR method could be valuable for the study of miRNAs of G. lamblia. This methodology will be a powerful tool for studying gene regulation in G. lamblia, and will help to better understand the features and functions of these regulatory molecules and how they work within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in G. lamblia. PMID:27999395
Snyman, Marius C; Solofoharivelo, Marie-Chrystine; Souza-Richards, Rose; Stephan, Dirk; Murray, Shane; Burger, Johan T
Phytoplasmas are cell wall-less plant pathogenic bacteria responsible for major crop losses throughout the world. In grapevine they cause grapevine yellows, a detrimental disease associated with a variety of symptoms. The high economic impact of this disease has sparked considerable interest among researchers to understand molecular mechanisms related to pathogenesis. Increasing evidence exist that a class of small non-coding endogenous RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), play an important role in post-transcriptional gene regulation during plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, we aimed to dissect complex high-throughput small RNA sequencing data for the genome-wide identification of known and novel differentially expressed miRNAs, using read libraries constructed from healthy and phytoplasma-infected Chardonnay leaf material. Furthermore, we utilised computational resources to predict putative miRNA targets to explore the involvement of possible pathogen response pathways. We identified multiple known miRNA sequence variants (isomiRs), likely generated through post-transcriptional modifications. Sequences of 13 known, canonical miRNAs were shown to be differentially expressed. A total of 175 novel miRNA precursor sequences, each derived from a unique genomic location, were predicted, of which 23 were differentially expressed. A homology search revealed that some of these novel miRNAs shared high sequence similarity with conserved miRNAs from other plant species, as well as known grapevine miRNAs. The relative expression of randomly selected known and novel miRNAs was determined with real-time RT-qPCR analysis, thereby validating the trend of expression seen in the normalised small RNA sequencing read count data. Among the putative miRNA targets, we identified genes involved in plant morphology, hormone signalling, nutrient homeostasis, as well as plant stress. Our results may assist in understanding the role that miRNA pathways play
Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, Eppurath V
Small RNAs derived from transfer RNAs were recently assigned as potential gene regulatory candidates for various stress responses in eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the cloning and identification of tRNA derived small RNAs from black pepper plants in response to the infection of the quick wilt pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. 5'tRFs cloned from black pepper were validated as highly expressed during P. capsici infection. A high-throughput systematic analysis of the small RNAome (sRNAome) revealed the predominance of 5'tRFs in the infected leaf and root. The abundance of 5'tRFs in the sRNAome and the defense responsive genes as their potential targets indicated their regulatory role during stress response in black pepper. The 5'Ala(CGC) tRF mediated cleavage was experimentally mapped at the tRF binding sites on the mRNA targets of Non-expresser of pathogenesis related protein (NPR1), which was down-regulated during pathogen infection. Comparative sRNAome further demonstrated sequence conservation of 5'Ala tRFs across the angiosperm plant groups, and many important genes in the defense response were identified in silico as their potential targets. Our findings uncovered the diversity, differential expression and stress responsive functional role of tRNA-derived small RNAs during Phytophthora infection in black pepper.
Stutika, Catrin; Mietzsch, Mario; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Weger, Stefan; Sohn, Madlen; Chen, Wei; Heilbronn, Regine
Most DNA viruses express small regulatory RNAs, which interfere with viral or cellular gene expression. For adeno-associated virus (AAV), a small ssDNA virus with a complex biphasic life cycle miRNAs or other small regulatory RNAs have not yet been described. This is the first comprehensive Illumina-based RNA-Seq analysis of small RNAs expressed by AAV alone or upon co-infection with helper adenovirus or HSV. Several hotspots of AAV-specific small RNAs were detected mostly close to or within the AAV-ITR and apparently transcribed from the newly identified anti-p5 promoter. An additional small RNA hotspot was located downstream of the p40 promoter, from where transcription of non-coding RNAs associated with the inhibition of adenovirus replication were recently described. Parallel detection of known Ad and HSV miRNAs indirectly validated the newly identified small AAV RNA species. The predominant small RNAs were analyzed on Northern blots and by human argonaute protein-mediated co-immunoprecipitation. None of the small AAV RNAs showed characteristics of bona fide miRNAs, but characteristics of alternative RNA processing indicative of differentially regulated AAV promoter-associated small RNAs. Furthermore, the AAV-induced regulation of cellular miRNA levels was analyzed at different time points post infection. In contrast to other virus groups AAV infection had virtually no effect on the expression of cellular miRNA, which underscores the long-established concept that wild-type AAV infection is apathogenic.
Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Gallo, Steven M; Disney, Matthew D
Oligonucleotides are designed to target RNA using base pairing rules, but they can be hampered by poor cellular delivery and nonspecific stimulation of the immune system. Small molecules are preferred as lead drugs or probes but cannot be designed from sequence. Herein, we describe an approach termed Inforna that designs lead small molecules for RNA from solely sequence. Inforna was applied to all human microRNA hairpin precursors, and it identified bioactive small molecules that inhibit biogenesis by binding nuclease-processing sites (44% hit rate). Among 27 lead interactions, the most avid interaction is between a benzimidazole (1) and precursor microRNA-96. Compound 1 selectively inhibits biogenesis of microRNA-96, upregulating a protein target (FOXO1) and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Apoptosis is ablated when FOXO1 mRNA expression is knocked down by an siRNA, validating compound selectivity. Markedly, microRNA profiling shows that 1 only affects microRNA-96 biogenesis and is at least as selective as an oligonucleotide.
Smalheiser, Neil; Lugli, G.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Cook, E H; Larson, J.
We previously proposed that endogenous siRNAs may regulate synaptic plasticity and long-term gene expression in the mammalian brain. Here, a hippocampal-dependent task was employed in which adult mice were trained to execute a nose-poke in a port containing one of two simultaneously present odors in order to obtain a reward. Mice demonstrating olfactory discrimination training were compared to pseudo-training and nose-poke control groups; size-selected hippocampal RNA was subjected to Illumin...
Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Navarro, Beatriz; Gisel, Andreas; Peña, Leandro; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Di Serio, Francesco; Flores, Ricardo
To get an insight into the host RNA silencing defense induced by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and into the counter defensive reaction mediated by its three silencing suppressors (p25, p20 and p23), we have examined by deep sequencing (Solexa-Illumina) the small RNAs (sRNAs) in three virus-host combinations. Our data show that CTV sRNAs: (i) represent more than 50% of the total sRNAs in Mexican lime and sweet orange (where CTV reaches relatively high titers), but only 3.5% in sour orange (where the CTV titer is significantly lower), (ii) are predominantly of 21-22-nt, with a biased distribution of their 5' nucleotide and with those of (+) polarity accumulating in a moderate excess, and (iii) derive from essentially all the CTV genome (ca. 20 kb), as revealed by its complete reconstruction from viral sRNA contigs, but adopt an asymmetric distribution with a prominent hotspot covering approximately the 3'-terminal 2,500 nt. These results suggest that the citrus homologues of Dicer-like (DCL) 4 and 2 most likely mediate the genesis of the 21 and 22 nt CTV sRNAs, respectively, and show that both ribonucleases act not only on the genomic RNA but also on the 3' co-terminal subgenomic RNAs and, particularly, on their double-stranded forms. The plant sRNA profile, very similar and dominated by the 24-nt sRNAs in the three mock-inoculated controls, was minimally affected by CTV infection in sour orange, but exhibited a significant reduction of the 24-nt sRNAs in Mexican lime and sweet orange. We have also identified novel citrus miRNAs and determined how CTV influences their accumulation.
Douthwaite, S; Christensen, A; Garrett, R A
An experimental approach was used to determine and compare the highest order structure within the 150 to 200 nucleotides at the 3'-ends of the RNAs from the small ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli, Bacillus stearothermophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chemical reagents were employed......, T2 and S1. The data enabled the various minimal secondary structural models, proposed for the 3'-regions of the E. coli and S. cerevisiae RNAs, to be critically examined, and to demonstrate that the main common features of these models are correct. The results also reveal the presence and position...... regions of the RNAs are particularly important for the functioning of the ribosome. They are involved in mRNA, tRNA and ribosomal factor binding. The results reveal that while the functionally important RNA sequences tend to be conserved, they are not always accessible in the free RNA; the pyrimidine...
Zhou, Kejin; Nguyen, Liem H; Miller, Jason B; Yan, Yunfeng; Kos, Petra; Xiong, Hu; Li, Lin; Hao, Jing; Minnig, Jonathan T; Zhu, Hao; Siegwart, Daniel J
RNA-based cancer therapies are hindered by the lack of delivery vehicles that avoid cancer-induced organ dysfunction, which exacerbates carrier toxicity. We address this issue by reporting modular degradable dendrimers that achieve the required combination of high potency to tumors and low hepatotoxicity to provide a pronounced survival benefit in an aggressive genetic cancer model. More than 1,500 dendrimers were synthesized using sequential, orthogonal reactions where ester degradability was systematically integrated with chemically diversified cores, peripheries, and generations. A lead dendrimer, 5A2-SC8, provided a broad therapeutic window: identified as potent [EC50 75 mg/kg dendrimer repeated dosing). Delivery of let-7 g microRNA (miRNA) mimic inhibited tumor growth and dramatically extended survival. Efficacy stemmed from a combination of a small RNA with the dendrimer's own negligible toxicity, therefore illuminating an underappreciated complication in treating cancer with RNA-based drugs.
Full Text Available A facile and robust RNA preparation protocol was developed by combining rolling circle transcription (RCT with RNA cleavage by RNase H. Circular DNA with a complementary sequence was used as the template for promoter-free transcription. With the aid of a 2′-O-methylated DNA, the RCT-generated tandem repeats of the desired RNA sequence were disconnected at the exact end-to-end position to harvest the desired RNA oligomers. Compared with the template DNA, more than 4 × 103 times the amount of small RNA products were obtained when modest cleavage was carried out during transcription. Large amounts of RNA oligomers could easily be obtained by simply increasing the reaction volume.
Świtlik, Weronika Zofia; Szemraj, Janusz
The discovery of a new class of molecules, the 22-24 nucleotides long RNA, has initiated a new chapter in genetic information regulation studies. These molecules have a significant impact on the functioning of cells by means of negative regulation of expression of targeted mRNA. Special attention is given to exogenous, circulating miRNAs, whose levels of expression in different body fluids varies and can be deregulated by pathological, as well as physiological conditions. Extensive studies on the diagnostic potential of miRNAs are currently conducted. Attempts are made to determine specific profiles of miRNAs that will correlate with disease entity. The preliminary data gives hope that in the near future miRNAs will be applied as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in many diseases. One of their most significant applications can be in the diagnosis of lung cancer - the most deadly form of cancer, due to its too late diagnosis. Abundant in miRNA molecules, blood and sputum constitute excellent diagnostic material for patients with lung cancer, especially those with non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC. Easy procedures for obtaining this diagnostic material from patients and relatively easy analysis of miRNA expression, make these molecules promising in their use in diagnosis, predicting of therapy effects and prognosis for patients with NSCLC. This work presents information related to miRNA and their specific attributes. Moreover level of deregulated circulating miRNAs occurring in body fluids of patients with NSCLC is also discussed.
Wang, Ying; Itaya, Asuka; Zhong, Xuehua; Wu, Yang; Zhang, Jianfeng; van der Knaap, Esther; Olmstead, Richard; Qi, Yijun; Ding, Biao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a wide variety of biological processes in most eukaryotes. We investigated the function and evolution of miR4376 in the family Solanaceae. We report that the 22-nucleotide miR4376 regulates the expression of an autoinhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ACA10, which plays a critical role in tomato reproductive growth. Deep phylogenetic mapping suggested (1) an evolution course of MIR4376 loci and posttranscriptional processing of pre-miR4376 as a likely limiting step for the evolution of miR4376, (2) an independent phylogenetic origin of the miR4376 target site in ACA10 homologs, and (3) alternative splicing as a possible mechanism of eliminating such a target in some ACA10 homologs. Furthermore, miR4376 triggers the formation of phased small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from Sl ACA10 and its Solanum tuberosum homolog. Together, our data provide experimental evidence of miRNA-regulated expression of universally important Ca(2+)-ATPases. The miR4376-regulated expression of ACA10 itself, and possibly also the associated formation of phased siRNAs, may function as a novel layer of molecular mechanisms underlying tomato reproductive growth. Finally, our data suggest that the stochastic emergence of a miRNA-target gene combination involves multiple molecular events at the genomic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional levels that may vary drastically in even closely related species.
Coffman, Stephanie R; Lu, Jinfeng; Guo, Xunyang; Zhong, Jing; Jiang, Hongshan; Broitman-Maduro, Gina; Li, Wan-Xiang; Lu, Rui; Maduro, Morris; Ding, Shou-Wei
Dicer enzymes process virus-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to initiate specific antiviral defense by related RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in plants, insects, nematodes, and mammals. Antiviral RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans requires Dicer-related helicase 1 (DRH-1), not found in plants and insects but highly homologous to mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), intracellular viral RNA sensors that trigger innate immunity against RNA virus infection. However, it remains unclear if DRH-1 acts analogously to initiate antiviral RNAi in C. elegans Here, we performed a forward genetic screen to characterize antiviral RNAi in C. elegans Using a mapping-by-sequencing strategy, we uncovered four loss-of-function alleles of drh-1, three of which caused mutations in the helicase and C-terminal domains conserved in RLRs. Deep sequencing of small RNAs revealed an abundant population of Dicer-dependent virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in drh-1 single and double mutant animals after infection with Orsay virus, a positive-strand RNA virus. These findings provide further genetic evidence for the antiviral function of DRH-1 and illustrate that DRH-1 is not essential for the sensing and Dicer-mediated processing of the viral dsRNA replicative intermediates. Interestingly, vsiRNAs produced by drh-1 mutants were mapped overwhelmingly to the terminal regions of the viral genomic RNAs, in contrast to random distribution of vsiRNA hot spots when DRH-1 is functional. As RIG-I translocates on long dsRNA and DRH-1 exists in a complex with Dicer, we propose that DRH-1 facilitates the biogenesis of vsiRNAs in nematodes by catalyzing translocation of the Dicer complex on the viral long dsRNA precursors.IMPORTANCE The helicase and C-terminal domains of mammalian RLRs sense intracellular viral RNAs to initiate the interferon-regulated innate immunity against RNA virus infection. Both of the domains from
Barbieri, M.; Marcel, T.C.; Niks, R.E.; Francia, E.; Pasquariello, M.; Mazzamurro, V.; Garvin, D.F.; Pecchioni, N.
The potential of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon L. (Brachypodium) for studying grass–pathogen interactions is still underexploited. We aimed to identify genomic regions in Brachypodium associated with quantitative resistance to the false brome rust fungus Puccinia brachypodii. The inbred
Del Toro, Francisco J; Donaire, Livia; Aguilar, Emmanuel; Chung, Bong-Nam; Tenllado, Francisco; Canto, Tomás
We have investigated short and small RNAs (sRNAs) that were bound to a biologically active hexahistidine-tagged Potato virus Y (PVY) HCPro suppressor of silencing, expressed from a heterologous virus vector in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and purified under nondenaturing conditions. We found that RNAs in purified preparations were differentially enriched in 21-nucleotide (nt) and, to a much lesser extent, 22-nt sRNAs of viral sequences (viral sRNAs [vsRNAs]) compared to those found in a control plant protein background bound to nickel resin in the absence of HCPro or in a purified HCPro alanine substitution mutant (HCPro mutB) control that lacked suppressor-of-silencing activity. In both controls, sRNAs were composed almost entirely of molecules of plant sequence, indicating that the resin-bound protein background had no affinity for vsRNAs and also that HCPro mutB failed to bind to vsRNAs. Therefore, PVY HCPro suppressor activity correlated with its ability to bind to 21- and 22-nt vsRNAs. HCPro constituted at least 54% of the total protein content in purified preparations, and we were able to calculate its contribution to the 21- and the 22-nt pools of sRNAs present in the purified samples and its binding strength relative to the background. We also found that in the 21-nt vsRNAs of the HCPro preparation, 5'-terminal adenines were overrepresented relative to the controls, but this was not observed in vsRNAs of other sizes or of plant sequences.IMPORTANCE It was previously shown that HCPro can bind to long RNAs and small RNAs (sRNAs) in vitro and, in the case of Turnip mosaic virus HCPro, also in vivo in arabidopsis AGO2-deficient plants. Our data show that PVY HCPro binds in vivo to sRNAs during infection in wild-type Nicotiana benthamiana plants when expressed from a heterologous virus vector. Using a suppression-of-silencing-deficient HCPro mutant that can accumulate in this host when expressed from a virus vector, we also show that sRNA binding correlates
Liu, Yamei; Stepanov, Victor G; Strych, Ulrich; Willson, Richard C; Jackson, George W; Fox, George E
Manufacturing large quantities of recombinant RNAs by overexpression in a bacterial host is hampered by their instability in intracellular environment. To overcome this problem, an RNA of interest can be fused into a stable bacterial RNA for the resulting chimeric construct to accumulate in the cytoplasm to a sufficiently high level. Being supplemented with cost-effective procedures for isolation of the chimera from cells and recovery of the recombinant RNA from stabilizing scaffold, this strategy might become a viable alternative to the existing methods of chemical or enzymatic RNA synthesis. Sequence encoding a 71-nucleotide recombinant RNA was inserted into a plasmid-borne deletion mutant of the Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA gene in place of helix III - loop C segment of the original 5S rRNA. After transformation into Escherichia coli, the chimeric RNA (3×pen aRNA) was expressed constitutively from E. coli rrnB P1 and P2 promoters. The RNA chimera accumulated to levels that exceeded those of the host's 5S rRNA. A novel method relying on liquid-solid partitioning of cellular constituents was developed for isolation of total RNA from bacterial cells. This protocol avoids toxic chemicals, and is therefore more suitable for large scale RNA purification than traditional methods. A pair of biotinylated 8-17 DNAzymes was used to bring about the quantitative excision of the 71-nt recombinant RNA from the chimera. The recombinant RNA was isolated by sequence-specific capture on beads with immobilized complementary deoxyoligonucleotide, while DNAzymes were recovered by biotin affinity chromatography for reuse. The feasibility of a fermentation-based approach for manufacturing large quantities of small RNAs in vivo using a "5S rRNA scaffold" strategy is demonstrated. The approach provides a route towards an economical method for the large-scale production of small RNAs including shRNAs, siRNAs and aptamers for use in clinical and biomedical research.
Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a clinical subtype of motor neurone disease (MND, a fatal neurodegenerative disease involving the loss of both the upper and lower motor neurones from the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. Identifying specific disease biomarkers would help to not only improve diagnostic delay but also to classify disease subtypes, monitor response to therapeutic drugs and track disease progression. miRNAs are small non-coding RNA responsible for regulating gene expression and ultimately protein expression and have been used as biomarkers for many cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Investigating the detection of miRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the fluid that bathes the central nervous system (CNS is a prime target for identifying potential biomarkers for ALS. This is the first study to investigate the expression of miRNAs in the CSF of ALS patients using small RNA sequencing. We detected 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in the CSF of sporadic ALS (sALS patients related to neural and glial activity. Additionally, miRNAs involved in glucose metabolism and the regulation of oxidative stress were also identified. Detecting the presence of potential CSF derived miRNA biomarkers in sALS could open up a whole new area of knowledge to help gain a better understanding of disease pathophysiology. Additionally, with further investigation, the tracking of CSF miRNA over the disease course could be used to follow the disease progression and monitor the effect of novel therapeutics that could be personalized to an individual disease phenotype.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC is very rare, and due to the long time period required to recruit sufficient numbers of patients, there is a paucity of information regarding the prognostic factors associated with survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been used as cancer-related biomarkers in a variety of tumor types, and the objective of this study was to determine whether microRNA expression profiles can predict clinical outcome in SCCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-four patients with SCCC who underwent radical hysterectomy between January 2000 and October 2009 were enrolled. Using the GeneCopoeia All-in-One™ Customized Human qPCR Primer Array, the expression profiles of 30 miRNAs associated with tumor metastasis was obtained from the formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples of all 44 patients. Seven miRNAs, has-let-7c, has-miR-10b, has-miR-100, has-miR-125b, has-miR-143, has-miR-145 and has-miR-199a-5p were significantly down-regulated in advanced stage SCCC patients (FIGO IB2-IV compared to early stage SCCC patients (FIGOIB1. Among, downregulation of six miRNAs, has-let-7c, has-miR-100, has-miR-125b, has-miR-143, has-miR-145 and has-miR-199a-5p were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and reduced survival in SCCC. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses revealed that SCCC patients with low expression of has-miR-100 (P = 0.019 and has-miR-125b (P = 0.020 projected a significant tendency towards poorer prognosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that downregulation of 7 miRNA associated with advanced stage, 6 miRNAs with metastasis and 2 with poor prognosis in SCCC. Functional analysis of these miRNAs may enhance our understanding of SCCC, as altered expression of specific miRNAs may regulate the metastatic pathway and provide novel targets for therapy.
Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops
John, Vogel P. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)
Several bioenergy grasses are poised to become a major source of energy in the United States. Despite their increasing importance, we know little about the basic biology underlying the traits that control the utility of grasses as energy crops. Better knowledge of grass biology (e.g. identification of the genes that control cell wall composition, plant architecture, cell size, cell division, reproduction, nutrient uptake, carbon flux, etc.) could be used to design rational strategies for crop improvement and shorten the time required to domesticate these species. The use of an appropriate model system is an efficient way to gain this knowledge. Brachypodium distachyon is a small annual grass with all the attributes needed to be a modern model organism including simple growth requirements, fast generation time, small stature, small genome size and self-fertility. These attributes led to the recommendation in the DOE’s “Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda” report to propose developing and using B. distachyon as a model for energy crops to accelerate their domestication. Strategic investments (e.g. genome sequencing) in B. distachyon by the DOE are now bearing fruit and B. distachyon is being used as a model grass by hundreds of laboratories worldwide. Sequence indexed insertional mutants are an extremely powerful tool for both forward and reverse genetics. They allow researchers to order mutants in any gene tagged in the collection by simply emailing a request. The goal of this project was to create a collection of sequence indexed insertional mutants (T-DNA lines) for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon in order to facilitate research by the scientific community. During the course of this grant we created a collection of 23,649 B. distachyon T-DNA lines and identified 26,112 unique insertion sites. The collection can be queried through the project website (http://jgi.doe.gov/our-science/science-programs/plant-genomics/brachypodium/brachypodium
Full Text Available Heparanase (HPA, an endo-h-D-glucuronidase that cleaves the heparan sulfate chain of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, is overexpressed in majority of human cancers. Recent evidence suggests that small interfering RNA (siRNA induces transcriptional gene silencing (TGS in human cells. In this study, transfection of siRNA against -9/+10 bp (siH3, but not -174/-155 bp (siH1 or -134/-115 bp (siH2 region relative to transcription start site (TSS locating at 101 bp upstream of the translation start site, resulted in TGS of heparanase in human prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and gastric cancer cells in a sequence-specific manner. Methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing revealed no DNA methylation of CpG islands within heparanase promoter in siH3-transfected cells. The TGS of heparanase did not involve changes of epigenetic markers histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 or active chromatin marker acetylated histone H3 (AcH3. The regulation of alternative splicing was not involved in siH3-mediated TGS. Instead, siH3 interfered with transcription initiation via decreasing the binding of both RNA polymerase II and transcription factor II B (TFIIB, but not the binding of transcription factors Sp1 or early growth response 1, on the heparanase promoter. Moreover, Argonaute 1 and Argonaute 2 facilitated the decreased binding of RNA polymerase II and TFIIB on heparanase promoter, and were necessary in siH3-induced TGS of heparanase. Stable transfection of the short hairpin RNA construct targeting heparanase TSS (-9/+10 bp into cancer cells, resulted in decreased proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of cancer cells in vitro and in athymic mice models. These results suggest that small RNAs targeting TSS can induce TGS of heparanase via interference with transcription initiation, and significantly suppress the tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of cancer cells.
Zhang, Shaoyan; Zeng, Xiaoli; Ding, Ting; Guo, Lin; Li, Yulong; Ou, Songlei; Yuan, Hui
Accumulating evidence has revealed that aberrant Circular RNAs (circRNAs) expression plays important roles in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. However, their role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. In this study, we first used circRNA microarrays to screen for tumour-specific circRNA candidates in between NSCLC (n = 3) and adjacent lung (n = 3) tissue. Among the circRNA expression profile, two circRNAs (hsa_circ_0014130 and hsa_circ_0016760) were selected for validation in ten pairs of NSCLC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Only hsa_circ_0014130 exhibited significantly overexpressed in NSCLC tissues (P < 0.001), which were further confirmed in another 36 matched tissue samples using qRT-PCR. Hsa_circ_0014130 expression significantly correlated with TNM stage (P = 0.001) and lymphatic metastasis (P = 0.004). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.878 (95% confidence interval = 0.804-0.951; P < 0.001), which showed good diagnostic potential. Bioinformatics platforms predicted that hsa_circ_0014130 might interact with five miRNAs and their corresponding mRNAs. Gene oncology analysis and pathway analysis revealed that hsa_circ_0014130 could participate in NSCLC development. In summary, our findings indicated that hsa_circ_0014130 could be used as a potential NSCLC biomarker and might be closely related to the carcinogenesis of NSCLC.
Stepanov, Victor G; Fox, George E
Preparative synthesis of RNA is a challenging task that is usually accomplished using either chemical or enzymatic polymerization of ribonucleotides in vitro. Herein, we describe an alternative approach in which RNAs of interest are expressed as a fusion with a 5S rRNA-derived scaffold. The scaffold provides protection against cellular ribonucleases resulting in cellular accumulations comparable to those of regular ribosomal RNAs. After isolation of the chimeric RNA from the cells, the scaffold can be removed if necessary by deoxyribozyme-catalyzed cleavage followed by preparative electrophoretic separation of the cleavage reaction products. The protocol is designed for sustained production of high quality RNA on the milligram scale.
van der Meulen, Sjoerd B; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan
RNA sequencing has revolutionized genome-wide transcriptome analyses, and the identification of non-coding regulatory RNAs in bacteria has thus increased concurrently. Here we reveal the transcriptome map of the lactic acid bacterial paradigm Lactococcus lactis MG1363 by employing differential RNA
Berruezo, Florencia; de Souza, Flávio S. J.; Picca, Pablo I.; Nemirovsky, Sergio I.; Martínez Tosar, Leandro; Rivero, Mercedes; Mentaberry, Alejandro N.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single stranded RNA molecules that regulate the stability and translation of messenger RNAs in diverse eukaryotic groups. Several miRNA genes are of ancient origin and have been maintained in the genomes of animal and plant taxa for hundreds of millions of years, playing key roles in development and physiology. In the last decade, genome and small RNA (sRNA) sequencing of several plant species have helped unveil the evolutionary history of land plants. Among these, the fern group (monilophytes) occupies a key phylogenetic position, as it represents the closest extant cousin taxon of seed plants, i.e. gymno- and angiosperms. However, in spite of their evolutionary, economic and ecological importance, no fern genome has been sequenced yet and few genomic resources are available for this group. Here, we sequenced the small RNA fraction of an epiphytic South American fern, Pleopeltis minima (Polypodiaceae), and compared it to plant miRNA databases, allowing for the identification of miRNA families that are shared by all land plants, shared by all vascular plants (tracheophytes) or shared by euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) only. Using the recently described transcriptome of another fern, Lygodium japonicum, we also estimated the degree of conservation of fern miRNA targets in relation to other plant groups. Our results pinpoint the origin of several miRNA families in the land plant evolutionary tree with more precision and are a resource for future genomic and functional studies of fern miRNAs. PMID:28494025
Full Text Available Brachypodium distachyon is a model for the temperate cereals and grasses and has a biology, genomics infrastructure and cytogenetic platform fit for purpose. It is a member of a genus with fewer than 20 species, which have different genome sizes, basic chromosome numbers and ploidy levels. The phylogeny and interspecific relationships of this group have not to date been resolved by sequence comparisons and karyotypical studies. The aims of this study are not only to reconstruct the evolution of Brachypodium karyotypes to resolve the phylogeny, but also to highlight the mechanisms that shape the evolution of grass genomes. This was achieved through the use of comparative chromosome painting (CCP which hybridises fluorescent, chromosome-specific probes derived from B. distachyon to homoeologous meiotic chromosomes of its close relatives. The study included five diploids (B. distachyon 2n = 10, B. sylvaticum 2n = 18, B. pinnatum 2n = 16; 2n = 18, B. arbuscula 2n = 18 and B. stacei 2n = 20 three allotetraploids (B. pinnatum 2n = 28, B. phoenicoides 2n = 28 and B. hybridum 2n = 30, and two species of unknown ploidy (B. retusum 2n = 38 and B. mexicanum 2n = 40. On the basis of the patterns of hybridisation and incorporating published data, we propose two alternative, but similar, models of karyotype evolution in the genus Brachypodium. According to the first model, the extant genome of B. distachyon derives from B. mexicanum or B. stacei by several rounds of descending dysploidy, and the other diploids evolve from B. distachyon via ascending dysploidy. The allotetraploids arise by interspecific hybridisation and chromosome doubling between B. distachyon and other diploids. The second model differs from the first insofar as it incorporates an intermediate 2n = 18 species between the B. mexicanum or B. stacei progenitors and the dysploidic B. distachyon.
Pourebrahim, Rasoul; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Bin; Gao, Ruli; Xiong, Shunbin; Lin, Patrick P; McArthur, Mark J; Ostrowski, Michael C; Lozano, Guillermina
TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. Many mutant p53 proteins exert oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) properties that contribute to metastasis, but the mechanisms mediating these functions remain poorly defined in vivo. To elucidate how mutant p53 GOF drives metastasis, we developed a traceable somatic osteosarcoma mouse model that is initiated with either a single p53 mutation (p53R172H) or p53 loss in osteoblasts. Our study confirmed that p53 mutant mice developed osteosarcomas with increased metastasis as compared with p53-null mice. Comprehensive transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of 16 tumors identified a cluster of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that are highly up-regulated in p53 mutant tumors. Regulatory element analysis of these deregulated snoRNA genes identified strong enrichment of a common Ets2 transcription factor-binding site. Homozygous deletion of Ets2 in p53 mutant mice resulted in strong down-regulation of snoRNAs and reversed the prometastatic phenotype of mutant p53 but had no effect on osteosarcoma development, which remained 100% penetrant. In summary, our studies identify Ets2 inhibition as a potential therapeutic vulnerability in p53 mutant osteosarcomas. © 2017 Pourebrahim et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Xia, Jing; Joyce, Cailin E; Bowcock, Anne M; Zhang, Weixiong
Noncanonical microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) are key gene regulators in eukaryotes. Noncanonical miRNAs, which bypass part of the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway, can originate from a variety of genomic loci, which include small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and introns, whereas endo-siRNAs can arise from repetitive elements, some of which are transposable. The roles of noncanonical miRNAs and endo-siRNAs in complex diseases have yet to be characterized. To investigate their potential expression and function in psoriasis, we carried out a comprehensive, genome-wide search for noncanonical miRNAs and endo-siRNAs in small RNA deep-sequencing data sets from normal and psoriatic human skin. By analyzing more than 670 million qualified reads from 67 small RNA libraries, we identified 21 novel, noncanonical miRNAs (3 snoRNA-derived and 2 tRNA-derived miRNAs and 16 miRtrons) and 39 novel endo-siRNAs that were expressed in skin. The expression of four novel small RNAs was validated by qRT-PCR in human skin, and their Argonaute association was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of ectopic small RNAs in HEK293 cells. Fifteen noncanonical miRNAs or endo-siRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in psoriatic-involved versus normal skin, including an Alu-short interspersed element-derived siRNA which was 17-fold up-regulated in psoriatic-involved skin. These and other differentially expressed small noncoding RNAs may function as regulators of gene expression in skin and potentially play a role in psoriasis pathogenesis.
Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs comprise a substantial portion of many eukaryotic genomes and are typically transcriptionally silenced. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2 is a component of the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM silencing pathway. In maize, loss of mediator of paramutation1 (mop1 encoded RDR2 function results in reactivation of transcriptionally silenced Mu transposons and a substantial reduction in the accumulation of 24 nt short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs that recruit RNA silencing components. An RNA-seq experiment conducted on shoot apical meristems (SAMs revealed that, as expected based on a model in which RDR2 generates 24 nt siRNAs that suppress expression, most differentially expressed DNA TEs (78% were up-regulated in the mop1 mutant. In contrast, most differentially expressed retrotransposons (68% were down-regulated. This striking difference suggests that distinct silencing mechanisms are applied to different silencing templates. In addition, >6,000 genes (24% of analyzed genes, including nearly 80% (286/361 of genes in chromatin modification pathways, were differentially expressed. Overall, two-thirds of differentially regulated genes were down-regulated in the mop1 mutant. This finding suggests that RDR2 plays a significant role in regulating the expression of not only transposons, but also of genes. A re-analysis of existing small RNA data identified both RDR2-sensitive and RDR2-resistant species of 24 nt siRNAs that we hypothesize may at least partially explain the complex changes in the expression of genes and transposons observed in the mop1 mutant.
Willson Richard C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Manufacturing large quantities of recombinant RNAs by overexpression in a bacterial host is hampered by their instability in intracellular environment. To overcome this problem, an RNA of interest can be fused into a stable bacterial RNA for the resulting chimeric construct to accumulate in the cytoplasm to a sufficiently high level. Being supplemented with cost-effective procedures for isolation of the chimera from cells and recovery of the recombinant RNA from stabilizing scaffold, this strategy might become a viable alternative to the existing methods of chemical or enzymatic RNA synthesis. Results Sequence encoding a 71-nucleotide recombinant RNA was inserted into a plasmid-borne deletion mutant of the Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA gene in place of helix III - loop C segment of the original 5S rRNA. After transformation into Escherichia coli, the chimeric RNA (3×pen aRNA was expressed constitutively from E. coli rrnB P1 and P2 promoters. The RNA chimera accumulated to levels that exceeded those of the host's 5S rRNA. A novel method relying on liquid-solid partitioning of cellular constituents was developed for isolation of total RNA from bacterial cells. This protocol avoids toxic chemicals, and is therefore more suitable for large scale RNA purification than traditional methods. A pair of biotinylated 8-17 DNAzymes was used to bring about the quantitative excision of the 71-nt recombinant RNA from the chimera. The recombinant RNA was isolated by sequence-specific capture on beads with immobilized complementary deoxyoligonucleotide, while DNAzymes were recovered by biotin affinity chromatography for reuse. Conclusions The feasibility of a fermentation-based approach for manufacturing large quantities of small RNAs in vivo using a "5S rRNA scaffold" strategy is demonstrated. The approach provides a route towards an economical method for the large-scale production of small RNAs including shRNAs, siRNAs and aptamers for use
Samuel E. Fox
Full Text Available Premise of the study: We report the de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptomes of Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false-brome accessions from native populations of Spain and Greece, and an invasive population west of Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Methods and Results: More than 350 million sequence reads from the mRNA libraries prepared from three B. sylvaticum genotypes were assembled into 120,091 (Corvallis, 104,950 (Spain, and 177,682 (Greece transcript contigs. In comparison with the B. distachyon Bd21 reference genome and GenBank protein sequences, we estimate >90% exome coverage for B. sylvaticum. The transcripts were assigned Gene Ontology and InterPro annotations. Brachypodium sylvaticum sequence reads aligned against the Bd21 genome revealed 394,654 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and >20,000 simple sequence repeat (SSR DNA sites. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of transcriptome sequencing of invasive plant species with a closely related sequenced reference genome. The sequences and identified SNP variant and SSR sites will provide tools for developing novel genetic markers for use in genotyping and characterization of invasive behavior of B. sylvaticum.
Licciardello, Grazia; Scuderi, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Rosario; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Russo, Marcella; Lombardo, Alessandro; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Catara, Antonino
Two representative isolates of a citrus tristeza virus population in Sicily, SG29 (aggressive) and Bau282 (mild), were sequenced via viral small RNAs (vsRNA) produced in budlings of sweet orange grafted on sour orange. Phylogenetic relationships with Mediterranean and exotic isolates revealed that SG29 clustered within the "VT-Asian" subtype, whereas Bau282 belonged to the cluster T30. The study confirms that molecular data need to be integrated with bio-indexing in order to obtain adequate information for risk assessment.
Kyle A McQuisten
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exogenous short interfering RNAs (siRNAs induce a gene knockdown effect in cells by interacting with naturally occurring RNA processing machinery. However not all siRNAs induce this effect equally. Several heterogeneous kinds of machine learning techniques and feature sets have been applied to modeling siRNAs and their abilities to induce knockdown. There is some growing agreement to which techniques produce maximally predictive models and yet there is little consensus for methods to compare among predictive models. Also, there are few comparative studies that address what the effect of choosing learning technique, feature set or cross validation approach has on finding and discriminating among predictive models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three learning techniques were used to develop predictive models for effective siRNA sequences including Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs, General Linear Models (GLMs and Support Vector Machines (SVMs. Five feature mapping methods were also used to generate models of siRNA activities. The 2 factors of learning technique and feature mapping were evaluated by complete 3x5 factorial ANOVA. Overall, both learning techniques and feature mapping contributed significantly to the observed variance in predictive models, but to differing degrees for precision and accuracy as well as across different kinds and levels of model cross-validation. CONCLUSIONS: The methods presented here provide a robust statistical framework to compare among models developed under distinct learning techniques and feature sets for siRNAs. Further comparisons among current or future modeling approaches should apply these or other suitable statistically equivalent methods to critically evaluate the performance of proposed models. ANN and GLM techniques tend to be more sensitive to the inclusion of noisy features, but the SVM technique is more robust under large numbers of features for measures of model precision and accuracy. Features
Wu, Juxun; Zheng, Saisai; Feng, Guizhi; Yi, Hualin
Fruit ripening in citrus is not well-understood at the molecular level. Knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of citrus fruit ripening at the post-transcriptional level in particular is lacking. Here, we comparatively analyzed the miRNAs and their target genes in a spontaneous late-ripening mutant, "Fengwan" sweet orange (MT) ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), and its wild-type counterpart ("Fengjie 72-1," WT). Using high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs and RNA degradome tags, we identified 107 known and 21 novel miRNAs, as well as 225 target genes. A total of 24 miRNAs (16 known miRNAs and 8 novel miRNAs) were shown to be differentially expressed between MT and WT. The expression pattern of several key miRNAs and their target genes during citrus fruit development and ripening stages was examined. Csi-miR156k, csi-miR159, and csi-miR166d suppressed specific transcription factors ( GAMYBs, SPLs , and ATHBs ) that are supposed to be important regulators involved in citrus fruit development and ripening. In the present study, miRNA-mediated silencing of target genes was found under complicated and sensitive regulation in citrus fruit. The identification of miRNAs and their target genes provide new clues for future investigation of mechanisms that regulate citrus fruit ripening.
Full Text Available Fruit ripening in citrus is not well understood at the molecular level. Knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of citrus fruit ripening at the post-transcriptional level in particular is lacking. Here, we comparatively analyzed the miRNAs and their targeted genes in a spontaneous late-ripening mutant, ‘Fengwan’ sweet orange (MT (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, and its wild-type counterpart ('Fengjie 72-1', WT. Using high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs and RNA degradome tags, we identified 107 known and 21 novel miRNAs, as well as 225 target genes. A total of 24 miRNAs (16 known miRNAs and 8 novel miRNAs were shown to be differentially expressed between MT and WT. The expression pattern of several key miRNAs and their target genes during citrus fruit development and ripening stages was examined. Csi-miR156k, csi-miR159 and csi-miR166d suppressed specific transcription factors (GAMYBs, SPLs and ATHBs that are supposed to be important regulators involved in citrus fruit development and ripening. In the present study, miRNA-mediated silencing of target genes was found under complicated and sensitive regulation in citrus fruit. The identification of miRNAs and their target genes provide new clues for future investigation of mechanisms that regulate citrus fruit ripening.
Small, non-coding RNAs are a distinct class of regulatory RNAs in plants and animals that control a variety of biological processes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved through a series of pathways. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which differ in their biogenesis. miRNAs control the expression of cognate target genes by binding to reverse complementary sequences, resulting in cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNAs. siRNAs have a similar structure, function, and biogenesis as miRNAs but are derived from long double-stranded RNAs and can often direct DNA methylation at target sequences. Besides their roles in growth and development and maintenance of genome integrity, small RNAs are also important components in plant stress responses. One way in which plants respond to environmental stress is by modifying their gene expression through the activity of small RNAs. Thus, understanding how small RNAs regulate gene expression will enable researchers to explore the role of small RNAs in biotic and abiotic stress responses. This review focuses on the regulatory roles of plant small RNAs in the adaptive response to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant gene regulation in response to abiotic stress. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Russo, Francesco; Belling, Kirstine; Jensen, Anders Boeck
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Each miRNA targets a specific set of mRNAs. Upon binding the miRNA inhibits mRNA translation or facilitate mRNA degradation. miRNAs are frequently deregulated in several pathologi...... on sequence complementarity and integration of expression data. In the last section of the chapter we discuss new opportunities in the study of miRNA regulatory networks in the context of temporal disease progression and comorbidities....
Full Text Available Synaptic vesicles (SVs are presynaptic organelles that load and release small molecule neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have demonstrated that SVs isolated from the Peripheral Nervous Systems (PNS of the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, and SVs isolated from the Central Nervous System (CNS of Mus musculus (mouse contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs; ≤50 nucleotides (Scientific Reports, 5:1–14(14918 Li et al. (2015 . Our previous publication provided the five most abundant sequences associated with the T. californica SVs, and the ten most abundant sequences associated with the mouse SVs, representing 59% and 39% of the total sRNA reads sequenced, respectively. We provide here a full repository of the SV sRNAs sequenced from T. californica and the mouse deposited in the NCBI as biosamples. Three data studies are included: SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques, SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques with an additional affinity purification step, and finally, SVs isolated from the CNS of mouse. The three biosamples are available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample/ SRS1523467, SRS1523466, and SRS1523472 respectively.
Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are presynaptic organelles that load and release small molecule neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have demonstrated that SVs isolated from the Peripheral Nervous Systems (PNS) of the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, and SVs isolated from the Central Nervous System (CNS) of Mus musculus (mouse) contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs; ≤ 50 nucleotides) (Scientific Reports, 5:1-14(14918) Li et al. (2015) ). Our previous publication provided the five most abundant sequences associated with the T. californica SVs, and the ten most abundant sequences associated with the mouse SVs, representing 59% and 39% of the total sRNA reads sequenced, respectively). We provide here a full repository of the SV sRNAs sequenced from T. californica and the mouse deposited in the NCBI as biosamples. Three data studies are included: SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques, SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques with an additional affinity purification step, and finally, SVs isolated from the CNS of mouse. The three biosamples are available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample/ SRS1523467, SRS1523466, and SRS1523472 respectively.
Olsen, P.; Lenk, I.; Jensen, Christian S.
including close phylogenetic relationship to the temperate grasses, vernalisation requirement, high transformation efficiency, small genome size and a rapid life cycle. These requirements are all fulfilled by the small annual grass Brachypodium distachyon. As a first step towards implementing this plant...... date up to 10 weeks in plants of the T, generation. Furthermore, a positive correlation between Terminal Flower 1 expression level and delay in heading date was apparent for most of the lines. The short life cycle and fast transformation system of B. distachyon allowed heading date analyses in the T-1...... generation within the first year upon transformation. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small RNA molecules of between 24 to 31 nucleotides (nts) sequence and interact with Piwi subfamily proteins. These piRNAs play important regulatory roles in germline stem cell maintenance, epigenetic regulation, and transposition. Although the biogenesis pathways of piRNAs are not ...
Han, Yi-Neng; Xia, Shengqiang; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan
. Emerging evidence revealed the function of circRNAs in cancer and may potentially serve as a required novel biomarker and therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss about the origins, characteristics and functions of circRNA and how they work as miRNA sponges, gene transcription...... exhibiting tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression. CircRNAs are generated either from exons or introns by back splicing or lariat introns. CircRNAs play important roles as miRNA sponges, gene transcription and expression regulators, RNA-binding protein (RBP) sponges and protein/peptide translators...... and expression regulators, RBP sponges in cancer as well as current research methods of circRNAs, providing evidence for the significance of circRNAs in cancer diagnosis and clinical treatment....
Liu, Ying Poi; Haasnoot, Joost; Berkhout, Ben
RNA interference (RNAi) targeted towards viral mRNAs is widely used to block virus replication in mammalian cells. The specific antiviral RNAi response can be induced via transfection of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or via intracellular expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). For
Rodie, M E; Mudaliar, M A V; Herzyk, P; McMillan, M; Boroujerdi, M; Chudleigh, S; Tobias, E S; Ahmed, S F
It is unclear whether a short-term change in circulating androgens is associated with changes in the transcriptome of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). To explore the effect of hCG stimulation on the PBMC transcriptome, 12 boys with a median age (range) of 0.7 years (0.3, 11.2) who received intramuscular hCG 1500u on 3 consecutive days as part of their investigations underwent transcriptomic array analysis on RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after hCG stimulation. Median pre- and post-hCG testosterone for the overall group was 0.7 nmol/L (hCG stimulation with a pre and post median serum testosterone of hCG effects, all 9 of the hCG responders consistently demonstrated a 20% or greater increase in the expression of piR-37153 and piR-39248 , non-coding PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). In addition, of the 9 responders, 8, 6 and 4 demonstrated a 30, 40 and 50% rise, respectively, in a total of 2 further piRNAs. In addition, 3 of the responders showed a 50% or greater rise in the expression of another small RNA, SNORD5 . On comparing fold-change in serum testosterone with fold-change in the above transcripts, a positive correlation was detected for SNORD5 ( P = 0.01). The identification of a dynamic and androgen-responsive PBMC transcriptome extends the potential value of the hCG test for the assessment of androgen sufficiency. © 2017 The authors.
Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a deficiency in the survival motor neuron (SMN protein. SMN mediates the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs and possibly other RNPs. Here, we investigated SMN requirement for the biogenesis and function of U7—an snRNP specialized in the 3′-end formation of replication-dependent histone mRNAs that normally are not polyadenylated. We show that SMN deficiency impairs U7 snRNP assembly and decreases U7 levels in mammalian cells. The SMN-dependent U7 reduction affects endonucleolytic cleavage of histone mRNAs leading to abnormal accumulation of 3′-extended and polyadenylated transcripts followed by downstream changes in histone gene expression. Importantly, SMN deficiency induces defects of histone mRNA 3′-end formation in both SMA mice and human patients. These findings demonstrate that SMN is essential for U7 biogenesis and histone mRNA processing in vivo and identify an additional RNA pathway disrupted in SMA.
Sharma, Akanksha; Sharma, Niharika; Bhalla, Prem; Singh, Mohan
Comparative genomics have facilitated the mining of biological information from a genome sequence, through the detection of similarities and differences with genomes of closely or more distantly related species. By using such comparative approaches, knowledge can be transferred from the model to non-model organisms and insights can be gained in the structural and evolutionary patterns of specific genes. In the absence of sequenced genomes for allergenic grasses, this study was aimed at understanding the structure, organisation and expression profiles of grass pollen allergens using the genomic data from Brachypodium distachyon as it is phylogenetically related to the allergenic grasses. Combining genomic data with the anther RNA-Seq dataset revealed 24 pollen allergen genes belonging to eight allergen groups mapping on the five chromosomes in B. distachyon. High levels of anther-specific expression profiles were observed for the 24 identified putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium. The genomic evidence suggests that gene encoding the group 5 allergen, the most potent trigger of hay fever and allergic asthma originated as a pollen specific orphan gene in a common grass ancestor of Brachypodium and Triticiae clades. Gene structure analysis showed that the putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium either lack or contain reduced number of introns. Promoter analysis of the identified Brachypodium genes revealed the presence of specific cis-regulatory sequences likely responsible for high anther/pollen-specific expression. With the identification of putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium, this study has also described some important plant gene families (e.g. expansin superfamily, EF-Hand family, profilins etc) for the first time in the model plant Brachypodium. Altogether, the present study provides new insights into structural characterization and evolution of pollen allergens and will further serve as a base for their functional
Full Text Available Comparative genomics have facilitated the mining of biological information from a genome sequence, through the detection of similarities and differences with genomes of closely or more distantly related species. By using such comparative approaches, knowledge can be transferred from the model to non-model organisms and insights can be gained in the structural and evolutionary patterns of specific genes. In the absence of sequenced genomes for allergenic grasses, this study was aimed at understanding the structure, organisation and expression profiles of grass pollen allergens using the genomic data from Brachypodium distachyon as it is phylogenetically related to the allergenic grasses. Combining genomic data with the anther RNA-Seq dataset revealed 24 pollen allergen genes belonging to eight allergen groups mapping on the five chromosomes in B. distachyon. High levels of anther-specific expression profiles were observed for the 24 identified putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium. The genomic evidence suggests that gene encoding the group 5 allergen, the most potent trigger of hay fever and allergic asthma originated as a pollen specific orphan gene in a common grass ancestor of Brachypodium and Triticiae clades. Gene structure analysis showed that the putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium either lack or contain reduced number of introns. Promoter analysis of the identified Brachypodium genes revealed the presence of specific cis-regulatory sequences likely responsible for high anther/pollen-specific expression. With the identification of putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium, this study has also described some important plant gene families (e.g. expansin superfamily, EF-Hand family, profilins etc for the first time in the model plant Brachypodium. Altogether, the present study provides new insights into structural characterization and evolution of pollen allergens and will further serve as a base for their
The serotonin 2C receptor subtype (5-HT2C) has a unique profession and continues to provide exciting and critical new information. The 5-HT2C is modulated at the RNA level by several mechanisms, including editing, short variant generation, and small RNAs. Recently, these phenomena, which had been demonstrated individually, were shown to be associated with each other. At present, many reports provide information about the influence of RNA regulation on receptor protein activities and expression, which was thought to be the final functional product. However, complicated behavior at the RNA stage allows us to imagine that the RNA itself has functional roles in the RNA universe. The 5-HT2C RNA may play several roles. This review will outline previous 5-HT2C studies and prospects for future studies.
Jiang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuan; Law, Carmen O K; Wang, Ya; Lo, Wai U; Weng, Xing; Chan, Ting Fung; Ho, P L; Lau, Terrence C K
The dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) genes among bacteria is commonly achieved by plasmid conjugation. In the last decade, the CTX-M type enzyme was the most widespread and prevalent ESBLs in the world. In Hong Kong and mainland China, among the commonly found CTX-M-carrying plasmids were pHK01 and pHK01-like plasmids, which belong to incompatibility group FII (IncFII). In this work, we studied the physiological effect caused by the pHK01 plasmid in bacterial host Escherichia coli J53. The plasmid did not affect cell growth of the host but reduced their motility. The reduction of host motility was attributed to downregulation of genes that encode the flagellar system. We also identified several plasmid-encoded sRNAs, and showed that the overexpression of one of them, AS-traI, in the presence of pHK01 plasmid shortened the lag phase of host growth. In addition to the study of pHK01 in bacteria, we also developed a fast and incompatibility group-specific curing method using countertranscribed RNA, which could be of general usage for studying plasmid-host interaction in clinical aspects. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Genome-wide identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in one bud and two tender leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) by small RNA sequencing, microarray-based hybridization and genome survey scaffold sequences.
Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Zhang, Xiao; Hou, Yan; Shangguan, Mingzhu; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Li, Yeyun; Wei, Chaoling
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important for plant growth and responses to environmental stresses via post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Tea, which is primarily produced from one bud and two tender leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis), is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide owing to its abundance of secondary metabolites. A large number of miRNAs have been identified in various plants, including non-model species. However, due to the lack of reference genome sequences and/or information of tea plant genome survey scaffold sequences, discovery of miRNAs has been limited in C. sinensis. Using small RNA sequencing, combined with our recently obtained genome survey data, we have identified and analyzed 175 conserved and 83 novel miRNAs mainly in one bud and two tender leaves of the tea plant. Among these, 93 conserved and 18 novel miRNAs were validated using miRNA microarray hybridization. In addition, the expression pattern of 11 conserved and 8 novel miRNAs were validated by stem-loop-qRT-PCR. A total of 716 potential target genes of identified miRNAs were predicted. Further, Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that most of the target genes were primarily involved in stress response and enzymes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The predicted targets of 4 conserved miRNAs were further validated by 5'RLM-RACE. A negative correlation between expression profiles of 3 out of 4 conserved miRNAs (csn-miR160a-5p, csn-miR164a, csn-miR828 and csn-miR858a) and their targets (ARF17, NAC100, WER and MYB12 transcription factor) were observed. In summary, the present study is one of few such studies on miRNA detection and identification in the tea plant. The predicted target genes of majority of miRNAs encoded enzymes, transcription factors, and functional proteins. The miRNA-target transcription factor gene interactions may provide important clues about the regulatory
Lau, N.C.; Robine, N.; Martin, R.; Chung, W.J.; Niki, Y.; Berezikov, E.; Lai, E.C
Piwi proteins, a subclass of Argonaute-family proteins, carry approximately 24-30-nt Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that mediate gonadal defense against transposable elements (TEs). We analyzed the Drosophila ovary somatic sheet (OSS) cell line and found that it expresses miRNAs, endogenous small
Lin, Junhao; Liu, Yuchen; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhuang, Chengle; Liu, Li; Fu, Xing; Xu, Wen; Li, Jianfa; Chen, Mingwei; Cai, Zhiming; Huang, Weiren
Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) can inhibit the malignant phenotypes of tumor cell through ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi). However, it is hardly to be regulated and it may induce few phenotypic changes. Here, we build a type of tetracycline (Tet)-inducible vectors which can achieve regulatable expression of shRNA in a time-dependent manner by using synthetic biology approach. In order to prove the effectiveness of this device, we chose hTERT and Bcl-2 as target genes and test the utility of the device on 5637 and T24 cell lines. The experiments show that the Tet-inducible small hairpin RNA can effectively suppress their target genes and generate anti-cancer effects on both 5637 and T24 cell lines. The device we build not only can inhibit proliferation but also can induce apoptosis and suppress migration of the bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and T24. The Tet-inducible small hairpin RNAs may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of human bladder cancer in the future.
Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhihua; Lin, Yuefeng; John, Bino
We developed NameMyGene, a web tool and a stand alone program to easily generate putative family-based names for small RNA sequences so that laboratories can easily organize, analyze, and observe patterns from, the massive amount of data generated by next-generation sequencers. NameMyGene, also applicable to other emerging methods such as RNA-Seq, and Chip-Seq, solely uses the input small RNA sequence and does not require any additional data such as other sequence data sets. The web server an...
A study of small RNAs from cerebral neocortex of pathology-verified Alzheimer's disease, dementia with lewy bodies, hippocampal sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar dementia, and non-demented human controls.
Hébert, Sébastien S; Wang, Wang-Xia; Zhu, Qi; Nelson, Peter T
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20-22 nucleotides) regulatory non-coding RNAs that strongly influence gene expression. Most prior studies addressing the role of miRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have focused on individual diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), making disease-to-disease comparisons impossible. Using RNA deep sequencing, we sought to analyze in detail the small RNAs (including miRNAs) in the temporal neocortex gray matter from non-demented controls (n = 2), AD (n = 5), dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 4), hippocampal sclerosis of aging (n = 4), and frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) (n = 5) cases, together accounting for the most prevalent ND subtypes. All cases had short postmortem intervals, relatively high-quality RNA, and state-of-the-art neuropathological diagnoses. The resulting data (over 113 million reads in total, averaging 5.6 million reads per sample) and secondary expression analyses constitute an unprecedented look into the human cerebral cortical miRNome at a nucleotide resolution. While we find no apparent changes in isomiR or miRNA editing patterns in correlation with ND pathology, our results validate and extend previous miRNA profiling studies with regard to quantitative changes in NDs. In agreement with this idea, we provide independent cohort validation for changes in miR-132 expression levels in AD (n = 8) and FTLD (n = 14) cases when compared to controls (n = 8). The identification of common and ND-specific putative novel brain miRNAs and/or short-hairpin molecules is also presented. The challenge now is to better understand the impact of these and other alterations on neuronal gene expression networks and neuropathologies.
Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Hadapad, Ashok B
The banana aphid-transmitted Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of bananas and plantains worldwide. Lack of natural sources of resistance to BBTV has necessitated the exploitation of proven transgenic technologies for obtaining BBTV-resistant banana cultivars. In this study, we have explored the concept of using intron-hairpin-RNA (ihpRNA) transcripts corresponding to viral master replication initiation protein (Rep) to generate BBTV-resistant transgenic banana plants. Two ihpRNA constructs namely ihpRNA-Rep and ihpRNA-ProRep generated using Rep full coding sequence or Rep partial coding sequence together with its 5' upstream regulatory region, respectively, and castor bean catalase intron were successfully transformed into banana embryogenic cells. ihpRNA-Rep- and ihpRNA-ProRep-derived transgenic banana plants, selected based on preliminary screening for efficient reporter gene expression, were completely resistant to BBTV infection as indicated by the absence of disease symptoms after 6 months of viruliferous aphid inoculation. The resistance to BBTV infection was also evident by the inability to detect cDNAs coding for viral coat protein, movement protein and Rep protein by RT-PCR from inoculated transgenic leaf extracts. Southern analysis of the two groups of transgenics showed that ihpRNA transgene was stably integrated into the banana genome. The detection of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from the ihpRNA transgene sequence in transformed BBTV-resistant plants positively established RNA interference as the mechanism underlying the observed resistance to BBTV. Efficient screening of optimal transformants in this vegetatively propagated non-segregating fruit crop ensured that all the transgenic plants assayed were resistant to BBTV infection.
Göpel, Yvonne; Lüttmann, Denise; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Reichenbach, Birte; Dersch, Petra; Görke, Boris
Small RNAs GlmY and GlmZ compose a cascade that feedback-regulates synthesis of enzyme GlmS in Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of glmY/glmZ from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, as representatives for other enterobacterial species, which exhibit similar promoter architectures. The GlmY and GlmZ sRNAs of Y. pseudotuberculosis are transcribed from σ54-promoters that require activation by the response regulator GlrR through binding to three conserved sites located upstream of the promoters. This also applies to glmY/glmZ of S. typhimurium and glmY of E. coli, but as a difference additional σ70-promoters overlap the σ54-promoters and initiate transcription at the same site. In contrast, E. coli glmZ is transcribed from a single σ70-promoter. Thus, transcription of glmY and glmZ is controlled by σ54 and the two-component system GlrR/GlrK (QseF/QseE) in Y. pseudotuberculosis and presumably in many other Enterobacteria. However, in a subset of species such as E. coli this relationship is partially lost in favor of σ70-dependent transcription. In addition, we show that activity of the σ54-promoter of E. coli glmY requires binding of the integration host factor to sites upstream of the promoter. Finally, evidence is provided that phosphorylation of GlrR increases its activity and thereby sRNA expression. PMID:20965974
Hilz, Stephanie; Modzelewski, Andrew J.; Cohen, Paula E.; Grimson, Andrew
MicroRNAs and siRNAs, both of which are AGO-bound small RNAs, are essential for mammalian spermatogenesis. Although their precise germline roles remain largely uncharacterized, recent discoveries suggest that they function in mechanisms beyond microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional control, playing roles in DNA repair and transcriptional regulation within the nucleus. Here, we discuss the latest findings regarding roles for AGO proteins and their associated small RNAs in the male germline. We...
Full Text Available Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as a livestock nutritive energy source and a potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass Brachypodium distanchyon has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agriculturally important temperate forage grasses based on phylogenetic relationships. To physically corroborate genetic predictions, we determined the chemical composition profiles of organ-specific cell walls throughout the development of two common diploid accessions of Brachypodium distanchyon, Bd21-3 and Bd21. Chemical analysis was performed on cell walls isolated from distinct organs (i.e. leaves, sheaths, stems and roots at three developmental stages of 1 12-day seedling, 2 vegetative-to-reproductive transition, and 3 mature seed-fill. In addition, we have included cell wall analysis of embryonic callus used for genetic transformations. Composition of cell walls based on components lignin, hydroxycinnamates, uronosyls, neutral sugars, and protein suggests that Brachypodium distanchyon is similar chemically to agriculturally important forage grasses. There were modest compositional differences in hydroxycinnamate profiles between accessions Bd21-3 and Bd21. In addition, when compared to agronomical important C3 grasses, more mature Brachypodium stem cell walls have a relative increase in glucose of 48% and a decrease in lignin of 36%. Though differences exists between Brachypodium and agronomical important C3 grasses, Brachypodium distanchyon should be still a useful model system for genetic manipulation of cell wall composition to determine the impact upon functional characteristics such as rumen digestibility or energy conversion efficiency for bioenergy production.
Tyler, Ludmila [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Bragg, Jennifer [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Wu, Jiajie [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Vogel, John [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany
Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights
Li, Huiying; Hu, Tao; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in the adaptive response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a major cool-season forage and turf grass species which is severely influenced by heat stress. To unravel possible heat stress-responsive miRNAs, high-throughput sequencing was employed for heat-tolerant PI578718 and heat-sensitive PI234881 genotypes growing in presence and absence of heat stress (40°C for 36h). By searching against the miRBase database, among 1421 reference monocotyledon miRNAs, more than 850 were identified in all samples. Among these miRNAs, 1.46% and 2.29% were differentially expressed in PI234881 and PI578718 under heat stress, respectively, and most of them were down-regulated. In addition, a total of 170 novel miRNAs belonging to 145 miRNA families were identified. Furthermore, putative targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. The regulation of selected miRNAs by heat stress was revalidated through quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Most of these miRNAs shared similar expression patterns; however, some showed distinct expression patterns under heat stress, with their putative targets displaying different transcription levels. This is the first genome-wide miRNA identification in tall fescue. miRNAs specific to PI578718, or those that exhibited differential expression profiles between the two genotypes under high temperature, were probably associated with the variation in thermotolerance of tall fescue. The differentially expressed miRNAs between these two tall fescue genotypes and their putative targeted genes will provide essential information for further study on miRNAs mediating heat response and facilitate to improve turf grass breeding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Beaume, Marie; Hernandez, David; Docquier, Mylène; Delucinge-Vivier, Céline; Descombes, Patrick; François, Patrice
Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile bacterial opportunist responsible for a wide spectrum of infections. Several genomes of this major human pathogen have been publicly available for almost 10 years, but comprehensive links between virulence or epidemicity and genome content of the bacterium are still missing. This project aims at characterizing a set of small transcribed molecules currently ignored by standard automated annotation algorithms. We assessed the NanoString's nCounter Analysis System for its ability to determine the orientation and quantity of the expressed small RNA (sRNA) molecules that we recently detected with RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). The expression of approximately seventy small RNAs, including sRNA localized in pathogenic islands, was assessed at 5 time points during growth of the bacterium in a rich medium. In addition, two extraction strategies were tested: RNA was either purified on columns or simply prepared from crude lysates in the presence of a chaotropic buffer. The nCounter System allowed us to perform these 64 measurements in a single experiment, without any enzymatic reaction, thus avoiding well-known technical biases. We evaluated the reproducibility and reliability of the nCounter compared to quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). By using two different designs for the two coding strands, we were able to identify the coding strand of 61 small RNA molecules (95%). Overall, the nCounter System provided an identification of the coding strand in perfect concordance with RNA-Seq data. In addition, expression results were also comparable to those obtained with RT-qPCR. The sensitivity and minimal requirements of the nCounter system open new possibilities in the field of gene expression analysis, for assessing bacterial transcript profiles from complex media (i.e. during host-pathogen interactions) or when starting from poorly purified RNA or even directly from lysed infected tissues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Gang; Kronenberger, Peter; Teugels, Erik; Umelo, Ijeoma Adaku; De Grève, Jacques
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a validated therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some mutations confer resistance to current available agents, especially the frequently occurring T790M mutation. In the current study, we have examined, in a NSCLC cell line H1975 containing both L858R and T790M mutations, the effect of T790M-specific-siRNAs versus other EGFR-specific-siRNAs. T790M-specific-siRNAs were able to inhibit T790M and EGFR mRNA, to reduce EGFR protein expression, as well as to reduce the cell growth and induce cell caspase activity in H1975 cells. However, this effect showed less potency compared to the other EGFR-specific-siRNAs. EGFR-specific-siRNAs strongly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in H358, H1650, H292, HCC827 and also in H1975 cells, which showed weak response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or cetuximab. The addition of T790M-specific-siRNAs could rescue the sensitivity of T790M mutant H1975 cells to TKIs. The combination of T790M-specific-siRNAs and cetuximab also additively enhanced cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in H1975 cells. Among the anti-EGFR agents tested, the strongest biological effect was observed when afatinib was combined with T790M-specific-siRNAs. Afatinib also offered extra effect when combined with cetuximab in H1975 cells. In conclusion, knock-down of T790M transcript by siRNAs further decreases the cell growth of T790M mutant lung cancer cells that are treated with TKIs or cetuximab. The combination of a potent, irreversible kinase inhibitor such as afatinib, with T790M-specific-siRNAs should be further investigated as a new strategy in the treatment of lung cancer containing the resistant T790M mutation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shen, Yifei; Sun, Shuo; Hua, Shuijin; Shen, Enhui; Ye, Chu-Yu; Cai, Daguang; Timko, Michael P; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Fan, Longjiang
Heterosis is a fundamental biological phenomenon characterized by the superior performance of a hybrid compared with its parents. The underlying molecular basis for heterosis, particularly for allopolyploids, remains elusive. In this study we analyzed the transcriptomes of Brassica napus parental lines and their F1 hybrids at three stages of early flower development. Phenotypically, the F1 hybrids show remarkable heterosis in silique number and grain yield. Transcriptome analysis revealed that various phytohormone (auxin and salicylic acid) response genes are significantly altered in the F1 hybrids relative to the parental lines. We also found evidence for decreased expression divergence of the homoeologous gene pairs in the allopolyploid F1 hybrids and suggest that high-parental expression-level dominance plays an important role in heterosis. Small RNA and methylation studies aimed at examining the epigenetic effect of the changes in gene expression level in the F1 hybrids showed that the majority of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) clusters had a higher expression level in the F1 hybrids than in the parents, and that there was an increase in genome-wide DNA methylation in the F1 hybrid. Transposable elements associated with siRNA clusters had a higher level of methylation and a lower expression level in the F1 hybrid, implying that the non-additively expressed siRNA clusters resulted in lower activity of the transposable elements through DNA methylation in the hybrid. Our data provide insights into the role that changes in gene expression pattern and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to heterosis during early flower development in allopolyploid B. napus. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muller, Ryan Y; Hammond, Ming C; Rio, Donald C; Lee, Yeon J
The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project aims to identify all functional sequence elements in the human genome sequence by use of high-throughput DNA/cDNA sequencing approaches. To aid the standardization, comparison, and integration of data sets produced from different technologies and platforms, the ENCODE Consortium selected several standard human cell lines to be used by the ENCODE Projects. The Tier 1 ENCODE cell lines include GM12878, K562, and H1 human embryonic stem cell lines. GM12878 is a lymphoblastoid cell line, transformed with the Epstein-Barr virus, that was selected by the International HapMap Project for whole genome and transcriptome sequencing by use of the Illumina platform. K562 is an immortalized myelogenous leukemia cell line. The GM12878 cell line is attractive for the ENCODE Projects, as it offers potential synergy with the International HapMap Project. Despite the vast amount of sequencing data available on the GM12878 cell line through the ENCODE Project, including transcriptome, chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing for histone marks, and transcription factors, no small interfering siRNA-mediated knockdown studies have been performed in the GM12878 cell line, as cationic lipid-mediated transfection methods are inefficient for lymphoid cell lines. Here, we present an efficient and reproducible method for transfection of a variety of siRNAs into the GM12878 and K562 cell lines, which subsequently results in targeted protein depletion.
Ishikawa, Hideaki; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Miura, Yutaka; Taoka, Masato; Nobe, Yuko; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Simpson, Richard J; Isobe, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro
Ribosome biogenesis occurs successively in the nucleolus, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. Maturation of the ribosomal small subunit is completed in the cytoplasm by incorporation of a particular class of ribosomal proteins and final cleavage of 18S-E pre-rRNA (18S-E). Here, we show that poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) participates in steps leading to 18S-E maturation in human cells. We found PARN as a novel component of the pre-40S particle pulled down with the pre-ribosome factor LTV1 or Bystin. Reverse pull-down analysis revealed that PARN is a constitutive component of the Bystin-associated pre-40S particle. Knockdown of PARN or exogenous expression of an enzyme-dead PARN mutant (D28A) accumulated 18S-E in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Moreover, expression of D28A accumulated 18S-E in Bystin-associated pre-40S particles, suggesting that the enzymatic activity of PARN is necessary for the release of 18S-E from Bystin-associated pre-40S particles. Finally, RNase H-based fragmentation analysis and 3΄-sequence analysis of 18S-E species present in cells expressing wild-type PARN or D28A suggested that PARN degrades the extended regions encompassing nucleotides 5-44 at the 3΄ end of mature 18S rRNA. Our results reveal a novel role for PARN in ribosome biogenesis in human cells. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Sogutmaz Ozdemir, Bahar; Budak, Hikmet
Brachypodium distachyon has recently emerged as a model plant species for the grass family (Poaceae) that includes major cereal crops and forage grasses. One of the important traits of a model species is its capacity to be transformed and ease of growing both in tissue culture and in greenhouse conditions. Hence, plant transformation technology is crucial for improvements in agricultural studies, both for the study of new genes and in the production of new transgenic plant species. In this chapter, we review an efficient tissue culture and two different transformation systems for Brachypodium using most commonly preferred gene transfer techniques in plant species, microprojectile bombardment method (biolistics) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.In plant transformation studies, frequently used explant materials are immature embryos due to their higher transformation efficiencies and regeneration capacity. However, mature embryos are available throughout the year in contrast to immature embryos. We explain a tissue culture protocol for Brachypodium using mature embryos with the selected inbred lines from our collection. Embryogenic calluses obtained from mature embryos are used to transform Brachypodium with both plant transformation techniques that are revised according to previously studied protocols applied in the grasses, such as applying vacuum infiltration, different wounding effects, modification in inoculation and cocultivation steps or optimization of bombardment parameters.
Small RNAs (sRNA) add additional layers to the regulation of gene expression, with siRNAs directing gene silencing at the DNA level by RdDM (RNA-directed DNA methylation), and miRNAs directing post-transcriptional regulation of specific target genes, mostly by mRNA cleavage. We used manually isolate...
Small ribonucleic acid (RNAs) (~20-24nt) processed from double-stranded RNA in plants can trigger degradation of the target mRNAs in cytoplasm or de novo DNA methylation in nucleus leading to gene silencing. Trans-acting short-interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) have been shown to enhance the target mRNA d...
Cipollini, Monica; Landi, Stefano; Gemignani, Federica
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an aggressive neoplasm with a poor survival and novel therapies are urgently needed. The study of deregulated micro- RNAs (dereg-miRs) could constitute a strategy helping to detect specific genes playing a relevant role in the disease. Thus, the oncoproteins encoded by these genes could be exploited as novel therapeutic targets to be inhibited by small molecules, aptamers, or monoclonal antibodies. The present review is focused on candidate genes having convincing biological evidences to be both bona fide targets for dereg-miRs and playing a role in NSCLC progression. These genes were evaluated according to the molecular pathway they belong. Moreover, in the attempt to provide an even broader list of candidate therapeutic targets for NSCLC, the full list of genes was analyzed using the online tool Interactome DB. Among the identified targets, some of them belong to p53 or MAP kinase signaling pathways, and others include caspases, MCL1, and BCL2L2 (playing a role in apoptosis), ZEB1, ZEB2, and USP25 (epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition), EZH2, SOX9, and HOXA5 (differentiation), Paxillin, LIMK1 and MTDH (cytoskeleton remodeling), and HDGF (angiogenesis). In addition, other targets, such as TIMP-2, PIM-1, and components of the IGF-signaling pathways were suggested following the interactome analysis. Studies on dereg-miRs helped to identify a set of genes whose encoded proteins could constitute candidates for future therapeutic approaches. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Guillon, F.; Larré, C.; Petipas, F.; Berger, A.; Moussawi, J.; Rogniaux, H.; Santoni, A.; Saulnier, L.; Jamme, F.; Miquel, M.; Lepiniec, L.; Dubreucq, B.
A detailed and comprehensive understanding of seed reserve accumulation is of great importance for agriculture and crop improvement strategies. This work is part of a research programme aimed at using Brachypodium distachyon as a model plant for cereal grain development and filling. The focus was on the Bd21-3 accession, gathering morphological, cytological, and biochemical data, including protein, lipid, sugars, starch, and cell-wall analyses during grain development. This study highlighted the existence of three main developmental phases in Brachypodium caryopsis and provided an extensive description of Brachypodium grain development. In the first phase, namely morphogenesis, the embryo developed rapidly reaching its final morphology about 18 d after fertilization (DAF). Over the same period the endosperm enlarged, finally to occupy 80% of the grain volume. During the maturation phase, carbohydrates were continuously stored, mainly in the endosperm, switching from sucrose to starch accumulation. Large quantities of β-glucans accumulated in the endosperm with local variations in the deposition pattern. Interestingly, new β-glucans were found in Brachypodium compared with other cereals. Proteins (i.e. globulins and prolamins) were found in large quantities from 15 DAF onwards. These proteins were stored in two different sub-cellular structures which are also found in rice, but are unusual for the Pooideae. During the late stage of development, the grain desiccated while the dry matter remained fairly constant. Brachypodium exhibits some significant differences with domesticated cereals. Beta-glucan accumulates during grain development and this cell wall polysaccharide is the main storage carbohydrate at the expense of starch. PMID:22016425
Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are small (~22 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate cell movement, specification, and development. Expression of miRNAs is highly regulated, both spatially and temporally. Based on direct cloning, sequence conservation, and predicted secondary structures, a large number of miRNAs have been identified in higher eukaryotic genomes but whether these RNAs are simply a subset of a much larger number of noncoding RNA families is unknown. This is especially true in zebrafish where genome sequencing and annotation is not yet complete. Results We analyzed the zebrafish genome to identify the number and location of proven and predicted miRNAs resulting in the identification of 35 new miRNAs. We then grouped all 415 zebrafish miRNAs into families based on seed sequence identity as a means to identify possible functional redundancy. Based on genomic location and expression analysis, we also identified those miRNAs that are likely to be encoded as part of polycistronic transcripts. Lastly, as a resource, we compiled existing zebrafish miRNA expression data and, where possible, listed all experimentally proven mRNA targets. Conclusion Current analysis indicates the zebrafish genome encodes 415 miRNAs which can be grouped into 44 families. The largest of these families (the miR-430 family contains 72 members largely clustered in two main locations along chromosome 4. Thus far, most zebrafish miRNAs exhibit tissue specific patterns of expression.
Full Text Available The prevalence and characteristics of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs have not been well characterized for Bacillus subtilis, an important model system for Gram-positive bacteria. However, B. subtilis was recently found to synthesize many candidate sRNAs during stationary phase. In the current study, we performed deep sequencing on Hfq-associated RNAs and found that a small subset of sRNAs associates with Hfq, an enigmatic RNA-binding protein that stabilizes sRNAs in Gram-negatives, but whose role is largely unknown in Gram-positive bacteria. We also found that Hfq associated with antisense RNAs, antitoxin transcripts, and many mRNA leaders. Several new candidate sRNAs and mRNA leader regions were also discovered by this analysis. Additionally, mRNA fragments overlapping with start or stop codons associated with Hfq, while, in contrast, relatively few full-length mRNAs were recovered. Deletion of hfq reduced the intracellular abundance of several representative sRNAs, suggesting that B. subtilis Hfq-sRNA interactions may be functionally significant in vivo. In general, we anticipate this catalog of Hfq-associated RNAs to serve as a resource in the functional characterization of Hfq in B. subtilis.
Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Ito, Akiko; Tuan, Pham Anh; Xu, Ying; Teng, Yuanwen; Moriguchi, Takaya
In woody perennial plants, including deciduous fruit trees, such as pear, endodormancy is a strategy for surviving the cold winter. A better understanding of the mechanism underlying the endodormancy phase transition is necessary for developing countermeasures against the effects of global warming. In this study, we analyzed the sRNAome of Japanese pear flower buds in endodormant and ecodormant stages over two seasons by implementing of RNA-seq and degradome-sequencing. We identified 137 conserved or less conserved miRNAs and 50 pear-specific miRNAs. However, none of the conserved microRNAs or pear-specific miRNAs was differentially expressed between endodormancy and ecodormancy stages. On the contrast, 1540 of 218,050 loci that produced sRNAs were differentially expressed between endodormancy and ecodormancy, suggesting their potential roles on the phase transition from endodormancy to ecodomancy. We also characterized a multifunctional miRNA precursor MIR168, which produces two functional miR168 transcripts, namely miR168.1 and miR168.2; cleavage events were predominantly mediated by the non-conserved variant miR168.2 rather than the conserved variant miR168.1. Finally, we showed that a TAS3 trans-acting siRNA triggered phased siRNA within the ORF of one of its target genes, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 4, via the analysis of phased siRNA loci, indicating that siRNAs are able to trigger phased siRNAs in pear. We analyzed the sRNAome of pear flower bud during dormant phase transition. Our work described the sRNA profiles of pear winter buds during dormant phase transition, showing that dormancy release is a highly coordinated physiological process involving the regulation of sRNAs.
Shen, Wenwen; Sa e Silva, Mariana; Jaber, Tareq; Vitvitskaia, Olga; Li, Sumin; Henderson, Gail; Jones, Clinton
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) is abundantly expressed in latently infected trigeminal ganglionic sensory neurons. Expression of the first 1.5 kb of LAT coding sequences is sufficient for the wild-type reactivation phenotype in small animal models of infection. The ability of the first 1.5 kb of LAT coding sequences to inhibit apoptosis is important for the latency-reactivation cycle. Several studies have also concluded that LAT inhibits productive infection. To date, a functional LAT protein has not been identified, suggesting that LAT is a regulatory RNA. Two small RNAs (sRNAs) were previously identified within the first 1.5 kb of LAT coding sequences. In this study, we demonstrated that both LAT sRNAs were expressed in the trigeminal ganglia of mice latently infected with an HSV-1 strain that expresses LAT but not when mice were infected with a LAT null mutant. LAT sRNA1 and sRNA2 cooperated to inhibit cold shock-induced apoptosis in mouse neuroblastoma cells. LAT sRNA1, but not LAT sRNA2, inhibited apoptosis less efficiently than both sRNAs. When rabbit skin cells were cotransfected with plasmids that express LAT sRNA1 and HSV-1 genomic DNA, the amount of infectious virus released was reduced approximately 3 logs. Although LAT sRNA2 was less effective at inhibiting virus production, it inhibited expression of infected cell protein 4 (ICP4). Neither LAT sRNA had an obvious effect on ICP0 expression. These studies suggested that expression of two LAT sRNAs plays a role in the latency-reactivation cycle by inhibiting apoptosis and productive infection. PMID:19587058
Full Text Available A functional rs4245739 A>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP locating in the MDM43'-untranslated (3'-UTR region creates a miR-191-5p or miR-887-3p targeting sites. This change results in decreased expression of oncogene MDM4. Therefore, we examined the association between this SNP and small cell lung cancer (SCLC risk as well as its regulatory function in SCLC cells. Genotypes were determined in two independent case-control sets consisted of 520SCLC cases and 1040 controls from two regions of China. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated by logistic regression. The impact of the rs4245739 SNP on miR-191-5p/miR-887-3p mediated MDM4 expression regulation was investigated using luciferase reporter gene assays. We found that the MDM4 rs4245739AC and CC genotypes were significantly associated with decreased SCLC susceptibility compared with the AA genotype in both case-control sets (Shandong set: OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.89, P = 0.014; Jiangsu set: OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.26-0.879, P = 0.017. Stratified analyses indicated that there was a significantly multiplicative interaction between rs4245739 and smoking (Pinteractioin = 0.048. After co-tranfection of miRNAs and different allelic-MDM4 reporter constructs into SCLC cells, we found that the both miR-191-5p and miR-887-3p can lead to significantly decreased MDM4 expression activities in the construct with C-allelic 3'-UTR but not A-allelic 3'-UTR, suggesting a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation. Our data illuminate that the MDM4rs4245739SNP contributes to SCLC risk and support the notion that gene 3'-UTR genetic variants, impacting miRNA-binding, might modify SCLC susceptibility.
Background Adverse environmental conditions severely influence various aspects of plant growth and developmental processes, causing worldwide reduction of crop yields. The C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) are critical transcription factors constituting the gene regulatory network that mediates the acclimation process to low temperatures. They regulate a large number of cold-responsive genes, including COLD-REGULATED (COR) genes, via the CBF-COR regulon. Recent studies have shown that the CBF transcription factors also play a role in plant responses to drought and salt stresses. Putative CBF gene homologues and their downstream genes are also present in the genome of Brachypodium distachyon, which is perceived as a monocot model in recent years. However, they have not been functionally characterized at the molecular level. Results Three CBF genes that are responsive to cold were identified from Brachypodium, designated BdCBF1, BdCBF2, and BdCBF3, and they were functionally characterized by molecular biological and transgenic approaches in Brachypodium and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results demonstrate that the BdCBF genes contribute to the tolerance response of Brachypodium to cold, drought, and salt stresses by regulating downstream targets, such as DEHYDRIN5.1 (Dhn5.1) and COR genes. The BdCBF genes are induced under the environmental stress conditions. The BdCBF proteins possess transcriptional activation activity and bind directly to the promoters of the target genes. Transgenic Brachypodium plants overexpressing the BdCBF genes exhibited enhanced resistance to drought and salt stresses as well as low temperatures, and accordingly endogenous contents of proline and soluble sugars were significantly elevated in the transgenic plants. The BdCBF transcription factors are also functional in the heterologous system Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the BdCBF genes were also tolerant to freezing, drought, and salt stresses, and a set of stress
Robust Protection against Highly Virulent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Swine by Combination Treatment with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing Porcine Alpha and Gamma Interferons and Multiple Small Interfering RNAs
Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Se-Kyung; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan
ABSTRACT Because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. Combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. We have developed recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) for the simultaneous expression of porcine alpha and gamma interferons (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) as well as 3 small interfering RNAs (Ad-3siRNA) targeting FMDV mRNAs encoding nonstructural proteins. The antiviral effects of Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA expression were tested in combination in porcine cells, suckling mice, and swine. We observed enhanced antiviral effects in porcine cells and mice as well as robust protection against the highly pathogenic strain O/Andong/SKR/2010 and increased expression of cytokines in swine following combination treatment. In addition, we showed that combination treatment was effective against all serotypes of FMDV. Therefore, we suggest that the combined treatment with Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA may offer fast-acting antiviral protection and be used with a vaccine during the period that the vaccine does not provide protection against FMD. IMPORTANCE The use of current foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines to induce rapid protection provides limited effectiveness because the protection does not become effective until a minimum of 4 days after vaccination. Therefore, during outbreaks antiviral agents remain the only available treatment to confer rapid protection and reduce the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in livestock until vaccine-induced protective immunity can become effective. Interferons (IFNs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been reported to be effective antiviral agents against
D. Michiel Pegtel; Katherine Cosmopoulos; David A. Thorley-Lawson; Monique A. J. van Eijndhoven; Erik S. Hopmans; Jelle L. Lindenberg; Tanja D. de Gruijl; Thomas Würdinger; Jaap M. Middeldorp; Elliott Kieff
.... Interestingly, miRNAs are secreted actively through small vesicles called "exosomes" that protect them from degradation by RNases, suggesting that these miRNAs may function outside the cell in which they were produced...
Acuña, Lillian G; Barros, M José; Peñaloza, Diego; Rodas, Paula I; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Fuentes, Juan A; Gil, Fernando; Calderón, Iván L
Base-pairing small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate gene expression commonly by direct interaction with cognate mRNAs. Nevertheless, recent studies have expanded this knowledge with the discovery of the RNA 'sponges' which are able to interact and repress the functions of classical base-pairing sRNAs. In this work, we present evidence indicating that the sponge RNA SroC from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium base pairs with the MgrR sRNA, thereby antagonizing its regulatory effects on both gene expression and resistance to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B (PMB). By a predictive algorithm, we determined putative SroC-MgrR base-pairing regions flanking the interaction area between MgrR and its target mRNA, eptB, encoding a LPS-modifying enzyme. With a two-plasmid system and compensatory mutations, we confirmed that SroC directly interacts and down-regulates the levels of MgrR, thus relieving the MgrR-mediated repression of eptB mRNA. Since it was previously shown that an Escherichia coli strain carrying an mgrR deletion is more resistant to PMB, we assessed the significance of SroC in the susceptibility of S. Typhimurium to PMB. Whereas the sroC deletion increased the sensitivity to PMB, as compared to the wild-type, the resistance phenotypes between the ΔmgrR and ΔsroCΔmgrR strains were comparable, evidencing that mgrR mutation is epistatic to the sroC mutation. Together, these results indicate that both SroC and MgrR sRNAs compose a coherent feed-forward loop controlling the eptB expression and hence the LPS modification in S. Typhimurium.
Yu, Xin; Zheng, Heyi; Chan, Matthew TV; Wu, William Ka Kei
Cataract is the most common cause of blindness worldwide. Multiple factors such as aging, eye injury, diabetes mellitus, ultraviolet exposure, drug use and other ocular diseases are etiologically linked to cataractogenesis. Due to a rapid increase in aging population, age-related cataract has become the leading cause of blindness. Therefore, it is urgent to understand the molecular mechanism underlying cataractogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous, small noncoding RNAs that r...
Wang, Zhiwei; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Jingjing; Shi, Wenhui; Zhang, Jinwen
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important cash crop considered as the third largest oil crop worldwide. Rapeseed oil contains various saturation or unsaturation fatty acids, these fatty acids, whose could incorporation with TAG form into lipids stored in seeds play various roles in the metabolic activity. The different fatty acids in B. napus seeds determine oil quality, define if the oil is edible or must be used as industrial material. miRNAs are kind of non-coding sRNAs that could regulate gene expressions through post-transcriptional modification to their target transcripts playing important roles in plant metabolic activities. We employed high-throughput sequencing to identify the miRNAs and their target transcripts involved in fatty acids and lipids metabolism in different development of B. napus seeds. As a result, we identified 826 miRNA sequences, including 523 conserved and 303 newly miRNAs. From the degradome sequencing, we found 589 mRNA could be targeted by 236 miRNAs, it includes 49 novel miRNAs and 187 conserved miRNAs. The miRNA-target couple suggests that bna-5p-163957_18, bna-5p-396192_7, miR9563a-p3, miR9563b-p5, miR838-p3, miR156e-p3, miR159c and miR1134 could target PDP, LACS9, MFPA, ADSL1, ACO32, C0401, GDL73, PlCD6, OLEO3 and WSD1. These target transcripts are involving in acetyl-CoA generate and carbon chain desaturase, regulating the levels of very long chain fatty acids, β-oxidation and lipids transport and metabolism process. At the same, we employed the q-PCR to valid the expression of miRNAs and their target transcripts that involve in fatty acid and lipid metabolism, the result suggested that the miRNA and their transcript expression are negative correlation, which in accord with the expression of miRNA and its target transcript. The study findings suggest that the identified miRNA may play important role in the fatty acids and lipids metabolism in seeds of B. napus. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All
Naoumkina, Marina; Thyssen, Gregory N; Fang, David D; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Florane, Christopher B; Jenkins, Johnie N
The length of cotton fiber is an important agronomic trait that directly affects the quality of yarn and fabric. Understanding the molecular basis of fiber elongation would provide a means for improvement of fiber length. Ligon-lintless-1 (Li 1 ) and -2 (Li 2 ) are monogenic and dominant mutations that result in an extreme reduction in the length of lint fiber on mature seeds. In a near-isogenic state with wild type cotton these two short fiber mutants provide an effective model system to study the mechanisms of fiber elongation. Plant miRNAs regulate many aspects of growth and development. However, the mechanism underlying the miRNA-mediated regulation of fiber development is largely unknown. Small RNA libraries constructed from developing fiber cells of the short fiber mutants Li 1 and Li 2 and their near-isogenic wild type lines were sequenced. We identified 24 conservative and 147 novel miRNA families with targets that were detected through degradome sequencing. The distribution of the target genes into functional categories revealed the largest set of genes were transcription factors. Expression profiles of 20 miRNAs were examined across a fiber developmental time course in wild type and short fiber mutations. We conducted correlation analysis between miRNA transcript abundance and the length of fiber for 11 diverse Upland cotton lines. The expression patterns of 4 miRNAs revealed significant negative correlation with fiber lengths of 11 cotton lines. Our results suggested that the mutations have changed the regulation of miRNAs expression during fiber development. Further investigations of differentially expressed miRNAs in the Li 1 and Li 2 mutants will contribute to better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of cotton fiber development. Four miRNAs negatively correlated with fiber length are good candidates for further investigations of miRNA regulation of important genotype dependent fiber traits. Thus, our results will contribute to further studies
Full Text Available The focus of this review is to provide an update on the progress of microRNAs (miRNAs as potential biomarkers for lung cancer. miRNAs are single-stranded, small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and show tissue-specific signatures. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNA expression patterns represent the in vivo status in physiology and disease. Moreover, miRNAs are stable in serum and other clinically convenient and available tissue sources, so they are being developed as biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. Cancer is currently the primary driver of the field, but miRNA biomarkers are being developed for many other diseases such as cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. Here we examine the framework and scope of the miRNA landscape as it specifically relates to the translation of miRNA expression patterns/signatures into biomarkers for developing diagnostics for lung cancer. We focus on examining tumor cytosol miRNAs, fluid miRNAs, and exosome miRNAs in lung cancer, the connections among these miRNAs, and the potential of miRNA biomarkers for the development of diagnostics. In lung cancer, miRNAs have been studied in both cell populations and in the circulation. However, a major challenge is to develop biomarkers to monitor cancer development and to identify circulating miRNAs that are linked to cancer stage. Importantly, the fact that miRNAs can be successfully harvested from biological fluids allows for the development of biofluid biopsies, in which miRNAs as circulating biomarkers can be captured and analyzed ex vivo. Our hope is that these minimally invasive entities provide a window to the in vivo milieu of the patients without the need for costly, complex invasive procedures, rapidly moving miRNAs from research to the clinic.
Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an essential micronutrient that performs a remarkable array of functions in plants including photosynthesis, cell wall remodeling, flowering, and seed set. Of the world's major cereal crops, wheat, barley, and oat are the most sensitive to Cu deficiency. Cu deficient soils include alkaline soils, which occupy approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands, and organic soils that occupy an estimated 19% of arable land in Europe. We used Brachypodium distachyon (brachypodium as a proxy for wheat and other grain cereals to initiate analyses of the molecular mechanisms underlying their increased susceptibility to Cu deficiency. In this report, we focus on members of the CTR/COPT family of Cu transporters because their homologs in A. thaliana are transcriptionally upregulated in Cu-limited conditions and are involved either in Cu uptake from soils into epidermal cells in the root, or long-distance transport and distribution of Cu in photosynthetic tissues. We found that of five COPT proteins in brachypodium, BdCOPT3 and BdCOPT4 localize to the plasma membrane and are transcriptionally upregulated in roots and leaves by Cu deficiency. We also found that BdCOPT3, BdCOPT4, and BdCOPT5 confer low affinity Cu transport, in contrast to their counterparts in A. thaliana that confer high affinity Cu transport. These data suggest that increased sensitivity to Cu deficiency in some grass species may arise from lower efficiency and, possibly, other properties of components of Cu uptake and tissue partitioning systems and reinforce the importance of using brachypodium as a model for the comprehensive analyses of Cu homeostasis in cereal crops.
Lorraine H.C. Fisher
Full Text Available Drought is an important environmental stress limiting the productivity of major crops worldwide. Understanding drought tolerance and possible mechanisms for improving drought resistance is therefore a prerequisite to develop drought-tolerant crops that produce significant yields with reduced amounts of water. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium is a key model species for cereals, forage grasses and energy grasses. In this study, initial screening of a Brachypodium germplasm collection consisting of 138 different ecotypes exposed to progressive drought, highlighted the natural variation in morphology, biomass accumulation and responses to drought stress. A core set of ten ecotypes, classified as being either tolerant, susceptible or intermediate, in response to drought stress, were exposed to mild or severe (respectively 15% and 0% soil water content drought stress and phenomic parameters linked to growth and colour changes were assessed. When exposed to severe drought stress, phenotypic data and metabolite profiling combined with multivariate analysis revealed a remarkable consistency in separating the selected ecotypes into their different pre-defined drought tolerance groups. Increases in several metabolites, including for the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid, and TCA-cycle intermediates, were positively correlated with biomass yield and with reduced yellow pixel counts; suggestive of delayed senescence, both key target traits for crop improvement to drought stress. While metabolite analysis also separated ecotypes into the distinct tolerance groupings after exposure to mild drought stress, similar analysis of the phenotypic data failed to do so, confirming the value of metabolomics to investigate early responses to drought stress. The results highlight the potential of combining the analyses of phenotypic and metabolic responses to identify key mechanisms and markers associated with drought tolerance in both the Brachypodium
Song, C.; Voort, van der M.; Mortel, van de J.; Hassan, K.A.; Elbourne, L.D.H.; Paulsen, I.T.; Loper, J.E.; Raaijmakers, J.M.
The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 inhibits growth of oomycete and fungal pathogens, and induces resistance in plants against pathogens and insects. To unravel regulatory pathways of secondary metabolite production in SS101, we conducted a genome-wide search for sRNAs and performed
Bhatt, Shantanu; Egan, Marisa; Ramirez, Jasmine; Xander, Christian; Jenkins, Valerie; Muche, Sarah; El-Fenej, Jihad; Palmer, Jamie; Mason, Elisabeth; Storm, Elizabeth; Buerkert, Thomas
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a significant cause of infantile diarrhea and death in developing countries. The pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is essential for EPEC to cause diarrhea. Besides EPEC, the LEE is also present in other gastrointestinal pathogens, most notably enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Whereas transcriptional control of the LEE has been meticulously examined, posttranscriptional regulation, including the role of Hfq-dependent small RNAs, remains undercharacterized. However, the past few years have witnessed a surge in the identification of riboregulators of the LEE in EHEC. Contrastingly, the posttranscriptional regulatory landscape of EPEC remains cryptic. Here we demonstrate that the RNA-chaperone Hfq represses the LEE of EPEC by targeting the 5' untranslated leader region of grlR in the grlRA mRNA. Three conserved small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs)-MgrR, RyhB and McaS-are involved in the Hfq-dependent regulation of grlRA MgrR and RyhB exert their effects by directly base-pairing to the 5' region of grlR Whereas MgrR selectively represses grlR but activates grlA, RyhB represses gene expression from the entire grlRA transcript. Meanwhile, McaS appears to target the grlRA mRNA indirectly. Thus, our results provide the first definitive evidence that implicates multiple sRNAs in regulating the LEE and the resulting virulence of EPEC. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding site (NBS disease resistance genes play an important role in defending plants from a variety of pathogens and insect pests. Many R-genes have been identified in various plant species. However, little is known about the NBS-encoding genes in Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, using computational analysis of the B. distachyon genome, we identified 126 regular NBS-encoding genes and characterized them on the bases of structural diversity, conserved protein motifs, chromosomal locations, gene duplications, promoter region, and phylogenetic relationships. EST hits and full-length cDNA sequences (from Brachypodium database of 126 R-like candidates supported their existence. Based on the occurrence of conserved protein motifs such as coiled-coil (CC, NBS, leucine-rich repeat (LRR, these regular NBS-LRR genes were classified into four subgroups: CC-NBS-LRR, NBS-LRR, CC-NBS, and X-NBS. Further expression analysis of the regular NBS-encoding genes in Brachypodium database revealed that these genes are expressed in a wide range of libraries, including those constructed from various developmental stages, tissue types, and drought challenged or nonchallenged tissue.
Luan, X; Zhou, X; Trombetta-eSilva, J; Francis, M; Gaharwar, A K; Atsawasuwan, P; Diekwisch, T G H
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs that control gene expression in all aspects of eukaryotic life, primarily through RNA silencing mechanisms. The purpose of the present review is to introduce key miRNAs involved in periodontal homeostasis, summarize the mechanisms by which they affect downstream genes and tissues, and provide an introduction into the therapeutic potential of periodontal miRNAs. In general, miRNAs function synergistically to fine-tune the regulation of biological processes and to remove expression noise rather than by causing drastic changes in expression levels. In the periodontium, miRNAs play key roles in development and periodontal homeostasis and during the loss of periodontal tissue integrity as a result of periodontal disease. As part of the anabolic phase of periodontal homeostasis and periodontal development, miRNAs direct periodontal fibroblasts toward alveolar bone lineage differentiation and new bone formation through WNT, bone morphogenetic protein, and Notch signaling pathways. miRNAs contribute equally to the catabolic aspect of periodontal homeostasis as they affect osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function, either by directly promoting osteoclast activity or by inhibiting osteoclast signaling intermediaries or through negative feedback loops. Their small size and ability to target multiple regulatory networks of related sets of genes have predisposed miRNAs to become ideal candidates for drug delivery and tissue regeneration. To address the immense therapeutic potential of miRNAs and their antagomirs, an ever growing number of delivery approaches toward clinical applications have been developed, including nanoparticle carriers and secondary structure interference inhibitor systems. However, only a fraction of the miRNAs involved in periodontal health and disease are known today. It is anticipated that continued research will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the periodontal miRNA world, and a systematic
Full Text Available The recent advent of high-throughput approaches has revealed widespread transcription of the human genome, leading to a new appreciation of transcription regulation, especially from noncoding regions. Distinct from most coding and small noncoding RNAs, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are generally expressed at low levels, are less conserved and lack protein-coding capacity. These intrinsic features of lncRNAs have not only hampered their full annotation in the past several years, but have also generated controversy concerning whether many or most of these lncRNAs are simply the result of transcriptional noise. Here, we assess these intrinsic features that have challenged lncRNA discovery and further summarize recent progress in lncRNA discovery with integrated methodologies, from which new lessons and insights can be derived to achieve better characterization of lncRNA expression regulation. Full annotation of lncRNA repertoires and the implications of such annotation will provide a fundamental basis for comprehensive understanding of pervasive functions of lncRNAs in biological regulation.
Liu, Ying Poi; Berkhout, Ben
RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used as a tool for gene knockdown in fundamental research and for the development of new RNA-based therapeutics. The RNAi pathway is typically induced by expression of ∼22 base pair (bp) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which can be transfected into cells. For
Background: Small non-coding RNAs (smRNAs) are known to have major roles in gene regulation in eukaryotes. In plants, knowledge of the biogenesis and mechanisms of action of smRNA classes including microRNAs (miRNAs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) has been gaine...
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are responsible for maintaining the genome stability by silencing retrotransposons in germline tissues– where piRNAs were first discovered and thought to be restricted. Recently, novel functions were reported for piRNAs in germline and somatic cells. Using deep sequencing of small RNAs and CAGE of postnatal development of mouse brain, we identified piRNAs only in adult mouse brain. These piRNAs have similar sequence length as those of MILI-bound piRNAs. In addition, we predicted novel candidate regulators and putative targets of adult brain piRNAs.
Full Text Available The phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a critical event in the life cycle of flowering plants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT plays a central role in the regulation of this transition by integrating signals from multiple flowering pathways in the leaves and transmitting them to the shoot apical meristem. In this study, we characterized FT homologs in the temperate grasses Brachypodium distachyon and polyploid wheat using transgenic and mutant approaches. Downregulation of FT1 by RNAi was associated with a significant downregulation of the FT-like genes FT2 and FT4 in Brachypodium and FT2 and FT5 in wheat. In a transgenic wheat line carrying a highly-expressed FT1 allele, FT2 and FT3 were upregulated under both long and short days. Overexpression of FT1 caused extremely early flowering during shoot regeneration in both Brachypodium and hexaploid wheat, and resulted in insufficient vegetative tissue to support the production of viable seeds. Downregulation of FT1 transcripts by RNA interference (RNAi resulted in non-flowering Brachypodium plants and late flowering plants (2-4 weeks delay in wheat. A similar delay in heading time was observed in tetraploid wheat plants carrying mutations for both FT-A1 and FT-B1. Plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-B1 flowered later than plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-A1, which corresponded with higher transcript levels of FT-B1 relative to FT-A1 in the early stages of development. Taken together, our data indicate that FT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of flowering in Brachypodium and wheat, and that this role is associated with the simultaneous regulation of other FT-like genes. The differential effects of mutations in FT-A1 and FT-B1 on wheat heading time suggest that different allelic combinations of FT1 homoeologs could be used to adjust wheat heading time to improve adaptation to changing environments.
Barbieri, Mirko; Marcel, Thierry C; Niks, Rients E; Francia, Enrico; Pasquariello, Marianna; Mazzamurro, Valentina; Garvin, David F; Pecchioni, Nicola
The potential of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon L. (Brachypodium) for studying grass-pathogen interactions is still underexploited. We aimed to identify genomic regions in Brachypodium associated with quantitative resistance to the false brome rust fungus Puccinia brachypodii . The inbred lines Bd3-1 and Bd1-1, differing in their level of resistance to P. brachypodii, were crossed to develop an F(2) population. This was evaluated for reaction to a virulent isolate of P. brachypodii at both the seedling and advanced growth stages. To validate the results obtained on the F(2), resistance was quantified in F(2)-derived F(3) families in two experiments. Disease evaluations showed quantitative and transgressive segregation for resistance. A new AFLP-based Brachypodium linkage map consisting of 203 loci and spanning 812 cM was developed and anchored to the genome sequence with SSR and SNP markers. Three false brome rust resistance QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, and 4, and they were detected across experiments. This study is the first quantitative trait analysis in Brachypodium. Resistance to P. brachypodii was governed by a few QTLs: two acting at the seedling stage and one acting at both seedling and advanced growth stages. The results obtained offer perspectives to elucidate the molecular basis of quantitative resistance to rust fungi.
Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a gene-regulatory mechanism in eukarya that is based on the presence of double stranded RNA and that can act on both, the transcription or post-transcriptional level. In many species, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs are required for RNAi. To study the function of the three RdRPs in the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, we have deleted the encoding genes rrpA, rrpB and rrpC in all possible combinations. In these strains, expression of either antisense or hairpin RNA constructs against the transgene lacZ resulted in a 50% reduced β-Galactosidase activity. Northern blots surprisingly revealed unchanged lacZ mRNA levels, indicative of post-transcriptional regulation. Only in rrpC knock out strains, low levels of β-gal small interfering RNAs (siRNAs could be detected in antisense RNA expressing strains. In contrast to this, and at considerably higher levels, all hairpin RNA expressing strains featured β-gal siRNAs. Spreading of the silencing signal to mRNA sequences 5' of the original hairpin trigger was observed in all strains, except when the rrpC gene or that of the dicer-related nuclease DrnB was deleted. Thus, our data indicate that transitivity of an RNA silencing signal exists in D. discoideum and that it requires the two enzymes RrpC and DrnB.
Hutvágner, György; Simard, Martin J; Mello, Craig C; Zamore, Phillip D
Hundreds of microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been identified from both plants and animals, yet little is known about their biochemical modes of action or biological functions...
Ju, Zheng; Cao, Dongyan; Gao, Chao; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhai, Baiqiang; Li, Shan; Zhu, Hongliang; Fu, Daqi; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong
With experimental and bioinformatical methods, numerous small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), have been found in plants, and they play vital roles in various biological regulation processes. However, most of these small RNAs remain to be functionally characterized. Until now, only several viral vectors were developed to overexpress miRNAs with limited application in plants. In this study, we report a new small RNA overexpression system via viral satellite DNA associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) vector, which could highly overexpress not only artificial and endogenous miRNAs but also endogenous siRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana First, we constructed basic TYLCCNV-amiRPDS(319L) vector with widely used AtMIR319a backbone, but the expected photobleaching phenotype was very weak. Second, through comparing the effect of backbones (AtMIR319a, AtMIR390a, and SlMIR159) on specificity and significance of generating small RNAs, the AtMIR390a backbone was optimally selected to construct the small RNA overexpression system. Third, through sRNA-Seq and Degradome-Seq, the small RNAs from AtMIR390a backbone in TYLCCNV-amiRPDS(390) vector were confirmed to highly overexpress amiRPDS and specifically silence targeted PDS gene. Using this system, rapid functional analysis of endogenous miRNAs and siRNAs was carried out, including miR156 and athTAS3a 5'D8(+). Meanwhile, through designing corresponding artificial miRNAs, this system could also significantly silence targeted endogenous genes and show specific phenotypes, including PDS, Su, and PCNA These results demonstrated that this small RNA overexpression system could contribute to investigating not only the function of endogenous small RNAs, but also the functional genes in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
Govindaraju Aruna; Uzun Alper; Robertson LaShonda; Atli Mehmet O; Kaya Abdullah; Topper Einko; Crate Elizabeth A; Padbury James; Perkins Andy; Memili Erdogan
Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus play important roles in mammalian development. However, the comprehensive lists of microRNAs, as well as, molecular mechanisms by which microRNAs regulate gene expression during gamete and embryo development are poorly defined. The objectives of this study were to determine microRNAs in bull sperm and predict their functions. Methods To accomplish our objectives we isolated miRNAs from sperm of high...
Lodish, Harvey F; Zhou, Beiyan; Liu, Gwen; Chen, Chang-Zheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNAs that are thought to control gene expression by targeting mRNAs for degradation or translational repression. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNA-mediated gene regulation represents a fundamental layer of genetic programmes at the post-transcriptional level and has diverse functional roles in animals. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate gene expression, with specific focus on the role of miRNAs in regulating the development of immune cells and in modulating innate and adaptive immune responses.
Song, Rui; Hennig, Grant W.; Wu, Qiuxia; Jose, Charlie; Zheng, Huili; Yan, Wei
In mammals, endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) have only been reported in murine oocytes and embryonic stem cells. Here, we show that murine spermatogenic cells express numerous endo-siRNAs, which are likely to be derived from naturally occurring double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) precursors. The biogenesis of these testicular endo-siRNAs is DROSHA independent, but DICER dependent. These male germ cell endo-siRNAs can potentially target hundreds of transcripts or thousands of DNA regions in the genome. Overall, our work has unveiled another hidden layer of regulation imposed by small noncoding RNAs during male germ cell development. PMID:21788498
Pauli, Andrea; Valen, Eivind; Lin, Michael F.
vertebrate embryogenesis has been elusive. To identify lncRNAs with potential functions in vertebrate embryogenesis, we performed a time series of RNA-Seq experiments at eight stages during early zebrafish development. We reconstructed 56,535 high-confidence transcripts in 28,912 loci, recovering the vast...... overlapping lncRNAs, and precursors for small RNAs (sRNAs). Zebrafish lncRNAs share many of the characteristics of their mammalian counterparts: relatively short length, low exon number, low expression, and conservation levels comparable to introns. Subsets of lncRNAs carry chromatin signatures characteristic...
A class of small ncRNAs and miRNAs has gained much importance because of its involvement in human diseases such as cancer. Involvement of long ncRNAs have also been acknowledged in other human diseases, especially inneurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the ...
Transgenic expression of small RNAs is a prevalent approach in agrobiotechnology for the global enhancement of plant foods. Meanwhile, emerging studies have, on the one hand, emphasized the potential of transgenic microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel dietary therapeutics and, on the other, suggested potentia...
Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGB induce positive effects in plants, for instance, increased growth and reduced abiotic stresses susceptibility. The mechanisms by which these bacteria impact the host plant are numerous, diverse and often specific. Here, we studied the agronomical, molecular and biochemical effects of the endophytic PGB Bacillus subtilis B26 on the full life cycle of Brachypodium distachyon Bd21, an established model species for functional genomics in cereal crops and temperate grasses. Inoculation of Brachypodium with B. subtilis strain B26 increased root and shoot weights, accelerated growth rate and seed yield as compared to control plants. B. subtilis strain B26 efficiently colonized the plant and was recovered from roots, stems and blades as well as seeds of Brachypodium, indicating that the bacterium is able to migrate, spread systemically inside the plant, establish itself in the aerial plant tissues and organs, and is vertically transmitted to seeds. The presence of B. subtilis strain B26 in the seed led to systemic colonization of the next generation of Brachypodium plants. Inoculated Brachypodium seedlings and mature plants exposed to acute and chronic drought stress minimized the phenotypic effect of drought compared to plants not harbouring the bacterium. Protection from the inhibitory effects of drought by the bacterium was linked to upregulation of the drought-response genes, DREB2B-like, DHN3-like and LEA-14-A-like and modulation of the DNA methylation genes, MET1B-like, CMT3-like and DRM2-like, that regulate the process. Additionally, total soluble sugars and starch contents increased in stressed inoculated plants, a biochemical indication of drought tolerance. In conclusion, we show a single inoculation of Brachypodium with a PGB affected the whole growth cycle of the plant, accelerating its growth rates, shortening its vegetative period, and alleviating drought stress effects. These effects are relevant to
Wang, Feng; Johnson, Nathan R; Coruh, Ceyda; Axtell, Michael J
Plant small RNAs are subject to various modifications. Previous reports revealed widespread 3' modifications (truncations and non-templated tailing) of plant miRNAs when the 2'-O-methyltransferase HEN1 is absent. However, non-templated nucleotides in plant heterochromatic siRNAs have not been deeply studied, especially in wild-type plants. We systematically studied non-templated nucleotide patterns in plant small RNAs by analyzing small RNA sequencing libraries from Arabidopsis, tomato, Medicago, rice, maize and Physcomitrella Elevated rates of non-templated nucleotides were observed at the 3' ends of both miRNAs and endogenous siRNAs from wild-type specimens of all species. 'Off-sized' small RNAs, such as 25 and 23 nt siRNAs arising from loci dominated by 24 nt siRNAs, often had very high rates of 3'-non-templated nucleotides. The same pattern was observed in all species that we studied. Further analysis of 24 nt siRNA clusters in Arabidopsis revealed distinct patterns of 3'-non-templated nucleotides of 23 nt siRNAs arising from heterochromatic siRNA loci. This pattern of non-templated 3' nucleotides on 23 nt siRNAs is not affected by loss of known small RNA 3'-end modifying enzymes, and may result from modifications added to longer heterochromatic siRNA precursors. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Vogel, John P. [USDA ARS Western Regional Research Center, Albany, NY (United States)
The goal of this project was to apply high-throughput, non-destructive phenotyping (phenomics) to collections of natural variants and induced mutants of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon and characterize a small subset of that material in detail. B. distachyon is well suited to this phenomic approach because its small size and rapid generation time allow researchers to grow many plants under carefully controlled conditions. In addition, the simple diploid genetics, high quality genome sequence and existence of numerous experimental tools available for B. distachyon allow us to rapidly identify genes affecting specific phenotypes. Our phenomic analysis revealed great diversity in biofuel-relevant traits like growth rate, biomass and photosynthetic rate. This clearly demonstrated the feasibility of applying a phenomic approach to the model grass B. distachyon. We also demonstrated the utility of B. distachyon for studying mature root system, something that is virtually impossible to do with biomass crops. We showed tremendous natural variation in root architecture that can potentially be used to design crops with superior nutrient and water harvesting capability. Finally, we demonstrated the speed with which we can link specific genes to specific phenotypes by studying two mutants in detail. Importantly, in both cases, the specific biological lessons learned were grass-specific and could not have been learned from a dicot model system. Furthermore, one of the genes affects cell wall integrity and thus may be a useful target in the context of biomass crop improvement. Ultimately, all this information can be used to accelerate the creation of improved biomass crops.
Full Text Available Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs are short transcripts that typically do not encode proteins and often act as regulators of gene expression through a variety of mechanisms. Regulatory sRNAs have been identified in many species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Here, we use a computational algorithm to predict sRNA candidates in the mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG and confirmed the expression of many sRNAs using Northern blotting. Thus, we have identified 17 and 23 novel sRNAs in M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG, respectively. We have also applied a high-throughput technique (Deep-RACE to map the 5' and 3' ends of many of these sRNAs and identified potential regulators of sRNAs by analysis of existing ChIP-seq datasets. The sRNAs identified in this work likely contribute to the unique biology of mycobacteria.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental development. Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Recent research of placental miRNAs focuses on identifying placental miRNA species, examining differential expression of miRNAs between placentas from normal and compromised pregnancies, and uncovering the function of miRNAs in the placenta. More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pregnancy-related disorders. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and function of miRNAs in placental development, and propose future directions for miRNA studies.
Yan, Yan; Wang, Xuan; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory non-coding RNAs for which altered expression in cancers can serve as potential biomarkers for diseases. We here investigated whether circulating miRNAs can serve as biomarkers for predicting post-operational recurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H
MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs found in multicellular organisms where they post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. In animals, microRNAs bind mRNAs via incomplete base pairings making the identification of microRNA targets inherently difficult. Here, we present a detailed method for...
Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are powerful small RNA entities that are used to translate nucleotide language of genes into the amino acid language of proteins. Their near-uniform length and tertiary structure as well as their high nucleotide similarity and post-transcriptional modifications have made it difficult to characterize individual species quantitatively. However, due to the central role of the tRNA pool in protein biosynthesis as well as newly emerging roles played by tRNAs, their quantitative assessment yields important information, particularly relevant for virus research. Viruses which depend on the host protein expression machinery have evolved various strategies to optimize tRNA usage—either by adapting to the host codon usage or encoding their own tRNAs. Additionally, several viruses bear tRNA-like elements (TLE in the 5′- and 3′-UTR of their mRNAs. There are different hypotheses concerning the manner in which such structures boost viral protein expression. Furthermore, retroviruses use special tRNAs for packaging and initiating reverse transcription of their genetic material. Since there is a strong specificity of different viruses towards certain tRNAs, different strategies for recruitment are employed. Interestingly, modifications on tRNAs strongly impact their functionality in viruses. Here, we review those intersection points between virus and tRNA research and describe methods for assessing the tRNA pool in terms of concentration, aminoacylation and modification.
Pacak, Andrzej; Geisler, Katrin; Jørgensen, Bodil
-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created...
Full Text Available Puccinia graminis causes stem rust, a serious disease of cereals and forage grasses. Important formae speciales of P. graminis and their typical hosts are P. graminis f. sp. tritici (Pg-tr in wheat and barley, P. graminis f. sp. lolii (Pg-lo in perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, and P. graminis f. sp. phlei-pratensis (Pg-pp in timothy grass. Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging genetic model to study fungal disease resistance in cereals and temperate grasses. We characterized the P. graminis-Brachypodium pathosystem to evaluate its potential for investigating incompatibility and non-host resistance to P. graminis. Inoculation of eight Brachypodium inbred lines with Pg-tr, Pg-lo or Pg-pp resulted in sporulating lesions later accompanied by necrosis. Histological analysis of early infection events in one Brachypodium inbred line (Bd1-1 indicated that Pg-lo and Pg-pp were markedly more efficient than Pg-tr at establishing a biotrophic interaction. Formation of appressoria was completed (60-70% of germinated spores by 12 h post-inoculation (hpi under dark and wet conditions, and after 4 h of subsequent light exposure fungal penetration structures (penetration peg, substomatal vesicle and primary infection hyphae had developed. Brachypodium Bd1-1 exhibited pre-haustorial resistance to Pg-tr, i.e. infection usually stopped at appressorial formation. By 68 hpi, only 0.3% and 0.7% of the Pg-tr urediniospores developed haustoria and colonies, respectively. In contrast, development of advanced infection structures by Pg-lo and Pg-pp was significantly more common; however, Brachypodium displayed post-haustorial resistance to these isolates. By 68 hpi the percentage of urediniospores that only develop a haustorium mother cell or haustorium in Pg-lo and Pg-pp reached 8% and 5%, respectively. The formation of colonies reached 14% and 13%, respectively. We conclude that Brachypodium is an apt grass model to study the molecular and genetic components of
Verelst, Wim; Bertolini, Edoardo; De Bodt, Stefanie; Vandepoele, Klaas; Demeulenaere, Marlies; Pè, Mario Enrico; Inzé, Dirk
The drought-tolerant grass Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging model species for temperate grasses and cereal crops. To explore the usefulness of this species for drought studies, a reproducible in vivo drought assay was developed. Spontaneous soil drying led to a 45% reduction in leaf size, and this was mostly due to a decrease in cell expansion, whereas cell division remained largely unaffected by drought. To investigate the molecular basis of the observed leaf growth reduction, the third Brachypodium leaf was dissected in three zones, namely proliferation, expansion, and mature zones, and subjected to transcriptome analysis, based on a whole-genome tiling array. This approach allowed us to highlight that transcriptome profiles of different developmental leaf zones respond differently to drought. Several genes and functional processes involved in drought tolerance were identified. The transcriptome data suggest an increased energy availability in the proliferation zones, along with an up-regulation of sterol synthesis that may influence membrane fluidity. This information may be used to improve the tolerance of temperate cereals to drought, which is undoubtedly one of the major environmental challenges faced by agriculture today and in the near future.
Full Text Available Increasing frequencies of 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON-producing strains of Fusarium graminearum (3-ADON chemotype have been reported in North America and Asia. 3-ADON is nearly nontoxic at the level of the ribosomal target and has to be deacetylated to cause inhibition of protein biosynthesis. Plant cells can efficiently remove the acetyl groups of 3-ADON, but the underlying genes are yet unknown. We therefore performed a study of the family of candidate carboxylesterases (CXE genes of the monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. We report the identification and characterization of the first plant enzymes responsible for deacetylation of trichothecene toxins. The product of the BdCXE29 gene efficiently deacetylates T-2 toxin to HT-2 toxin, NX-2 to NX-3, both 3-ADON and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON into deoxynivalenol and, to a lesser degree, also fusarenon X into nivalenol. The BdCXE52 esterase showed lower activity than BdCXE29 when expressed in yeast and accepts 3-ADON, NX-2, 15-ADON and, to a limited extent, fusarenon X as substrates. Expression of these Brachypodium genes in yeast increases the toxicity of 3-ADON, suggesting that highly similar genes existing in crop plants may act as susceptibility factors in Fusarium head blight disease.
Liu, Quan; Tuo, Wenbin; Gao, Hongwei; Zhu, Xing-Quan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes at the post-transcriptional level. The complex life cycles of parasites may require the ability to respond to environmental and developmental signals through miRNA-mediated gene expression. Over the past 17 years, thousands of miRNAs have been identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and other parasites. Here, we review the current status and potential functions of miRNAs in protozoan, helminths, and arthropods, and propose some perspectives for future studies.
Luteijn, M.J.; Ketting, R.F.
Small-RNA-guided gene regulation is a recurring theme in biology. Animal germ cells are characterized by an intriguing small-RNA-mediated gene-silencing mechanism known as the PIWI pathway. For a long time, both the biogenesis of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) as well as their mode of gene silencing
In 1993, lin-4 was discovered as a critical modulator of temporal development in Caenorhabditis elegans and, most notably, as the first in the class of small, single-stranded noncoding RNAs now defined as microRNAs (miRNAs). Another eight years elapsed before miRNA expression was detected in mammalian cells. Since then, explosive advancements in the field of miRNA biology have elucidated the basic mechanism of miRNA biogenesis, regulation, and gene-regulatory function. The discovery of this new class of small RNAs has augmented the complexity of gene-regulatory programs as well as the understanding of developmental and pathological processes in the cardiovascular system. Indeed, the contributions of miRNAs in cardiovascular development and function have been widely explored, revealing the extensive role of these small regulatory RNAs in cardiovascular physiology. PMID:23157557
Clokie, Samuel J. H.; Lau, Pierre; Kim, Hyun Hee; Coon, Steven L.; Klein, David C.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a broad range of roles in biological regulation. In this study, rat pineal miRNAs were profiled for the first time, and their importance was evaluated by focusing on the main function of the pineal gland, melatonin synthesis. Massively parallel sequencing and related methods revealed the miRNA population is dominated by a small group of miRNAs as follows: ∼75% is accounted for by 15 miRNAs; miR-182 represents 28%. In addition to miR-182, miR-183 and miR-96 are also highly enriched in the pineal gland, a distinctive pattern also found in the retina. This effort also identified previously unrecognized miRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs. Pineal miRNAs do not exhibit a marked night/day difference in abundance with few exceptions (e.g. 2-fold night/day differences in the abundance of miR-96 and miR-182); this contrasts sharply with the dynamic 24-h pattern that characterizes the pineal transcriptome. During development, the abundance of most pineal gland-enriched miRNAs increases; however, there is a marked decrease in at least one, miR-483. miR-483 is a likely regulator of melatonin synthesis, based on the following. It inhibits melatonin synthesis by pinealocytes in culture; it acts via predicted binding sites in the 3′-UTR of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) mRNA, the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis, and it exhibits a developmental profile opposite to that of Aanat transcripts. Additionally, a miR-483 targeted antagonist increased melatonin synthesis in neonatal pinealocytes. These observations support the hypothesis that miR-483 suppresses Aanat mRNA levels during development and that the developmental decrease in miR-483 abundance promotes melatonin synthesis. PMID:22908386
Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Böhme, Katja; Rohde, Manfred; Dersch, Petra
The MarR-type regulator RovA controls expression of virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in response to environmental signals. Using a genetic strategy to discover components that influence rovA expression, we identified new regulatory factors with homology to components of the carbon storage regulator system (Csr). We showed that overexpression of a CsrB- or a CsrC-type RNA activates rovA, whereas a CsrA-like protein represses RovA synthesis. We further demonstrate that influence of the Csr system on rovA is indirect and occurs through control of the LysR regulator RovM, which inhibits rovA transcription. The CsrA protein had also a major influence on the motility of Yersinia, which was independent of RovM. The CsrB and CsrC RNAs are differentially expressed in Yersinia. CsrC is highly induced in complex but not in minimal media, indicating that medium-dependent rovM expression is mediated through CsrC. CsrB synthesis is generally very low. However, overexpression of the response regulator UvrY was found to activate CsrB production, which in turn represses CsrC synthesis independent of the growth medium. In summary, the post-transcriptional Csr-type components were shown to be key regulators in the co-ordinated environmental control of physiological processes and virulence factors, which are crucial for the initiation of Yersinia infections.
Sapetschnig, Alexandra; Sarkies, Peter; Lehrbach, Nicolas J; Miska, Eric A
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, different small RNA-dependent gene silencing mechanisms act in the germline to initiate transgenerational gene silencing. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) can initiate transposon and gene silencing by acting upstream of endogenous short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which engage a nuclear RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to trigger transcriptional gene silencing. Once gene silencing has been established, it can be stably maintained over multiple generations without the requirement of the initial trigger and is also referred to as RNAe or paramutation. This heritable silencing depends on the integrity of the nuclear RNAi pathway. However, the exact mechanism by which silencing is maintained across generations is not understood. Here we demonstrate that silencing of piRNA targets involves the production of two distinct classes of small RNAs with different genetic requirements. The first class, secondary siRNAs, are localized close to the direct target site for piRNAs. Nuclear import of the secondary siRNAs by the Argonaute HRDE-1 leads to the production of a distinct class of small RNAs that map throughout the transcript, which we term tertiary siRNAs. Both classes of small RNAs are necessary for full repression of the target gene and can be maintained independently of the initial piRNA trigger. Consistently, we observed a form of paramutation associated with tertiary siRNAs. Once paramutated, a tertiary siRNA generating allele confers dominant silencing in the progeny regardless of its own transmission, suggesting germline-transmitted siRNAs are sufficient for multigenerational silencing. This work uncovers a multi-step siRNA amplification pathway that promotes germline integrity via epigenetic silencing of endogenous and invading genetic elements. In addition, the same pathway can be engaged in environmentally induced heritable gene silencing and could therefore promote the inheritance of acquired traits.
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22 nucleotide single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules that bind to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and silence their expression. This Essay explores the importance of miRNAs in animal development and their possible roles in disease and evolution.
Full Text Available Circulating RNAs in human body fluids are promising candidates for diagnostic purposes. However, the biological significance of circulating RNAs remains elusive. Recently, small non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, were isolated from multiple human body fluids, and these circulating miRNAs have been implicated as novel disease biomarkers. Concurrently, miRNAs were also identified in the extracellular space associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs, which are small membrane vesicles secreted from various types of cells. The function of these secreted miRNAs has been revealed in several papers. Circulating miRNAs have been experimentally found to be associated with EVs, however, other types of extracellular miRNAs were also described. This review discusses studies related to extracellular miRNAs, including circulating miRNAs and secreted miRNAs, to highlight the importance of studying not only secreted miRNAs but also circulating miRNAs to determine the contribution of extracellular miRNAs especially in cancer development.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate critical cell processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation by modulating gene expression. MiRNAs deregulation has been observed extensively in cancer. Elegant studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of several malignancies. In this review we will address the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. The development of new drugs mimicking or blocking miRNAs will be discussed.
Taiowa A Montgomery
Full Text Available Small RNAs--including piRNAs, miRNAs, and endogenous siRNAs--bind Argonaute proteins to form RNA silencing complexes that target coding genes, transposons, and aberrant RNAs. To assess the requirements for endogenous siRNA formation and activity in Caenorhabditis elegans, we developed a GFP-based sensor for the endogenous siRNA 22G siR-1, one of a set of abundant siRNAs processed from a precursor RNA mapping to the X chromosome, the X-cluster. Silencing of the sensor is also dependent on the partially complementary, unlinked 26G siR-O7 siRNA. We show that 26G siR-O7 acts in trans to initiate 22G siRNA formation from the X-cluster. The presence of several mispairs between 26G siR-O7 and the X-cluster mRNA, as well as mutagenesis of the siRNA sensor, indicates that siRNA target recognition is permissive to a degree of mispairing. From a candidate reverse genetic screen, we identified several factors required for 22G siR-1 activity, including the chromatin factors mes-4 and gfl-1, the Argonaute ergo-1, and the 3' methyltransferase henn-1. Quantitative RT-PCR of small RNAs in a henn-1 mutant and deep sequencing of methylated small RNAs indicate that siRNAs and piRNAs that associate with PIWI clade Argonautes are methylated by HENN-1, while siRNAs and miRNAs that associate with non-PIWI clade Argonautes are not. Thus, PIWI-class Argonaute proteins are specifically adapted to associate with methylated small RNAs in C. elegans.
Turner, Marie; Yu, Oliver; Subramanian, Senthil
microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression and play important roles in many aspects of plant biology. The role(s) of miRNAs in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants such as soybean is not well understood. We examined a library of small RNAs from Bradyrhizobium japonicum-inoculated soybean roots and identified novel miRNAs. In order to enhance our understanding of miRNA evolution, diversification and function, we classified all known soybean miRNAs based on their phylogenetic conservation (conserved, legume- and soybean-specific miRNAs) and examined their genome organization, family characteristics and target diversity. We predicted targets of these miRNAs and experimentally validated several of them. We also examined organ-specific expression of selected miRNAs and their targets. We identified 120 previously unknown miRNA genes from soybean including 5 novel miRNA families. In the soybean genome, genes encoding miRNAs are primarily intergenic and a small percentage were intragenic or less than 1000 bp from a protein-coding gene, suggesting potential co-regulation between the miRNA and its parent gene. Difference in number and orientation of tandemly duplicated miRNA genes between orthologous genomic loci indicated continuous evolution and diversification. Conserved miRNA families are often larger in size and produce less diverse mature miRNAs than legume- and soybean-specific families. In addition, the majority of conserved and legume-specific miRNA families produce 21 nt long mature miRNAs with distinct nucleotide distribution and regulate a more conserved set of target mRNAs compared to soybean-specific families. A set of nodule-specific target mRNAs and their cognate regulatory miRNAs had inverse expression between root and nodule tissues suggesting that spatial restriction of target gene transcripts by miRNAs might govern nodule-specific gene expression in soybean. Genome organization of soybean miRNAs suggests that they are actively
Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are key regulators of gene expression and play important roles in many aspects of plant biology. The role(s of miRNAs in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants such as soybean is not well understood. We examined a library of small RNAs from Bradyrhizobium japonicum-inoculated soybean roots and identified novel miRNAs. In order to enhance our understanding of miRNA evolution, diversification and function, we classified all known soybean miRNAs based on their phylogenetic conservation (conserved, legume- and soybean-specific miRNAs and examined their genome organization, family characteristics and target diversity. We predicted targets of these miRNAs and experimentally validated several of them. We also examined organ-specific expression of selected miRNAs and their targets. Results We identified 120 previously unknown miRNA genes from soybean including 5 novel miRNA families. In the soybean genome, genes encoding miRNAs are primarily intergenic and a small percentage were intragenic or less than 1000 bp from a protein-coding gene, suggesting potential co-regulation between the miRNA and its parent gene. Difference in number and orientation of tandemly duplicated miRNA genes between orthologous genomic loci indicated continuous evolution and diversification. Conserved miRNA families are often larger in size and produce less diverse mature miRNAs than legume- and soybean-specific families. In addition, the majority of conserved and legume-specific miRNA families produce 21 nt long mature miRNAs with distinct nucleotide distribution and regulate a more conserved set of target mRNAs compared to soybean-specific families. A set of nodule-specific target mRNAs and their cognate regulatory miRNAs had inverse expression between root and nodule tissues suggesting that spatial restriction of target gene transcripts by miRNAs might govern nodule-specific gene expression in soybean. Conclusions Genome
Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression and play important roles in many aspects of plant biology. The role(s) of miRNAs in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants such as soybean is not well understood. We examined a library of small RNAs from Bradyrhizobium japonicum-inoculated soybean roots and identified novel miRNAs. In order to enhance our understanding of miRNA evolution, diversification and function, we classified all known soybean miRNAs based on their phylogenetic conservation (conserved, legume- and soybean-specific miRNAs) and examined their genome organization, family characteristics and target diversity. We predicted targets of these miRNAs and experimentally validated several of them. We also examined organ-specific expression of selected miRNAs and their targets. Results We identified 120 previously unknown miRNA genes from soybean including 5 novel miRNA families. In the soybean genome, genes encoding miRNAs are primarily intergenic and a small percentage were intragenic or less than 1000 bp from a protein-coding gene, suggesting potential co-regulation between the miRNA and its parent gene. Difference in number and orientation of tandemly duplicated miRNA genes between orthologous genomic loci indicated continuous evolution and diversification. Conserved miRNA families are often larger in size and produce less diverse mature miRNAs than legume- and soybean-specific families. In addition, the majority of conserved and legume-specific miRNA families produce 21 nt long mature miRNAs with distinct nucleotide distribution and regulate a more conserved set of target mRNAs compared to soybean-specific families. A set of nodule-specific target mRNAs and their cognate regulatory miRNAs had inverse expression between root and nodule tissues suggesting that spatial restriction of target gene transcripts by miRNAs might govern nodule-specific gene expression in soybean. Conclusions Genome organization of soybean miRNAs
Anita Quintal Gomes
Full Text Available In the last years it has become increasingly clear that the mammalian transcriptome is highly complex and includes a large number of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs. Here we review the biogenesis pathways of the three classes of sncRNAs, namely short interfering RNAs (siRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs. These ncRNAs have been extensively studied and are involved in pathways leading to specific gene silencing and the protection of genomes against virus and transposons, for example. Also, lncRNAs have emerged as pivotal molecules for the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression which is supported by their tissue-specific expression patterns, subcellular distribution, and developmental regulation. Therefore, we also focus our attention on their role in differentiation and development. SncRNAs and lncRNAs play critical roles in defining DNA methylation patterns, as well as chromatin remodeling thus having a substantial effect in epigenetics. The identification of some overlaps in their biogenesis pathways and functional roles raises the hypothesis that these molecules play concerted functions in vivo, creating complex regulatory networks where cooperation with regulatory proteins is necessary. We also highlighted the implications of biogenesis and gene expression deregulation of sncRNAs and lncRNAs in human diseases like cancer.
Full Text Available Transposable elements are a serious threat for genome integrity and their control via small RNA mediated silencing pathways is an ancient strategy. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has two silencing activities that target transposons: endogenous siRNAs (esiRNAs or endo-siRNAs and Piwi-interacting small RNAs (piRNAs. The biogenesis of endo-siRNAs involves the Dicer-2 co-factors Loqs-PD, which acts predominantly during processing of dsRNA by Dcr-2, and R2D2, which primarily helps to direct siRNAs into the RNA interference effector Ago2. Nonetheless, loss of either protein is not sufficient to produce a phenotype comparable with a dcr-2 mutation. We provide further deep sequencing evidence supporting the notion that R2D2 and Loqs-PD have partially overlapping function. Certain transposons display a preference for either dsRBD-protein during production or loading; this appeared to correlate neither with overall abundance, classification of the transposon or a specific site of genomic origin. The endo-siRNA biogenesis pathway in germline operates according to the same principles as the existing model for the soma, and its impairment does not significantly affect piRNAs. Expanding the analysis, we confirmed the occurrence of somatic piRNA-like RNAs (pilRNAs that show a ping-pong signature. We detected expression of the Piwi-family protein mRNAs only barely above background, indicating that the somatic pilRNAs may arise from a small sub-population of somatic cells that express a functional piRNA pathway.
Pek, Jun Wei; Okamura, Katsutomo
Recent studies have discovered both small and long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) encoded in unexpected places. These ncRNA genes were surprises at the time of their discovery, but many quickly became well-accepted families of functional regulatory RNA species. Even after years of extensive gene annotation studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies, new types of ncRNA genes continue to be discovered in unexpected places. We highlight ncRNAs that have atypical structures and that are encoded in what are generally considered 'junk' sequences, such as spacers and introns. We also discuss current bottlenecks in the approaches for identifying novel ncRNAs and the possibility that many remain to be discovered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van Balkom, Bas W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/256594783; Eisele, Almut S; Pegtel, D Michiel; Bervoets, Sander; Verhaar, Marianne C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182921840
Exosomes are small vesicles that mediate cell-cell communication. They contain proteins, lipids and RNA, and evidence is accumulating that these molecules are specifically sorted for release via exosomes. We recently showed that endothelial-cell-produced exosomes promote angiogenesis in vivo in a
Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus. Brachypodium distachyon line Bd3-1 shows resistance to the BSMV ND18 strain, but is susceptible to an ND18 double mutant (β NDTGB1R390K, T392K in which lysine is substituted for an arginine at position 390 and for threonine at position 392 of the triple gene block 1 (TGB1 protein. In order to understand differences in gene expression following infection with ND18 and double mutant ND18, Bd3-1 seedlings were subjected to RNA-seq analyses at 1, 6, and 14 days post inoculation (dpi. The results revealed that basal immunity genes involved in cellulose synthesis and pathogenesis-related protein biosynthesis were enhanced in incompatible interactions between Bd3-1 and ND18. Most of the differentially expressed transcripts are related to trehalose biosynthesis, ethylene, jasmonic acid metabolism, protein phosphorylation, protein ubiquitination, transcriptional regulation, and transport process, as well as pathogenesis-related protein biosynthesis. In compatible interactions between Bd3-1 and ND18 mutant, Bd3-1 developed weak basal resistance responses to the virus. Many genes involved in cellulose biosynthesis, protein amino acid phosphorylation, protein biosynthesis, protein glycosylation, glycolysis and cellular macromolecular complex assembly that may be related to virus replication, assembly and movement were up-regulated. Some genes involved in oxidative stress responses were also up-regulated at 14 dpi. BSMV ND18 mutant infection suppressed expression of genes functioning in regulation of transcription, protein kinase, cellular nitrogen compound biosynthetic process and photosynthesis. Differential expression patterns between compatible and incompatible interactions in Bd3-1 to the two BSMV strains provide important clues for understanding mechanism of resistance to BMSV in the model plant Brachypodium.
Kouzai, Yusuke; Kimura, Mamiko; Yamanaka, Yurie; Watanabe, Megumi; Matsui, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Onda, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Keiichi; Noutoshi, Yoshiteru
Brachypodium distachyon is a promising model plants for grasses. Infections of Brachypodium by various pathogens that severely impair crop production have been reported, and the species accordingly provides an alternative platform for investigating molecular mechanisms of pathogen virulence and plant disease resistance. To date, we have a broad picture of plant immunity only in Arabidopsis and rice; therefore, Brachypodium may constitute a counterpart that displays the commonality and uniqueness of defence systems among plant species. Phytohormones play key roles in plant biotic stress responses, and hormone-responsive genes are used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate disease resistance responses during pathogen infection. For these purposes, defence-related phytohormone marker genes expressed at time points suitable for defence-response monitoring are needed. Information about their expression profiles over time as well as their response specificity is also helpful. However, useful marker genes are still rare in Brachypodium. We selected 34 candidates for Brachypodium marker genes on the basis of protein-sequence similarity to known marker genes used in Arabidopsis and rice. Brachypodium plants were treated with the defence-related phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene, and their transcription levels were measured 24 and 48 h after treatment. Two genes for salicylic acid, 7 for jasmonic acid and 2 for ethylene were significantly induced at either or both time points. We then focused on 11 genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) 1 protein and compared their expression patterns with those of Arabidopsis and rice. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Brachypodium contains several PR1-family genes similar to rice genes. Our expression profiling revealed that regulation patterns of some PR1 genes as well as of markers identified for defence-related phytohormones are closely related to those in rice. We propose that the Brachypodium immune
Cristen B. Chafin
Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by the deposition of immune complexes due to widespread loss of immune tolerance to nuclear self-antigens. Deposition in the renal glomeruli results in the development of lupus nephritis (LN, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE. In addition to the well-recognized genetic susceptibility to SLE, disease pathogenesis is influenced by epigenetic regulators such as microRNAs (miRNAs. miRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that bind to the 3′ untranslated region of target mRNAs resulting in posttranscriptional gene modulation. miRNAs play an important and dynamic role in the activation of innate immune cells and are critical in regulating the adaptive immune response. Immune stimulation and the resulting cytokine milieu alter miRNA expression while miRNAs themselves modify cellular responses to stimulation. Here we examine dysregulated miRNAs implicated in LN pathogenesis from human SLE patients and murine lupus models. The effects of LN-associated miRNAs in the kidney, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, macrophages, mesangial cells, dendritic cells, and splenocytes are discussed. As the role of miRNAs in immunopathogenesis becomes delineated, it is likely that specific miRNAs may serve as targets for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of LN and other pathologies.
Robinson, Victoria L
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a large class of functional molecules with over 100 unique classes described to date. ncRNAs are diverse in terms of their function and size. A relatively new class of small ncRNA, called microRNAs (miRNA), have received a great deal of attention in the literature in recent years. miRNAs are endogenously encoded gene families that demonstrate striking evolutionary conservation. miRNAs serve essential and diverse physiological functions such as differentiation and development, proliferation, maintaining cell type phenotypes, and many others. The discovery and ongoing investigation of miRNAs is part of a revolution in biology that is changing the basic concepts of gene expression and RNA functionality. A single miRNA can participate in controlling the expression of up to several hundred protein-coding genes by interacting with mRNAs, generally in 3' untranslated regions. Our new and developing understanding of miRNAs, and other ncRNAs, promises to lead to significant contributions to medicine. Specifically, miRNAs are likely to serve as the basis for novel therapies and diagnostic tools.
Galli, Vanessa; Guzman, Frank; de Oliveira, Luiz F. V.; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Körbes, Ana P.; Silva, Sérgio D. A.; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia M. A. N.; Margis, Rogério
MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, are endogenously encoded small RNAs that play a key role in diverse plant biological processes. Jatropha curcas L. has received significant attention as a potential oilseed crop for the production of renewable oil. Here, a sRNA library of mature seeds and three mRNA libraries from three different seed development stages were generated by deep sequencing to identify and characterize the miRNAs and pre-miRNAs of J. curcas. Computational analysis was used for the identification of 180 conserved miRNAs and 41 precursors (pre-miRNAs) as well as 16 novel pre-miRNAs. The predicted miRNA target genes are involved in a broad range of physiological functions, including cellular structure, nuclear function, translation, transport, hormone synthesis, defense, and lipid metabolism. Some pre-miRNA and miRNA targets vary in abundance between the three stages of seed development. A search for sequences that produce siRNA was performed, and the results indicated that J. curcas siRNAs play a role in nuclear functions, transport, catalytic processes and disease resistance. This study presents the first large scale identification of J. curcas miRNAs and their targets in mature seeds based on deep sequencing, and it contributes to a functional understanding of these miRNAs. PMID:24551031
Arroyo, Jason D.; Gallichotte, Emily N.; Tewari, Muneesh
Unlike short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which are commonly designed to repress a single messenger RNA (mRNA) target through perfect base pairing, microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that have evolved to concurrently repress multiple mRNA targets through imperfect complementarity. MicroRNA target recognition is primarily determined by pairing of the miRNA seed sequence (nucleotides 2–8) to complementary match sites in each mRNA target. Whereas siRNA technology is well established for single target knockdown, the design of artificial miRNAs for multi-target repression is largely unexplored. We designed and functionally analysed over 200 artificial miRNAs for simultaneous repression of pyruvate carboxylase and glutaminase by selecting all seed matches shared by their 3′ untranslated regions. Although we identified multiple miRNAs that repressed endogenous protein expression of both genes, seed-based artificial miRNA design was highly inefficient, as the majority of miRNAs with even perfect seed matches did not repress either target. Moreover, commonly used target prediction programs did not substantially discriminate effective artificial miRNAs from ineffective ones, indicating that current algorithms do not fully capture the features important for artificial miRNA targeting and are not yet sufficient for designing artificial miRNAs. Our analysis suggests that additional factors are strong determinants of the efficacy of miRNA-mediated target repression and remain to be discovered. PMID:24598260
Yan, Naihong; Lu, Yilu; Sun, Huaqin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that have been identified as potent regulators of gene expression. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are involved in mammalian spermatogenesis but the mechanism of regulation is largely unknown.......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that have been identified as potent regulators of gene expression. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are involved in mammalian spermatogenesis but the mechanism of regulation is largely unknown....
Takahashi, Ryou-u [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hiroaki [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Showa University School of Dentistry, 1-5-8 Hatanodai Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Ochiya, Takahiro, E-mail: email@example.com [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and that aberrant expression levels of miRNAs are associated with the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In various cancers, miRNAs play important roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis. Recent studies reported that miRNAs could also be secreted via small endosome-derived vesicles called exosomes, which are derived from multiple cell types, including dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and tumor cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and have been investigated as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the major findings related to the functions of miRNAs in breast cancer, which is the most frequent cancer in women, and discuss the potential clinical uses of miRNAs, including their roles as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers.
Wang, Chun Ming; Liu, Peng; Sun, Fei; Li, Lei; Liu, Peng; Ye, Jian; Yue, Gen Hua
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play crucial regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for silencing. To identify miRNAs in Jatropha curcas L, a bioenergy crop, cDNA clones from two small RNA libraries of leaves and seeds were sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatic tools. Fifty-two putative miRNAs were found from the two libraries, among them six were identical to known miRNAs and 46 were novel. Differential expression patterns of 15 miRNAs in root, stem, leave, fruit and seed were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Ten miRNAs were highly expressed in fruit or seed, implying that they may be involved in seed development or fatty acids synthesis in seed. Moreover, 28 targets of the isolated miRNAs were predicted from a jatropha cDNA library database. The miRNA target genes were predicted to encode a broad range of proteins. Sixteen targets had clear BLASTX hits to the Uniprot database and were associated with genes belonging to the three major gene ontology categories of biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. Four targets were identified for JcumiR004. By silencing JcumiR004 primary miRNA, expressions of the four target genes were up-regulated and oil composition were modulated significantly, indicating diverse functions of JcumiR004. PMID:22419887
Full Text Available Abstract Background Small endogenous non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs such as small interfering RNA (siRNA, microRNA and other small RNA transcripts are derived from distinct loci in the genome and play critical roles in RNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms in plants and metazoa. They are approximately 22 nucleotides long; regulate mRNA stability through perfect or imperfect match to the targets. The biological activities of sncRNAs have been related to many biological events, from resistance to microbe infections to cellular differentiation. The development of the zoonotic parasite Schistosoma japonicum parasite includes multiple steps of morphological alterations and biological differentiations, which provide a unique model for studies on the functions of small RNAs. Characterization of the genome-wide transcription of the sncRNAs will be a major step in understanding of the parasite biology. The objective of this study is to investigate the transcriptional profile and potential function of the small non-coding RNAs in the development of S. japanicum. Results The endogenous siRNAs were found mainly derived from transposable elements (TE or transposons and the natural antisense transcripts (NAT. In contrast to other organisms, the TE-derived siRNAs in S. japonicum were more predominant than other sncRNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs. Further, there were distinct length and 3'end variations in the sncRNAs, which were associated with the developmental differentiation of the parasite. Among the identified miRNA transcripts, there were 38 unique to S. japonicum and 16 that belonged to 13 miRNA families are common to other metazoan lineages. These miRNAs were either ubiquitously expressed, or they exhibited specific expression patterns related to the developmental stages or sex. Genes that encoded miRNAs are mainly located in clusters within the genome of S. japonicum. However, genes within one cluster could be differentially transcribed, which suggested
Full Text Available MiRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs are key players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. HIV-1 derived small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs have been described in HIV-1 infected cells, but their biological functions still remain to be elucidated. Here, we approached the question whether viral sncRNAs may play a role in the RNA interference (RNAi pathway or whether viral mRNAs are targeted by cellular miRNAs in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM.The incorporation of viral sncRNAs and/or their target RNAs into RNA-induced silencing complex was investigated using photoactivatable ribonucleoside-induced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP as well as high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP, which capture Argonaute2-bound miRNAs and their target RNAs. HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were chosen as target cells, as they have previously been shown to express HIV-1 sncRNAs. In addition, we applied small RNA deep sequencing to study differential cellular miRNA expression in HIV-1 infected versus non-infected MDMs.PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP data demonstrated the absence of HIV-1 RNAs in Ago2-RISC, although the presence of a multitude of HIV-1 sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected MDMs was confirmed by small RNA sequencing. Small RNA sequencing revealed that 1.4% of all sncRNAs were of HIV-1 origin. However, neither HIV-1 derived sncRNAs nor putative HIV-1 target sequences incorporated into Ago2-RISC were identified suggesting that HIV-1 sncRNAs are not involved in the canonical RNAi pathway nor is HIV-1 targeted by this pathway in HIV-1 infected macrophages.
Full Text Available In plants, small RNAs (sRNAs usually refer to non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs with lengths of 20–24 nucleotides. sRNAs are involved in the regulation of many essential processes related to plant development and environmental responses. sRNAs in plants are mainly grouped into microRNAs (miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, and the latter can be further classified into trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs, repeat-associated siRNAs (ra-siRNAs, natural anti-sense siRNAs (nat-siRNAs, etc. Many sRNAs exhibit a clustered distribution pattern in the genome. Here, we summarize the features and functions of cluster-distributed sRNAs, aimed to not only provide a thorough picture of sRNA clusters (SRCs in plants, but also shed light on the identification of new classes of functional sRNAs.
Shiu, Philip K; Zhuang, Jimmy J; Hunter, Craig P
Ever since the discovery of the first microRNAs in C. elegans, increasing numbers of endogenous small RNAs have been discovered. Endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) have emerged in the last few years as a largely independent class of small RNAs that regulate endogenous gene expression, with mechanisms distinct from those of piRNAs and miRNAs. Quantification of these small RNAs and their effect on target RNAs is a powerful tool for the analysis of RNAi; however, detection of small RNAs can be difficult due to their small size and relatively low abundance. Here, we describe the novel FirePlex assay for directly detecting endo-siRNA levels in bulk, as well as an optimized qPCR method for detecting the effect of endo-siRNAs on gene targets. Intriguingly, the loss of endo-siRNAs frequently results in enhanced experimental RNAi. Thus, we also present an optimized method to assess the indirect impact of endo-siRNAs on experimental RNAi efficiency.
Chang, Chi-Chih (Clare); Chen, Li; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard
both miRNAs that have been reported previously and many novel miRNAs with potent osteogenic capabilities. For tissue engineering applications, we then functionalized scaffolds with the miRNAs we identified and observed an increase in osteogenic capabilities in our 3D cultures. Our findings depicted...... to produce a functional graft in vitro as an alternative to allografts and autografts. We explored the microRNAs (miRNAs) that aid in the bone formation process. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs of about 17-22 nucleotides in length that target the 3’UTR of mRNAs and represses their expression. MiRNAs have...... been found to facilitate many processes in the body including development, metabolism, and are implicated in many diseases. Many miRNAs have been identified with roles in osteogenesis, however a large systematic view at miRNA expression throughout osteogenesis that includes early, intermediate and late...
Guo, Hui; Lu, Zhi-Cheng; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Zhu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Cheng-Gui; Shen, Yu-Chun; Wang, Wei
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate diverse cellular processes, including organismal stress response, through posttranscriptional repression of gene transcripts. They are known to have antiviral functions in aquatic crustacean species, but little is known about the role of miRNAs against environmental stress caused by Cu, a common chemical contaminant in aquatic environment. We performed small RNA sequencing to characterize the differentially expressed microRNAs in Cu exposed shrimp. A total of 4524 known miRNAs and 73 novel miRNAs were significantly (P vannamei miRNAs and some target genes expression in response to Cu stress, and the findings support the hypothesis that certain miRNAs along with their target genes might be essential in the intricate adaptive response regulation networks. Our current study will provide valuable information to take an insight into molecular mechanism of L. vannamei against environmental stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The ND18 strain of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV infects several lines of Brachypodium distachyon, a recently developed model system for genomics research in cereals. Among the inbred lines tested, Bd3-1 is highly resistant at 20 to 25 °C, whereas Bd21 is susceptible and infection results in an intense mosaic phenotype accompanied by high levels of replicating virus. We generated an F(6:7 recombinant inbred line (RIL population from a cross between Bd3-1 and Bd21 and used the RILs, and an F(2 population of a second Bd21 × Bd3-1 cross to evaluate the inheritance of resistance. The results indicate that resistance segregates as expected for a single dominant gene, which we have designated Barley stripe mosaic virus resistance 1 (Bsr1. We constructed a genetic linkage map of the RIL population using SNP markers to map this gene to within 705 Kb of the distal end of the top of chromosome 3. Additional CAPS and Indel markers were used to fine map Bsr1 to a 23 Kb interval containing five putative genes. Our study demonstrates the power of using RILs to rapidly map the genetic determinants of BSMV resistance in Brachypodium. Moreover, the RILs and their associated genetic map, when combined with the complete genomic sequence of Brachypodium, provide new resources for genetic analyses of many o