WorldWideScience

Sample records for brachiopods argyrotheca cordata

  1. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    and micromorphological data to this debate, we investigated muscle formation in larvae of the brooding articulate brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata using immunocytochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Full grown larvae are three-lobed and show two pairs of bristle bundles. During larval development...

  2. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    and micromorphological data to this debate, we investigated muscle formation in larvae of the brooding articulate brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata using immunocytochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Full grown larvae are three-lobed and show two pairs of bristle bundles. During larval development...

  3. Comparative larval myogenesis and adult myoanatomy of the rhynchonelliform (articulate) brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    transversa using fluorescence F-actin labelling combined with confocal laserscanning microscopy. RESULTS: Fully grown larvae of A. cordata and T. transversa consist of three distinct body regions, namely an apical lobe, a mantle lobe with four bundles of setae, and a pedicle lobe. Myogenesis is very similar...... in these two species. The first anlagen of the musculature develop in the pedicle lobe, followed by setae muscles and the mantle lobe musculature. Late-stage larvae show a network of strong pedicle muscles, central mantle muscles, longitudinal muscles running from the mantle to the pedicle lobe, setae pouch...... muscles, setae muscles, a U-shaped muscle, serial mantle muscles, and apical longitudinal as well as apical transversal muscles. Fully developed A. cistellula larvae differ from the former species in that they have only two visible body lobes and lack setae. Nevertheless, we found corresponding muscle...

  4. GUADALUPIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM WESTERN TAURUS, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINCENZO VERNA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available  Here we describe 41 brachiopod species belonging to the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida, Spiriferinida, and Terebratulida coming from the Guadalupian lower-middle part of the Pamuçak Formation at Çürük Dað, Antalya (Western Taurus, Turkey. Associated conodonts are also reported and illustrated. The brachiopod taxa are either pedicle attached genera, with one genus also stabilized by penetration of its elongate umbo, or free living concavo-convex semi-infaunal genera; this indicates that the energy of the environment was never very high, as in settings just below the fair weather wave-base or in a back-reef, more protected inner platform. The brachiopods from the Pamuçak Formation are very similar to the Wordian fauna of southeastern Oman, and they are similar to the Guadalupian assemblages of Chios, North Iran, South Thailand, and Salt Range. In comparison they share only a few taxa with the Guadalupian faunas of Central Afghanistan and Karakorum. Therefore the biotic affinity of the Guadalupian brachiopods of the Pamuçak Formation is clearly peri-Gondwanan. The brachiopod record at Çürük Dað has implications for understanding the pattern of the end-Guadalupian (pre-Lopingian biotic crisis. The pre-Lopingian crisis assemblages are quite diverse and nearly totally consist of Guadalupian genera and species except for a single Lopingian incomer. Their stratigraphic range terminates rather abruptly and the following 120 metres of shallow water limestones are barren of brachiopods, after which there is the first occurrence of Lopingian brachiopod taxa, which show a much lower biodiversity.  This pattern is different from that observed in South China and it shows that the end-Guadalupian crisis is not only characterized by taxonomic selectivity, but also by a strong local control on the extinction/recovery pattern of some groups. 

  5. LATE CARBONIFEROUS BRACHIOPODS FROM KARAKORUM, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA ANGIOLINI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Carboniferous rocks from North Karakorum display sharp lateral variations in lithology and thickness suggesting accumulation in half-grabens during continental rifting between the Karakorum block and northern Gondwana. Different Carboniferous successions, belonging to distinct tectonic units, have been detected. Thin, poorly fossiliferous successions of arenites and crinoidal limestones contrast with very thick terrigenous-carbonate successions comprising two distinct fossiliferous horizons. The lower fossiliferous horizon yielded brachiopods (Pustula sp., Rhipidomella sp., Choristites sp., Martiniopsis sp., Afghanospirifer sp., Gypospirifer sp., Composita sp. of Bashkirian age. The upper fossiliferous horizon, lying about 90 m above the former, contains corals, crinoids and brachiopods (Densepustula cf. losarensis, Dowhatania sulcata n. sp., Brachythyris sp., Rhipidomella sp., Septacamera dowhatensis, Alispirifer middlemissi of Moscovian to Kasimovian age. The Carboniferous brachiopods of North Karakorum are similar to those collected in the Late Carboniferous of Central Afghanistan, Himalaya (Manang, Spiti, Tibet, and Lhasa Block (Xainza area. 

  6. Brachiopods recording environmental conditions and biomineralisation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Maggie; MacDonald, John M.; Fitzer, Susan C.; John, Cedric M.

    2016-04-01

    For around 550 million years, organisms have been exerting biological control on biomineral formation, generating elegant functional biomineral structures from basic components such as calcium phosphate in the case of vertebrate skeletons; silica or calcium carbonate in invertebrate shells and corals. In the marine realm, environmental information on the world's oceans is entrapped within the composition of calcium carbonate biomineral structures such as the shells of molluscs or brachiopods. Here, conventional stable and clumped isotopes of calcium carbonate of brachiopod shells are explored in the context of biological control. The aim is to ensure the correct interpretation of environmental data and to consider the possibility of extracting information on the mechanisms of biomineralisation processes from the data stored in the fossil record.

  7. Oxygen equilibrium of brachiopod Lingula hemerythrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANWELL, C

    1960-08-26

    In contrast to hemerythrin from five different species of sipunculid worms, ecardine brachiopod Lingula hemerythrin has an oxygen equilibrium which is reversibly altered by pH changes, both the oxygen affinity (Bohr effect) and the interactions between oxygen-binding centers being a function of pH. The significance of these phenomena is discussed in view of the phylogenetic distribution of hemerythrin and the function of respiratory pigments.

  8. Utilizing next generation sequencing to characterize microsatellite loci in a tropical aquatic plant species Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata (Araceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosazlina, Rusly; Jacobsen, Niels; Ørgaard, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata (2n = 34) is an aquatic plant species distributed from the southern part of Peninsular Thailand through the Malay Peninsula. It propagates both sexually and asexually via stolons. The current study is aimed at developing nuclear microsatellite markers...

  9. PERMIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM KARAKORUM (PAKISTAN PART. 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA ANGIOLINI

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Wordian (Guadalupian brachiopods from Member 2 of the Panjshah Formation in the Karakorum (N Pakistan are described. The brachiopod assemblage, dated by the associated fusulinids and conodonts, consists of 29 genera (3 of which are questionable and 1 unidentifiable of the orders Productida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida and Terebratulida. Hunzininae, a new subfamily of the Spiriferellidae is proposed; it includes Darbandia n. gen., with type species D. vagabunda n. sp. and Elivina chapursani n. sp. A third new species is assigned to the genus Anchorhynchia of the family Wellerellidae: A. cimmerica n. sp.A quantitative biostratigraphic analysis demonstrates two major faunal changes in the Elivina chapursani- Chapursania tatianae Assemblage Zone of the upper part of Member 2, which are not strictly linked to lithological changes. This biozone is correlated with the brachiopod faunas of the Gnishik Formation of Armenia and those of the basal Takhtabulak Formation of SE Pamir.The faunal elements of the Elivina chapursani- Chapursania tatianae Assemblage Zone are an admixture of wide-ranging, Tethyan (particularly abundant, Gondwanan and endemic (Cimmerian genera, representing a transitional fauna and a biostratigraphic tool for intercontinental correlation, which are particularly problematic in this time interval. The Panjshah transitional fauna demonstrates the persistence of the Transhimalayan Province of the Cimmerian Region into the late Guadalupian, which originated at the end of the Cisuralian and occupied Armenia, Central Afghanistan, Karakorum and SE Pamir. It provides also some insights into the biodiversity pattern before the mass extinction at the end of the Guadalupian, and suggests that this event was as rapid as the end- Permian mass extinction, at least in Central Asia. 

  10. Mechanism on bipolar distribution of Permian brachiopods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengwen WANG; Songmei ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    By reasearch on geographic distribution, nine genera in bipolar distribution are selected from Permian brachiopods. These taxa originated from middle-high latitude areas in the boreal realm, of which five genera were derived from Late Carboniferous, and other four genera originated from Permian. They were all in bipolar distribution during some different stages in Permian. Specific diversity for each genus was high in the boreal realm, whereas in the Gondwana realm was very low. Perdurability was long in the boreal realm, and short in the Gondwana realm. It was the time when these nine genera came to their maximum diversity that these genera appeared in the Gondwana and formed bipolar distribution; while they also migrated to the low latitude from high latitude. This shows very close relationship between several main cooling events in Permian and the migration of genera from the boreal realm to the Gondwana realm through the Tethys. Therefore, the cooling events might be the main drive which caused these cold-water-type brachiopods migrated to the Gondwana realm and being bipolar distribution. In this process, the planula tolerance to warm water would be another important factor.

  11. MIDDLE TRIASSIC BRACHIOPODS FROM VAL PARINA, BERGAMASC ALPS, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA TORTI

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Triassic Esino Limestone of Val Parina yields a rich brachiopod fauna associated with bivalves, gastropods, corals, and ammonoids. The brachiopod fauna of the Esino Limestone includes ubiquitous species (P. fragilis, A. aff. posterior, M. mentzeli, D. cf. dinarica, L. praepunctata and A. angustaeformis, species exclusive to the back reef (T. cf. intervallata, A. aff. ladina and A. aff. raxana and species exclusive to the shelf margin (C. aff. altaplecta, V. vivida, A. aff. dilatata, H. aff. ambitiosa, T. trigonella, M. ampla, A. aff. canaliculata. The age of the Val Parina brachiopods spans from latest Anisian to Late Ladinian.  

  12. Phylogenetic paleobiogeography of Late Ordovician Laurentian brachiopods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Bauer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis of four brachiopod genera was used to uncover large-scale geologic drivers of Late Ordovician biogeographic differentiation in Laurentia. Previously generated phylogenetic hypotheses were converted into area cladograms, ancestral geographic ranges were optimized and speciation events characterized as via dispersal or vicariance, when possible. Area relationships were reconstructed using Lieberman-modified Brooks Parsimony Analysis. The resulting area cladograms indicate tectonic and oceanographic changes were the primary geologic drivers of biogeographic patterns within the focal taxa. The Taconic tectophase contributed to the separation of the Appalachian and Central basins as well as the two midcontinent basins, whereas sea level rise following the Boda Event promoted interbasinal dispersal. Three migration pathways into the Cincinnati Basin were recognized, which supports the multiple pathway hypothesis for the Richmondian Invasion.

  13. Ordovician rafinesquinine brachiopods from peri-Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Colmenar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the strophomenide brachiopods of the subfamily Rafinesquininae present in the main Upper Ordovician sections, representing the Mediterranean margin of Gondwana, has revealed an increase in diversity of the group at the region during that time. The studied collections are from the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, the Iberian and the Armorican massifs, the Iberian Chains, Pyrenees, Montagne Noire, Sardinia, and Bohemia. Two genera of the subfamily Rafinesquininae have been recorded. Of them, the cosmopolitan Rafinesquina is the only one previously reported from the region and Kjaerina is found for the first time outside Avalonia, Baltica, and Laurentia. Additionally, two new subgenera have been described, Kjaerina (Villasina and Rafinesquina (Mesogeina. Furthermore, the new species Rafinesquina (Mesogeina gabianensis, Rafinesquina (Mesogeina loredensis, Kjaerina (Kjaerina gondwanensis, Kjaerina (Villasina pedronaensis, Kjaerina (Villasina pyrenaica, and Kjaerina (Villasina meloui have been described. In addition, other species of these genera previously known from isolated localities in the region, such as Rafinesquina pseudoloricata, Rafinesquina pomoides, and Hedstroemina almadenensis are revised and their geographic range expanded. The adaptive radiation experienced by the rafinesquinines at the Mediterranean region during middle to late Katian, was probably related to changes in the regime of sedimentation and water temperature caused by the global warming Boda event.

  14. Devonian brachiopods of southwesternmost laurentia: Biogeographic affinities and tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucot, A.J.; Poole, F.G.; Amaya-Martinez, R.; Harris, A.G.; Sandberg, C.A.; Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three brachiopod faunas discussed herein record different depositional and tectonic settings along the southwestern margin of Laurentia (North America) during Devonian time. Depositional settings include inner continental shelf (Cerros de Los Murcielagos), medial continental shelf (Rancho Placeritos), and offshelf continental rise (Rancho Los Chinos). Ages of Devonian brachiopod faunas include middle Early (Pragian) at Rancho Placeritos in west-central Sonora, late Middle (Givetian) at Cerros de Los Murcielagos in northwestern Sonora, and late Late (Famennian) at Rancho Los Chinos in central Sonora. The brachiopods of these three faunas, as well as the gastropod Orecopia, are easily recognized in outcrop and thus are useful for local and regional correlations. Pragian brachiopods dominated by Acrospirifer and Meristella in the "San Miguel Formation" at Rancho Placeritos represent the widespread Appohimchi Subprovince of eastern and southern Laurentia. Conodonts of the early to middle Pragian sulcatus to kindlei Zones associated with the brachiopods confirm the ages indicated by the brachiopod fauna and provide additional information on the depositional setting of the Devonian strata. Biostratigraphic distribution of the Appohimchi brachiopod fauna indicates continuous Early Devonian shelf deposition along the entire southern margin of Laurentia. The largely emergent southwest-trending Transcontinental arch apparently formed a barrier preventing migration and mixing of many genera and species of brachiopods from the southern shelf of Laurentia in northern Mexico to the western shelf (Cordilleran mio-geocline) in the western United States. Middle Devonian Stringocephalus brachiopods and Late Devonian Orecopia gastropods in the "Los Murcielagos Formation" in northwest Sonora represent the southwest-ernmost occurrence of these genera in North America and date the host rocks as Givetian and Frasnian, respectively. Rhynchonelloid brachiopods (Dzieduszyckia sonora) and

  15. An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.-F.; Li, G.-X.; Holmer, L. E.; Brock, G. A.; Balthasar, U.; Skovsted, C. B.; Fu, D.-J.; Zhang, X.-L.; Wang, H.-Z.; Butler, A.; Zhang, Z.-L.; Cao, C.-Q.; Han, J.; Liu, J.-N.; Shu, D.-G.

    2014-05-01

    The morphological disparity of lophotrochozoan phyla makes it difficult to predict the morphology of the last common ancestor. Only fossils of stem groups can help discover the morphological transitions that occurred along the roots of these phyla. Here, we describe a tubular fossil Yuganotheca elegans gen. et sp. nov. from the Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China) that exhibits an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid (Cambrian problematica) characters, notably a pair of agglutinated valves, enclosing a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, supported by a lower bipartite tubular attachment structure with a long pedicle with coelomic space. The terminal bulb of the pedicle provided anchorage in soft sediment. The discovery has important implications for the early evolution of lophotrochozoans, suggesting rooting of brachiopods into the sessile lophotrochozoans and the origination of their bivalved bauplan preceding the biomineralization of shell valves in crown brachiopods.

  16. Early-Mid Ordovician brachiopod diversification in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Renbin; RONG Jiayu; CHENG Jinhui; CHEN Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    Affected by paleogeographic position, paleoclimatic condition and depositional environments, the increase of the Early-Mid Ordovician brachiopod diversity of South China commenced at the beginning of the Ordovician (early Tremadoc), accelerated from the Tetragraptus approximatus Biozone (base of Arenig), and reached its first acme in the Didymograptus eobifidus Biozone (mid early Arenig) when the number of brachiopod genera was over 7 times as great as that at the start of the Ordovician. This was the first radiation in the history of brachiopod macroevolution in South China, which occurred nearly 5 graptolitic biozones earlier than the global trend of the great Ordovician biodiversification (in the lower part of the Undulograptus austrodentatus Biozone). It is also characterized by (1) the origination or first occurrences of some major groups, such as the punctate dalmanelloids and the pseudopunctate strophomenoids including Plectambonitoidea (cardinal process simple or absent) and Strophomenoidea (cardinal process bilobed) in South China; (2) niche expansion, particularly in the first occupation of deeper water benthic regimes by the Euorthisina-Nocturnellia Association developed at Houping, Chengkou, northern Chongqing; and (3) the differentiation of brachiopod faunas under different environmental conditions. The gradual and increasing separation from Gondwana may have been one of the factors responsible for the radiation in South China.

  17. Devonian brachiopods from the sillimanite zone, mount moosilauke, new hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucot, A J; Rumble, D

    1978-07-28

    Devonian brachiopods, identifiable at the generic level, have been recovered from calc-silicate rocks more intensely metamorphosed and metasomatized than any other known fossil occurrence. The fossils are a key stratigraphic link between granulite facies rocks of central New Hampshire and fossiliferous rocks of western New Hampshire and Maine.

  18. [Protoplasts isolation, purification and plant regeneration of Pinellia cordata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian; Ma, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Chen, Ni-Pi; Ding, Bin; Jin, Li-Xia; Qian, Chao-Dong; Ding, Zhi-Shan

    2014-11-01

    The main factors which affected the isolation, purification and cultivation of Pinellia cordata protoplasts from leaves were studied. The results indicated that the optimum enzyme solution for P. cordata leaves was 13% CPW + 1.0% Cellulose +0.1% Pectolase, at pH 6.0, temperature (25-28 degrees C ) for 4 h. The sucrose density gradient centrifugation was adopted to purificate the protoplasts collected, when 25% sucrose was used as mediator, centrifugating at 500 rpm for 10 min. When the protoplasts were shallow liquid and liquid-solid double layer cultured on the medium of MS + 0.5 mg x L(-1) 6-BA + 0.25 mg x L(-1) NAA + 13% mannitol at the density of 2.5 x 104 protoplasts/mL, or fed and nursed cultured at the density of 100-500 protoplasts/mL, cell division could be observed for 3 days; granular calli appeared for 30 days. Calli was proliferated on the medium of MS + 0.5 mg x L(-1) 6-BA + 0.25 mg x L(-1) NAA solidified by 0.55% agar, and differentiated and regenerated after 5-6 months. Plant generation of P. cordata is successfully established.

  19. The Bivalve Yangtzedonta is not the Brachiopod Xianfengella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wen

    2005-01-01

    The alleged "holotype" of the bivalve Yangtzedontaprimitiva Yu, 1985 figured by Qian (2001) is a broken and distorted specimen of the brachiopod Xianfengella prima He and Yang, 1982 and not the holotype of Y. primitiva. Qian contends that the oldest recognized monoplacophoran, Maikhanella pristinis (Jiang, 1980), is neither a monoplacophoran nor the oldest molluscan fossil in the Meishucunian Stage of China. Furthermore, he considers that the oldest bivalve Xianfengoconcha elliptica Zhang, 1980 is an inarticulate brachiopod, not a mollusc. Watsonella yunnanensis (He and Yang, 1982), is associated with Yangtzedonta primitiva Yu but indicates no evolutionary relationship between the Classes Rostroconchia and Bivalvia in the Lower Cambrian Zhongyicun Member of the Yuhucun Formation. Qian's confusion in using non-molluscan fossils to discuss the early evolution of shelled molluscs also confuses the basic concepts of the respective groups.

  20. Permian brachiopods from new localities in northeast Thailand: Implications for paleobiogeographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Chonglakmani, Chongpan; Chitnarin, Anisong

    2007-05-01

    A small Permian brachiopod fauna is described from new localities in northeastern Thailand. Brachiopods were collected from early Permian (Asselian) limestones of the Nam Maholan Formation and middle Permian (Murgabian) sandstones of the Nam Duk Formation and limestones of the Khao Khwang Formation. Analyses of taxa confirm preliminary hypotheses of Cathaysian affinities for brachiopods and fusulinids found in this part of Thailand. Fossils found in sandstones of the Nam Duk molasse facies, however, also show possible Gondwanan relationships with brachiopod taxa described in Australia. This has to be further tested with ongoing research in a better understanding of the paleobiogeography of this part of Southeast Asia.

  1. Pediculate Brachiopod Diandongia pista from the Lower Cambrian of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhifei; HAN Jian; ZHANG Xingliang; LIU Jianni; SHU Degan

    2003-01-01

    The Chengjiang Lagerstatte has been celebrated for prolific soft-bodied fossils. Based on specimens recentlyexcavated in the Chengjiang Lagerstatte by the Early Life Institute, Northwest University, Diandongiapista Rong, 1974, isdirectly revealed to be a pediculate brachiopod, assigned to the Family Botsfordiidae, as is further confirmed by theexceptionally preserved vascular system including dorsal and ventral mantle canals. These specimens described hereinexhibit some peculiarities, notably the extremely thin and long pedicles, which suggest that Diandongia is epifaunal ratherthan burrowing brachiopod. A study of this group of animals indicates that they may be vital to understand the relationshipbetween the lingulids and the remaining brachiopods, and the character evolution of the early Cambrian brachiopods.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Articulate Brachiopod Terebratal ia transversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-07-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. The circular genome is 14,291 bp in size, relatively small compared to other published metazoan mtDNAs. The 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNA are present; the size decrease is due to the truncation of several tRNA, rRNA, and protein genes, to some nucleotide overlaps, and to a paucity of non-coding nucleotides. Although the gene arrangement differs radically from those reported for other metazoans, some gene junctions are shared with two other articulate brachiopods, Laqueus rubellus and Terebratulina retusa. All genes in the T. transversa mtDNA, unlike those in most metazoan mtDNAs reported, are encoded by the same strand. The A+T content (59.1 percent) is low for a metazoan mtDNA, and there is a high propensity for homopolymer runs and a strong base-compositional strand bias. The coding strand is quite G+T-rich, a skew that is shared by the confamilial (laqueid) specie s L. rubellus, but opposite to that found in T. retusa, a cancellothyridid. These compositional skews are strongly reflected in the codon usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins, with markedly different usage observed between T. retusa and the two laqueids. This observation, plus the similarity of the laqueid non-coding regions to the reverse complement of the non-coding region of the cancellothyridid, suggest that an inversion that resulted in a reversal in the direction of first-strand replication has occurred in one of the two lineages. In addition to the presence of one non-coding region in T. transversa that is comparable to those in the other brachiopod mtDNAs, there are two others with the potential to form secondary structures; one or both of these may be involved in the process of transcript cleavage.

  3. BRACHIOPODS FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC REEF HABITATS OF THE NORTHERN CALCAREOUS ALPS (DACHSTEIN LIMESTONE, HOCHSCHWAB, AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOS SIBLÍK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper Triassic brachiopods from 2 localities in the reef Dachstein Limestone of the SE Hochschwab massif in Styria, Austria are systematically described and illustrated. About 900 variably preserved specimens belong to 28 species, representing thus the most diverse brachiopod fauna known from the North Alpine Dachstein Limestone. This indicates that brachiopods were common inhabitants of reef habitats during the Alpine Norian. Oxycolpella, Sinucosta and Aulacothyropsis are dominant. Seven brachiopod species are known from the Kössen Formation (Rhaetian. Adygella biplicata (Dagys and Ladinian Hungarispira loretzi (Bittner are the newcomers in the Nordalpine Dachstein Limestone. In addition to brachiopods, only some fragments of bivalves were found. Conodonts of the species Epigondolella triangularis (Budurov 1972 indicate the Early Norian age.

  4. Changhsingian sea level changes and brachiopod diversity in the upper Yangtze region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sedimentary environment and distribution of brachiopods during the Changhsingian in Xingwen, Si-chuan Province of the upper Yangtze region, are statistically analyzed. Changing regularity in diversity of brachiopod is synthetically investigated based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of transgres-sion-regression cycles. The results show that the diversity of brachiopods in this region in the trans-gression (aggradation) sequence is higher than that in the regression (progradation) sequence. The brachiopods in this area began to diversify in the early Changhsingian. And the species diversity had four peak stages which are respectively in the middle Early Changhsingian, late Early Changhsingian, early Late Changhsingian and late Late Changhsingian. The species diversity reached its highest in the late Late Changhsingian but this is followed by a sharp decrease at the end-hanghsingian, indicating the mass extinction of most brachiopod species which were prosperous in the Late Paleozoic.

  5. Changhsingian sea level changes and brachiopod diversity in the upper Yangtze region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yong; LIU Mei; WANG ZhanLei; CHEN Wei

    2007-01-01

    Sedimentary environment and distribution of brachiopods during the Changhsingian in Xingwen,Sichuan Province of the upper Yangtze region,are statistically analyzed.Changing regularity in diversity of brachiopod is synthetically investigated based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of transgression-regression cycles.The results show that the diversity of brachiopods in this region in the transgression (aggradation) sequence is higher than that in the regression (progradation) sequence.The brachiopods in this area began to diversify in the early Changhsingian.And the species diversity had four peak stages which are respectively in the middle Early Changhsingian,late Early Changhsingian,early Late Changhsingian and late Late Changhsingian.The species diversity reached its highest in the late Late Changhsingian but this is followed by a sharp decrease at the end-hanghsingian,indicating the mass extinction of most brachiopod species which were prosperous in the Late Paleozoic.

  6. Isotopic and elemental proxies in mollusc and brachiopod calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    This thesis summarizes the findings of studies conducted at the University of Copenhagen from September 2010 to September 2013, aiming at a better understanding of the geochemical signatures in marine, biogenic calcite. Throughout the history of the Earth, the climatic conditions and the chemical...... for a meaningful interpretation of isotopic and elemental ratios in shell materials. Without this knowledge the correct interpretation of the shell composition in terms of past environments is impossible. Calcite shells of brachiopods, bivalves and belemnites were analyzed here for shell ultra...

  7. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties.

  8. [Correlation analysis of nutrients and microorganisms in soils with polyphenols and total flavonoids of Houttuynia cordata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Luo, Shi-qiong; Yang, Zhan-nan; Ma, Jing; Hong, Liang

    2015-04-01

    The relationship of nutrients and microorganisms in soils with polyphenols and total flavonoids of Houttuynia cordata were investigated by measuring nutrients, enzyme activity, pH, concentrations of microbe phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils, and determining concentrations of polyphenols and total flavonoids of H. cordata. The research is aimed to understand characteristics of the planting soils and improve the quality of cultivated H. cordata. The soils at different sample sites varied greatly in nutrients, enzyme activity, pH, microbic PLFAs and polyphenols and all flavonoids. The content of total PLFAs in sample sites was following: bacteria > fungi > actinomyces > nematode. The content of bacteria PLFAs was 37.5%-65.0% at different sample sites. Activities of polyphenol oxidease, concentrations of available P and content of PLFAs of bacteria, actinomyces and total microorganisms in soils were significantly and positively related to the concentrations of polyphenols and total flavonoids of H. cordata, respectively (P total flavonoids of H. cordata, respectively (P flavonoids of H. cordata.

  9. Effects of frying oil and Houttuynia cordata thunb on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Yen Chen; Chiao-Ming Chen; Pi-Yu Chao; Tsan-Ju Chang; Jen-Fang Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of frying oil and Houttuynia cordata Thunb (H. cordata), a vegetable traditionally consumed in Taiwan, on the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of rodents.METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet containing 0%, 2% or 5% H. cordata powder and 15% fresh soybean oil or 24-h oxidized frying oil (OFO)for 28 d respectively. The level of microsomal protein, total cytochrome 450 content (CYP450) and enzyme activities including NADPH reductase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), aniline hydroxylase (ANH), aminopyrine demethylase (AMD), and quinone reductase (QR) were determined. QR represented phase Ⅱ enzymes, the rest of the enzymes tested represented phase Ⅰ enzymes.RESULTS: The oxidized frying oil feeding produced a significant increase in phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ enzyme systems,including the content of CYP450 and microsomal protein,and the activities of NADPH reductase, EROD, PROD, ANH,AMD and QR in rats (P<0.05). In addition, the activities of EROD, ANH and AMD decreased and QR increased after feeding with H. cordata in OFO-fed group (P<0.05). The feeding with 2% H. cordata diet showed the most significant effect.CONCLUSION: The OFO diet induces phases Ⅰ and Ⅱ enzyme activity, and the 2% H. cordata diet resulted in a better regulation of the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system.

  10. New Hirnantian orthide brachiopods from the type section of the Porkuni Stage (Porkuni quarry, northeastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Hints

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Four new Hirnantian species of orthide brachiopods, Sigmelasma peepi, Mendacella aerinensis, Drabovia? minuta and Tyronella siugensis are described from the type section of the Porkuni Regional Stage in the Porkuni quarry, northeastern Estonia. These species occur in the reef-related shallow-water bituminous limestone (Siuge Member of the Ärina Formation. Sigmelasma peepi and Tyronella siugensis represent the families Wangyuiidae and Tyronellidae, respectively, which were hitherto unknown in the Baltic Ordovician. Additionally, a harknessellid Reuschella sp. is described from the stromatoporoid-coral reefs (Tõrevere Member and skeletal grainstone (Vohilaid Member of the same locality and formation. Together these new finds extend our knowledge of the latest Ordovician brachiopod fauna in the Baltic region, showing higher than previously expected diversity of the Porkuni Stage and distinctness of reef-related brachiopods in the shallow shelf environment. The new species are not present in the Hirnantia brachiopod fauna in deeper-water environments of the Central East Baltic.

  11. Stegocornu and associated brachiopods from the Silurian (Llandovery of Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachik Hairapetian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A Llandovery (mid-upper Aeronian brachiopod fauna is described for the first time from the Niur Formation of Central Iran. It is dominated by two succeeding rhynchonellide species Stegocornu procerum Dürkoop, 1970 and Stegocornu denisae sp. nov. In addition, there are three common and four rarer brachiopod species, including Dalejina? rashidii sp. nov., Isorthis (Ovalella inflata sp. nov. and Striispirifer? ocissimus sp. nov. The Stegocornu Association gives a distinct biogeographic signature to the mid to late Llandovery rhynchonellide-dominated shallow-water brachiopod faunas of Central Iran, Kope-Dagh and Afghanistan. Its proliferation in temperate latitude peri-Gondwana was one of the earliest signs of biogeographical differentiation of the brachiopod faunas in the early Silurian. The affinities of Stegocornu and Xerxespirifer are discussed.

  12. Brachiopods from the Permian Triassic boundary beds at the Selong Xishan section, Xizang (Tibet), China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuzhong; Yugan, Jin

    1999-08-01

    The brachiopods from the Waagenites Bed and the upper part of the Coral Bed above and below the Permian-Triassic sequence boundary at the Selong Xishan section of southern Xizang suggest a rich brachiopod fauna existing in Selong, and a rapid invasion of Tethyan brachiopods into the Himalayas at the very end of the Permian. A transgression beginning from the Waagenites Bed and a rapid flooding at the beginning of the Triassic is reflected by changes in composition of the Permian brachiopod assemblages in Selong. However, the dominant forms in the Permian-Triassic sequence boundary beds, including Krotovia, Spiriferella and Neospirifer, extend from the underlying beds of the Selong Group without significant evolutionary change. A brief discussion of each taxon and descriptions of two new species, Stenoscisma selongensis and Martinia attenuatelloides, are presented.

  13. Larval adaptations and patterns of brachiopod diversity in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, J. W.; Jablonski, D.

    1983-01-01

    Modern biodistributional patterns suggest that modes of larval development are a factor in determining the patterns of diversity in benthic invertebrates. Paleozoic brachiopods had diversity patterns suggesting that they possessed both planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic modes. It is presently hypothesized that the planktotrophic lineages were lost to extinction, largely or entirely during the Permian-Triassic event, and that the failure of the articulate brachiopods to regain their former importance is substantially due to their nonplanktotrophic developmental mode.

  14. [Comparative cytogenetic study of the forms of Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br. from different localities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatadze, T E; Zelenin, A V; Suslina, S N; Amosova, A V; Popov, K V; Zagumennikova, T N; Tsitsilin, A N; Bykov, V A; Muravenko, O V

    2012-01-01

    A comparative cytogenetic study of two introduced forms of Makleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br. = syn. Bocconia cordata Willd. grown in different ecological and geographical regions (Moscow and Donetsk areas) was carried out. In the study, a complex of methods utilizing various chromosomal markers, i.e., C- and DAPI-banding technique, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes of26S and 5S rDNA, as well as estimation of the total area of C-positive regions (C-HCH) in prophase nucleoli and meiosis analysis, was used. In the karyotypes (2n = 20), each chromosome was identified on the basis of C-banding and FISH patterns and the chromosome ideograms were built. Pericentrometric and telomeric C-positive bands in chromosomes of the Moscow form karyotype were found to be smaller and intercalary bands, larger than the corresponding bands in the M. cordata form grown in Donetsk. It was found that the content of C-HCH in prophase nucleoli in the form of M. cordata grown in Donetsk was higher than in the form grown in Moscow. In both forms sites of 26S rDNA and 5s rDNA were localized on satellite chromosome 1 and on chromosome 4 respectively but the signals were more intensive in the plant form grown in Donetsk. The results of this study enable selecting M. cordata forms for use in pharmacology and recommending them for cultivation in various ecological and geographical regions.

  15. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  16. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Sekita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata (HC (Saururaceae has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care.

  17. Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Timothy P.; Holmer, Lars E.; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Ecological interactions, including symbiotic associations such as mutualism, parasitism and commensalism are crucial factors in generating evolutionary novelties and strategies. Direct examples of species interactions in the fossil record generally involve organisms attached to sessile organisms in an epibiont or macroboring relationship. Here we provide support for an intimate ecological association between a calcareous brachiopod (Nisusia) and the stem group mollusc Wiwaxia from the Burgess Shale. Brachiopod specimens are fixed to Wiwaxia scleritomes, the latter showing no signs of decay and disarticulation, suggesting a live association. We interpret this association as the oldest unambiguous example of a facultative ectosymbiosis between a sessile organism and a mobile benthic animal in the fossil record. The potential evolutionary advantage of this association is discussed, brachiopods benefiting from ease of attachment, increased food supply, avoidance of turbid benthic conditions, biofoul and possible protection from predators, suggesting commensalism (benefiting the symbiont with no impact for the host). While Cambrian brachiopods are relatively common epibionts, in particular on sponges, the association of Nisusia with the motile Wiwaxia is rare for a brachiopod species, fossil or living, and suggests that symbiotic associations were already well established and diversified by the ``middle'' (Series 3, Stage 5) Cambrian.

  18. Brachiopoda collected by cancap I-III expeditions to the South-East North Atlantic. 1976-1978

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logan, A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent brachiopods collected by CANCAP expeditions to the south-east North Atlantic between 1976 and 1978 are identified. Species belonging to Pelagodiscus, Gryphus? Dyscolia, Terebratulina, Eucalathis, Argyrotheca, Megathiris, Platidia, Phaneropora, Megerlia, Dallina, Macandrevia and Lacazella have

  19. Coupling relationships between brachiopods and Girvanella during the Late Devonian F-F transition in Guilin,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ran; GONG YiMing; ZENG JianWei

    2008-01-01

    The abundance curves derived from area proportions of brachiopods and Girvanella in the thin sections from the Yangdi section,South China,exhibits complex relationships during the Late Devonian Frasnian-Famennian transition.The living activity of brachiopods such as grazing and borrowing did great damage to the growth of Girvanella.However,there was more to just a mere a survival competing relationship between them,Girvanella actually improved marine environments by oxygenating the dysoxic ambient sea-water through photosynthesis in the lower KeUwasser Horizon.Profited from this improvement brachiopods' abundance increased subsequently and suppressed Girvanella again.Nonetheless,without Girvanella's photosynthesis,brachiopods were wiped out by the farther anoxic environments in the upper Kellwasser Horizon.The complex relationships between Girvanella and brachiopods may be a key to unlocking the relationships between geomicrobes and metazoans in the geological overturn periods.

  20. Structures, Components and Functions of Secretory Tissues in Houttuynia cordata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Lu Ni; Li Peng; Wen-Zhe Liu

    2007-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb., traditionally used as a therapeutic plant in folk medicine, has shown antioxidant and anticancer activities.The species, as a core component of paleoherbs, is normally characterized based on the presence of different types of secretory tissue: oil cells, three types of secretory cells and glandular hairs.The aim of this work was to study the structural, componential, and the functional characteristics of the secretory tissues in both the floral and vegetative parts.The results indicate that oll cells and secretory cells are distributed in all organs of the plant, while glandular hairs are situated on the aerial stems and leaves.Both oil cells and glandular hairs initiate from the protoderm, but their developmental processes are different.Although three types of secretory cells initiate from different primary meristems, the developmental pattems of different secretory cells are the same.Also, although the origins of secretory cells are different from oil cells, their early developmental processes are the same.Histochemical results show that oil cells, secretory cells and glandular hairs produce flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, lipids, aldehyde and ketone-compounds.In addition, there are terpenoids and pectic-like substances in oil cells, alkaloids in secretory cells of aerial stems, and terpenoids and alkaloids in glandular hairs.These compounds play very important roles in protecting plants from being eaten by herbivores (herbivory) and infected by microbial pathogens.The oil cell and secretory cell, as unicellular secretory tissues, are intermediates between the primitive surface glandular and secretory cavity and canal during the evolution of secretory structures.

  1. Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-12-04

    Magellania venosa, the largest recent brachiopod, occurs in clusters and banks in population densities of up to 416 ind m-2 in Comau Fjord, Northern Chilean fjord region. Below 15 m, it co-occurs with the mytilid Aulacomya atra and it dominates the benthic community below 20 m. To determine the question of why M. venosa is a successful competitor, the in situ growth rate of the brachiopod was studied and its overall growth performance compared with that of other brachiopods and mussels. The growth in length was measured between February 2011 and March 2012 after mechanical tagging and calcein staining. Settlement and juvenile growth were determined from recruitment tiles installed in 2009 and from subsequent photocensus. Growth of M. venosa is best described by the general von Bertalanffy growth function, with a maximum shell length (L∞) of 71.53 mm and a Brody growth constant (K) of 0.336 year-1. The overall growth performance (OGP index = 5.1) is the highest recorded for a rynchonelliform brachiopod and in the range of that for Mytilus chilensis (4.8-5.27), but lower than that of A. atra (5.74). The maximal individual production (PInd) is 0.29 g AFDM ind-1 year-1 at 42 mm shell length and annual production ranges from 1.28 to 89.25 g AFDM year-1 m-2 (1-57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass of the population (P/B--ratio) is low (0.535) and M. venosa may play only a minor role in the food chain. Settling dynamics indicates that M. venosa is a pioneer species with low juvenile mortality. The coexistence of the brachiopod and bivalve suggests that brachiopod survival is affected by neither the presence of potential brachiopod predators nor that of space competitors (i.e. mytilids).

  2. Chief sources of brachiopod recovery from the end Ordovician mass extinction with special references to progenitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎嘉余; 詹仁斌

    1999-01-01

    Survivor, Lazarus and progenitor taxa are sources of biotic recovery following mass extinction. Investigations of the benthic brachiopods through the latest Ordovician mass extinction shows that progenitors developed many evolutionary novelties and successful surviving mechanisms. They are superior to survivors and Lazarus taxa in their ability to adapt to environmental changes. They are the primary source of macroevolution and the ancestors of a number of new taxa. Three kinds of progenitors are recognized based on the Ordovician-Silurian brachiopods from South China: survivor-progenitors, crisis-progenitors and Lazarus-progenitors; the last has the strongest ability to resist adverse environments, and is the most diverse and abundant.

  3. Red tides caused by Exuviaella cordata and Exuviaella marina%卵甲藻Exuviaella cordata 和Exuviaella marina赤潮的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周遵春; 闫喜武; 庞军辉; 马志强; 薛克; 雷善敏

    2001-01-01

    Red tides caused by Exuviaella cordata and biology of Exuviaella marina (the first occurrence in shrimp ponds of Qingdui Fisheries Coorporation of Zhuanghe) were described. The reason why red tide occurred and its harmful effects were evaluated. The conformation characteristic, ecological habits of Exuviaella cordata and Exuviaella marina was briefly described. Three species of raft-cultured shellfishes collected at red tides in Dalian Wan Bay were tested for the shellfish poison.%报道了由心形卵甲藻(Exuviaella cordata)和海洋卵甲藻(Exuviaella marina)引发的赤潮(前者于1991年发生在庄河青堆水产公司虾池中,后者于1999年7月发生在大连湾)。并对赤潮发生的原因、危害进行了分析,对引发赤潮藻类的形态和生活习性进行了描述,对大连湾赤潮区养殖的3种贝类进行了贝毒检测。

  4. Conditioned food aversion to control outbreaks of intoxication by Ipomoea carnea and Turbina cordata in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...

  5. Houttuynia cordata targets the beginning stage of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Hung

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata, a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-κB-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-κB activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-κB activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV.

  6. Chemical Composition and Hepatoprotective Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Houttuynia cordata Tea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.; Shi, X.L.; Yu, L.H.; Zhu, J.; Ma, R.; Yang, X.B.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity, hepatoprotective effect, and phenolic composition of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) extracted from Houttuynia cordata tea. EAF was shown to exhibit strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging activity against DPPH

  7. Reproductive ecology of Scalesia cordata (Asteraceae), an endangered species from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2010-01-01

    The genus Scalesia is endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Scalesia cordata is a tree occurring only in the southern part of Isabela as small, remnant populations of larger forests. We studied the reproductive ecology of a population protected in an enclosure in order to reveal the extent to which t...

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LEAF AND STEM EXTRACTS OF SIDDHA MEDICINAL PLANT: SIDA CORDATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Phyto chemicals are the secondary metabolites produ ce by the plant for its adaptation, which has medicinal value. The plant Sida cordata is a prostrate herb with medicinal value which is found throughout India .The whole pla nt Sidda cordata is used by the tribal people of Madekeri district to treat various aliment like hepatic disorder, dysentery, cholera etc, it is also one of the component in herbal preparation in Tamilnadu used on cut wounds, to relive pain etc. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or bioactive component for the treatment of different health probl ems at affordable cost. Secondary metabolites are responsible for medicinal activity o f plant. Hence, the present study deals with the preliminary phytochemical evaluation of leaf & st em of Sida cordata, the study includes the preparation of different extracts leaf &stem by succe ssive solvent extraction method ,fluorescence analysis of successive extracts & the ir powder are noted under visible &UV light, which showed the visibility of varying colors. Furt her Phytochemical analysis of leaf & stem extracts of Sida cordata was carried out which conf irms the presence of primary metabolites like carbohydrates , amino acids, proteins etc and s econdary metabolites like the alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin etc. Present study is designed t o explore the preliminary phyto-profile and phytochemical analysis of leaf & stem of Sida cordat a, which are responsible for its pharmacological properties

  9. The brachiopod Lingula from the Middle Miocene – Badenian beds of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Ulaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the first find of an inarticulate brachiopod in Slovenia. The fossil was discovered in Miocenebeds in Badenian sandy and marly limestones outcropping in the Plesko quarry near Trbovlje. It belongs to thespecies Lingula dregeri Andreae, 1893.

  10. A Middle Devonian atrypid brachiopod fauna from the Cantabrian Mountains, northwestern Spain, and its stratigraphic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struve, W.; Mohanti, M.

    1970-01-01

    This paper records for the first time a rich atrypid brachiopod fauna from the Middle Devonian of the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain. A comparison of the Spanish atrypid fauna with that of Germany reveals a close similarity between the two. Even though the species are not identical, yet a comparison an

  11. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj;

    2014-01-01

    Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow-water palaeoenvironm...

  12. Evaluation of antiviral activities of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. extract, quercetin, quercetrin and cinanserin on murine coronavirus and dengue virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. H. Chiow; M. C. Phoon; Thomas Putti; Benny K. H. Tan; Vincent T. Chow

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro activities of the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata) Thunb. (Saururaceae) and three of its constituent flavonoids (quercetin, quercitrin and rutin) against murine coronavirus and dengue virus (DENV). Methods: The antiviral activities of various concentrations of the EA fraction of H. cordata and flavonoids were assessed using virus neutralization tests against mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and DENV type 2 (DENV-2). Cinanserin hydrochloride was also tested against MHV. The EA fraction of H. cordata was tested for acute oral toxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Results: The EA fraction of H. cordata inhibited viral infectivity up to 6 d. Cinanserin hydrochloride was able to inhibit MHV for only 2 d. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the EA fraction of H. cordata added before the viral adsorption stage were 0.98 μg/mL for MHV and 7.50 μg/mL for DENV-2 with absence of cytotoxicity. The mice fed with the EA fraction up to 2 000 mg/kg did not induce any signs of acute toxicity, with normal histological features of major organs. Certain flavonoids exhibited comparatively weaker antiviral activity, notably quercetin which could inhibit both MHV and DENV-2. This was followed by quercitrin which could inhibit DENV-2 but not MHV, whereas rutin did not exert any inhibitory effect on either virus. When quercetin was combined with quercitrin, enhancement of anti-DENV-2 activity and reduced cytotoxicity were observed. However, the synergistic efficacy of the flavonoid combination was still less than that of the EA fraction. Conclusions: The compounds in H. cordata contribute to the superior antiviral efficacy of the EA fraction which lacked cytotoxicity in vitro and acute toxicity in vivo. H. cordata has much potential for the development of antiviral agents against coronavirus and dengue infections.

  13. LATEST DEVONIAN (FAMENNIAN TO EARLIEST CARBONIFEROUS (TOURNAISIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM THE BACHU FORMATION OF THE TARIM BASIN, XINJIANG PROVINCE, NORTHWEST CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Q. CHEN

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Brachiopods are described from two horizons of the Bachu Formation from the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, northwest China. We assign the brachiopods from the basal Bachu Formation to late Famennian and correlate those from its upper part to the Eochoristites-Martiniella Assemblage of South China, of early Tournaisian age. The brachiopod fauna of the Bachu Formation exhibits strong generic and specific links with coeval South Chinese faunas, suggesting a close biogeographical affinity with the South China block. Eleven species are described, including one new species, Ptychomaletoechia bachuensis sp. nov. 

  14. Reconstructing Cambro-Ordovician Seawater Composition using Clumped Isotope Paleothermometry on Calcitic and Phosphatic Brachiopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, K.; Robles, M.; Finnegan, S.; Hughes, N. C.; Eiler, J. M.; Fischer, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    A secular increase in δ18O values of marine fossils through early Phanerozoic time raises questions about the evolution of climate and the water cycle. This pattern suggests two end-member hypotheses 1) surface temperatures during early Paleozoic time were very warm, in excess of 40°C (tropical MAT), or 2) the isotopic composition of seawater increased by up to 7-8‰. It has been difficult to evaluate these hypotheses because the δ18O composition of fossils depends on both temperature and the δ18O of water. Furthermore, primary isotopic signatures can be overprinted by diagenetic processes that modify geological materials. This too could explain the decrease in δ18O values of marine fossils with age. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry can constrain this problem by providing an independent measure of crystallization temperature and, when paired with classical δ18O paleothermometry, can determine the isotopic composition of the fluid the mineral last equilibrated with. Combined with traditional tools, this method has the potential to untangle primary isotopic signatures from diagenetic signals. We measured the isotopic ordering of CO3 groups (Δ47) substituted into the phosphate lattice of phosphatic brachiopods in Cambrian strata. Phosphatic fossils are generally less soluble than carbonates in surface and diagenetic environments, and so are hypothesized to provide a more robust record of primary growth conditions. They also provide an archive prior to the rise of thick shelled calcitic fossils during the Ordovician Radiation. Additionally, measurements of the δ18O of the CO3 groups can be compared with the δ18O of PO4 groups to test whether their mutual fractionation is consistent with primary growth and the apparent temperature recorded by carbonate clumped isotope measurements. We are constructing a phosphatic brachiopod calibration for carbonate clumped isotope thermometry, and Δ47 values of CO2 extracted from modern phosphatic brachiopods suggest

  15. Coupling relationships between brachiopods and Girvanella during the Late Devonian F-F transition in Guilin, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The abundance curves derived from area proportions of brachiopods and Girvanella in the thin sections from the Yangdi section, South China, exhibits complex relationships during the Late Devonian Frasnian-Famennian transition. The living activity of brachiopods such as grazing and borrowing did great damage to the growth of Girvanella. However, there was more to just a mere a survival competing relationship between them, Girvanella actually improved marine environments by oxygenating the dysoxic ambient sea-water through photosynthesis in the lower Kellwasser Horizon. Profited from this improvement brachiopods’ abundance increased subsequently and suppressed Girvanella again. Nonetheless, without Girvanella’s photosynthesis, brachiopods were wiped out by the farther anoxic environments in the upper Kellwasser Horizon. The complex relationships between Girvanella and brachiopods may be a key to unlocking the relationships between geomicrobes and metazoans in the geological overturn periods.

  16. Aldose reductase inhibitory potential of different fractions ofHouttuynia cordata Thunb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish Kumar; Damiki Laloo; Satyendra K. Prasad; Siva Hemalatha

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the aldose reductase(AR) inhibitory activity of different fractions from Houttuynia cordata(H. cordata) which used as a medicinal salad for lowering of blood sugar level. Methods:AR inhibitory activity along with protein content was evaluatedin vitro in rat lens. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were also determined in all the fractions.Results:All the four fractions were found to inhibit lensAR activity, but to differentextent.From dose response curve(DRC), aqueous fraction(AQ) was found to be the most effectiveAR inhibitor followed by ethyl acetate(EA), chloroform(CL) and hexane fraction(HEX).TheIC50 values ofAQ,EA,CL and HEX were calculated to be(64.62±3.90),(90.69±7.50),(134.59±4.90) and(151.58±3.30) μg/mL respectively.Quercetin was taken as positive control which exhibitedAR inhibition withanIC50 value of(3.21±0.60) μg/mL in a non-competitive manner.Conclusion:These findings indicated that,AQ fraction ofH. cordata exhibited significant inhibitory effect onAR in a non-competitive manner, which may be attributed to the presence of high phenolic and flavonoid contents.Thus, the plantH. cordata may act as a promising source in the treatment of secondary complications like cataract associated with diabetes.

  17. Protective Effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. on Gentamicin-induced Oxidative Stress and Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Changgeun; Lee, Hyungkyoung; Hah, Do-Yun; Heo, Jung Ho; Kim, Chung Hui; Kim, Euikyung; Kim, Jong Shu

    2013-01-01

    Development of a therapy providing protection from, or reversing gentamicin-sulfate (GS)-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity would be of great clinical significance. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) against gentamicin sulfate-induced renal damage in rats. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, GS 100 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection; group 3,...

  18. Endophytic fungus strain 28 isolated from Houttuynia cordata possesses wide-spectrum antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate an endophytic fungus (strain 28 that was isolated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, a famous and widely-used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Based on morphological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, this strain was identified as Chaetomium globosum. An antifungal activity bioassay demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc extracts of strain 28 had a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antimicrobial activity, particularly against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass. Leonard et Suggs, Botrytis cinerea persoon and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Furthermore, the fermentation conditions, extraction method and the heat stability of antifungal substances from strain 28 were also studied. The results showed that optimal antifungal activity can be obtained with the following parameters: using potato dextrose broth (PDB as the base culture medium, fermentation for 4–8 d (initial pH: 7.5, followed by extraction with EtOAc. The extract was stable at temperatures up to 80 °C. This is the first report on the isolation of endophytic C. globosum from H. cordata to identify potential alternative biocontrol agents that could provide new opportunities for practical applications involving H. cordata.

  19. Protective effect of Sida cordata leaf extract against CCl4 induced acute liver toxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Mistry; KR Dutt; J Jena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Sida cordata (Malvaceae) (S. cordata) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. Methods: Wister albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Group Ⅰ served as control; Group Ⅱ served as hepatotoxic (CCl4 treated) group;Group Ⅲ, Ⅳ and Ⅴ served as (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) S. cordata leaf extract (SCLE) treated groups; Group Ⅵ served as positive control (Silymarin) treated group. Liver marker enzymes serum glutamate oxyloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured and compared along with histopathological studies. Results:Obtained results show that the treatment with SCLE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently reduced CCl4 induced elevated serum level of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SCLE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels, which was confirmed by the histopathological studies. Conclusions: The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SCLE against CCl4 induced acute liver toxicity in rats and thereby scientifically support its traditional use.

  20. A new method for classification of Brachiopods based on the radon transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ait khouya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brachiopods have a lateral outline which is quite important in systematic studies. It is often assessed by a qualitative evaluation and linear measurements, which are not clear enough and precise for describing the shape of the shell and its changes In this paper we propose a new method for classification of fossils based on the radon transform from their greyscale image. We take the case of brachiopods which has Complex shapes. We use an adaptation of Radon transform called R-transform which is invariant to common geometrical transformations. Each shape is described by R3D transform. We consider the grayscale image as a set of cuts obtained from successive binarization for each gray level in image, and for each segmentation we compute the R-transform then we obtained the R3D transform. The advantages of the proposed method are robustness to noise, and invariant to common geometrical transformations scale, translation and rotation.

  1. Oldest glosselline linguliform brachiopod with soft parts from the Lower Cambrian of Yunnan, Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haizhou; Zhang, Zhifei; Holmer, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    Lingulella chengjiangensis Jin, Huo & Wang, 1993 is one of the most abundant brachiopods from the celebrated Lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte. A detailed study of abundant new well-preserved specimens clearly shows that their morphology and preserved soft anatomy differ widely from that of the linguliforms of the subfamily Obolinae, including Lingulella. L. chengjiangensis is herein re-described as the probable earliest member of the subfamily Glossellinae, which was previously known...

  2. The paleoecology, habitats, and stratigraphic range of the enigmatic cretaceous brachiopod peregrinella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available Modern and Cenozoic deep-sea hydrothermal-vent and methane-seep communities are dominated by large tubeworms, bivalves and gastropods. In contrast, many Early Cretaceous seep communities were dominated by the largest Mesozoic rhynchonellid brachiopod, the dimerelloid Peregrinella, the paleoecologic and evolutionary traits of which are still poorly understood. We investigated the nature of Peregrinella based on 11 occurrences world wide and a literature survey. All in situ occurrences of Peregrinella were confirmed as methane-seep deposits, supporting the view that Peregrinella lived exclusively at methane seeps. Strontium isotope stratigraphy indicates that Peregrinella originated in the late Berriasian and disappeared after the early Hauterivian, giving it a geologic range of ca. 9.0 (+1.45/-0.85 million years. This range is similar to that of rhynchonellid brachiopod genera in general, and in this respect Peregrinella differs from seep-inhabiting mollusks, which have, on average, longer geologic ranges than marine mollusks in general. Furthermore, we found that (1 Peregrinella grew to larger sizes at passive continental margins than at active margins; (2 it grew to larger sizes at sites with diffusive seepage than at sites with advective fluid flow; (3 despite its commonly huge numerical abundance, its presence had no discernible impact on the diversity of other taxa at seep sites, including infaunal chemosymbiotic bivalves; and (4 neither its appearance nor its extinction coincides with those of other seep-restricted taxa or with global extinction events during the late Mesozoic. A preference of Peregrinella for diffusive seepage is inferred from the larger average sizes of Peregrinella at sites with more microcrystalline carbonate (micrite and less seep cements. Because other seep-inhabiting brachiopods occur at sites where such cements are very abundant, we speculate that the various vent- and seep-inhabiting dimerelloid brachiopods since

  3. Late Permian marine ecosystem collapse began in deeper waters: evidence from brachiopod diversity and body size changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W-H; Shi, G R; Twitchett, R J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, K-X; Song, H-J; Yue, M-L; Wu, S-B; Wu, H-T; Yang, T-L; Xiao, Y-F

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Permian-Triassic brachiopod diversity and body size changes from different water depths spanning the continental shelf to basinal facies in South China provides insights into the process of environmental deterioration. Comparison of the temporal changes of brachiopod diversity between deepwater and shallow-water facies demonstrates that deepwater brachiopods disappeared earlier than shallow-water brachiopods. This indicates that high environmental stress commenced first in deepwater settings and later extended to shallow waters. This environmental stress is attributed to major volcanic eruptions, which first led to formation of a stratified ocean and a chemocline in the outer shelf and deeper water environments, causing the disappearance of deep marine benthos including brachiopods. The chemocline then rapidly migrated upward and extended to shallow waters, causing widespread mass extinction of shallow marine benthos. We predict that the spatial and temporal patterns of earlier onset of disappearance/extinction and ecological crisis in deeper water ecosystems will be recorded during other episodes of rapid global warming.

  4. Antihyperglycemic Activity of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study is an attempt to investigate plausible mechanism involved behind antidiabetic activity of standardized Houttuynia cordata Thunb. extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The plant is used as a medicinal salad for lowering blood sugar level in North-Eastern parts of India. Oral administration of extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level daily for 21 days showed a significant (P<0.05 decrease in fasting plasma glucose and also elevated insulin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It also significantly reversed all the alterations in biochemical parameters, that is, total lipid profile, blood urea, creatinine, protein, and antioxidant enzymes in liver, pancreas, and adipose tissue of diabetic rats. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the extract significantly reversed the expression patterns of various glucose homeostatic enzyme genes like GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and caspase-3 levels but did not show any significant effect on PPAR-γ protein expressions. Additionally, the extract positively regulated mitochondrial membrane potential and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activity in diabetic rats. The findings justified the antidiabetic effect of H. cordata which is attributed to an upregulation of GLUT-4 and potential antioxidant activity, which may play beneficial role in resolving complication associated with diabetes.

  5. [Study on separation and purification of total alkaloids from Macleaya cordata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-sheng; Yu, Jian-ping

    2007-08-01

    A method for separation and purification of total alkaloids from Macleaya cordata with macroporous resin was studied, with the content and recovery rate of total alkaloids as indexes. The results were as follows: The static adsorption capacity of AB-8 type resin was 104. 65 mg/g, the static elution ratio were 95.9% , the dynamic adsorption capacity of AB-8 type resin was 96.5 mg/g, the recovery rate was more than 91.24% and the purity was more than 90%. AB-8 type resin was the best for separating and purificating Macleaya cordata in total alkaloids. The optimum conditions is: the eluant is 90% alcohol and 2-3 times as the volume of the resin, the volume of the resin is 10.4 times of total alkaloids in sample, concentration of total alkaloids of sample is 21.57 mg/ml and current velocity of 2-3 ml/min, pH value of sample is 7-8.

  6. Correlation analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Houttuynia cordata Thunb with regard to environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, J; Wu, F-C; Qiu, P; Dai, L-J

    2016-01-01

    To study the levels of genetic diversity, and population structure, of Houttuynia cordata Thunb, the genetic background and relationships of populations were analyzed in terms of environmental factors. The genetic diversity and population structure of H. cordata were investigated using sequence-related amplified polymorphisms and correlation with environmental factors was analyzed using the SPSS software. Two thousand one hundred sixty-three sites were amplified from 41 pairs of primers, 1825 of which were polymorphic, and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 84.37%; the percentage of polymorphic sites was 72.14 and 67.77% at the species and population level, respectively. The observed number of alleles was 1.52 and 1.30 at species and population level, respectively. The effective number of alleles was 1.38 and 1.24 at species and population level, respectively. The Nei's diversity was 0.26 and 0.15 at species and population level, respectively. The Shannon's information index was 0.87 and 0.63 at species and population level, respectively. The genetic differentiation coefficient of populations was 0.51, and 12 populations were divided into three classes based on D = 0.20; the genetic diversities of different populations are correlated at different significance levels (P Genetic differentiation existed among populations and the populations exhibited heteroplasmy.

  7. Houttuynia cordata Improves Cognitive Deficits in Cholinergic Dysfunction Alzheimer's Disease-Like Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Eugene; Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Hanbyeol; Kang, Min Seo; Lee, Bongyong; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a result of dementia of diverse causes, such as cholinergic dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. It has biological activities including protective effects against amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity, via regulation of calcium homeostasis, in rat hippocampal cells. To extend previous reports, we investigated the effects of water extracts of H. cordata herb (HCW) on tauopathies, also involving calcium influx. We then confirmed the effects of HCW in improving memory impairment and neuronal damage in mice with Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. We also investigated the effects of HCW against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. In primary neuronal cells, HCW inhibited the phosphorylation of tau by regulating p25/p35 expression in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. In mice with Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, HCW improved cognitive impairment, as assessed with behavioral tasks, such as novel object recognition, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks. HCW also inhibited the degeneration of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, HCW, which had an IC50 value of 79.7 μg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment significantly in Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These results indicate that HCW improved cognitive impairment, due to cholinergic dysfunction, with inhibitory effects against tauopathies and cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that HCW may be an interesting candidate to investigate for the treatment of AD.

  8. Integration of Transcriptome and Proteome Reveals the Alkaloids Biosynthesis in Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yisong Liu; Wei Liu; Xiubing Liu; Peng Huang; Pengcheng Zhu; Pi Cheng; Jing Zeng

    2012-01-01

    The Macleaya spp.,including Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa,are traditional anti-virus,inflammation eliminating,and insecticide herb medicines for their isoquinoline alkaloids.The studies of their alkaloids biosyntheses are urgent for better application.To further characterize their alkaloids biosyntheses,we elaborately designed the transcriptome,proteome and metabolism profiling for 10 samples of both species to explore their alkaloids biosyntheses.From the transcriptome data,we obtained 69367 and 78255 unigenes for M.cordata and M.microcarpa,which two thirds of them were similar to sequences in public databases.By metabolism profiling,we observed reverse patterns in different organs of two species for alkaloids sanguinarine,chelerythrine,protopine,and allocryptopine.Thus,the expression of enzymes in alkaloid biosynthesis pathways and the differential gene expression for multiple interesting comparisons were analyzed.We identified more than 1000 proteins and hundreds of differentially expressed proteins from iTRAQ proteome data.Furthermore,the ultrastructure of laticifers by SEM proved the alkaloids accumulation in the mature roots.This study suggests strongly that root maybe the organ for major alkaloids biosynthesis.Except for biosynthesis,the alkaloids storage and transport were also important for their accumulation.This work provided the first genome scale analysis for Macleaya spp.and shed light on researches for non-model plants by integrating different high-throughput technologies.

  9. Aspartic acid racemization dating of Holocene brachiopods and bivalves from the southern Brazilian shelf, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour Wood, Susan L.; Krause, Richard A.; Kowalewski, Michał; Wehmiller, John; Simões, Marcello G.

    2006-09-01

    The extent of racemization of aspartic acid (Asp) has been used to estimate the ages of 9 shells of the epifaunal calcitic brachiopod Bouchardia rosea and 9 shells of the infaunal aragonitic bivalve Semele casali. Both taxa were collected concurrently from the same sites at depths of 10 m and 30 m off the coast of Brazil. Asp D/L values show an excellent correlation with radiocarbon age at both sites and for both taxa ( r2Site 9 B. rosea = 0.97, r2Site 1 B. rosea = 0.997, r2Site 9 S. casali = 0.9998, r2Site 1 S. casali = 0.93). The Asp ratios plotted against reservoir-corrected AMS radiocarbon ages over the time span of multiple millennia can thus be used to develop reliable and precise geochronologies not only for aragonitic mollusks (widely used for dating previously), but also for calcitic brachiopods. At each collection site, Bouchardia specimens display consistently higher D/L values than specimens of Semele. Thermal differences between sites are also notable and in agreement with theoretical expectations, as extents of racemization for both taxa are greater at the warmer, shallower site than at the cooler, deeper one. In late Holocene marine settings, concurrent time series of aragonitic and calcitic shells can be assembled using Asp racemization dating, and parallel multi-centennial to multi-millennial records can be developed simultaneously for multiple biomineral systems.

  10. FAUNAL CHANGE NEAR THE END-PERMIAN EXTINCTION: THE BRACHIOPODS OF THE ALI BASHI MOUNTAINS, NW IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABBAS GHADERI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Julfa Formation in the Ali Bashi Mountains, northwest Iran, is very rich in brachiopods, particularly in its lower part, which has been dated by fusulinids and conodonts as Wuchiapingian in age. The brachiopod fauna described herein has been collected along the Main Valley section of the Ali Bashi Mountains, several hundred metres away from the historical sections described in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It comprises 39 species of the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida, and Terebratulida, most of which are known in the coeval successions of Transcaucasia, Alborz Mountains in north Iran and in South China, confirming the Wuchiapingian age indicated by other proxies. A few of the brachiopod taxa range up into the Changhsingian Paratirolites Limestone. The shale and marly limestone at the base of the formation are dominated by semi-infaunal productids, that are progressively succeeded near the top of the lower part of the formation by a more diverse range of pedicle attached and cemented taxa, suggesting a shallowing upward trend and a shift to higher nutrient-substrates in more turbulent waters. The successive deepening trend recorded in the upper part of the Julfa Formation and in the overlying Ali Bashi Formation is very unfavourable for the brachiopods and only a few species survive, represented by small sized pediculate taxa that thrive on hardgrounds.

  11. Brachiopods and rugose corals in an upper Serpukhovian (Mississippian) biostrome: preliminary results from the Djebel Arhlal (Bechar Basin, Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atif, K. F. T.; Aretz, M.; Legrand-Biain, M.; Bouzidi, A.; Aimouche, M.

    2016-10-01

    The Djebel Arhlal is the southernmost outcrop of upper Serpukhovian strata in the Bechar Basin. Here the Djenien member of the Djenien Formation is three-folded and it contains a 10 m-thick coral biostrome in its middle unit formed by Siphonodendron, Diphyphyllum and Lithostrotion. Distances between in situ colonies are in the order of several decimetres and the space between them is filled with bioclastic limestone containing coral rubble. Few brachiopods and solitary corals are found as dwellers within the biostrome, but these groups are much more common in the strata below and above the coral biostrome. This is especially true for the brachiopods, which reach diversities of more than a dozen species in specific horizons. They mainly belong to the orders Productida, Spiriferida and Athyridida. Agitated open-marine platform interior or platform margin settings are the general facies encountered in the Djenien member at the Djebel Arhlal. The field data, including brachiopod coquinas and many fragmented brachiopods and corals, are confirmed by microfacies analysis. However, the coral biostrome records a quieter setting at the interface of middle and outer ramp settings, as seen in the co-existence of in situ coral growth, input of reworked material, deposition of carbonate mud, and sparitic textures. This autoparabiostrome at Djebel Arhlal is compared to other rather thick and of exceptional horizontal extension upper Serpukhovian biostromes (few kilometres). (Author)

  12. Mollusc and brachiopod skeletal hardparts: Problematic archives of past seawater properties (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons may act as support or serves as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hardparts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrix, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth-increments and their respective multi-proxy geochemical signatures that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. We here compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hardparts secreted by molluscs (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hardparts. Despite the fact that molluscs and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil shell hardparts precipitated, under favourable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration, in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or endocytosis and vesicle transport, precursor mineralogies etc.) is surprisingly

  13. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic and antioxidative compounds from lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakul Prommajak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is an Asian herb which has many biological activities, including antioxidative property from polyphenolic compounds. Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design were employed to study the effect of extraction temperature (30 to 70°C, extraction time (10 to 30 min, ethanol concentration (30 to 70%, and solvent to sample ratio (2 to 6 ml/g on ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from lizard tail and antioxidant capacity of the herb extract. Extraction temperature was the most relevant factor on the responses. Optimal condition was the extraction temperature of 70°C for 30 min, using 60% ethanol concentration at the solvent to sample ratio of 5 ml/g. Model adequacies were confirmed by extraction at the optimal condition and normality of standardized residuals.

  14. Chesterian davidsoniacean and orthotetacean brachiopods, Ozark region of Arkansas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T.W.; Gordon, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of orthotetaceans and one species of davidsoniacean are among the strophomenid brachiopods from Chesterian (Upper Mississippian) rocks of northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma. Type material from the Fayetteville Shale, Orthotetes subglobosus and O. subglobosus var. protensus, is figured for the first time. We regard these species, and O. subglobosus var. batesvillensis Girty from the Batesville Sandstone, as distinct species, for which we are selecting lectotypes. We describe a fourth species, O. stenopsis n.sp., from the Pitkin Limestone. Another species, described from the Pitkin as Streptorhynchus suspectum, has an impunctate shell and is thus not an orthotetacean. This bizarre species generally has a long twisted beak, high interarea, and large forked cardinal process; a myophragm may occur in either valve, but more commonly is in the brachial valve alone. We designate a lectotype for this species and propose a new genus Adectorhynchus and a new family Adectorhynchidae, under the Davidsoniacea, for this taxon.-from Authors

  15. Biogeographic and bathymetric determinants of brachiopod extinction and survival during the Late Ordovician mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Seth; Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian; Harper, David A. T.

    2016-01-01

    The Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME) coincided with dramatic climate changes, but there are numerous ways in which these changes could have driven marine extinctions. We use a palaeobiogeographic database of rhynchonelliform brachiopods to examine the selectivity of Late Ordovician......–Early Silurian genus extinctions and evaluate which extinction drivers are best supported by the data. The first (latest Katian) pulse of the LOME preferentially affected genera restricted to deeper waters or to relatively narrow (less than 35°) palaeolatitudinal ranges. This pattern is only observed...... in the latest Katian, suggesting that it reflects drivers unique to this interval. Extinction of exclusively deeper-water genera implies that changes in water mass properties such as dissolved oxygen content played an important role. Extinction of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges suggests that interactions...

  16. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Mikania Cordata (Burm.F.) B.L. Robinson Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Sekendar; Islam, Md. Saiful; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Islam, Md. Rabiul; Sayeed, Mohammed Aktar; Islam, Md. Rafikul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study to examine the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of ethanol extract of leaves of Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L. Robinson. To determine antibacterial activities, the extract was tested against four Gram positive and six Gram negative bacteria at three concentrations (500, 800, 1000 μg disc-1) through disc diffusion method. The extract showed moderate antibacterial actions and that was increased by increasing the concentration of the sample. The maximum antimicrobial potential was obtained against Shigella flexneri and no sen sitivity was found for Klebsiella sp. Comparatively gram-positive bacteria demonstrated more susceptibility to the extract than gram-negative bacteria. Cytotoxic property of the sample was done using Brine shrimp lethality bioassay where it did not show noticeable toxicity. So, our present study reveals that the leaves extract of M. cordata possess considerable antibacterial properties along with lesser amount of cytotoxicity PMID:24826008

  17. Allergen component of Houttuynia cordata injection%鱼腥草注射液中过敏原成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安丹; 陈聪; 廖雪; 王捷; 吴英良; 王智琴

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索鱼腥草注射液中的过敏原成分及其致敏机理.方法 分别用鱼腥草注射液、鱼腥草蒸馏液、吐温80、阴性对照物和阳性对照物对豚鼠和Brown Norway(BN)大鼠进行全身主动过敏试验,并用吐温80首次静脉注射豚鼠和BN大鼠进行类过敏试验.观察其行为学反应并检测动物血清中组胺、IL-4,IgE,IgG和IgM的水平.结果 阳性对照组、鱼腥草注射液组、吐温80组和鱼腥草蒸馏液组动物都观察到不同程度的行为学过敏反应,且动物血清中的组胺、IgE和IL-4水平,以及阳性对照组和吐温80组的BN大鼠血清中IgM水平与阴性对照组相比显著性升高IgG,IgM及鱼腥草蒸馏液组BN大鼠血清中组胺和IL-4水平无显著变化.吐温80类过敏试验组,动物的行为学及血清中各生化指标均未见显著变化.结论 吐温80为鱼腥草注射液中的主要过敏原,可以引起豚鼠和BN大鼠发生I型全身主动过敏反应,而不引起豚鼠和BN大鼠发生类过敏反应.鱼腥草蒸馏液中含有其他引起过敏反应的过敏原.%Objective To explore the allergen ingredients of Houttuynia cordata injection and the sensitization mechanism.Methods Active systemic anaphylaxis test was carried out on Guinea pigs and the BN rats with Houttuynia cordata injection ,Houttuynia cordata distillate, polysorbate 80, negative control and positive control, and anaphylactoid reactions were carried out by intravenous polysorbate 80 to guinea pigs and BN rats for the first time.The anaphylaxis situations of guinea pigs and BN rats were observed, and the concentrationns of histamine, IgE, IgM, IgG and IL-4 in serum were measured with ELISA.Results Positive control group,Houttuynia cordata injection group ,polysorbate 80 group and Houttuynia cordata distillate group animals had been observed to have various degrees of behavioral hypersensitivity reactions, histamine, meanwhile IgE and IL-4 levels in these groups'serum,and IgM in BN

  18. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis are responsible for male sterility and chromosome variations in Houttuynia cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, J-Z; Wang, J-J; Cheng, Z-H; Liu, Y; Li, Z-Y

    2012-01-17

    Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) is a leaf vegetable and a medicinal herb througout much of Asia. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis were found in two populations of H. cordata with different ploidy levels (2n = 38, 96). Cytomixis occurred in pollen mother cells during meiosis at high frequencies and with variable degrees of chromatin/chromosome transfer. Meiotic abnormalities, such as chromosome laggards, asymmetric segregation and polyads, also prevailed in pollen mother cells at metaphase of the first division and later stages. They were caused by cytomixis and resulted in very low pollen viability and male sterility. Pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 38 showed only simultaneous cytokinesis, but most pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 96 showed successive cytokinesis; a minority underwent simultaneous cytokinesis. Cytomixis and irregular meiotic divisions appear to be the origin of the intraspecific polyploidy in this species, which has large variations in chromosome numbers.

  19. Development and antioxidant capacity of sapota pulp Jelly (Quararibea cordata Vischer Desenvolvimento e capacidade antioxidante de geleia da polpa de sapota (Quararibea cordata Vischer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Silva Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sapote (Quararibea cordata Vischer, also known as a chupa-chupa, is originated from the Brazilian, Peruvian and Colombian Amazon. The pulp of the ripe fruit is edible, fibrous, of intense orange color, sweet flavor and aromatic. Since the fruit is known in the Amazon only in its domesticated state, this work becomes necessary. With the aim of meeting the demand for new products in domestic and international markets, sapota pulp jelly has been developed. The jelly was assessed for moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, pectin, pH, total acidity, solids soluble, sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The final product met the standards required by Brazilian law, and 32.68% moisture and 61.06% °Brix. Also, in accordance with the laws attributed to this product, jelly sapota pulp can be considered a food rich in fiber, as presented content above 5%. The jelly, showed content of total phenolics compounds (102 mg GAE. 100 -1 in relation to fresh fruit (21 mg GAE.100 g-1. There was the identification in the antioxidant capacity (9.05% scavering of DPPH radical, giving the final product antioxidant properties. Also were analyzed the microbiological characteristics of the product which was not observed the presence of thermotolerants coliforms, yeast and molds. The sapota can be considered effective raw materials in the preparation of jam and this had an antioxidant activity and source of fiber.A sapota (Quararibea cordata Vischer, também conhecida como chupa-chupa, é originária da Amazônia Brasileira, Peruana e Colombiana A polpa do fruto maduro é comestível, fibrosa, de cor alaranjada intensa, sabor doce e aromática. Por ser conhecida na Amazônia somente no seu estado domesticado, torna-se necessário este trabalho Assim, visando a atender a demanda por novos produtos no mercado nacional e internacional, foi desenvolvida a geleia da polpa de sapota. A geleia foi avaliada quanto

  20. The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina in the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina and the dispersal pathways along western Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Muñoz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina is reported for the first time from the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina. It is represented by a species similar to A. ferrigena from the Tremadocian of the Prague Basin, increasing the faunal affinities between the Central Andean Basin and the South European microcontinents, in particular the Bohemian region (Perunica. Nine out of the fourteen brachiopod genera reported from the Tremadocian of the Central Andean Basin (~64% are shared with the Mediterranean region, four of which (~28% have been recorded in the Prague Basin, and two (Kvania and Apheoorthina are restricted to the Central Andes and Perunica. Dispersal pathways around Gondwana are analyzed in the light of major factors affecting large-scale distribution of brachiopods (environment, larval capacity for dispersal, oceanic currents. The presence in Apheoorthina aff. ferrigena of a well-preserved larval protegulum measuring 420 μm in width and 210 μm in length strongly suggests that this species had planktotrophic larvae capable of long-distance dispersal. According to recent ocean-atmosphere general circulation models for the Ordovician Period, the Central Andean margin was dominated by the cold-water Antarctica Current. Despite the complex non-zonal pattern produced by current deflections around the peri-Gondwanan microcontinents, the general westward circulation sense favoured larval dispersal from the Andean region to North Africa, Avalonia, the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, and Perunica. On the other hand, the eastwards flowing Gondwana Current connected the North Gondwana waters with the South American epicontinental seas, which could explain the reversed migration of some brachiopods.

  1. Middle and Late Devonian brachiopod assemblages,sea level change and paleogeography of Hunan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Givetian through middle Famennian brachiopods of Hunan are used to define five biozones,comprising,in ascending order,the Stringocephalus Abundance Zone,the Ambocoeliid-Leiorhynchid Assemblage Zone,the Cyrtospiriferid Assemblage Zone,the Yunnanellina-Sinospirifer Assemblage Zone,and the Yunnanella-Hunanospirifer Assemblage Zone.They correspond approximately to the Po.hemiansatus Zone to Po.varcus Zone,S.hermanni Zone to Pa.punctata Zone,Pa.hassi Zone to Pa.linguiformis Zone,Pa.triangularis Zone to Upper Pa.crepida Zone,and Uppermost Pa.crepida Zone to Pa.marginifera Zone,respectively.Intensified rifting activity in South China during the Devonian began in the middle of the Lower Po.varcus Zone(a level marked by the first appearance of Po.rhenanus),which is consistent with the Lower-Middle Givetian substage boundary suggested by the International Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy(SDS).This assumed that rifting activity in the Lower Po.varcus Zone was signified by the deposition of the Baqi Formation in Guangxi and was marked largely by the extensive deposition of the Qiziqiao Formation in central Hunan,which probably led to an opposite pattern of relative sea level change-rising in deeper water trough areas and lowering in carbonate platform areas.The previously recognized S.hermanni Zone sea level rise in platform margin areas of Guangxi can be identified not only in the trough areas but also in platform areas,which probably indicates an overall marine transgression at this time,rather than tectonically induced sea level change.Similarly,this level coincides with the Middle-Upper Givetian substage boundary suggested by the SDS.Although the sea level rise may have occurred in the deeper water trough areas of South China towards the end of the Givetian,platformal areas experienced uplifting at various degrees,especially in the central and northern regions of Hunan where Early Frasnian deposits were apparently absent in many places.Similarly,the end

  2. Flash Evaporation and Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction for the Analysis of the Essential Oils in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Houttuynia Cordata Thunb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Min LIANG; Mei Ling QI; Ruo Nong FU

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the use of flash evaporation, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and steam distillation (SD) as sample concentration and preparation techniques for the analysis of volatile constituents present in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS).Comparison studies were performed. It was found that the results obtained between Headspace solid-phase microextraction HS-SPME and SD techniques were in good agreement. Seventy-nine compounds in Houttuynia cordata Thunb were identified by MS. In flash evaporation, thirty-nine compounds were identified. Discrimination in the response for many constituents studied was not observed, which can be clearly observed in SD and HS-SPME techniques. As a conclusion,HS-SPME is a powerful tool for determining the volatile constitutes present in the Houttuynia cordata.

  3. Platystrophia (Orthida and new related Ordovician and Early Silurian brachiopod genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harper, David A. T.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 150 Ordovician and Early Silurian brachiopod species have been assigned to the genus Platystrophia King, 1850 mainly on the basis of their Spirifer-like shell exteriors. King’s concept of the genus was based on Platystrophia biforata King, which is not conspecific with Terebratulites biforatus Schlotheim, traditionally regarded as the type species of Platystrophia. Porambonites costatus Pander, 1830 is formally proposed as the type species of the genus to replace P. biforata; the latter is considered to be a nomen dubium. In our revised diagnosis, Platystrophia is restricted to a group of Arenig to upper Caradoc species from Baltica and Avalonia, whereas the Ashgill and lower Silurian taxa of these regions, hitherto assigned to Platystrophia, are placed in the new genus Neoplatystrophia. Platystrophia ponderosa Foerste, 1909 from the Upper Ordovician of North America is proposed as the type species of a new genus Vinlandostrophia. Two new species, Platystrophia baltica and Platystrophia pogrebovi from the Llanvirn–Caradoc of the East Baltic are also described.

  4. Assessing the completeness of the fossil record using brachiopod Lazarus taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearty, W.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lazarus taxa, organisms that disappear from the fossil record only to reappear later, provide a unique opportunity to assess the completeness of the fossil record. In this study, we apply logistic regression to quantify the associations of body size, geographic extent, and species diversity with the probability of being a Lazarus genus using the Phanerozoic fossil record of brachiopods. We find that both the geographic range and species diversity of a genus are inversely associated with the probability of being a Lazarus taxon in the preceding or succeeding stage. In contrast, body size exhibits little association with the probability of becoming a Lazarus taxon. A model including species diversity and geographic extent as predictors performs best among all combinations examined, whereas a model including only shell size as a predictor performs the worst - even worse than a model that assumes Lazarus taxa are randomly drawn from all available genera. These findings suggest that geographic range and species richness data can be used to improve estimates of extensions on the observed fossil ranges of genera and, thereby, better correct for sampling effects in estimates of taxonomic diversity change through the Phanerozoic.

  5. Protective Effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. on Gentamicin-induced Oxidative Stress and Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changgeun; Lee, Hyungkyoung; Hah, Do-Yun; Heo, Jung Ho; Kim, Chung Hui; Kim, Euikyung; Kim, Jong Shu

    2013-03-01

    Development of a therapy providing protection from, or reversing gentamicin-sulfate (GS)-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity would be of great clinical significance. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) against gentamicin sulfate-induced renal damage in rats. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, GS 100 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection; group 3, GS 100 mg/kg/d, i.p. + HC 500 mg/kg/d, oral; and group 4, GS 100 mg/kg/d i.p. + HC 1000 mg/kg/d, oral administration). Treatments were administered once daily for 12 d. After 12 d, biochemical and histopathological analyses were conducted to evaluate oxidative stress and renal nephrotoxicity. Serum levels of creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), together with renal levels of MDA, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were quantified to evaluate antioxidant activity. Animals treated with GS alone showed a significant increase in serum levels of creatinine, BUN, and MDA, with decreased renal levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. Treatment of rats with HC showed significant improvement in renal function, presumably as a result of decreased biochemical indices and oxidative stress parameters associated with GS-induced nephrotoxicity. Histopathological examination of the rat kidneys confirmed these observations. Therefore, the novel natural antioxidant HC may protect against GSinduced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

  6. Genetic control of floral morph in tristylous Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, Lyn A; Wofford, David S

    2008-01-01

    Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 16) tristylous aquatic perennial. Populations usually contain 3 floral morphs that differ reciprocally in style length and anther height (referred to as the long-, mid-, and short-styled morphs, hereafter L-, M-, and S-morphs). The floral polymorphism promotes disassortative mating among the 3 floral morphs and is maintained in populations by negative frequency-dependent selection. The objective of this study was to determine the number of loci, number of alleles, and gene action controlling floral morph in pickerelweed. Three parental lines (one each of the L-, M-, and S-morph) were used to create S1 and F1 populations. F2 populations were produced through self-pollination of F1 plants. Progeny ratios of S1, F1, and F2 generations revealed that tristyly is controlled by 2 diallelic loci (S and M) with dominant gene action. The S locus is epistatic to the M locus, with the S-morph produced by plants with the dominant S allele (genotype S _ _ _). Plants with recessive alleles at the S locus were either L-morph (ssmm) or M-morph (ssM_). The results of this experiment demonstrate that the inheritance of tristyly in pickerelweed is the same as previously reported for several tristylous species in the Lythraceae and Oxalidaceae.

  7. Italian alder (Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. - new species for Allochtonous dendroflora of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobinac Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign tree species, Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. (Italian alder, (Betulaceae/Loisel./Duby, not previously recorded in the dendroflora of Serbia, is described in this paper. Italian alder trees in an experimental plot in the area of Erdevik, aged 11 years, show good vitality and fast growth, and bear fruits since their 10th year. Tree heights are in range from 10.4 to 16.2 m, and diameters at the breast height range from14.6 to 34.9 cm. The morphological properties of leaves, fruiting organs (“cones” and male catkins are in concordance with the values in literature sources, although they show great variability. Since the time of plantation establishment, the absolute minimum air temperature in the nearby meteorological station of Sremska Mitrovica was -26.50C, so it can be assumed that the species is frost hardy. On the basis of the researched properties of Italian alder, it can be concluded that this species can be cultivated in Serbia as an ornamental in urban areas and as a fast growing species in forest plantations for biomass production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  8. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory effect of a polysaccharide HCP-2 from Houttuynia cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bao-Hui; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Chan, Ben Chung-Lap; Lin, Huang-Quan; Han, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Xuelin; Wan, David Chi-Cheong; Wang, Yi-Fen; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-03-15

    Immunomodulation of natural polysaccharides has been the hot topic of research in recent years. In order to explore the immunomodulatory effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb., the water extract was studied and a polysaccharide HCP-2 with molecular weight of 60,000 Da was isolated by chromatography using DEAE Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-500 [corrected] HR columns. The structure characterization of HCP-2 was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), acidic hydrolysis, PMP derivation, HPLC analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR). HCP-2 was elucidated as a pectic polysaccharide with a linear chain of 1,4-linked α-D-galacturonic acid residues in which part of the 6-carboxyl groups were methyl esterified and part of 2-hydroxyl groups were acetylated. The bioactivity assays showed that HCP-2 could increase the secretions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inhibitory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage inhibitory protein-1β (MIP-1β), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which play critical roles in the innate immune system and shape the adaptive immunity. Our results implied that HCP-2 could be an immune enhancer.

  9. Do the Available Data Permit Clarifcation of the Possible Dependence of Palaeozoic Brachiopod Generic Diversity Dynamics on Global Sea-Level Changes? A Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At a glance, progress in palaeontology and eustatic reconstructions in the past decade permits to prove or to disprove the possible dependence of Palaeozoic brachiopod generic diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes. However, the available diversity curve is of much lower resolution than the eustatic curve. This problem can be resolved by decreasing the resolution of the latter. The other restriction linked to the chronostratigraphical incompatibility of the available data allows to focus on the Middle Palaeozoic only. A series of mass extinctions and other biotic crises in the Silurian-Devonian does not allow to interpret correctly the results of direct comparison of the brachiopod generic diversity dynamics with global sea-level changes. With the available data, it is only possible to hypothesize that the eustatic control was not playing a major part in diversity dynamics of Middle Palaeozoic brachiopods. The resolution of the stratigraphic ranges of Palaeozoic brachiopods should be increased signifcantly, and these ranges should be plotted against the most up-to-date geologic time scale. Until this task will be achieved, it is impossible to judge about the existence of any dependence (either full or partial of the Palaeozoic brachiopod diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes.

  10. Phytoextraction of uranium from contaminated soil by Macleaya cordata before and after application of EDDS and CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-wu; Hu, Nan; Ding, De-xin; Hu, Jin-song; Li, Guang-yue; Wang, Yong-dong

    2015-04-01

    This is the first report on using Macleaya cordata for phytoextraction of uranium from the uranium contaminated soil in the greenhouse. Macleaya M. cordata was found to increase uranium concentration in the soil solution by increasing the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The amendment experiments with citric acid (CA) and [S,S]-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) at the rates of 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mmol kg(-1) dry weight (DW) soil showed that EDDS was more efficient to increase uranium concentration in the shoot than CA when they were applied at the same rate. The applications of 5.0 mmol kg(-1) EDDS and 10.0 mmol kg(-1) CA were most appropriate for increasing uranium concentrations in the shoot of M. cordata. CA was more efficient to increase the solubility of uranium at the same application rates except for 2.5 mmol kg(-1) application rate. There was a linear correlation between the uranium concentration in the shoot and the average uranium concentration of one planted pot during 14 days in soil solution after the application of different rates of EDDS and CA, respectively (r(2) = 0.972, P uranium uptake was dependent on the soluble uranium concentration. The Fe-U-DOC and Mn-U-DOC complexes were probably formed after the application of CA. Soil solution pH and Fe, Mn, Ca, and DOC concentrations in soil solution were found to be changed by the chelates.

  11. SYSTEMATICS OF LINGULIDE BRACHIOPODS FROM THE END-PERMIAN MASS EXTINCTION INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO POSENATO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The systematics of lingulide brachiopods, from the end-Permian mass extinction interval, is here studied and discussed. The material has been collected from upper Permian (Changhsingian beds of Southern Alps and Lower Triassic beds of several Tethyan localities, where the surviving phase following the peak the end-Permian mass extinction is recorded. The study contributes to fill the gap of knowledge regarding the lingulide systematics during a time lapse crucial for the fate of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic marine organisms. The systematics is based both on inner shell morphology and shell microstructure, which are considered to be the most useful taxonomical characters to study the lingulide phylogeny. The specimens have been referred to species of the new genus Trentingula, which is characterized by a shell with a secondary layer virgose fabric and a primitive disposition of the ventral muscle umbonal scar in the Lingulidae phylogeny. Trentingula n. gen. comprises four species: T. lorigae n. gen. n. sp., type-species, T. borealis (Bittner, T. mazzinensis n. gen. n. sp., and T. prinothi n. gen. n. sp. The type-species is late Griesbachian – Dienerian in age and has a wide geographic distribution in the western Tethys (Southern Alps and Hungary. Trentingula prinothi n. gen. n. sp. occurs in the Upper Permian Bellerophon Formation of the Dolomites; it has a large shell with a short mantle cavity. Trentingula mazzinensis n. gen. n. sp. occurs in the Griesbachian Mazzin Member of Werfen Formation and is characterized by a small sized shell, about half of the type species, which records the “Lilliput effect” related to the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction.

  12. Geochemistry of brachiopods: Oxygen and carbon isotopic records of Paleozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veizer, Ján; Fritz, Peter; Jones, Brian

    1986-08-01

    Combined trace element and isotope studies of 319 brachiopods, covering the Ordovician to Permian time span, show that δ 13C and δ 18O in well preserved specimens varied during the Paleozoic. The overall δ 13C secular trend is in accord with the previously published observations, but its details are obscured by vital isotopic fractionation effects at generic level. Nonetheless, the results suggest that the negative correlation between marine δ 13C carbonate and δ 34S sulphate deteriorates at time scales of ⩽ 10 6 years, due to the long residence time, and thus slow response, of SO 42- in the ocean. For oxygen isotopes, all Devonian and older specimens have δ 18O of ⩽ -4%, while the well preserved Permian samples have near-present day δ 18O of about -1% (PDB). This isotopic dichotomy is probably not due to post-depositional phenomena, salinity, or biogenic fractionation effects. This leaves open the perennial arguments for a change in 18O /16O of sea water versus warmer ancient oceans. The present data are difficult to explain solely by the temperature alternative. The coincidence of the proposed shift in δ 18O with the large Late Paleozoic changes in marine 87Sr /86Sr , 13C /12C , 34S /32S , and "sea level stands" argues for a tectonic cause and for a change in 18O /16O of sea water, although such explanation is difficult to reconcile with global balance considerations and with isotopic patterns observed in alteration products of ancient basalts and ophiolites. Whatever the precise cause, or combination of causes, the implications for tectonism and/or paleoclimatology are of first order significance.

  13. Research of Ditch Interception Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Pontederia Cordata%梭鱼草(Pontederia cordata)拦截沟渠中氮、磷的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红兵; 杨知建; 肖润林; 张树楠; 刘锋; 向佐湘; 单武雄

    2012-01-01

    Through planting the ornamental plant Pontederia cordata in the ditch, the effect of interception and purification water of Pontederia cordata ditch (eco-ditch) and without plant ditch (natural ditch) was studied at different times, and studied seasonal change of the contents of aboveground nitrogen, phosphorus and biomass of Pontederia cordata. The results showed that eco-ditch and natural ditch could purify nitrogen and phosphorus contents of water, and reduction range(3.37%-33.33%)of total nitrogen and total phosphorus was higher than reduction range(-3.66%-7.14%) of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen, the interception capacity of eco-ditch (6.82%-33.33% )was obviously higher than natural purification of natural ditch (-3.66%-16.67%). After raining the content of total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in ditch water had the tendency of increasing firstly and then declining, while the content of ammonium nitrogen was unstable, the content of total phosphorus reached highest values after raining the 2nd, then tended to steadily. Seasonal dynamics of the contents of aboveground nitrogen, phosphorus and biomass of Pontederia cordata reached highest values in October, so, it was the best time to harvest. The content of the aboveground nitrogen, phosphorus was 28.38 g/kg and 4.10g/kg and biomass was 0.19kg/m2. The harvest of Pontederia cordata would remove 5.36g/m2 of nitrogen and 0.78g/m2 of phosphorus every year, the objective is to provide the theory basis for restoration application of the development ornamental plant in ditch.%通过沟渠中种植观赏植物梭鱼草,研究了不同时间沟渠中梭鱼草段与无植物段拦截净化氮磷的效果以及梭鱼草自身氮磷含量、生物量季节变化.结果表明:梭鱼草段与无植物段都会净化沟渠水中的氮磷含量,全氟、全磷含量的降低(3.37%-3.33%)一般要高于硝态氟、铵态氮的变化(-3.66%-7.14%),梭鱼草段拦截氟磷的能力(6.82%-33.33%)明显高

  14. A Review of the Characteristics of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Their Implications for Silviculture in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy De Jaegere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tilia cordata Mill. is a minor European broadleaved species with a wide but scattered distribution. Given its scarcity and low value in the wood market, it has received little attention from researchers and forest managers. This review summarizes the main aspects of T. cordata ecology and growth. Its main limiting factor is its need for warm summer temperatures to ensure successful seed production. It has a height growth pattern relatively similar to that of Acer pseudoplatanus L., with a slight delay in the early stages. Yield tables report great productivity, especially in eastern Europe. T. cordata used to be a major species in Europe, in contrast to its present distribution, but it is very likely to receive renewed interest in the future. Indeed, with the potential change of competition between species in some regions and the need for important diversification in others, T. cordata may play an important role in forest adaptation to climate change, especially owing to its wide ecological tolerance and its numerous ecosystem services. It is necessary to increase our knowledge about its regeneration and its responses to environmental and silvicultural factors, to establish clear management recommendations.

  15. Becatamide Found in Houttuynia cordata suppresses P-selectin expression via inhibiting COX enzyme, not increasing cAMP in platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherosclerosis is a well-known inflammatory cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggested potential anti-atherosclerosis effects of becatamide found in Houttuynia cordata. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the potential effect of becatamide (1) and its analogues (enferamide (2), veskamid...

  16. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F; Gardner, D R; Medeiros, R M T; Barros, S S; Anjos, B L; Lucena, R B

    2007-01-01

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with grain. Clinical signs were observed after the ingestion of 62 and 106 g/kg body weight in 28 and 54 days, respectively. The concentration of swainsonine in the plant varied from less than 0.001% to 0.14% (dry weight). Clinical signs of natural and experimental cases included difficulties in standing, ataxia, hypermetria, wide-based stance, intention tremors, spastic paresis mainly in the hind legs, nystagmus, abnormal postural reactions, head tilting, and falling. Diffuse vacuolation of neurons, epithelial cells of pancreas, thyroids, and renal tubules were observed on the histology. From the electron microscopy of Purkinje cells the vacuoles represented dilated lysosomes. These findings demonstrated that T. cordata causes an acquired glycoprotein lysosomal storage disease. The intoxication occurs at least in an area of 27,000 km2 causing severe losses in goats, and some farmers report the disease also in cattle.

  17. Interactive effects of salinity and low potassium on growth, physiology response of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. W01-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Y. T.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is a plant enrichment in potassium in plant was reported. Salinity and low potassium availability are important environmental factors restricting plant growth and productivity throughout the world. The interactive effects of salinity and potassium on growth, water content, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation content, ion accumulations and K+/Na+ ratio, and organic accumulations as well as oxidative enzymes were investigated in Houttuynia cordata Thunb.. Plants of three-leaf-stage were selected for uniformity, then treated with four levels of Na+ (50, 100, 200 mmol/L and K+(0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 mmol/L for 20 days. Plant biomass production, ratio of root and shoot, root numbers, water content and MDA content significantly declined in the combined effect of salinity and K+ deprivation, and increased with salinity. However, salinity in conjunction with K+ deprivation led to an increase on leaf chlorophyll content, which even increased with increasing salinity levels. As expected, K+ content in plant was positive correlated with supplementary K+ concentrations, while Na+ was well correlated with salinity, especially enhanced by the interactive effects of salinity and K+ deprivation. Soluble sugar and proline contents remarkable increased by the highest salinity. SOD activity also substantial increased by the highest salinity, and increased with supplementary K+ concentrations. However, elevated CAT and POD activities were not accompanied with an increase in SOD activity.

  18. Measuring changes in articulate brachiopod morphology before and after the Permian mass extinction event: do developmental constraints limit morphological innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2004-01-01

    The pattern of decreasing disparity has been observed in both the metazoans and metaphytes throughout the Phanerozoic. The pattern is manifest as a decreasing trend in the origination of higher taxa. Currently, two competing evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon: the empty ecospace hypothesis and the developmental constraint hypothesis. To empirically distinguish between these hypotheses, the change in disparity before and after the end-Permian mass extinction event was measured in the articulated brachiopods. The assumption is that ecospace-limiting constraints are removed after mass extinctions revealing the effect of developmental constraints. For each taxon within the group, both continuous and discrete character sets were analyzed. Four different measures of disparity were used to analyze each character suite. Additionally, a separate analysis was performed on a subset of the articulated brachiopods, the rhynchonellids and terebratulids. In most cases investigated, disparity rebounded to comparable levels, with the rhynchonellids and terebratulids showing the largest increase in disparity after the end-Permian extinction, a clear example of an increase in disparity without a significant increase in taxonomic diversity. The results indicate that developmental constraints may not be responsible for the decreasing disparity in this group. The more likely scenario is that increasingly structured ecological guilds have made it much more difficult for large increases in disparity to occur.

  19. Neuromuscular development in Novocrania anomala: evidence for the presence of serotonin and a spiralian-like apical organ in lecithotrophic brachiopod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2010-01-01

    in the craniiform (inarticulate) brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larvae of this species are lecithotrophic and have a bilobed body with three pairs of dorsal setal bundles that emerge from the posterior lobe. Fully developed larvae exhibit a network of setae pouch muscles as well as medioventral longitudinal...

  20. Integration of transcriptome, proteome and metabolism data reveals the alkaloids biosynthesis in Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Macleaya spp., including Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa, are traditional anti-virus, inflammation eliminating, and insecticide herb medicines for their isoquinoline alkaloids. They are also known as the basis of the popular natural animal food addictive in Europe. However, few studies especially at genomics level were conducted on them. Hence, we performed the Macleaya spp. transcriptome and integrated it with iTRAQ proteome analysis in order to identify potential genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We elaborately designed the transcriptome, proteome and metabolism profiling for 10 samples of both species to explore their alkaloids biosynthesis. From the transcriptome data, we obtained 69367 and 78255 unigenes for M. cordata and M. microcarpa, in which about two thirds of them were similar to sequences in public databases. By metabolism profiling, reverse patterns for alkaloids sanguinarine, chelerythrine, protopine, and allocryptopine were observed in different organs of two species. We characterized the expressions of enzymes in alkaloid biosynthesis pathways. We also identified more than 1000 proteins from iTRAQ proteome data. Our results strongly suggest that the root maybe the organ for major alkaloids biosynthesis of Macleaya spp. Except for biosynthesis, the alkaloids storage and transport were also important for their accumulation. The ultrastructure of laticifers by SEM helps us to prove the alkaloids maybe accumulated in the mature roots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Macleaya spp. This work provides clues to the identification of the potential modulate genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis in Macleaya spp., and sheds light on researches for non-model medicinal plants by integrating different high-throughput technologies.

  1. Analysis of the Impact of Isoquinoline Alkaloids, Derived from Macleaya cordata Extract, on the Development and Innate Immune Response in Swine and Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Yordan; Rodríguez, Román; Más, Dairon; Peng, Hanhui; Valdivié Navarro, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal extract has been chronicled extensively in traditional Chinese medicine. Isoquinoline alkaloids, extract of Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br., have been used as feed additive in both swine and poultry. Dietary supplementation with isoquinoline alkaloids increases feed intake and weight gain. In addition, recent researches have demonstrated that isoquinoline alkaloids can regulate metabolic processes, innate immune system, and digestive functioning in animals. This review summarizes the latest scientific researches on isoquinoline alkaloids which are extracted from Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br. This review specifically focuses on its role as a feed supplement and its associated impact on growth performance and innate immune system, as well as its capacity to act as a substitute for oral antibiotics. PMID:28042566

  2. Purification of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Essential Oil Using Macroporous Resin Followed by Microemulsion Encapsulation to Improve Its Safety and Antiviral Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jianmei; Dong, Wujun; Li, Yuhuan; Xia, Xuejun; Liu, Zhihua; Hao, Huazhen; Jiang, Lingmin; Liu, Yuling

    2017-02-15

    Essential oil extracted from Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (H. cordata) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine due to its excellent biological activities. However, impurities and deficient preparations of the essential oil limit its safety and effectiveness. Herein, we proposed a strategy to prepare H. cordata essential oil (HEO) safely and effectively by combining the solvent extraction and the macroporous resin purification flexibly, and then encapsulating it using microemulsion. The extraction and purification process were optimized by orthogonal experimental design and adsorption-desorption tests, respectively. The average houttuynin content in pure HEO was then validated at 44.3% ± 2.01%, which presented a great potential for industrial application. Subsequently, pure HEO-loaded microemulsion was prepared by high-pressure homogenization and was then fully characterized. Results showed that the pure HEO-loaded microemulsion was successfully prepared with an average particle size of 179.1 nm and a high encapsulation rate of 94.7%. Furthermore, safety evaluation tests and in vitro antiviral testing indicated that the safety and activity of HEO were significantly improved after purification using D101 resin and were further improved by microemulsion encapsulation. These results demonstrated that the purification of HEO by macroporous resin followed by microemulsion encapsulation would be a promising approach for industrial application of HEO for the antiviral therapies.

  3. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Moser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researched. This study aimed to analyze the annual growth and drought tolerance of two common urban tree species, namely small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. (T. cordata and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. (R. pseudoacacia, in two cities in southern Germany in relation to their urban growing conditions. Marked growth reductions during drought periods and subsequent fast recovery were found for R. pseudoacacia, whereas T. cordata exhibited continued reduced growth after a drought event, although these results were highly specific to the analyzed city. We further show that individual tree characteristics and environmental conditions significantly influence the growth of urban trees. Canopy openness and other aspects of the surrounding environment (water supply and open surface area of the tree pit, tree size, and tree species significantly affect urban tree growth and can modify the ability of trees to tolerate the drought stress in urban areas. Sustainable tree planting of well adapted tree species to their urban environment ensures healthy trees providing ecosystem services for a high quality of life in cities.

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS, HOTTUYNIA CORDATA, CURCUMA CAESIA AND SYZYGIUM JUMBOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shagufa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to know and compare the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT, Hottuynia cordata (EEHC, Curcuma caesia (EECC and Syzygium jumbos (EESJ on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic plant extracts were prepared from the bark of Syzygium jumbos and leaves of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Hottuynia cordata and Curcuma caesia by percolation method. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College & Hospital. Disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the standard Kirby Bauer method. The whatmann-1 filter paper discs of 6mm sizes impregnated with the plant extracts were placed on Mueller-Hinton agar plates seeded with bacterial cultures of 0.5 Mc Farland standards. Ciprofloxacin (5μg/disc was used as positive control. The antibacterial activities were assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones after incubating the plates at 370c for 24 hours. The ethanolic extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT and Hottuynia cordata (EEHC showed significant anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ethanolic extracts of Syzygium jumbos (EESJ showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli while ethanolic extracts of Curcuma caesia (EECC showed significant anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Maximum zones of inhibition to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exhibited by Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Syzygium jumbos and Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus respectively.

  5. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Yeon Oh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different parts of the plant such as leaves, aerial stems, and underground stems for H. cordata Thunb. Sixteen compounds were identified. β-Myrcene, cis-ocimene and decanal are the dominant volatiles for leaves (71.0% and aerial stems (50.1%. While, monoterpenes (74.6% are the dominant volatiles for underground stems. 2-Undecanone (1.3% and lauraldehyde (3.5% were found to be the characteristic components for leaves. Each part of the plant has its own characteristic fragrance pattern owing to its individual chemical compositions. Moreover, its individual characteristic fragrance patterns are conducive to discrimination of the three different parts of the plant. Consequently, fast GC/SAW can be a useful analytical method for quality control of the different parts of the plant with pharmacological volatiles as it provides second unit analysis, a simple and fragrant pattern recognition.

  6. A near infrared spectroscopic study of the structural modifications of lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) wood during hydro-thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Popescu, Maria-Cristina

    2013-11-01

    The modifications and/or degradation of lime (Tillia cordata) wood components during wood heat treatment under low temperature at about 140 °C and 10% percentage of relative humidity were evaluated. The aim of this study was to obtain results by simple NIR coupled with second derivative, principal component analysis and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy in order to better understand how these techniques are able to evaluate structural differences resulted under hydro-thermal treatment of the wood over a period of 504 h. The NIR spectra of treated samples were compared with the reference one. Due to the broad bands in the NIR spectra, the assignment and modifications occurring during treatment is difficult, therefore the second derivative principal component analysis were applied. Principal component analysis by first two components was able to differentiate the samples series, PC1 being considered as the time axis, and PC2 as the axis representing the structural modification of wood components. 2D NIR correlation spectroscopy was able to estimate the sequential order of the groups variations under the hydro-thermal treatment time as external perturbation, indicating as first moment changes the OH and Csbnd O groups from carbohydrates and lignin, followed by Carsbnd H, Csbnd H and CH2 groups from lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses.

  7. Structural modifications of Tilia cordata wood during heat treatment investigated by FT-IR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Froidevaux, Julien; Navi, Parviz; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela

    2013-02-01

    It is known that heat treatment of wood combined with a low percent of relative humidity causes transformations in the chemical composition of it. The modifications and/or degradation of wood components occur by hydrolysis, oxidation, and decarboxylation reactions. The aim of this study was to give better insights on wood chemical modifications during wood heat treatment under low temperature at about 140 °C and 10% percentage of relative humidity, by infrared, principal component analysis and two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy. For this purpose, hardwood samples of lime (Tilia cordata) were investigated and analysed. The infrared spectra of treated samples were compared with the reference ones, the most important differences being observed in the "fingerprint" region. Due to the complexity of this region, which have contributions from all the wood constituents the chemical changes during hydro-thermal treatment were examined in detail using principal component analysis and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. By hydro-thermal treatment of wood results the formation of acetic acid, which catalyse the hydrolysis reactions of hemicelluloses and amorphous cellulose. The cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages and splitting of the aliphatic methoxyl chains from the aromatic lignin ring was also observed. For the first treatment interval, a higher extent of carbohydrates degradation was observed, then an increase of the extent of the lignin degradation also took place.

  8. Shell concentrations of Early Silurian virgianid brachiopods in northern Guizhou:Temporal and spatial distribution and tempestite formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; RONG JiaYu

    2007-01-01

    Shell beds in the uppermost Xiangshuyuan Formation and its coeval Upper Shihniulan Formation(Lower Silurian),northern Guizhou,SW China,are interpreted as tempestites occurring on the Upper Yangtze Platform.The shells are dominated by two endemic and transient virgianid(brachiopod)taxa,Paraconchidium shiqianensis and Virgianella glabera,which vary in relative abundance and deposited as fragments of valves with cemented micrite that differs from the surrounding sediment,demonstrating that the shells were not originally preserved in growth positions.The thicknesses of individual shell layers vary from ten centimeters to more than four meters.Shells had been strongly stirred up by high-energy currents,mainly caused by ocean storm events and probably related to the profile of the geographic shape of the coastline.Fragmentation of shells,in particular,their thinning anterior parts of ventral and dorsal valves are more intensive.The benthic assemblages are from lower BA2 to upper BA3 in depth,assigned to near shoal belt in geographic background.Breakage and stacking density are of the indexes of proximal and distal transportations.Northern Guizhou was located within the lower latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere during the Silurian time,and obviously affected the depth of the virgianid inhabitation.Most of these shells were disturbed repeatedly by surges.It is inferred that on average,several ten thousand years of growth of shells were required for development of shell layers,followed by storm disruption.

  9. Study on palaeoecology of brachiopod fauna in Pennsylvanian reefs in southern Guizhou,China%黔南宾夕法尼亚亚纪礁环境中腕足动物古生态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽; 巩恩普; 关长庆; 刘畅; 张永利; 常洪伦

    2011-01-01

    黔南地区宾夕法尼亚亚纪逍遥阶礁相地层中腕足动物普遍发育,主要产长身贝类和石燕贝类.本文主要研究该区腕足动物与造礁生物叶状藻和Fomitchevella珊瑚之间的生态关系.在叶状藻礁内,小个体腕足动物常附着在藻叶上营假漂浮生活;但藻叶密集处,小个体腕足动物也难见,可能藻丛造成水流循环不畅使腕足动物难以获得充足的食料;藻叶稀疏处,腕足动物个体加大,数量增加.在大型Fomitchevella珊瑚格架礁内,腕足动物与Fornitchevella之间不存在食物上的竞争.腕足动物介壳层为Fomitchevella幼虫定殖提供了生物成因的硬质基底,在此基础之上发育了大型珊瑚礁.腕足动物在Fornitchevella进入统殖阶段由于生态空间受到局限而退居次要地位.%Abundant brachiopod fauna distributed widely in Pennsylvanian reefs of Xiaoyao Formation in southern Guizhou, China, in which were rich Choristites and Martinia fossils. The main attention in this paper is to the ecological relationship among brachiopod fauna and reef-building organisms: phylloid algae and Fomitchevella coral. In phylloid algae reef, small brachiopod was sometimes discovered floatting on the algae leaf. But it was difficult to find brachiopod in closely spaced phylloid algae, which was due to that perhaps brachiopod couldn't find adequate food when water flow became weak correlated with the prevention of phylloid algae, instead, the brachiopod increased in shape and quantity in sparse phylloid algae. In large-sized coral reef, there was almost no competition for food between brachiopod and Fomitchevella. The brachiopod shells provided biogenic hard substrate for attaching of Fomitchevella larvae and developed large reefs. Brachiopods were precluded from substrate by Fomitchevella because of the limitation of ecological space.

  10. 鱼腥草挥发油的化学成分%Chemical constituents of volatile oil from Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾虹燕; 蒋丽娟; 张英超

    2003-01-01

    The volatile oils from Houttuynia cordata Thunb. were obtained with supereritical CO2, steam distillation and petroleum ether extraction and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS. The results showed that the chemical constituents of the volatile oils by three different methods are very different. The extraction rates of volatile oil by above-mentioned three extraction methods are 1.764%, 0.040% and 0.082%, respectively. The volatile oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction, which the content of houttuyninum reached 14.393 %, is better than those with traditional methods.

  11. Evaluation of Houttuynia cordata and Taraxacum officinale on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Diet for Weaning Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L; Zhang, Z F; Park, J C; Kim, I H

    2012-10-01

    A total of 144 pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial BW of 8.45±0.57 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 9 replications per pen in a randomized complex block design. Dietary treatments included: i) CON (basal diet), ii) ANT (CON+tylosin 1 g/kg), iii) H1 (CON+H. cordata 1 g/kg) and iv) T1 (CON+T. officinale 1 g/kg). In this study, pigs fed the ANT and T1 treatment had a higher (p0.05) was observed on the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility with H1 supplementation compared with the CON treatment. The inclusion of ANT treatment led to a higher (p0.05) the blood characteristics (white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), IgG, lymphocyte). No difference was observed on (p0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of T. officinale (1 g/kg) increased growth performance, feed efficiency, energy digestibility similarly to the antibiotic treatment. Dietary supplementation of T. officinale and H. cordata (1 g/kg) reduced the fecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs.

  12. Field performance of Alnus cordata Loisel (Italian alder) inoculated with Frankia and VA-mycorrhizal strains in mine-spoil afforestation plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumini, E.; Bosco, M.; Puppi, G.; Isopi, R.; Frattegiani, M.; Burseti, E.; Favili, F.

    1994-05-01

    Mixed stands of {ital Alnus cordata}, {ital Eleagnus} spp. and broad leaf timber trees have been successfully used for reclamation of mine spoils in surface mined areas of central Italy. Trials showed that the use of mycorrhizal planting stock may improve the establishment of plants on mine spoils. Alder seeds were sown in pots filled with peat moss and lignite mine spoils and Fungal strains {ital Glomus mosscae} and {ital G. fasciculatum} were inoculated into the pots. A Frankia strain isolated from {ital A. cordata} was also tested. Plants were then outplanted after measuring shoot height and collar diameter. The planting was done in mid-January among commercial trees ({ital Quercus robur}, {ital Fraxinus oxyphilla}, and {ital Prunus avium}). Plants became highly nodulated in the pots. Mycorrhizal infection was about 30% on inoculate plants but did not occur on uninoculated plants. Aboveground biomass at out-planting was significantly greater in the Frankia inoculated plants. There was generally more N in plant leaves in the inoculate plants than in the uninoculated ones. Plant survival in the field after one winter was 83% on average. One year after planting, the inoculated plants were significantly bigger as were the Frankia inoculated plants. The combination of Frankia and Glomus was very effective (contrary to other studies).

  13. Remediation of Urban River Water by Pontederia Cordata Combined with Artificial Aeration: Organic Matter and Nutrients Removal and Root-Adhered Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dungang; Xu, Huan; He, Yan; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Macrophyte combined with artificial aeration is a promising in situ remediation approach for urban rivers polluted with nutrients and organic matter. However, seasonal variations and aeration effects on phytoremediation performance and root-adhered microbial communities are still unclear. In this study, Pontederia cordata was used to treat polluted urban river water under various aeration intensities. Results showed that the highest removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and total nitrogen (TN) were attained under aeration of 30 L min(-1) in spring and summer and 15 L min(-1) in autumn, while total phosphorus (TP) removal reached maximum with aeration of 15 L min(-1) in all seasons. Moderate aeration was beneficial for increasing the diversity of root-adhered bacteria communities, and the shift of bacterial community structure was more pronounced in spring and autumn with varying aeration intensity. The dual effect, i.e. turbulence and dissolved oxygen (DO), of aeration on the removal of COD(Cr) and TN prevailed over the individual effect of DO, while DO was the most influential factor for TP removal and the root-adhered bacterial community diversity. P. cordata combined with 15 L min(-1) aeration was deemed to be the best condition tested in this study.

  14. Paleocommunity Replacements of Benthic Brachiopod in the Middle-Upper Devonian in the Longmenshan Area, Southwestern China: Responses to Sea Level Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuanren; LI Xianghui

    2005-01-01

    Twelve paleocommunities dominated by benthic brachiopod are recognized in the Givetian-Frasnian stages of the Devonian in the Longmenshan area, southwestern China, in which two kinds of brachiopod community replacement are classified. One is the abrupt replacement, represented by abrupt alternation between the Leiorhynchus community and Zhonghuacoelia-Striatopugnax community in the Frasnian Tuqiaozi Formation. The other is the gradual one, developed in the Givetian Guanwushan Formation, which had been completed by the shift of the Independatrypa lemma-Uncinulus heterocostellis-Emanuella takwanensis community via the Sinospongophyllum irregulare-Pseudomicroplasma fongi community to the Clathrocoilona spissa-Hexagonaria composite reef community. According to analyses of the paleocommunities, either the abrupt or gradual paleocommunity replacement of the Middle-Upper Devonian in the Longmenshan area is suggested as a response to the 5th-order sea level fluctuation due to the replacements of the paleocommunities in a tracts-system of depositional sequence. It is supposed that changes of paleocommunity diversity,one of the results of paleocommunity replacement, are depended on the range and magnitude of sea level fluctuation, but there is not a linear relationship between them. Furthermore, a suggestion is proposed that the concept of paleocommunity succession seem to be abandoned in the paleocommunity analysis because it almost never be practiced to recover the information of community succession in the geological record at present.

  15. 18O /16O and 13C /12C in lower Paleozoic articulate brachiopods: Implications for the isotopic composition of seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadleigh, Moire A.; Veizer, Ján

    1992-01-01

    Three hundred and eleven articulate brachiopods, with extensive geographic coverage, spanning the Cambrian to Silurian stratigraphic interval, were analyzed for oxygen and carbon isotopic composition. Cambrian samples have δ18O ≤ -7%., Ordovician samples ≤ -2.4‰, and Silurian samples ≤ -1.9‰, confirming the previously established trend towards lighter isotopic compositions with increasing age throughout the Lower Paleozoic. Forty-nine "best preserved" Ordovician and Silurian samples were identified based on scanning electron microscopy and trace element analysis. They were found to bracket the isotopic compositions of over 85% of specimens from these stratigraphic intervals supporting widespread preservation of the isotopic signal. Some latest Ordovician and Lower Ludlovian samples associated with shale sequences are apparently "enriched" in 18O. These are interpreted as an environmental phenomenon, perhaps related to water temperature and glaciation. A number of Silurian samples of varying genera and stratigraphic levels are highly enriched in 13C, up to +6‰. Some are shale related, but some are associated with carbonate-bearing basins. These are also thought to represent "near-original" compositions, but a single environmental cause is unknown. The present data show that luminescence is not a decisive criterion for evaluating the degree of brachiopod preservation. Whole-shell values were isotopically similar to their nonluminescent portions for both oxygen and carbon.

  16. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato

  17. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  18. Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hakimah Abdullah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3, scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4, 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5, quercetin (6, kaempferol (7, taxifolin (8, loganin (9 and β-sitosterol (10. Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS. In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus

  19. Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nur Hakimah; Salim, Fatimah; Ahmad, Rohaya

    2016-04-27

    Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol (7), taxifolin (8), loganin (9) and β-sitosterol (10). Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3%) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL) while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus and

  20. STUDY OF THE DEVONIAN BRACHIOPOD GENERA YUNNANELLA AND NAYUNNELLA%论泥盆纪腕足动物Yunnanella和Nayunnella属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀琴; 廖卓庭; 许汉奎

    2001-01-01

    腕足动物Yunnanella和 Nayunnella两属在我国分布很广,是晚泥盆世法门期重要的带化石之一。由于命名等问题,迄今,这两属的使用在国内外仍比较混乱。Sartenaer (1961a,1962) 根据国际动物命名法规提出,Yunnanella Grabau,1923和Nayunnella Sartenaer,1961两属的命名是有效的,它们的模式种分别是Yunnanella hanburii (Davidson, 1853)和Yunnanella synplicata Grabau,1931。 Yunnanella Grabau, 1931是Yunnanella Grabau, 1923的异物同名,Yunnanellina Grabau, 1931是Yunnanella Grabau, 1923的同物异名。研究认为,Sartenaer (1961a,1962 )的观点符合国际动物命名法规的优先原则, 应予采纳。%The Devonian brachiopod Yunnanella-Nanyunnella fauna is widely distributed in China, especially in South China. Since 1923, this fauna has been recorded in China by many authors (Grabau, 1923-1924, 1931; Schuchert et al., 1929; Tien, 1938; Wang, 1955; Wang et al., 1964, 1966; Zhang et al., 1959; Yang et al., 1977; Xu et al., 1978; Xu, 1978, 1979, 1980 ; Wang et al., 1982; Zhang et al., 1983; Zhang et al., 1983; Wang, 1984; Yang,1984; Yu et al., 1990; Ma, 1995).   The genus Yunnanella was first reported by Grabau with two species Yunnanella synplicata Grabau and Y. hanburii (Davidson) (Grabau,1923, p.191,195). However, the monography on Devonian brachiopods of China written by Grabau was not published until 1931. In which, Grabau described Yunnanella as a new genus with a new species Yunnanella synplicata Grabau, 1931 as its type species and a new subgenus Yunnanellina with Rhynchonella hanburii Davidson,1853 as its type species (Grabau,1931, p.141,157). In two papers dealing with nomenclatural problems, Sartenaer (1961a, 1962) remarked that the nominal genus Yunnanella has been valid since 1923 when it was erected by Grabau and contained only one valid species Rhynchonella hanburii Davidson which was described by Davidson in 1853. The species Yunnanella synplicata Grabau, has neither

  1. 博落回中两个新苯并菲啶类异喹啉生物碱%Two new benzo phenanthridine isoquinoline alkaloids from Macleaya cordata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯锋; 叶冯芝; 李彩莲; 柳文媛; 谢宁

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the chemical constituents of Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R.Br.METHODS:Crude alkaloids were isolated and purified from the fruits with column chromatography of cation exchange,silica gel ad Sephadex LH-20 followed by recrystallization.The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive spectroscopic methods.RESULTS:Two new benzophenanthridine isoquinoline alkaloids,6α-iso-butanonyldihydrosanguinarine (1) and 6α-iso-butanonyldihydrochelerythrine (2),along with other four known alkaloid compounds,6-acetonyldihydrosanguinarine (3),6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (4),dihydrosanguinarine (5)and dihydrocbelerythrine (6) have been isolated from fruits of M.cordata collected in Anhui Province of China.CONCLUSION:Benzophenanthridine isoquinoline alkaloids are featured in M.cordata.Compounds 1 and 2 are new ones.%目的:对中药博落回的化学成分进行研究.方法:依次采用阳离子交换树脂、硅胶、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱法和重结晶等分离技术,对博落回的生物碱进行分离.并运用多种光谱技术对所得生物碱的结构进行鉴定.结果:从博落回中分离并鉴定了6个苯并菲啶类异喹啉生物碱:6α-iso-butanonyldihydrosanguinarine (1),6α-iso-butanonyldihydrochelerythrine (2),6-丙酮基二氢血根碱(6-acetonyldihydrosanguinarine,3),6-丙酮基二氢白屈菜红碱(6-acetonyl-dihydrochelerythrine,4),二氢血根碱(dihydrosanguinarine,5)、二氢白屈菜红碱(dihydrochelerythrine,6).结论:苯并菲啶类异喹啉生物碱是中药博落回的典型化学成分.化合物1和2为新化合物.

  2. Aversão alimentar condicionada no controle de surtos de intoxicações por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa e Turbina cordata em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A aversão alimentar condicionada é uma técnica que pode ser utilizada em animais para evitar a ingestão de plantas tóxicas. A técnica foi utilizada em uma fazenda para controlar a intoxicação por Turbina cordata e em outra para Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa. Os caprinos eram presos à noite, e na manhã do dia seguinte lhes era ofertada a planta verde, recém-colhida, por dez minutos. Os caprinos que ingerissem qualquer quantidade da planta eram identificados, pesados e tratados com LiCl na dose de 175mg/kg peso vivo através de sonda esofágica. No rebanho da fazenda na que havia T. cordata a técnica foi aplicada a cada dois meses durante o período em que a planta é encontrada. Durante todo o experimento, de dezembro de 2009 a abril de 2011 não ocorreu nenhum novo caso de intoxicação no rebanho e diminuiu gradualmente o número de animais avertidos e a quantidade de planta que ingeriam os mesmos durante o processo de aversão. Na fazenda na que ocorria intoxicação por I. carnea a maioria de rebanho foi avertido em dezembro de 2010, 15-20 dias antes do início das chuvas, e os animais não ingeriram a planta espontaneamente no campo até setembro-outubro de 2011, durante o período da seca, quando havia extrema carência de forragem e iniciaram a ingerir a planta no campo. Posteriormente, apesar de três tratamentos aversivos com 21 dias de intervalo, os animais continuaram a ingerir a planta e ocorreram casos clínicos. A técnica de aversão alimentar condicionada demonstrou ser eficiente e viável para o controle da intoxicação por T. cordata. Para a intoxicação por I. carnea a técnica impediu a ingestão da planta somente durante a época de chuvas, mas não durante a seca, quando há pouca disponibilidade de forragem. A diferença nos resultados com as duas plantas é, aparentemente, resultante das condições epidemiológicas diferentes nas que ocorrem as intoxicações. T. cordata desaparece durante a maior parte do

  3. Mite species (Acari: Mesostigmata new and rare to Polish fauna, inhabiting the soil of broadleaved forests dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. in Kwidzyn Forest District (N Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALEŃCZYK-KOZIRÓG KATARZYNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During a two-year study on mites of the order Mesostigmata in broadleaved forest stands dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill., 117 mite species were identified. Among them, 3 had been so far rarely recorded in Poland (Haemogamasus nidi, Stylochirus rovenensis and Eugamasus crassitarsis and 2 were classified as new to the Polish fauna (Veigaia sibirica and Digamasellus perpusillus.

  4. 不同居群鱼腥草中As和Hg及666·DDT的测定%Determination of As, Hg and 666, DDT of different Houttuynia cordata Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎; 龚寒; 吴卫

    2009-01-01

    [目的]测定鱼腥草中重金属As、Hg以及666、DDT农药残留的含量,比较不同鱼腥草资源间在相同栽培条件下对其积累的差异.[方法]采用海光AFS-3000型双道原子荧光光度计测定As和Hg含量;采用岛津GC-9A型气相色谱仪,按GB/T14551-2003测定666和DDT的含量.[结果]鱼腥草幼嫩地上部分中As平均含量为0.161 mg/kg,Hg平均含量为0.004 mg/kg,地下部分中两者的平均含量分别为0.130和0.0025 mg/kg;仅小部分材料中检出痕量δ-666.[结论]鱼腥草资源间对As、Hg以及666、DDT积累的差异不显著;根据国标规定,鱼腥草中As、Hg以及666、DDT的含量均低于限量.%[Ohjective] The aim was to determine the content of heavy metals As, Hg and 666, DDT pesticides in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. and compare the accumulation of As, Hg and 666, DDT of different H. cordata accessions, which were cultivated in the same environment. [Method] The contents of As and Hg were determined using Haiguang AFS-3000 atomic fluorescence spectrum instrument; the remains of 666, DDT pesticides were determined according to GB/T14551 -2003 using Simadzu GC-9A gas chromatography instrument. [Result] The average content of As was 0.161 mg/kg and the average content of Hg was 0.004 mg/kg in the young aerial parts of H. cordata, and in the underground parts, the average contents of As and Hg were 0. 130 and 0.002 5 mg/kg, respectively; the trace of δ-666 was detected in few accessions. [Conclusion] The accumulation of As, Hg and 666, DDT among different H. cordata accessions was not remarkable. According to national standard, the content of As, Hg and 666, DDT were lower the prescript in H. cordata.

  5. Inter- and intraannual growth patterns of urban small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata mill.) at two public squares with contrasting microclimatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Astrid; Rahman, Mohammad A.; Pretzsch, Hans; Pauleit, Stephan; Rötzer, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The effects of urban conditions on tree growth have been investigated in an increasing number of studies over the last decades, emphasizing the harsh environment of cities. Urban trees often grow in highly paved, compacted sites with consequently less soil moisture, higher soil temperatures, and greater vapor pressure deficits. However, there is still a knowledge gap regarding the impact of harsh paved environments on urban tree growth during drought years on the growth patterns of urban trees. The present study investigated the structure and growth of the common urban tree species small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata) at a highly paved public square (CPS) compared with a contrasting more open, greener square (OGS). Continuously, measured high precision dendrometer data along with meteorological data of the extreme dry and warm summer 2015 as well as dendrochronological data of the sampled trees were investigated to analyze tree growth during a drought year. The results highlight different tree dimensions and growth patterns of the trees at both sites, influenced by tree age and distinct site conditions. While the trees at OGS grew up to 2.5 mm from July until mid of August, the trees at CPS had only 0.4-mm diameter increment. After the initial expansion at CPS, tree diameter contracted again during summer to the point of shrinkage (up to 0.8 mm) at the end of our investigation. Further drought year analysis confirmed the patterns of significant stem growth reductions in the consecutive two years following the drought. A correlation analysis revealed that transpiration, air temperature, and vapor pressure deficit were negatively correlated with the daily diameter growth, whereas precipitation had a strong positive effect. Due to high transpiration rates associated with anisohydric water use behavior, T. cordata was able to provide evaporative cooling even during drought. However, this anisohydric behavior resulted in substantial growth decline afterwards especially at

  6. Flavonol glycosides found in hydroethanolic extracts from Tilia cordata, a species utilized as anxiolytics Flavonóides glicosídeos encontrados no extrato hidroalcoólico de Tilia cordata, espécie usada como ansiolítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Negri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tilia species, among which is Tilia cordata Mill. (Tiliaceae, have been used in folk medicine as anxiolytic. The hydroethanolic extract was analyzed by using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS in negative ion mode, and its chemical composition was compared to flavonoids reported as anxiolytics. The major flavonoids found were: quercetin-3,7-di-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3,7-di-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-(6"-p-coumaroyl glucoside or tiliroside. The anxiolytic activity of the genus Tilia has been attributed to the presence of quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, while the anxiolytic activity of T. americana var. Mexicana was attributed to tiliroside, which was also found among the major constituents of this species.As espécies de Tilia, entre elas, a Tilia cordata Mill. (Tiliaceae são utilizadas como ansiolíticas na medicina popular. O extrato hidroalcoólico foi analisado usando cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS/MS no modo negativo e a sua composição química foi comparada com os flavonóides já reportados como ansiolíticos. Os principais flavonóides encontrados foram: quercetina-3,7-di-O-rhamnosideo, canferol-3,7-di-O-rhamnosideo, e canferol 3-O-(6"-p-cumaroil glucosideo ou tilirosideo. A atividade ansiolítica do gênero Tília tem sido atribuída à presença de derivados de canferol e quercetina, enquanto que a atividade ansiolítica da T. americana var. Mexicana foi atribuída ao tilirosideo, o qual também foi encontrado entre os principais constituintes desta espécie.

  7. Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc

    2013-12-01

    The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443. Besides, the polymerase chain reaction product of minD gene was also obtained in L. rhamnosus PN04, a strain was isolated from Vietnamese Hottuynia cordata Thunb. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MinD homologs from L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 with the other strains and compared the predicted three-dimension structure of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD with Escherichia coli MinD, there are similarity that showed evolution of these strains. The overexpression of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD in E. coli led to cell filamentation in IPTG and morphology changes in different sugar stresses, interestingly. The present study is the first report characterizing the Lactobacilus MinD homolog that will be useful in probiotic field.

  8. Orthogonal projection (OP) technique applied to pattern recognition of fingerprints of the herbal medicine houttuynia cordata Thunb. and its final injection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhong-Da; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Zhang, Ting; Chau, Foo-Tim; Wang, Ya-Li

    2006-05-01

    It is a crucial issue to determine the origins of herbal medicinal materials and identify the quality grades and fakes of their final products collected from different pharmaceutical corporations. Pattern recognition technique may assist the manufacturers to achieve this purpose and effectively control the quality of their products. In this work, a widely used method in chemometrics, orthogonal projection (OP) technique, was applied to discrimination analysis and identification of fingerprints of the herbal medicine houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) and its final injection products. The advantages of the OP technique are clearly shown after comparing with the conventional methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), Mahalanobis distance (MD), and similarity comparison method (SCM). Three different sources of medicinal material HCT and its final injection products from six different manufacturers were studied under 'sixfold', 'threefold' and 'threefold-bis' cross-validation procedures. The good performance of the proposed method in determination and identification of unknown samples shows it could be a powerful tool for quality control in herbal medicine production and other related research fields.

  9. Moscovian brachiopods of the 'Paquete Levinco', Central Asturian Carboniferous basin. Braquiopodos Moscovientes del paquete Levinco, Cuenca Carbonifera Central de Asturias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Garcia, L.M.; Martinez Chacon, M.L. (Univ. Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Dep. Geol.)

    1988-01-01

    The Paquete Levinco in the Spanish Central Coal Basin, has an average thickness of 750 m and consists mainly of sandstones and siltstones with thin coal seams interbedded with some calcareous levels. On the basis of foraminifers its age is regarded as ranging between the Bashkirian-Vereyan boundary and the Kashirian. The Paquete has been sampled in the region of Villoria-Los Tornos; four localities with abundant brachiopods have been found. 41 different species have been collected and studied. The characteristics of the whole fauna suggest that they inhabited a muddy sea-bottom. It has been possible to distinguish two assemblages: one of them, characteristic for the Vereyan levels, still includes a high number of species known from other localities in the region in Upper Bashkirian beds; the other, of Kashirian age, is characterized by the disappearance of those Upper Bashkirian species and by the giving way of {ital Brachythyrina pinica} to {ital B. strangwaysi}. The Paquete Levinco yields many species in common with Western Europe and the European part of the USSR; it also shares with these regions a great number of genera, some of which are characteristic of the Palaeotethys domain of the northern margin of which these regions formed part. 8 figs., 1 tab., 44 refs.

  10. BIVALVES AND BRACHIOPODS NEAR THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY FROM THE BÜKK MOUNTAINS (BÁLVÁNY-NORTH SECTION, NORTHERN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO POSENATO

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Bükk Mountains the Upper Permian is represented by the Nagyvisnyó Limestone, which contains very rich marine assemblages. It is overlain by the Gerennavár Limestone (uppermost Permian-Lower Triassic which records the effects of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction with a dramatic decrease in diversity and abundance of fossils. The basal Gerennavár Limestone is represented by a clayey marl unit (basal beds deposited in a quiet, low-energy marine environment below the storm wave-base, whose maximum thickness, about one meter, is recorded in the Bálvány-North section. From this locality a relatively diversified and abundant marine benthonic assemblage has been collected, and is here described. Bivalves are represented by: Bakevellia cf. ceratophaga (Schlotheim, ? Pterinopectinidae gen. et sp. indet., Eumorphotis lorigae sp. n., the most abundant species, Entolium piriformis (Liu and Pernopecten latangulatus Yin. Brachiopods are less frequent, and the following four species have been identified: Spinomarginifera sp., Orthothetina ladina (Stache, Ombonia tirolensis (Stache and Orbicoelia tschernyschewi (Likharew. An exact age of this fauna, based on conodonts, is not yet available, but the strong affinities with those of the lower Tesero Member (Dolomites and the Lower Kathwai Member (Pakistan suggest a latest Permian age (? Hindeodus praeparvus Zone. If so, the Bálvány-North section becomes one of the few in the world which records the last bioevents of the Palaeozoic.

  11. The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function (productivity) of the late Middle Permian brachiopods community at the region of Hechuan, Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yong; JIANG LiJun; KE Yan; L(U) Qian; ZHAO Li; LIANG JiaDong; HU Han; LINGHU Bo

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function is a hot topic in ecology and environics.This paper investigates the evolution of diversity of the late Middle Permian brachiopods community in Hechuan,Chongqing,China,and discusses the relationship between species diversity and community productivity in terms of the geohistorical development.This paper shows that the species diversity is externalized by several indexes,and the relationship between diversity and productivity is too complex to be described by a single assumption.The relationship between species diversity and community productivity is restricted by environment and community evolution.When the community succeeds normally,the relationship between species richness index,species diversity index,and species evenness index to productivity is in linear dependence relation to each other,which is met with the third assumption.But,when the environment interference surpasses the bearing capability of the community,not only the community succession will be terminated and be replaced by another one,but also the relationship between species richness index,species diversity index,and species evenness index to productivity is also inversed to negative correlation by the interference from environment.Only the relationship between ecological dominance and productivity is in linear dependence relation to each other and approximately met with the third assumption.It is illustrated that the assumption that the productivity is in linear dependence relation with diversity should be established on the presupposition that the community succession is normal.

  12. Salification of main alkaloids in Macleaya cordata extract with sulfuric acid%博落回提取物(MCE)中主要生物碱与硫酸成盐研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许泷; 陈湘滨; 曾建国; 杜宇; 谈满良

    2011-01-01

    目的:测定博落回提取物(MCE)中4种生物碱与硫酸成盐的计量关系及其含量,为建立MCE的质量标准提供实验依据。方法:用HPLC法测定其中4种主要生物碱的含量;BaSO4沉淀重量法测定SO42-含量;NaOH酸碱电位滴定法测定H2SO4和HSO4-的总量。结果:硫酸氢根含量约为18%,生物碱的硫酸氢盐含量〉80%,游离硫酸含量约为0.76%。结论:MCE中生物碱以硫酸氢盐形式存在,而且血根碱和白屈菜红碱(苯并菲啶类生物碱)为其主要有效成分。%Objective: To determine the metrical relationship and content of four alkaloids in Macleaya cordata extract salification with sulfuric acid,and provide experimental basis for the quality standard ofMacleaya cordata extract.Methods: The content of four kinds of alkaloids were determined by HPLC,and the content of sulfate was determined by barium sulfate sediment weighting method,and the total amout of sulfuric acid and bisulfate ion was determined by sodium hydrate acid base electric titration.Results: The content of bisulfate ion was about 18%,the bisulfate salt of alkaloid was above 80%,and the content of liberated sulfuric acid was 0.76%.Conclusion: The alkaloids in Macleaya cordata extract were existed in the form of bisulfate,and the main active components were sanguinarine and chelerythrine(benzophenanthridine).

  13. Ent-pimara-8(14), 15-dien-19-oic acid isolated from the roots of Aralia cordata inhibits induction of inflammatory mediators by blocking NF-kappaB activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Hwa; Chae, Hee-Sung; Choi, Jang-Gi; Oh, Yoo-Chang; Lee, Young-Seob; Kim, Jong-Hak; Seung, Man-Jun; Jang, Hye-Jin; Bae, Ki-Hwan; Lee, John-Hwa; Shin, Dong-Won; Kwon, Dong Yeul

    2008-12-28

    Macrophages play central roles in the innate immune system. The roots of Aralia cordata are widely used in Oriental medicine as a remedy for arthritis. During our program to screen medicinal plants for potential anti-inflammatory compounds, ent-pimara-8(14), 15-dien-19-oic acid (pimaradienoic acid; PA) was isolated from the roots of A. cordata. We examined the effect of PA on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. PA was found to significantly inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as the expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and IL-6. Furthermore, we examined whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways are involved in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. We found that a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and an ERK 1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) significantly affected LPS-induced IL-6 production. In contrast, a JNK 1/2 inhibitor (SP600125) and PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin or LY294002) did not block the induction of IL-6 production by LPS. The LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was inhibited by PA, but not the phosphorylation of JNK 1/2 and AKT (Ser473). Moreover, PA suppressed I kappaB alpha degradation, NF-kappaB activation and luciferase activity. These results suggest that PA isolated from A. cordata has a potential regulatory effect on inflammatory iNOS, COX-2 and IL-6 expression through blockade of the phosphorylation of MAPKs following I kappaB alpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation.

  14. Analysis on Volatile Constituents of Aralia cordata Thunb.from Different Places%不同产地九眼独活挥发油成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲兰香; 唐天君; 袁小红; 侯大斌; 王博

    2010-01-01

    [目的]明确四川省青川县和茂县产九眼独活(Aralia cordata Thunb.)根挥发油成分的组成及差异.[方法]用水蒸气蒸馏法提取青川县和茂县产九眼独活根挥发油,用GC-MS法分析和鉴定其成分.[结果]分别从青川县和茂县产九眼独活根中鉴定出了59、36种成分,分别占其精油总量的57.150%、45.867%.青川县产九眼独活根挥发油中的主要成分有α-没药醇(4.093%)、海松醛(18.857%)、sclarene(6.750%)、松香酸(3.900%)、13β-methyl-13-vinyl-7-en-3-one-podocarp(4.238%)等;茂县产九眼独活根挥发油中的主要成分有α-没药醇(2.502%)、海松醛(10.732%)、[1R-(1R*,3E,)]-3,7-dien-12-ol,4,8,12,15,15-pentamethyl-bicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca(10.209%)、海松酸(12.305%)等.[结论]青川县和茂县产九眼独活根挥发油的主要成分存在一定的差异,这为不同地区九眼独活商品的质量控制提供了参考标准.

  15. Macroporous Resin Adsorption for Purification of Flavonoids in Houttuynia cordata Thunb%大孔吸附树脂精制鱼腥草黄酮类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 李淑芬; 吴希文; 赵星

    2007-01-01

    Flavonoids are one main kind of effective components in Houttuynia cordata Thunb.,which display a wide range of pharmacological activity. In this study supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide was first used as preparation step to remove the volatile components,which are also active components,from Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Then ultrasound-assisted extraction was used to obtain the crude flavonoids and the macroporous resin adsorption technology was further employed to purify the flavonoids. Nine kinds of macroporous resins with different properties were tested through static adsorption,and one macroporous resin labeled as D101 was selected. The effect of several factors,such as the ratio of column height to diameter,initial concentration and pH,on both flavonoids yield and content were explored by dynamic adsorption to obtain reasonable conditions of adsorption and desorption. The experimental results show that the content of flavonoids can be above 60% with flavonoids recovery of 93.3 % under the optimum conditions of purification. HPLC analysis of the final flavonoids product shows it contains quercitrin,hyperin,rutin and quercetin.

  16. 梭鱼草和芦苇人工湿地对重金属和营养的去除率比较%Removal of Heavy Metal Elements and Nutrients by Pontederia cordata and Phragmites australis Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦菊阳; 陈章和

    2013-01-01

    为探讨梭鱼草(Pontederia cordata L.)作为人工湿地植物的应用潜力,通过在室外用瓷盆(上直径80 cm,底直径50 em,高45 cm)构建单种潜流湿地,比较了梭鱼草与常用的人工湿地植物芦苇(Phragmites australis Trin:ex Steud.)在人工湿地中对营养物质和重金属Cd2+和pb2+的去除率.结果显示,梭鱼草对总氮(TN)和生化需氧量(BODs)的去除率显著高于芦苇(P<0.05).两种植物湿地对Cd2+和pb2+的去除率无显著差异.两种植物体内Cd2+和pb2+的含量均是根>茎>叶,根部为主要的富集器官.污水停留2d和停留7d,两种湿地对营养物质的去除率差别不大,而对重金属的去除率,停留7d显著高于停留2d,表明人工湿地对重金属的去除比对营养的去除要慢一些.研究表明,梭鱼草是一种具有良好景观效果和较高去污率的湿地植物,在人工湿地中具有较好的应用潜力.%For studying the potential applications of Pontederia cordata L. as a constructed wetland plant, the removal effects of P. cordata and Phragmites australis Trin. ex Steud. on nutrients and heavy metal elements in the wetlands were compared. Mono-cultivated small-scale wetlands were constructed using pots (80 cm-50 cm-45 cm, the upper diameter - bottom diameter - high). The results showed that the removal rates for TN and BOD5 by P. cordata was significantly higher than those by P. australis (P stem > leaf. For both the wetlands, there was little difference in nutrient removal between hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 d and 7 d, but heavy metal removal rate at HRT of 7 d was significantly higher than that at HRT of 2 d, indicating that the removal of heavy metals was slower than that of nutrients in the constructed wetlands. These results suggest that P. cordata has a good application potential in constructed wetlands because of its good visual effects and high removal rates for wastewater pollutants. Fig 3, Ref 23

  17. 鱼腥草总生物碱的大孔吸附树脂纯化工艺%Purification Process of Total Alkaloids from Houttuynia cordata by Macroporous Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟江; 梁慧超; 陈磊; 卢国勇; 巫丹凤

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To optimize separation and purification technology of total alkaloids from Houttuynia cordata by macroporous resin. Method: With the content of berberine hydrochloride, pepper lactam and aristololactam B as indexes, separation and purification capacity of total alkaloids from H. Cordata was compared with different types of macroporous resin and different technology conditions. Result; HPD-100 macroporous resin had the best separation and purification capacity for total alkaloids in following technology conditions; sample concentration was 20 g ? L-1 with Ph 3, flow rate was 0. 5 Ml ? Min -1, eluting reagent was ethanol solution of ammonia ( ammonia concentration 0. 5 mol ? L-1, the volume fraction of ethanol 80% ) with the amount of 4 BV, eluting velocity was 3.0 Ml ? Min-1. Conclution: HPD-100 macroporous resin could be applied to purify alkaloids from H. Cordata.%目的:优选鱼腥草总生物碱大孔吸附树脂的分离纯化工艺.方法:以盐酸小檗碱、胡椒内酰胺及马兜铃内酰胺B含量为指标,比较不同型号树脂和不同工艺条件对鱼腥草总生物碱的分离纯化能力.结果:HPD-100型大孔树脂对鱼腥草总生物碱有良好的吸附分离性能,最佳工艺条件为药液质量浓度20 g?L-1,pH 3,吸附流速0.5 mL? min -1,洗脱溶剂为氨水乙醇溶液(氨水浓度0.5 mol?L-1,乙醇体积分数80%),洗脱剂用量4 BV,洗脱速度3.0mL?min -1.结论:HPD-100型大孔树脂可用于鱼腥草总生物碱的提取纯化.

  18. 博落回花药离体培养及植株再生研究%In Vitro Culture of Anther and Plant Regeneration forMacleaya cordata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋锡帅; 彭琼; 柳亦松; 李炎林; 曾建国

    2014-01-01

    A tissue culture was conducted to eight samples ofMacleaya cordata from different production areas, and the effective in vitro culture of anther and plant regeneration system forMacleaya cordata were established through studied the resources of anther, the cold-stress time (4℃), the heat-stress time (35℃), and the bud harvest time. The results showed that the anther samples ofMacleaya cordata from six production areas can obtain embryoid and regenerated plant; there was significant difference in embryo rate among different production areas, among which the sample from Gaofang of Hunan province had the highest embryo rate by 11.8%; cold-stress of anther at 4℃ for 24~96 h was beneficial for inducing embryoid, and the anther under cold-stress for 48 h was the most easy one to produce embryoid; the heat-stress treatment (35℃) had not signiifcant effect on improving inducing rate of embryoid; the optimal bud harvest time for anther culture was the full-bloom stage.%对8份不同产地的博落回花药进行了组织培养,通过对花药来源、4℃冷激时间、35℃热激时间、取蕾时期等因素的研究,建立了有效的博落回花药离体培养胚状体发生和植株再生体系。结果表明:有6个产地的博落回花药试材可以获得胚状体和再生植株;不同产地间出胚率差异显著,其中来自湖南高坊的材料出胚率最高,为11.8%;在4℃下冷激24~96 h有利于诱导出胚状体,冷激48 h的花药最容易产生胚状体;35℃热激处理对提高胚状体诱导率的作用不明显;花药培养的最佳取蕾时期为盛花期。

  19. Determination of chelerythrine and sanguinnarine in macleaya cordata from the different areas by HPLC%HPLC法测定不同产地博落回中白屈菜红碱和血根碱含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曙光; 滑培玲; 王涵磊; 胡惠平

    2011-01-01

    Aim To develop an HPLC method for the determination of chelerythrine and sanguinairne in macleaya cordata from different place of production. Methods HPLC was adopted,SHIMADZU C18 column( 4. 6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm )with a mobile phase acetonitrile -0. 4%(V/V )phosphoric acid solution( 27:73 )by diode array detector at 270 nm. Results The average recoveries of chelerythrine and sanguinarinc were 98. 26% ,97. 73% ,respectively. RSD were 1. 87% ,1. 81% respectively. Conclusion The method is sensitive and reliable and can be used as a quality control method of the chelerythrine ancl sanguinairne in total alkaloid of macleaya cordata.%目的 建立不同产地博落回根中白屈菜红碱和血根碱的HPLC法含量测定方法.方法 采用HPLC法,色谱柱:SHIMADZU C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),流动相:0.4%磷酸-乙腈(73:27),流速1.2 ml·min-1,柱温30℃.结果 白屈菜红碱、血根碱的回收率分别为98.26%,97.73%;RSD分别为1.87%,1.81%.结论 利用该法测定博落回总碱中的白屈菜红碱和血根碱,结果准确度高、精密度好,可作为博落回总碱的质量控制方法.

  20. Comparative Study on Total Flavonoids of Houttuynia Cordata and Leucogen Anti Radiation Effect%鱼腥草总黄酮与利血生抗辐射功效的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗生; 王洪生; 洪佳璇; 冯丙江; 赵林

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compared of fresh Herba Houttuyniae extract ( traditional Chinese Medicine ) of total fla-vonoids from Houttuynia cordata and leucogen ( Western Medicine ) of X-ray radiation damage effects of rat bone mar-row function and immune function.Methods 62 male SD rats, of which 15 were sham radiation, as normal(blank) control group;47 for 4Gy X-ray irradiation.The model was composed of 15 normal control group and 5 X-ray radia-tion model.The number of white blood cells , neutrophils and lymphocytes were detected .The results showed that the model was successful .The rest of the successful model of 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: model control vage.In normal conrmal group, 10rats(8 rats) were given the same volume of distilled water.During administration, a week to the eyes of rats from routine blood testing observed flavonoids from Houttuynia cordata Thunb and benefit blood born and number of red blood cells of rat leukocyte , neutrophil cells, lymphocytes, network fabric.After 63 days, the rats were killed , and the immune system , bone marrow hematopoietic system and the related indexes were detected .Re-sul ts The dose of X was 4 Gy and the dose rate was 2 Gy/min, and the X ray damage model was successfully prepared . Given Houttuynia components of different extract by intragastric 63 days observed the ①Houttuynia cordata composition extracted liquid in a certain extent can improve the immunity of rhe rat rediation damage and radiation protection injury of rat bone marrow hematopoietic system .②The total flavonoids of Houttuynia cordata can significantly improve the radia-tion damage of the immunity of rats , To enhance the anti -oxidation function of organisms .Can increase the content of SOD and GSH-Px, enhance the body′s antioxidant effect .③leucogen can significantly increase the thymus index and spleen index of rats;to radiation injury rat white blood cell count and neutrophil cell count and the influence of the fla -vonoids from

  1. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. in Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1937-01-01

    Towards the end of February 1936 we received living specimens of this species, which is hitherto known only from Japan, China, the Indochinese Peninsula und Himalaya, collected in West Java, Preanger Residency, by Mr H. W. Kluit, employé of the plantation Ardjoena, section Karang-Toemaritis. The spe

  2. Intestinal absorption dynamics on methyl nonyl ketone in volatile oil from houttuynia cordata%鱼腥草挥发油中甲基正壬酮的肠吸收动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑜; 王健; 肖学凤

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate absorption on methyl nonyl ketone of the volatile oil in houttuynia cordata in small intestine of rats. Methods:The absorption pattern and channel on methyl nonyl ketone of the volatile oil from houttuynia cordata were determined by using reverted gut sac method and body circulatory perfusion technique. Results:In reverted gut sac test, the absorption rate of methyl nonyl ketone in ileum was the highest, with 87.39%in 4 h;linear regression coefficient correlations of logC and t exceed 0.9 for duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The result from body circulatory perfusion technique showed the maximum absorptivities of Methyl nonyl ketone in the intestine was respectively 72.35%and the absorption was 7.5 h. Conclusion:In the ileum, the absorption is the shortest and the absorptivity is highest, which is considered to be essential part for small intestine absorption. The aborption process on methyl nonyl ketone of the volatile oil in houttuynia cordata conforms to the first-order kinetics and passive transport mechanism.%目的:对鱼腥草挥发油中甲基正壬酮进行肠吸收动力学研究。方法:采用大鼠离体外翻肠囊法和大鼠在体肠循环灌流法研究鱼腥草挥发油中甲基正壬酮的肠吸收动力学,以判断甲基正壬酮的吸收方式和途径。结果:大鼠离体外翻肠囊法实验中,相对于十二指肠和空肠,回肠的吸收率最高,4 h吸收率达87.39%;十二指肠、空肠、回肠内药液浓度的对数logC与取样时间t的线性回归方程的相关系数均大于0.9。大鼠在体肠循环灌流法实验中,吸收半衰期为7.5 h,最大吸收率为72.35%。结论:小肠中回肠段对甲基正壬酮的吸收半衰期短,吸收率大,是甲基正壬酮的主要吸收部位。鱼腥草挥发油中甲基正壬酮肠吸收属一级动力学过程,吸收方式为被动转运。

  3. 博落回内生真菌的分离及其抗菌活性的初步研究%A Preliminary Study on Isolation of Endophytic Fungi from Macleaya Cordata and Its Antimicrobial Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵长莉; 王允; 汪学军

    2012-01-01

    从健康博落回植株中分离内生真菌,用PDA培养基分离纯化菌株,结果纯化得到19株内生真菌,用琼脂块法对获取的菌株进行抗菌活性筛选,其中有2株博落回内生真菌对指示菌株有抑菌作用,占总分离菌株的10.53%,其中有一株内生真菌具有较强的抑菌活性。%Nineteen endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the healthy Macleaya cordata by flat-panel separation.Agar block method was used to obtain the strain for antimicrobial activity screening.The results showed that two endophytic fungi(10.53% of the total strains isolated)had inhibitory activities to the test strains,and a strong inhibitory activity of endophytic fungus was also be found.

  4. Oxygen Isotope of Brachiopods from the Pennsylvanian Coral Reef Area in South Guizhou Province and Its Significance%黔南宾夕法尼亚亚纪珊瑚礁相腕足动物氧同位素组成及其古水温信息

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽; 巩恩普; 张永利; 关长庆; 孙宝亮; 常洪伦

    2011-01-01

    黔南宾夕法尼亚亚纪Triticites带内大型Fomitchevella珊瑚礁群落中见附礁生长的腕足动物Striatifera striata 和Enteletoides shuichengensis,XRD测试结果显示Striatifera striata壳体次生层为保存较好、成分纯净的低镁方解石,完全未受到成岩作用改造;Enteletoides shuichengensis壳层中则含少量Fe、Ni,可能与成岩作用改造有关.两种腕足动物壳体横切面同一生长带棱柱层中的Ni、Fe、Mn、Na、Sr呈对称性分布,表明这两个种壳体原始信息保存良好,可忽略成岩改造对Enteletoides shuichengensis壳体的影响.测得Striatifera striata和Enteletoides shuichengensis壳体棱柱层中的δ18OPDB分别为-3.249‰和-3.385‰,据此推算出古海水温度为21.60~31.18℃.腕足动物壳体具有较高的δ13CPDB值,分别为4.784‰,4.782‰.利用碳氧同位素分析结果计算得到Z值接近135,表明珊瑚礁区古海水盐度正常.%Phylloid algal reefs are dominant in Pennsylvanian all over the world and well exposed in the southGuizhou, China. While the metazoan framework reefs develop well in this area, especially the presence of a rarelylarge-scale Fomitehevella coral reef, which is constructed mostly by big phacelloid Fomitchevella. As a result, SouthGuizhou becomes a unique case of the Carboniferous reef. Stratigraphically, South Guizhou reefs belong to the Maping Formation (the Triticites Zone, Gzhelian, uppermost Pennsylvanian). The depositional environment of the Maping Formation is at shallow marine carbonate platform margin. Furthermore, the faunal association recorded point to a paleogeographical position in a low-latitude close to the equatorial realm in south China during the Pennsylvanian time. Thus, it can be inferred that the growth environment of Fomitchevella reefs is in a relative warm water, fitting the development of coral reefs.Surely we can use fossil brachiopod shells to attain part of environmental information with respect to the

  5. HPLC测定鱼腥草不同部位绿原酸和芦丁的含量%Determination of Chlorogenic Acid and Rutin in Different Parts of Houttuynia Cordatas by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利华

    2012-01-01

    目的:测定鱼腥草不同部位中绿原酸和芦丁的含量,为鱼腥草资源的合理开发和综合利用提供依据.方法:采用Eclipse XDB-C18(4.6mm×150mm,5μm)色谱柱,绿原酸流动相乙腈-0.1%磷酸(12∶88),检测波长326 nm,芦丁流动相甲醇-0.1%磷酸(50∶50),检测波长355 nm,流速均为1.0 mL· min-1.结果:绿原酸和芦丁的浓度与峰面积,分别在9.8 ~68.6μg(r =0.999 7),9.6~67.2μg(r=0.998 5)呈良好的线性关系;平均加样回收率分别为99.2%,100.1%,RSD分别为1.47%,2.12%.结论:鱼腥草不同部位绿原酸和芦丁含量差异很大,叶中绿原酸和芦丁含量相对较高,根中绿原酸和芦丁含量相对较低.%Objective: To determine the content in roots, steins and leaves of Houttuynia cordata, and provide a scientific basis for the exploitation and utilization of its resources. Method: Chlorogenic acid and rutin were analyzed on a Eclipse XDB-C18 (4. 6 mm x 150 mm, 5 μm) column. The mobile phase of chlorogenic acid was acetonitrile-0. 1% phosphoric acid ( 12: 88) , and the detection wavelength was set at 326 nm. The mobile phase of rutin was methanol-0. 1% phosphoric acid (50=50) , and the detection wavelength was set at 355 nm. The flow rate was 1. 0 mL·min-1. Result: The linear response ranged within 9. 8-68. 6 μg for chlorogenic acid (r = 0. 999 7), 9. 6-67. 2 μg for rutin (r = 0. 998 5 ) . Recoveries were 99. 2% with RSD 1. 47% for chlorogenic acid, 100. 1% with RSD 2. 12% for rutin. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the content of chlorogenic acid and rutin among the different parts of H. cordata. The content of chlorogenic acid and rutin in the sample from leaves was the highest than those from other parts, and it was lower in roots relatively.

  6. Bioactivity and Effective Components of Macleya cordata, a Pesticidal Plant%杀虫植物博落回对害虫的生物活性与有效成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚维; 张国洲

    2011-01-01

    The bioactivity and effective components of MCEE (an extraction from root of M. Cor data by ethanol) were determined and identified by mixed pesticide, filter paper and disc leaf methods and IR, UV, NMR and MS methods respectively. The results showed that MCEE had strong toxic effect against 4 th instar larvae of Culex auianguefasciatus and the correction mortality of 0. 05 mg/mL MCEE after 12h, 24h, 48h and 72h was 56. 67%, 73. 33%, 79. 31% and 86. 20% respectively. MCEE had strong repellent effect against adults of Callosobruchus maculates and the repellent rate of 0. 1 mg/mL MCEE after 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 50.00%, 57. 14%, 84.62% and 92.86% separately. The protopine isolated from M. Cordata roots had strong antifeedant effect against 5th instar larvae of Pieris rapae and the antifeedant rate of 0. 5 mg/mL protopine after 24 h and 48 h was 71. 08% and 73. 50% respectively. Therefore, MCEE and propotine had strong bioactivity against various insects.%为了利用杀虫植物博落回开发一种新型的植物性杀虫剂,采用混药法、滤纸法和叶碟法等测定博落回(Macleya cordata)根乙醇提取物(简称MCEE)对害虫的生物活性,用柱层析法对MCEE中的活性成分进行分离,用IR、UV、NMR和MS等方法对分离的单体进行鉴定.结果表明:MCEE对致倦库蚊(Culex auianguefasciatus)4龄幼虫有很强的毒杀作用,当MCEE的浓度为0.05 mg/mL时,12h、24h、48h和72h的校正死亡率分别为56.67%、73.33%、79.31%和86.20%;对四纹豆象(Callosobruchus maculates)成虫有很强的忌避作用,当MCEE的浓度为0.1 mg/mL时,12h、24h、48h和72h的忌避率分别为50.00%、57.14%、84.62%和92.86%.从博落回根中分离出一种活性成分原阿片碱(protopine),对菜粉蝶幼虫有很强的拒食作用,当浓度为0.5 mg/mL时,对菜粉蝶5龄幼虫24 h和48 h的拒食率分别为71.08%和73.50%.博落回根乙醇提取物及其活性成分原阿片碱对多种害虫有较强的生物活性.

  7. Effect of Macleaya cordata alkaloids on five skin fungus%博落回中生物碱对5种皮癣真菌抑制作用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晶; 郁建平; 葛永辉; 齐柳娅; 李春梅

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究博落回(Macleaya Cordata (Willd)R.Br)提取物对皮癣致病真菌的抑制作用.方法:以常见的皮癣真菌包括红色毛癣菌(Trichophyton rubrum),许兰黄癣菌(Trichophyton schoenleini),玫瑰色癣菌(Tfichophyton rosaceum),须癣毛癣菌(Trichophyton mentagrophytes),絮状表皮癣菌(Epidermophyton floccos)为供试病原菌,通过采用琼脂打孔法;平板稀释法;固体培养基稀释法;对博落回提取物进行离体抑菌活性以及最低抑菌浓度的测定.结果:博落回提取物有抑制皮癣真菌的活性,博落回提取物对红色毛癣菌,许兰黄癣菌以及絮状表皮癣菌的最低抑菌浓度均为1.6 ms/mL,对玫瑰色癣菌,须癣毛癣菌的最低抑菌浓度为0.8 ms/mL.结论:博落回提取物对上述几种皮癣病原真菌有明显的抑制作用,随着浓度的增大,其抑制作用明显增加.

  8. HPLC法测定不同产地鱼腥草中不同部位芦丁的含量%Determination of Rutin in Different Parts of Houttuynia cordata Thunb.Collected in Various Areas by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞玲; 崔运启; 刘奇森

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a HPLC method for the determination of rutin in different parts of Houttuynia cordata Thunb..Eclipse XDB-C18(4.6 mm× 250 mm,5 μm) column was employed with 0.1% phosphoric acid in water and methanol as mobile phases,the column temperature was set at 20 ℃.The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 358 nm.The linear range of rutin was 0.02 ~ 0.50 mg/mL,the correlation coefficient was 0.9999 and the average recoveries (n =3) was 92.00%.The results showed that the contents of rutin were different from various areas and different organs.The method is simple,rapid and reliable,it can be used to determine the content of rutin in traditional Chinese herbs.%建立测定鱼腥草中芦丁含量的高效液相色谱分析方法.使用Eclipse XDB-C18色谱柱(4.6×150mm,5μm),流动相为(A:0.1%磷酸水溶液,B:甲醇),柱温为20℃,流速为1.0 mL/min,检测波长为358 nm.测得芦丁的线性范围为0.02 mg/mL~0.50 mg/mL(r =0.9999),加标回收率为92.0%(n=3).不同产地中芦丁含量测定结果表明,贵州产区的含量最高,河南的最低.不同部位中芦丁含量测定结果表明,叶中的含量均高于茎中5~l0倍.本方法操作快速、简便、灵敏度高、重现性好,可使用于中草药中芦丁含量的测定.

  9. 溶剂浸提条件下鱼腥草中癸酰乙醛的高效提取%Highly Efficient Extraction of Decanoyl Acetaldehyde in Houttuynia cordata thunb under Solvent Immersing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛青松; 殷华茹

    2013-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata thumb (HCT),the so called antibiotic of traditional Chinese medicine,has been widely employed for clinic therapy.However,the effective extraction of houttuynium (decanoyl acetaldehyde) as a main component of HCT remains an intellectual challenge.In this paper,through the solvent immersing method,the essential oil was extracted,and the influence of reaction conditions on the efficiency of decanoyl acetaldehyde extraction were investigated such as the type of solvents,temperature and time.When ethyl acetate was used as solvent and extraction was processed at room temperature for 456 h,the maximum extractability of essential oil was 0.294 %,and the content of decanoyl acetaldehyde was up to 40.14% in the essential oil,and only trace of 2-undecanone was found.In the procedure,the mild extraction condition has reduced the decomposition of decanoyl acetaldehyde.The current study provides a promise way to highly effective extraction of decanoyl acetaldehyde from HCT on a large scale.%本文采用溶剂浸泡提取鱼腥草挥发油,考察了浸泡溶剂、浸泡温度和浸泡时间等因素的影响,探究了鱼腥草中最关键的抗菌成分之一鱼腥草素(癸酰乙醛)的真实含量.研究发现,室温下采用乙酸乙酯浸泡鱼腥草456 h,鱼腥草挥发油的提取率高达0.294%,挥发油中癸酰乙醛的含量高达40.14%,仅检测到少量甲基正壬酮.结果表明,温和的提取条件有效抑制了癸酰乙醛的氧化分解,获得远高于水蒸汽蒸馏条件下的癸酰乙醛含量(0.03%).该研究为从鱼腥草中高效提取癸酰乙醛提供了一种切实可行的手段.

  10. 采用UPLC-ESI-MS快速测定博落回各器官中王要生物碱的含量%Rapid determination of main alkaloids from organs of Macleagua cordata(Willd) R.Br.by UPLC-ESI-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟明; 黄可龙; 曾建国; 黎霜; 余金明; 张丽

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) analysis method was developed for systematic determination of the main alkaloids in the organs of Macleagua cordata(Willd) R.Br.. After a simple ultrasound-assisted extraction step, the proposed method was applied to quantify eight alkaloids in the roots, stems, leaves and fruits of Macleagua cordata. The retention time, relative molecular mass and fragmentation behavior were obtained. A new compound of cryptopine was separated and identified from the fruits of the plant with literature review. The results show that the correlation coefficients is 0.992 5-0.998 3 in the linear range. The average recovery of the investigated alkaloids is 96.6%-104.0%, and the relative standard deviation is less than 4.3%, with the lower limit of detection values of 0.123-1.270 μg/L. The present method has the advantages of simple operation and rapid determination, and it is a powerful tool for quantification of alkaloids in M.cordata.%采用超高效液相色谱-电喷雾质谱联用(UPLC-ESI-MS)技术,对中药博落回各器官中的主要生物碱成分进行系统分析.样品经超声萃取后,通过UPLC-ESI-MS快速测定了8种生物碱在根、茎、叶和果荚中的含量,获得相应化合物的保留时间、相对分子质量和离子碎片等信息,并从博落回果荚中分离、鉴定隐品碱.在此基础上,建立种快速、灵敏、准确测定博落回中多种生物碱成分的新方法.研究结果表明:这8种生物碱含量在一定范围内呈线性关系,相关系数为0.992 5-0.998 3,平均加标回收率为96.6%~104.0%,相对标准偏差均小于4.3%,检出限为0.123~1.270 μg/L.

  11. The Influence of Subinhibitory Concentration of Ethanol Extracts from Houttuyniae cordata on α-toxin Secretion by Staphylococcus aureus%亚抑菌浓度鱼腥草醇提物对金黄色葡萄球菌α-溶血素分泌的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党桔洁; 李文华; 邱家章; 王建锋; 包海鹰

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have determined the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ethanol extracts from Houttuyniae cordate for staphylococcus aureus and hemolysis assay, Western-blot, Real-time RT-PCR and cytotoxicity assay were further employed to elucidate the antimicrobial activity of this extract against 5. Aureus and the influence of subinhibitory concentration of this extract on a-toxin production. The MICs of ethanol extracts from Houttuyniae cordata for 9 5. Aureus strains were ranged from 16 to 64 mg/mL Subinhibitory concentration of ethanol extracts from Houttuyniae cordata reduced the production of a-toxin by S. Aureus in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, 0.16 mg/mL of ethanol extracts from Houttuyniae cordata completely suppresses the production of a-toxin. This study might provided a new strategy for anti-Staphylococcus aureus infection.%为了研究鱼腥草醇提物对金黄色葡萄球菌的抗菌活性以及其对金葡菌α-溶血素分泌的影响.通过最低抑菌浓度的测定并应用溶血试验、Westem-blot分析、荧光定量PCR试验以及细胞毒性试验考察亚抑菌浓度的鱼腥草醇提物对金葡菌α-溶血素分泌的影响.结果表明:鱼腥草醇提物对9株金葡萄的最小抑菌浓度范围为16~64 mg/mL,亚抑菌浓度鱼腥草醇提物呈剂量依赖式抑制金葡菌α-溶血素的分泌,尤其当浓度为0.16 mg/mL时,基本上能完全抑制金葡菌α-溶血素的分泌.本研究可能为抗金葡菌感染提供一种新的策略.

  12. 稳态提取工艺中平衡群体的研究及对鱼腥草的实验验证%Study on balance group in steady-state extraction process of Chinese medicine and experimental verification to Houttuynia cordata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文龙; 张喜利; 贺福元; 张平; 王海琴; 吴德智; 陈作红

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To establish and experimental verification the mathematical model of the balance groups that is the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine in extraction. Method; Using the entropy and genetic principles of statistics, and taking the coefficient of variation of GC fingerprint which is the naphtha of the Houttuynia cordata between strains in the same GAP place as a pivot to establish and verify the mathematical model was established of the balance groups that is the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine in extraction. Result: A mathematical model that is suitable for the balance groups of the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine and preparation in extraction, and the balance groups which is 29 683 strains (approximately 118. 7 kg) were gained with the same origin of H. Cordata as the model drug. Conclusion; Under the GAP of quality control model, controlling the stability of the quality through further using the Hardy-Weinberg balance groups of the H. Cordata between strains, the new theory and experiment foundation is established for the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine in extraction and quality control.%目的:建立中药材稳态提取工艺中平衡群体的数学模型并进行实验验证.方法:运用信息熵及遗传统计学原理,以同一GAP产地鱼腥草植株间挥发油GC指纹图谱信息量变异系数为枢纽,建立中药稳态提取工艺中平衡群体的数学模型,并进行实验验证.结果:建立了适宜中药及制剂稳态提取工艺中平衡群体的数学模型;以同一产地鱼腥草为模型药物获得该产地的遗传平衡群体为29 683株(约118.7 kg).结论:在GAP质控模式下,进一步用鱼腥草的株间Hardy-Weinberg平衡群体来控制其质量稳定性,为中药稳态提取工艺的建立及质控奠定新的理论与实验基础.

  13. A permian productoid brachiopod: Life history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R.E.

    1966-01-01

    Spine arrangements on silicified specimens of Waagenoconcha abichi (Waagen) from the Khisor Range of West Pakistan suggest that the juvenile shell attached itself to a foreign object, and that the adult shell lay on its ventral valve in the substrate, anchored and stabilized by a dense corona of long slender spines around the ventral visceral disc.

  14. Analysis of Volatile Oil in Different Parts of Houttuynia Cordata Thunb.by GC-MS Combined with Chemometrics Methods%GC-MS联合化学计量学方法分析鱼腥草不同部位挥发油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘丹丹; 卢红梅; 伍贤进; 梁逸曾

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide scientific basis for the medicinal parts of Houttuynia cordata Thunb, the volatile oil from different parts were analyzed. Methods The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were carried out by GC-MS and area normalization method. The differences and similarities among different parts were analyzed with principal component analysis, Mahalanobis distance and correlation coefficient. Results 35 compounds were identified in root, stem, leaf and flower, among which 24 components simultaneously exist. The types of the components were similar among different parts, while the contents were different. The content of methyl nonyl ketone was the highest. The difference between the stems and leaves was little, and the difference between the root and the other three parts was significant. Conclusion The differences of volatile oil from different parts should be fully considered in the use of Houttuynia cordata.%目的 对鱼腥草各部位挥发油进行分析,为鱼腥草药用部位提供科学依据.方法 采用水蒸气蒸馏提取鱼腥草挥发油,气相色谱质谱联用仪对挥发油组分进行鉴定,采用峰面积归一化法测定各组分含量,结合主成分分析、马氏距离和相似度评价等方法探求各部位之间的异同.结果 根、茎、叶和花四部位共鉴定出35种化合物,其中共有化合物24种,各部位挥发油组分基本一致;各组份含量存在较大差异,甲基正壬酮含量最高;根和其它三个部位差异大,茎和叶之间的差异小.结论 今后鱼腥草用药时应充分考虑各部位挥发油成分的差异.

  15. 入侵植物薇甘菊与其本地同属种蔓泽兰的叶构建因子比较研究%Leaf Construction Traits of Invasive Species Mikania micrantha and Its Indigenous Congener M.cordata (Asteraceae) in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雄

    2010-01-01

    研究了华南地区外来入侵种薇甘菊Mikania micrantha H.B.Kunth和它的本地同属种假泽兰Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) B.L.Robinson的叶构建特性因子构建成本(Construction Cost,CC)、叶N含量以及叶面积干质量(Specific leaf area, SLA).两个种的叶性因子表现出以下的形式:本地种假泽兰的构建成本(CC)和单位叶面积的氮含量比外来种薇甘菊更高,比叶面(SLA)以及单位干质量的叶氮含量显著低于后者.无疑,低CC显示其低能耗及高资源利用率,这也可能是其快速生长并广泛传播的主要机理,因此,植物叶构建成本也可能是评价其入侵潜力的重要因子.

  16. 简论相似性测度的选择——以奥陶纪末大灭绝后全球腕足动物古地理为例%PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION ON SIMILARITY MEASURES WITH AN EXAMPLE OF RHUDDANIAN GLOBAL BRACHIOPOD PALAEOBIOGEOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冰

    2011-01-01

    Extinction event may profoundly disturb palaeobiogeographic patterns. There have been few palaeobiogeographic studies of the particular survival-recovery interval after the Late Ordovician mass extinction. Here we analyse global brachio-pod occurrences, based on the revision of published information, including new material of brachiopods of South China, for the early and late Rhuddanian, the basal stage of the Silurian immediately following the end Ordovician mass extinction. The data-set consists of 137 occurrences, 72 genera, and 13 localities in the early Rhuddanian ( survival interval), and 272 occurrences, 91 genera, and 26 localities in the late Rhuddanian (early recovery interval). The data are analysed using Cluster Anal-ysis, Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and Minimum Spanning Tree methods using the Yule's Y coefficient and the RC coefficient (probabilistic index of similarity). The results display palaeolati-tudinal distribution patterns for brachiopod survival and recovery. Frequency analysis of the data indicates that the cosmopolitan taxa before the mass extinction showed a decrease in distributions of brachiopods in the survival interval, and expanded temporarily in the recovery interval. Furthermore, discussion on six similarity measures by data frequency analysis indicates that there exists a relationship between the data structure and the applicability of particular similarity measures. We suggest that Cluster Analysis is supplemented by u-sing other statistic methods (e. G. NMDS) in palaeobiogeographic studies to improve objectivity and accuracy.%灭绝事件对古生物地理格局的影响已引起关注,近期研究表明奥陶纪末大灭绝事件后多样性显著高于传统认识,而全球该时期腕足动物的古生物地理分布情况尚未见报道。本文基于已发表的和最新的资料及所掌握新数据的整理,建立全球腕足动物志留纪初鲁丹(Rhuddanian)早期(残存期)13个产地72属137个出现

  17. Biodiversity, biogeography and phylogeography of Ordovician rhynchonelliform brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, David A T; Rasmussen, Christian M Ø; Liljeroth, Maria

    2013-01-01

    began to radiate in low-latitude faunas, anticipating their dominance in Silurian faunas. The Hirnantian was marked by severe extinctions particularly across orthidestrophomenide clades within the context of few, but well-defined, climatically controlled provincial belts. © The Geological Society...... was particularly well explored and utilized by the strophomenides, especially the Plectambonitoidea, which radiated rapidly during this interval. The porambonitoids, on the other hand, were still in recovery following the early Darriwilian extinctions. Orthides remained dominant, particularly at high latitudes...

  18. Highly Efficient Extraction of Decanoyl Acetaldehyde in Houttuynia cordata thunb Under Steam Distillation and Its Mass Spectrometric Analysis%水蒸汽蒸馏条件下鱼腥草中癸酰乙醛的高效提取及质谱定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛青松; 王展; 殷华茹

    2012-01-01

    根据质谱学规律,剖析了在电子轰击下中药材鱼腥草中最关键的抗菌成分鱼腥草素(癸酰乙醛)的离子形成机理:癸酰乙醛的分子中存在两个-C=O,处于端位上的-C=O活性远大于-CH3,易失去H2O(M+18)、CO(M+ 28)等基团,产生较强的m/z180、170等离子碎片,此外,还易失去H2O+H2O(M+ -36)、H2O+CO(M+-46)、CO+CO(M+-56)等基团,产生m/z162、152、142等离子碎片,这同实验中得到的癸酰乙醛质谱图完全吻合,纠正了文献中对癸酰乙醛的错误定性.在此基础上采用常规、Ar气保护和减压三种水蒸汽蒸馏方式提取鱼腥草挥发油,发现在惰性气氛或较低温度下有利于癸酰乙醛的提取,与常规水蒸汽蒸馏条件相比,Ar气保护下癸酰乙醛的含量从0.03%提高至0.53%,而减压条件下癸酰乙醛的溶出效率进一步提高至3.37%.研究表明常规水蒸汽蒸馏条件下癸酰乙醛易氧化分解是得到较少癸酰乙醛的根本原因.%Regarded as the antibiotic of traditional Chinese medicine, houttuynia cordata thunb (HCT) has been widely employed for clinic therapy. In this paper,one of the key effective components of HCT, houttuynium (decanoyl acetaldehyde) was studied in detail. At first, according to the law of mass spectrometry,the formation mechanism of decanoyl acetaldehyde ions was analyzed under electronic bombarding:there are two - C=O and the tip one is more active than - CH3 in decanoyl acetaldehyde molecular,so it is easy to lose H2O(M+-18) ,CO(M+-28) groups,resulting in a strong abundance of m/zl80,170 ions. Furthermore,ions of m/z162,152,142 are produced when H2O+H2O(M+-36) , H2O + CO(M+-46) ,CO+CO(M+-56) are lost easily. The results were consistent completely with the mass spectrum obtained by our experiment, contrasting with the mass spectrum definition of decanoyl acetaldehyde in the literature. Secondly, the essential oil from HCT was extracted by three steam distillation methods of normal, argon gas

  19. Rhynchonellides (Brachiopodes du Jurassique moyen de la Sierra de los Cameros province de Soria. Espagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurin, B.

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The outcrops of middle Bathonian and lower Callovian of the Sierra de los Cameros contains 4 rhynchonellids species with large morphologic variability. These species, one of which is new, are defined by both qualitative and quantitative analysis, Questions resulting ofvariability of external and internal features are discussed . The two bathonian species , Rhacthorhynchia cf. dumortieri(SZAJN. and Globirhynchia pinillensis nov. sp., are close of north african forms whereas the callovian ones, Rhynchonelloidella spathica (LMK and Septaliphoria mourdoni LAURIN, are still well known in the north-tethysian european realm. Their occurrence in Spain confirm their biostratigraphic interest.

    Les gisements du Bathonien supérieur el du Callovien inférieur de la Sierra de los Cameros renferment quatre espèces de rhynchonelles a large variabilité morphologique, Ces espèces, dont une nouvelle, sont étudiées et définies par des analyses qualitatives et quantitatives. Les problèmes posés par la variabilité de la morphologie externe et des structures internes sont discutés, Les deux espèces bathoniennes Rhacthorhynchia cf. dumortieri(SZAJN. et Globirhynchia pinillensis nov. sp, présentent des affínités avec des faunes d'Afrique du Nord tandis que Rhynchonelloidella spathica (LMK et Septaliphoria mourdoni LAURIN sont dejà bien connues dans le Callovien européen nord-téthysien. Leur présence en Espagne confirme leur intérêt biostratigraphique.
    En los yacimientos del Bathoniense superior y del Calloviense inferior de la Sierra de los Cameros se encuentran cuatro especies de Rhynchonellidae. Presentan una variabilidad morfológica amplia y, además, una de ellas es nueva. El estudio y la definición de todas se efectuaron por análisis cuantitativos y cualitativos. También se discuten aquí los problemas planteados por la variabilidad de la morfología externa y de las estructuras internas. Las dos especies del Bathoniense: Rhacthorhynchia cf. dumortieri(SzAJN. y Globirhynchia pinillensis nov. sp. presentan afin idades con faunas de Africa del Norte, mientras que Rhynchonelloidella spathica (LMK y Septaliphoria mourdoni LAURIN ya están bien conocidas en el Calloviense europeano norte-tethysiano. Por eso, su existencia en España confirma su interés bioestratigráfico.

  20. Late Ordovician brachiopod distribution and ecospace partitioning in the Tvären crater system, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Asa M.; Harper, David A. T.

    2013-01-01

    . At the crater rim communities were established early on, although the crater depression was not inhabited until deposition of the upper third of the remaining crater fill. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment where sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession....... Moreover the development of new community types and narrowly-defined niches helped further drive both a and p biodiversity during a critical phase of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Brachiopod associations from the Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela, Yves; Hansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups and their pr...

  2. The role of Spain in the development of the reef Brachiopod faunas during the Carboniferous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler Prins, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    After a short introduction on the reef development during the Late Palaeozoic, the tectono-stratigraphic history of the Cantabrian Mountains (northern Spain) during the Carboniferous is discussed, with an emphasis on the tectonically active Pennsylvanian (i.e., Late Carboniferous). The reef-bearing

  3. [Diurnal variations in purifying-tanks when use Pontederia cordata treating the Malodorous River water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-jun; Lu, Xiao-ming; Lu, Shao-yong; Jin, Xiang-can; Huang, Min-sheng; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Feng

    2009-12-01

    Aquatic plants (Ponsederie cordaza) were waked in two purifying-tanks to investigate the effects of illumination intensity and aeration on diurnal variations of Chla, SP, POD of Ponsederia cordaza and pH, DO, COD, NH4+ -N, TP of water from purifying-tanks when treating the malodorous river water at seven different times, another blank purifying-tank was set as a control. Comparative studies and correlation analysis of these different indicators were carried out to improve the plants working efficiency and provide scientific basis for optimal operation of plant purifying-tanks. Results showed that all indicators affected by changes of light, TP shows best correlation coefficient Cr = 0.93, p tank;aeration is necessary as diurnal average of DO shows an increase of 0.13 mg/L by treatment of plant meanwhile 1.8 mg/L by plant with aeration,purifying-tanks with aeration got 7.1%, 6.3% higher removing rates of COD, NH4+ -N and 38% less TP removing rate than non-aeration plant purifying-tanks (p tanks.

  4. Systematics of some Lower and Middle Devonian spiriferid brachiopods from Gaspe with a revision of the superfamily Delthyridoidea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Lespérance, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The component subfamilies of the Delthyridoidea are critically reviewed and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. This shows the presence of two clades, assigned to the Delthyrididae and Acrospiriferidae, within the superfamily. The subfamilial categories are redefined mainly on the basis of the ch...

  5. Effect of a natural feed additive (Macleaya cordata), containing sanguinarine, on the performance and health status of weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantas, Dimitrios; Papatsiros, Vasileios G; Tassis, Panagiotis D; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Tzika, Eleni D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Sangrovit(®) , a plant-derived feed additive, given throughout the nursery stage via feed at 15 ppm and 50 ppm, on the health status and performance of weaners against negative controls. In a 900-sow farrow-to-finish farm, a total of 864 piglets were divided into three groups: (i) negative controls (NC); (ii) Sang 15: same feed as NCs, plus 15 g Sangrovit(®) /t of feed; (iii) Sang 50: same feed as NCs plus 50 g Sangrovit(®) /t of feed. The results indicated that administration of 50 ppm(-) Sangrovit(®) had the most beneficial effects on growth performance in weaning pigs. Specifically there was increase of body weight and average daily gain, as well as reduction of feed conversion ratio. Blood analysis from the Sang groups and especially the Sang 50 group revealed low values of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A.

  6. The intrusive growth of initial cells in re-arangement of cells in cambium of Tilia cordata Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Włoch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cambium of linden producing wood with short period of grain inclination change (2-4 years, the intensive reorientation of cells takes place. This is possible mainly through an intrusive growth of cell ends from one radial file entering space between tangential walls of neighboring file and through unequal periclinal divisions that occur in the "initial surface". The intrusive growth is located on the longitudinal edge of a fusiform cell close to the end, and causes deviation of cell ends in a neighbouring file from the initial surface. Unequal periclinal division divides a cell with a deviated end into two derivatives, unequal in size. The one of them, which inherits the deviated end, leaves the initial surface becoming a xylem or phloem mother cell. This means that the old end is eliminated. The intensity of intrusive growth and unequal periclinal divisions is decisive for the velocity of cambial cell reorientation. The oriented intrusive growth occurs only in the initial cells. For that reason, changes in cell-ends position do not occur within one packet of cells but are distinct between neighbouring packets.

  7. EARLY EARLY PERMIAN BRACHIOPOD FAUNA FROM YANGQUAN, SHANXI PROVINCE%山西阳泉地区早二叠世早期腕足动物群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范炳恒; 竺维彬; 何锡鳞

    1999-01-01

    山西阳泉矿区晚石炭世晚期至早二叠世早期太原组相当发育,其中早二叠世早期腕足动物化石非常丰富,共计48属125种,分属于31科.通过对腕足动物化石进行系统研究,建立了该地区早二叠世早期3个腕足动物组合,自下而上是:(1) Derbyia shanxiensis-Chonetin ella flemingi组合;(2) Alexania gratiodentalis-Notothyris nucleolus组合;(3) Ma rtinia semiplana-Choristites jigulensis组合,并阐述了各腕足动物组合的特征.同时描述了腕足动物化石6属8新种.

  8. On Waisiuthyrina, a new articulate Brachiopod genus from the upper-oligocene of Buton (S.E. Celebes), Dutch East Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1942-01-01

    Material: one well-preserved entire shell and another one, of which the ventral valve was destroyed for the greater part for the sake of chemical analysis in the „Rijkswegenbouw-Laboratorium”. Dimensions: the ventral valve of the holotype (fig. 9) has a length of 48.2 mm from the posterior or cardin

  9. Study on Seed Quality Standard of Aralia cordata Thunb.%食用土当归种子质量标准探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 安家成; 朱昌叁

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立食用土当归的种子质量标准,并解决种子萌发问题.方法 对食用土当归种子进行检验,并设计对比试验探讨赤霉素、温度对种子萌发的影响.结果 食用土当归种子净度为74% ~91%,平均值为83.3%;含水量为8.2% ~10.4%,平均值为9.4%;千粒重为0.91 ~ 1.02g,平均值为0.97g;种子经300mg/L赤霉素12h浸泡后转15/25℃(15℃16h,25℃8h)变温条件下萌发,发芽率>75%,发芽势>40%,25d发芽结束;隔年种子发芽率显著下降.结论 食用土当归优质种子质量标准为发芽率≥75%,发芽势≥40%,千粒重≥0.95 g,种子净度≥80%,含水量≤10.5%,且籽粒饱满,大小均匀;种子经赤霉素浸泡后转变温条件下萌发可有效提高发芽率;陈种不宜作为生产用种.

  10. 栽培食用土当归根的化学成分研究%Research on Chemical Ingredients of the Root from Cultivar Aralia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭腾; 董小萍; 邓赟; 涂永勤; 李小年

    2005-01-01

    从栽培食用土当归根的乙醚部位分离得到8个化合物,经UV、IR、1H-NMR、13CNMR等鉴定为:栲利烯酸(kaur-16-en-19-oic acid)(Ⅰ)、十六烷酸(docosanoic)(Ⅱ)、二十二烷酸(hexadecanoic acid)(Ⅲ)、豆甾醇(stigmasterol)(Ⅳ)、16-甲酰基-15-烯-栲利烯酸(16-formyl-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid)(Ⅴ)、7-酮基海松酸(7-oxo-ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-0ic acid)(Ⅵ)、17-羟基-15-烯-栲利烯酸(17-Hydroxy-ent-kaur-15-en-19-0ic acid)(Ⅶ)、β-谷甾醇(sitosterol)(Ⅷ),其中化合物Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  11. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Moser; Thomas Rötzer; Stephan Pauleit; Hans Pretzsch

    2016-01-01

    The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researc...

  12. Determination of Polyphenol Content in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. by Folin-Ciocalteu Colorimetric Method%Folin-Ciocalteu法测定鱼腥草多酚的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文国; 吴卫; 邵金凤; 陈鹊; 王元彪; 刘正琼

    2010-01-01

    目的:探索优化Folin-Ciocalteu法测定鱼腥草中多酚含量.方法:运用不同的溶剂超声提取鱼腥草叶片,比较不同时间提取物用Folin-Ciocalteu法测得的吸光度.并以乙醇2h提取液为对象研究不同的碳酸钠溶液、Folin-Ciocalteu显色剂加入量、反应温度及时间对吸光度大小及稳定性的影响.结果:甲醇提取效率最高,其次为乙醇、丙酮和水;提取时间2h;较适宜测定方法为采用0.5mL提取液,加入2.0mL 20%的碳酸钠缓冲液、1.5mL Folin-Ciocalteu显色剂,蒸馏水定容至50.0mL,55℃保温1.5h,测定波长为760nm.结论:该方法比较快速、准确和稳定,适合推广.

  13. 不同激素组合对九眼独活嫩叶愈伤组织诱导的影响%Influence of Different Hormone Combinations on the Leaves Callus Induction of Aralia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向鸿; 侯大斌; 赵纳

    2010-01-01

    以野生药用植物九眼独活的幼嫩叶片为材料,研究2,4-D 分别与KT,6-BA的不同组合对九眼独活愈伤组织诱导的影响.结果表明:KT和6-BA会明显降低九眼独活愈伤组织诱导频率,对愈伤组织的生长有明显的抑制作用,但能降低愈伤组织的褐化程度;低浓度的2,4-D在愈伤组织诱导中起着重要作用,并能获得生长状态好的愈伤组织,通过筛选获得诱导九眼独活愈伤组织的最适培养基,即MS+2,4-D 0.2 mg/L.

  14. DNA isolation, optimization of ISSR-PCR system and primers screening of Aralia cordata Thunb%九眼独活基因组DNA提取、ISSR反应体系优化及引物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 侯大斌; 徐敏; 刘向鸿

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨九眼独活基因组DNA提取方法 、ISSR反应体系优化及引物筛选,为研究九眼独活居群遗传多样性及原药材DNA鉴定奠定基础.方法 采用改良的CTAB法与常规CTAB法对九眼独活的基因组进行提取,通过紫外、电泳、PCR-ISSR检测方法 进行比较.结果实验表明,改良的CTAB法得到的DNA浓度和纯度较高,并可很好地应用于ISSR分子标记分析;以Mg2+、dNTP、引物和聚合酶建立L9(34)正交设计,并同时考察退火温度和模板浓度,建立适宜的25 μL ISSR-PCR体系为:模板 30 ng,Mg2+ 3.5 mmol·L-1,dNTP 0.6 mmol·L-1,引物0.4 μmol·L-1,Taq酶1 U.结论 以此体系为基础进行引物筛选,在40条ISSR引物中筛选出13 条扩增条带清晰、多态性较高、重复性好的引物.

  15. Study on the GC fingerprints of volatile oil in ultramicro-powder of Houttuynia cordata%鱼腥草超微粉挥发油气相指纹图谱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄有霖; 林珠灿; 郭素华; 刘建成; 黄一帆

    2007-01-01

    目的:建立不同产地鱼腥草超微粉体中挥发油成分的指纹图谱分析方法,为有效控制鱼腥草超微粉质量提供依据.方法:采用GC(气相色谱,gas chromatography)法测定了12个不同产地的鱼腥草超微粉样品;色谱条件:SPDTM-1 Capillary Column(30m×0.32mm×0.25μm),程序升温,FID(氢火焰离子化检测器,flame ionization detector)检测器.结果:建立了鱼腥草超微粉挥发油的指纹图谱共有模式,并对不同产地的样品进行了相似度比较.结论:本研究建立的鱼腥草超微粉挥发油指纹图谱分析方法,可用于鉴别不同产地的鱼腥草药材,并评价其质量.

  16. 鱼腥草超微粉黄酮类成分HPLC指纹图谱的研究%Study on HPLC Fingerprint of Flavonoids in Ultramicro-powders of Houttuynia Cordata Thunb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建成; 黄一帆; 陈庆; 林珠灿; 郭素华; 俞道进

    2007-01-01

    利用高效液相色谱法建立了鱼腥草超微粉黄酮类成分的色谱指纹图谱.色谱条件:色谱柱为SHIM-PACK VP-G18柱(250mm×4.6 mm,10 μm),乙腈-1%甲酸梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长254 nm.建立了鱼腥草超微粉HPLC指纹图谱,标定了7个共有峰.结论为利用HPLC指纹图谱可以较全面地控制鱼腥草超微粉的内在质量.

  17. 柰李细菌性黑斑病菌侵染过程研究%INFECTION PROCESS OF Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni ON NAI PLUM (Prunus salicina var. cordata )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴良英; 高必达

    2001-01-01

    @@ The bacterial spot on Nai plum caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is an important disease in Hu nan Province, causing a considerable yield loss. Studies were carried out on this disease, such as field investiga tion on occurrence and development and integrated control. In this paper we report the fine structure study of the diseased tissues.

  18. Homeobox gene expression in Brachiopoda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Martinez, Pedro; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The molecular control that underlies brachiopod ontogeny is largely unknown. In order to contribute to this issue we analyzed the expression pattern of two homeobox containing genes, Not and Cdx, during development of the rhynchonelliform (i.e., articulate) brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. Not...

  19. Ciliary and mucus-net filter feeding, with special reference to fluid mechanical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.B.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.;

    1984-01-01

    feeding characterized by processing of water at low pressures (.ltoreq. 1 mm H2O). Mechanisms of water processing and particle retention in brachiopods and bivalves are compared. Laminar flow of through-currents and surface-currents in brachiopods is consistent with the hypothesis of capture of suspended...

  20. The Evolution of Brachiopoda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sandra J.

    2016-06-01

    Brachiopods are (perhaps all too) familiar to any geology student who has taken an invertebrate paleontology course; they may well be less familiar to biology students. Even though brachiopods are among the most significant components of the marine fossil record by virtue of their considerable diversity, abundance, and long evolutionary history, fewer than 500 species are extant. Reconciling the geological and biological perspectives is necessary in order to test hypotheses, not only about phylogenetic relationships among brachiopods but also about their spectacular decline in diversity in the end-Permian mass extinction, which permanently reset their evolutionary trajectory. Studying brachiopod ontogeny and development, population genetics, ecology, physiology, and biogeography, as well as molecular systematics and phylogenomics, enables us to better understand the context of evolutionary processes over the short term. Investigating brachiopod morphological, taxonomic, and stratigraphic records over the Phanerozoic Eon reveals historical patterns of long-term macroevolutionary change, patterns that are simply unknowable from a biological perspective alone.

  1. Drug: D10240 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10240 Crude, Drug Aralia root (non-JP); Wakyoukatsu; Araliae cordatae radix Aralia...] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) D10240 Aralia root PubChem: 163312271 ...

  2. 星点设计效应面法优选鱼腥草分散片的处方工艺%Optimization of the Formulation Technology of Houttuynia cordata Dispersible Tablets by Central Composite Design and Response Surface Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:优选鱼腥草分散片的处方工艺.方法:以交联聚维酮(PVPP)、交联羧甲基纤维素钠(CCNa)、羧甲基淀粉钠(CMS)用量为考察因素,以崩解时限和累积溶出度为评价指标,采用星点设计效应面法优选鱼腥草分散片的处方工艺.结果:最优处方工艺为PVPP用量为19~20 mg,CCNa用量为29~37 mg,CMS用量为21~27 mg.结论:优选的处方工艺稳定、可行,可用于制备鱼腥草分散片.

  3. PALEOZOOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160432Cheng Hongguang(State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry,Institute of Geochemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guiyang550002,China);Li Xinqing The Discrepancy in Carbon,Oxygen and Strontium Isotope between Brachiopod Fossil

  4. Middle to Late Ordovician faunal studies from central Australia and Tasmania during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube

    , but the preservation and low number of specimens prevent formal definition of additional new taxa. Although highly endemic at species level, the investigated brachiopod, trilobite and mollusc faunas display a high degree of overall similarity at generic level with Middle Ordovician faunas from North China. Other...... from the Stairway Sandstone, whereas nine brachiopod and five mollusc taxa have been documented from the Cashions Creek Limestone. The new trilobite species Basilicus (Parabasilicus) brumbyensis sp. nov. is described along with the new brachiopod species Amadeuphyla joanae gen. et sp. nov....... and Paralenorthis luritjaorum sp. nov. As well as the new bivalve species Modiolopsis pojetai sp. nov. and Sthenodonta paenesymmetrica sp. nov. All new species derive from the Stairway Sandstone. Several other trilobites, brachiopods and bivalves, described in open nomenclature, probably represent new species...

  5. Notes on three species of the genus Sacculina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1952-01-01

    One of the specimens dealt with in the present paper has been described in previous papers, in which it appeared under three different names, all of which for different reasons eventually proved to be erroneous. The present identification as Sacculina cordata Shiino at last seems to be definite. The

  6. GROWTH-RATES OF SHRUBS ON DIFFERENT SOILS IN TANZANIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRINS, HHT; VANDERJEUGD, HP

    1992-01-01

    Because little is known of growth rates of shrubs in East Africa, the growth rates of Acalypha fructicosa, Gardenia jovis-tonantis, Justicia cordata, Maerua triphylla, and Ocimum suave were measured in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. Branch diameter increments and branch length increm

  7. Sequestration of Glucosinolates and Iridoid Glucosides in Sawfly Species of the Genus Athalia and Their Role in Defense Against Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Sebastian E. W.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Müller, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    . The defensive effectiveness of hemolymph that contains GLSs or IGs and of the respective glucosides was tested in feeding-bioassays against a potential predator, the ant Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Hemolymph of IG-sequestering cryptic A. cordata larvae has a higher deterrence potential than...

  8. Environmental Statement, Oswego Steam Station, Unit Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-29

    Onoclea sensibilis), jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) and sedges ( Cyperaceae ). Shrubs surrounding the marsh include alder and buttonbush (Cephalanthus...dominated by cattails. Other important species found in the marsh areas were rushes F i(Juncareae) and sedges ( Cyperaceae ), sensitive fern, purple loosestrife...cordata) sedges ( Cyperaceae ) arrowhead (Sagittaria sp. cattail (Typha latifolia) duckweed (Lemna minor purple loosestrife (Lythru salicaria) sensitive

  9. Wood-inhabiting dematiaceous Hyphomycetes in the Kampinos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results of investigations of wood-inhabiting fungal communities in several forest associations arę presented. The populations of these fungi on the wood of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur, Betula verrucosa, Tilia cordata and Pinus sylvestris are also analyzed.

  10. The lower Maastrichtian Hivdskud succession, Møns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelby, M.E.; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Surlyk, Finn;

    2014-01-01

    with the cored boreholes Stevns-1 (Denmark) and ODP Site 762C (Indian Ocean). Hvidskud encompasses the 405 kyr eccentricity cycles Ma40513 – Ma40511 within magnetochron C31r. A sedimentation rate of 5.0 cm kyr-1 can be inferred from correlation to geochronological tie-points in ODP 762C, suggesting an age of ~70...... Maastrichtian in north-western Europe. Information on palaeo-seawater temperatures can be drawn from oxygen isotope records obtained from bulk rock samples and 24 micromorphic brachiopod specimens (Terebratulina faujasii). The brachiopod data show a clear diagenetic trend but point to an upper range...

  11. Tectonics, islands and island hopping in the Early Palaeozoic benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harper, D.A.T.; Liljeroth, M.; Rasmussen, C.M.Ø.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses confirm the roles of the oceanic provinces as both cradles and museums of evolution (Harper & Mac Niocaill, 2002), with reference to the development of the global brachiopod fauna through the Floian-Sandbian (mid Early – early Late Ordovician) interval. Moreover, groups of taxa with particu

  12. Devonian Stromatoporoids of the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, B.H.G.

    1969-01-01

    In the Cantabrian Mountains stromatoporoids only have been found up to now in Devonian formations. They occur together with tabulate and rugose corals and brachiopods. Together with these organisms they form biostromes or just biogenetic layers of brecciated and overturned colonies. Four primary mic

  13. Controls on body size during the Late Permian mass extinction event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W-H; Twitchett, R J; Zhang, Y; Shi, G R; Feng, Q-L; Yu, J-X; Wu, S-B; Peng, X-F

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the morphological responses of Late Permian brachiopods to environmental changes. Quantitative analysis of body size data from Permian-Triassic brachiopods has demonstrated significant, directional changes in body size before, during and after the Late Permian mass extinction event. Brachiopod size significantly reduced before and during the extinction interval, increased for a short time in more extinction-resistant taxa in the latter stages of extinction and then dramatically reduced again across the Permian/Triassic boundary. Relative abundances of trace elements and acritarchs demonstrate that the body size reductions which happened before, during and after extinction were driven by primary productivity collapse, whereas declining oxygen levels had less effect. An episode of size increase in two of the more extinction-resistant brachiopod species is unrelated to environmental change and possibly was the result of reduced interspecific competition for resources following the extinction of competitors. Based on the results of this study, predictions can be made for the possible responses of modern benthos to present-day environmental changes.

  14. Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Joachimski, Michael M.; Korn, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    diagenetically resistant apatite of conodonts and low-Mg calcite of brachiopods from stratigraphically well-constrained Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary successions in northwestern Iran. A new evaluation is made for previously published conodont δ18O values from South China and revised palaeotemperatures...

  15. Pollen morphology of Vochysiaceae tree species in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Ortrud Monika; Pinto Da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes

    2014-09-01

    Tropical Vochysiaceae includes mainly trees, and also shrubs and subshrubs. Three genera and seven species are present in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. The pollen morphology of six species of trees, belonging to three genera of the Vochysiaceae A. St-Hil. family, was studied. Herbaria samples were obtained, processed and treated by standard methods. The pollen grain morphology of Callisthene, Qualea and Vochysia is distinct. Medium sized pollen grains occur in Vochysia species, and small ones in Callisthene and Qualea. Specific characteristics were considered at species level [C. castellanosii H. F. Martins, C. kuhlmannii H. F. Martins, Qualea cordata Spreng var. cordata, Q. cryptantha (Spreng) Warm. var. cryptantha, Vochysia magnifica Warm. and V. tucanorum Mart.]. The presence ofa fastigium (vestibulum) and a thin space devoid of nexine fixing the boundary of the apertural area is characteristic of Qualea and Vochysia species only.

  16. Sequential Nitrification/Denitrification in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands. A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    2/d3o e ia cordata 12.5 Common cattail 4.4 Common arrowhead 8.3 Canna flacida 7.9 .Si•l•us.ung•en 3.4 Scru validus 7.3 I Reed (1992) by doing an...Aeration And Preferential Flow Studied Using Bromide And Dye Tracers. Wat. Res. 21:591-599. Breen, P.F. 1990. A Mass Balance Method For Assessing The

  17. A Survey of the Environmental and Cultural Resources of the Trinity River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-09-01

    of Houston County (Figure 29 i. The large Ferguson and Eastham Prison Farms border the river in this sector. High bluffs usually confine the river...home development lies be- tween the Ferguson Prison Farm and Bedias Creek. Most of the bottomland has been cleared for cropland and pasture, usually...fruticosa L. Bastard indigo 6 Amorpha paniculata T.& G. Amorpha 7 Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne. Pepper vine 8 Ampelopsis cordata Michx. Heartleaf

  18. Complex Ornament Machining Process on a CNC Router

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Ivan CISMARU

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the CNC routering possibilities for three species of wood, namely ash (Fraxinus Excelsior), lime wood (Tilia cordata) and fir wood (Abies Alba), in order to obtain right surfaces of Art Nouveau sculptured ornaments. Given the complexity of the CNC tool path for getting wavy shapes of Art Nouveau decorations, the choice of processing parameters for each processed species of wood requires a laborious research work to correlate these parameters. Two Art Nou...

  19. Drymaria villosa (Caryophyllaceae new record for the flora of the Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The herb Drymaria villosa is reported first time from the Western Himalaya. This species is morphologically similar to Drymaria cordata ssp. diandra but can be distinguished by its delicate individuals, villous vestiture, orbicular to reniform leaves, auriculate oblong bifid petals, and numerous reniform seeds. The present collection of the species represents westernmost distributional limit in the Asian continent. Morphological characteristics of the species were examined, which are illustrated here. Key to differentiate it from closely allied species is also provided.

  20. Taphonomy of a thick Terebratula bioherm from the Pliocene of southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.

    2015-04-01

    Brachiopods were extremely abundant during the Paleozoic era but underwent a dramatic loss of biodiversity at the Permo-Triassic boundary. The comparison of brachiopod and bivalve diversity through geological time shows that the latter were the most successful counterpart at best recovering from mass extinction events. Nonetheless, there are cases where Post-Paleozoic brachiopods stand out as the dominant marine benthos in particular environments, forming paucispecific brachiopod-dominated bioherms. This note describes an example of shallow-water brachiopod bioherm dominated by the terebratulid Terebratula calabra. The shell bed is found in mixed siliciclastic-temperate carbonate deposits of late Early Pliocene age nearby Águilas (southeastern Spain). This unique brachiopod concentration may be helpful to understand the particular success of large-sized brachiopods like Terebratula in Cenozoic environments typically dominated by bivalves. The bioherm attains 1.5 meters in thickness and crops out along a band up to 140 meters wide. The lithology consists of bioturbated fine-grained sands containing poorly sorted bioclasts, mostly fragments of Terebratula. This shell bed also records a diverse fauna, including five brachiopod genera, pectinids (4 genera), oysters (3 genera), in addition to rare gastropods, echinoids, bryozoans, etc. The density and sorting of bioclasts is laterally variable, and the biofabrics range from loosely dispersed to densely-packed, including examples of concave-up vertical stacking and nesting of shells. Most of the fragments of Terebratula preserve the posterior part of the shell only. These fragments generally display corrasion (rounded fractured margins, rounded to completely missing symphytium), bioerosion (prevailing the ichnogenera Entobia, Gnathichnus and Podichnus) and encrustation (mainly by bryozoans, Ancistrocrania, and Pododesmus). The good preservation of Pododesmus contrasts with that of most fragments of Terebratula, although

  1. A new glyptorthid species (Brachiopoda: Orthida from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Hints

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A new glyptorthid brachiopod species Bassettella alata with surface pits and lamellose frills is described from the Upper Ordovician Haljala and Keila stages of northern Estonia. The new species appears in the Jõhvi Substage of theHaljala Stage (mid-Sandbian and is somewhat younger than the type species B. ;gracilis appearing in the lower Idavere Substage of the same stage in NW Russia. In the uppermost Keila Stage (lowermost Katian, B. ;alata belongs to a mixed faunal association of the marginal facies of the Vasalemma Formation comprising the oldest Ordovician reefs in Estonia. The distribution pattern of brachiopods of the genus Bassettella shows a westward shift in time and changes in shell morphology from subrectangular to subtriangular with alate cardinal extremities.

  2. Metamorphosis in Craniiformea revisited: Novocrania anomala shows delayed development of the ventral valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg; Holmer, Lars E.

    2013-01-01

    We revisited the brachiopod fold hypothesis and investigated metamorphosis in the craniiform brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larval development is lecithotrophic and the dorsal (brachial) valve is secreted by dorsal epithelia. We found that the juvenile ventral valve, which consists only of a thin...... layer that was previously described as periostracal, is not a valve and is not secreted by the same epithelia as the dorsal valve. It is secreted by the attachment area of the larva at the posterior-most tip of the posterior larval lobe. The same attachment area is used by larvae of rhynchonelliform...... the Rhynchonelliformea. This interpretation suggests that the last common ancestor of the Craniiformea has lost the pedicle and the ventral valve in early juvenile development. Characters that have previously been considered to be shared between the Craniiformea and the Linguliformea (clade Inarticulata...

  3. CLASTS OF UPPERMOST ALBIAN (VRACONIAN LIMESTONE IN THE EOCENE CUCCURU 'E FLORES CONGLOMERATE OF THE M. ALBO MASSIF (EASTERN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGINIO DIENI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare clasts of richly fossiliferous uppermost Albian (Vraconian auctt. glauconitic and phosphatic, ammonite-bearing limestone have been found in the Eocene Cuccuru ’e Flores Conglomerate in the area of M. Albo massif (eastern Sardinia. The limestone is wholly comparable in facies and fossil assemblage to the classical outcrop known in the Orosei area. The fossil content includes also brachiopods and abundant planktonic foraminifers of the Thalmanninella (formerly Rotalipora appenninica Zone. In the palaeontological part the brachiopods Orbirhynchia parkinsoni and Capillithyris capillata are described and discussed. Vraconian highly condensed deposits, characterized by basal erosional gaps of variable importance, have particular relevance, being known to be widely distributed in the northern Tethyan margin with common characteristics, such as authigenic glauconite, phosphatic nodules and a rich outer-shelf fauna. 

  4. Hábitos de Vida da Associação “Schuchertella”agassizi – Pthychopteria eschwegei, Formação Maecuru,Devoniano, Bacia do Amazonas, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira Ponciano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The fossils studied came from outcrops of the Maecuru and Curuá rivers, State of Pará, belonging to the upper strata of theMaecuru Formation, Eifelian age. In this formation, two associations of marine benthic invertebrate can be identified, each inferring adistinct paleoenvironment. The association analyzed occurs in medium and coarse sandstones and shows “Schuchertella” agassizi andPtychopeteria eschwegei as predominant organisms. It was idnetified 12 species of brachiopods, 20 species of bivalves, 12 of trilobites,8 of gastropods, 6 of bellerophonts, 3 of crinoids and 3 of tentaculitids in this association. Brachiopods are the most abundant organisms,responsible for approximately 50% of it, followed by tentaculitids and bivalves. Trilobites, gastropods and bellerophonts sum less than10% of the aforementioned association. Crinoids were not included in the quantitative analysis because they are only found as calicinalplates and disarticulated column disks. The brachiopods showed, through their morphofunctional characteristics, suspension feedersrecumbent (free-lying epifaunal life habit or a pedicle attached mode of life. The bivalves showed a predominant suspension feeder semiinfaunalhabit, attached by byssus threads to the substratum, and an infaunal mode of life. All the trilobites showed a predator/scavengerand vagile epifaunal habit. The epifaunal platyceratids represents the gastropods with low mobility (coprophagous/suspension feeders.The bellerophonts showed an epifaunal highly/medium mobility and grazing/predator habit. The tentaculitids having a semi-infaunal,suspension feeder habit. The suspension feeder forms (brachiopods, bivalves and tentaculitids account for over 90% of the organisms, withthe remaining percentage distributed among the predator/scavenger (trilobites, coprophagous/suspension feeders (gastropods, grazers/predators (bellerophonts and deposit feeders (rare bivalves. The predominance of suspension feeder forms

  5. A new glyptorthid species (Brachiopoda: Orthida) from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Hints

    2010-01-01

    A new glyptorthid brachiopod species Bassettella alata with surface pits and lamellose frills is described from the Upper Ordovician Haljala and Keila stages of northern Estonia. The new species appears in the Jõhvi Substage of theHaljala Stage (mid-Sandbian) and is somewhat younger than the type species B. ;gracilis appearing in the lower Idavere Substage of the same stage in NW Russia. In the uppermost Keila Stage (lowermost Katian), B. ;alata belongs to a mixed faunal association of the ma...

  6. A new species of Conchicolites (Cornulitida, Tentaculita from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new cornulitid species, Conchicolites crispisulcans sp. nov., is described from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden. The undulating edge of C. crispisulcans sp. nov. peristomes is unique among the species of Conchicolites. This undulating peristome edge may reflect the position of setae at the tube aperture. The presence of the undulating peristome edge supports the hypothesis that cornulitids had setae and were probably related to brachiopods.

  7. Guanling Biota: A Rare Biota in Sea Early Late Triassic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Guanling biota has been found at the bottom of Wayao Formation of Upper Triassic (Carnic stage) near Xinpu town, Guanling County, Guizhou Province, China. There are a lot of crinoids and marine reptiles, which is a characteristic of Guanling biota, including ammonites, bivalve, brachiopod, fish, conodont and plant. These fossils are featured not only with the large quantity, but also with their extraordinary perfect forms. This paper explores the meaning, geological background, present situation of study and scientific significance of Guanling biota.

  8. THE ATHYRIDOIDS OF THE TRANSITIONAL BEDS BETWEEN BELLEROPHON AND WERFEN FORMATIONS (UPPERMOST PERMIAN, SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The transitional beds between Bellerophon and Werfen Formations, few centimetres thick and latest Permian in age, contain a brachiopod fauna with a relatively rich athyridoid assemblage, among which Janiceps is the most common and characteristic genus. The internal morphology of the type species (J. peracuta) is here described for the first time, and a taxonomical revision of the South Alpine species is proposed. The new subfamily Janicepsinae is proposed, which contains Janiceps and the new ...

  9. Biochemostratigraphy of the upper Frasnian in the Namur–Dinant Basin, Belgium: implications for a global Frasnian–Famennian pre-event

    OpenAIRE

    Azmy, K.; Poty, E.; Mottequin, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Frasnian sequence of the Namur–Dinant Basin in southern Belgium consists of mixed siliclastic–carbonate succession of a ramp setting, where the sequence spans the rhenana–linguiformis conodont zones. Earlier studies investigated the chemostratigraphic variations during the Frasnian–Famennian event, but little has been yet known about the nature of the counterpart variations that immediately preceded that time interval. Despite the scarcity of well-preserved brachiopods, sixty-one ca...

  10. Os topónimos algarvios na Paleontologia portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    ROCHA, R. B.; Kullberg, J. C.; Caetano, P. S.

    2007-01-01

    Since the XIX century, Portuguese and foreign geologists have defined 47 new invertebrate taxa (foraminifera, ostracods, coelenterates, brachiopods, gastropods, ammonoids, echinoids), 2 new fossil plant taxa (charophyte and pteridophyte) and 1 ichnofossil, using toponymy from the Algarve; these taxa refer to 1 genera, 47 species and 2 varieties. Besides the Algarve toponym, the most used as specific name, twenty others have been used, mostly from western Algarve; these toponyms are a...

  11. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning SPICE represents a widespread ocean anoxic event leading to enhanced burial/preservation of organic matter (Corg) and pyrite. We analyzed ??18O values of apatitic inarticulate brachiopods from three Upper Cambrian successions across Laurentia to evaluate paleotemperatures during the SPICE. ??18O values range from ~12.5??? to 16.5???. Estimated seawater temperatures associated with the SPICE are unreasonably warm, suggesting that the brachiopod ??18O values were altered during early diagenesis. Despite this, all three localities show similar trends with respect to the SPICE ??13C curve, suggesting that the brachiopod apatite preserves a record of relative ??18O and temperature changes. The trends include relatively high ??18O values at the onset of the SPICE, decreasing and lowest values during the main event, and an increase in values at the end of the event. The higher ??18O values during the global extinction at the onset of the SPICE suggests seawater cooling and supports earlier hypotheses of upwelling of cool waters onto the shallow shelf. Decreasing and low ??18O values coincident with the rising limb of the SPICE support the hypothesis that seawater warming and associated reduced thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  12. EVIDENCE OF A GUADALUPIAN AGE FOR THE KHUFF FORMATION OF SOUTHEASTERN OMAN: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA ANGIOLINI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalupian succession of the Huqf area (Sultanate of Oman represents a mega-sequence comprising the fluvial terrigenous Gharif Formation and the overlying marine Khuff Formation. The Khuff Fm. is subdivided into four members and is composed of marls and bioclastic limestones. The Khuff Fm. yields a rich fauna of brachiopods, conodonts, foraminifers, bivalves, gastropods, ostracods and cephalopods. The brachiopod fauna of the Khuff Fm. includes strophomenids, productids, orthids and terebratulids. The associated conodont fauna includes Hindeodus excavatus Behnken, Merrilina sp., M. praedivergens Kozur & Mostler, and Sweetina n. sp. (systematic descriptions of conodonts are given in the Paleontological Appendix. Foraminifers are represented by species of Miliolina and Rotaliina. The Khuff Fm. is given a Wordian age, based on brachiopods and conodonts. The depositional environment of the Khuff Fm. of southeastern Oman corresponds to the outer shelf of a large carbonate platform covering most of the Arabian Platform. The Khuff Fm. is interpreted as a major transgressive-regressive cycle related to differential subsidence. 

  13. Retrospective study of {sup 14}C concentration in the vicinity of NPP Jaslovské Bohunice using tree rings and the AMS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ješkovský, Miroslav [CENTA Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Povinec, Pavel P., E-mail: Povinec@fmph.uniba.sk [CENTA Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Šivo, Alexander; Richtáriková, Marta [CENTA Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Golser, Robin [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Atmospheric radiocarbon has been monitored around the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Jaslovské Bohunice (Slovakia) using CO{sub 2} absorption in NaOH solution since 1969. In 2012, tree ring samples were collected from Tilia cordata using an increment borer at Žlkovce monitoring station situated close to the Bohunice NPP. Each tree ring was identified and graphite targets were produced for {sup 14}C analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. The {sup 14}C concentrations obtained from the tree-ring samples have been in a reasonable agreement with the averaged annual {sup 14}C concentrations in atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  14. Identifying, Developing and Releasing Insect Biocontrol Agents for the Management of Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    lurida X X Cortaderia selloana + + Cyperus haspan X X Dactylis glomerata X X Danthonia spicata X O Distichlis spicata X X Elymus virginicus X X...Muhlenbergia racemosa X X Oryza sativa + X Panicum virgatum X X Phalaris arundinacea + + Pontederia cordata X X Saccharum officinarum X...introduced grasses (R2adj=0.22, F1,34=10.79, P=0.0024, Figure 6), but not with the native P. australis cover (R2adj=0.06, F1,54=3.53, P=0.0656, data not

  15. Preliminary Exploration of a Novel Type High-effi-ciency Mosquito-repellent Compound Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei; Jing; Zhou; Yin; Sun; Yizhe; Wang; Tao; Yang; Jingya

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils were extracted from flowers and branches of Cestrum genus plant Telosma cordata(Burm. F.) Merr.,and used for purifying the mosquito-repellent refined oils. The yielded extracts were mixed with single nerve-smoothing or nerve-exciting components from lavender and peppermint or mixed with basal oils(like evening primrose),in order to prepare the novel type compound essential oils conferring mosquito-repellent and air-refreshing actions. The resulted compound was prepared into solid air freshener.

  16. Vegetative propagation of native species potentially useful in the restoration of México City's vegetation Propagación vegetativa de especies nativas potencialmente útiles en la restauración de la vegetación de la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos-Palacios

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hardwood and softwood cuttings of Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq and Senecio praecox D.C. were tested to know their ability to form adventitious roots. Cuttings were prepared in 2 different seasons (wet and dry and treated with different microclimatic conditions and auxin concentrations (IBA and NAA. Hardwood and softwood cuttings of B. cordata rooted during the dry and wet season, whilst hardwood and softwood cuttings of D. viscosa rooted only in the wet season, cuttings of S. praecox rooted only in wet season with a higher rooting for hardwood than softwood cuttings. Low hormone concentrations (10 - 100 ppm favored the rooting percentage more than high concentrations (1000 - 10 000 ppm. However, high hormone concentrations favored number, length of roots and number of developed shoots. Natural regeneration of these species is limited and the species are difficult to propagate from seeds. Vegetative propagation of these species could be an alternative to get clonal planting stock for reforestation programs in some Mexico City areas.Se probó la habilidad de estacas lignificadas y suaves de Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq y Senecio praecox D.C. para formar raíces adventicias. Las estacas se prepararon en las estaciones húmeda y seca; se trataron con diferentes concentraciones de auxinas (IBA y NAA y en diferentes condiciones microclimáticas. Las estacas de madera lignificadas y madera suave de B. cordata enraizaron durante la estación seca y húmeda, mientras que las de D. viscosa lo hicieron sólo en la época húmeda, las estacas de S. praecox sólo en la estación seca teniendo las estacas lignificadas un mayor enraizamiento que las de madera suave. Las concentraciones bajas de hormonas (10 - 100 ppm favorecieron más el porcentaje de enraizamiento que las altas concentraciones (1000 - 10 000 ppm. . Sin embargo, las concentraciones altas de hormonas favorecieron el número y la longitud de las raíces, además del

  17. Tratamiento de aguas residuales por humedales artificiales tropicales en Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Marín Acosta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En las dos últimas décadas, los humedales artificiales han incrementado mundialmente su desarrollo para el tratamiento de aguas residuales. En el presente estudio, doce humedales artificiales tropicales de flujo subsuperficial (HAFS fueron diseñados y operados específicamente para el tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas. La eficiencia de remoción de contaminantes básicos (DBO5, DQO, SST, NT, PT, Turbiedad y Color fue evaluada bajo tres tratamientos: 1 Pontederia cordata (HAFS-Tule, 2 Phragmites australis (HAFS-Carrizo y 3 grava como prueba testigo (HAFS-Grava.

  18. Macromycetes of oak-lime-hornbeam woods in the Niepołomice Forest near Kraków (S Poland - monitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysława Wojewoda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1994-1996 studies on macromycetes of the Niepołomice Forest near Kraków were made in four plots designated in deciduous forests (Tilio-Carpinetum stachyetosum with a population of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata (the size of each plot was 1000 m2. The observations were made through an international project "Mycological monitoring in European oak forests". As many as 274 species were recorded, including 234 saprobic, 33 mycorrhizal, and 7 parasitic fungi. Moreover, 15 species of fungi are connected with oak, 24 species of fungi are threatened, and 16 species are new to Poland.

  19. A New Species and Two New Records of Athalia Leach (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) from China%中国残青叶蜂属一新种和二新记录种(膜翅目:叶蜂科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏美才

    2007-01-01

    记述了膜翅目叶蜂科残青叶蜂属Athalia 1新种:小斑残青叶蜂Athalia minor wei,sp nov.,该新种隶属于cordata group,与A.hummeli Benson和A.picta Benson近似.还记述了中国2新记录种:远斑残青叶蜂Athalia arunachalensis Saini et Vasu,1997和近斑残青叶蜂A.sikkimensis (Benson,1932).

  20. Eriophyes species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) inhabiting lime trees (Tilia spp.: Tiliaceae)--supplementary description and morphological variability related to host plants and female forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soika, Grazyna; Kozak, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Three poorly known species of the subfamily Eriophyinae living on Tilia spp. (Tiliaceae) are illustrated and supplementary descriptions are provided. Two of them, Eriophyes exilis (Nalepa 1892) and Eriophyes nervalis (Nalepa 1918), were recorded both in vein angle galls on leaves of Tilia platyphyllos Scop. and in erinea on leaves of Tilia tomentosa Moench, Tilia americana L. 'Moltkei', Tilia americana var. heterophylla (Vent.) Loudon, Tilia cordata Mill., Tiliajaponica (Miq.) Simonk., Tilia petiolaris DC. and Tilia zamoyskiana Wr6bl. The third species, Eriophyes tiliae Nalepa 1890, was found in nail galls on leaves of T platyphyllos, T americana and T. cordata. All of these Eriophyes species showed noticeable morphological differences between protogyne and deutogyne females in terms of the number of dorsal annuli, location of setae d, length of setae e and 3a, distance between tubercles 3a and the length and pattern of the prodorsal shield. Based on a comparative morphological analysis of this original data with that published by A. Nalepa, new synonyms for the following species are proposed: Erophyes exilis (Nalepa) = Eriophyes leiosoma Nalepa syn. nov.; Eriophyes nervalis (Nalepa) = Eriophyes tiliaceus Nalepa syn. nov., Eriophyes tiliae Nalepa = Eriophyes rudis Nalepa syn. nov. = Eriophyes tomentosae Nalepa syn. nov. A key to all studied Eriophyes species living on lime trees is included.

  1. [Composition and seasonality of Euglossina Species (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in forest and dune in the Environmental Protection Area of the Mamanguape River Bar, PB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Rodrigo C A P; Madeira-da-Silva, Maria C; Pereira-Peixoto, Maria H; Martins, Celso F

    2008-01-01

    By using artificial fragrances as baits, we studied richness, composition, abundance and seasonality of Euglossina species in two areas (forest and dune) in the Environmental Protection Area of the Mamanguape River Bar, State of Paraiba, Brazil, between August 2002 and July 2004. Bees were attracted with wads of absorbent paper containing each of the fragrances: benzyl acetate, ionone beta, skatole, eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin, and captured with insect net. We collected a total of 3,132 males of nine species of Euglossina. On both areas, Euglossa cordata (L.) and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier were present throughout the year and were the most abundant species in the forest and the first one was the most abundant specie at the dune. Concerning to the composition, the Atlantic Rainforest areas in Paraíba State were more similar among themselves, the same occurring to the dune areas in Paraíba and Bahia States. In the forest, Euglossina species showed higher seasonality, being more abundant during the drier period, specially E. cordata. At the dune, species were homogeneously distributed in the dry and rainy periods.

  2. SPAD-502 readings in response to photon fluence in leaves with different chlorophyll content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Cristina Santos Nascimento

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502 is widely used to estimate chlorophyll content, but non-uniform chloroplast distribution can affect its accuracy. This study aimed to assess the effect of photon fluence (F, irradiance x time of illumination in leaves with different chlorophyll content and determine the effect of chlorophyll a/b on SPAD values of four tropical tree species (Croton draconoides Müll. Arg., Hevea guianensis Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril L. and Matisia cordata H.B.K.. There were also determined calibration equations for the chlorophyll meter and assessed the effect of F on SPAD values between 07:00 h and 17:00 h. Calibration equations were obtained after determining leaf chlorophyll content in the laboratory. Increases in F with time caused a reduction in SPAD values in species with a high chlorophyll content, with reductions of 20% in M. cordata and 10% in H. guianensis. Leaves of C. draconoides and H. courbaril had lower chlorophyll content and showed no changes in SPAD values with increase in F. The chlorophyll a/b ratio increased with SPAD values and the SPAD/chlorophyll relationship was best described by an exponential equation. It seems that F may affect SPAD values in leaves with high chlorophyll content, probably due to non-uniform chloroplast distribution at high irradiance. This indicates that SPAD values tend to be more accurate if recorded early in morning when irradiance is low.

  3. Inventory of Green Spaces and Woody Plants in the Urban Landscape in Ariogala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Straigytė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Regulation of urban greenery design, management and protection was approved in 2008 in Lithuania after the Green Space Law was passed, allowing protection of public green spaces and woody plants. Protection of these resources first requires an inventory, and we have created a digital database that will help in management of urban green spaces. Material and Methods: An inventory of green spaces and woody plants was conducted in the public urban territory of Ariogala, using GIS technology. A digital cartographic database was created using ArcGis 9.1 software. Results and Conclusion: Most of the woody plants in the survey area are deciduous trees, and the survey results highlighted the major green space management problems. Often, planted trees grow under power lines, and their crowns touch the power cables. Near blocks of flats, trees are often in the wrong place-planted too close to buildings, trees shade windows and their roots heave pavers and penetrate building foundations. According to the inventory, street trees sustain the most damage, most commonly showing injuries on their trunks and roots. Leaves of Aesculus hipocastanum L. show massive damage from Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić, and Tilia cordata Mill. are damaged by Cercospora microsora Sacc. T. cordata is a favourite city tree, but is susceptible to infestation and when damaged appears unsightly, ending its vegetation period very early. The inventory of green spaces also showed that there are sufficient public parks.

  4. Qualea Aubl. from Paraná State, Brazil = Qualea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The results from a survey on Qualea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil. in the State of Paraná are presented. The analysis was based on dried material from several regional herbaria as well as fresh material collected in different regions of the State. Four species were registered: Q. cordata Spreng.; Q. glaziovii Warm; Q. grandiflora Mart.; Q. multiflora Mart. spp. multiflora. A key to differentiate the species is presented and for each species, the botanical description, common names, phenology data, the geographic distribution, uses and illustrations are included.Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento das espécies de Qualea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil. no Estado do Paraná, baseado em material depositado em herbários regionais e em material coletado em diversas regiões deste Estado. Foram registradas quatro espécies: Q. cordataSpreng.; Q. glaziovii Warm; Q. grandiflora Mart.; Q. multiflora Mart. spp. multiflora. Incluemse chave dicotômica para identificação, assim como descrições, nomes populares, usos, fenologia, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações, para cada espécie identificada.

  5. Changruicaoia Z. Y. Zhu——A new genus of Labiatae from Mount Emei, Sichuan, China%长蕊草属——四川峨眉山唇形科植物一新属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝正银

    2001-01-01

    @@长蕊草属新属 Changruicaoia Z. Y. Zhu, gen. nov. Herba perennis; rhizoma robustum procumbens. Caulis rectus quadrangularis quadrisulcatus supra ramosus. Folia triangularia vel triangulari_cordata usque cordata, margine crasse dentata, subtus plerumque purpurea, longius petiolata. Inflorescentia paniculata e cymis 3~16-floris composita; bracteae longe ovatae vel oblongae; bracteolae acerosae, interdum absentes. Calyx tubulatus 15_nervus, intus ad medium piloso-annulatus apice 3/2_bilabiatus, labio supero trilobo, lobo medio maximo ovato_rotundato, margine integro vel repando, lobis lateralibus oblique oblongis apice cuspidatis, labio infero bilobo lobis lanceolatis apice cuspidatis. Corolla flava vel flavida, sursum sensim ampliata, limbo bilabiato, labio supero bilobo recto, labio infero trilobo, lobo medio maximo oblongo, lobis lateralibus oblique ovatis. Stamina 4, ex labio supero exserta, anteriora 2 longiora, 2-plo longiora quam corollae tubus, filamentis filiformibus, antheris ovoideis, loculis semidivergentibus. Discus patelliformis. Ovarium 4_lobum; stylus staminibus longior; stigma subaequaliter bilobum. Nuculae obtuso-triangulo-oblongae, fuscae, reticulato_lacunosae, umbilicis oblongis parvis.

  6. Siberian Origins of Neoproterozoic to Upper Triassic Rocks of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, J. G.; Blodgett, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Evidence for a connection of the Arctic Alaska plate (including Chukotka) with Siberia from Cambrian until Late Triassic time can be made on the basis of paleobiogeography. Arctic Alaska contains a number of biogeographically distinctive megafossils for select time intervals, notably the Middle Cambrian, Early and Late Ordovician, Early and Middle Devonian, Mississippian, and Late Triassic. Middle Cambrian trilobites are strictly Siberian in affinity, but also show close affinities with coeval trilobites from the Farewell terrane of SW Alaska. Late Ordovician brachiopods, gastropods, trilobites, and ostracodes are known from the Shublik Mountains, NE Brooks Range and York Mountains of the Seward Peninsula. Affinities are likewise primarily with Siberia (sharing the primarily Siberian pentameroid brachiopod genera Tcherskidium and Eoconchidium and the strictly Siberian trilobite genus Monorakos), but also with the Farewell terrane. Late Early Devonian and Middle Devonian brachiopods and calcareous green algae from Arctic Alaska are similarly allied with Siberia and the Farewell and Alexander terranes of southern Alaska. Early Mississippian faunas from the lower part of the Lisburne Group and underlying Endicott Group contain relatively widespread fauna, including taxa recognized both in North America and Eurasia, consistent with the relatively cosmopolitan paleobiogeographic conditions of this interval. However, Late Mississippian brachiopod fauna from the upper part of the Lisburne Group contain many brachiopods of strictly Eurasian affinities, notably the gigantoproductids, which are unknown in cratonic North America, but widespread across Eurasia and even North Africa. Late Mississippian lycopods from this terrane have previously been noted as demonstrating strong Angaran affinities. Permian faunas of Arctic Alaska show strong affinities as well with the Siberian Arctic, virtually lacking any fusilinids and reefal buildups, which in contradistinction are commonly

  7. Early Silurian (Aeronian East Point Coral Patch Reefs of Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada: First Reef Recovery from the Ordovician/Silurian Mass Extinction in Eastern Laurentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisuo Jin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An extensive late Aeronian patch reef swarm outcrops for 60–70 km on Anticosti Island, eastern Canada, located in the inner to mid-shelf area of a prominent tropical carbonate platform of southeastern Laurentia, at 20°–25° S paleolatitude of the southern typhoon belt. This complex, described here for the first time, includes more than 100 patch reefs, up to 60–80 m in diameter and 10 m high. Reefs are exposed three-dimensionally on present-day tidal flats, as well as inland along roads and rivers. Down the gentle 1°–2° paleoslope, the reefs grade into coral-sponge biostromes, and westerly they grade into inter-reef or deeper ‘crinoidal meadow’ facies. The reef builders were dominantly tabulate and rugose corals, with lesser stromatoporoids. Other components include crinoids, brachiopods, green algae (especially paleoporellids, and encrusting cyanobacteria: reefs display some of the earliest known symbiotic intergrowths of corals and stromatoporoids. Reefs were variably built on a base of crinoidal grainstones, meadows of baffling tabulate corals, brachiopod shells, or chlorophytes. These reefs mark an early phase of reef recovery after a prominent reef gap of 5–6 million years following the Ordovician/Silurian mass extinction events. The reefs feature a maximal diversity of calcifying cyanobacteria, corals and stromatoporoids, but low diversity of brachiopods, nautiloids and crinoids. Following the North American Stratigraphic Code, we define herein the Menier Formation, encompassing the lower two members of the existing Jupiter Formation.

  8. Community structure and composition of the Cambrian Chengjiang biota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on previously published species data(228 species in over 18 phyla) and field sampling(114 species and 18406 individuals) in the Chengjiang-Haikou-Anning area,we analyzed quantitatively the paleocommunity composition and structure of the Cambrian Chengjiang biota(Cambrian Series 2,eastern Yunnan,China).Arthropods dominate the community both in species diversity(species:37%) and in abundance(individuals:51.8%).Priapulids(individuals:22.6%) and brachiopods(individuals:16.3%) follow in abundance rank.The arthropod Kunmingella douvillei(26.2%),the priapulid Cricocosmia jinning-ensis(15.4%),and the brachiopod Diandongia pista(11%) are the three most abundant species.Ecological analyses show that the community was dominated by epifaunal organisms(species:63%,individuals:68.4%) followed by infaunal organisms(species:11.9%,individuals:25.9%),nektobenthic organisms(species:11.5%,individuals:2.6%),and pelagic organisms(species:5.3%,individuals:3.1%).The diverse feeding strategies,dominated by suspension feeders(species:35.6%,individuals:26.1%) and hunter/scavengers(species:31.1%,individuals:40.4%),indicate the former existence of a complex food chain and intense competition.Epifaunal vagrant omnivores(28.2%),infaunal vagrant hunter/scavengers(19.8%),epifaunal sessile suspension feeders(17.7%),and epifaunal vagrant hunter/scavengers(15.3%) were the most abundant ecological groups,represented primarily by arthropods,poriferans,priapulids,and brachiopods.Ecological group analyses reveal that the early Cambrian Chengjiang biota is similar in community patterns and functional relations to modern biotas in shallow marine settings.

  9. Stratigraphic Implications of Skeletal Microfossils from the Cambrian of Korea: A Preliminary Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byung-Su LEE

    2008-01-01

    Diverse small shelly fossils and other associated fossils were recently recovered from the Cambrian Hanaeri section, southwestern Mungyeong, Korea. The fauna includes conoidal problematica, poriferans (sponge spicules), coeloscleritophorans (chancelloriids), brachiopods, monoplacophorans, trilobite (?) fragments, echinoderms, and conodonts. A preliminary assessment of fauna! associations, Stratigraphic implications, and the correlation of these skeletal fossils is given, based on occurrences of Actinotheca cf. mira (He), Microcornus sp., Torellela laevigata (Linnarsson), Torellela sp., Archiasterella quadratina Lee, Chancelloria sp., Lingulella sp., Prototreta sp., Phakelodus tennis (Miiller), Phakelodus elongates (An), Hertzina sp., and Furnishina sp.

  10. Effects of two kinds of medicinal plant extracts on citrus postharvest preservation%两种药用植物提取物对柑橘保鲜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴素明; 曾建国; 程辟; 陈义明; 周翔; 邓子牛

    2012-01-01

    为筛选能应用于柑橘保鲜的药用植物提取物,测定了博落回和虎杖提取物对柑橘绿霉菌的抑菌活性以及对柑橘保鲜的效果.结果表明:博落回和虎杖提取物均能抑制绿霉菌的生长,二者的有效中质量浓度分别为184.32、538.48 mg/L,博落回的抑菌效果比虎杖好;与清水对照相比,2种提取物处理柑橘的腐烂率均显著降低;与常规化学保鲜剂相比,2种提取物冰糖橙的腐烂率差异均无统计学意义,但椪柑的腐烂率均显著升高;2种提取物处理冰糖橙的失水率与常规化学保鲜剂处理的差异均无统计学意义,但显著高于清水处理,2种提取物对冰糖橙的防腐、保鲜能达到常规化学保鲜剂的效果.%For selection of medicinal plant extracts to be applied into citrus postharvest preservation, the inhibition effect of Macleaya cordata and Polygonum cuspidatum on Penicillium digitatum and its preservation effect during citrus storage were studied. The results were as follows: Both M. Cordata and P. Cuspidatum could inhibit growth of P. Digitatum, ED50 of which were 184.32 and 538.48 mg/L respectively, especially the inhibition effect of M cordata was better. With comparison of water treatment, the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts could both effectively prevent Bingtangcheng from decay. With comparison of conventional chemical preservative, the decay rates of Bingtangcheng respectively treated by the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts had no statistical significance, but Ponkan significantly increased. The water losing rates of Bingtangcheng respectively treated by the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts were no statistical significance compared with conventional chemical preservative, but the water losing rates of these three treatments were significantly lower than water treatment. The effects of the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts on decay and fresh-keeping of Bingtangcheng were similar to conventional chemical

  11. Characteristics of Late Permian Deep-Water Sedimentary Environments: A Case Study of Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yongqun; Yang Fengqing; Peng Yuanqiao

    2005-01-01

    Sediments of carbonate gravity flows and terrigenous debris turbidites, and normal bathyal deposits were found at the Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Through grain-size analysis of some typical sediments at this section, the changing patterns of the grain parameters and the grain-size cumulations were recovered. Results show that the study area was deposited under turbidite control during the Late Permian period, which we also recognized at the outcrop section upon sedimentary characteristics of the sediments. In addition, fossils are abundant in the Upper Permian of the Shaiwa Section, including radiolarians, sponge-spicules, bivalves, brachiopods, ammonoids and trace fossils. Radiolarians and siliceous sponge-spicules are typical deep water assemblages. Bivalves are dominated by genera of Hunanopecten and Claraia, both showing deep water living characteristics. Ammonoids are composed of planktonic types, showing characteristics of smooth and flat shells. Brachiopods are dominated by a small and thin shelled assemblage, which are commonly flat in shape and usually of slight ornamentations on shells. In addition, trace fossils found at the Shaiwa Section are also common types of deep water facies. Thus, the fossil evidence of the Shaiwa Section also suggests a deep water environment, possibly from the bathyal slope to the basin margin facies, of the studied area during the Late Permian period.

  12. A preliminary biogeochemistry-based quantification of primary productivity of end-Permian deep-water basin in Dongpan Section ,Guangxi ,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; HE Weihong; FENG Qinglai

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper,the mean primary productivity of the Talung Formation in the deep-water basin(50-500 m depth)of Dongpan,Guangxi,South China,was calculated,of the content of the trace element Cu.Results showed that the primary productivity obtained was comparable with the previously-reported data for the black shale of the Phosphoria Formation,a Permian phosphate deposit in the northwest United States,and also similar to that of the modern deposit in the Cariaco basin,Venezuela.It was observed that the primary productivity increased with the enhanced abundance of algae and photosynthetic bacteria,and with the decrease in both the radiolarian individuals and the body size of brachiopods during the faunal mass extinction.This ecological coupling indicates that the changes of primary productivity are closely related to the propagation and the decline of producers(algae and bacteria),and that consumers(radiolarians and brachiopods)probably have little influence on the changes of primary productivity.

  13. An abrupt extinction in the Middle Permian (Capitanian) of the Boreal Realm with a causal link to anoxia, acidification and mercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David; Wignall, Paul; Joachimski, Michael; Sun, Yadong; Savov, Ivan; Grasby, Stephen; Beauchamp, Benoit; Blomeier, Dierk

    2016-04-01

    The controversial Capitanian (Middle Permian, 262 Ma) extinction event is mostly known from equatorial latitudes and consequently its global extent is poorly resolved. We demonstrate that there were two, severe extinctions amongst brachiopods in northern Boreal latitudes (Spitsbergen), in the Middle to Late Permian, separated by a recovery phase. New age dating of the Kapp Starostin Formation of Spitsbergen using strontium and carbon isotopic trends suggests that the first crisis occurred in the Capitanian. This age assignment indicates that this Middle Permian extinction is manifest at higher latitudes. Redox proxies (pyrite framboids and trace metals) show that the Boreal crisis coincided with an intensification of oxygen depletion, implicating anoxia in the extinction scenario. The highly toxic metal mercury becomes enriched in strata at the Middle Permian extinction level implicating death-by-toxicity (and a possible link to volcanism). Finally, the near-total loss of carbonates across the Boreal Realm in the Middle to Late Permian also suggests a role for acidification. New in prep. data from Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (samples collected July 2015) tentatively suggests that this potent "three strikes and you're out" extinction mechanism was a Boreal-wide phenomenon. The Late Permian recovery interval saw the appearance of new brachiopod and bivalve taxa alongside survivors, and an increased mollusk dominance, resulting in an assemblage reminiscent of younger Mesozoic assemblages. The subsequent end-Permian mass extinction terminated this Late Permian radiation.

  14. Embryonic chirality and the evolution of spiralian left–right asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The group Spiralia includes species with one of the most significant cases of left–right asymmetries in animals: the coiling of the shell of gastropod molluscs (snails). In this animal group, an early event of embryonic chirality controlled by cytoskeleton dynamics and the subsequent differential activation of the genes nodal and Pitx determine the left–right axis of snails, and thus the direction of coiling of the shell. Despite progressive advances in our understanding of left–right axis specification in molluscs, little is known about left–right development in other spiralian taxa. Here, we identify and characterize the expression of nodal and Pitx orthologues in three different spiralian animals—the brachiopod Novocrania anomala, the annelid Owenia fusiformis and the nemertean Lineus ruber—and demonstrate embryonic chirality in the biradial-cleaving spiralian embryo of the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. We show asymmetric expression of nodal and Pitx in the brachiopod and annelid, respectively, and symmetric expression of Pitx in the nemertean. Our findings indicate that early embryonic chirality is widespread and independent of the cleavage programme in the Spiralia. Additionally, our study illuminates the evolution of nodal and Pitx signalling by demonstrating embryonic asymmetric expression in lineages without obvious adult left–right asymmetries. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821523

  15. Phylogeny and mitochondrial gene order variation in Lophotrochozoa in the light of new mitogenomic data from Nemertea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Döhren Jörn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new animal phylogeny established several taxa which were not identified by morphological analyses, most prominently the Ecdysozoa (arthropods, roundworms, priapulids and others and Lophotrochozoa (molluscs, annelids, brachiopods and others. Lophotrochozoan interrelationships are under discussion, e.g. regarding the position of Nemertea (ribbon worms, which were discussed to be sister group to e.g. Mollusca, Brachiozoa or Platyhelminthes. Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. Results In this study we present the first complete mitochondrial genome record for a member of the Nemertea, Lineus viridis. Except two trnP and trnT, all genes are located on the same strand. While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. Conclusion Almost all recent analyses with large datasets show good support for a taxon comprising Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida and Nemertea. But the relationships among these taxa vary between different studies. The analysis of gene order differences gives evidence for a multiple independent occurrence of a large inversion in the mitochondrial genome of Lophotrochozoa and a re-inversion of the same part in gastropods. We hypothesize that some regions of the genome have a higher chance for intramolecular recombination than others and gene order data have to be analysed carefully to detect convergent rearrangement events.

  16. Microbialites in the shallow-water marine environments of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian biotic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakociński, Michał; Racki, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Microbial carbonates, consisting of abundant girvanellid oncoids, are described from cephalopod-crinoid and crinoid-brachiopod coquinas (rudstones) occurring in the lowermost Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. A Girvanella-bearing horizon (consist with numerous girvanellid oncoids) has been recognised at the Psie Górki section, and represents the northern slope succession of the drowned Dyminy Reef. This occurrence of microbialites in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian event is interpreted as the result of opportunistic cyanobacteria blooms, which, as 'disaster forms', colonised empty shallow-water ecological niches during the survival phase following the Frasnian metazoan reef collapse, due to collapsed activity of epifaunal, grazing, and/or burrowing animals. The anachronistic lithofacies at Psie Górki is linked with catastrophic mass mortality of the cephalopod and crinoid-brachiopod communities during the heavy storm events. This mass occurrence of girvanellid oncoids, along with Frutexites-like microbial shrubs and, at least partly, common micritisation of some skeletal grains, records an overall increase in microbial activity in eutrophic normal marine environments. Microbial communities in the Holy Cross Mountains are not very diverse, being mainly represented by girvanellid oncoids, and stand in contrast to the very rich microbial communities known from the Guilin area (China), Canning Basin (Australia) and the Timan-northern Ural area (Russia). The association from Poland is similar to more diverse microbial communities represented by oncoids, trombolites and stromatolites, well known from the Canadian Alberta basin.

  17. MARMARONIA ANGIOLINII, NEW GENUS AND NEW SPECIES OF BAKEVELLIIDAE (PTERIOIDA, BIVALVIA FROM THE MIDDLE PERMIAN OF CHIOS (GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalupian (Middle Permian "Gymnocodiacean Limestones" cropping out in the north-eastern part of the Greek island of Chios (eastern Aegean Sea are amongst the most fossiliferous in the western Tethys. They contain rich assemblages of corals, brachiopods, molluscs, calcareous algae, foraminifers and ostracods. Scant attention was given till now to mollusc faunas compared with brachiopods and foraminifers. In the present paper the new genus Marmaronia, with type-species M. angiolinii n. sp., is established to distinguish some bivalves of the Bakevelliidae King, 1850, from the middle Guadalupian successions of the Marmaro locality in Chios Island. M. angiolinii n. gen. n. sp. is strongly inequivalve, with valves differing in convexity, umbo development and ornamentation. The left valve shows a radial furrow running from the anterior part of the umbonal region anteroventrally and is ornamented by strong radial costae; the right valve is ornamented by concentric sculpture and by thin rugae in the first growth stages of the posterior part of the shell. Both valves have a wide posterior wing. Two hypotheses concerning the epi- or endobyssate adaptation of Marmaronia are also discussed briefly in the present paper.   

  18. Permian stratigraphy and correlation of Northeast China: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S.-Z.; Zhang, H.; Shang, Q. H.; Li, W.-Z.

    2006-03-01

    Palaeontological, lithostratigraphical data from the Permian strata and correlation of the Permian successions for different tectonic units in Northeast China are reviewed and summarized in this paper. Permian strata in Northeast China are dominated by brachiopods, fusulinoideans and land plants, with limited ammonoids, conodonts and bivalves. The Cisuralian (Early Permian) in the northern margin of the North China Block and in the Manchuride Belt is composed mostly of marine massive limestone with the characteristic Pseudoschwagerina Zone in the Asselian and Sakmarian and the Misellina claudiae Zone in the Kungurian. The Cisuralian in the Xing'an Block and the northeastern part of Inner Mongolia is dominated by huge terrestrial deposits with fossil plants. The Guadalupian (Middle Permian) in the Manchuride, Altaid and Yanbian Belts are characterized by bi-temperate Roadian or early Wordian Monodiexodina fauna and the late Wordian-Capitanian Codonofusiella- Schwagerina or Neoschwagerina- Yabeina faunas, the mixed brachiopod faunas between the Boreal/antitropical and the Palaeoequatorial Cathaysian forms, the Roadian or early Wordian solitary coral faunas, and the late Wordian-Capitanian compound Waagenophyllum- Wentzelella fauna. The Nadanhada Terrane contains some exotic limestone blocks with a typical Cathaysian Neoschwagerina- Yabeina fauna in a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous mélange, which is related to Mesozoic subduction in the western Circum-Pacific region. The Lopingian (Late Permian) in Northeast China is mostly characterized by terrestrial molasse deposits with a mixed flora between the Boreal Angaran and the palaeoequatorial Cathaysian Provinces, indicating the final closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean.

  19. Características de la fauna de braquiópodos del Toarciense superior en el Sector Central de la Cordillera Ibérica (noroeste de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Joral, F.

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying brachiopod faunas from the Upper Toarcian beds of the Iberian Range (Central Sector, bring out the few number of species and the local range for the majority of them. In relation with that, populations show characteristics (polymorphism, gregarism and generalism that suggest an unstable environment, probably produced by the progressive isolation of the basin, the shallowing trend and the tectosedimentary instability quoted by differents authors, As a consequence of this situation there is a faunistic turnover for the brachiopods at this time, that could be the origin of some lineages developped in the Western European Dogger.

    En el estudio de la fauna de braquiópodos del Toarciense superior del Sector Central de la Cordillera Ibérica destacan el bajo. número de especies que la componen y el ámbito local de la mayoría de ellas. En relación con esto, las poblaciones muestran unas características (polimorfismo, gregarismo y forma generalizada que sugieren un ambiente inestable, provocado probablemente por el aislamiento progresivo de la cuenca, la tendencia somerizadora y la inestabilidad tectosedimentaria que han señalado diversos autores. La consecuencia de esta situación es una renovación faunística para el grupo en esta edad, que puede haber dado origen a algunas de las ramas filéticas que se desarrollan en el Dogger de Europa Occidental.

  20. Patterns of fossil distributions within their environmental context from the Middle Triassic in South Canyon,Central Nevada,USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; M.Monarrez; Nicole; Bonuso

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Triassic records the return of diverse marine communities after the severe effects of the end-Permian mass extinction.This diversification leads to the Mesozoic/modern adaptive radiation resulting in substantial changes in marine communities in comparison to their Paleozoic predecessors.This analysis focuses on the faunal abundance,ecological patterns,and environmental interpretation of a Middle Triassic section in Central Nevada.Twelve bulk samples were collected.Visible fossils were identified and tallied from hand samples and thin-sections were used to aid in environmental interpretation.Beginning in the Late Anisian,we observed an ammonoid dominated to flat-clam,epifaunal dominated benthic community within a muddy,quiet,inner shelf depositional environment.Through time,epifaunal bivalves dominate within a middle shelf environment followed by an increase in infaunalization and shell-thickness.During this time the presence of oncoids and the reported finding of corals suggest the middle shelf environment gave way to a higher energy patch reef shelf edge environment.Finally,we observe epifaunal brachiopods communities at the top of our section deposited in a middle shelf environment.In sum,we observe the dominance of modern taxa(i.e.,bivalves)with Paleozoic ecologies(i.e.,epifaunal),followed by the dominance of modern taxa with Modern ecologies(i.e.,infaunal,thick shells)and then a return to Paleozoic taxa(i.e.,brachiopods)and Paleozoic ecologies within an overall transgressive environment.

  1. The roles of Lazarus taxa and refugia through the Ordovician-Silurian transition: data from the Brachiopoda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, J.-Y.; Boucot, A. J.; Harper, D. A.; Zhan, R.-B.; Neuman, R. B.

    2003-04-01

    Global analyses of nearly 90 families and 275 genera of brachiopods from the middle Ashgill through the Hirnantian (Ordovician) to the lower-middle Rhuddanian (Silurian) suggest that about 60% and 40% of the total number of genera were eliminated at the first and second phases of the end Ordovician extinction event, respectively. Among the 85 surviving genera, about 50 with declining and 10 with proliferating abundances are known from the Hirnantian together with about 20 provisional Lazarus taxa. The Lazarus taxa are essentially survivors and form the extremity of the declining genera. The distributions of declining genera and relicts during the crisis interval shows a random and sporadic pattern, suggesting there was no single, common refugium for end Ordovician brachiopods. In addition to their biological attributes, a markedly decreased population size together with taphonomic failure and poor preservation, and collecting bias have contributed towards the distributional trends apparent during the event. The development of declining genera during the extinction may be linked to their palaeogeographical setting, the phylogenetic history of the taxa, and the ambient environmental conditions. This new global database has significantly reduced the number of Lazarus taxa and minimizes the number of possible locations for collective refugia during the end Ordovician crisis. Nevertheless, the atrypids, athyridids, pentamerids, and spiriferids had more limited distributions during the crisis interval but formed the locus for a Silurian diversification of the phylum into carbonate environments possibly around the Rhuddanian-Aeronian boundary.

  2. Isotopic and Climate Model Constraints on Paleo-CO2 in the Late Paleozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E. L.; Hyde, W. T.; Pollard, D.; Scotese, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is one of the most important drivers controlling ancient climate and one of the hardest to quantify. We have combined three methods for quantifying paleoclimate, a coupled energy balance-ice sheet model (EB/ISM), an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), and oxygen isotope analyses of fossils, to constrain late Paleozoic pCO2 levels. Our estimated pCO2 is that which yields the same ice volume determined using two independent approaches, a δ 18O-AGCM method and an EB/ISM. We calculate ice volume from the δ 18O of brachiopod shells and AGCM temperatures (δ 18O-AGCM method). Brachiopod shell δ 18O values depend on two variables, ambient temperature and seawater δ 18O. Using the oxygen isotope paleotemperature equation and ambient temperatures derived from AGCM results, we calculate seawater δ 18O. From this seawater δ 18O we use 18O mass balance to calculate ice volume. We run the AGCM with various values of pCO2, which produce different temperatures and different δ 18O-derived ice volumes. Ice volumes deduced from brachiopod δ 18O increase with pCO2. Ice volumes as a function of pCO2 are also determined from the ice sheet model in the EB/ISM, and those ice volumes decrease with increasing pCO2. Our estimated pCO2 is the intersection of the two ice volume-pCO2 curves. Three different time slices and paleogeographies have been investigated in detail: 360, 320, and 280 Ma. GENESIS 2 AGCM simulations were performed at 1x and 4x modern preindustrial levels (280 ppm) for all time slices, and at 8x pCO2 for 360 Ma. EB/ISM simulations were run with and without topography, with lapse rates of 5 and 7 ° C/km, and with outgoing infrared radiation (OIR) ranging from 187.3 to 205.3 W/m2, equivalent to pCO2 levels of 1x to 16x. EB/ISM simulations yielded ice volumes ranging from 0 to greater than 129 x 106 km3, depending on lapse rate, topography, and outgoing IR radiation. The highest ice volumes were obtained with topography, 7 ° C/km lapse rate

  3. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelfhout, Stephanie; Mertens, Jan; Verheyen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden...... experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Norway spruce (Picea abies), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and lime (Tilia cordata). We studied the chemical characteristics...... of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer...

  4. Compostos voláteis em méis florais Volatile compounds in floral honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A review about origin, composition and importance of volatile compounds in floral honeys is presented. Hydrocarbons, aromatic components, acids, diacids, terpenoids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and alcohols have been found in honey aroma of different botanical origin. Cis-rose oxide has been proposed as an indicator for Tilia cordata honey. Citrus honeys are known to contain methyl anthranilate, a compound which other honeys virtually lack. Linalool, phenylethylalcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde and benzaldehyde are important contributors for the aroma of different unifloral honeys. Both isovaleric acid, gama-decalactone and benzoic acid appears to be important odourants for Anarcadium occidentale and Croton sp. honeys from Brazil. The furfurylmercaptan, benzyl alcohol, delta-octalactone, eugenol, phenylethylalcohol and guaiacol appear to be only relevant compounds for Anarcadium occidentale. The vanillin was considered an important odourant only for Croton sp..

  5. Changes in the Early Holocene lacustrine environment inferred from the subfossil ostracod record in the Varangu section, northern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Meidla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Varangu section is located on the southern slope of the Pandivere Upland in northern Estonia. A silty clay bed formed in the study area at 11 ;200–9300 ;cal ;yr ;BP, according to ostracod subfossils (e.g. Tonnacypris estonica, Leucocythere mirabilis, Limnocytherina sanctipatricii in an oxygen-rich cool and oligotrophic profundal lacustrine environment, with an inflow of surface waters through springs. The record of specific ostracods (e.g. Cyclocypris ovum, Cypridopsis vidua, Metacypris cordata reflects littoral environments, ongoing eutrophication, temperature increase and a progressive shallowing of the lake in the early Holocene (9300–7400 ;cal ;yr ;BP when the tufa bed accumulated. A slight cooling and productivity decrease at 9100–8600 ;cal ;yr ;BP preceded further temperature rise and water level lowering, leading to the development of a eutrophic lake and cease of ; ;tufa precipitation (8600–7400 ;cal ;yr ;BP.

  6. HPLC quantification of seven quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids in six species of the family Papaveraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomelová, Jana; Bochoráková, Hana; Paulová, Hana; Musil, Pavel; Táborská, Eva

    2007-05-09

    The content of the seven quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBA) sanguinarine (SA), chelerythrine (CHE), chelirubine (CHR), chelilutine (CHL), sanguilutine (SL), sanguirubine (SR) and macarpine (MA) was determined in the underground part of six plant species of the family Papaveraceae (Sanguinaria canadensis L., Dicranostigma lactucoides HOOK.f.et THOMS, Chelidonium majus L., Macleaya cordata (Willd.), Macleaya microcarpa (Maxim) and Stylophorum lasiocarpum (Oliv.)). HPLC method with reversed phase column Synergi Max-RP C-12 Phenomenex was used, mobile phase consisted of heptanesulfonic acid (0.01 mol/l) with triethanolamine (0.1 mol/l) in redistilled water, pH 2.5, acetonitrile gradient 25-60% during 25 min. Detection was performed at 280 nm. The highest content of SA and CHE was found in the roots of D. lactucoides (1.99%, resp. 3.43% of the dried roots). In rhizomes of S. canadensis was their content more then two times lower.

  7. Preliminary Study on the MoHuscacidal Effects of Water-soluble Extracts of 3 Plants including liquidambar ~ormosana%枫香等3种植物水浸液灭螺效果的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方建民; 刘洪剑; 董广平

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a comparative study was made on the oncomelania-control ettects of water-soluble leaf extracts of Liquidambar formosana, Sapindus mukorossi,Macleaya cordata, Pterocarya stenoptera and Sapium sebiferum and their mixtures at normal and controlled (25±1℃) temperature,,s respectively, and the oncomelania-killing effects of water-soluble extracts from different parts of Macleaya cordata were alsostudied. The following were the results. (1)The oncomelania-killing L. formosana, S. mukorossi and temperatures. (2)Under the same M. cordata were all quite good experimental conditions, there was effects of water-soluble leaf extracts of at normal and controlled (25±1℃) no marked difference in oncomelania-killing effects between the water-soluble extracts from the mixture of L. formosana +P. stenoptera + S. sebiferum and those from their respective single species. The inhibition ratio of the mixture of P. stenoptera + S. sebiferum was lower than that of the 2 single species.(3)The oncomelania-killing effects of different parts of Macleaya cordata were quite different, with those of the roots being much lower that those of the leaves and stems. The sequence of their oncomelania-killing effects were: Leaves 〉 Stems 〉 Roots.%对枫香、无患子、博落回3种植物与枫杨、乌桕及其组合叶片水浸液抑螺效果在控湿(25±1)℃和常温两种条件下进行了比较研究,同时初步研究了博落回不同部位水浸液的杀螺效果。结果表明:(1)在控温(25±1)℃和常温条件下,单一树种枫香、无患子、博落回叶片的水浸液均有较好的灭螺活性。(2)在相同的试验条件下,枫杨+乌桕+枫香等组合处理与单一植物材料水浸液的灭螺效果差异不显著,枫杨+乌桕组合对钉螺的抑制率略低于单一树种。(3)博落回不同部位灭螺效果有一定差异,根的灭螺效果明显低于叶和茎,不同部位的

  8. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING LINDEN TREE LEAVES AS NATURAL TRAPS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION: A PILOT STUDY IN TRANSILVANIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHÁLY BRAUN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution caused by toxic elements is an emerging problem of concern. Tree leaves have been widely used as indicator of atmospheric pollutions and they are effective alternatives to the moreusual biomonitoring methods. Tree leaves can be used as natural traps of atmospheric deposition. Elemental composition of dust deposited onto leaf surfaces can be used to characterize the urban environment. A pilot survey including 16 Romanian settlements was carried out in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air pollutants. Tree leaves (Tilia tomentosa, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos were collected and used for the measurements. Elemental analyses were carried out by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Principal component and discriminant analyses were used to characterizing and estimating the level of pollution. Settlements were grouped on the basis of discriminant function values. Multivariate comparison of chemical data ordered the settlements into 3 main groups, which showed a systematic geographic distribution.

  10. Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæbø, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W

    2012-06-15

    Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants.

  11. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

  12. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  13. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo

    2012-04-15

    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha}, IL-8, IL-1{beta} and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration.

  14. Contrast of Fresh Cordate Houttuynia P olysaccharides and Flavones Radiation Mechanism%鲜鱼腥草多糖与总黄酮抗辐射作用机制的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪生; 洪佳璇; 冯丙江; 孙东海; 蒋婧瑾

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of Houttuynia cordata leaf extract damage of bone marrow hemato-poietic function and immune function in rats of X ray radiation. Methods:The rest of the successful model of 24 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:model control group ( model group) , total flavone group and polysac-charide group, each having 8 rats. SLN were poured into the stomach volume of distilled water, total flavonoids extract 5. 23g/kg and polysaccharide powder suspension (2g/kg) gavage. Results:Fresh Houttuynia polysaccha-ride and total flavonoids can have a protective and therapeutic effect on rats injured by x-rays. Houttuynia corda-ta flavonoids can significantly increase the number of white cells, the spleen index and the content of bone mar-row DNA, with the micronucleus rate of red blood cell and the Micronucleus Rate of Bone Marrow Polychromatic Erythrocyte of rats decreased; it can increase the content of SOD and GSH-Px. Polysaccharide of Houttuynia cordata could remarkably increase the thymus index and spleen index of rats and the content of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px; it could significantly lower the peripheral blood and bone marrow micronucleus rate. Conclusion:Houttuynia cordata Thunb fresh leaves have a good anti-radiation effect with a different effect mechanism and di-versified effective parts of the body.%目的:探讨鲜鱼腥草叶提取物对X射线辐射损伤大鼠骨髓造血功能和免疫功能的影响.方法将造模成功的24只大鼠随机分为3个组,分别为模型对照组(模型组)、总黄酮组、多糖组,每组各8只,分别给予等体积的蒸馏水、总黄酮提取液(5.23g/kg)、和多糖粉末混悬液(2g/kg)灌胃.结果鲜鱼腥草多糖与总黄酮皆能够对受X射线辐射损伤的大鼠起到保护和治疗的作用;鱼腥草总黄酮成分可显著增加白细胞数,升高脾脏指数,增加骨髓DNA含量,降低外周血网织红细胞微核率和骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核率,可

  15. Structural analysis of lime wood biodegraded by white rot fungi through infrared and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Gradinariu, Petronela; Popescu, Maria-Cristina

    2016-11-01

    The action of the white rot fungi Phanerochaete crisosporium on the structure of lime wood (Tilia cordata) has been studied. The degree of decay was determined by weight loss, which was of 37% after 110 days. The samples were further analyzed by infrared and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy. The recorded spectra for different intervals of decay indicate variations in the intensities and width or wavenumber shifts of the bands assigned, both, for lignin and carbohydrates. An increase in the intensities of the bands from the carbonyl region due to formation of new structures, accompanied by the reduction of the methoxyl and methyl/methylene groups in lignin was evidenced. Further, the differences between reference and decayed wood spectra were examined in detail using 2DCOS spectroscopy and the second derivative analysis and the sequential order of modifications were established.

  16. In vitro effects of Thai medicinal plants on human lymphocyte activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Chavalittumrong

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of Cleistocalyx nervosum var paniala, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Gynura procumbens, Houttuynia cordata, Hyptis suaveolens, Portulaca grandiflora, Phytolacca americana and Tradescantia spathacea on lymphocyte proliferation and the effects of C. nervosum, G. pentaphyllum, H. suaveolens and P. grandiflora on natural killer (NK cells activity. All of the extracts significantly stimulated human lymphocyte proliferative responses at various concentrations depending on each extract. The extracts of C. nervosum and H. suaveolens were significantly enhanced NK cells activity while those of G. pentaphyllum and P. grandiflora did not alter NK cells function. Our results suggested that the extracts of those plants have stimulating activity on human lymphocytes and could be clinically useful for modulating immune functions of the body.

  17. A Review of Traditional Medicinal Plants from Kachin State, Northern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Hain Thanda; Sein, Myint Myint; Aye, Mya Mu; Thu, Zaw Min

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants are a vital source of medication in developing countries. In Kachin State, Northern Myanmar, the people have a long history of the use of traditional plants for medicinal purposes. This article deals with the 25 most used medicinal plants in Kachin State. They are: Drynariafortunei, Tetrastigma serrulatum, Bauhinia championii, Goniothalamus cheliensis, Juglans regia, Houttuynia cordata, Osmanthus fragrans, Pothos chinensis, Tabemaemontana coronaria, Eryngiumfoetidum, Chloranthus spicatus, Peperomia pellucida, Zanthoxylum armatum, Polygonumfagopyrum, Cymbidiumfloribundum, Amomum kravanh, Coscinium fenestratum, Solanum nigrum, Gnetum parvifolium, Desmodium triquetum, Begonia augustinec, Mappianthus iodoides, Erycibe obtusifolia, Schefflera venulosa, Holarrhena antidysenterica. The different traditional applications, the known chemical constituents and medicinal properties are reported for each plant. The efficacy of several of these plants has been supported by some scientific evidence, while other plants have to be submitted to further investigations to prove the beneficial medicinal properties attributed to them.

  18. Diversidade Palinológica das Convolvulaceae do Parque Nacional do Catimbau, Buíque, PE, Brasil Pollen diversity of Convolvulaceae at Catimbau National Park, Buíque, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Aureliano Buril Vital

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram registradas quatorze espécies de Convolvulaceae no Parque Nacional do Catimbau. Com base na morfologia polínica, os táxons foram subdivididos em dois grupos: Psiloconiae - Evolvulus elegans Moric, E. frankenioides Moric, E. glomeratus Choisy, E. linarioides Meisn, Jacquemontia densiflora Hallier, J. montana Meisn, Jacquemontia sp. e Merremia cissoides Hallier, e Echinoconieae - Ipomoea bahiensis Willd., I. brasiliana (Choisy Meissn, I. pintoi O'Donnel, I. rosea Choisy, I. subincana Meisn e Turbina cordata (Choisy Austin & Staples. As espécies de Evolvulus são diferenciadas por diâmetro dos grãos de pólen e espessura da exina. Jacquemontia mostrou dois tipos polínicos - pantocolpado e tricolpado. Em Merremia cissoides, os grãos de pólen são tricolpados e as columelas são ramificadas. Ipomoea e Turbina têm grãos de pólen espinhosos. Entretanto, apenas em Ipomoea os espinhos apresentam base bulbar. Palinologicamente, Convolvulaceae no Parque Nacional do Catimbau é bastante diversificada e com grupos facilmente reconhecidos.Fourteen species of Convolvulaceae from Catimbau National Park were recognized. Based on pollen-grain morphology, the taxons were split into two groups: Psiloconiae - Evolvulus elegans Moric, E. frankenioides Moric, E. glomeratus Choisy, E. linarioides Meisn, J. densiflora Hallier, J. montana Meisn, Jacquemontia sp. and Merremia cissoides Hallier, and Echinoconieae - Ipomoea bahiensis Willd., I. brasiliana (Choisy Meissn, I. rosea Choisy, I. pintoi O'Donnel, I. subincana Meisn, and Turbina cordata (Choisy Austin & Staples. Evolvulus species are distinguished by differences in exine thickness and pollen-grain diameter. Merremia cissoides has tricolpate pollen grains and bifid columellae. The pollen grains of both Ipomoea and Turbina are echinate; however, the spines have a bulbous base only in Ipomoea. This paper confirms the high diversity of pollen morphology in the family.

  19. 滇东南黄连山秋海棠属一新种%A New Species of Begonia(Begoniaceae)from Mt.Huanglianshan of SE Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税玉民

    2002-01-01

    @@ 树生秋海棠新种 (秋海棠组) 图1Begonia arboreta Y.M.Shui,sp.nov.[Sect.Diploclium(Wight)A.D C.]Fig.1Habitu B.garretii Craib.similis,sed planta acaulis,folio 1 basali,capsulis obovoideis,alis obovatis differt.Herba perennis,decidua,basi tuberifera,tuberibus subglobosis,1cm diam.Stipulae caducae.Folium 1 basale;lamina glabra et chartacea,late cordata,14-15cm longa ,14-17cm lata,3-5-fida,basi oblique cordata,lobis longo-acuminatis,margine I rregulariter serratis,nervis palmatis,basilaribus 3-5;petioli 12-14cm longi,gl abri.Cymae terminales,3-4-florae,pedunculo 10-12cm longo;bracteae ovatae,0.6 cm longae,0.2cm latae,caducae.Flores ignoti;pedicelli 3.0-3.3cm longi,p enduli.Ovarium anguste obovoideum,triloculare;styli 3,distincti,1.5mm longi,s tigmatibus lunatis papillosis;laminae placentarum ovariorum superiores mediaeque bifidae,inferiores simplices.Capsulae obovoideae,2.0-2.4cm longae,1.2-1.4 cm latae,subaequaliter trialatae;alae horizontales et obovatae,apice obtusae,r eticulatae,1.8-2.0cm longae,0.5-0.6cm latae.Yunnan(云南):Luchun county(绿春县),Mt.Huanglianshan(黄连山),Hydrologic Station( 水文站),1700-1900m,on trees of the evergreen broad-leaved forest,18 Oct 1995, S.G.Wu(武素功),Y.M.Shui(税玉民),Y.P.Yang(杨永平),L.H.Liu(刘伦辉),J.H.He(何疆海), J.Murata,H.Nagamasu,T.Sugawara,X.Chen(成晓),N.Murakami 144(Holotype:KUN 0773200) .

  20. Effect of Six Traditional Chinese Medicines on Bacteriostasis of Swine Salmonella typhi in Vitro%6种中药对猪伤寒杆菌的体外抑菌试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国旺; 苗志国; 陈俊杰

    2011-01-01

    The conventional agar plate culture and drug sensitive test were used to study the effect of Prunella vulgaris , Honeysuckle, Houttuynia cordata , Schisandra chinensis , Syzygium aromaticum and Sanguisorba on bacteriostasis of swine Salmonella typhi in vitro for providing the scientific basis to prevent and cure swine Salmonella typhi. The results showed that six tested traditional Chinese medicines all had certain effect on bacteriostasis of swine Salmonella typhi in vitro, the bacteriostasis diameter of Prunella vulgaris and Houttuynia cordata was up to 18.2 mm and 15.2 mm respectively, which indicates that these traditional Chinese medicines can be used in clinical practice.%为中药防治猪伤寒杆菌病提供科学依据,采用常规琼脂平板培养法、药敏试验滤纸片法等,选取夏枯草、金银花、鱼腥草、五味子、丁香和地榆等6味中药对猪致病性伤寒杆菌进行了体外抑菌试验.结果表明,6味中药对猪伤寒杆菌均有一定的抑菌效果,其中,夏枯草的抑菌直径为18.2mm,抑菌活性最强;鱼腥草次之,为15.2mm;地榆的抑菌活性最弱.表明,夏枯草、鱼腥草的抑菌效果好,可供临床应用.

  1. Dinâmica de populações de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em mata ciliar, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brasil Population dynamics of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae in riparian forest, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. de Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Machos de Euglossina foram coletados por meio de iscas-odores de benzoato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, salicilato de metila, vanilina, durante um ano em área de mata ciliar, no município de Urbano Santos, Maranhão. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre 8 h e 16 h, totalizando 96 horas de amostragem. Foram amostrados 283 indivíduos, 4 gêneros e 16 espécies. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 foi o gênero mais abundante, seguido por Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 e Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol foi a essência mais atrativa. As maiores freqüências de visitas ocorreram no período da manhã e a maior diversidade de espécies ocorreu no período chuvoso.Males of Euglossina bees were collected in benzil benzoate, eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin scent baits, during one year in a riparian forest area, located in the municipality of Urbano Santos, Maranhão. The collections were carried out monthly, between 8 am and 4 pm, totalling 96 hours of sampling, resulting in 283 individuals, 4 genera and 16 species. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 was the most abundant genus, followed by Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. The most frequent species were Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol was the most attractive chemical bait. The highest frequencies of visits were in the morning and the highest diversity of species occurred in the rainy period.

  2. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales S. Assis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  3. Biogenic hardparts: Difficult archives of the geological past (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons can act as support or serve as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hard parts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrices, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of many biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth patterns and their ability to record ambient environmental conditions in the form of multiple geochemical properties (multi-proxy archives) that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. Here, we compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hard parts secreted by mollusks (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hard parts. Despite the fact that mollusks and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil hard parts precipitated (under favorable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration) in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or

  4. Pennsylvanian mixed plataform deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Uruará region, state of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Augusto Santos da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate rocks are widely reported in the west and center-west regions of the state of Pará, south edge of the Amazon Basin, corresponding to the Neocarboniferous period. These deposits are included in the Pennsylvanian-Permian sequence, corresponding to a second order super sequence represented by the Tapajós Group. The Itaituba Formation corresponds to the transgressive portion preceding the expressive continentalization and formation of Pangaea. The unit consists of fossiliferous carbonates, cross-stratified sandstones and subordinate shales and evaporites, associated with coastal marine environments. Nineteen facies and microfacies were grouped into five facies associations corresponding to tidal flat deposits (FA1, tidal channel (FA2, lagoon (FA3, bioclastic bar (FA4 and outer platform (FA5. The FA1 comprises cycles of subaerial exposure with formation of mud cracks and subaqueous deposition, composed of dolomitic breccia, laminated fine dolostone and terrigenous dolomudstone, separated by a layer of pyritic massive sandstone and thin dolomite silicified. The FA2 is composed of fine sandstone with cross rolling straight base and pelitic coating on the sets with synsedimentary faulting, siltstones cross-lamination with a predominance of mud and synsedimentary faulting, marl with cross-lamination and cross-bedded coarse sandstones with politic coating on the sets. The FA3 consists of massive reddish siltstones, mudstones fossiliferous, brachiopods floatstone and black shale massive with pyrite. The FA4 is mainly represented by fossiliferous oolitic grainstone and grainstone with terrigenous with abundant fossils of brachiopods, echinoderms, bivalves, mollusks, and secondly by arthropods, bryozoans and foraminifera. The FA5 is associated with a platform, composed of fossiliferous wackestone, fossiliferous wackestone with terrigenous and massive mudstone. The fossiliferous assembly is represented by foraminifera, brachiopods, bivalves and

  5. Paleozoic Hydrocarbon-Seep Limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, J.

    2007-12-01

    To date, five Paleozoic hydrocarbon-seep limestones have been recognized based on carbonate fabrics, associated fauna, and stable carbon isotopes. These are the Middle Devonian Hollard Mound from the Antiatlas of Morocco [1], Late Devonian limestone lenses with the dimerelloid brachiopod Dzieduszyckia from the Western Meseta of Morocco [2], Middle Mississippian limestones with the dimerelloid brachiopod Ibergirhynchia from the Harz Mountains of Germany [3], Early Pennsylvanian limestones from the Tantes Mound in the High Pyrenees of France [4], and Late Pennsylvanian limestone lenses from the Ganigobis Shale Member of southern Namibia [5]. Among these examples, the composition of seepage fluids varied substantially as inferred from delta C-13 values of early diagenetic carbonate phases. Delta C-13 values as low as -50 per mil from the Tantes Mound and -51 per mil from the Ganigobis limestones reveal seepage of biogenic methane, whereas values of -12 per mil from limestones with Dzieduszyckia associated with abundant pyrobitumen agree with oil seepage. Intermediate delta C-13 values of carbonate cements from the Hollard Mound and Ibergirhynchia deposits probably reflect seepage of thermogenic methane. It is presently very difficult to assess the faunal evolution at seeps in the Paleozoic based on the limited number of examples. Two of the known seeps were typified by extremely abundant rhynchonellide brachiopods of the superfamily Dimerelloidea. Bivalve mollusks and tubeworms were abundant at two of the known Paleozoic seep sites; one was dominated by bivalve mollusks (Hollard Mound, Middle Devonian), another was dominated by tubeworms (Ganigobis Shale Member, Late Pennsylvanian). The tubeworms from these two deposits are interpreted to represent vestimentiferan worms, based on studies of the taphonomy of modern vestimentiferans. However, this interpretation is in conflict with the estimated evolutionary age of vestimentiferans based on molecular clock methods

  6. New Vetulicoliids from the Lower Cambrian Guanshan Fauna,Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Huilin; FU Xiaoping; HU Shixue; LI Yong; CHEN Liangzhong; YOU Ting; LIU Qi

    2005-01-01

    The Guanshan Fauna, a soft-bodied fauna intermediate between the Chengjiang Fauna and the Kaili Fauna and also the Burgess Shale Fauna stratigraphically, consists of trilobites, trilobitoides, Tuzoia, Vetulicola, Paleoscolex, brachiopods and sponges. The discovery and research of this fauna is of great significance in understading the "Cambrian Explosion" and the evolution of early life. The occurrence of vetulicoliids from the Guanshan Fauna not only adds new members to the taxonomic list, but also provides new information to the evolution of this animal group. This paper describe Vetulicola gantoucunensis Luo, Fu et Hu sp. nov. from the Lower Cambrian Wulongqing Formation in the Kunming area. Also presented are the amended description of Vetulicola and the comparisons with related genera within Vetulicoliids. The affinity, distribution, as well as evolution of vetulicoliids are discussed.

  7. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, corals and calcareous algae. Daonella pseudograbensis n. sp. is based on very well preserved specimens, which are often articulated and closed, all coming from the same locality. The new species shows a narrow range of intraspecific and ontogenetic morphologic variations. It is easy distinguishable from the other species of the genus for the outline and ornamentation; it therefore differs from D. grabensis Kittl, 1912, the most similar species, for the longer anterior dorsal margin.Pdf

  8. Thecamoebians (Testate Amoebae) Straddling the Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Guryul Ravine Section, India: Evolutionary and Palaeoecological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vartika; Pandita, Sundeep K; Tewari, Rajni; van Hengstum, Peter J; Pillai, Suresh S K; Agnihotri, Deepa; Kumar, Kamlesh; Bhat, G D

    2015-01-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved organic remains of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) were preserved in marine sediments that straddle the greatest extinction event in the Phanerozoic: the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Outcrops from the Late Permian Zewan Formation and the Early Triassic Khunamuh Formation are represented by a complete sedimentary sequence at the Guryul Ravine Section in Kashmir, India, which is an archetypal Permian-Triassic boundary sequence. Previous biostratigraphic analysis provides chronological control for the section, and a perspective of faunal turnover in the brachiopods, ammonoids, bivalves, conodonts, gastropods and foraminifera. Thecamoebians were concentrated from bulk sediments using palynological procedures, which isolated the organic constituents of preserved thecamoebian tests. The recovered individuals demonstrate exceptional similarity to the modern thecamoebian families Centropyxidae, Arcellidae, Hyalospheniidae and Trigonopyxidae, however, the vast majority belong to the Centropyxidae. This study further confirms the morphologic stability of the thecamoebian lineages through the Phanerozoic, and most importantly, their apparent little response to an infamous biological crisis in Earth's history.

  9. Microfacies and diagenesis of the reefal limestone, Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Almadani, Sattam A.; Al-Dabbagh, Mohammad E.

    2016-03-01

    In order to document the microfacies and diagenesis of the reefal limestone in the uppermost part of the Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation at Khashm Al-Qaddiyah area, central Saudi Arabia, scleractinian corals and rock samples were collected and thin sections were prepared. Coral framestone, coral floatstone, pelloidal packstone, bioclastic packstone, bioclastic wacke/packstone, algal wackestone and bioclastic foraminiferal wacke/packstone were the recorded microfacies types. Cementation, recrystallization, silicification and dolomitization are the main diagenetic alterations affected the aragonitic skeletons of scleractinian corals. All coral skeletons were recrystallized, while some ones were dolomitized and silicified. Microfacies types, as well as the fossil content of sclearctinian corals, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and foraminifera indicated a deposition in environments ranging from shelf lagoon with open circulation in quiet water below wave base to shallow reef flank and organic build up for the uppermost reefal part of the Tuwaiq Formation in the study area.

  10. Biodiversity and taphonomy of the Early Cambrian Guanshan biota,eastern Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; STEINER

    2010-01-01

    The Guanshan biota from eastern Yunnan(Cambrian Series 2,early Stage 4) is a Burgess Shale-type fossil biota with abundant exceptionally preserved soft-bodied fossils after the discovery of the well-known Cambrian Chengjiang fauna and Kaili biota in South China.The geological settings,sedimentology,taphonomy,and the fossil assemblage of the Guanshan biota are briefly summarized here.The Guanshan biota consists of about 60 taxa belonging to more than 10 metazoan groups and algae,among which the lobopods,eldonids,hyolithids with helens,and green algae are reported for the first time.The common occurrence of soft-bodied preservation in many groups,notably the trilobites and brachiopods,makes the Guanshan biota a significant fossil lagersttte for understanding the metazoan evolution during Cambrian explosion and taphonomy of the Burgess Shale-type fossils.

  11. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The Jurassic comprises some 55 million years of Earth history. However, within the Jurassic, only one major environmental change (hyperthermal) event is really well known - the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) at ~183 Ma - and until very recently the extent to which the accompanying...... environmental changes were global has been strongly debated. Nevertheless, partly as a result of the international effort to define Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs), much more is now being discovered about environmental changes taking place at and around the other Jurassic Age (Stage) boundaries......, to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary...

  12. Lophotrochozoan mitochondrial genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valles, Yvonne; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-10-01

    Progress in both molecular techniques and phylogeneticmethods has challenged many of the interpretations of traditionaltaxonomy. One example is in the recognition of the animal superphylumLophotrochozoa (annelids, mollusks, echiurans, platyhelminthes,brachiopods, and other phyla), although the relationships within thisgroup and the inclusion of some phyla remain uncertain. While much ofthis progress in phylogenetic reconstruction has been based on comparingsingle gene sequences, we are beginning to see the potential of comparinglarge-scale features of genomes, such as the relative order of genes.Even though tremendous progress is being made on the sequencedetermination of whole nuclear genomes, the dataset of choice forgenome-level characters for many animals across a broad taxonomic rangeremains mitochondrial genomes. We review here what is known aboutmitochondrial genomes of the lophotrochozoans and discuss the promisethat this dataset will enable insight into theirrelationships.

  13. A New Arthropod, Guangweicaris Luo, Fu et Hu gen. nov.from the Early Cambrian Guanshan Fauna, Kunming, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Huilin; FU Xiaoping; HU Shixue; LI Yong; HOU Shuguang; YOU Ting; PANG Jiyuan; LIU Qi

    2007-01-01

    The Guanshan Fauna is a soft-bodied fauna dominated by arthropods (including trilobites,trilobitoides, Tuzoia, Isoxys, and bradorids) in association with priapulids, brachiopods,anomalocaridids, vetulicoliids, sponges, chancellorids, and echinoderms. This paper reports and describes a new arthropod from the yellowish green mudstone at the lower part of the Wulongqing Formation, Canglangpuan Stage, Lower Cambrian in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The stratigraphic and geographic distribution, classification, fossil preservation, life style of this new arthropod and comparisons with other fossil arthropods are also discussed in details. The discovery and research of the non-mineralized arthropod, Guangweicaris Luo, Fu et Hu gen. nov. from the Guanshan Fauna adds new members to the taxonomic list and provides new information to the evolution of early arthropods.Furthermore, this study would shed new light into the "Cambrian Explosion" and the evolution of early life.

  14. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.

  15. The post-Laramide clastic deposits of the Sierra de Guanajuato: Compositional implications on the tectono-sedimentary and paleographic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miranda-Avilés

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the study on sedimentation, sedimentary environments, tectono-sedimentary and paleogeographic evolution of post-Laramide clastic deposits and pre-volcanism of the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Sierra de Guanajuato, central Mexico. The Eocene Duarte Conglomerate and Guanajuato Conglomerate were deposited in the middle and distal parts of alluvial fans. The studied rocks are composed of limestone clasts, granite, andesite, metasediments, diorite, and pyroxenite, indicating the erosion of uplifted blocks of the basal complex of the Sierra de Guanajuato (Arperos basin. The petrographic and compositional analysis of limestone shows a textural variation from basin limestones and shallow platform limestones. The shallow platform limestone contain bivalves, brachiopods, gastropods, echinoderms and benthic foraminifera from the Berriasian-Valanginian. The shallow-water limestone corresponds to the boundary of the Arperos basin whose original outcrops currently not outcrop in the Sierra de Guanajuato.

  16. South Primorye, Far East Russia—A key region for global Permian correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Galina V.; Belyansky, Gennady C.; Burago, Valentina I.; Nikitina, Antonina P.; Zakharov, Yuri D.; Zhuravlev, Andrey V.

    2006-03-01

    Significant differences between faunal and floral associations existing in different paleogeographic realms in the Kungurian-Late Permian interval make it difficult to correlate the Permian deposits of the world. Resolving this problem is one of the main tasks of Permian stratigraphy. The global significance of Permian strata of the Primorye region of Far East Russia is enhanced by the specific Middle Permian mixed Tethyan, Boreal and Gondwanan-type brachiopod fauna, mixed Angara-Euromerican-Cathaysian flora, and their close spatial and stratigraphical association with fusulinids, bryozoans, ammonoids, conodonts. These facts permit tracing of global correlational levels of some Permian sequences within the different paleobiogeographical realms: for example, the Monodiexodina sutschanica- Metadoliolina dutkevichi fusulinid zone of the Wordian age and Parafusulina stricta fusulinid zone of the Capitanian age. The Late Permian fauna of the Primorye is mainly Tethyan in origin and provides correlation with similar aged sequences from South China.

  17. Prolonged Permian Triassic ecological crisis recorded by molluscan dominance in Late Permian offshore assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Matthew E; Bottjer, David J

    2007-08-07

    The end-Permian mass extinction was the largest biotic crisis in the history of animal life, eliminating as many as 95% of all species and dramatically altering the ecological structure of marine communities. Although the causes of this pronounced ecosystem shift have been widely debated, the broad consensus based on inferences from global taxonomic diversity patterns suggests that the shift from abundant brachiopods to dominant molluscs was abrupt and largely driven by the catastrophic effects of the end-Permian mass extinction. Here we analyze relative abundance counts of >33,000 fossil individuals from 24 silicified Middle and Late Permian paleocommunities, documenting a substantial ecological shift to numerical dominance by molluscs in the Late Permian, before the major taxonomic shift at the end-Permian mass extinction. This ecological change was coincident with the development of fluctuating anoxic conditions in deep marine basins, suggesting that numerical dominance by more tolerant molluscs may have been driven by variably stressful environmental conditions. Recognition of substantial ecological deterioration in the Late Permian also implies that the end-Permian extinction was the climax of a protracted environmental crisis. Although the Late Permian shift to molluscan dominance was a pronounced ecological change, quantitative counts of 847 Carboniferous-Cretaceous collections from the Paleobiology Database indicate that it was only the first stage in a stepwise transition that culminated with the final shift to molluscan dominance in the Late Jurassic. Therefore, the ecological transition from brachiopods to bivalves was more protracted and complex than their simple Permian-Triassic switch in diversity.

  18. Hirnantian (latest Ordovician bio- and chemostratigraphy of the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated study of the uppermost Ordovician Porkuni Stage in the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia, has revealed one of the most complete Hirnantian successions in the eastern Baltic region. The interval is characterized by two shallowing upwards depositional sequences that correspond to the Kuldiga and Saldus formations. The whole-rock carbon stable isotope curve indicates a long rising segment of the Hirnantian carbon isotope excursion, with the highest peak in the upper part of the Kuldiga Formation. The bioclast carbon and oxygen curves fit well with the whole-rock carbon data. Micro- and macrofossil data enabled seven combined associations to be distinguished within the Hirnantian strata. The early Porkuni fauna of the Spinachitina taugourdeaui Biozone, with pre-Hirnantian affinities, is succeeded by an interval with a Hindella–Cliftonia brachiopod association, a specific polychaete fauna, the chitinozoan Conochitina scabra, and the conodont Noixodontus girardeauensis. The middle part of the Kuldiga Formation is characterized by a low-diversity Dalmanella testudinaria brachiopod association, high diversity of scolecodonts, and the occurrence of the chitinozoan Lagenochitina prussica. From the middle part of the Kuldiga Formation the youngest occurrence yet known of the conodont Amorphognathus ordovicicus is reported. Also typical of the Kuldiga Formation is the occurrence of the trilobite Mucronaspis mucronata. The uppermost Hirnantian Saldus Formation contains no shelly fauna, but yields redeposited conodonts and at least partly indigenous chitinozoans and scolecodonts. Palaeontological criteria and stable isotope data enable correlation of the Stirnas section with other Hirnantian successions in the Baltic region and elsewhere.

  19. Proposed Auxiliary Boundary Stratigraphic Section and Point (ASSP) for the base of the Ordovician System at Lawson Cove, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James F.; Evans, Kevin R.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Freeman, Rebecca; Loch, James D.; Repetski, John E.; Ripperdan, Robert; Taylor, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Ordovician System is at the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Iapetognathus fluctivagus at Green Point in Newfoundland, Canada. Strata there are typical graptolitic facies that were deposited near the base of the continental slope.We propose establishing an Auxiliary boundary Stratotype Section and Point (ASSP) at the FAD of I. fluctivagus at the Lawson Cove section in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. There, strata consist of typical shelly facies limestones that were deposited on a tropical carbonate platform and contain abundant conodonts, trilobites, brachiopods, and other fossil groups. Cambrian and Ordovician strata in this area are ~5300m thick, with the Lawson Cove section spanning 243m in three overlapping segments. Six other measured and studied sections in the area show stratigraphic relationships similar to those at Lawson Cove. Faunas have been used to divide these strata into 14 conodont and 7 trilobite zonal units. The widespread olenid trilobite Jujuyaspis occurs ~90cm above the proposed boundary at Lawson Cove; this genus is generally regarded as earliest Ordovician. Rhynchonelliform and linguliform brachiopods are common to abundant and are useful for correlation. The FAD of Iapetognathus fluctivagus and occurrences of Jujuyaspis and the Lower Ordovician planktonic graptolite Anisograptus matanensis all occur within a 2.4m interval of strata at a nearby section. Non-biological correlation tools include a detailed sequence stratigraphic classification and a detailed carbon-isotope profile. Especially useful for correlation is a positive 13C excursion peak ~15cm below the proposed boundary horizon. All of these correlation tools form an integrated framework that makes the Lawson Cove section especially useful as an ASSP for global correlation of strata with faunas typical of shallow, warm-water, shelly facies.

  20. Climate-forcing & Feedbacks of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanez, I. P.; Brand, U.; Poulsen, C. J.; Horton, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating climate-forcing and feedbacks during pre-Cenozoic ice ages requires reconstructing marine-terrestrial linkages between atmospheric composition, the regional hydroclimate expression of mean climate change, ice sheets, and sea-level. Here we evaluate the role of different climate parameters and their linkages during the Carboniferous icehouse through integration of a recently developed ID-TIMS U-Pb constrained sea-level history, brachiopod stable isotope time-series from shallow marine regions of paleotropical Pangaea, atmospheric pCO2 inferred from paleosol minerals and fossil leaf stomatal indices, ice sheet variations constrained by the distribution of high-latitude Gondwanan glacial deposits, and paleoclimate simulations. Within chronostratigraphic uncertainty, long-term sea-level lowstands coincide with glacial maxima defined from high-latitude Gondwanan basins, whereas long-term highstands are coeval with glacial minima suggesting a dynamic late Paleozoic icehouse. Superimposed shorter-term sea-level events define a stepwise onset (late Mississippian) and contraction of Carboniferous ice sheets prior to the initiation of Early Permian ice sheets. Sea level fluctuations, at different temporal scales parallel trends defined by brachiopod oxygen and carbon isotope compositions and paleo-atmospheric pCO2 estimates inferred using mineral and biologic proxies. A protracted (~9 my) stepwise sea level rise beginning in the middle Pennsylvanian and culminating in an earliest Gzhelian peak is coincident with overall increasing CO2 levels throughout this interval and substantially decreased effective moisture in paleotropical Pangaea. This possibly CO2-forced period of waning continental ice sheets and sea-level highstand encompassed a large-scale floral turnover across the mid-to-late Pennyslvanian boundary and the onset of the demise of paleotropical rainforests across much of Pangaea. Ocean-atmosphere-ice sheet climate simulations for this period reveal a

  1. CUTICULAR STRUCTURE OF TWO ANGIOSPERM FOSSILS IN NEOGENE FROM TENGCHONG, YUNNAN PROVINCE AND ITS PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE%云南腾冲新近纪两种被子植物化石的角质层构造及其古环境意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙柏年; 丛培允; 阎德飞; 解三平

    2003-01-01

    This paper emphatically describes the cuticular characteristics of two fossil angiosperm species Betula mioluminifera Hu et Chaney and Carpinus subcordata Nathorst collected from Neogene in Tengchong, Yunnan. The cuticular characteristics of their Nearest Living Relative species (NLR species), Betula luminifera Winkler and Carpinus cordata B1.var. mollis Cheng et Chen, are analysed. In this experiment, we have got the lower epidermis of C.subcordata, whose characteristics are described as follows: Only the middle and lower parts of leave preserved; length about 7.5 cm, width 5 cm. Midrib strong; angle between ventricumbent and midrib 40°-50°; nearer to the base, bigger the angle; venulose, more than 12 pairs. Upper epidermis a little thicker and net-veined, stomata not found; epidermic cells arrayed rotundly, polygonal, length and width 20-30 μm; length of the net about 350 μm, width about 200 μm; width of nervecourses 50 μm with 3-4 rows of parallel cells; cells in nervecourses oblong, length about 2-3 times of width. Lower epidermis thin with stomata; trichome found; arrangement of epidermic cells as the same of upper epidermis. Distribution of stomata ruleless; type of stomatal apparatus Anomocytic; stomata slightly sunken; guard cells kidney-shaped and slightly lower than surrounding cells; inner surface of guard cells thick; guard cell surrounded by several epidermic cells. The cuticle, with its stomatal pores, represents the interface between plants and atmosphere, and its features such as cuticle thickness, stomatal density (SD), stomatal index (SI) and stomatal ratio (SR) are well used as a palaeoenvironmental indicator. Therefore, we can analyse changes in palaeoenvironment by studying the stomatal parameter of fossil plants which are sensitive to the change in atmospheric CO2 concentration. In this experiment, we have got the stomatal parameter of C.subcordata which indicates that atmospheric CO2 concentration in Neogene was higher than that of

  2. 生物浮岛对三峡库区典型支流库湾水质和浮游藻类的影响%Effect of Biological Floating Island on Water Quality and Algae in a Tributary Bay Typical of the Three-Gorge Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑杨忠; 李钢; 杜江; 彭成荣; 刘剑彤

    2013-01-01

    在三峡库区香溪河的支流高岚河库湾修建生物浮岛,研究生物浮岛对三峡库区典型支流库湾水质和浮游藻类的影响.结果表明,高岚河水质处于中营养型-轻度富营养型水平.8月藻类大量生长期间,浮岛区水体Chl-a、DO和CODMn含量低于对照区,NH4+-N含量高于对照区.浮岛植物对TN负荷的去除效果由高到低依次为美人蕉(Canna indica)、风车草(Cyperus alternifolius)、菖蒲(Pontederia cordata)和梭鱼草(Acorus calamus),对TP负荷的去除效果由高到低依次为美人蕉、风车草、梭鱼草和菖蒲.在浮岛区和对照区共发现藻类7门31属,4月以绿藻和硅藻为主,8月以蓝藻为主.浮岛区和对照区藻类种群结构无明显差异,但4和8月浮岛区藻类生物量明显低于对照区.%A biological floating island was built in the estuary bay of the Gaolan River,which is a tributary of the Xiangxi River in the Three-Gorge Reservoir region.Samples were collected from several sites around the island for monitoring of changes in physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton.Results show that the water is moderately to lightly eutrophied,with algae blooming in August.The water around the island is lower than the water in CK in content of Chl-a,DO and CODMn,but higher in NH4+-N.The plants on the floating island follow an order of Canna indica > Cyperus alternifolius > Pontederia cordata > Acorus calamus,in TN removal rate,and an order of Canna indica > Cyperus alternifolius > Acorus calamus > Pontederia cordata in TP removal rate.In the island area and CK,a total of 31 genera of algae,belonging to 7 phyla were identified.Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta dominated in April while Cyanophyta did in August.No significant difference was found between the island area and CK in algal community structure.The density of algae in the floating island area is significantly different(P <0.05)from that in the control area in April and August,with the former

  3. Endophytic Fungi Species and Distribution Differences in Macleaya spp%博落回属植物内生真菌种类与分布差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金凤; 黄鹏; 柳亦松; 刘秀斌; 曾建国

    2016-01-01

    Objective:The study was explored the species and diversity of fungal endophytes in Macleaya spp.to provide an initial research base for fungal endophytes which have an impact on Macleaya spp.secondary metabolites.Methods:Fungal endophytes were isolated and purified by tissue cultivation from the root of Macleaya spp.and were classified and identified by molecular biology and morphology.Results:67 fungal endophytes of Macleaya spp.were obtained,40 strains isolated from Macleaya cordata and 27 strains isolated from M.microcarpa.Coniothyrium was the specific fungi from the root of M.cordata.Botryosphaeria、Chaetomium and Phyllosticta were specific strains in M.microcarpa.Conclusion:The diversity and distribution differences of fungal endophytes from Macleaya spp.associated with the geographical distribution difference and the differences between species of Macleaya spp..%目的:探索博落回属植物内生真菌的种类与多样性,为发现影响博落回次生代谢产物的内生真菌提供前期研究基础。方法:采用组织培养法从博落回属植物根部组织中分离纯化内生真菌,利用分子生物学和常规的形态学方法对分离出的内生真菌进行分类鉴定。结果:共分离纯化67株内生真菌,其中博落回中分离到40株,而小果博落回中得到27株内生真菌。发现 Coniothyrium 为博落回根部特有的内生真菌,Botryosphaeria、Chaetomium 和Phyllosticta 属菌株为小果博落回特有菌株。结论:博落回属植物内生菌多样性与博落回属植物的地理分布差异、博落回属植物之间的差异有关。

  4. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  5. 血根碱酊剂体外抗真菌初步研究%Preliminary Investigation in the Antifungal Function of Sanguinarine Tincture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 范家佑; 郁建平; 李佳宝; 胡小娟

    2011-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of the sanguinarine tincture and total alkaloids, which were extracted from Macleaya cordata, on several psoriasis fungi including Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rosaceum, Trichophyton schoenleini and Trichophyton rubrum were preliminarily investigated in the present work. The results indicated that the MIC of sanguinarine tincture for Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleini, and Trichophyton rosaceum, were 16 μg/mL, 128 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL, respectively. With same concentration , effectiveness of sanguinarine tincture was better than that of total alkaloids. Therefore, the sanguinarine demonstrated significant effects on antimycotic, and may be used to treat dermatophytosis on foot.%通过分析博落回(Macleaya cordata (wild)R.Br.)提取物—血根碱(制成血根碱酊剂)、总生物碱对须癣毛癣菌(Trichophyton mentagrophytes)、玫瑰色毛癣菌(Trichophyton rosaceum)、许兰黄癣菌(Trichophyton schoenleini)、红色毛癣菌(Trichophyton rubrum)几种皮癣真菌的抑菌试验,以探讨血根碱酊剂和总生物碱对皮癣致病真菌的抑制作用.结果表明:血根碱酊剂对须癣毛癣菌、许兰黄癣菌的最小抑菌浓度为16μg/nL,对玫瑰色毛癣菌的最小抑菌浓度为128μg/mL,对红色毛癣菌的最小抑菌浓度为64μg/mL;在含等量血根碱的条件下,血根碱酊剂的抗皮癣真菌效果比博落回总生物碱好.血根碱酊剂具有良好的抗真菌效果,可用于治疗脚癣.

  6. Impact of emissions of Pridneprovsk TPP in Dnipropetrovsk on the anatomical indices of stem of two-year whip of the Tilia genus representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents discussion of the results of studying the impact of environmental contamination because of emissions of Pridneprovsk TPP in Dnipropetrovsk city on the anatomical indices of stem of two-year whip of the Tilia genus representatives. Objects of study were T. platyphyllos Scop., T. europaea L. and T. cordata Mill. Material was collected in September 2015 on two sampling areas: experimental plot – tree plantations adjacent to Pridneprovsk TPP which emissions mainly comprise the pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, with the share in total volume of emissions of the Plant being 67.3%, 18.7%, 13.3%, respectively; control plot (conditionally clean – territory of the Botanical garden of Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University. For research, two-year whips located in the apical portion of branches of the same order of branching were taken. Sections were made at the medium cross-line of the stem, and stained with the alcoholic solution of phloroglucinol. 30 sections for each species were measured on each sampling area. In the objects under study on technogenically contaminated area the changes in dimensions of histological elements of the stem were found and the nature of such changes had specific differences. T. platyphyllos and T. europaea under action of toxic emissions of TPP demonstrated the increase of total size of primary cortex of stem and width of its individual components (plug, collenchyma, cortex parenchyma, maintenance of stable dimensions of the bark and its histological elements (hard and soft bast, and in T. europaea the wood radius as well, which we considered as the indicators of relative stability of these species in technogenic environment. In T. cordata in the TPP emission zone we revealed the increase in the width of plug, cortex parenchyma, and total radius of primary cortex, which could provide certain tolerance of plants of this species in the adverse conditions of

  7. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  8. The Characteristics of Plant Distribution and Diversity in the Middle Section of Taihang Mountain%太行山中段植被分布特征及其多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敬刚; 张有福; 王云; 董东平

    2009-01-01

    研究了太行山中段王屋山南坡的植被分布及其多样性特征,结果表明,该段山体分布最广的乔木树种是青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)和千金榆(Carpinus cordata),樱桃忍冬(Sambucus willamsii)、珍珠梅(Sorbaria sorbifolia)、连翘(Forsythia suspensa)3种灌木在海拔1 500~1 600 m处分布较多,分布最广的草本植物是羊胡子草(Carex rigecens)和唐松草(Thalictrum aquile gifolium).就物种多样性而言,海拔1 600 m左右的植物总物种数最多,为(18.67±1.53)种;乔灌木层的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数随海拔的升高大致呈"M"型变化,海拔1 550 m处乔灌木的多样性指数最小,仅为1.42±0.19,而草本多样性指数变化曲线呈单峰型,在海拔1 500m左右达到最大值2.16±0.17.

  9. Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil; Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) em Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) no norte do pantanal de Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fatima R.J da; Marques, Marinez I., E-mail: fateca@gmail.com.b, E-mail: marinez@ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ecologia e Conservacao da Biodiversidade; Battirola, Leandro D., E-mail: ldbattirola@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Sinop, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Naturais, Humanas e Sociais; Lhano, Marcos G., E-mail: marcos@ufrb.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Ambientais e Biologicas

    2010-07-15

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Pocone, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the - Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth - project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the fi rst stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. (author)

  10. Hairy Stalagmites, a new biogenic root speleothem from Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard C. Du Preez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ngamiland in northwestern Botswana hosts the Gcwihaba Caves which present unique subterranean environments and host speleothems never before recorded. Cave atmospheric conditions can be extreme with temperatures as high as 28°C and relative humidity nearing 99.9%. Within Dimapo and Diviner’s Caves peculiar root speleothems that we named ‘Hairy Stalagmites’ were found. These stalagmites are closely associated with the roots of Namaqua fig (Ficus cordata trees that enter the cave environment in search of water. Pieces of broken stalagmites were sampled from Dimapo Cave for further investigations. Stereo and electron microscopy revealed that the Hairy Stalagmites consist of multiple intertwined tubes created when thin films of CaCO3 are deposited around fine lateral roots. The importance of the roots is substantiated with evidence of calcified epidermal cells, apical meristems and epidermal imprints. The development of these stalagmites starts when roots accumulate on the cave floor in the vicinity of a water drip and a root nest is created to capture the water. From this point the roots grow upwards (positive hydrotropism allowing the development of the calcite structure, and as CO2 diffusion and evaporation occurs, CaCO3 is deposited. The environmental conditions necessary for the growth of Hairy Stalagmites, as well their developmental mechanism, are discussed and illustrated.

  11. In vitro conservation of twenty-three overexploited medicinal plants belonging to the Indian sub continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  12. Patterns of self-medication with medicinal plants and related adverse events--a South American survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, Alicia E; Ragone, Maria I

    2010-10-01

    Medicinal plants are useful as a natural therapy to treat minor illnesses, as gastrointestinal disorders or as topic antiinflammatories. Also, they have been increasingly used as a coadjuvant in cronic diseases as hypertension, diabetes or hyperlipidemias. Nevertheless, many of the plants have active principles which are contraindicated or need precaution in certain illnesses as coagulation disorders or in certain states as pregnancy or breastfeeding. In this review we had compiled the side-effects, precautions and interactions with other medicines of many plants which are used in self-medication in our region. A previous population study gave us information on the consumption of medicinal plants in 73 pharmacies of the Buenos Aires province, in Argentina. During a period of one year, there were 37102 self-medicated plants, while only 1532 were prescribed by the physician. Among the most frequently self-medicated plants are Malva sylvestris L., Matricaria chamomile L, and Quassia amara. Among the most frequently prescribed are also "malva" and "chamomile", Tilia cordata Mill. and Valeriana officinalis. Based in the most consumed medicinal plants in our region, we reviewed the risks of such plants and the precautions that should be taken for a rational use. Also, we detected 15 adverse-reactions reported by the pharmacists through a pharmaceutical vigilance program, which are described and analyzed here. The results of the study and other reports suggest that adverse reactions of herbal medicines could be avoided if preventing self-medication, and taking into consideration possible contraindications and interactions.

  13. Remarks to the ecology of the boreo-montane polypore Amylocystis lapponica based on data from the Czech Republic and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Holec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, the rare polypore Amylocystis lapponica continuously occurs in the Boubínský prales virgin forest (southern Bohemia: Šumava Mts. where it has been documented for more than 60 years. Similarly, in Poland it has been known only from the Puszcza Białowieska virgin forest (northeastern Poland for more than 50 years. Generally, it is considered a species of boreal coniferous forests of northern Europe (taiga and montane coniferous forests in Central and Southern Europe. However, the data from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and western Ukraine show that it also grows in mixed montane forests composed mainly of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies and Abies alba. In Poland, the locality is situated in a lowland forest consisting mostly of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata. In Central Europe, A. lapponica occurs only in virgin forest refuges with the following habitat conditions: vegetation continuity (never cut, natural tree species composition, multi-aged structure, rich presence of dead wood in various stages of decay, relatively large area of the virgin forest surrounded by near-natural forests, stable, cold and humid meso- and microclimate. Consequently, A. lapponica may be considered an indicator of long-term vegetation continuity and stable habitat conditions.

  14. A Laboratory Evaluation of Medicinal Herbs Used in China for the Treatment of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 are the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. During recent epidemics of HFMD in China, medicinal herbals and preparations containing herbal extracts have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy with relative safety profiles. There have been no microbiological studies to validate their usefulness for HFMD. We selected 12 commonly used herbs for HFMD from government recommended guidelines as well as published reports and tested for their antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory activity. A water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT inhibited EV71 infection significantly and was marginally active against CVA16 infection. The IC50 (concentration to have 50% inhibitory effect values of HCT against a Fuyang strain and a BrCr strain of EV71 were determined at 8.9 μg/mL and 20.6 μg/mL, respectively. Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (MHB water extract was active against CVA16, with an IC50 value of 70.3 μg/mL. The extract did not exhibit activity against EV71 infection. Although the majority of the extracts showed no activity against viral infection, several extracts demonstrated activity in blocking proinflammatory response by viral infection. This study therefore validates the effectiveness of Chinese herbs for HFMD since some formulations containing the correct combination of the herbs can block viral replication as well as proinflammatory response of HFMD.

  15. Flowering phenological changes in relation to climate change in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint

    2016-09-01

    The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species ( Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering.

  16. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O{sub 3} in the 2001 season.

  17. A review of poisonous plants that cause reproductive failure and malformations in the ruminants of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a report on toxic plants causing reproductive problems in ruminants in Brazil. Aspidosperma pyrifolium causes abortion or stillbirth in goats, as well as most likely in sheep and cattle, in the semiarid regions of Northeastern Brazil. Intoxications by Ateleia glazioveana, Tetrapterys acutifolia and T. multiglandulosa result in abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle and sheep, and the same signs have been experimentally observed in goats. These three plants can also cause cardiac fibrosis and a nervous disease with spongiosis of the central nervous system. Other plants known to cause abortion include Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. gummiferum, Stryphnodendron coriaceum, S. obovatum and S. fissuratum. These plants can also cause digestive signs and photosensitization. Abortions have been reported in animals intoxicated by nitrates and nitrites as well. Infertility, abortions and the birth of weak offspring have been reported in animals intoxicated by plants containing swainsonine, including Ipomoea spp., Turbina cordata and Sida carpinifolia. Trifolium subterraneum causes estrogenism in cattle. Mimosa tenuiflora and, most likely, M. ophthalmocentra cause malformations and embryonic mortality in goats, sheep and cattle in the semiarid regions of Northeastern Brazil.

  18. Antileishmanial, Toxicity, and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Collected from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50=10.9±1.1 μg/mL in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea “ethyl acetate fraction” was more active (IC50=5.3±0.2 μg/mL against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0±0.1 μg/mL. All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 >100 in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.

  19. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, as a Component of Heterotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of the robin as a determinant of heterotrophic consortia is considered. The robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae, connected with the determinants by fabric links. The robin also belongs to the concentr of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and it is also the main determinant in species composition of the insects inhabiting bird nests. As a result of the taxonomic analysis of invertebrates in the robin nests, it has been found out that the most numerous class was Insecta (9 orders and 27 families, with the dominance of Coleoptera (30.7 %. The nidicolous fauna of the robin (38 species was dominated by zoophages along with parasites and hematophages such as Hippoboscidae (46.4 %. The percentage of phytophages and saprophages among the invertebrate nest inhabitants was somewhat less (21 % each, then followed necrophages (12 %. Zoophages and parasites also dominated according to the number of objects in the nests (42 %; n = 150, the less was the portion of phytophages (34 %, saprophages (18 %, and necrophages (6 %. The highest number of species and objects of zoophages was recorded for climax and mature biocenoses (oak forests in NNP “HL” and pine cenoses in NNP “H””.

  20. Měkkýši PR Velké Doly u Českého Těšína (Slezsko, Česká republika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kupka

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The molluscan fauna of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve was surveyed in 1999 and 2006. In total, 27 snail species were found (26 terrestrial gastropods and 1 bivalve. The Natural Reserve is only 1.5 km far from ironworks “Třinecké železárny”. In the 18th century, there was a limestone quarry and beech plantation (as a fuel for ironworks in the reserve. At the present time the reserve represents the secondary forests society Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum with protected and regional notable plants in undergrowth (Cephalanthera damasonium, Lilium martagon, Arum alpinum, Hacquetia epipactis, etc. The present character of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve is a result of human activities, nevertheless it is preserved and favourable site for molluscs, since many stenotopic and endangered woodland species occur there (e.g. Discus perspectivus, Petasina unidentata, Oxychilus glaber. The presence of the vulnerable snail Discus perspectivus is notable as first locality in Poland part of Těšín region (the Natural Reserve Velké Doly is located on the Poland border. Occurrence of euryecious species Arion distinctus, Arion lusitanicus and Limax maximus could relate with some human impact (e.g. presence of allotted gardens colony.

  1. Proximate analysis and some antinutritional factor constituents in selected varieties of Jamaican yams (Dioscorea and Rajana spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnuff, Marie A; Omoruyi, Felix O; Sotelo-López, Angela; Asemota, Helen N

    2005-06-01

    Two wild (Dioscorea polygonoides and Rajana cordata) and seven cultivated varieties of Jamaican yams (Dioscorea spp.) were analyzed for their proximate composition and the levels of antinutritional factors. The protein level range was 47.8 +/- 2.6 to 88.0 +/- 2.5 g/kg dry weight. The lowest level was seen in D. cayenensis. The range for the dietary fiber content in the tubers was 16.3 +/- 0.7 to 63.5 +/- 0.4 g/kg dry weight. The wild yam varieties recorded higher levels. Saponins level was <600 mg/kg dry weight in all the tubers analyzed except for bitter yam (2962.5 +/- 60.5 mg/kg dry weight). Total phenol content ranged from 1.3 +/- 0.1 to 79.3 +/- 6.1 g/kg while total condensed tannin content ranged from 0.1 +/- 0.0 to 26.7 +/- 3.8 g/kg dry weight. Samples that showed high levels of phenols also had high levels of condensed tannins. All the samples analyzed contained low levels of lectins and no alkaloids were detected. The levels of antinutritional factors did not clearly delineate the wild varieties from the edible varieties.

  2. Diversity of Pharmacological Properties in Chinese and European Medicinal Plants: Cytotoxicity, Antiviral and Antitrypanosomal Screening of 82 Herbal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive screening, the antiviral, antitrypanosomal and anticancer properties of extracts from 82 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine and European phytomedicine were determined. Several promising plants that were highly effective against hepatitis B virus (HBV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV—a flavivirus used here as a surrogate in vitro model of hepatitis C virus, trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei brucei and several cancer cell lines were identified. Six aqueous extracts from Celosia cristata, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Houttuynia cordata, Selaginella tamariscina, Alpinia galanga and Alpinia oxyphylla showed significant antiviral effects against BVDV without toxic effects on host embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr cells, while Evodia lepta, Hedyotis diffusa and Glycyrrhiza spp. demonstrated promising activities against the HBV without toxic effects on host human hepatoblastoma cells transfected with HBV-DNA (HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Seven organic extracts from Alpinia oxyphylla, Coptis chinensis, Kadsura longipedunculata, Arctium lappa, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Saposhnikovia divaricata inhibited T. b. brucei. Moreover, among fifteen water extracts that combined high antiproliferative activity (IC50 0.5–20 µg/mL and low acute in vitro toxicity (0–10% reduction in cell viability at IC50, Coptis chinensis presented the best beneficial characteristics. In conclusion, traditional herbal medicine from Europe and China still has a potential for new therapeutic targets and therapeutic applications.

  3. Comparison of mineral element content in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains%秦岭产9种野菜中矿质元素含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟君; 张九东; 陶贵荣; 杜喜春

    2012-01-01

    Contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in Cardamine macrophylla var. macrophylla Willd., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum ( Desv.) Underw. ex Heller, Aralia chinensis L., Osmunda japonica Thunb., Vitex trifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Lycium chinense Miller and Cichorium intybus L. from Qinling Mountains were determined, and compared to average contents of those mineral elements in cultivation foliage vegetables. The results show that contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in nine wild vegetables are 2. 90-14.20,0.5-3.6, 2.7-14.3,4.5-50.6, 141.9-4 646.0,106.3-643.9, 2 029.8-8 583.5, 295.3-1 136.0 and 3 870.0-14 011. 9 μg · g-1 , respectively. In which, Fe content in C. intybus, Ca content in V. trifolia, Mg and K contents in C. album, Zn and Mn contents in A. chinensis and Cu, N and P contents in 0. japonica all are the highest. Average contents of Ca, N, Fe and K in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains all have very obvious difference with those in cultivation foliage vegetables, but differences in average contents of Cu, Mg and P among them are relatively small.

  4. [Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fatima R J da; Marques, Marinêz I; Battirola, Leandro D; Lhano, Marcos G

    2010-01-01

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Poconé, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the "Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth" project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the first stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso.

  5. Repellency of Aphidius gifuensis and Pachyneuron aphidis to various odour sources%烟蚜茧蜂和蚜虫宽缘金小蜂对不同味源的趋避性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英; 杨硕媛; 赵进龙; 谷星慧; 任伟; 高艳飞; 吴伟

    2012-01-01

    用“Y”型嗅觉仪观测了烟蚜茧蜂和蚜虫宽缘金小蜂对几种非寄主植物材料的趋避性.结果表明,烟蚜茧蜂对茼蒿叶的选择呈显著负趋性;蚜虫宽缘金小蜂对花椒叶、茴香叶的选择表现出明显的负趋性,但葱叶对其具有引诱作用;烟蚜茧蜂和蚜虫宽缘金小蜂混合组对薄荷叶、鱼腥草叶、紫金泽兰叶、番茄叶和姜叶的选择也表现出明显的负趋性.%Repellency of Aphidius gifuensis and Pachyneuron aphidis to several kinds of non-host plant materials was investigated with "Y" olfactometer. Results showed that Aphidius gifuensis had significant negative tropism to Chrysanthemum leaves. Pachyneuron aphidis had negative tropism to Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves and Foeniculum vulgare leaves , but was attracted to Allium fistulosum leaves. The mixed group of Aphidius gifuensis and Pachyneuron aphidis showed negative tropism to Mentha haplocalyx leaves, Houttuynia cordata leaves, Eupatorium adenophorum leaves, Lycopersicon leaves and Ginger leaves.

  6. Complex Ornament Machining Process on a CNC Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the CNC routering possibilities for three species of wood, namely ash (Fraxinus Excelsior, lime wood (Tilia cordata and fir wood (Abies Alba, in order to obtain right surfaces of Art Nouveau sculptured ornaments. Given the complexity of the CNC tool path for getting wavy shapes of Art Nouveau decorations, the choice of processing parameters for each processed species of wood requires a laborious research work to correlate these parameters. Two Art Nouveau ornaments are proposed for the investigation. They are CNC routered using two types of cutting tools. The processed parameters namely the spindle speed, feed speed and depth of cut were the three variables of the machining process for the three species of wood, which were combined so, to provide good surface finish as a quality attribute. There were totally forty six variants of combining the processing parameter which were applied for CNC routering the samples made of the three species of wood. At the end, an optimum combination of the processed parameters is recommended for each species of wood.

  7. 2株鱼类致病菌对6种中草药敏感性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔露文; 李秀梅; 王菁

    2012-01-01

    为研究常用中草药对致病菌的作用,选择蒲公英(Taraxacum mongolicum HandMazz)、连翘(Forsyrhia suspense V.)、石榴皮(Punica granatum L)、黄芩(Scutellaria baicalensis G.)、槟榔(Areca catechu L)、鱼腥草(Houttugnia Cordata T.)6种中草药对温和气单胞菌(Amgeromomas sobria)和嗜水气单胞菌(Amgeromomas hydropHila)进行体外抑菌效果试验。试验采用沟槽法进行。结果表明:综合6种中草药沟槽法对温和气单胞菌和嗜水气单胞菌的抑制作用最强的药物是黄芩。沟槽法对温和气单胞菌的6种药抑菌效果由高到低的顺序为:黄芩>鱼腥草>槟榔>连翘>蒲公英>石榴皮;对嗜水气单胞菌的6种药抑菌效果由高到低的顺序为:黄芩>鱼腥草>连翘>蒲公英>槟榔>石榴皮。

  8. Moss mites (Acari: Oribatida in soil revitalizing: a chance for practical application in silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oribatida (known as moss mites or beetle mites increase the breakdown of organic material in the soil. The paper analyses the dynamics of their abundance and number of species after various treatments enriching the soil in 4 study areas: afforested post-agricultural area in the Tuchola Forest, afforested degraded post-military training area in Bydgoszcz-Jachcice, and forest nurseries at Białe Błota and Bielawy. The results show that in post-agricultural and degraded soils at the initial stages of forest succession, the density and number of species of oribatid mites were low, even after phyto-land-improvement (afforestation and lupin as green manure. In the forest nurseries, however, we recorded a positive effect of soil revitalizing after mulching with forest ectohumus (i.e. organic surface layer of the soil. The inoculation of soils with forest mesofauna appeared more effective in nursery plantations of silver birch (Betula pendula and small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata, as compared with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris. Thus to revitalize degraded soils effectively and to accelerate forest succession, apart from phytoland- improvement, it is advisable also to reintroduce mesofauna, e.g. with the use of forest ectohumus.

  9. Riqueza e Abundância de Abelhas Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae em Parques Urbanos de Goiânia, Goiáse em parques urbanos de Goiânia, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Grandolfo

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Urban environments have become a refuge for many species, including some bees of the tribe Euglossini. The group includes species with large capacity flight, so they are considered important neotropical pollinators. Euglossini is scarce information about the Cerrado, incomplete information like geographic distribution, which are endemic and which are cosmopolitan. This study aimed to identify and analyze the composition of bee species of the tribe Euglossini occurring in urban parks as to abundance, richness and attractiveness through the use of scent baits. The specimens of Euglossini were collected monthly from April to August 2008 in four urban parks in Goiânia, Goiás. The bees were sampled with the aid of scent traps, exposed from 8 am to 12 noon, containing one of the essences: salicylate methyl, benzyl acetate, cineole, vanillin. We collected 147 male orchid bees belonging to three genera and five species. There was a strong dominance of individuals Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (95.23%, followed by Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus (2.72%. The Cineol was the essence that attracted the greatest abundance of males and methyl salicylate had the highest species richness attracted. This study is the first record of species occurrence of Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin and Euglossa imperialis Cockerell for the Midwest and Euglossa variabilis Friese for the Cerrado. The preservation of all these areas will keep bee populations of wild these regions ecological importance of maintaining the service pollination of plant species.

  10. Inventário da fauna de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae do baixo sul da Bahia, Brasil Inventory of the Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae fauna of southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinaldo Luz das Neves

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results concerning collection of Euglossinae bees in a mangrove ecosystem in Valença(13º22'08"S and 39º04'20"W, Bahia. These samples were made twice a month, for a year. The chemical baits Citronella, Eucalyptol, Eugenol, Metyl Salicylate and Vanillin attracted 1,144 specimens distributed among twelve species and two genera: Eulaema (Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa (Latreille, 1802. The predominam bee species was Eulaema nigrita (Lepeletier, 1841 consisting of 49.4% of the collected specimens, followed by Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758 with 44.88%, Euglossa imperialis (Cockerell, 1922 with 2.4% and Eulaema meriana flavescens (Friese, 1899 with 1.6%. Theothers species, considering sporadic visitors, Euglossa securigera (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa chalybeata (Friese, 1925, Euglossa liopoda (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa townsendi (Cockerell, 1904, Euglossa truncata (Rebelo & Moure, 1995, Euglossa melanotricha (Moure, 1967 and Euglossa sapphirina (Moure, 1968 represented together only 1.8% of the total sample. The Euglossinae were more active from October to May. Eucalyptol was the most attractive bait, attracting 1,120 specimens. Methyl Salicylate attracted 17 specimens, followed by Eugenol, which attracted 04 specimens and Vanillin, which attracted 03 specimens. Citronella was not an attractive chemical.

  11. The orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina in a forest fragment from western Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An orchid bee inventory was carried out in Parque Estadual São Camilo, Palotina, Paraná (Brazil; conservation unit with about 400 hectares of Semidecidual Seasonal forest. Three bait traps were installed at the border of the fragment, each one containing the following fragrances: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and vanilin. Sampling was carried out from 09am to 03pm, October 2011 to June 2012, summing up nine sampling days. A total of 186 specimens distributed among seven species were sampled. Eufriesea violacea with 140 specimens was the most common species, followed by Euglossa fimbriata (31, Euglossa annectans (9, Eulaema nigrita (4, Euglossa cordata (1, Euglossa pleosticta (1, and Exaerete smaragdina (1. According to qualitative and NMDS analysis, the orchid bee fauna of Parque Estadual São Camilo is representative of Semidecidual Seasonal forest, with richness comparable with other assemblages in the southern distribution of Euglossina. The sampled bee richness indicates that forest fragments, even small and isolated, are important in the conservation of this bees.

  12. Inventarization of potential plant for phytoremediation on degraded land and water mined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems in degraded mined ecosystem is contamination of soil and water by toxic substances, mainly heavy metal such as Pb and others such as cyanide. Phytoremediation could be used as an alternative technique to overcome this problem. Phytoremediation is defined as clean up of pollutans primarily mediated by photosynthetic plants. These plants have several beneficial characteristics such as the ability to accumulate metal in their shoots and an especially high tolerance to heavy metals. This research was carried out to study the potencies of local species to accumulate Pb and cyanide. Seventeen species were collected from mined waste area (namely tailing area and then the cyanide and Pb accumulated in each species were analyzed. The result showed that some species accumulated Pb and cyanide in high concentration such as Ipomoea sp. (35.70 ppm cyanida and Mikania cordata (Burm.f. B.L.Robinson (11.65 ppm Pb. A series of research is needed to prove that these species are potential as heavy metal and cyanide accumulators.

  13. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied.

  14. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayworm, Marco A S; Buckeridge, Marcos S; Marquez, Ursula M L; Salatino, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average) and oils (21. 6%). Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%), while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average). The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds). The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora), oleic (Qualea and Salvertia) or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species). The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid), for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid) or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C(20) or C(22) chains) or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids). The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.

  15. An Outbreak of Human Fascioliasis gigantica in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Mu-Xin; Ai, Lin; Xu, Xue-Nian; Jiao, Jian-Ming; Zhu, Ting-Jun; Su, Hui-Yong; Zang, Wei; Luo, Jia-Jun; Guo, Yun-Hai; Lv, Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a common parasitic disease in livestock in China. However, human fascioliasis is rarely reported in the country. Here we describe an outbreak of human fascioliasis in Yunnan province. We reviewed the complete clinical records of 29 patients and performed an epidemiological investigation on the general human population and animals in the outbreak locality. Our findings support an outbreak due to Fasciola gigantica with a peak in late November, 2011. The most common symptoms were remittent fever, epigastric tenderness, and hepatalgia. Eosinophilia and tunnel-like lesions in ultrasound imaging in the liver were also commonly seen. Significant improvement of patients' condition was achieved by administration of triclabendazole®. Fasciola spp. were discovered in local cattle (28.6%) and goats (26.0%). Molecular evidence showed a coexistence of F. gigantica and F. hepatica. However, all eggs seen in humans were confirmed to be F. gigantica. Herb (Houttuynia cordata) was most likely the source of infections. Our findings indicate that human fascioliasis is a neglected disease in China. The distribution of triclabendazole®, the only efficacious drug against human fascioliasis, should be promoted.

  16. Antioxidative activity, polyphenolic content and anti-glycation effect of some Thai medicinal plants traditionally used in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusirisin, W; Srichairatanakool, S; Lerttrakarnnon, P; Lailerd, N; Suttajit, M; Jaikang, C; Chaiyasut, C

    2009-03-01

    Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE), Terminalia chebula Retz. (TC), Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MC), Kaempferia parviflora Wall. (KP) and Houttuynia cordata Thunb.(HC), respectively. Thirty plant extracts were good correlation between total antioxidant activity and antiradical activity by TBARS as well as by glycation (r = 0.856, p<0.01 and r = 0.810, p<0.01). PE had stronger antioxidative activity as well as inhibition of TBARS and glycation than the other plants. The investigation showed that total polyphenol and tannin content of PE and the flavonoid content of HC were the highest. The results imply that these plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants which have free radical scavenging activity and might be used for reducing oxidative stress in diabetes.

  17. 生物栅-复合人工湿地系统对黑臭河水的中试处理%Pilot Scale Experiment of Malodorous River Water Treatment Combined with Biofilm Grid and Integrated Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands(BFG-IVCWs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘震; 张勇; 黄民生; 何岩; 程庆霖

    2011-01-01

    Considering low dissolved oxygen and heavy organic pollution in malodorous river water, biofilm grid technology and integrated vertical flow constructed wetlands (BFG-IVCWs) was used to purify malodorous river water. The results of experiments show that fiber filter on COD removal rate is 30 %~40 %, wetland on COD removal rate is 45 %, the effect of Pontederia cordata and Pumice on COD removal is obvious. During operation of the system, TP removal rate is 58.13 %~83.25 %, TN removal efficiency is much better in early operation, which is 58.14 %.%针对黑臭河水溶解氧极低、有机物污染重的特点,充分利用生物栅技术和人工湿地技术组合而成生物栅-复合人工湿地系统(BFG-IVCWs),来净化黑臭河水降低COD等污染物质.试验结果表明:软性填料槽对COD的去除率为30%~40%,人工湿地对COD的去除率保持在45%,梭鱼草及蜂巢石对COD去除效果明显.该系统运行期间TP去除率为58.13%~83.25%,对TN去除效果初期较好,达到58.14%.

  18. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-08-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation.

  19. Estudios químicos y moleculares de jatrophas de Sonora como fuente potencial de aceites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ángel Medina Juárez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas del género Jatropha, pertenecientes a la familia de las Euphorbiaceae, pueden ser consideradas como alternativa para la obtención de semilla, con uso potencial en la fabricación de biocombustibles por su contenido alto de aceite. Se conocen alrededor de 186 especies distribuidas alrededor del mundo, de las cuales 48 se encuentran en México. En Sonora se conocen principalmente las especies de Jatropha cardiophylla, Jatropha cordata, Jatropha cinerea y Jatropha cuneata. La información que se tiene hasta el momento para especies adaptadas a zonas áridas en cuanto a la composición química de sus semillas es escasa y se desconoce el aspecto molecular relacionado con la síntesis de ácidos grasos. Por tal razón, se ha iniciado el estudio de la composición química y su relación con la expresión de genes, involucrados en la síntesis de ácidos grasos específicamente de los ácidos oleico y linoleico en las semillas de las especies de Jatropha nativas de Sonora.

  20. Vegetation of the ‘Mierzwice’ nature reserve and its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krechowski Janusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Mierzwice’ nature reserve (forest district 206b, c and d of the Sarnaki Forest Inspectorate, situated in the area of the Podlaski Przełom Bug Landscape Park, is one of the most valuable natural assets of the central Bug river valley. The 12.98 ha reserve was established in 2010 to aid protection of the stand of xerothermic vegetation and its surrounding deciduous forest. In total, eight plant associations were identified within the reserve: Geranio-Peucedanetum cervariae, Geranio-Anemonetum sylvestris, Geranio-Trifolietum alpestris, Trifolio medii-Agrimonietum, Rubo fruticosi-Prunetum, Rhamno-Cornetum sanguinei, Potentillo albae-Quercetum and Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum betuli. Furthermore, 23 protected and 31 endangered species were found in the reserve including the following examples: Cephalanthera rubra, Thesium ebracteatum, Cypripedium calceolus, Gentiana cruciata, Anemone sylvestris, Cimicifuga europaea, Viola rupestris, Crepis praemorsa, Asperula tinctoria, Stachys recta, Laserpitium latifolium. Over the last few years, a regression of the species diagnostic number for thermophilous oak forests and xerothermic grasslands has been observed as a result of succession and expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos. Active protection of xerothermic vegetation such as uprooting of trees and bushes, regular grazing or mowing has been suggested in order to prevent the expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos.

  1. Ciliary photoreceptors in the cerebral eyes of a protostome larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamaneck Yale J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eyes in bilaterian metazoans have been described as being composed of either ciliary or rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Phylogenetic distribution, as well as distinct morphologies and characteristic deployment of different photopigments (ciliary vs. rhabdomeric opsins and transduction pathways argue for the co-existence of both of these two photoreceptor types in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Both receptor types exist throughout the Bilateria, but only vertebrates are thought to use ciliary photoreceptors for directional light detection in cerebral eyes, while all other invertebrate bilaterians studied utilize rhabdomeric photoreceptors for this purpose. In protostomes, ciliary photoreceptors that express c-opsin have been described only from a non-visual deep-brain photoreceptor. Their homology with vertebrate rods and cones of the human eye has been hypothesized to represent a unique functional transition from non-visual to visual roles in the vertebrate lineage. Results To test the hypothesis that protostome cerebral eyes employ exclusively rhabdomeric photoreceptors, we investigated the ultrastructure of the larval eyes in the brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. We show that these pigment-cup eyes consist of a lens cell and a shading pigment cell, both of which are putative photoreceptors, deploying a modified, enlarged cilium for light perception, and have axonal connections to the larval brain. Our investigation of the gene expression patterns of c-opsin, Pax6 and otx in these eyes confirms that the larval eye spots of brachiopods are cerebral eyes that deploy ciliary type photoreceptors for directional light detection. Interestingly, c-opsin is also expressed during early embryogenesis in all potential apical neural cells, becoming restricted to the anterior neuroectoderm, before expression is initiated in the photoreceptor cells of the eyes. Coincident with the expression of c-opsin in the presumptive neuroectoderm

  2. Gamma-ray spectrometry across the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary in the Lusitanian Basin (Western Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marisa; Henriques, Helena; Pena, Rui

    2016-04-01

    The Aalenian - Bajocian boundary was logged for the first time at the Murtinheira (Bajocian GSSP) and the Serra da Boa Viagem II sections, located in the Lusitanian Basin (West Central Portugal) using a portable gamma ray spectrometer, and well calibrated with the ammonite-based biostratigraphical zonation. These two coeval outcrops are represented by a prograding succession of greyish marl and limestone alternations, corresponding to the distal part of a carbonate ramp, which provides rich and diversified fossil (ammonoids, brachiopods) and microfossil (benthic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplancton) record. Different bioevents have been already described for the Concavum Zone (upper Aalenian) - Discites Zone (lower Bajocian) transition in both sections, namely among the ammonites, brachiopods, calcareous nannofossils and especially among the benthic foraminiferal assemblages, which record a remarkable decrease on abundance and diversity, also detected in other coeval sections of different basins located at the northern hemisphere. The gamma-ray data across these sections shows generally low values and variability, 13 to 60 API at Murtinheira section, and 26 to 59 API at Serra da Boa Viagem II section, which are typical of these carbonate hemipelagic facies. Moreover, the Th/U ratio is generally higher than 2 throughout the two sections suggesting well-oxygenated environmental conditions (also documented by the composition of the foraminiferal assemblages), which would have prevented significant organic matter accumulation; some levels displaying low Th/U ratio may reflect depletion in thorium (typical of many marine carbonates) rather than an increase in authigenic uranium, that usually is lower than 1 ppm. Before and after the faunal impoverishment bioevent of Late Concavum - Early Discites Biochron, the K%, Th (ppm) and Th/U ratio at the two sections display a relative increase, probably related to an increment in the detrital supply, and therefore nutrient

  3. 重庆中梁山凉风垭二叠-三叠系界线附近牙形类生物地层研究%CONODONT SUCCESSION ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY OF THE LIANGFENGYA SECTION, CHONGQING, SOUTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁东勋; 沈树忠

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy and stratigraphic distributions of conodonts from the Permian-Triassic boundary beds of the Liangfengya Section at Zhongliang Hill, Chongqing, are described. Seven species in two genera, including Clarkina changxingensis, C. yini, C. meishanensis, Hindeodus typicalis, H. eurypyge, H. praeparvus and H. parvus, are identified and five conodont zones recognized. They are, in ascending order, the Clarkina changxingensis Zone, C. yini Zone, C. meishanensis Zone, Hindeodus praeparvus Zone, and H. Par-vus Zone. Based on their stratigraphic distribution, the changeover from the Clarkina-dominated to the Hindeodus-dominated populations of conodonts occurs in the horizon between samples 30-1 and 30-2. At this horizon, numerous associated brachio-pod, fusulinid and coral species also disappeared except for a few small and thin-shelled brachiopods which survived into the basal Triassic. This extinction pattern is generally comparable with that at the Meishan Section in terms of timing and diversity change. The Permian-Triassic boundary at the Liangfengya Section is at the base of Bed 34 as indicated by the first occurrence of the conodont Hindeodus parvus.%系统研究重庆中梁山凉风垭剖面二叠-三叠系界线附近的牙形类化石及其地层分布,应用样品居群的方法识别出2属7种,并划分为5个牙形类化石带,由下至上依次为:Clarkina changxingensis带,C.yini带,C.meishanensis带,Hindeodus praeparvus带及H.parvus带.确定Clarkina属占优势的居群与Hindeodus属占优势的居群的更替界面位于样品30-1与30-2之间,在此界面之上腕足类、(筵)类和珊瑚类等均发生了大量物种消失现象,仅有少量腕足类延续至三叠系底部,这一生物灭绝过程在时间和模式上与煤山剖面的基本一致.二叠系与三叠系的界线位于34层底部Hindeodus parvus分子首现的位置.

  4. 晚泥盆世弗拉斯期—法门期之交海水 温度变化的同位素证据%Isotopic Evidence for the Temperature Change of the Paleo-Ocean between Late Devonian Fransnian Period and Famennian Period in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大锐; 马学平; 董爱正; 朱德升

    2001-01-01

    The shallow platform sedimentary facies is well-developed along the Laojiangchong section in Xikuangshan mine,Lengshuijiang area,Hunan Province,which includes the well-known Upper Devonian Fransian-Famennian(Fr/Fa) boundary.Long period of field studies and researches led the authors to reveal the palaeotnology as well as sedimentary associations and characteristics.The shells of brachiopod Cyrospirifer vernemili were analysed isotopically and by SEM in this study.The carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses (δ18O:-8.4‰~-9.6‰; δ13C: -2.2‰~0.5‰) show an abnormal shift around the boundary of Fr/Fa in South China,which can serve as a standard of regional tratigraphic correlation.Depending on the calculation of oxygen isotopes within the well preserved brachiopods,the authors drew the inference about temperature decreasing from late Fransian to early Famennian.%位于我国湖南省冷水江地区锡矿山矿区的老江冲剖面为发育良好的浅水台地相沉积,出露著名的上泥盆统弗拉斯—法门阶(Fr/Fa)界线,多年的地层古生物学工作已详细地了解了该区的古生物面貌。本研究采用了基本保存完好的腕足动物Cyrospirifer vernemili 壳体进行了稳定C、O同位素地球化学分析,δ18O值为-8.4‰~-9.6‰;δ13C值为-2.2‰~0.5‰,二值在弗拉斯—法门阶交界处均发生了异常波动,将此值与其他地区的研究结果进行比较,可以认为,弗拉斯—法门期交界时所发生的剧烈而大范围的事件所造成的同位素波动可以作为大区域地层对比的标志。经过计算,推断从弗拉斯期末至法门期初,我国华南地区的古海洋发生了降温事件。

  5. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    , onchonotinids, and pagodiids), linguliformean brachiopods (acrotretids, obolids, scaphelasmatids, siphonotretids, and zhanatellids), echinoderms (mitrates, glyptocystitid cystoids, and stromatocystoids), and conodonts belonging to the lower Peltura Zone; and (iii) the subsequent input of new trilobites (asaphids, calymenids, catillicephalids, nileids and remopleurids), which marks the base of the Proteuloma geinitzi Zone, associated with pelmatozoan holdfasts ( Oryctoconus), and a distinct input of late Tremadocian conodonts ( Paltodus deltifer Zone). The biogeographic distribution of latest Middle and Late Cambrian trilobites supports brachiopod data indicating strong affinities between the western Mediterranean region, East Gondwana (North China/Korea, South China, Australia, and Antarctica) and Kazakhstania during the late Languedocian, which became significantly stronger during the Late Cambrian. This major shift may suggest modification in oceanic circulation patterns throughout Gondwana across the Middle-Late Cambrian transition.

  6. The evolution of Phanerozoic seawater - Isotope paleothermometry finds consensus on Early Paleozoic warmth and constant seawater δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E. L.; Henkes, G. A.; Passey, B. H.; Shenton, B.; Yancey, T. E.; Perez-Huerta, A.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of metazoan life is closely linked to the Phanerozoic evolution of ocean temperatures and chemistry. Oxygen isotopic evidence for early Phanerozoic paleotemperatures has been equivocal, with decreasing δ18O values with age being interpreted as warmer early oceans, decreasing seawater δ18O with age, or increasing diagenetic alteration in older samples. Here we compare an updated compilation of oxygen isotope data for carbonate and phosphate fossils and microfossils (Grossman, 2012, Geol. Time Scale, Elsevier, 195-220) with a compilation of new and existing clumped isotope data. Importantly, these data are curated based on sample preservation with special consideration given to screening techniques, and tectonic and burial history. Burial history is critical in the preservation of carbonate clumped isotope temperatures in particular, which can undergo reordering in the solid state. We use a model derived for reordering kinetics (Henkes et al., 2014, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 139:362-382) to screen clumped isotope data for the effects of solid-state burial alteration. With minor but significant exceptions (Late Cretaceous, Early Triassic), average δ18O values (4 m.y. window, 2 m.y. steps) for post-Devonian brachiopods, belemnites, and foraminifera, representing tropical-subtropical surface ocean conditions, yield average isotopic temperatures below 30°C (assuming a seawater δ18O value [ -1‰ VSMOW] of an "ice-free" world). In contrast, Ordovician to Devonian data show sustained temperatures of 35-40°C. Likewise, isotopic paleotemperatures from conodont apatite, known to be resistant to isotopic exchange, follow the same pattern. Clumped isotope data derived from Paleozoic brachiopod shells that experienced minimal burial (< 100 °C) and <1% reordering according to the taxon-specific clumped isotope reordering model yield typical temperatures of 25-30°C for the Carboniferous, and 35-40°C for the Ordovician-Silurian. Inserting clumped temperatures and

  7. Biotic recovery from the Late Devonian F-F mass extinction event in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖卫华

    2002-01-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) mass extinction is one of the five great extinctions of marine life during the Phanerozoic. The F-F event killed most of the Devonian reefs, the characteristic Devonian corals, stromatoporoids, bryozoans, nearly all tentaculites, a few superfamilies of brachiopods, such as Atrypacea and Pentameracea and some important elements of goniatites, such as Manticoceras.``The end-Frasnian was a phase of mass extinction. A large number of shelly benthos were killed by the F-F event. Early and middle Famennian was the survival interval. The marine faunas were very rare at that time. The late Famennian was the recovery interval. There appeared to have many new taxa in the Strunian stage. It lacked a radiation interval in Late Devonian Famennian because another event (the D-C mass extinction) happened at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary.``Several causes for the F-F mass extinction have been proposed by some geologists, which have been grouped into two broad types, terrestrial and extraterrestrial. The former is related to sea level changes, climate changes and anoxic water event. The latter is linked with some forms of meteorite impact.``A large-scale eustatic change of sea level and black shales representing an anoxic environment has been invoked to explain one of the causes for the F-F mass extinction.``

  8. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2014-10-10

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids.

  9. Lipid and fatty acid fractions in Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda: an intertidal benthic fauna in the West Bengal-Orissa coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaresh Samanta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To record the fractional components of lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids of Lingula anatina (L. anatina, a Precambrian intertidal benthic brachiopod, giving emphasis on -ω series group especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA alongside assessing their biotransformation within the population and mangrove-estuarine associated community. Methods: Different biological samples after being collected from three contrasting study sites viz. SI, SII and SIII at Talsari (Longitude 87°5′ E to 88°5′ E and Latitude 20°30′ N to 22°2′ N were stored at -20 °C until analyzed. Total lipids were extracted from each sample following Bligh and Dryer method. Identification and conformation of fatty acids were done by following Ackman method. Results: On analyzing different collected samples, muscles of L. anatina exhibited the highest amount of total lipids (2.95% of which 54.03% belongs to phospholipid groups. Different body parts of studied species contained appreciable and greater amount of EPA and DHA than α-linolenic acid. Conclusions: Different collected samples exhibited variabilities in respect of total lipids and its fractional fatty acid components. The muscles of L. anatina showed maximum storage of lipids and fatty acids. Differential occurrences of EPA and DHA in different body parts of L. anatina are supposed to be due to the biotransformation process converting the α-linolenic acid from its primary food sources.

  10. New stylophorans (Echinodermata) from the Upper Cambrian of Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NaiRen; CHEN GuiYing

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time the cornute stylophorans (Echinodermata) in China. The new material came from the Guole Formation of the Furongian (Late Cambrian) in the Guole area of Jingxi,Guangxi Province, South China. These new cornute specimens are preserved in situ and found along with well-preserved trilobites and brachiopods. One new species, Phyllocystis jingxiensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these unusual materials. The new species is defined by the small,heart-shaped theca with the frame composed of ten narrow, smooth and thick marginal plates, three adoral plates and distinctive zygal and aulacophore. Both supracentrals and infracentrals are polygonal-outlined. The marginal plate M/ on the inferior face extends posteriorly to form zygal that possesses a broadened proximal end and the proximal portion joining with the conjunction between M4 and M5 on the inferior face. Aulacophore comprises ten segments at its proximal part and is conical at the middle part (named stylocone). Its distal portion is rather long and bears conspicuous ambulacrum grooves. Tectals are horizontally arranged on superior face and obliquely arranged on inferior face.Both cothurnopore and anal pyramid are vaguely seen on the right anterior corner and the extremity of theca's superior face.

  11. New stylophorans(Echinodermata) from the Upper Cambrian of Guangxi,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time the cornute stylophorans (Echinodermata) in China. The new material came from the Guole Formation of the Furongian (Late Cambrian) in the Guole area of Jingxi, Guangxi Province, South China. These new cornute specimens are preserved in situ and found along with well-preserved trilobites and brachiopods. One new species, Phyllocystis jingxiensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these unusual materials. The new species is defined by the small, heart-shaped theca with the frame composed of ten narrow, smooth and thick marginal plates, three adoral plates and distinctive zygal and aulacophore. Both supracentrals and infracentrals are polygonal-outlined. The marginal plate M1’ on the inferior face extends posteriorly to form zygal that possesses a broadened proximal end and the proximal portion joining with the conjunction between M4 and M5 on the inferior face. Aulacophore comprises ten segments at its proximal part and is conical at the middle part (named stylocone). Its distal portion is rather long and bears conspicuous ambulacrum grooves. Tectals are horizontally arranged on superior face and obliquely arranged on inferior face. Both cothurnopore and anal pyramid are vaguely seen on the right anterior corner and the extremity of theca’s superior face.

  12. A Middle-Upper Devonian Boundary Section in the Open Platform, Platform Margin Facies of Guilin,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; MA Xueping; WEI Longming

    2009-01-01

    The Caiziyan Middle and Upper Devonian boundary section is located approximately 30 km northeast of Guilin.It hosts relatively abundant benthic and common-rare pelagic fossils,including brachiopods,corals,tentaculites,and conodonts,which may serve as a better suitable section for pelagic and neritic stratigraphic correlation.In this section.10"standard" conodont zones are recognized across the Givetian-Frasnian boundary,including,in descending order,the Lower hassi Zone,punctata Zone,transitans Zone,the Upper falsiovalis Zone,the Lower falsiovalis Zone,disparilis Zone,the Upper hermanni-cristatus Zone,the Lower hermanni-cristatus Zone,the Upper varcus Zone,and the Middle varcus Zone,all of which are defined by the first occurrence of their defining conodont species.The Middle-Upper Devonian (Givetian-Frasnian)boundary is defined by the first occurrence of Ancyrodella pristina in accordance with the GIobal Stratotype Section and Point(GSSP),which is assigned at 6.2m above the base of bed 19 in the Caiziyan section.

  13. An Ordovician variation on Burgess Shale-type biotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Joseph P; Muir, Lucy A; Jordan, Naomi; Upton, Christopher

    2015-04-24

    The Cambrian Burgess Shale-type biotas form a globally consistent ecosystem, usually dominated by arthropods. Elements of these communities continued into the Early Ordovician at high latitude, but our understanding of ecological changes during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) is currently limited by the paucity of Ordovician exceptionally preserved open-marine faunas. Here we clarify the early stages of the GOBE by describing a new open-marine Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Early Ordovician of Wales. The Afon Gam Biota includes many lineages typical of the Cambrian Burgess Shale-type biotas, but the most abundant groups were sponges, algae and worms, with non-trilobite arthropods being unexpectedly rare. Labile tissues occur abundantly in the sponges and are also present in other groups, including brachiopods and hyoliths. Taphonomic biases are considered and rejected as explanations for arthropod rarity; the preserved biota is considered to be an approximation to the original community composition. We note that other exceptionally preserved communities in the Welsh Ordovician are also sponge-dominated, suggesting a regional change in benthic ecology during the early stages of the GOBE.

  14. Gut contents as direct indicators for trophic relationships in the Cambrian marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Present-day ecosystems host a huge variety of organisms that interact and transfer mass and energy via a cascade of trophic levels. When and how this complex machinery was established remains largely unknown. Although exceptionally preserved biotas clearly show that Early Cambrian animals had already acquired functionalities that enabled them to exploit a wide range of food resources, there is scant direct evidence concerning their diet and exact trophic relationships. Here I describe the gut contents of Ottoia prolifica, an abundant priapulid worm from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5) Burgess Shale biota. I identify the undigested exoskeletal remains of a wide range of small invertebrates that lived at or near the water sediment interface such as hyolithids, brachiopods, different types of arthropods, polychaetes and wiwaxiids. This set of direct fossil evidence allows the first detailed reconstruction of the diet of a 505-million-year-old animal. Ottoia was a dietary generalist and had no strict feeding regime. It fed on both living individuals and decaying organic matter present in its habitat. The feeding behavior of Ottoia was remarkably simple, reduced to the transit of food through an eversible pharynx and a tubular gut with limited physical breakdown and no storage. The recognition of generalist feeding strategies, exemplified by Ottoia, reveals key-aspects of modern-style trophic complexity in the immediate aftermath of the Cambrian explosion. It also shows that the middle Cambrian ecosystem was already too complex to be understood in terms of simple linear dynamics and unique pathways.

  15. Gut contents as direct indicators for trophic relationships in the Cambrian marine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vannier

    Full Text Available Present-day ecosystems host a huge variety of organisms that interact and transfer mass and energy via a cascade of trophic levels. When and how this complex machinery was established remains largely unknown. Although exceptionally preserved biotas clearly show that Early Cambrian animals had already acquired functionalities that enabled them to exploit a wide range of food resources, there is scant direct evidence concerning their diet and exact trophic relationships. Here I describe the gut contents of Ottoia prolifica, an abundant priapulid worm from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5 Burgess Shale biota. I identify the undigested exoskeletal remains of a wide range of small invertebrates that lived at or near the water sediment interface such as hyolithids, brachiopods, different types of arthropods, polychaetes and wiwaxiids. This set of direct fossil evidence allows the first detailed reconstruction of the diet of a 505-million-year-old animal. Ottoia was a dietary generalist and had no strict feeding regime. It fed on both living individuals and decaying organic matter present in its habitat. The feeding behavior of Ottoia was remarkably simple, reduced to the transit of food through an eversible pharynx and a tubular gut with limited physical breakdown and no storage. The recognition of generalist feeding strategies, exemplified by Ottoia, reveals key-aspects of modern-style trophic complexity in the immediate aftermath of the Cambrian explosion. It also shows that the middle Cambrian ecosystem was already too complex to be understood in terms of simple linear dynamics and unique pathways.

  16. Fenxiang biota: a new Early Ordovician shallow-water fauna with soft-part preservation from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinski, Andrzej; Sun, Yuanlin

    Our perception of biodiversity in the geological past is incomplete and biased because most organisms did not have mineralized skeletons and therefore had little chance of fossilization. This especially refers to shallow-water marine environments, rarely represented by localities with exceptional preservation of fossil material (known as taphonomic windows or Konservat-Lagerstätten). Such extraordinary "windows" may markedly broaden our knowledge of biodiversity of the past. Here, we show a review of the invertebrate fossils from recently discovered locality in the Lower Ordovician Fenxiang Formation of Hubei Province in southern China revealing exceptional preservation of soft tissues. The fauna, generally of shallow-water aspect, contains linguloid brachiopods with a remarkably preserved pedicle, the oldest traces of nematode life activities, the oldest reliable record of hydroids, the first fossil antipatharian corals, a pyritized colonial organism of unknown affinity, supposed arthropod appendages, probable phosphatized scalidophoran worm embryo and other fossils. Our discovery supports the opinion that the famous soft-bodied preservation of Burgess Shale- or Chengjiang-type did not vanish from the fossil record in post-Cambrian times. The new finding represents a prelude to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event and provides evidence for calibration of molecular clock of several invertebrate lineages.

  17. Hyoliths are Palaeozoic lophophorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysiuk, Joseph; Smith, Martin R; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2017-01-19

    Hyoliths are abundant and globally distributed 'shelly' fossils that appear early in the Cambrian period and can be found throughout the 280 million year span of Palaeozoic strata. The ecological and evolutionary importance of this group has remained unresolved, largely because of their poorly constrained soft anatomy and idiosyncratic scleritome, which comprises an operculum, a conical shell and, in some taxa, a pair of lateral spines (helens). Since their first description over 175 years ago, hyoliths have most often been regarded as incertae sedis, related to molluscs or assigned to their own phylum. Here we examine over 1,500 specimens of the mid-Cambrian hyolith Haplophrentis from the Burgess Shale and Spence Shale Lagerstätten. We reconstruct Haplophrentis as a semi-sessile, epibenthic suspension feeder that could use its helens to elevate its tubular body above the sea floor. Exceptionally preserved soft tissues include an extendable, gullwing-shaped, tentacle-bearing organ surrounding a central mouth, which we interpret as a lophophore, and a U-shaped digestive tract ending in a dorsolateral anus. Together with opposing bilateral sclerites and a deep ventral visceral cavity, these features indicate an affinity with the lophophorates (brachiopods, phoronids and tommotiids), substantially increasing the morphological disparity of this prominent group.

  18. ENVIRONMENTS AND FAUNAL PATTERNS IN THE KACHCHH RIFT BASIN, WESTERN INDIA, DURING THE JURASSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANZ THEODOR FÜRSICH

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine Jurassic sediments (Bajocian-Tithonian of the Kachchh Basin were deposited in a ramp setting. Except during the Middle and Late Bathonian, when a carbonate regime became established, the fill of the basin consists predominantly of siliciclastics. The sediments represent environments that range from coastal plains (rivers and associated flood plains with caliche nodules, deltas, brackish water lagoons, nearshore sand and iron-oolite bars of the inner ramp, generally situated above fair-weather wave-base, to the middle ramp influenced by storm-waves and by storm-generated currents, and finally to the outer ramp which is characterised by low energy, fine-grained sediments. Changes in relative sea level produced a cyclic sedimentation pattern. The rich benthic fauna of macroinvertebrates is dominated by bivalves, followed by brachiopods, gastropods, corals, serpulids, and sponges. The analysis of 370 statistical samples and more than 27, 000 specimens produced more than 40 benthic associations and assemblages. They show a relationship to several environmental parameters, two of which, salinity and climate, are briefly discussed. The spatial distribution of the facies and biota is outlined for two time slices, the Bathonian and the Callovian-Oxfordian, respectively.

  19. Proposed stratotype for the base of the highest Cambrian stage at the first appearance datum of Cordylodus andresi, Lawson Cove section, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.F.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Evans, K.R.; Holmer, L.E.; Loch, James D.; Popov, L.E.; Repetski, J.E.; Ripperdan, R.L.; Taylor, John F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a candidate for the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the highest stage of the Furongian Series of the Cambrian System. The section is at Lawson Cove in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. The marker horizon is the first appearance datum (FAD) of the conodont Cordylodus andresi Viira et Sergeyeva in Kaljo et al. [Kaljo, D., Borovko, N., Heinsalu, H., Khazanovich, K., Mens, K., Popov, L., Sergeyeva, S., Sobolevskaya, R., Viira, V., 1986. The Cambrian-Ordovician boundary in the Baltic-Ladoga clint area (North Estonia and Leningrad Region, USSR). Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised. Geologia 35, 97-108]. At this section and elsewhere this horizon also is the FAD of the trilobite Eurekia apopsis (Winston et Nicholls, 1967). This conodont characterizes the base of the Cordylodus proavus Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of the world. This trilobite characterizes the base of the Eurekia apopsis Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of North America. The proposed boundary is 46.7 m above the base of the Lava Dam Member of the Notch Peak Formation at the Lawson Cove section. Brachiopods, sequence stratigraphy, and carbon-isotope geochemistry are other tools that characterize this horizon and allow it to be recognized in other areas. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  20. Permian bivalves of the Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, and their biostratigraphic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Guimarães Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A small and poorly diversified bivalve fauna from Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin (State of Santa Catarina,Mafra Municipality, is described in this paper for the first time, based on new findings. The fauna is recorded in a 30 cmthick interval of fine sandstone locally at the top of Taciba Formation, in the Butiá quarry. The studied fossil-bearing sandstonebed is a marine intercalation recording a brief eustatic rise in sea-level, probably following glacier retreat and climateamelioration at the end of a broad glacial scenario. The fauna is mainly dominated by productid brachiopods, which are notdescribed here, and rare mollusk shells (bivalves and gastropods. Two bivalve species were identified: Myonia argentinensis(Harrington, 1955, and Aviculopecten multiscalptus (Thomas, 1928. The presence of Myonia argentinensis is noteworthysince this species is also present in the Baitaca assemblage found in marine siltstones (Baitaca assemblage of theRio do Sul Formation, cropping out at the Teixeira Soares region, Paraná State. This species is also recorded in the bivalvefauna from the Bonete Formation, Pillahinco Group, Sauce Grande Basin, Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina. Hence, themarine bivalves of the Taciba Formation are associated with the transgressive event that characterizes the Eurydesma fauna,indicating a Late Asselian-Sakmarian age for the bivalve fauna. Presence of the Myonia argentinensis megadesmid speciesreinforces the Gondwanic nature of the studied fauna.

  1. Marine ostracod provinciality in the Late Ordovician of palaeocontinental Laurentia and its environmental and geographical expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohibullah Mohibullah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examine the environmental, climatic and geographical controls on tropical ostracod distribution in the marine Ordovician of North America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the inter-regional distribution patterns of Ordovician Laurentian ostracods, focussing particularly on the diverse Late Ordovician Sandbian (ca 461 to 456 Ma faunas, demonstrates strong endemicity at the species-level. Local endemism is very pronounced, ranging from 25% (e.g. Foxe basin to 75% (e.g. Michigan basin in each basin, a pattern that is also reflected in other benthic faunas such as brachiopods. Multivariate (ordination analyses of the ostracod faunas allow demarcation of a Midcontinent Province and a southern Marginal Province in Laurentia. While these are most clearly differentiated at the stratigraphical level of the bicornis graptolite biozone, analyses of the entire dataset suggest that these provinces remain distinct throughout the Sandbian interval. Differences in species composition between the provinces appear to have been controlled by changes in physical parameters (e.g. temperature and salinity related to water depth and latitude and a possible regional geographic barrier, and these differences persist into the Katian and possibly the Hirnantian. Local environmental parameters, perhaps operating at the microhabitat scale, may have been significant in driving local speciation events from ancestor species in each region. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work establishes a refined methodology for assessing marine benthic arthropod micro-benthos provinciality for the Early Palaeozoic.

  2. The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-yue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Chang-yong; Lü, Tao; Xie, Tao; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Benton, Michael J

    2011-08-07

    The timing and nature of biotic recovery from the devastating end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) are much debated. New studies in South China suggest that complex marine ecosystems did not become re-established until the middle-late Anisian (Middle Triassic), much later than had been proposed by some. The recently discovered exceptionally preserved Luoping biota from the Anisian Stage of the Middle Triassic, Yunnan Province and southwest China shows this final stage of community assembly on the continental shelf. The fossil assemblage is a mixture of marine animals, including abundant lightly sclerotized arthropods, associated with fishes, marine reptiles, bivalves, gastropods, belemnoids, ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods, conodonts and foraminifers, as well as plants and rare arthropods from nearby land. In some ways, the Luoping biota rebuilt the framework of the pre-extinction latest Permian marine ecosystem, but it differed too in profound ways. New trophic levels were introduced, most notably among top predators in the form of the diverse marine reptiles that had no evident analogues in the Late Permian. The Luoping biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagerstätten in the world, providing a new and early window on recovery and radiation of Triassic marine ecosystems some 10 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction.

  3. Thecamoebians (Testate Amoebae Straddling the Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Guryul Ravine Section, India: Evolutionary and Palaeoecological Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Singh

    Full Text Available Exceptionally well-preserved organic remains of thecamoebians (testate amoebae were preserved in marine sediments that straddle the greatest extinction event in the Phanerozoic: the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Outcrops from the Late Permian Zewan Formation and the Early Triassic Khunamuh Formation are represented by a complete sedimentary sequence at the Guryul Ravine Section in Kashmir, India, which is an archetypal Permian-Triassic boundary sequence. Previous biostratigraphic analysis provides chronological control for the section, and a perspective of faunal turnover in the brachiopods, ammonoids, bivalves, conodonts, gastropods and foraminifera. Thecamoebians were concentrated from bulk sediments using palynological procedures, which isolated the organic constituents of preserved thecamoebian tests. The recovered individuals demonstrate exceptional similarity to the modern thecamoebian families Centropyxidae, Arcellidae, Hyalospheniidae and Trigonopyxidae, however, the vast majority belong to the Centropyxidae. This study further confirms the morphologic stability of the thecamoebian lineages through the Phanerozoic, and most importantly, their apparent little response to an infamous biological crisis in Earth's history.

  4. Antarctic birds (Neornithes during the Cretaceous-Eocene times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tambussi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic fossil birds can be confidently assigned to modern orders and families, such as a goose-like anseriform, two loon-like and a seriema-like, all recorded before the K/T boundary at the López de Bertodano Fomation. Also, the discovery of a ratite and a phororhacids from the uppermost levels of the Submeseta Allomember (Late Eocene, suggests that West Antarctica was functional to dispersal routes obligate terrestrial birds. Representatives of Falconiformes Polyborinae, Ciconiiformes, Phoenicoteriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelagornitidae and Diomedeidae constitute the non-penguin avian assemblages of the Eocene of La Meseta Formation. Fifthteen Antarctic species of penguins have been described including the oldest penguin of West Antarctica, Croswallia unienwillia. The Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Biozone (36.13 and 34.2 Ma, Late Eocene is characterized by bearing one of the highest frequencies of penguin bones and the phospatic brachiopod Lingula., together with remains of Gadiforms, sharks and primitive mysticete whales. Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, Delphinornis gracilis, D. arctowski, Archaeospheniscus lopdelli, and Palaeeudyptes antarcticus are exclusively of the La Meseta Formation. Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi was evidently the largest penguin recorded at the James Ross Basin, whereas Delphinornis arctowski is the smallest, and include one of the worldwide highest morphological and taxonomic penguin diversity living sympatrically. The progressive climate cooling of the Eocene could have affected the penguin populations, because of climatic changes linked with habitat availability and food web processes. However, there is not available evidence about Antarctic penguins' evolution after the end of the Eocene.

  5. South East Asia as a part of an Ordovician Gondwanaland—a palaeobiogeographic test of a tectonic hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrett, Clive; Stait, Bryan

    1985-10-01

    The hypothesis that Thailand and Malaysia (the Sibumasu block) were adjacent to Australia in the Early Palaeozoic has been tested by an examination of the Ordovician sequences and faunas of Sibumasu and Australia. The relatively stenogeographic nautiloids of the two areas are remarkably similar and have a Simpson Index of 0.92 at the generic level. Two new genera of discosorids are restricted to the two blocks and Georgina and Mesaktoceras are found elsewhere only in Tibet. Very close affinities are also evident between the gastropod, polyplacophoran and rostroconch molluscs. The Ordovician brachiopod faunas are also very close including the genus Spanodonta. Other very close similarities are found between the Upper Cambrian trilobite faunas and the Ordovician conodonts and stromatoporoids. No Ordovician faunas younger than Upper Whiterockian were found during this study in either northern Australia or Sibumasu and a stratigraphic gap probably exists from the Upper Whiterockian to the Upper Ordovician over most of the two blocks. These remarkably close faunal similarities are good evidence in favour of the hypothesis that Sibumasu was adjacent to Australia during the Early Palaeozoic. Similarly close faunal relationships between North China, South East Asia, Tibet and Australia may also suggest close proximity of those blocks during the Early Palaeozoic.

  6. 滇东北昭通箐门的泥盆纪珊瑚(一)——早泥盆世和中泥盆世早期的四射珊瑚%DEVONIAN RUGOSE CORALS FROM ZHAOTONG, NE YUNNAN (1)——SOME EMSIAN AND EIFELIAN RUGOSE CORALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖卫华; 马学平

    2016-01-01

    云南省昭通市东北郊箐门出露了一条比较完整的泥盆纪浅海相地层剖面,下、中、上三个统均有出露,浅海底栖生物化石丰富,研究基础也相对较好,是研究滇东北地区泥盆纪地层的一条理想剖面.由于地层剖面比较长,沉积厚度比较大,文中仅描述该剖面早泥盆世和中泥盆世早期的四射珊瑚,并讨论有关地层划分和珊瑚群古生物地理亲缘关系.%The rugose corals described in the present paper were collected by one of the authors (Liao Weihua) from the Qingmen section of Zhaotong,NE Yunnan in 1972.These corals,occuring in association with brachiopods (Rostrospirifer ardenensis,Rostrospiri fer tonkinensis,Acrospiri fer orthogonalis,Acrospiri fer lungmenshanensis,Atrypa sp.,Cyrtina sp.,“Delthyris” sp.,Dicoelostrophia beblistriata,Dicoelostrophia punctata,El yta sp.,Eosophragmophora sp.,Howittia sp.,Howellella sp.,Kwangsia cf.yohi,Mesodouvillina orientalis,Nadiastrophia pattei,Parachonetes nasutus,Parathyrisina tangnae,Schuchertella sp.),Stromatoporoids (Clathrodictyon sp.,Anostylostroma sp.,Atelodictyon sp.,Ferestromatopora sp.),and bivalves (Leptodesma ? sp.,Mytilarea sp.),were found in a series of sandstones,mudstones intercalated with marls or argillaceous limestones.The rugose corals described and illustrated comprise 11 species within 8 genera.They include two rugose coral Assemblages in ascending order:The first rugose coral Assemblage (Early Devonian Emsian):Acanthophyllum cf.guitangense Yu et Liao Australoph yllum cyathoph ylloides Hill Calceola intermediata intermediata Yoh Calceola sandalina nanningensis Yoh Cystiphylloides cf.fongi (Yoh) Cystiphylloides mirabile Wedekind et Vollbrecht Edaphophyllum zhaotongense sp.nov.Tryplasma cf.guangxiensis Yu et Liao Xystriphyllum el.devonicum Bulvanker The second rugose coral Assemblage (Middle Devonian Eifelian):Utaratuia yunnanensis sp.nov.X ystri ph yllum h yperbolicum Crickmay Among the first rugose coral Assemblage

  7. Discovery of Paleogene Sporopollen from the Matrix Strata of the Naij Tal Group-Complex in the Eastern Kunlun Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xianpu; WANG Naiwen; DING Xiaozhong; ZHAO Min; WANG Daning

    2006-01-01

    The Naij Tal Group-complex is a suite of tectonic-sedimentary mélange aggregation of the Eastern Kunlun orogenic belt, which is composed of two parts, i.e. the exotic blocks of various ages and the matrix strata. On the basis of coral, brachiopod and gastropod fossils found in the exotic blocks, the age of this group-complex was once defined to the Late Ordovician or the Paleozoic. This paper reports for the first time 44 genera and 31 species of Mid-Late Oligocene sporopollen in samples from the matrix strata in this group-complex and the Paleogene Quercoidites-Persicarioipollis assemblage is named. The paper aims to provide some detailed evidence for determining the age of the matrix strata in this group-complex based upon a study at the Caiyuanzigou section, which would be of great geological significance for further understanding this group-complex as a suite of tectonic-sedimentary and evolution mechanism for the Eastern Kunlun orogenic belt.

  8. Strontium isotopic ages of the Torinosu-type limestones (latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous, Japan): Implication for biocalcification event in northwestern Palaeo-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Nagaishi, Kazuya; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kano, Akihiro

    2012-03-01

    The ages of the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous shallow marine limestones in Japan (the Torinosu-type limestones) were evaluated by Sr isotopic stratigraphy. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 17 brachiopods collected from three sections revealed ages that are consistent with the previous assumption based on biostratigraphy. The age of the upper horizon of the Koike Limestone Member (the Soma-Nakamura Group, NE Japan) ranges from 150.6 Ma to 149.2 Ma (the latest Kimmeridgian to the early Tithonian). The limestones from two sections (the Torinosu and Imaidani Group) on Shikoku Island of SW Japan yield the younger ages, which evaluate the depositional rate of the two limestones 6.3-14.5 m/m.y. By applying these rates, the depositional period was estimated for the whole limestone of each section; from 151.1 Ma (the latest Kimmeridgian) to 140.3 Ma (the latest Berriasian) for the Torinosu Group, from 151.5 Ma (the late Kimmeridgian) to 143.0 Ma (the early Berriasian) for the Imaidani Group. These results confirm active carbonate deposition in the shallow fore-arc platform in SW Japan from the Tithonian to the Berriasian. The biocalcification event recognized in relevant age in the Tethyan region was likely expanded to the Palaeo-Pacific. The carbonate deposition in the platform was terminated by sea level fall during the early Valanginian.

  9. Unique Marine Olenekian-Anisian Boundary Section from South Primorye, Russian Far East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri D Zakharov; Alexander M Popov; Galina I Buryi

    2005-01-01

    To show paleontological characteristics of the Olenekian-Anisian boundary beds in the Russian Far East, a review of new data on the Upper Olenekian and Lower Anisian biostratigraphy of South Primorye is given on the basis of five sections: Golyi Cape, Petrovka River, Zhitkov Peninsula, Tchernyschew Bay and Atlasov Cape, using new ammonoid, brachiopod and conodont findings. The most representative ammonoid assemblage at the base of the Anisian was discovered in the Ussuriphyllites amurensis Zone (10.6 m thick) of the Atlasov Cape Section: Parasageceras sp. Nov., Prionitidae gen. Et sp. Nov., Ussuriphyllites amurensis (Kiparisova) (dominant), Megaphyllites atlasoviensis Zakharov, Leiophyllites praematurus Kiparisova, Leiophyllites sp., Ussurites sp., Paradanubites sp. Indet., Paracrochordiceras sp. Nov., Prohungarites popowi Kiparisova, Arctohungarites primoriensis Zakharov, A. Solimani (Toula), Salterites sp. Indet. (gigantic shell), and Tropigastrites sublachontanus Zakharov. Conodonts Neospathodus cf. Homeri (Bender) were found in the lower part of the Ussuriphyllites amurensis Zone of the Atlasov Cape. The Atlasov Cape seems to be one of the very promising sections of the Russian Far East for detailed investigation of the Olenekian-Anisian boundary.

  10. Paleoenvironmental changes recorded on UPPer Carboniferous reef in Guangxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG EnPu; CHEN Xiaohong; ZHANG Yongli; GUAN Changqing; CHANG Honglun; HONG Guang

    2014-01-01

    Based on detailed measurement in the field and a comPrehensive analysis of carbonate microfacies, the Pennsylvanian reefal microfacies characteristic and sedimentary environment from Longjiangdong,Guangxi, China are analyzed. The twelve carbonate microfacies have been recognized including micritic/microsParitic limestone,Peloidal/aggregate-grain grainstone,bioclastic wackestone/Packstone,laminated mudstone,bounds-tone,bioclastic wackestone/Packstone with single shell,coral framestone/bafflestone,bioclastic Packstones/grainstones with abundant benthic foraminifera or crinoids,wackestone/mudstone with calcisPheres,bioclastic Packstone/grainstone,unname reef-building organism framestone and brachioPod grainstone. In addition,four facies have been identified including oPen Platform facies,restricted Platform facies,coral reefal facies and shoal facies. According to analysis of microfacies combination and facies evolution,three stages and three reef units during the reef formation Process have been noted. The evolution of each stage indicates a rePeating fluctu-ation of the sea-level,but the water energy is still relatively low overall,which rePresents frequent changes of Paleoclimate in the early Late Carboniferous.

  11. Crystallographic Orientation of Cuttlebone Shield Determined by Electron Backscatter Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Maggie; Chung, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In common with many cephalopod mollusks, cuttlefish produce an internal biomineral buoyancy device. This cuttlebone is analogous to a surf board in shape and structure, providing rigidity and a means of controlling buoyancy. The cuttlebone is composed of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite and comprises an upper dorsal shield and a lower lamellar matrix. The lamellar matrix comprises layers of chambers with highly corrugated walls. The dorsal shield comprises bundles of aragonite needles stacked on top of each other. Electron backscatter diffraction analyses of the dorsal shield reveal that the c-axis of aragonite is parallel with the long axis of the needles in the bundles such that any spread in crystallographic orientation is consistent with the spread in orientation of the fibers as they radiate to form the overall structure of the dorsal shield. This arrangement of c-axis coincident with the long axis of the biomineral structure is similar to the arrangement in corals and in contrast to the situation in the molluskan aragonite nacre of brachiopod calcite where the c-axis is perpendicular to the aragonite tablet or calcite fiber, respectively.

  12. Darwin's great patagoniantertiary formation at the mouth of the río Santa Cruz: a reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Parras

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Theclassical section described by Darwin at the mouth of the Río Santa Cruz was alandmark in the later stratigraphy of the marine Cenozoic of Patagonia.Sedimentological and paleontological studies of rocks from the Monte LeónFormation at the Darwin and Mount Entrance sections - mouth of the Río SantaCruz - suggest that they were deposited in an early Miocene inner shelf tosubtidal - or even intertidal at the top - environment. The base of thesections is covered and the top is unconformably overlain by Quaternarydeposits. The invertebrate fauna (mainly mollusks mentioned herein - theearliest of which were collected by Darwin and described by Sowerby - werecollected from the two sections with a detailed stratigraphic control. Itincludes brachiopods, echinoderms, scaphopods, bivalves, and gastropods. Thesimilarity of this fauna with that one from the sections at Restinga Norte,Cabeza de León, Las Cuevas, Yegua Quemada and Monte Observación, all south ofthe study area, allow correlation with them. In addition to the equivalence ofthe faunas, sedimentological features at all these localities are also thesame. Therefore, all the shell beds involved should be referred to the PuntaEntrada Member of the Monte León Formation. The Monte Observación Member shouldbe restricted to its original use and included as a member at the base of theoverlying Santa Cruz Formation, outcrops at Cerro Monte León and CerroObservación.

  13. Carbonate cementation as related to the diagenesis of clay in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system: Examples from the Centerfield biostrome, east central Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, C.D. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation consists of siliciclastic and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediment packages that pulse in and out of the stratigraphy. The formation crops out in several places throughout the folded rocks of eastern Pennsylvania and Maryland. The Centerfield Member is one of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate packages in the Mahantango Fm. This member crops out in east central Pennsylvania. The Centerfield Mbr. has been interpreted as a series of biostromes and contain abundant rugosan corals, crinoids, bryozoans, and brachiopods. The biostromes have undergone a complex diagenetic history. Illite, smectite, chlorite and muscovite have been found with the use of powder x-ray diffraction and petrographic analysis. The smectite and some of the illite are depositional clays, while, the remaining illite, chlorite and muscovite represent recrystallization of the depositional clays. There are six phases of cement in the biostrome. The paragenetic sequence of the cements is as follows: non-ferroan low magnesian calcite (LMC), intermediate ferroan LMC, ferroan LMC, non-ferroan dolomite, ferroan baroque dolomite, and quartz cement in the form of chert and blocky cement. Staining shows that the iron content of the cement changes within individual crystals and between cement phases. Preliminary data suggest that the cements may be directly related to the steady release of ions during the diagenesis of the surrounding clays in the shale.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of dicyemid mesozoans (phylum Dicyemida) from innexin amino acid sequences: dicyemids are not related to Platyhelminthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahito G; Ogino, Kazutoyo; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2010-06-01

    Dicyemid mesozoans are endoparasites, or endosymbionts, found only in the renal sac of benthic cephalopod molluscs. The body organization of dicyemids is very simple, consisting of usually 10 to 40 cells, with neither body cavities nor differentiated organs. Dicyemids were considered as primitive animals, and the out-group of all metazoans, or as occupying a basal position of lophotrochozoans close to flatworms. We cloned cDNAs encoding for the gap junction component proteins, innexin, from the dicyemids. Its expression pattern was observed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In adult individuals, the innexin was expressed in calottes, infusorigens, and infusoriform embryos. The unique temporal pattern was observed in the developing infusoriform embryos. Innexin amino acid sequences had taxon-specific indels which enabled identification of the 3 major protostome lineages, i.e., 2 ecdysozoans (arthropods and nematodes) and the lophotrochozoans. The dicyemids show typical, lophotrochozoan-type indels. In addition, the Bayesian and maximum likelihood trees based on the innexin amino acid sequences suggested dicyemids to be more closely related to the higher lophotrochozoans than to the flatworms. Flatworms were the sister group, or consistently basal, to the other lophotrochozoan clade that included dicyemids, annelids, molluscs, and brachiopods.

  15. Mid-Late Devonian assemblages of herbaceous lycophytes from northern Argentina and Bolivia: Age assessment with palynomorphs and invertebrates and paleobiogeographic importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquo, Mercedes; Noetinger, Sol; Isaacson, Peter; Grader, George; Starck, Daniel; Morel, Eduardo; Folnagy, Heidi Anderson

    2015-11-01

    Implications of a new collection of lycophytes of the genera Haplostigma Seward and Paleostigma Kräusel and Dolianiti from southern Bolivia and northern Argentina are presented. Fragmented herbaceous stems of lycophytes preserved as compressions, impressions and casts come from the Middle and Late Devonian Pescado (Huamampampa), Los Monos and Iquiri formations at Mataral, Yesera, Angosto del Pescado and Balapuca. The interbedded shales and siltstones bearing the lycophytes were also examined for palynology. They yielded mostly terrestrial palynomorphs with Grandispora pseudoreticulata and other Eifelian to Givetian species and fewer microplanktonic species (i.e., acritarchs, prasinophytes, chitinozoans). At Yesera, diagnostic spores and elements of the microplankton suggest a Givetian-Frasnian up to early Famennian age for the Haplostigma beds. Moreover, presence of the same brachiopod taxon in the Haplostigma intervals at Yesera Dique (palynologically barren) and Yesera Centro supports their correlation. This new information supports terrestrial connections between these Bolivian and Argentine areas and other regions of South America in the Eifelian - Givetian Afrosouthamerican Subrealm, which extended up to the early Famennian.

  16. THE TRIASSIC/JURASSIC BOUNDARY IN THE ANDES OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO C. RICCARDI

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arroyo Malo Formation at Alumbre Creek, on the northern bank of the Atuel River, west central Argentina, comprises a c. 300 m thick continuous marine succession across the Triassic-Jurassic System boundary, consisting of massive and laminated pelites indicative of a slope depositional environment. Late Triassic invertebrates, including ammonoids, nautiloids, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and corals are restricted to the lower 150 m. Beds between 125-135 m from the bottom yield Choristoceras cf. marshi Hauer, a species found in the Marshi/Crickmayi Zone of Europe and North America, together with loose fragments of Psiloceras cf. pressum Hillebrandt, coeval with the lower to middle part of the Hettangian Planorbis Zone. About 80 m higher are beds yielding Psiloceras cf. rectocostatum Hillebrandt, a species that gives name to an Andean biozone partially coeval with the Johnstoni and Plicatulum Subzones, upper Planorbis Zone. Other fossils recorded in the Rhaetian strata of this section are foraminifers, ostracods and plant remains identified as Zuberia cf. zuberi (Szaj. Freng. and Clathropteris sp. The section was also sampled for conodonts and radiolarians, thus far with negative results. A palaeomagnetic study is underway.

  17. A paleothermometer based on abundances of 13C-18O bonds in bioapatite: Calibration and reconstruction of the body temperatures of extinct Cenozoic mammals and Mesozoic dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, R.; Schauble, E. A.; Tripati, A. K.; Fricke, H. C.; Tuetken, T.; Eiler, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The stable isotope compositions of biologically precipitated apatite in bone, teeth, and scales are widely used to obtain information on the diet, behavior, and physiology of extinct organisms, and to reconstruct past climate in terrestrial and marine settings. Here we report the application of a new type of geochemical measurement to bioapatite, a ‘clumped isotope’ thermometer based on the thermodynamically driven preference for 13C and 18O to bond with each other within carbonate ions in the crystal lattice of apatite. This effect is dependent on temperature but unlike conventional stable isotope paleotemperature proxies, is independent from the isotopic composition of water from which the mineral formed. We show that the abundance of 13C-18O bonds in the carbonate component of apatite from modern teeth is proportional to the body temperature of the organism, with an accuracy of 1-2oC, and that the empirical calibration is supported by a theoretical model of isotopic ordering. We also report initial paleothermometry results from analyses of Cenozoic fossil mammal teeth and Mesozoic dinosaur teeth. Therefore, clumped isotope analysis of bioapatite represents a new approach in the study of the physiology of extinct species by allowing the first relatively assumption-free measurement of their body temperatures. It will also open new avenues in the study of paleoclimate, as the measurements of clumped isotopes in apatite from fossils, such as conodonts and brachiopods, as well as phosphorites, have the potential to record environmental temperatures.

  18. Nd isotope composition and rare earth element distribution in early Paleozoic biogenic apatite from Baltoscandia: A signature of Iapetus ocean water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felitsyn, Sergei; Sturesson, Ulf; Popov, Leonid; Holmer, Lars

    1998-12-01

    Analyses of the Nd isotopic composition and REE distribution in biogenic apatite (organophosphatic brachiopods and conodont elements) from the Cambrian and Ordovician sequences of the Baltic plate give new insights into the development of the southeastern segment of the continental margin bounding the Iapetus ocean. The Nd isotope analyses show ɛNd(t) of ˜-8.0 for the Cambrian, indicating that the main source of the sedimentary deposition came from weathered sedimentary rocks of Vendian and Cambrian age. The increase of ɛNd(t) to ˜-5.0 for the Early Ordovician indicates the appearance of a new source of radiogenic Nd in the surrounding area—most likely a volcanic arc along the western borderland of Baltic plate from Arenigian time. Samples of Cambrian biogenic apatite show significantly lower total amounts of REE than do the Ordovician samples, and this is probably due to a shorter exposure to seawater before burial during Ordovician sedimentary accumulation in Baltoscandia. These preliminary results suggest that biogenic apatite from the Baltoscandian basin preserves geochemical signatures of the water masses that will be important for understanding the evolution of the Iapetus ocean during the early Paleozoic.

  19. Use of the Bochum proton microprobe in isotope stratigraphy and paleoceanographic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, F.; Bruckschen, P.; Korte, C. [Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany). Institute fuer Geologie; Meijer, J. [Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik mit Ionenstrahlen; Veizer, J. [Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany). Institute fuer Geologie]|[Ottawa-Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-06-01

    Over the past five years, the proton microprobe at Bochum (Germany) has been used as a trace element tool in the context of isotope stratigraphy and paleoceanographic studies. The Sr, O, and C isotopic composition of some biogenic material (e.g. calcitic brachiopod shells, phosphatic conodonts) is widely accepted to mirror, under favourable conditions, the isotopic composition of the coeval sea water. The latter, in turn, is a function of a variety of global processes, such as climatic change, volcanic activity, plate tectonics or circulation of ocean water. Thus, on the basis of the isotopic properties of fossil shell material, isotope curves can be constructed that reflect variations in the above factors over the entire Phanerozoic. However, as a consequence of the long time elapsed since deposition of the fossils, they are prone to chemical and isotopic alteration and may thus yield equivocal or even irrelevant information if no care is taken to monitor the degree of their diagenetic alteration. Trace element composition of the fossil material, combined with cathodoluminescence investigations, is one of the most frequently utilized tools to assess the diagenetic quality of the samples. Beam current was in the range of a few nA, resulting in charges of 1-10 {mu}C for a single measurement. Detection limits for point analyses were between 10 and 30 ppm for Mn, Fe, Sr, but considerably higher for rare earth elements. Accuracy around 10% for a number of elements analysed is reported. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Distribution of Biomicrofacies and Cement Types in the Changxing Formation (Upper Permian, Western Hubei-eastern Sichuan Provinces, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutwakil Nafi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Changxing formation is subdivided into lower, middle and upper parts. Four types of microfacies were recognized in the Changxing formation. They include SMF-3, SMF-6, SMF-7 and SMF-19. The Changxing Formation is composed of deep basin margin, platform margin and open restricted platform environments. The lower, middle and upper parts are dominated by deep basin margin facies, platform margin facies and open restricted platform facies, respectively. The lower part contains foraminifera, radiolarian and mollusk organisms. The middle part is characterized by presence of crinoids, sponge, rugose, ostracods, trilobite, brachiopods, abundant bryozoans, mollusks and foraminifera organisms. The upper part is marked by dolomite, pyrite and abundant mollusks. Most of these organisms were concentrated within the middle part. The types of cements in the Changxing Formation consist of coarse grain sparite, micrite, microspar, silica and radiaxial cements. The lower part is dominated by silica cement. The middle part shows presence of abundant coarse grain sparite, micrite, microspar and radiaxial cements. The upper part is dominated by micrite, microspar cements.

  1. Dolomitized bryozoan bioherms from the Lower Silurian Manitoulin Formation, Bruce Peninsula, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, A.S.; Coniglo, M. (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada))

    1992-06-01

    Several small, previously undescribed bioherms are present in the shallow shelf dolostones of the Manitoulin Formation at the Cabot Head and Wingfield Basin localities in the northernmost portion of the Bruce Peninsula region of southern Ontario. The bioherms, commonly associated with carbonate tempestites, range from 0.3 to 1.0 m in height and 0.9 to 2.5 m in width and are composed of bafflestones-floatstones and minor bindstones. The chief components of the bioherms are dolomitized lime mud and branching bryozoans. Bioherm building by bryozoans, although common in the ancient record, represents a great divergence from the mostly accessory frame encrusting role of bryozoans in modern environments. Minor skeletal components of the bioherms include echinoderms, rugose and tabulate corals and brachiopods. Laminar encrusting bryozoans exist in the top 10 cm of one of the bioherms. Some of the bioherms show evidence of water agitation that may be the result of current action induced by storm or tidal processes. The occurrence of the bioherms stretches the already known Llandoverian reef complex on Manitoulin Island further to the south. The reason why these bioherms did not reach sizes comparable to large Llandoverian or Wenlockian reefs and did not make the shift to coral-stromaporoid community is probably related to a complex interaction of factors such as community development, bathymetry, clasticity and salinity. 41 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar, Jorge; Monceret, Eric; Pouclet, André; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Upper Ordovician-Lower Devonian rocks of the Cabrières klippes (southern Montagne Noire) and the Mouthoumet massif in southern France rest paraconformably or with angular discordance on Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. Neither Middle-Ordovician volcanism nor associated metamorphism is recorded, and the subsequent Middle-Ordovician stratigraphic gap is related to the Sardic phase. Upper Ordovician sedimentation started in the rifting branches of Cabrières and Mouthoumet with deposition of basaltic lava flows and lahar deposits (Roque de Bandies and Villerouge formations) of continental tholeiite signature (CT), indicative of continental fracturing. The infill of both rifting branches followed with the onset of (1) Katian (Ka1-Ka2) conglomerates and sandstones (Glauzy and Gascagne formations), which have yielded a new brachiopod assemblage representative of the Svobodaina havliceki Community; (2) Katian (Ka2-Ka4) limestones, marlstones, and shales with carbonate nodules, reflecting development of bryozoan-echinoderm meadows with elements of the Nicolella Community (Gabian and Montjoi formations); and (3) the Hirnantian Marmairane Formation in the Mouthoumet massif that has yielded a rich and diverse fossil association representative of the pandemic Hirnantia Fauna. The sealing of the subaerial palaeorelief generated during the Sardic phase is related to Silurian and Early Devonian transgressions leading to onlapping patterns and the record of high-angle discordances.

  3. Computer Technology-Integrated Projects Should not Supplant Craft Projects in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Tabatha J.; Rule, Audrey C.; Suchsland Schneider, Jean; Boody, Robert M.

    2014-03-01

    The current emphasis on computer technology integration and narrowing of the curriculum has displaced arts and crafts. However, the hands-on, concrete nature of craft work in science modeling enables students to understand difficult concepts and to be engaged and motivated while learning spatial, logical, and sequential thinking skills. Analogy use is also helpful in understanding unfamiliar, complex science concepts. This study of 28 academically advanced elementary to middle-school students examined student work and perceptions during a science unit focused on four fossil organisms: crinoid, brachiopod, horn coral and trilobite. The study compared: (1) analogy-focused instruction to independent Internet research and (2) computer technology-rich products to crafts-based products. Findings indicate student products were more creative after analogy-based instruction and when made using technology. However, students expressed a strong desire to engage in additional craft work after making craft products and enjoyed making crafts more after analogy-focused instruction. Additionally, more science content was found in the craft products than the technology-rich products. Students expressed a particular liking for two of the fossil organisms because they had been modeled with crafts. The authors recommend that room should be retained for crafts in the science curriculum to model science concepts.

  4. THE GEN. COMELICANIA FRECH, 1901 (BRACHIOPODA FROM THE SOUTHERN ALPS: MORPHOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO POSENATO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the internal characters, especially the cardinalia and brachidium, of the brachiopod Comelicania Frech from the Southern Alps, confirmed the attribution of this genus to the Superfam. Athyridoidea Davidson and provided a more complete taxonomic description of the Fam. Comelicaniidae Merla. This family includes two genera which differ in the morphology of their cardinalia, i.e. Gruntallina Waterhouse & Gupta, type-species Gruntallina triangularis (Grunt from the lower Dorashamian of Transcaucasia and Comelicania, type-species Comelicania megalotis (Stache from the uppermost Bellerophon Fm. of the Southern Alps. The study of a collection composed of more than a hundred specimens highlighted a broad variability of the morphological characters and a pattern of ontogenetic development which demonstrates that classification at the species level is possible only when using mature specimens. Taxonomic revision at the specific level reduced the eleven species of Comelicania from the Southern Alps, described by previous authors, to: C. megalotis (Stache and C. haueri (Stache. In addition a new species, C. merlai, which characterises the upper Comelicania beds, is proposed. 

  5. Lipid and fatty acid fractions in Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda):an intertidal benthic fauna in the West Bengal-Orissa coast, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samaresh Samanta; Tapas Kumar Das; Amalesh Choudhury; Susanta Kumar Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To record the fractional components of lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids of Lingula anatina (L. anatina), a Precambrian intertidal benthic brachiopod, giving emphasis on-ωseries group especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alongside assessing their biotransformation within the population and mangrove-estuarine associated community. Methods:Different biological samples after being collected from three contrasting study sites viz. SI, SII and SIII at Talsari (Longitude 87°5′E to 88°5′E and Latitude 20°30′N to 22°2′N) were stored at-20 °C until analyzed. Total lipids were extracted from each sample following Bligh and Dryer method. Identification and conformation of fatty acids were done by following Ackman method. Results:On analyzing different collected samples, muscles of L. anatina exhibited the highest amount of total lipids (2.95%) of which 54.03%belongs to phospholipid groups. Different body parts of studied species contained appreciable and greater amount of EPA and DHA than α-linolenic acid. Conclusions:Different collected samples exhibited variabilities in respect of total lipids and its fractional fatty acid components. The muscles of L. anatina showed maximum storage of lipids and fatty acids. Differential occurrences of EPA and DHA in different body parts of L. anatina are supposed to be due to the biotransformation process converting theα-linolenic acid from its primary food sources.

  6. Intoxicação por plantas que contêm swainsonina no Brasil Poisoning by swainsonine-containing plants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Oliveira Júnior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as plantas que contêm swainsonina compõem um grupo muito importante de plantas tóxicas, incluindo Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea riedelii, Ipomoea sericophyla, Ipomoea verbascoidea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia, que causam armazenamento de oligossacarídeos em caprinos e, com menor frequência, em bovinos, equinos, ovinos e cervídeos. Uma característica das plantas que contêm swainsonina é que os animais que iniciam a ingerir essas plantas desenvolvem o hábito de ingeri-las compulsivamente e, por facilitação social, induzem a outros animais da mesma espécie a ingeri-las. Os animais intoxicados apresentam pêlos arrepiados, perda de peso e sinais nervosos associados, principalmente, a lesões cerebelares e do tronco encefálico. Infertilidade, abortos, nascimento de animais fracos e maior susceptibilidade aos parasitas gastrintestinais são descritas tanto em casos agudos quanto em animais que deixaram de ingerir a planta e permanecem com sinais, mesmo que discretos. Atrofia cerebelar pode ser observada macroscopicamente em animais cronicamente afetados. As alterações histológicas caracterizam-se por vacuolização de neurônios, células epiteliais do pâncreas e dos túbulos renais, células foliculares da tireoide, hepatócitos e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Para o controle da intoxicação, os animais devem ser retirados imediatamente do local onde ocorre a planta. A única medida profilática consiste em evitar a ingestão da planta, eliminando a mesma das áreas infectadas ou mediante aversão alimentar condicionada.Swainsonine-containing plants comprise a very important group of toxic plants in Brazil, including Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea riedelii, Ipomoea sericophyla, Ipomoea verbascoidea, Turbina cordata and Sida carpinifolia, which cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats, and with less frequency in cattle, horses, sheep, and deer. A characteristic of swainsonine

  7. Doenças do sistema nervoso central de equídeos no semi-árido Diseases of the central nervous system in equidae in the Brazilian semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do sistema nervoso central (SNC de equídeos representam uma parcela importante das enfermidades diagnosticadas nestas espécies. O estudo destas e de outras enfermidades nas diferentes regiões do país é necessária para estabelecer formas eficientes de controle e profilaxia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever as características clínicas, epidemiológicas e patológicas das doenças do SNC de equídeos diagnosticadas no Laboratório de Patologia da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, em Patos, Paraíba, que ocorreram entre janeiro de 2007 e dezembro de 2008. No período estudado, 159 casos ou surtos de doenças de equídeos foram diagnosticados. Destes, 49 (30,8% afetaram o SNC. A encefalopatia hepática na intoxicação por Crotalaria retusa foi a principal enfermidade com 14 casos (28,5%, seguida por tétano com 13 (26,5% casos e raiva com 11 (22,,4% casos. Sete (14,2% casos foram de traumatismos afetando o SNC. Foram, também, diagnosticados 1 caso de leucoencefalomalacia, 1 de encefalite por herpesvírus eqüino-1, 1 de injeção acidental na artéria carótida, 1 surto de encefalomielite viral equina tipo leste, 1 surto de intoxicação por Turbina cordata e 1 surto de doença tremogênica de causa desconhecida. Cinco casos tiveram diagnóstico inconclusivo. Este trabalho comprova a importância do funcionamento de laboratórios de diagnóstico, nas diferentes regiões do país, para o conhecimento das doenças do rebanho e para a vigilância epidemiológica das mesmas.Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS in equidae are important in these species, and their knowledge in the different Brazilian regions is necessary to determine efficient control and preventive measures. This paper reports epidemiologic aspects, clinical signs and pathology of diseases of the CNS in equidae diagnosed by the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory at the Federal University of Campina Grande in the city of Patos, state of Para

  8. Trap-nesting bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea in areas of dry semideciduous forest and caatinga, Bahia, Brazil Abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea que nidificam em ninhos-armadilha em áreas de floresta semi-decídua e caatinga, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study were examined the species richness and seasonal abundance of cavity-nesting bees in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest and caatinga in the State of Bahia, Brazil. Sampling was done employing two types of trap-nests: bamboo canes and tubes made of black cardboard with dimensions of either 58 x 6 mm or 105 x 8 mm. The traps were inspected once a month. One hundred and forty-six nests of 11 bee species were collected in the forest, and 121 nests of seven species were collected in the caatinga. Five species of cleptoparasitic bees were also reared from these nests. The highest nesting frequencies occurred in the wet season in both areas. Nests parasitism was important only for Centris tarsata Smith, 1874, and was higher at the caatinga site than in the forest. The mortality of pre-emergent adults was high, especially in C. tarsata,Tetrapedia diversipes Klug, 1810 and Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758. Information on the number of cells per nest, the size, shape, and arrangement of brood cells in the nests, as well as the number of adults produced and the number of generations per year are also presented. Species richness, temporal patterns of nesting, and percentage of parasitism were compared with other habitats.Neste estudo foram investigadas a riqueza de espécies e a abundância sazonal de abelhas que nidificam em cavidades em áreas de Floresta estacional semi-decídua e Caatinga na Bahia. A amostragem foi realizada com dois tipos de ninhos-armadilha (= N.A.: gomos de bambu e tubos de cartolina preta (58 x 6 mm e 105 x 8 mm. Os N.A. foram inspecionados uma vez por mês. Foram coletados 146 ninhos de 11 espécies de abelhas na floresta e 121 ninhos de sete espécies na caatinga. Além disso, cinco espécies de abelhas cleptoparasitas foram criadas a partir destes ninhos. As freqüências de nidificação mais altas ocorreram na estação úmida em ambas as áreas. Parasitismo de ninhos foi importante apenas para Centris tarsata

  9. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. S Mayworm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average and oils (21. 6%. Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%, while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average. The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds. The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora, oleic (Qualea and Salvertia or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species. The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid, for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C20 or C22 chains or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids. The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.Teores de proteínas, carboidratos solúveis e óleos de sementes de 57 indivíduos de Vochysiaceae, compreendendo uma espécie de Callisthene, seis de Qualea, uma de Salvertia e oito de Vochysia foram determinados. As principais reservas de sementes de Vochysiaceae são proteínas (20% em média e óleos (21, 6%. A média dos teores de carboidratos foi de 5, 8%. Callisthene apresentou o mais baixo teor de proteínas (16, 9%, enquanto Q. cordata foi a espécie com o mais elevado teor (30% em média. Teores de carboidratos solúveis em etanol foram muito superiores aos solúveis em água. Os teores de

  10. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores, os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae, em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base do gineceu e é acumulado em câmara nectarífera. Os grãos de pólen são liberados gradativamente, prolongando-se a fase de doação de pólen. As abelhas Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius e C. tarsata Smith são os polinizadores da espécie. Destaca-se pilhagem primária de néctar, por abelhas, e secundária, por borboletas e beija-flor. A espécie é auto-incompatível, apresentando baixos índices de formação de frutos em condições naturais (Frutos/Flores = 12,2%. Foi registrado padrão de floração "cornucópia", entre os meses de dezembro a março (estação quente/chuvosa, com pico em janeiro. As sementes são anemocóricas e liberadas gradativamente na estação fria e seca.This work deals with the floral biology, the foraging activities of floral visitors (pollinators and robbers, phenology and reproductive system of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae in the "restinga" of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2000. The flowers display daytime anthesis and last only one day. These attractive pink flowers are tubular, hermaphroditic, odoriferous and produce nectar as the floral reward. The nectar is secreted by a nectariferous disk concealed within a chamber. The pollen grains are gradually released throughout anthesis, extending the pollen presentation phase. The bees Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius and C. tarsata Smith are the pollinator species. Primary and secondary

  11. Cloning and Analysis of Partial Sequence of the Lectin Gene in Pinellia%半夏属植物凝集素基因片段克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 彭正松; 杨在君; 魏淑红; 彭丽娟

    2011-01-01

    半夏属植物凝集素同其他天南星科植物凝集素一样,有3个甘露糖专一结合位点,且具显著的抗虫性.本研究根据已知掌叶半夏凝集素基因表达序列的相关信息设计引物,采用RT-PCR方法,分别从滴水珠、石蜘蛛、盾叶半夏、掌叶半夏、三叶半夏中克隆出长约530bp的凝集素基因片段.使用Genesean软件、ORF finder软件、Ex2PASy Proteomics Server软件对5个凝集素基因片段进行分析,结果表明:克隆出的滴水珠、石蜘蛛、盾叶半夏、掌叶半夏、三叶半夏凝集素基因片段分别编码107、171、170、170、170个氨基酸,在它们所编码的肽链中,都具有酪蛋白激酶Ⅱ磷酸化位点、蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点和N-糖基化位点三类不同的功能位点.但由于编码序列碱基的突变,引起肽链中的氨基酸发生变化,从而导致这五种植株的凝集素基因存在较高的多态性以及存在功能位点的差异.其凝集素基因多态性及功能位点的差异对凝集素功能的影响需进一步分析.本实验为克隆五种植物凝集素基因的表达序列与结构基因以及深入研究半夏属凝集素的功能提供了有意义的参考资料.%Pinellia leetin, a mannose binding lectin with three mannose binding boxes like lectins from other Araceae species, has obvious insect resistance. A pair of primers was designed according to correlative information of Lection gene in P. Pedatisecta. About 530bp eDNA fragments of Lection gene in P. ternata, P. Pedatisecta, P.cordata, P. inlegrifolia, P. peltata were cloned by RT-PCR. These partial sequences data were analyzed by GenScan software, ORF finder software, ExPASy Proteomics Server software. The results showed that the partial sequences of lectin gene encode 170 amino acids in P. ternata, 171 amino acids in P. Pedatisecta, 170 amino acids in P. cordata, 171 amino acids in P. inlegrifolia and 170 amino acids in P. peltata. Three functional sites were found in

  12. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae Comunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinatorsComunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Abelhas Euglossina são importantes polinizadores nas florestas e em

  13. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae Comportamiento alimentario de las larvas del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae que se crían en el aerénquima de Pontederiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae, digging a mine near the epidermis and forming several holes to the exterior. T. romus Bickel & Hernández develop in E. azurea (Sw. Kunth petioles; the mine is curved and short compared with other Thrypticus species. T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández develops in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, and digs the mine between the epidermis and the big central cell of the petioles. T. taragui Bickel & Hernández breeds in submersed stems of P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, and forms a mine close to the epidermis with branches to the central vascular stele. The mines of T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus and T. azuricola could not be associated with the corresponding species. Neither predators nor parasites were found associated with the group, but some cases of cannibalism were observed when two mines were confluent. The truncatus group species have a very specific feeding habit, live completely enclosed within host plant tissues, and feed on the sap obtained from holes chewed in the vascular bundles of the petioles, possibly using yeast as supplementary nourishment. Extensive field collections and laboratory tests indicate that each species in the truncatus group is associated with a specific host plant in the Pontederiaceae. Such specialization suggests a long association between the members of this group and their respective host plants.Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms

  14. Research on the Physiological Responses of Six Plants Pennisetum Alopecuroides Etc to BDE-209 in Soil and Their Phytoremediation Effect%狼尾草等6种植物对十溴联苯醚污染土壤的生理响应及其修复效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘京; 尹华; 彭辉; 叶锦韶; 叶芊; 李丽华; 何宝燕

    2012-01-01

    考察了狼尾草、龙葵、空心菜、苣菜、芥菜和鱼腥草6种植物对土壤中十溴联苯醚(BDE-209)的生理响应及其修复效果.结果表明,在BDE-209污染条件下,供试植物体内丙二醛(MDA)含量升高,表明植物受到一定的毒害作用,而在植物抗逆境机制作用下,植物体内可溶性蛋白质含量升高,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性下降;在供试植物生物量方面,BDE-209对龙葵、空心菜和狼尾草地上部有促进作用,而对苣菜、芥菜具有一定的抑制作用;6种修复植物体内均检测出BDE-209,且地上部与根部BDE-209含量具有显著差异,其中狼尾草根部干重含量高达16.93 mg · kg-1;修复60d后,土壤中BDE-209含量均有一定程度的下降,最高去除率可达40.44%,且根际土与非根际土BDE-209去除率有显著差异.修复效果依优劣次序为狼尾草>龙葵、空心菜>鱼腥草>芥菜>苣菜.%The physiological responses of plants Pennisetum alopecuroides, Solarium nigrum, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, Sonchus brachyotus D C, Brassica juncea and Houttuynia cordata Thunb to contaminant BDE-209 in soil were investigated, and the phytoremediation effects of these plants on BDE-209 contamination were explored. The results indicated that, the contents of MDA in tested plants increased under the condition of BDE-209 pollution, revealing that the plants suffered from toxic effect to a certain extent. Meanwhile the increased soluble protein content and decreased SOD activity were also detected, due to the mechanism of adversity resistance in plants, In respect of biomass of tested plants, BDE-209 promoted the growth of shoots of Pennisetum alopecuroides, Solanum nigrum and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, but inhibited that of Sonchus brachyotus D C and Brassica juncea to a certain degree. The contents of BDE-209 in all six plants were detected with significant difference existed in shoots and roots. Among these a content of as high as 16.93 mg · kg‐1 BDE

  15. 锰污染土壤渗漏液与径流生态拦截净化系统的植物筛选%Screening of plant species for establishing an retention and purification ecosystem of soil infiltration water and surface runoff in manganese polluted area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星; 文仕知; 陈永华; 郝君; 刘凯; 吴子剑

    2012-01-01

    Screening of plant species were carried out for establishing an ecosystem for retention and purification of soil infiltration water and surface runoff in Xiangtan manganese polluted area. The results obtained from a five month plant growth period indicate that mushroom grass had a very low survival rate while Arundo donax var. versicolor and Acorus calamus Linn had a negative value in its biomass increment. In comparison, the other nine plant species, Thalia dealbata, Boehmeria, Canna warscewiezii A. Dietr, Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis Presl, Pontederia cordala, Nerium oleander, Pontederia cordata, Sofistem bulrush and Iris germanica grew well in the manganese polluted sites. The manganese contents in shoots of the nine plant species were all more than 1000 mg/kg and their zinc, copper and cadmium contents were also relatively high, with the ratio of the metal content in above-ground tissues to that in roots being greater than 1. In contrast, the above-ground tissue to root ratio of zinc, copper, manganese and cadmium contents in A. calamus and that of zinc, copper, and cadmium contents in A. donax var versicolor were lower than 1, suggesting that the metal accumulation in roots due to weak heavy metal transfer abilities of these species had led to poisoning effects on the pant growth. The highest manganese uptake in above-ground tissues of Boehmeria reached 217.8 mg per plant. The next uptake value was given by T. dealbata, Boehmeria, followed in turn by C. warscewiezii, Dietr, P. australis, P. cordata and S. bulrush.%为建立锰污染土壤渗漏液和径流收集处理系统,在湘潭锰矿废弃地开展了植物筛选试验.5个月植物生长的试验结果表明,香菇草成活率低,花叶芦竹、菖蒲生长量下降,而再力花、苎麻、紫叶美人蕉、芦苇、香蒲、夹竹桃、梭鱼草、水葱和德国鸢尾长势良好,其地上部分锰的含量多高于1 000 mg/kg,锌、铜、镉的含量也相对较高,锰含量地上

  16. 天然苄基异喹啉类抗肿瘤生物碱的筛选%Screen for natural benzylisoquinoline alkaloids against tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正付; 郭莹; 魏雄辉

    2011-01-01

    目的:寻找具有抗肿瘤活性的天然苄基异喹啉类生物碱.方法:本实验建立以DNA为靶标,运用离心超滤和HPLC联用技术,从中药中筛选可能具有抗肿瘤活性的苄基异喹啉类生物碱活性成分的方法;并利用体外肿瘤细胞实验,对筛选出的化合物进行抗肿瘤活性验证和评价.结果:从博落回等3种中药中发现并鉴定了9种化合物与DNA有相互作用,有良好的细胞增殖抑制活性.结论:建立起来的方法能用于中药中具有抗肿瘤活性的天然苄基异喹啉类生物碱的筛选.%Objective:To search for natural benzylisoquinoline alkaloids against tumor. Method: In this study, taken DNA as target, a method was developed for screening of natural benzylisoquinoline alkaloids against tumor from traditional Chinese medicine by the use of centrifugal ultrafiltration combined with HPLC technology. The anti-tumor activity for the compounds screened was evaluated in vitro. Result: Nine compounds interacted with DNA were discovered and identified from Macleaya cordata, Chelidonium majus, Coptis chinensis, and the proliferation of four types of human solid cancer cell lines was markedly inhibited by these compounds. Conclusion: The developed method was considered to be suitable for screening of natural benzylisoquinoline alkaloids against tumor from traditional Chinese medicine.

  17. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  18. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C.; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  19. Prime waterfront real estate: Apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin H. KYLE; Alexis W. KROPF; Romi L. BURKS

    2011-01-01

    While difficult to prevent introductions,scientific research can help guide control efforts of exotic,invasive species.South American island apple snails Pomacea insularum have quickly spread across the United States Gulf Coast and few control measures exist to delay their spread.Usually occupying cryptic benthic habitats,female apple snails crawl out of the water to deposit large,bright pink egg clutches on emergent objects.To help identify the most likely place to find and remove clutches,we conducted four lab experiments to investigate what specific object qualities (i.e.material; shape and height; plant species; natural and artificial) amacted P.insularum females to lay clutches.In our fourth experiment,we specifically examined the relationship between female size and reproductive output.To further understand reproductive output,we quantified experimental clutch characteristics (height above water,dimensions,mass,approximate volume,number of eggs,hatching efficiency).Pomacea insularum females laid more clutches on plant material,chose round over flat surfaces and failed to differentiate between tall and short structures.In comparison to a common native plant in the eastern US,Pontederia cordata,snails clearly preferred to lay clutches on a widely distributed exotic,invasive plant (wild taro,Colocasia esculenta).Unexpectedly,smaller snails showed higher overall total fecundity as well as more eggs per clutch than larger snails.Therefore,hand removal efforts of large females may not be enough to slow down clutch production.Collectively,our results indicate that conservationists and managers should search emergent plants for P.insularum clutches carefully to guard against established populations [Current Zoology 57 (5):630-641,2011].

  20. Prime waterfront real estate: Apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H. KYLE, Alexis W. KROPF, Romi L. BURKS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available While difficult to prevent introductions, scientific research can help guide control efforts of exotic, invasive species. South American island apple snails Pomacea insularum have quickly spread across the United States Gulf Coast and few control measures exist to delay their spread. Usually occupying cryptic benthic habitats, female apple snails crawl out of the water to deposit large, bright pink egg clutches on emergent objects. To help identify the most likely place to find and remove clutches, we conducted four lab experiments to investigate what specific object qualities (i.e. material; shape and height; plant species; natural and artificial attracted P. insularum females to lay clutches. In our fourth experiment, we specifically examined the relationship between female size and reproductive output. To further understand reproductive output, we quantified experimental clutch chara- cteristics (height above water, dimensions, mass, approximate volume, number of eggs, hatching efficiency. Pomacea insularum females laid more clutches on plant material, chose round over flat surfaces and failed to differentiate between tall and short structures. In comparison to a common native plant in the eastern US, Pontederia cordata, snails clearly preferred to lay clutches on a widely distributed exotic, invasive plant (wild taro, Colocasia esculenta. Unexpectedly, smaller snails showed higher overall total fecundity as well as more eggs per clutch than larger snails. Therefore, hand removal efforts of large females may not be enough to slow down clutch production. Collectively, our results indicate that conservationists and managers should search emergent plants for P. insularum clutches carefully to guard against established populations [Current Zoology 57 (5: 630–641, 2011].

  1. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah Musa

    Full Text Available The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  2. Trends in wild food plants uses in Gorbeialdea (Basque Country).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Tardío, Javier; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2017-05-01

    Despite wild food plants' potential nutritional and economic value, their knowledge and consumption is quickly decreasing throughout the world. We examine how the consideration that a wild plant use is within the cultural tradition of a given area relates to its consumption by analysing 1) current perception and 2) past and present use of six wild plants' food-uses, of which only three are locally perceived as being part of the local tradition. Research was conducted in Gorbeialdea, an area in the Basque Country with a clearly marked Basque identity opposed to the Spanish identity. Overall, there is a clear decrease in the knowledge and consumption of the selected uses and especially of the three uses acquired from local sources (i.e., the consumption of the raw leaves of Fagus sylvatica and Rumex acetosa and of the fruits of Pyrus cordata). The trend is likely driven by the disappearance of the traditional agrarian lifestyle. Among the uses not acquired from local sources, the use recently adopted from another Basque-speaking area (i.e., macerating the fruits of Prunus spinosa to elaborate a liqueur) is now considered part of the local tradition by young generations, whereas the use acquired from southern Spanish migrants (i.e., using Laurus nobilis leaves as condiments) is not. While lifestyle changes largely explain overall trends in wild edibles consumption, other cultural aspects -in our case study the stigmatization of a given source of information associated to cultural identity- might help shape which new uses of wild plants become embedded in local traditions.

  3. Establishment and Evaluation of the Vegetative Community in A Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Industrial Park Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Galbrand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface flow constructed wetland, designed to curve in a kidney shape in order to increase the length to width ratio to 5:1 was used to treat runoff from an industrial park. A natural wetland system located approximately 200 m downstream of the constructed wetland was selected to act as the vegetative community model for the constructed wetland. The selected model was a riparian, open water marsh dominated by emergent macrophytes. Baseline plant species surveying was conducted. In total, 21 emergent wetland plant species, 40 upland vascular plant species, 17 upland shrub species and 13 upland tree species were identified in the model site. The species from the model site were screened for suitability in the constructed wetland based on the following criteria: (a phytoremediation potential (especially metal uptake, (b sedimentation and erosion control, (c habitat function, (d public deterrent potential and (e rate of plant establishment, tolerances and maintenance requirements. Transplantation was chosen as the main vegetation establishment methodology in the constructed wetland. The species woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus and soft rush (Juncus effusus were chosen to dominate the interior berms and littoral edges of the constructed wetland cells. The buffer areas were dominated by meadowsweet (Spiraea alba var. latifolia and the open water areas were dominated by cowlily (Nuphar variegate and pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata species. A diverse, self-sustaining vegetative community was successfully established in the constructed wetland. The transplant success was gauged by mortality census in the spring of 2003. Over all, 138 dead transplants were observed, many of which had died as a direct result of washout. These computes to an overall site establish success rate of about 87.3%. The species, which suffered the highest mortality rates, were the pickerelweed, with approximately 50 dead plants, the meadowsweet with 32 observed dead plants and

  4. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  5. Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita (L. Rusby – properties and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kasprzyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia mallow (or Virgina fanpetals belongs to the Malvaceae family and it originates from the Southeastern parts of North America. In the 20th century, the plant was brought to Europe, specifically to Ukraine, and then it was introduced in Poland (Kasprzyk et al. 2013. Virginia mallow is mainly used in industry as biomass for energy generation and as a source of fibers or forage. It is a subject of interest to many researchers due to the fact that it is a fast growing plant with a high potential yield and the ability of multiple regrowth even after cutting. Highly adaptable to different climates and soil conditions indicate a potential increase in the area occupied by the species. It can be grown on the slopes of eroded areas, land which is excluded from agricultural use, on chemically degraded areas, also on dumps and landfills of garbage. In the family Malvaceae, there are several species commonly used in medicine, such as Sida acuta Burm.f., S. cordata (Burm.f. Borss.Waalk. or S. cordifolia L. and therefore the interest in the healing properties of Virginia mallow seems natural. Recent studies have shown that there is a possibility of the use of Virginia mallow as herbal material. Studies have shown that the extracts from seeds of S. hermaphrodita (L. Rusby have caused a decrease of viability and deformation of Mycobacterium smegmatis cells (Lewtak et al. 2013. There are also studies about anticancer activity of S. hermaphodita extracts against SiHa (human cervical cancer lines. Two tests (MTT and NR uptake were used and the results showed absence of cytotoxic effect using MTT tests, and a slight cytotoxic effect using NR uptake (Frant et al. 2013.

  6. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica)--A Synthesis and Final Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Roksana; Convey, Peter; De Stefano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum) and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium) supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea). Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2-5 m) was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments.

  7. Endophyte Species Composition and Distribution of Macleaya.%博落回内生真菌种类与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓; 叶佑丕; 卢东升

    2011-01-01

    研究药用植物博落回内生真菌的种类组成、数量及分布规律.从博落回根、茎、叶中分离得到91株内生真菌,分属5个科11个属,青霉属(Penicillium)、曲霉属(Aspergillus)为优势菌株,分离率分别为1.06%、0.91%,其次为刺盘孢菌(Colletotrichum),分离率为0.83%.结果表明:博落回器官不同,其内生真菌群落结构及存在的数量有明显差异,其中叶器官内生真菌种类最多;季节对博落回内生真菌的种类及分布也有重要影响.%The endophyte species composition, number and distribution of the medicinal plants Macleaya were investigated. 91 strains of endophytic fungi was isolated from cordata root, stem and leaves. They are belonging to 5 families, 11 genera including the dominant strain; Penicillium Aspergillus, separation rates were 1. 06% , 0. 91% , Followed by Colletotrichum separation was 0.83%. The results show that endophyte community structure and the existing number of significant differences in the different organs Macleaya, which leaves have the largest organ of endophytic fungi; season also have important implications to Macleaya species of endophytic fungi and distribution.

  8. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina HERNÁNDEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae, minando cerca de la epidermis y abriendo varios orificios al exterior. La larva de T. romus Bickel & Hernández crece en E. azurea (Sw. Kunth, formando una mina curva, corta en comparación con las otras especies. La larva de T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández se desarrolla en Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, excavando la mina entre la epidermis y la gran celda central de los pecíolos. Por último, la larva de T. taragui Bickel & Hernández se cría en tallos sumergidos de P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, formando una mina subepidérmica con ramificaciones hacia la estela central del tallo. No se pudieron asociar las minas correspondientes a las especies T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus y T. azuricola. No se encontraron predadores ni parásitos de larvas o pupas, se observaron casos de canibalismo entre larvas cuando el trazado de dos minas confluye. Las especies del grupo truncatus poseen un modo de alimentación sumamente específico, confinadas al aerénquima, se alimentan de la savia extraída de los orificios roídos en los haces vasculares de los pecíolos y tallos, posiblemente con levaduras simbiontes como suplemento para la nutrición. Numerosas colecciones en el campo y pruebas en el laboratorio, indican que estos insectos están asociados con plantas hospedadoras específicas dentro de la misma familia. Esta especialización sugiere una larga asociación insecto-hospedadora.

  9. Two widespread green Neottia species (Orchidaceae) show mycorrhizal preference for Sebacinales in various habitats and ontogenetic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Těšitelová, Tamara; Kotilínek, Milan; Jersáková, Jana; Joly, François-Xavier; Košnar, Jiří; Tatarenko, Irina; Selosse, Marc-André

    2015-03-01

    Plant dependence on fungal carbon (mycoheterotrophy) evolved repeatedly. In orchids, it is connected with a mycorrhizal shift from rhizoctonia to ectomycorrhizal fungi and a high natural (13)C and (15)N abundance. Some green relatives of mycoheterotrophic species show identical trends, but most of these remain unstudied, blurring our understanding of evolution to mycoheterotrophy. We analysed mycorrhizal associations and (13)C and (15)N biomass content in two green species, Neottia ovata and N. cordata (tribe Neottieae), from a genus comprising green and nongreen (mycoheterotrophic) species. Our study covered 41 European sites, including different meadow and forest habitats and orchid developmental stages. Fungal ITS barcoding and electron microscopy showed that both Neottia species associated mainly with nonectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade B, a group of rhizoctonia symbionts of green orchids, regardless of the habitat or growth stage. Few additional rhizoctonias from Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae, and ectomycorrhizal fungi were detected. Isotope abundances did not detect carbon gain from the ectomycorrhizal fungi, suggesting a usual nutrition of rhizoctonia-associated green orchids. Considering associations of related partially or fully mycoheterotrophic species such as Neottia camtschatea or N. nidus-avis with ectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade A, we propose that the genus Neottia displays a mycorrhizal preference for Sebacinales and that the association with nonectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade B is likely ancestral. Such a change in preference for mycorrhizal associates differing in ecology within the same fungal taxon is rare among orchids. Moreover, the existence of rhizoctonia-associated Neottia spp. challenges the shift to ectomycorrhizal fungi as an ancestral pre-adaptation to mycoheterotrophy in the whole Neottieae.

  10. Climatic - biotic continuum - a few examples from the Pennsylvanian - Early Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossovaya, O.

    2012-04-01

    13C 0,5-1,0 ‰ in the overlay limestone. The taxonomic diversity is very low. The recovery of bentic biota is characteristic for the Asselian -Lower Artinskian and ended by abrupt extinction at the Late Artinskian or Kungurian. The paleoclimatic affinities of this event are rather controversial. In the Southern hemisphere the restriction of the glacial cover is supported by the appearance first temperate biota - forams, small solitary rugosa, bryozoan, rare bivalves and brachiopods, that are characteristic for the temperate water. This level coincides with colonial corals flourishing in the subtropical area. The average value within Asselian - Lower Artinskian in the Most section (Central Urals) is δ 13C 4- 5‰. The end of Early Artinskian coincides with the minimum value both δ13C and 18O probably mirroring Late Sakmarian deglaciation (Kossovaya et al., 2011). The obtained data in spite of the difference in the absolute value show the similar trend with published data (Korte et al., 2005). Following "small biotic event" fixed in the Northern Hemisphere is characterized by disappearance of Kleopatrinidae and Durhamihidae (Rugosa), other reef-building organisms, diversification of ostracods and replacement of the brachiopod genera composition. Possible trigger could be collision processes in the Eastern part of Pangea challenged the circulation change.

  11. EARTH’S ROTATIONAL DECELERATION: DETERMINATION OF TIDAL FRICTION INDEPENDENT OF TIMESCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deines, Steven D. [Donatech Corporation, Fairfield, IA 52556 (United States); Williams, Carol A., E-mail: steven.deines@gmail.com, E-mail: cw@math.usf.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Prof. emeritus), University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This paper determines Earth's rotational deceleration without relying on atomic or ephemeris timescales. Earth's rotation defines the civil time standard called Universal Time (UT). Our previous paper did not examine tidal friction in depth when analyzing the timescale divergence between UT and International Atomic Time (TAI). We examine all available paleontological fossils and deposits for the direct measurements of Earth's past rotation rates, because that record includes all contributing effects. We examine paleontological reports that date Earth's rotation rate using corals, bivalves, brachiopods, rhythmites, and stromatolites. Contributions that vary Earth's moment of inertia, such as continental plate drifts, coastline changes, ice age formations, and viscous glacial rebounds, are superimposed with the secular deceleration. The average deceleration of Earth's rotation rate from all available fossil data is found to be (5.969 ± 1.762) × 10{sup −7} rad yr{sup −2}. Our value is 99.8% of the total rotational deceleration determined by Christodoulidis et al., who used artificial satellite data, and our value is 96.6% of the expected tidal friction value obtained by Stephenson and Morrison. Taking the derivative of conserved angular momentum, the predicted lunar orbital deceleration caused by the average rotational deceleration corresponds closely to lunar models. When evaluating the significant time gaps between UT and TAI, Earth's rotational deceleration is a minor contributing factor. Also, the secular deceleration rate is necessary to correctly date ancient astronomical events. We strongly encourage that more ocean paleontological evidence be found to supplement the record to separate the many periodic variations embedded in these data.

  12. Mississippian clastic-to-carbonate transition in the northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska: Depositional cycles of the Endicott and Lisburne Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepain, D.L.; Crowden, R.K.; Watts, K.F. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The Ellesmerian sequence in northeastern Alaska consists of a thick succession of Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous platform carbonate and terrigenous clastic rocks. At the base of the Ellesmerian sequence, clastic rocks of the Endicott Group are the lower part of a major transgressive sequence that passes gradationally upward into carbonates of the Lisburne Group. In the Endicott Group, the basal Kekiktuk Conglomerate was deposited in fluvial and marginal marine environments. A broad suite of tidally influenced, shallow-marine environments are recorded in the overlying Kayak Shale. The transition into carbonate platform rocks of the Lisburne Group is recorded in a series of depositional cycles developed within the upper half of the Kayak Shale. In the lower beds of the transition, the depositional cycles are multiple upward-thickening and upward-coarsening successions composed of (1) organic-rich siltstone containing flaser-bedded and lenticular-bedded fine-grained sandstone, (2) fine-grained, ripple-laminated quartzarenite, and (3) an intensely bioturbated horizon of medium- to coarse-grained quartzarenite that contains scattered brachiopods, bryozoa, and crinoids. Each cycle is terminated by a sharp transgressive surface that consists of a thin shale drape. Near the top of the Kayak Shale, the coarse-grained horizons become increasingly replaced by wackestone, grainstone, and coralline boundstone. Despite the lithologic change, the vertical upward-thickening and upward-coarsening cycles continue in the basal limestone of the Lisburne Group. Repeated upward-shallowing episodes, followed by coastal onlap, are likely mechanisms for this cyclicity and suggests a genetic relation between both the clastic and carbonate depositional cycles.

  13. Variscan tectonics in Dodecanese, Kalymnos island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziioannou, Eleftheria; Grasemann, Bernhard; Schneider, David; Hubmann, Bernhard; Soukis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Kalymnos island is located in the Dodecanese, southeastern Aegean Sea, and geologically appears to be part of the external Hellenides. Pre-Alpidic basement rocks on the Dodecanese islands have been suggested to record compelling similarities with the basement rocks in Eastern Crete with respect to their lithologies and pre-Alpidic metamorphic evolution. The lithotectonic units experienced greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions during the Variscan orogeny. Whereas the rocks in Eastern Crete reveal Alpine high-pressure overprint, the Variscan basement units in the Dodecanese record no or low-grade Alpine metamorphism. A field study of basement rocks below Mesozoic limestones and dolomites in the NW part of Kalymnos near Emporios uncovered a complex history of metamorphism, folding and faulting. Three different tectonic units can be discriminated from top to bottom: a) a quartz-mica schist, b) a white-grey, fossiliferous coarse grained marble and c) a fine-grained fossiliferous blue-grey marble. In the marbles macrofossils such as brachiopods, ammonoid cephalopods (Goniatids?) and crinoids suggest a Middle-Upper Devonian deposition age (Givetian- Frasnian). Structural mapping the area resolved a dominant W-E shortening event, resulting in an overall inverted metamorphic gradient. The lowermost blue-grey marble unit is folded into large-scale upright folds, which are truncated by top-to-east overthrusting of the white-grey marble unit. Whereas deformation mechanisms in the blue-grey marble unit are dominated by dissolution-precipitation creep, the white-grey marble suffered intense crystal plastic deformation with localized high-strain mylonitic shear zones. The uppermost quartz-mica schist unit is separated from the lower units by a cataclastic phyllonitic shear zone. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating on white micas from the quartz-mica schists yielded cooling ages between 240 and 334 Ma indicative of Variscan cooling. Our data suggest that this part of the

  14. Calibrating water depths of Ordovician communities: lithological and ecological controls on depositional gradients in Upper Ordovician strata of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton E. Brett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Limestone and shale facies of the Upper Ordovician Grant Lake Formation (Katian: Cincinnatian, Maysvillian are well exposed in the Cincinnati Arch region of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA. These rocks record a gradual change in lithofacies and biofacies along a gently northward-sloping ramp. This gradient spans very shallow, olive-gray, platy, laminated dolostones with sparse ostracodes in the south to offshore, nodular, phosphatic, brachiopod-rich limestones and marls in the north. This study uses facies analysis in outcrop to determine paleoenvironmental parameters, particularly those related to water depth (e.g., position of the photic zone and shoreline, relative degree of environmental energy. Within a tightly correlated stratigraphic interval (the Mount Auburn and Straight Creek members of the Grant Lake Formation and the Terrill Member of the Ashlock Formation, we document the occurrence of paleoenvironmental indicators, including desiccation cracks and light-depth indicators, such as red and green algal fossils and oncolites. This permitted recognition of a ramp with an average gradient of 10–20 cm water depth per horizontal kilometer. Thus, shallow subtidal (“lagoonal” deposits in the upramp portion fall within the 1.5–6 m depth range, cross-bedded grainstones representing shoal-type environments fall within the 6–18 m depth range and subtidal, shell-rich deposits in the downramp portion fall within the 20–30 m depth range. These estimates match interpretations of depth independently derived from faunal and sedimentologic evidence that previously suggested a gentle ramp gradient and contribute to ongoing and future high-resolution paleontologic and stratigraphic studies of the Cincinnati Arch region.

  15. Trilobites, scolecodonts and fish remains occurrence and the depositional paleoenvironment of the upper Monte Alegre and lower Itaituba formations, Lower - Middle Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Luciane Profs; Nascimento, Sara; Scomazzon, Ana Karina; Lemos, Valesca Brasil

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the scolecodonts, trilobite pygidium fragments and fish remains of an outcropped region in the southern Amazonas Basin, comprising the uppermost section of the Monte Alegre Formation and the basal section of the Itaituba Formation. These, correspond to part of the marine portion of the Tapajós Group, related to an intracratonic carbonate platform. The Monte Alegre Formation includes a deposition of fluvial-deltaic and aeolian sandstones, siltstones and shales of interdunes and lakes, intercalated with transgressive carbonates of a shallow restrict nearshore marine environment. The Itaituba Formation comprises a thickest deposit of marine carbonates, representing the establishment of widespread marine conditions, and is the richest interval containing organisms of shallow marine environment in the Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin. The associated fauna includes brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, crinoids, echinoids, bryozoans, corals, foraminifers, sponges, ostracods, trilobites, scolecodonts, fish remains and conodonts, mainly in the packstones, and subordinately in the wackestones and mudstones. Conodonts Neognathodus atokaensis, Diplognathodus orphanus, Idiognathodus incurvus, and foraminifers Millerella extensa, Millerella pressa, Millerella marblensis, Eostaffella ampla, Eostaffella pinguis and Eostaffella advena characterizes a predominant Atokan age to the analyzed profile. The fossil association herein presented is taxonomically diversified and biologically interesting, comprising an important and well preserved, for the first time occurrence of two molds and two fragments of Proetida trilobites. Well preserved Eunicida and Phyllodocida scolecodonts and paleonisciform fish remains. These fossils help in the paleoenvironmental establishment of the studied interval in the Amazonas Basin and as a potential biostratigraphic and paleoecological tool to correlate regionally and globally the Pennsylvanian.

  16. The oldest flora of the South China Block, and the stratigraphic bearings of the plant remains from the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonez, Paul; Nguyên Huu, Hung; Ta Hoa, Phuong; Clément, Gaël; Janvier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Several outcrops of the Late Silurian and Devonian of the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam, yielded plant remains. The Late Silurian localities delivered the earliest known flora of the South China block. Although the fossils are fragmentary, they complement our knowledge about the global composition of the flora. The major components of the flora are plants with dichotomous habit and terminal bivalvate sporangia, which are close relatives to zosterophylls, and zosterophylls. Plants with possible euphyllophyte affinities and bryophytes are occasionally present. This floral composition is similar to that of the rich, younger South China block assemblages from the Posongchong and Xujiachong Formations of China, considered Pragian in age. The South China block flora is therefore likely to have been dominated by zosterophylls and pre-zosterophylls at least from the Late Silurian to the Pragian (i.e. a 20 million years long period). It also strengthens the hypothesis that more derived plants were present on eastern Gondwana earlier that elsewhere, in the first steps of tracheophyte evolution. The Devonian localities of the Ngoc Vung Series delivered a thick fibrous stem fragment and a basal euphyllophyte. These latter plant remains provide some stratigraphic data. The large stem fragment is consistent with an Eifelian age for the Duong Dong Formation (part of the Ngoc Vung Series), as suggested by the brachiopod fauna. The accompanying basal euphyllophyte displays a combination of characters (axes 3-4 mm wide and lateral branchings) that is also consistent with an Eifelian age, but possibly more characteristic of the Emsian flora. It is therefore suggested that the stratigraphic range of the Duong Dong Formation might be extended down to the Emsian.

  17. Carbonate mound reservoirs in the paradox formation: An outcrop analogue along the San Juan River, Southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T. C. Jr.; Morgan, C.D. [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eby, D.E. [Eby Petrography & Consulting, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Carbonate mound reservoirs within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation are major producers of oil and gas in the Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Outcrops of the Paradox Formation along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah provide small-scale analogues of reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, lithofacies, and geometry. These characteristics can be used in reservoir simulation models for secondary/tertiary recovery of oil from small fields in the basin. Exposures of the Paradox Formation Ismay zone in the Wild Horse Canyon area display lateral facies changes from phylloid algal mounds to off-mound detrital wedges or fans bounded at the top by a flooding surface. The phylloid mounds are composed of bafflestone, skeletal grainstone, packstone, and cementstone. Algal plates, brachiopods, bryozoans, and rugose corals are commonly found in the phylloid mounds. The mound wall is composed of rudstone, lumpstone, and cementstone. The detrital fan consists of transported algal material, grainstone, and mudstone with open-marine fossils. Within the mound complex is an inter-mound trough tentatively interpreted to be a tidal channel. The geometry and composition of the rocks in the trough significantly add to the overall heterogeneity of the mound. Reservoir models are being developed for possible water- and carbon-dioxide floods of small Paradox basin fields to determine the most effective secondary/tertiary recovery method. The models will include lithologic fabrics, flooding surfaces, and inter-mound troughs, based on the mound complex exposed at Wild Horse Canyon. This project may also provide reservoir information for simulation models in small Paleozoic carbonate mound fields in other basins worldwide.

  18. Faunal associations, paleoecology and paleoenvironment of marine Jurassic rocks in the Mae Sot, Phop Phra, and Umphang areas, western Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEESOOK; Assanee; YAMEE; Chotima; SAENGSRICHAN; Wirote

    2009-01-01

    We here report a paleoecological analysis and depositional history of the marine Jurassic (Toarcian–early Bajocian) strata cropping out in the western part of Thailand, based on bivalve assemblages with additional data from ammonites, brachiopods, and microfossils. Generally, the benthic bivalve facies in most outcrops is rich in infaunal, semi-infaunal and epifaunal suspension-feeders. Of these, infaunal forms dominate. The diversity of this benthic assemblage was influenced by energy level, substrate, sedimentation rate, and salinity. Low to intermediate energy levels and rather soft fine-grained siliciclastic substrate are proposed as factors governing faunal distribution and explaining the greater abundance and diversity of infaunal than epifaunal suspension-feeders. There were paleoenvironmental changes both in space and time, i.e., from south to north (Umphang to Mae Sot) and from Early Bajocian to Toarcian. In the Toarcian, most outcrops in Umphang are dominated by benthic bivalve facies (infaunal, semi-infaunal, and epifaunal associations). This implies warm, shallow water (inner neritic, 50―100 m) and oxygenated conditions except for the Mae Sot area where a deeper setting (outer neritic to possibly upper continental slope, 50―200 m) with restricted basinal anoxic conditions is favored as indicated by the presence of Bositra. After higher energy conditions in the Toarcian, lower energy conditions with low sediment supplies prevail in the Alenian, and the Mae Sot area was still a restricted basin. As a result of higher sea levels, the oxygen content in the basin is increased, resulting in the presence of the ammonites. By the end of the Alenian-early Bajocian, an ammonite-bivalve association (mixed facies A) and the presence of corals and microfauna (mixed facies B) are dominant but pass upwards to near-shore higher energy conditions in most areas except for restricted basin in Mae Sot. By the middle Bajocian the environment in all areas had changed

  19. Facies patterns and depositional environments of Palaeozoic cephalopod limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, J.; Aigner, T.

    1985-07-01

    In the eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco) a platform and basin topography was established during the late Devonian, probably as a result of early Variscan tensional tectonics. Cephalopod limestones were deposited on shallow pelagic platforms, platform slopes and shallow, slowly subsiding basins. On the platform a transition from land areas into nearshore quartzose brachiopod coquinas, crinoidal limestones, condensed cephalopod limestones and finally into nodular limestones is observed. The latter often become disintegrated into incipient debris flows which pass into nodular limestone/marl alternations of a shallow basin. Deeper basins with shale sedimentation lack cephalopod limestones. Similar facies types also occur in the late Devonian of the Montagne Noire (France), Rheinisches Schiefergebirge (West Germany), Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia), Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) and in the early Carboniferous of the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain). Due to strong late Variscan compressional tectonics and limited outcrops, detailed facies patterns could not be mapped in these regions, but the same facies types as in the eastern Anti-Atlas suggest similar coast/platform, slope and shallow basin topographies. During cephalopod limestone deposition water depth on the platforms was in the order of several tens to about one hundred metres, as is inferred from repeated subaerial exposures and distinctive depositional and faunal/floral features. Water depth in the adjacent shallow basins might have reached several hundreds of metres. Cephalopod limestones represent a typical stage in the evolution of geosynclines, characterized by extremely low sedimentation rates (1-5 m m.y. -1). This stage is preceded by deposition of thick neritic clastics and/or carbonates and is succeeded by deposition of deep-water clastics or flysch.

  20. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky with an atlas of some common fossils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence of eastern North America is a distinctive stratigraphic interval generally characterized by low clastic influx, high organic production in the water column, anaerobic bottom conditions, and the relative absence of fossil evidence for biologic activity. The laminated black shales which constitute most of the black-shale sequence are broken by two major sequences of interbedded greenish-gray, clayey shales which contain bioturbation and pyritized micromorph invertebrates. The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence of benthic life. The rare brachiopods, crinoids, and molluscs that occur in the black shales were probably epiplanktic. A significant physical distinction between the environment in which the black sediments were deposited and that in which the greenish-gray sediments were deposited was the level of dissolved oxygen. The laminated black shales point to anaerobic conditions and the bioturbated greenish-gray shales suggest dysaerobic to marginally aerobic-dysaerobic conditions. A paleoenvironmental model in which quasi-estuarine circulation compliments and enhances the effect of a stratified water column can account for both depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom environments and the absence of oxygen replenishment during black-shale deposition. Periods of abundant clastic influx from fluvial environments to the east probably account for the abundance of clays in the greenish-gray shale as well as the small amounts of oxygen necessary to support the depauparate, opportunistic, benthic faunas found there. These pulses of greenish-gray clastics were short-lived and eventually were replaced by anaerobic conditions and low rates of clastic sedimentation which characterized most of black-shale deposition.

  1. Phylogenetic Clustering of Origination and Extinction across the Late Ordovician Mass Extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Z Krug

    Full Text Available Mass extinctions can have dramatic effects on the trajectory of life, but in some cases the effects can be relatively small even when extinction rates are high. For example, the Late Ordovician mass extinction is the second most severe in terms of the proportion of genera eliminated, yet is noted for the lack of ecological consequences and shifts in clade dominance. By comparison, the end-Cretaceous mass extinction was less severe but eliminated several major clades while some rare surviving clades diversified in the Paleogene. This disconnect may be better understood by incorporating the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa into studies of mass extinctions, as the factors driving extinction and recovery are thought to be phylogenetically conserved and should therefore promote both origination and extinction of closely related taxa. Here, we test whether there was phylogenetic selectivity in extinction and origination using brachiopod genera from the Middle Ordovician through the Devonian. Using an index of taxonomic clustering (RCL as a proxy for phylogenetic clustering, we find that A both extinctions and originations shift from taxonomically random or weakly clustered within families in the Ordovician to strongly clustered in the Silurian and Devonian, beginning with the recovery following the Late Ordovician mass extinction, and B the Late Ordovician mass extinction was itself only weakly clustered. Both results stand in stark contrast to Cretaceous-Cenozoic bivalves, which showed significant levels of taxonomic clustering of extinctions in the Cretaceous, including strong clustering in the mass extinction, but taxonomically random extinctions in the Cenozoic. The contrasting patterns between the Late Ordovician and end-Cretaceous events suggest a complex relationship between the phylogenetic selectivity of mass extinctions and the long-term phylogenetic signal in origination and extinction patterns.

  2. Towards a better understanding of magnesium-isotope ratios from marine skeletal carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Dorothee; Buhl, Dieter; Witbaard, Rob; Richter, Detlev K.; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2009-10-01

    This study presents magnesium stable-isotope compositions of various biogenic carbonates of several marine calcifying organisms and an algae species, seawater samples collected from the western Dutch Wadden Sea, and reference materials. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of mineralogy, taxonomy and environmental factors (e.g., seawater isotopic composition, temperature, salinity) on magnesium-isotopic (δ 26Mg) ratios of skeletal carbonates. Using high-precision multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we observed that the magnesium-isotopic composition of seawater from the semi-enclosed Dutch Wadden Sea is identical to that of open marine seawater. We further found that a considerable component of the observed variability in δ 26Mg values of marine skeletal carbonates can be attributed to differences in mineralogy. Furthermore, magnesium-isotope fractionation is species-dependent, with all skeletal carbonates being isotopically lighter than seawater. While δ 26Mg values of skeletal aragonite and high-magnesium calcite of coralline red algae indicate the absence or negligibility of metabolic influences, the δ 26Mg values of echinoids, brachiopods and bivalves likely result from a taxon-specific level of control on Mg-isotope incorporation during biocalcification. Moreover, no resolvable salinity and temperature effect were observed for coralline red algae and echinoids. In contrast, Mg-isotope data of bivalves yield ambiguous results, which require further validation. The data presented here, point to a limited use of Mg isotopes as temperature proxy, but highlight the method's potential as tracer of seawater chemistry through Earth's history.

  3. Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early Permian sequence in the Salt Range, Pakistan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shahid Ghazi; Nigel P Mountney; Aftab Ahmad Butt; Sadaf Sharif

    2012-10-01

    The Early Permian Gondwana regime succession of the Nilawahan Group is exposed only in the Salt Range of Pakistan. After a prolonged episode of non-deposition that spanned much of the Palaeozoic, the 350 m thick predominantly clastic sequence of the Nilawahan Group records a late glacial and post-glacial episode in which a range of glacio-fluvial, marine and fluvial environments evolved and accumulated. The Early Permian succession of the Salt Range has been classified into four formations, which together indicates a changing climatic regime during the Early Permian in the Salt Range region. The lower-most, Tobra Formation unconformably overlies a Cambrian sequence and is composed of tillite, diamictite and fresh water facies, which contain a floral assemblage (Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) that confirms an Asselian age. The Tobra Formation is overlain by marginal marine deposits of the Dandot Formation (Sakmarian), which contain an abundant brachiopods assemblage (Eurydesma and Conularia). Accumulation of the Dandot Formation was terminated by a regional sea-level fall and a change to the deposition of the fluvial deposits of the Warchha Sandstone (Artinskian). The Warchha Sandstone was deposited by high sinuosity meandering, avulsion prone river with well developed floodplains. This episode of fluvial sedimentation was terminated by a widespread marine transgression, as represented by the abrupt upward transition to the overlying shallow marine Sardhai Formation (Kungurian). The Early Permian Gondwana sequence represented by the Nilawahan Group is capped by predominantly shallow shelf carbonate deposits of the Tethyan realm. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationship of these four lithostratigraphic units in the Salt Range reveals a complex stratigraphic history for the Early Permian, which is mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level change due to climatic variation associated with climatic amelioration at the end of the major Gondwana glacial episode

  4. Missourian (early Late Pennsylvanian) climate in Midcontinent North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutter, S.R.; Heckel, P.H.

    1985-06-01

    The abrupt decrease in mineable coals from Desmoinesian to Missourian rocks in Midcontinent North America has been related by several lines of evidence to the probability that Missourian climate became at least seasonally drier than Desmoinesian climate. This represents a transition from the equatorial Desmoinesian rainforest climate to the arid Permian climate, as North America moved northward from the equator. This change is reflected in the progression of evaporites from western Colorado in the Desmoinesian to Kansas in the Permian. Direct climatic evidence from soils in two Missourian shales deposited at low stands of sea-level includes caliche horizons, incompletely leached mixed-layer clays. Less direct climatic evidence includes the greater proportion of marine limestone deposited at intermediate sea-level stands in the Missourian than in the Desmoinesian part of the sequence, in conjunction with the greater abundance and thickness of oolite and shore-line facies in Missourian limestones than in Desmoinesian counterparts. This probably reflects increasing dryness of the climate, which would have led to decreased detrital influx and increased salinity as rainfall and runoff diminished. Indirect climatic evidence in offshore black phosphatic shales deposited at highest sea-level stands involves possible seasonality in organic and phosphatic laminations, related to periodicity of upwelling in the tropical trade-wide belt under the strong monsoonal influence of Pangaea. Mid-continent Missourian climates probably ranged from tropical monsoon to tropical savanna or hot steppe, all having wet-dry seasonality. The coincident extinctions of conodont, brachiopod, and other marine genera as well as the loss of swamp lycopods at the end of the Desmoinesian suggest the possibility that a greater than usual drop in sea level affected both realms at this time, while the climate was becoming drier. 91 references.

  5. 13C-18O isotope signatures and ‘clumped isotope’ thermometry in foraminifera and coccoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Eagle, Robert A.; Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Gagnon, Alexander C.; Bauch, Henning; Halloran, Paul R.; Eiler, John M.

    2010-10-01

    Accurate constraints on past ocean temperatures and compositions are critical for documenting climate change and resolving its causes. Most proxies for temperature are not thermodynamically based, appear to be subject to biological processes, require regional calibrations, and/or are influenced by fluid composition. As a result, their interpretation becomes uncertain when they are applied in settings not necessarily resembling those in which they were empirically calibrated. Independent proxies for past temperature could provide an important means of testing and/or expanding on existing reconstructions. Here we report measurements of abundances of stable isotopologues of calcitic and aragonitic benthic and planktic foraminifera and coccoliths, relate those abundances to independently estimated growth temperatures, and discuss the possible scope of equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects. The proportions of 13C- 18O bonds in these samples exhibits a temperature dependence that is generally similar to that previously been reported for inorganic calcite and other biologically precipitated carbonate-containing minerals (apatite from fish, reptile, and mammal teeth; calcitic brachiopods and molluscs; aragonitic coral and mollusks). Most species that exhibit non-equilibrium 18O/ 16O (δ 18O) and 13C/ 12C (δ 13C) ratios are characterized by 13C- 18O bond abundances that are similar to inorganic calcite and are generally indistinguishable from apparent equilibrium, with possible exceptions among benthic foraminiferal samples from the Arctic Ocean where temperatures are near-freezing. Observed isotope ratios in biogenic carbonates can be explained if carbonate minerals generally preserve a state of ordering that reflects the extent of isotopic equilibration of the dissolved inorganic carbon species.

  6. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  7. Biological response to geochemical and hydrological processes in a shallow submarine cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RADOLOVIĆ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian coastal karst abounds in submerged caves that host a variety of environmental conditions depending on the geomorphology, depth and submarine groundwater discharge. One example is the Y-Cave, a shallow, mostly submerged, horizontal cave on Dugi Otok Island, on the eastern Adriatic coast. This study was aimed at examining the temporal and spatial variability of the marine cave environment, including temperature, salinity, light intensity, cave morphology and hydrodynamism, along with the dissolutional effect caused by the mixing of sea and freshwater. The general distribution of organisms in the Y-Cave was positively correlated to the light gradient and reduced water circulation, thus the highest species diversity and abundance were recorded in the front part of the cave. The phylum Porifera was the most dominant group, and the poriferan species diversity in the cave ranks among the ten highest in the Mediterranean. The middle part of the cave, although completely dark, hosts an abundant population of the gastropod Homalopoma sanguineum and clusters of the gregarious brachiopod Novocrania anomala, whose presence could be connected to tidal hydrodynamics. The absence/scarcity of sessile marine organisms and pronounced corrosion marks at shallow depths inside the cave suggest a freshwater impact in the upper layers of the water column. A year long experiment with carbonate tablets revealed three different, independent ongoing processes affected by the position in the cave: bioaccumulation, dissolution and mechanical erosion. The results of long-term temperature readings also revealed water column stratification within the cave, which was not disturbed by either tidal or wave action. The shallow, partly submerged and relatively small Y-Cave is characterised by a suite of complex environmental conditions, which, together with the resulting distribution of organisms, are unique to this cave.

  8. Observing Evolutionary Entropy in Relation to Body Size Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idgunji, S.; Zhang, H.; Payne, J.; Heim, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Second Law of Thermodynamics, according to Clausius, states that entropy will always increase in the universe, meaning systems will break down and become simple and chaotic. However, this is seemingly contradicted by the existence of living organisms, which can have highly complex and organized systems. Furthermore, there is a greater contradiction in the theory of evolution, which sees organisms growing larger and becoming more complex over time. Our research project revolved around whether organisms actually became more complex over time, and correlating these findings with the body size of these organisms. We analyzed the relationship between body size and cell types of five different marine phyla: arthropods, brachiopods, chordates, echinoderms, and mollusks. We attempted to find a relation between the biovolume of these different phyla and the number of specialized cell types that they had, which is a common measure of biocomplexity. In addition, we looked at the metabolic intensity, which is the mass-specific rate of energy processing applied to an organism's size, because it is also correlated to genetic complexity. Using R programming, we tested for correlations between these factors. After applying a Pearson correlation test, we discovered a generally positive correlation between the body sizes, number of cell types, and metabolic intensities of these phyla. However, one exception is that there is a negative correlation between the body size and metabolic intensity of echinoderms. Overall, we can see that marine organisms tend to evolve larger and more complex over time, and that is a very interesting find. Our discovery yielded many research questions and problems that we would like to solve, such as how the environment is thermodynamically affected by these organisms.

  9. Progress and review of the studies on the end-Triassic mass extinction event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Shenghui; LU Yuanzheng; XU Daoyi

    2005-01-01

    The mass extinction at the end-Triassic is one of the five biggest in the Phanerozoic. However,it is the least well understood among these five events, and only till last decade it became a great academic interesting subject to geologists. The evidences for this event come obviously from bivalves, brachiopods, ammonites, corals, radiolaria, ostracods and foraminifera of marine habitats, and plants and tetrapods of terrestrial realm. By contrast, for some of other groups, such as marine gastropods and marine vertebrates, no mass extinction has been recognized yet. The extinction event is strongly marked at specific level but shown a complicated situation at generic and family levels. Dramatic changing of the environment, such as the temperature raise due to the greenhouse effect, the marine anoxic habitats caused by a sudden transgression after the regression at the end of Triassic, has been claimed to be the main cause of the extinction. Many hypotheses have been suggested to demonstrate the mechanisms of the environment changing, among which two popular ones are the bolide impact and volcanic eruption. The Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J) boundary mass extinction event is still poorly understood because no enough data have been obtained from the Tr-J boundary successional sections of both marine and terrestrial sediments, and most of these studies were regionally restricted. The basic aspects of the event and its associated environmental conditions remain poorly characterized and the causal mechanism or mechanisms are equivocal. Some authors even doubt its occurrence. China has many successionally developed terrestrial and marine Tr-J sections. Detailed studies of these sections may be important and significant for well understanding of the event.

  10. A Survey of Macro-invertebrate Gleaning in the Banate Bay Intertidal Area, Eastern Panay Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle del Norte-Campos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The gleaning fishery on the intertidal areas of Banate Bay, eastern Panay was surveyed monthly fromFebruary 2002 to January 2003, to derive information on species composition, catch, catch rates, andannual value. Total biomass, gleaning and turnover rates were determined from a fishery-independentsurvey conducted in June 2005. Catches of the fishery consisted of a total of 17 species, comprised ofmollusks, crustaceans and a brachiopod. The bivalves Katelysia hiantina, Scapharca inaequivalvis, andGafrarium tumidum were the top three species, together comprising 88.79 % of the total catch. The totalmean daily catch per gleaner for all species was equivalent to 73.75 g/m-2/gleaner-1. Catch rate and catchvolume for the mollusks were highest between May-July and November-December, coinciding with thesouthwest and northeast monsoons, respectively. The large riverine inputs to the area, together with themangrove-derived organic matter, periodically resuspended by the tidal fluctuations, are seen asresponsible for increasing organic matter content of the substrates and abundance of the species. Totalannual catch of the fishery is estimated to range from 20,988.7 to 43, 527.62 kg, with a median value of31,205.6 kg. This latter value divided by the estimated total biomass in the area of 2,441. 03 kg gives aturnover rate of 12.8. The total annual catch for the entire fishery is equivalent to a total value of PhP421T to 897T/yr-1. The latter correspond to an annual income of PhP 14,043.90 to 29,904.67/gleaner-1/yr-1, small amounts which may be sustainable due to the high turnover rate of the system.

  11. Secular environmental precursors to Early Toarcian (Jurassic) extreme climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suan, Guillaume; Mattioli, Emanuela; Pittet, Bernard; Lécuyer, Christophe; Suchéras-Marx, Baptiste; Duarte, Luís Vítor; Philippe, Marc; Reggiani, Letizia; Martineau, François

    2010-02-01

    The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), about 183 myr ago, was a global event of environmental and carbon cycle perturbations, which deeply affected both marine biota and carbonate production. Nevertheless, the long-term environmental conditions prevailing prior to the main phase of marine extinction and carbonate production crisis remain poorly understood. Here we present a ˜ 8 myr-long record of Early Pliensbachian-Middle Toarcian environmental changes from the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal, in order to address the long-term paleoclimatic evolution that ultimately led to carbonate production and biotic crises during the T-OAE. Paleotemperature estimates derived from the oxygen isotope compositions of well-preserved brachiopod shells from two different sections reveal a pronounced ˜ 5 °C cooling in the Late Pliensbachian ( margaritatus- spinatum ammonite Zones boundary). This cooling event is followed by a marked ˜ 7-10 °C seawater warming in the Early Toarcian that, after a second cooling event in the mid- polymorphum Zone, culminates during the T-OAE. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) contents, the amount of nannofossil calcite and the mean size of the major pelagic carbonate producer Schizosphaerella, all largely covary with paleotemperatures, indicating a coupling between climatic conditions and both pelagic and neritic CaCO 3 production. Furthermore, the cooling and warming episodes coincided with major marine regressions and transgressions, respectively, suggesting that the growth and decay of ice caps may have exerted a strong control on sea-level fluctuations throughout the studied time interval. This revised chronology of environmental changes shows important similarities with Neogene and Paleozoic episodes of deglacial black shale formation, and thus prompts the reevaluation of ice sheet dynamics as a possible agent of Mesozoic events of extinction and organic-rich sedimentation.

  12. Phylogenetics of Lophotrochozoan bHLH Genes and the Evolution of Lineage-Specific Gene Duplicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yongbo

    2017-01-01

    The gain and loss of genes encoding transcription factors is of importance to understanding the evolution of gene regulatory complexity. The basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) genes encode a large superfamily of transcription factors. We systematically classify the bHLH genes from five mollusc, two annelid and one brachiopod genomes, tracing the pattern of bHLH gene evolution across these poorly studied Phyla. In total, 56–88 bHLH genes were identified in each genome, with most identifiable as members of previously described bilaterian families, or of new families we define. Of such families only one, Mesp, appears lost by all these species. Additional duplications have also played a role in the evolution of the bHLH gene repertoire, with many new lophotrochozoan-, mollusc-, bivalve-, or gastropod-specific genes defined. Using a combination of transcriptome mining, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization we compared the expression of several of these novel genes in tissues and embryos of the molluscs Crassostrea gigas and Patella vulgata, finding both conserved expression and evidence for neofunctionalization. We also map the positions of the genes across these genomes, identifying numerous gene linkages. Some reflect recent paralog divergence by tandem duplication, others are remnants of ancient tandem duplications dating to the lophotrochozoan or bilaterian common ancestors. These data are built into a model of the evolution of bHLH genes in molluscs, showing formidable evolutionary stasis at the family level but considerable within-family diversification by tandem gene duplication. PMID:28338988

  13. Fauna and predator-prey relationships of Ettling, an actinopterygian fish-dominated Konservat-Lagerstatte from the Late Jurassic of southern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ebert

    Full Text Available The newly recognized Konservat-Lagerstätte of Ettling (Bavaria, field site of the Jura-Museum Eichstätt (JME, is unique among Late Jurassic plattenkalk basins (Solnhofen region in its abundant, extremely well preserved fossil vertebrates, almost exclusively fishes. We report actinopterygians (ginglymodins, pycnodontiforms, halecomorphs, aspidorynchiforms, "pholidophoriforms," teleosts; turtles; and non-vertebrates (echinoderms, arthropods, brachiopods, mollusks, jellyfish, sponges, biomats, plants in a current faunal list. Ettling has yielded several new fish species (Bavarichthys incognitus; Orthogonikleithrus hoelli; Aspidorhynchus sanzenbacheri; Macrosemimimus fegerti. Upper and lower Ettling strata differ in faunal content, with the lower dominated by the small teleost Orthogonikleithrus hoelli (absent from the upper layers, where other prey fishes, Leptolepides sp. and Tharsis sp., occur instead. Pharyngeal and stomach contents of Ettling fishes provide direct evidence that Orthogonikleithrus hoelli was a primary food source during early Ettling times. Scarcity of ammonites and absence of vampyromorph coleoids at Ettling differ markedly from the situation at other nearby localities in the region (e.g., Eichstätt, Painten, Schamhaupten, the Mörnsheim beds, where they are more common. Although the exact biochronological age of Ettling remains uncertain (lack of suitable index fossils, many Ettling fishes occur in other plattenkalk basins of Germany (e.g., Kelheim and France (Cerin dated as Late Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian (eigeltingense horizon, suggesting a comparable geologic age. The Ettling deposits represent an independent basin within the larger Upper Jurassic "Solnhofen Archipelago", a shallow subtropical sea containing scattered islands, sponge-microbial and coral reefs, sandbars, and deeper basins on a vast carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean.

  14. Fauna and predator-prey relationships of Ettling, an actinopterygian fish-dominated Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Late Jurassic of southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Martin; Kölbl-Ebert, Martina; Lane, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    The newly recognized Konservat-Lagerstätte of Ettling (Bavaria), field site of the Jura-Museum Eichstätt (JME), is unique among Late Jurassic plattenkalk basins (Solnhofen region) in its abundant, extremely well preserved fossil vertebrates, almost exclusively fishes. We report actinopterygians (ginglymodins, pycnodontiforms, halecomorphs, aspidorynchiforms, "pholidophoriforms," teleosts); turtles; and non-vertebrates (echinoderms, arthropods, brachiopods, mollusks, jellyfish, sponges, biomats, plants) in a current faunal list. Ettling has yielded several new fish species (Bavarichthys incognitus; Orthogonikleithrus hoelli; Aspidorhynchus sanzenbacheri; Macrosemimimus fegerti). Upper and lower Ettling strata differ in faunal content, with the lower dominated by the small teleost Orthogonikleithrus hoelli (absent from the upper layers, where other prey fishes, Leptolepides sp. and Tharsis sp., occur instead). Pharyngeal and stomach contents of Ettling fishes provide direct evidence that Orthogonikleithrus hoelli was a primary food source during early Ettling times. Scarcity of ammonites and absence of vampyromorph coleoids at Ettling differ markedly from the situation at other nearby localities in the region (e.g., Eichstätt, Painten, Schamhaupten, the Mörnsheim beds), where they are more common. Although the exact biochronological age of Ettling remains uncertain (lack of suitable index fossils), many Ettling fishes occur in other plattenkalk basins of Germany (e.g., Kelheim) and France (Cerin) dated as Late Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian (eigeltingense horizon), suggesting a comparable geologic age. The Ettling deposits represent an independent basin within the larger Upper Jurassic "Solnhofen Archipelago", a shallow subtropical sea containing scattered islands, sponge-microbial and coral reefs, sandbars, and deeper basins on a vast carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean.

  15. Microconchids from microbialite ecosystem immediately after end-Permian mass extinction: ecologic selectivity and implications for microbialite ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Chen, Z.; Wang, Y. B.; Ou, W.; Liao, W.; Mei, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) carbonate successions are often characterized by the presence of microbialite buildups worldwide. The widespread microbialites are believed as indication of microbial proliferation immediately after the P-Tr mass extinction. The death of animals representing the primary consumer trophic structure of marine ecosystem in the P-Tr crisis allows the bloom of microbes as an important primary producer in marine trophic food web structure. Thus, the PTB microbialite builders have been regarded as disaster taxa of the P-Tr ecologic crisis. Microbialite ecosystems were suitable for most organisms to inhabit. However, increasing evidence show that microbialite dwellers are also considerably abundant and diverse, including mainly foraminifers Earlandia sp. and Rectocornuspira sp., lingulid brachiopods, ostrocods, gastropods, and microconchids. In particular, ostracods are extremely abundant in this special ecosystem. Microconchid-like calcareous tubes are also considerably abundant. Here, we have sampled systematically a PTB microbialite deposit from the Dajiang section, southern Guizhou Province, southwest China and have extracted abundant isolated specimens of calcareous worm tubes. Quantitative analysis enables to investigate stratigraphic and facies preferences of microconchids in the PTB microbialites. Our preliminary result indicates that three microconchid species Microconchus sp., Helicoconchus elongates and Microconchus aberrans inhabited in microbialite ecosystem. Most microconchilds occurred in the upper part of the microbialite buildup and the grainstone-packstone microfacies. Very few microconchilds were found in the rocks bearing well-developed microbialite structures. Their stratigraphic and environmental preferences indicate proliferation of those metazoan organisms is coupled with ebb of the microbialite development. They also proliferated in some local niches in which microbial activities were not very active even if those

  16. Biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy of the Cambrian-Ordovician great American carbonate bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John F.; Repetski, John E.; Loch, James D.; Leslie, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The carbonate strata of the great American carbonate bank (GACB) have been subdivided and correlated with ever-increasing precision and accuracy during the past half century through use of the dominant organisms that evolved on the Laurentian platform through the Cambrian and the Ordovician. Trilobites and conodonts remain the primary groups used for this purpose, although brachiopods, both calcareous and phosphatic, and graptolites are very important in certain facies and intervals. A series of charts show the chronostratigraphic units (series and stages) currently in use for deposits of the GACB and the biostratigraphic units (zones, subzones, and biomeres) whose boundaries delineate them. Older and, in some cases obsolete, stages and faunal units are included in the figures to allow users to relate information from previous publications and/or industry databases to modern units. This chapter also provides a brief discussion on the use of biostratigraphy in the recognition and interregional correlation of supersequence boundaries within the Sauk and Tippecanoe megasequences, and the varied perspectives on the nature of biostratigraphic units and their defining taxa during the past half century. Also included are a concise update on the biomere concept, and an explanation of the biostratigraphic consequences of a profound change in the dynamics of extinction and replacement that occurred on the GACB in the Early Ordovician when the factors responsible for platformwide biomere-type extinctions faded and ultimately disappeared. A final section addresses recent and pending refinements in the genus and species taxonomy of biostratigraphically significant fossil groups, the potential they hold for greatly improved correlation, and the obstacles to be overcome for that potential to be realized.

  17. An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2012-01-01

    cochinchinensis, Trichosanthes anguina, Trichosanthes cordata, Trichosanthes dioica, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. The review of the available scientific literature showed that the use of a number of the above-mentioned plants in folk medicine can be validated based on their reported pharmacological activity studies. Conclusion: Taken together, the plants present excellent potential for further scientific studies, which may result in discovery of novel compounds of therapeutic interest.

  18. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  19. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, As a Component of Autotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the robin, Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758 as a consort of autotrophic consortia is considered. It has been found that representatives of 9 higher taxa of animals (Mammalia, Aves, Gastropoda, Insecta, Arachnida, Acarina, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Clitellata have trophic and topical links with the robin. At the same time, the robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753 (24.6 %, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768 (17.5 %, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753 (22.8 %, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae. The robin also belongs to the concentre of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and forms a complex trophic system. In the diet of its nestlings, there have been found 717 objects from 32 invertebrate taxa, belonging to the phylums Arthropoda (99.2 %, 31 species and Annelida (0.8 %, 1 species. The phylum Arthropoda was represented by the most numerous class Insecta (76.9 %, in which 10 orders (Lepidoptera (46.8 % dominates and 20 families were recorded, and also by the classes Arachnida (15.0 %, Malacostraca (5.3 % and Diplopoda (1.9 %. The invertebrate species composition was dominated by representatives of a trophic group of zoophages (14 species; 43.8 %; the portion of phytophages (7 species; 21.9 %, saprophages (18.7 %, and necrophages (15.6 % was the less. The highest number of food items was represented by phytophages (N = 717; 51 %, followed by zoophages (34 %, saprophages (12 %, and necrophages (3 %. The difference among study areas according to the number of food items and the number of species in the robin nestling diet is shown. In NNP “HF”, the highest number of food items was represented by phytophages - 47 % (N = 443, whereas zoophages were the most species-rich group (43.3 %, 13 species. In NNP “H”, phytophages also prevailed in

  20. 黎平县退耕还林地草本层物种组成与多样性%Studies on Species Composition and Diversity of Forestland Converted from Cropland in Liping County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王引乾; 孙保平; 赵岩; 周湘山; 钟晓娟

    2011-01-01

    摘 要:对黎平县不同配置模式退耕还林地草本层进行了物种组成及多样性调查,采用Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数和Margalef丰富度指数对比分析林下物种的多样性变化规律,结果表明,芭茅(Miscanthus floridulus)和野菊花(Flos Chrysanthenmi Indici)为研究区各类型退耕还林地常见的优势种;箬叶竹(Indocalamus longianritus)、节节草(Equisetum ramosissimum)、紫背天葵(Begonia fimbristipula)和黄连(Coptis chinensis)只在特定林下占优势地位;母猪藤(Herba Cayratica Jeponicae)、海金沙(Lygodium japon icum)、鱼腥草(Houttuynia cordata Thunb.)、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)常作为伴生种促进林下物种多样性和生物量的积累.杉木作为优势乔木树种,对于林下物种多样性具有显著促进作用,桤木+香椿和麻栎+桤木的混交模式对于促进物种多样性占有优势.%A survey of species composition and diversity of herb layer in different configuration modes of converting farmland to forestland in Iiping county was carried out. The results showed that Miscanthus floridulus and Flos Chrysanthenmi Indici were the dominant species in almost all types of forestland converted from cropland. Indocalamus hngianritus, Equisetum ramosissimum, Begonia fimbristipula, Coptis chinensis had the advantage only under some specific forest species, which indicated these herbaceous species had sensitivity of the understory habitat. Besides, as the companion species, Herba Cayratica Jeponicae, Lygodium japonicum, Houttuynia cordtUa Thunb., Setaria viridis, usually increase in species diversity and biomass accumulation. There was also an advantage of promoting species diversity for the pattern of Alnus cremastogyne + Toona sinensis/Quercus + Alniis crenwstogyne.

  1. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  2. 北京小龙门地区元宝枫的种群结构及点格局分析%Population Structure and Point Pattern of Acer truncatum Bunge in Xiaolongmen Reserve, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲慧; 毛伊幻

    2013-01-01

    The distribution pattern of plant populations is closely related to spatial scale.By traditional sampling method,only one-scale point pattern can be studied.By comparison,point pattern analysis method is based on spatial mapped points of individual distribution and can analyze patterns under all scales along a gradient.The results are more consistent to the reality,especially for population structure.By using point pattern analysis method,the distribution pattern of all age-classes of Acer truncatum in Xiaolongmen Reserve,Beijing and its relationship with that of other arbors were studied.The results show that the distribution of Acer truncatum Bunge in the sampling area is centralization distribution,and it varies from age class to age class.Other arbors have obvious (positive or negative) effects on the distribution of Acer truncatum.The relationship between Acer truncatum and JugIans mandshurica,Tilia cordata,Fraxinus americana L var juglandifolia Rehd is different.%植物群落的分布格局与空间尺度有着密切关系.在传统取样方法下,只能研究一种尺度下的格局,与之相比点格局分析法是以种群个体空间分布的坐标点图为基础,通过单一的分布情况分析各种尺度下的格局.该文通过点格局分析对北京小龙门地区元宝枫分布格局、各龄级的分布格局以及其与其他乔木的相关关系进行了研究.结果表明:元宝枫在样地内呈明显的集群分布,各龄级密度差异显著.幼龄级在小尺度下集群分布,大尺度下随机分布;随着龄级的增长,种群显著地趋于随机分布.核桃楸是该群落的优势种,且元宝枫和核桃楸、大叶白蜡、小叶椴之间在不同尺度下相关关系不同.

  3. Study on Folia Ampelopsis grossedentata and Lonicera japonica Thunb Compound Solid Beverage Processing Technology%响应面法优选显齿葡萄和金银花复合固体饮料工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡居吾; 付建平; 韩晓丹; 王慧宾; 徐国良; 熊伟

    2016-01-01

    以显齿蛇葡萄和金银花为主要原料,以麦芽糊精、薄荷、葡萄糖为辅料,开发了一种具有清热、消炎功效的复合固体饮料。以感官评分为评价指标,通过单因素试验,结合响应面法试验优化生产工艺,评价了显齿蛇葡萄和金银花提取物质量比、麦芽糊精添加量、薄荷添加量、葡萄糖添加量4个因素对固体饮料感官评分的影响。最终确定最优工艺为:金银花提取物与显齿葡萄提取液质量比1.01∶1.00,麦芽糊精添加量9.06%,薄荷添加量0.25%,葡萄糖添加量5.02%。该研究结果将为显齿蛇葡萄与金银花的深加工以及丰富固体饮料的种类提供新的途径。%Making Ampelopsis grossedentata and Lonicera japonica Thunb as main raw material, and maltodextrin, mint,citric acid,glucose as accessories,developing a compound solid beverage has a heat, anti-inflammatory effect. The sensory scores as evaluation index, through the single factor experiment and optimize the production process of response surface method, the effects of the mass ratio of Ampelopsis grossedentata extract and Lonicera japonica Thunb extract, maltodextrin amount, mint dosage and glucose addition score of four factors on the solid beverage were evaluated. Ultimately determine the optimal process is as follows: the mass ratio of Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract and Folia perillae Acutae extract 1.01∶1.00, maltodextrin add amount 9.06%, the content of mint 0.25%, glucose 5.02%.The results of this study will provide a new way for kinds of Ampelopsis grossedentata and Lonicera japonica Thunb deep processing and rich solid beverage.

  4. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francinaldo S

    2012-06-01

    The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Agua e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%), Eufriesea (15.2%) and Exaerete (7.6%). The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%), Eulaema cingulara (19%) and Euglossa cordata (18.3%). Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62.5% of the

  5. Isolation of Full-length cDNA of GLO from Pranus salicina Leaf and its Expression%木奈叶片乙醇酸氧化酶基因全长 cDNA的分离与表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利; 陈桂信; 潘东明; 王玉珍; 吕恃衡; 姜翠翠

    2014-01-01

    乙醇酸氧化酶( glycolate oxidase,GLO)是植物光呼吸途径中的一种限速酶,催化羟乙酸盐氧化成乙醛酸盐和H2 O2,与植物的诱导抗病性密切相关。试验从已构建好的木奈( Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata J.Y.Zhang et al.)5个不同生长发育时期叶片的均一化全长cDNA文库中分离得到了一个乙醇酸氧化酶( GLO)基因,命名为PsGLO。序列分析表明,PsGLO基因cDNA全长为1531 bp,开放阅读框为1122 bp,编码374个氨基酸。氨基酸多重序列比对表明,该基因与陆地棉乙醇酸氧化酶基因相似性最高,为90%。荧光定量PCR分析表明, PsGLO基因在木奈叶中木奈叶芽、展开叶、幼叶、成熟叶、老叶5个不同生长发育时期中都有表达,其中,老叶中表达量最高,叶芽最低。%Glycolate oxidase ( GLO) is a key enzyme in photorespiration and catalyzes the oxidation of gly-colate into glyoxylate with an equimolar amount of H2 O2 ,which is related with induction of disease resistance in plant.A clone,named PsGLO,was separated from cDNA library prepared from five different growth and de-velopment periods of leaf of Prunus salicina.Sequence analysis showed that PsGLO was 1 531 bp in length with a 1 122 nucleotides ORF that putatively encoded a protein with 374 amino acids.Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tress analyses showde that GLO was clustered with Gossypium hirsutum GLO and showed high similarity (90%) in amino acid sequences.Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of PsGLO was observed in all different stages tested here including leafbud,unfoldedleaf,spire,climax leaf,old leaf and the highest expression level was found in old leaves,but the lowest in leafbud.

  6. Study on Controlling Epidemic in Cushions of Fermentation Bed about Raising Pigs%发酵床养猪垫料中病原防控的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾艳

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to control the growth of mucor, parasites, Escherichia coli and S. aureus in cusions of fermentation bed,so selecting dozens of Chinese herbal medicines and chemical pharmaceuticals to start bacteriostasis experiment in vitro. The results showed that all hemical pharmaceuticals have different level controlling effects on one or severals of beneficial bacterials in cusions; Dandelion, Herbahouttuyniae, Herba Artemisiae Scopariae, Cortex Fraxini, Folium Isatidis,Herba Epimedii, Artemisia Annua, Andrographitis Paniculata, Solanum Nigrum, Macleaya Cordata, Euphorbia Humifusa have no controlling effects on beneficial bacterials in cusions, and but have certain controlling effects on Escherichia coli and S. aureus. Calcium propionate has no controlling effects on beneficial hacterials, but has significant controlling effects on mucor.Calcium Propionate and Cortex Pseudolaricis has no controlling effects on beneficial bacterials, so they will be anthelminthic drugs in cusons.%为了有效防控发酵床垫料中霉菌、寄生虫、大肠杆菌及金黄色葡萄球菌等的生长,选取了几十种中药及化学制剂进行了体外抑菌试验.结果表明,所有化学药物对垫料中一种或几种有益菌有不同程度的抑制效果;蒲公英、鱼腥草、茵陈、秦皮、大青叶、淫羊藿、青蒿、穿心莲、龙葵、博落回、地锦草对垫料中有益菌无抑制作用,对大肠杆菌及金黄色葡萄球菌有一定的抑制效果;丙酸钙对有益菌无抑制作用,对霉菌有明显的抑制效果;贯众与土荆皮对有益菌无抑制作用,可作为垫料中的驱虫药.

  7. Importância econômica, epidemiologia e controle das intoxicações por plantas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice R.M. Pessoa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A importância econômica, epidemiologia e controle das intoxicações por plantas em animais domésticos no Brasil são revisadas. Com os dados dos laboratórios de diagnóstico de diferentes regiões do país, as perdas anuais por mortes de animais foram estimadas em 820.761 a 1.755.763 bovinos, 399.800 a 445.309 ovinos, 52.675 a 63.292 caprinos e 38.559 equinos. No Brasil, atualmente, o número de plantas tóxicas é de 131 espécies e 79 gêneros e aumenta permanentemente. No entanto, a maioria das perdas são causadas por poucas plantas, incluindo Palicourea marcgravii, Amorimia spp., Senecio spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Ateleia glazioviana e Cestrum laevigatum em bovinos, Brachiaria spp em bovinos e ovinos, Nierembergia veitchii, Mimosa tenuiflora e Ipomoea asarifolia em ovinos, plantas que contêm swainsonina (Ipomoea carnea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia em caprinos e Brachiaria humidicola e Crotalaria retusa em equinos. Os principais fatores epidemiológicos relacionados às intoxicações por plantas incluem palatabilidade, fome, sede, facilitação social, desconhecimento da planta, acesso a plantas tóxicas, dose tóxica, período de ingestão, variações de toxicidade e resistência/susceptibilidade dos animais às intoxicações. Quanto aos métodos de controle e profilaxia descrevem-se os resultados obtidos no Brasil com métodos recentemente desenvolvidos, incluindo controle biológico, aversão alimentar condicionada, utilização de variedades não tóxicas de forrageiras, utilização de animais resistentes às intoxicações e técnicas de indução de resistência.

  8. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-01-01

    (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Białowieża National Park.

  9. 8种植物挥发物和浸提液对三七根腐病菌的抑制活性研究%The Study of Inhibitory Activity of Eight Plant Volatiles and Extracts to Panax notoginseng Root Rot Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 廖静静; 朱贵李; 张卉; 段晓龙; 朱书生; 杨敏

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to screen crops which volatiles and extracts showing antifungal activity, and use them for rotation to control Panaxnotoginsengroot rot. This study tested the inhibitory activity of 8 plant volatiles and extracts to Phytophthora cactorum and Fusarium solani, the casual agent of panax notoginseng root rot using mycelial growth rate method. The results revealed that the volatiles and extracts of Alliumsativum, A.epa, A.tuberosum, A.fistulosumshowed obvious inhibition activity against P.cactorum and F. solani and the inhibition activity of A. sativum was the strongest. The volatiles of Zingiber officinale, Houttuynia cordata, Coriandrum sativum and Mentha haplocalyx had little inhibition activity on P. cactorum and F.solani, sometimes accelerated colony growth when treated with low concentration. However, the extracts of Z.officinale, the root and leaf of C.sativumshowed distinct inhibitory activity to P.cactorumand F.solani. This data would provide scientific basis for using rotation of these crops to control Panax notoginseng root rot, achieving ecological control of Panaxnotoginsengroot rot.%筛选挥发物及浸提液具有抑菌活性的作物,用于与三七轮作防治根腐病。采用菌丝生长速率法测定了8种植物的挥发物和浸提液对引起三七根腐病的恶疫霉菌和腐皮镰孢菌的抑制活性。葱属作物大蒜、洋葱、葱及韭菜的挥发物和浸提液对恶疫霉菌和腐皮镰孢菌均具有明显的抑制效果,且大蒜挥发物和浸提液的抑菌活性最强;生姜、鱼腥草、香菜茎和薄荷的挥发物抑菌效果不明显,甚至在低浓度下出现促进菌丝生长的现象,而生姜、香菜根和叶的浸提液则表现出明显的抑菌活性。本研究结果可为利用作物轮作控制三七根腐病提供科学依据,有利于实现三七根腐病的生态防控。

  10. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  11. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  12. 施氏鲟抗氧化中草药方剂的筛选%Screening of the Antioxidant Chinese Herbal Medicines for Amur Sturgeon (Acipenser schrencki Brandt)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荻; 刘红柏; 廉超; 罗添允

    2016-01-01

    In order to screen antioxidant Chinese herbal medicines for the culture of Amur sturgeon ( Aci⁃penser schrenckii Brandt) ,Angelica sinensis,Houttuynia cordata and a kind of Chinese herbal compound ( Pre⁃scription I,PI) was decocted with water and then orally given to the experimental fish of 1+age at the tempera⁃ture of 22 ℃. The activities of antioxidant related enzymes and the content of active substrates in tissues were detected after drug administration.Two parallels were set up in the experimental group,with 30 fish in each one. Angelica sinensis,Houttuynia cordata and PI were orally given to fish at a concentration of 0.3 g/kg,0.54 g/kg and 0.8 g/kg,separately once per day with a continuous administration of 14 d.The distilled water was given to fish as the control group. After the withdrawal of 24 h,half of fish in each group were thermal stimulated at 30 ℃ for 2 h and then the blood and liver were sampled together with the experimental groups at 22 ℃. The activities of SOD,NOS and the contents of MDA,NO in blood and liver were determined. The results showed that 3 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines could affect the activities and contents of antioxidant related sub⁃strates in blood and liver of fish. Angelica sinensis and PI were especially useful to increase SOD activity and decrease MDA content in fish. They also had certain regulation function on NO content and NOS activity and could still keep their utilities at high temperature,which could be used as the antioxidant preparations of Chi⁃nese herbal medicines but need further screening and optimization. Besides, Angelica sinensis is rich in re⁃sources,of low price and easy to use,which therefore has a good application prospect and advantage.%采用口灌方法研究了22℃养殖条件下,当归、鱼腥草及一种自组中草药复方(方一)的水煎剂对1+龄施氏鲟组织中抗氧化功能相关的酶活性及活性物质含量的影响。每受试组设两个平行,

  13. The influence of the San Gregorio fault on the morphology of Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C.M.G.; Ryan, William B. F.; Eittreim, S.; Donald, Reed

    1998-01-01

    A side-scan sonar survey was conducted of Monterey Canyon and the San Gregorio fault zone, off shore of Monterey Bay. The acoustic character and morphology of the sonar images, enhanced by SeaBeam bathymetry, show the path of the San Gregorio fault zone across the shelf, upper slope, and Monterey Canyon. High backscatter linear features a few kilometers long and 100 to 200 m wide delineate the sea-floor expression of the fault zone on the shelf. Previous studies have shown that brachiopod pavements and carbonate crusts are the source of the lineations backscatter. In Monterey Canyon, the fault zone occurs where the path of the canyon makes a sharp bend from WNW to SSW (1800 m). Here, the fault is marked by NW-SE-trending, high reflectivity lineations that cross the canyon floor between 1850 m and 1900 m. The lineations can be traced to ridges on the northwestern canyon wall where they have ~ 15 m of relief. Above the low-relief ridges, bowl-shaped features have been excavated on the canyon wall contributing to the widening of the canyon. We suggest that shear along the San Gregorio fault has led to the formation of the low-relief ridges near the canyon wall and that carbonate crusts, as along the shelf, may be the source of the high backscatter features on the canyon floor. The path of the fault zone across the upper slope is marked by elongated tributary canyons with high backscatter floors and 'U'-shaped cross-sectional profiles. Linear features and stepped scarps suggestive of recent crustal movement and mass-wasting, occur on the walls and floors of these canyons. Three magnitude-4 earthquakes have occurred within the last 30 years in the vicinity of the canyons that may have contributed to the observed features. As shown by others, motion along the fault zone has juxtaposed diverse lithologies that outcrop on the canyon walls. Gully morphology and the canyon's drainage patterns have been influenced by the substrate into which the gullies have formed.

  14. Reconstructing the diet of a 505-million-year-old arthropod: Sidneyia inexpectans from the Burgess Shale fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacaï, Axelle; Vannier, Jean; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy

    2016-03-01

    The feeding ecology of the 505-million-year-old arthropod Sidneyia inexpectans from the middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale fauna (British Columbia, Canada) is revealed by three lines of evidence: the structure of its digestive system, the fossilized contents of its gut and the functional anatomy of its appendages. The digestive tract of Sidneyia is straight, tubular and relatively narrow in the trunk region. It is enlarged into a pear-shaped area in the cephalic region and stretches notably to form a large pocket in the abdomen. The mouth is ventral, posteriorly directed and leads to the midgut via a short tubular structure interpreted as the oesophagus. Anteriorly, three pairs of glands with internal, branching tubular structures open into the digestive tract. These glands have equivalents in various Cambrian arthropod taxa (e.g. naraoiids) and modern arthropods. Their primary function was most likely to digest and assimilate food. The abdominal pocket of Sidneyia concentrates undigested skeletal elements and various residues. It is interpreted here as the functional analogue of the stercoral pocket of some extant terrestrial arachnids (e.g. Araneae, Solifugae), whose primary function is to store food residuals and excretory material until defecation. Analysis of the gut contents indicates that Sidneyia fed largely on small ptychopariid trilobites, brachiopods, possibly agnostids, worms and other undetermined animals. Sidneyia was primarily a durophagous carnivore with predatory and/or scavenging habits, feeding on small invertebrates that lived at the water-sediment interface. There is no evidence for selective feeding. Its food items (e.g. living prey or dead material) were grasped and manipulated ventrally by its anterior appendages, then macerated into ingestible fragments and conveyed to the mouth via the converging action of strong molar-like gnathobases. Digestion probably took place within the anterior midgut via enzymes secreted in the

  15. Empirical calibration of the clumped isotope paleothermometer using calcites of various origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Ulrike; Fiebig, Jens; Tödter, Julian; Schöne, Bernd R.; Bahr, André; Friedrich, Oliver; Tütken, Thomas; Gischler, Eberhard; Joachimski, Michael M.

    2014-09-01

    We present the first universal calibration of the clumped isotope thermometer for calcites of various mineralizing types. These are an eggshell of an ostrich, a tropical bivalve, a brachiopod shell, cold seep carbonate, and three foraminifera samples that grew between 9 and 38 °C. CaCO3 was digested at 90 °C using a common acid bath. Considering a difference in phosphoric acid fractionation factors between reaction at 25 and 90 °C of 0.069‰ (Guo et al., 2009), the function between growth temperature T and the excess of 13C-18O bonds in the evolved CO2 is expressed by a linear regression between 1/T2 and absolute Δ47 (R2 = 0.9915): Δ47=0.0327(±0.0026)× 106/T2+0.3030(±0.0308) (with Δ47 in ‰ and T in K). Both the slope and intercept of our regression line deviate significantly from the first experimental calibration based on synthetic calcites digested at 25 °C (Ghosh et al., 2006a) and from several other studies having confirmed this pioneering calibration (i.e., Came et al., 2007; Tripati et al., 2010; Thiagarajan et al., 2011; Grauel et al., 2012; Saenger et al., 2012; Zaarur et al., 2013). However, our relationship between temperature and absolute Δ47 values is indistinguishable from that determined by Henkes et al. (2013) if the same difference in phosphoric acid fractionation factors between 25 and 90 °C is applied to both datasets. Our study and that of Henkes et al. (2013) have in common that data were primarily projected onto the absolute scale proposed by Dennis et al. (2011) - a reference frame that allows comparison of clumped isotope data measured in different laboratories. Furthermore, at any T, our regression line lies within 0.006‰ of the theoretical calcite calibration of Guo et al. (2009). The observation that both empirical calibrations are indistinguishable from each other implies that clumped isotope data can be directly compared between laboratories and referenced to a unique temperature calibration if (1) the phosphoric acid

  16. 广西贵港蒙公下泥盆统郁江组珊瑚层状礁特征%Characteristics of coral stratigraphic reef of Lower Devonian Yujiang Formation in the Menggong, Guigang, Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万洪程; 孙玮; 吴熙纯; 刘树根; 李金玺

    2012-01-01

    广西贵港蒙公下泥盆统郁江组珊瑚层状礁是广西早泥盆世塘丁期生物礁的代表.通过野外剖面的测制及详细的室内镜下薄片研究以及微量元素地球化学分析,认为该区发育由单个层状礁在垂向上反复出现形成较大规模的礁复合体.主要造礁生物为床板珊瑚、四射珊瑚,含量为70%~ 80%,附礁生物主要有单体珊瑚、腕足、腹足等.生物礁的生长发育与C、O同位素值呈现正相关关系.礁下部混积陆棚相泥岩是良好的烃源岩,导致了后期同层砂岩裂缝内烃类物质充注.%The coral stratigraphic reef of Yujiang Formation in the Menggong, Guigang is a typical case of stratigraphic reef which existed in Tangding stage, Early Devonian. After the field measuring of columnar section, detailed indoor study of thin sections and geochemical analysis of trace elements, it is recognized that there has developed a large-scaled-reef complex composed of repeatedly appearing stratigraphic reef horizons vertically in the direction. The main reef-building organisms are Favosites and Xystriphylloid.es in the content of 70% -80% in the reef. The main reef-dwelling organisms are individual corals, brachiopods and gastropods. The growth and development of the reef appears to be in a positive correlation with the shifting of carbon and oxygen isotopes. Mudstones of the hybrid shelf deposits below the reef are of good hydrocarbon source rocks, which caused later charge of hydrocarbon in fissures of contemporaneous sandstones.

  17. The discovery of silicified wood in the Early Carboniferous strata on the northernmargin of Yili block, West Tianshan, and its significance.%西天山伊犁地块北缘早石炭世硅化木的发现及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白建科; 李智佩; 徐学义; 茹艳娇; 李婷

    2011-01-01

    在西天山伊犁地块北缘琼阿希河谷中首次发现硅化木,对硅化木的基本特征进行了描述.根据地层中腕足、珊瑚化石的鉴定结果,将地层的时代定为早石炭世维宪期,因此该硅化木的产出层位为下石炭统阿克沙克组.硅化木产于阿克沙克组底部黑色薄层状泥岩、粉砂岩中,这套岩性组合形成于扇三角洲前缘水下分流间湾.伊犁地块北缘阿克沙克组底部扇三角洲沉积环境的确定和硅化木化石的发现说明:研究区早石炭世维宪期不是一套连续的海相沉积,而是陆相一海陆过渡相沉积,研究区所处的地理位置距离古陆地不远.这一发现对于重新认识伊犁地块早石炭世古地理和古构造格局具有重要意义.%Recently silicified wood was discovered for die first time in Qiong Axi valley on the northern margin of Yili block, West Tianshan, and its basic characteristics are described in this paper. The identification of brachiopods and corals reveals that the strata are of the Early Carboniferous Visean stage, and hence the strata that produced silicified wood should be the Lower Carboniferous Ake-shake Formation. Silicified wood was found in the black thin-bedded mudstone and siltstone formed in the subaqueous interdistribut ary estuary of the delta front The determination of fan delta fades and the discovery of silicified wood show that the study area was characterized by a continental or transitional facies sedimentation instead of a continuous marine facies sedimentation during the Early Carboniferous Visean stage. It is also proved that the ancient geographical position of the study area was not far from the old land. This new discovery is of great significance for re-understanding Early Carboniferous paleogeography and paleotectonic framework of Yili block.

  18. 新疆额敏东部志留纪化石的发现及其地质意义%Discovery of Silurian Fossils and Its Geological Significance in Eastern Emin,Xinjiang of NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纵瑞文; 龚一鸣; 韩非

    2015-01-01

    在额敏东部原划为晚泥盆世塔尔巴哈台组的火山碎屑岩夹碳酸盐岩地层中发现了丰富的志留纪文洛克世动物化石,包括珊瑚 Halysites hoboksarensis 、H.sp.、Mesofavosites sp.,腕足动物Atrypa sp.、Eospirifer radiatus ,三叶虫 Encrinuroides sp.、Encrinurus sp.1、E.sp.2、Cheirurus sp.、Sthenarocalymene sp.,短剑类 Lepidocoleus sp.和层孔虫等,通过区域岩性组合对比,将该套地层改划为文洛克统沙尔布尔组.珊瑚和层孔虫等对环境要求较高的生物化石的发现,同时结合地层中风暴沉积的粒序层理、包卷层理及火焰构造等相标志,说明了额敏东部在文洛克世为火山碎屑质的开阔台地相沉积环境,处于热带、亚热带气候区.%Abundant Wenlock animal fossils are found in the succession of the volcanoclastic rocks intercalated with limestones which were considered as the Late Devonian Ta'erbahatai Formation,including corals Halysites hoboksarensis ,H.sp.,Meso-favosites sp.,brachiopods Atrypa sp.,Eospirifer radiates ,trilobites Encrinuroides sp.,Encrinurus sp.1,E.sp.2, Cheirurus sp.,Sthenarocalymene sp.,Machaeridia Lepidocoleus sp.,stromatoporoids and so on.Based on lithological associ-ation and stratal correlation,the succession is re-assigned to the Wenlock Shaerbuer Formation,where abundant facies indica-tors were discovered.Main facies indicators include reefoid corals and stromatoporoids,graded bedding,convolute bedding, flame structure and storm deposits.It is concluded that the Wenlock Shaerbuer Formation was formed in the open platform environment with volcanic activities in tropical and subtropical zones.

  19. 广西田林龙江垌上石炭统黄龙组珊瑚礁古生态%Longjiangdong Coral Reef Palaeoecology of the Upper Carboniferous Huanglong Formation in Tianlin County, Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大勇; 巩恩普; 孙宝亮; 陈晓红; 关长庆; 张永利

    2013-01-01

    广西田林县龙江垌见晚石炭世的珊瑚格架礁,分三层旋回式生长于海百合碎屑滩上.造礁生物为丛状群体珊瑚Diphyphyllum sp.,附礁生物主要是海百合、腕足动物、藻类和有孔虫.造礁生物种群间仅是共同栖息生存,缺乏长期、稳定、复杂的生态关系,礁体生物群落成熟度低,除Diphyphyllum sp.搭建格架外,缺少其他造礁方式,在当时多变的水动力条件下,只形成了未成熟的层礁.对于龙江垌珊瑚礁生态特征形成原因归纳为以下几点:石炭纪中期全球地质构造变化影响、微生物群团和藻类造礁作用不明显、海百合的强大竞争作用使底栖生物群落受到抑制、Diphyphyllum sp.生态特点使其造礁能力差.%A Late Carboniferous coral frame reef developes in Longjiangdong village,Tianlin County,Guangxi Province.The reef basing on the crinoid fragments beach has three separate cycles.The reef-builder is the fasciculate Diphyphyllum sp.and the reef-adherers mainly are crinoids,brachiopods,some kinds of algaes and foraminifers.Reef-building communities which just commonly grow together are lack of long-term,stable,complex ecological relationships.The maturity of reef biomes is poor and other reef-building ways are absence except Diphyphyllum sp.building the frame.It is formatted only immature stratigraphic reef under polytropic hydrodynamic conditions.The reasons why the Longjiangdong coral reef express such a distinctive characteristic are summarized as the following:the impacts of global geological structure changes in the Middle Carboniferous,the effects of microfloras and algaes in reef-building are not obvious,the benthic community is suppressed by crinoids,the reef-building capacity of Diphyphyllum sp.is poor for its ecological characteristics.

  20. Carboniferous Permian Stratigraphic Division of Kumubielegou Area in West Kunlun Xinjiang%新疆西昆仑库木别勒沟一带石炭-二叠系地层划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永利

    2014-01-01

    西昆仑库木别勒沟一带地层单位划分与厘定争议已久。通过1∶5万区域地质调查,在库木别勒沟一带发现一套深色浅变质含砾细碎屑岩夹碳酸盐岩及火山岩建造,沉积环境为浊流沉积。并在其下部灰岩内首次发现含珊瑚、腕足及海百合茎类化石;岩层内包含有下志留统中的大理岩砾石或块体,其形成时代要晚于下志留统。根据区域地层对比和化石,新划分为上石炭统-下二叠统喀拉塔什组(C2-P1k),另据岩石组合特征,该组自下而上划分为一段和二段两个段,这一地层单位的合理确立,为区域地质填图建立了正确的岩石地层单位,并为本区的地层划分和区域对比提供了新的依据。%The division and confirming of strata in Kumubielegou of West Kunlun is controversial for a long time. A suit of dark low-grade pebbly fine clastic rock with carbonate rock and volcano rock formation building was discovered in the Kumubielegou area using 1∶50 000 regional geologic and mineral surveying,and the sedimentary environment was turbidity deposition. Fossil with coral,brachiopods and crinoids was discovered for the first time in the lower limestone. And marble gravel or block was found in the rock of Lower Silurian,whose formation age is later than Lower Silurian. According to the regional stratigraphic correlation and fossil ,the strata in Kumubielegou was divided into the upper Carboniferous Lower Permian Aktashi form (C2-P1k). And according to the rock association characteristics,the form was divided into a segment and a two segment two segment. The reasonable establishment of the stratigraphic units,is helpful to establish the right lithostratigraphic unit for regional geological mapping,and affords a new basis for the stratigraphic division and regional correlation in this area.

  1. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    burrows belonging to Thalassinoides, which were interconnected galleries likely made by arthropods after the sediment became somewhat consolidated. Slabs bearing fossils are typically avoided in construction for esthetic reasons and because some impart weaknesses. Such slabs have, however, become increasingly popular for decorative surfaces not exposed to the elements, since the macrofossil content is so striking. Most common are receptaculitids, followed by solitary rugose corals, stromatoporoid sponges, colonial rugose and tabulate corals, brachiopods, bryozoans, gastropods, cephalopods, and trilobites; echinoderm ossicles are common in the muddy matrix. Fossil relative abundances vary stratigraphically, suggesting that subtle environmental changes took place over time.

  2. Interpreting the Marine Calcium Isotope Record: Influence of Reef Builders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Farkas, J.; Kiessling, W.; Veizer, J.; Wallmann, K.

    2008-12-01

    The calcium isotopic composition of seawater as recorded in brachiopod shells varied substantially during the Paleozoic (Farkas et al. 2007, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 5117-5134). The most prominent feature of the record is an excursion to higher 44Ca/40Ca values that started during the Early Carboniferous and lasted until the Permian. The shift occurred shortly after the transition from a calcite-sea to an aragonite-sea (Sandberg 1983, Nature 305, 19-22; Stanley and Hardie 1998, Pal3, 144, 3-19). It therefore has been interpreted to reflect a change in the average calcium isotope fractionation of carbonates produced in the oceans. Aragonite is depleted by about 0.6 permil in 44Ca/40Ca compared to calcite (Gussone et al. 2005, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69, 4485-4494). Consequently a transient shift from calcite dominated to an aragonite dominated calcium carbonate sedimentation could have caused the observed 0.5 permil isotope shift. We compare the marine calcium isotope record with a new compilation of the Phanerozoic trends in the skeletal mineralogy of marine invertebrates (Kiessling et al. 2008, Nature Geoscience, 1, 527-530). The compilation is based on data collected in the PaleoReef database and the Paleobiology Database, which include information on Phanerozoic reef complexes and taxonomic collection data of Phanerozoic biota, respectively. We find a strong positive correlation between the calcium isotope ratios and the abundance of aragonitic reef builders from the Silurian until the Permian at a sample resolution of about 10 million years. The two records, however, diverge in the Triassic, when reefs were dominated by aragonite but the calcium isotope values remained at a relatively low level. We also find a good correlation between calcium isotopes and the proportion of aragonite in the general record of Phanerozoic biota. However, in this case the records start to diverge already in the latest Carboniferous. The observations suggest that the

  3. JURASSIC PALAEOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TRANSDANUBIAN CENTRAL RANGE (HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATTILA VÖRÖS

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Transdanubian Central Range (TCR is a flattened range of hills in northern Transdanubia (Hungary, formed mainly by Mesozoic carbonate rocks showing strong facies similarities with the Southern Alps and the Austroalpine domain. The Jurassic system is divided into several formations of predominantly pelagic limestones. Ammonoids are frequent and were collected bed-by-bed in numerous sections, providing an excellent biostratigraphic resolution. The thickness of the Jurassic system is usually small but changes along the strike of the TCR. It reaches a maximum thickness of 500 m in the western part; is very variable (10-400 m in the central segment (Bakony Mts. and rather low (less than 100 m in the east (Gerecse. In the Bakony segment, the thickness variation reflects the strongly dissected topography of the Jurassic sea-floor. Synsedimentary tectonics is dominated by normal faults; tilted blocks and listric faults may be inferred only in the east.Five main steps were identified in the palaeogeographic evolution: 1 Late Hettangian: carbonate oolitic shoals prevail, except for a few sites where non-deposition or neritic sediments occur. 2 Sinemurian and Pliensbachian: tectonic disintegration resulted in an intricate pattern of submarine horsts and intervening basins, with condensed sedimentation or non-deposition on the horsts and thicker, continuous sedimentary sequences in the basins. The submarine topographic highs are surrounded by aprons of redeposited material (scarp breccias, brachiopod coquinas, crinoidal calcarenites, spiculitic cherty limestones, while pure or argillaceous limestones (Rosso Ammonitico prevail in the distal areas. 3 Early Toarcian: the Tethys-wide anoxic event is superimposed on the previous submarine bottom topography; the resulting black shales and sedimentary Mn-ores are concentrated on the western sides of some horsts. 4 Dogger to Early Malm: radiolarites with heterochronous lower and upper boundaries (Aalenian to

  4. 2010 Dry and 2009 - 2010 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, W

    2011-03-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) requested that Condor Country Consulting, Inc. (CCCI) perform wet season surveys and manage the dry season sampling for listed branchiopods in two ponded locations within the Site 300 Experimental Test Site. Site 300 is located in Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, located between the Cities of Livermore and Tracy. The two pool locations have been identified for possible amphibian enhancement activities in support of the Compensation Plan for impacts tied to the Building 850 soil clean-up project. The Building 850 project design resulted in formal consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as an amendment (File 81420-2009-F-0235) to the site-wide Biological Opinion (BO) (File 1-1-02-F-0062) in the spring of 2009 and requires mitigation for the California tiger salamander (AMCA, Ambystoma californiense) and California red-legged frog (CRLF, Rana draytonii) habitat loss. Both pools contain breeding AMCA, but do not produce metamorphs due to limited hydroperiod. The pool to the southeast (Pool BC-FS-2) is the preferred site for amphibian enhancement activities, and the wetland to northwest (Pool OA-FS-1) is the alternate location for enhancement. However, prior to enhancement, LLNL has been directed by USFWS (BO Conservation Measure 17 iii) to 'conduct USFWS protocol-level branchiopod surveys to determine whether listed brachiopod species are present within the compensation area.' CCCI conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2009-2010 wet season to determine the presence of federally-listed branchiopods at the two pools (previous surveys with negative findings were performed by CCCI in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 onsite). Surveys were conducted to partially satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS 'Interim Survey Guidelines to Permittees for Recovery Permits under Section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Endangered Species Act for the Listed Vernal Pool Branchiopods' ('Guidelines, USFWS

  5. Stratigraphy and paleontology of Lower Permian rocks north of Cananea, northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, R.B.; Moore, T.E.; Gray, F.

    2002-01-01

    Lower Permian carbonate and overlying red bed clastic rocks are present in a 2 km2 stratigraphic window in the vicinity of Rancho La Cueva, Santa Cruz sheet (scale 1:50,000), northern Sonora, Mexico. This exposure lies unconformably beneath predominantly intermediate Upper Cretaceous volcanics yielding 40Ar/39Ar ages of 73.4?? 0.18 and 71.1 ?? 0.35 Ma. The lower part of the Permian succession consists of light- to medium-gray colored limestones of the Colina Limestone, with a minimum thickness of 235 m. Sedimentary features suggest shallow water, slightly restricted depositional environments. Although lacking observable fossils for the most part, two intervals of richly fossiliferous, silicified shell beds are present near the base and top of the Colina Limestone. The lower fauna consist mostly of gastropods and bivalves. The presence of a new microdomatid gastropod species. Glyptospira sonorensis n. sp., close to Glytospira arelela Plas, suggests a late Wolfcampian age for this horizon. The upper fauna are predominantly molluscan dominated (gastropods and bivalves), but some brachiopods (productids and the rhynchonellid genus Pontisia) are also present. Gastropod genera include Bellerophon, Warthia, Euomphalus (represented by the species, Euomphalus kaibabensis Chronic), Baylea, Worthenia, Naticopsis, Goniasma, Kinishbia, Cibecuia, and Glyptospira. The gastropods suggest a Leonardian (late Early Permian) age for this horizon, and many of the species have previously been recorded from the Supai Group and Kaibab Formation of northern and central Arizona. The Colina Limestone is conformably overlain by 11.2 m of light-gray lime mudstone and dolostone, assigned here to the Epitaph Dolomite, which in turn is succeeded by 58.8 m of red-colored sandstone and gray lime mudstone, assigned here to the Scherrer Formation. This Lower Permian succession is significant because it further strengthens the stratigraphic ties of southeastern Arizona rocks with those of northern

  6. The sediment composition and predictive mapping of facies on the Propeller Mound—A cold-water coral mound (Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Katrin; Titschack, Jürgen; Dorschel, Boris; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Freiwald, André

    2010-10-01

    Here we provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative insight on recent sediment composition and facies distribution of a cold-water coral (CWC) mound using the example of the Propeller Mound on the Irish continental margin (Hovland Mound Province, Porcupine Seabight). Five facies types on Propeller Mound are defined: (1) living coral framework, (2) coral rubble, (3) dropstone, (4) hardground, representing the on-mound facies, and (5) hemipelagic sediment facies, which describes the off-mound area. This facies definition is based on already published video-data recorded by Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV), photo-data of gravity cores, box cores, and dredges from sediment surfaces as well as on the composition of the sediment fraction coarser than 125 μm, which has been analyzed on five selected box cores. Sediment compositions of the living coral framework and coral rubble facies are rather similar. Both sediment types are mainly produced by corals (34 and 35 wt%, respectively), planktonic foraminifers (22 and 29 wt%, respectively), benthic foraminifers (both 7 wt%), and molluscs (21 and 10 wt%, respectively), whereas the living coral framework characteristically features additional brachiopods (6 wt%). Hardgrounds are well-lithified coral rudstones rich in coral fragments (>30 surf%), foraminifers, echinoderms, and bivalves. The dropstone facies and the hemipelagic sediment typically carry high amounts of lithoclasts (36 and 53 wt%, respectively) and planktonic foraminifers (35 and 32 wt%, respectively); however, their faunal diversity is low compared with the coral-dominated facies (12 and <2 wt% coral fragments, 7 and 6 wt% benthic foraminifers, and 4 and 0 wt% balanids). Using the maximum likelihood algorithm within ArcGIS 9.2, spatial prediction maps of the previously described mound facies are calculated over Propeller Mound and are based on mound morphology parameters, ground-truthed with the sedimentary and faunal information from box cores, photographs

  7. Evolution of strontium isotopic composition of sea-water from Late Permian to Early Triassic based on study of marine carbonates,Zhongliang Mountain,Chongqing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Collected from a Late Permian to Early Triassic sedimentary section in the Zhongliang Mountain of Chongqing, Southwest China, sixty marine carbonate samples were measured for the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and corresponding evolution curve was constructed. The concentrations of SiO2, CaO, MgO, Mn and Sr are used to evaluate reservation of strontium isotopic composition for original seawater and the credi-bility of the dissolution method for sample preparation. The results show that most of the samples (except seven samples with the Mn/Sr ratios higher than 2) contain the original geochemistry signa-tures of ancient seawater. Compared to the published 87Sr/86Sr ratios from the Late Permian to Early Triassic, our database reported here is the largest and the curve constructed is the most complete. The strontium isotopic curve from Late Permian to Early Triassic is consistent globally and exhibits a gen-eral trend of steady increase during this period. The minimum of 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.707011) occurs in the Late Permian (30 m in thickness below the Permian-Triassic boundary), and the maximum (0.708281), near the Early-Middle Triassic boundary. The lack of land plants and the rapid continental weathering result in the increase of 87Sr/86Sr ratios during the interval. The Permian-Triassic boundary in Zhongli-ang Mountain Section has been accepted internationally. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of six samples near the boundary vary from 0.70714 to 0.70715 with an average of 0.70714, which is consistent with the value of 0.70715 (samples are from articulate brachiopod shells) from Korte et al. published in 2006 (within the error range in experiment). Accordingly, the strontium isotope composition in the Permian-Triassic boundary in this paper is of global significance. It can be confirmed that the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the sea-water in the Permian-Triassic transition are in the range of 0.70714―0.70715.

  8. Body Size Preference of Marine Animals in Relation to Extinction Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, A.; Idgunji, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our project encompasses an extremely specific aspect in relation to the five mass extinctions in geologic history. We asked ourselves whether larger or smaller body sizes would be better suited for surviving a mass extinction. To conduct research for our project, we used the body sizes of 17,172 marine animal genera as our primary data. These animals include echinoderms, arthropods, chordates, mollusks, and brachiopods. These creatures are perfect model organisms in terms of finding data on them because they have an excellent fossil record, and are well documented. We focused on the mean body size of these animals before and after each of the five mass extinctions (end-Ordovician, Late Devonian, end-Permian, end-Triassic, and end-Cretaceous). Our hypothesis was that the average biovolume of animals increased after each of the extinctions, with the mean size being greater after than it was before. Our size data is from the Ellis & Messina Catalogue of Ostracoda and the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. We obtained stratigraphic range data The Treatise and Sepkoski (2002). In our analyses, we compared the mean size of the different animal genera before and after each extinction event. We further partitioned size change across mass extinction boundaries into three categories: the surviving genera, the extinct genera, and the newly originating genera that came about after the extinction. According to our analyses, the mean sizes did not change significantly from the genera living during the stages before the extinctions and after the extinctions. From our results, we can assume that there were not enough major increases in the overall volume of the organisms to warrant a definite conclusion that extinctions lead to larger body sizes. Further support for our findings came from the T-tests in our R code. Only the Cretaceous period showed true evidence for size changing because of the extinction; in this case, the mean size decreased. T-tests for the Cretaceous

  9. Macrobenthos of Kakinada Bay in the Godavari delta, East coast of India: comparing decadal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Dipti; Ganesh, T.; Murty, N. V. S. S.; Raman, A. V.

    2005-03-01

    A one-year study (1995-1996) on the macrobenthos over a spread of (37) hydrographically differing GPS-fixed sites in Kakinada Bay (mean salinity 27.16±0.4) and adjacent mangrove channels (14.78±0.55) in the Godavari delta, one of India's largest estuarine systems, revealed a great preponderance of benthic life. There were 11 diverse taxa represented by 95 species collected through several (303) grab and dredge hauls. Based on Bray-Curtis similarity through hierarchical clustering implemented in PRIMER, it was possible to distinguish the benthos into four assemblages each of which represented sites in the Central and North bay ( Paphia textrix - Typhlocarcinus sp. Assemblage), South-East bay ( Protankyra similis - Paphia malabarica Assemblage), Mangrove Outlets ( Cerithidea cingulata Assemblage) and Mangrove channels ( Diopatra neapolitana Assemblage). Benthos densities (mean nos. dredge haul -1) were highest (299 individuals) at sites close to mangrove outlets. Species diversity (Margalef, d; Shannon-Wiener, H') was low in general ( d 1.244 to 2.251 and H' 0.038 to 1.502). Sediments were mostly clayey-silt in nature except in southeast bay where they are silt-sand. Organic matter (mean) was at or near 1.3%. The observations have revealed marked changes in benthic community structure relative to an earlier investigation held in 1958-1963 in this area. Over the years, species such as Turritella duplicata, Tonna dolium and Placuna placenta found in considerable numbers previously have dwindled. Anomia, Bursa and Atrina and echinoderms, Astropecten indica, Echinodiscus auritus and Temnopleurus toreumaticus and the brachiopod, Lingula sp. of common occurrence in early 60s are absent altogether attributable to long-term natural trends during the intervening years and/or events accompanying human impingement (e.g. industrial and urban growth, port expansion measures, aquaculture, mangrove denudation etc.). Despite such large-scale alterations in benthos community

  10. 内蒙古西部额济纳旗晚奥陶世生物地理和奥陶-志留系分界%LATE ORDOVICIAN BIOGEOGRAPHY AND ORDOVICIAN-SILURIAN BOUNDARY IN THE ZHUSILENHAIERHAN AREA, EJIN, WESTERN INNER MONGOLIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎嘉余; 陈旭; 詹仁斌; 周志强; 郑昭昌; 王怿

    2003-01-01

    Upper Ordovician-lowest Silurian strata crop out near Danmianshan, about 10 km west of Zhusilenghaierhan Mt., about 55 km south of Yagan, 135 km east of Ejin Banner town, western Inner Mongolia (Alxa block). The strata along with their related major fossil groups (such as graptolites, corals and trilobites) have been studied by Zheng et al. (1982), Zhu et al. (1987), and Ge et al. (1990). Recent field examination in this area was carried out by the authors in the summer of 2002. Our subsequent investigation on collections has led to the discovery Holorhynchus (virgianids, Brachiopoda) from the Late Ordovician rocks, to make sure that there occur no latest Ordovician Hirnantia fauna, and to define the Ordovician-Silurian boundary on the basis of the occurrence of Normalograptus lubricus. The Ashgill brachiopod biogeography is discussed.Holorhynchus giganteus Kiaer, 1902 has been found from the Badanjilin Fomation (mid Ashgill) at the No. 3 section of Zheng et al. (1987) in this area for the first time. This is also the first record of the genus Holorhynchus in Late Ordovician of China. Holorhynchus has been known to be characterized by the total absence of a ventral median septum, together with smooth shell exterior and short, separated outer brachial plates (e.g. St. Joseph, 1938; Cocks, 1982). Through sectioning, however, the discovery of an apical median setum in ventral valve of immature specimens (less than 8mm wide) of H. giganteus led to a revised generic diagnosis for the genus (see Rong et al. in preparation). Actually, this structure is also known from an internal mold material and a transverse section of the identical species in South Norway (Cocks, 1982) and Zeravshano-Gissar Mountains, Tadzhikistan (Nikiforova and Sapel'nikov, 1973) respectively. Holorhynchus from the Badanjilin Formation at the No.3 section of Zheng et al. (1987) is associated with the brachiopods Altaethyrella, Ovalospira, Leptellina, Sowerbyella, Pectenospira, and the Agetolites

  11. Schizophyllum commune: The main cause of dying trees of the Banja Luka arbored walks and parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of investigation of the main cause of dying trees of the main arbored walks (Mladena Stojanovića Aley and Park, the investigation of the presence and diversity of macrofungi in Banja Luka City were undertaken in the period 2006-2011. Relatively poor generic diversity of lignicolous (pathogenic or potentially pathogenic and saprotrophic macrofungi with only 16 species representing this group (13 basidiomycets: Schizophyllum commune, Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Pseudotrametes gibbosa, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, G. adspersum, Polyporus squamosus, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Auricu­laria auricula-judae, and 3 ascomycets: Nectria cinnabarina, Xylaria hypoxylon, X. poly­morpha were recorded. Such a poor qualitative composition of this very important fungal group could be explained by the reduction in the number of plant species in arbored walks and alleys, as well as the reduction in the number of fungi resistant to heavy air pollution caused by nearby (1-5m fuel combustion in engines. Although only preliminary, our results pointed to the necessity of conservation and protection of the most beautiful features of Banja Luka and its alleys and arbored walks, by undertaking the measures of curing damaged trees and treating them with fungicides in order to wipe out the epiphytia caused in more than 95% of cases (dated May 2011 by Split-gill (Schizophyllum commune, present on dead wood but also on damaged trees of Aesculus hyppocastaneum (127 trees, Tilia cordata (124 trees, Tilia platyphyllos (36 trees, Tilia argentea (40 trees, Acer negundo (20 trees, Platanus acerifolia (2 trees, Robinia pseudoacacia (3 trees, Fraxinus ornus (1 tree, Betula pendula (1 tree, Catalpa sp. (2 trees, etc. Altogether, during the last decade, around 200 trees collapsed or were sanitary cut in Banja Luka arbored walk from the Malta site to the Green bridge, a total length around 5 km. The

  12. 福建九阜山野生芳香植物资源及其开发利用%Wild Aromatic Plant Resources and Their Exploitation and Utilization in Jiufu Mountain, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏开炬; 陈锡桓; 詹祖仁; 陈登云

    2012-01-01

      The wild aromatic plants resources were investigated in Jiufu Mountain Nature Reserve in Youxi, Fujian province. The results show that there are 132 species of wild aromatic plants, belonging to 91 genera in 47 families in this area, which accounted for 52.8%, 29.7% and 17.4% in families, genera, and species of the wild aromatic plants in Fujian province respectively. Among these aromatic plants, Lauraceae is the biggest population, including 22 species. Other advantage families, both Rosaceae and Orchidaceae include 10 species. Lamiaceae includes 9 species and Asteraceae includes 7 species. Magnoliaceae and Oleaceae include 5 species, 4 species respectively. The smaller population were Rutaceae, Primulaceae, Moraceae, Hamamelidaceae, including 3 species. The dominant genera are Lindera (6), Cinnamomum(4), Machilus(4), Rosa(4), Artemisia(4), Litsea(4), Photinia(3), Lysimachia(3). The wild aromatic plants with greater value of development and utilization are Pinus massoniana, Sarcandra gladra, Houttuyia Cordata, Litsea cubeba, Cinnamomum camphora, Machilus grijsii, Machilus pauhoi, Litsea aggregata, Litsea elongat, Elaeagnus pungens, Mosla punctulata, Liquidamber formosana, Rosa laevigata, Gardenia jasminoides, Lonicera nitida, Artemisia argyi and so on. The species composition, aromatic position, live form, distribution and the suggestions are put forward on their development and utilization.%  对福建省尤溪县九阜山省级自然保护区野生芳香植物资源进行调查,结果表明,该区共有野生芳香植物47科91属132种,占福建省芳香植物89科306属758种的52.8%、29.7%和17.4%.优势科有樟科(22种)、蔷薇科(10种)、兰科(10种)、唇形科(9种)、菊科(7种)、木兰科(5种)、木犀科(4种)、芸香科(3种)、报春花科(3种)、桑科(3种)、金镂梅科(3种);优势属有山胡椒属(6种)、樟属(4种)、润楠属(4种)、蔷薇属(4种)、蒿属(4种)、木姜子属(3种)、石楠属(3

  13. Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics, photosynthetic activity, and pigment composition of blue-shade and half-shade leaves as compared to sun and shade leaves of different trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K; Babani, Fatbardha; Navrátil, Martin; Buschmann, Claus

    2013-11-01

    The chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence induction kinetics, net photosynthetic CO2 fixation rates P N, and composition of photosynthetic pigments of differently light exposed leaves of several trees were comparatively measured to determine the differences in photosynthetic activity and pigment adaptation of leaves. The functional measurements were carried out with sun, half-shade and shade leaves of seven different trees species. These were: Acer platanoides L., Ginkgo biloba L., Fagus sylvatica L., Platanus x acerifolia Willd., Populus nigra L., Quercus robur L., Tilia cordata Mill. In three cases (beech, ginkgo, and oak), we compared the Chl fluorescence kinetics and photosynthetic rates of blue-shade leaves of the north tree crown receiving only blue sky light but no direct sunlight with that of sun leaves. In these cases, we also determined in detail the pigment composition of all four leaf types. In addition, we determined the quantum irradiance and spectral irradiance of direct sunlight, blue skylight as well as the irradiance in half shade and full shade. The results indicate that sun leaves possess significantly higher mean values for the net CO2 fixation rates P N (7.8-10.7 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) leaf area) and the Chl fluorescence ratio R Fd (3.85-4.46) as compared to shade leaves (mean P N of 2.6-3.8 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) leaf area.; mean R Fd of 1.94-2.56). Sun leaves also exhibit higher mean values for the pigment ratio Chl a/b (3.14-3.31) and considerably lower values for the weight ratio total chlorophylls to total carotenoids, (a + b)/(x + c), (4.07-4.25) as compared to shade leaves (Chl a/b 2.62-2.72) and (a + b)/(x + c) of 5.18-5.54. Blue-shade and half-shade leaves have an intermediate position between sun and shade leaves in all investigated parameters including the ratio F v/F o (maximum quantum yield of PS2 photochemistry) and are significantly different from sun and shade leaves but could not be differentiated from each other. The

  14. Taxonomy and phylogenetics of the genus Phaeocystis: Research progress%棕囊藻的分类及系统进化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚男; 沈萍萍; 黄良民; 齐雨藻

    2012-01-01

    -ocystis classification and phylogenetics mainly include both nuclear and chloroplast genes. The phylogeny based on 18S Rdna suggests that Phaeocystis originates as a warm-water species with a global distribution. P. Jahnii and P. Cordata are diverged at earlier time, and the cold-water species isolated from warm-water ancestors may be diverged sixty million years ago. A total of seven geographical strains of Phaeocystis in China coasts have been recorded, but the study pro-gress of their origin and spreading is still slow. This paper reviewed the taxonomy, life history, and phylogeny of Phaeocystis, and its origin, distribution, and spreading pattern in China. The future study on the taxonomy and phylogenetics of Phaeocystis was prospected.

  15. 昆明地区奶牛临床型乳房炎病原菌分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation,identification and drug sensitivity of pathogen causingbovine clinical mastitis in Kunming area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 荀来武; 杨玉艾; 王桂瑛

    2012-01-01

    对昆明地区多个奶牛场的奶牛临床型乳房炎病原菌进行分离、鉴定,从114份乳样中共分离出细菌13种305株,经培养特性、染色镜检、生化鉴定等,鉴定出金黄色葡萄球菌63株,占20.66%;表皮葡萄球菌26株,占8.52%;无乳链球菌53株,占17.38%;停乳链球菌23株,占7.54%;乳房链球菌19株,占6.23%;乳链球菌14株,占4.59%;粪链球菌15株,占4.92%;化脓链球菌14株,占4.59%;大肠杆菌48株,占15.74%;真菌12株,占3.93%。分别对分离菌株进行17种药物的敏感性试验,除真菌外,所有菌株对庆大霉素、新霉素、环丙沙星、诺氟沙星、林可霉素、乳肿康均高度敏感,对临床常用的青霉素、链霉素、鱼腥草等具有较强的耐药性。%305 strains of pathogen causing bovine clinical mastitis in Kunming area was isolated from 114 milk samples and belonged to 13 species after cultivation,staining identification and biochemical test.Among these pathogen,Staphylococcus aureus was 63 strains(20.66%),Staphylococcus epidermidis was 26 strains(8.52%),Streptococcus agalactiae was 53 strains(17.38%),Streptococcus dysgalactiae was 23 strains(7.54%),Streptococcus uberis was 19 strains(6.23%),Streptococcus lactis was 14 strains(4.59%),Streptococcus faecium was 15 strains(4.92%),Streptococcus pyogenes was 14 strains(4.59%),Escherichia coli was 48 strains(15.74%)and the fungus was 12 strains(3.93%).Drug sensitive test showed that all bacteria except the fungus were sensitive to Gentamicin,Neomycin,Ciprofloxacin,Norfloxacin,Lincomycin etc.,and resistant to Penicilin,Streptomycin and Houttuynia cordata.

  16. Soil Heavy Metals Content and Dominant Plants Absorption Characteristics in Xiangxi Manganese Mining Area%湘西锰矿区土壤重金属含量及优势植物吸收特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊云武; 唐彪; 林晓燕; 裴东辉; 任重; 龚亚龙; 杨胜香; 许建新; 赵亮

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究湘西锰矿区土壤重金属含量及优势植物吸收特征,为锰矿废弃地植被恢复和重金属污染土壤的植物修复提供理论依据.[方法]调查湘西花垣县响水村锰矿区废弃地植被物种组成,测定优势种根际土壤及植物根部和地上部分的Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd、Mn、Ni含量.[结果]响水村锰矿区所记录的高等植物共有20种,隶属15科18属,且优势种以草本植物为主;土壤重金属主要为Cd、Mn污染,且Cd含量超过国家土壤环境质量3级标准(GB 15618-1995),超标倍数达6.12 ~ 13.61倍,Mn含量为湖南省土壤背景值的57.93~244.40倍,污染严重;11种优势植物,篇蓄(Polygonum aviculare L.)、醉鱼草(Buddleja lindleyana Fort.)植物体内Mn含量较低,为Mn规避型植物,五节芒[(Miscanthus floridulus(Lab.)Warb.ex Schum et Laut.]根部Mn含量远大于地上部,为Mn根部囤积型植物,飞莲(Erigeron acris L.)、鬼针草(Bidens pilosa L.)、千里光(Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don)、土荆芥[Dysphania ambrosioides(Linnaeus)Mosyakin&Clemants]、酸模叶蓼(Polygonum lapathifoliumL.)、愉悦蓼(Polygonum jucundum Meisn.)、商陆(Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.)、博落回[Macleaya cordata(Willd.)R.Br.]均表现出对Mn具有一定的吸收,其中,愉悦蓼对Mn的吸收富集能力较强,为Mn富集型植物.[结论]锰矿区重金属植物修复中,采用植物稳定技术时可以选择篇蓄、醉鱼草、五节芒作为先锋植物进行修复,采用植物提取技术时,可以选择愉悦蓼进行修复.

  17. Are we there yet? An NSF-CAREER sponsored field program as a vehicle for engaging high school students in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T. D.

    2011-12-01

    little outdoor experience, to "get their hands dirty" was a major hurdle in some years. Finding the first fossil generally broke the ice, but this hurdle was never fully breached and remains a concern. At the end of the program, all participants indicated an increased appreciation for Nebraska's rich geologic heritage and for the natural sciences in general. Students went home with a collections of rocks ranging from chalk to tuff and fossils ranging from brachiopods to turtle shells. They were eager to relate Nebraska's geologic history to their parents and friends. At least five students intend to pursue a degree in geology because of their History on the Rocks experience. In 2011, the program was incorporated into the Big Red Summer Academic Camps program, a joint 4H-UNL effort. This integration allows History on the Rocks to continue after the CAREER grant expires.

  18. Facies y microfacies de la rampa tithoniana-berriasiana de la cuenca neuquina (Formación Vaca Muerta en la sección del arroyo Loncoche - Malargüe, provincia de Mendoza Facies and microfacies of the Tithonian-Berriasian ramp from the Neuquén basin (Vaca Muerta Formation in the Loncoche creek section - Malargüe, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Kietzmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Vaca Muerta (Tithoniano-Berriasiano consiste en una alternancia rítmica de lutitas negras, lutitas grises, margas y limolitas, con mudstones, wackestones, packstones, floatstones y rudstones bioclásticos. La asociación de facies en la sección del arroyo Loncoche, permitió definir 12 litofacies y 8 microfacies, dominadas por moluscos, equinodermos, foraminíferos, braquiópodos, serpúlidos y radiolarios. Se distinguieron cuatro asociaciones de facies correspondientes a los subambientes de cuenca, rampa externa (distal y proximal y rampa media. La utilización de la relación Nassellaria/Spumellaria permitió estimar un rango de profundidades menores a 200 metros. El patrón de apilamiento y la distribución vertical de facies permitió la distinción de tres secuencias depositacionales, y el reconocimiento de un sistema tithoniano de rampa homoclinal y un sistema berriasiano de rampa homoclinal de mayor gradiente. La secuencia depositacional 1 consiste en facies de cuenca y rampa externa distal y se caracteriza por un patrón retrogradacional. Presenta un espesor de 124 m, y se extiende desde la Zona de Virgatosphinctes mendozanus hasta la base de la Zona de Corongoceras alternans. Las secuencias depositacionales 2 y 3 consisten en facies de rampa externa y rampa media. Están caracterizadas por un patrón agradacional y progradacional. El espesor de la secuencia 2 es de 66 m y se asigna a la Zona de Corongoceras alternans, mientras que la secuencia 3 alcanza 78 m y corresponde a las zonas de Substeueroceras koeneni y Spiticeras damesi.Facies association of the Tithonian-Berriasian Vaca Muerta Formation from the Loncoche creek section, Neuquén Basin, west central Argentina, allow the distinction and definition of 12 lithofacies and 8 microfacies, which are dominated by molluscs, echinoderms, foraminifera, brachiopods, serpulids and radiolarians. The Vaca Muerta Formation consists of a rhythmical alternation of black shales

  19. Analysis of a intra-Carixian clay horizon into carbonate platform of the Ouarsenis (Algeria): composition, dynamic and paleo-climatic implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, M.; Salhi, A. [Oran Univ., Faculte des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Amenagement du Territoire, Dpt. de Geologie (Algeria)

    2005-07-01

    During the Late Sinemurian a carbonate platform has developed on the Ouarsenis area (external Tell o f the Algerian Alpine belt) with setting deposits of the Kef Sidi Amar Carbonate Formation. A first maximum flooding materialized by a brachiopods (Zeilleriids) layer, is occurring during the Late Carixian. The Late Carixian deepening has been followed by a sea-level fall documented by several meters incisions filled by transgressive breccia and conglomerates. After this episode, this material was sealed by a pedogenic bed (0,05 to 0,20 m) which corresponds to a yellow clay deposit containing well rounded particles interpreted as pedo-genetic globules. These corpuscles are composed of reddish and hardened clay, corroded quartz grains, rhombic and zoned dolomite crystals and ankerite, monocrystalline and xeno-morphous detrital quartz grains (1-2 mm). The observed characteristics allow to recognize a typical calcrete. They are the result of pedo-genetic diagenesis developed inside the phreatic water-table near the surface: this is an alteration profile. The mineralogic fraction has been analyzed by X-Ray which show results of association clay mineral as a predominance of illite (85%) and mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite (I-M, 10%) associated with a low ration of chlorite (5%) and kaolinite trace (1%). This mineralogic clay association indicates a shallow water (hydro-morphic zone). Among these clay minerals, the illite reveals the precious indications in a source area. In this case, it comes from the decomposition of the schist paleo-relief located in the internal domain. This rock was transformed by acid leaching (action of the sour humus) into kaolinite with the presence of the quartzification. The origin of the mixed-layer clay I-M (10%) is the result of the active pedogenesis. The simultaneous presence of the illite, chlorite, kaolinite and the mixed-layer clay I-M seems to be result from the erosion exercised on the alteration product or arenitisation of the

  20. Brackish to hypersaline lake dolostones of the Mississippian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carys; Kearsey, Timothy; Davies, Sarah; Millward, David; Marshall, John

    2016-04-01

    Flat-lying ferroan dolomite beds are common in the Mississippian and occur along the southern margin of Laurassia, from Kentucky USA to Poland. These rocks are important as they record shallow marine to coastal plain environments that may have acted as a pathway or refugia for animals that were radiating into freshwaters such as tetrapods, fish, molluscs and arthropods. This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), that examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland, which contains rare fish and tetrapod fossils. The formation is characterised by an overbank facies association of siltstone, sandstone and palaeosols, interbedded with dolostone and evaporite units, and cut by fluvial sandstone facies associations of fining-upwards conglomerate lags, cross-bedded sandstone and rippled siltstone. Two sites are used as a case study to describe the sedimentological, faunal and ichnofaunal diversity of these dolostones. More than 270 dolostone beds are recorded in each of the 500 metre depth Norham Core (near Berwick-upon-Tweed) and from a 520 metre thick field section at Burnmouth. The beds are laterally extensive, over ˜1 km, although individual units do not appear to correlate between the core and the field site. In the Norham Core dolostones comprise up to 14% of the succession. 17% of the beds contain marginal marine fossils: Spirorbis, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common fauna include ostracods, bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and sarcopterygian fish, which are interpreted as brackish to freshwater tolerant. Bioturbation is fairly common with Serpula colonies within dolostone beds and Chondrites burrowing down from the base of dolostone beds. Some rare units in the field section have a bulbous bed surface and preserve tree root traces

  1. Sedimentary characteristics and sepositional environment analysis of the Tongziyan Formation in Longyong coalfield,southwestern Fujian Province%闽西南龙永煤田童子岩组沉积地层精细特征与沉积环境演化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许福美; 吴传始; 郭玉森; 吴志杰

    2011-01-01

    , etc. There are abundant marine fossils in this formation, including brachiopods, bivalves, cephalopods and dragonflies, together with some terrestrial plant fossils of ferns and seed ferns. According to sequence stratigraphic analysis, the Tongziyan formation in this district can be divided into three sedimentary cycles, 11 genetic stratigraphic units( phase sequence). Generally, Tongziyan Formation is formed in the littoral depositional environments of barrier island-lagoon and tidal flat-tidal channel lake shore which can be further divided into a number of different sedimentary facies according to its sedimentary assemblages. The evolution of the sedimentary environments of Tongziyan Formation can be divided into three phases:early,middle and late periods.

  2. 新疆东准泥盆系卡拉麦里组研究新进展%New Progress on the Study of Kalamaili Formation of Devonian in Dongzhun,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雄飞; 樊光明; 王富明; 廖全安; 田键

    2015-01-01

    Kalamaili Formation in the past has been a quasi-Devonian East synonymous,a long time no one involved.The Devonian is the key period of the collision with Cara.In the chronology,based mainly on coral and brachiopod ancient fos-sils and detrital zircon geochronology also indicates the age for the next,Middle Devonian;sedimentary characteristics, according to the macro and micro (microscopic)combined with the method of Cara,found in the wheat group gravity flow channel facies in lower part of gravity flow turbidite sequence and,the micro with gravel,sand and granule structure,de-termination of sedimentary environment for slope facies and semi deep sea sedimentary environment,change the past long thought that “Binhai traditional understanding”.Bottom Kalamaili Formation opposed by deep shallow facies evolution. This Kalamaili Formation tectonic and sedimentary evolution of closely related early and mid relatively active,gravity flow relatively large,there are many unstable components,mainly feldspar and tuffaceous component based.Late feldspar,tuf-faceous component gradually reduced to a final component to stabilize the marked increase in quartz.Kalamaili Formation biology,sedimentology series of new discoveries in the table Minka Lamech collision zone in the next,Middle Devonian period,oceanic basin system does not turn off,and the completion time of the collision should be in the middle,between the Late Devonian,After the deposition stage into the board.%泥盆纪是新疆卡拉麦里碰撞带的关键时期,在碰撞带南侧广泛发育的泥盆系地层是卡拉麦里组,因此对其研究具有十分重要的意义。本文报道了近年来作者对卡拉麦里组研究的一些主要成果,包括:根据珊瑚和腕足类化石结合以及所测定的碎屑锆石年龄,指示其沉积时期为下、中泥盆世;根据沉积学研究,推断卡拉麦里组下段为重力流浊流沉积序列以及重力流水道相沉积类型,沉积环境为

  3. Sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic analysis of Carboniferous deposits in western Libya: Recording the sedimentary response of the northern Gondwana margin to climate and sea-level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Sebastian; Petitpierre, Laurent; Redfern, Jonathan; Grech, Paul; Bodin, Stéphane; Lang, Simon

    2010-06-01

    Assedjefar Formation exibits a gradual decrease in coarse clastic sediment supply throughout the Serpukhovian and by the Bashkirian and Moscovian during the deposition of the Dembaba Formation a carbonate depositional system was established. Limestones are dominantly made up of a heterozoan fauna (brachiopods, crinoids, bryozoans, gastropods) and are mostly preserved as shallow marine storm and coastal deposits. It is hypothesised that a local increase in aridity and/or the gradual erosion and decreasing topography of the hinterland mountains, with the resulting reduction in discharge, controlled this shift from clastic to carbonate deposition. Available data indicate that the Murzuq Basin was interconnected with the Ghadames Basin at this time and is a postdepositional basin with respect to the Carboniferous interval. The sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic data from the present study offer new insights into the depositional setting and facies distribution in the Carboniferous, and the recognition of major incised fluvial systems has significant implications in the search for potential Carboniferous hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Murzuq, Ghadames, and Illizi Basins.

  4. 东天山觉罗塔格地区石炭纪火山-沉积岩地层序列及地质时代%Stratigraphical Sequence of Carboniferous Marine Volcanic-Deposit Rock and Its Geological Age in Jueluotage Area, Eastern Tianshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雄华; 黄兴; 陈继平; 廖群安; 段先锋

    2012-01-01

    通过对东天山觉罗塔格地区路白山、夹白山及雅满苏一带石炭纪生物地层及年代地层研究,厘定了石炭系地层序列,划分出了(筵)带、四射珊瑚及腕足类化石组合,确定雅满苏组下段、中段地质时代为早石炭亚纪大塘世旧司期-上司期,上段时代为大塘世德坞期,与海相火山岩型铁矿有关的火山岩层位多为大塘世旧司期.根据古生物化石组合确定了底坎尔组地质时代为晚石炭亚纪威宁世罗苏期,土古土布拉克组时代为威宁世滑石板期,与火山岩型铁矿有关的火山岩层位为威宁世滑石板期.此外,通过区域岩石地层对比及地层时代研究,认为前人在雅满苏组之下所划分的小热泉子组在区域上可出现在雅满苏组的中下部,层位极不稳定,应予废弃.在上述年代地层序列的研究基础上,最后对觉罗塔格地区石炭纪大地构造背景演化进行了讨论.%By the study on the Carboniferous biostratigraphy and geological age in Lubaishan, Jiabaishan and Yamansu areas in Jueluotage, the Carboniferous sequence is revised, and the fusulinid zone, coral assemblages and brachiopod assemblages are divided. It is suggested that the geological age of Lower and Middle member of Yamansu Formation is Jiusian-Shangsian in the Early Carboniferous; while the Upper member is Dewuan, and the strata of volcanic deposit which is correlated with the marine volcanic type iron is Jiusiaa What's more, these fossil assemblages indicate that the age of Dikanr Formation is Luosuan in the Late Carboniferous, and the age of Tugutu Bulak Formation is Huashibanian, volcanics horizon here was forming in Huashiba-nian. Besides, this paper suggests that the Xiaorequanzi Formation should be abandoned since this formation can belong to the Middle-Lower part of Yamansu Formation in this area. The geotectonic background of Carboniferous is also discussed in this paper.

  5. 黔南晚石炭世生物礁群落中的生态关系研究%Ecological Interactions among the Late Carboniferous Reef Communities in Southern Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常洪伦; 巩恩普; 陈晓红; 杨大勇; 关长庆; 张永利; 韩炜忠

    2011-01-01

    equilibrium, whereas phylloid algae surpass corals with their sheer number of countless individuals. The phylloid algae and the brachiopods have special ecological interactions, i. e. , maintaining symbiosis while still competing for living space. In the reef-building process of Bianping village coral reef, the replacement of Forrnitchevella community and its lower communities resulted in the formation of Late Carboniferous large-scale coral reef.

  6. 大兴安岭北部红水泉组碎屑锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb年代学及其地质意义%LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Geochronology of Detrital Zircon from the Hongshuiquan Formation in the Northern Da Hinggan Area and Its Tectonic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芝; 迟效国; 赵秀羽; 孙巍; 潘世语; 胡兆初

    2012-01-01

    红水泉组广泛出露于大兴安岭北部地区,主要由杂砂岩、砂板岩、碳酸盐岩和凝灰岩组成,含腕足、珊瑚和苔藓虫化石,时代为早石炭世.对额尔古纳右旗和扎兰屯地区的红水泉组砂岩样品进行了LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb测年.结果显示,87个谐和-近谐和年龄主要分布在4个年龄区间:353~379 Ma,峰值年龄约为366Ma;428~473Ma,峰值年龄约为441Ma和464Ma;487~521Ma,峰值年龄约为502Ma;1 790~1943Ma,峰值年龄约为1 848Ma.其中:约366、441、464和502Ma的峰值年龄与额尔古纳、兴安地块的岩浆事件基本吻合,1 848 Ma的峰值年龄普遍存在于2个地块,说明红水泉组的沉积物主要来自额尔古纳—兴安地块;约366Ma的峰值年龄反映沉积物部分来自大兴安岭北部晚泥盆世火山弧,物源区具有双向性(古老陆壳和火山弧).结合区域早石炭世沉积特征认为红水泉组为一套弧后盆地沉积.%The Hongshuiquan Formation, widely exposed in the northern Da Hinggan area, consists mainly of greywacke, sand-slate, carbonate rocks and tuffs, in which brachiopods, corals and bryozoans flourished in Early Carboniferous. LA - ICP - MS zircon U - Pb dating of the sandstones from the Hongshuiquan Formation in Ergun and Zhalantun area is carried out in order to discuss the Early Carboniferous basin type. Results show that 87 zircon concordant ages give four age groups: 353 - 379 Ma with peak age at 366 Ma, 428 - 473 Ma with peak age at 441 Ma and 464 Ma, 487 - 521 Ma with peak age at 502 Ma and 1 790 -1 943 Ma with peak age at 1 848 Ma. In this frame, the peak ages of 366 Ma, 441 Ma, 464 Ma and 502 Ma are consistent with the magmatic events in Ergun and Xing'an blocks, and the peak age of 1 848 Ma is widely existed in the two blocks, suggesting that sediments of the Hongshuiquan Formation mainly derive from Ergun-Xing'an blocks. The youngest peak age of 366 Ma indicates that the sediments come partly from the Late

  7. 泥质对志留系礁滩生长的抑制作用:黔北桐梓韩家店组的例证%EMBRYONIC PATCHY REEFS FROM THE SILURIAN OF GUIZHOU——AN EXAMPLE OF MUDDY SEDIMENTS CONSTRAINING REEF-BANK GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启剑; 王媛媛; 李越; 马俊业; 张园园; 邓小杰; 蔡习尧

    2012-01-01

    黔北桐梓的戴家沟剖面和狮溪剖面志留系兰多维列统特列奇阶下部的韩家店组出露完好,该组泥岩、粉砂岩中夹有厚度1-3 m、直径4-7 m的小型点礁.礁核相多具典型的障积格架岩特征,但生长时限短暂,群落分异度低,仅见床板珊瑚、单体四射珊瑚、苔藓虫和海百合茎,礁间为珊瑚、苔藓虫和海百合茎碎片堆积的滩相,伴生丰富的遗迹化石.在陆源碎屑快速沉积的背景下,浑浊海水频繁的富营养化过程限制了礁体纵横向生长和朝高分异度群落发展的可能性.%During the Early Silurian the Yangtze Platform of the South China Block was mainly covered by terrigenous sediments derived from the surrounding land, which was then being uplifted. The palaeogeographic setting of the Hanchiatien Formation (lower Telychian, Llandovery, Lower Silurian) indicates a seaward ramp oriented northwards, with a nearby shoal belt spanning northern Guizhou and southern Sichuan. The unit was dominated lithologically by muddy and silty sediments. A sporadic supply of siliciclastic debris enhanced turbidity, resulting in an environment unsuitable for development of a large scale carbonate platform. However, a benthic assemblage of the bra-chiopods Nalivkinia and Striispirifer indicates a palaeodepth (BA2) which was above the fair weather base and was favourable for reef and bank formation; and the shallow marine red beds of the lower member of the formation further indicate a suitably warm palaeoclimate for reef development. Constrained mainly only by the high clastic input, small scale embryonic patch reefs therefore formedand are known from the Hanchiatien Formation at Daijiagou and Shixi, in Tongzi County of northern Guizhou. Generally they are one to three metres thick, four to seven metres in diameter, and are knoll-shaped in morphology. The reef bases and tops have sharp lithological boundaries with the underlying and overlying mudstones, so the growth margins

  8. A preliminary study of the Xingshugou gold mineralization spots in the eastern segment of Kunlun orogenic belt and the dating of its surrounding rocks%东昆仑东段杏树沟金矿(化)点的成矿特征及其围岩时代的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时超; 李荣社; 何世平; 于浦生; 王超; 潘术娟; 张海迪

    2012-01-01

    东昆仑成矿带是中国西部重大成(找)矿潜力的贵金属-有色金属成矿带.对东昆仑东段都兰县诺木洪南部产于下石炭统哈拉郭勒组(C1h)中的杏树沟金矿(化)点进行了初步研究,认为该金矿(化)点受近东西向韧脆性剪切构造的控制,矿化带内中酸性脉岩发育,与构造蚀变岩型金矿有相似的特征,可以与东昆仑其它金矿对比,具有一定的成矿潜力.含矿围岩为一套火山碎屑岩-碎屑岩建造,矿化蚀变主要为褐铁矿化、孔雀石化和黄铁矿化.在围岩的灰岩夹层中发现大量珊瑚、腕足和腹足类化石,其中Siphonodendron asiatica Yabe et Hayasaka和Siphonodendron asiatica minor Minato这2种珊瑚化石是首次在哈拉郭勒组发现,这不仅丰富了哈拉郭勒组的化石组合类型,而且将杏树沟金矿(化)点的围岩时代进一步限定为早石炭世维宪期.%The Eastern Kunlun metallogenic belt is a precious metil—nonferrous metal ore—forming belt with great prospecting potential in western China. Some gold mineralization spots in Early Carboniferous Halaguole Formation were preliminarily studied during the investigation of Nomhon Township in Dulan County, which lies in the eastern segment of Kunlun orogenic belt. And it is thus believed that gold mineralization was affected by the EW—trending ductile shearing, with the development of acid dykes in these mineralization spots. These mineralization spots are similar to altered rock type gold deposits. The gold mineralization spots have some ore-forming potential because they are comparable with other ore deposits(spots) in eastern Kunlun metallogenic belt. The mineralization consists mainly of limonitization, pyritization and malachitization, with the surrounding rocks being pyroclastic rocks and clastic rocks. Fossils of corals, brachiopods and gastropod were found in the limestone interbed of the surrounding rocks in Halaguole Formation, and'two coral fossils, i

  9. Antarctic birds (Neornithes during the Cretaceous-Eocene times Aves antàrticas (Neornithes durante el lapso cretácico - eoceno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tambussi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic fossil birds can be confidently assigned to modern orders and families, such as a goose-like anseriform, two loon-like and a seriema-like, all recorded before the K/T boundary at the López de Bertodano Fomation. Also, the discovery of a ratite and a phororhacids from the uppermost levels of the Submeseta Allomember (Late Eocene, suggests that West Antarctica was functional to dispersal routes obligate terrestrial birds. Representatives of Falconiformes Polyborinae, Ciconiiformes, Phoenicoteriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelagornitidae and Diomedeidae constitute the non-penguin avian assemblages of the Eocene of La Meseta Formation. Fifthteen Antarctic species of penguins have been described including the oldest penguin of West Antarctica, Croswallia unienwillia. The Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Biozone (36.13 and 34.2 Ma, Late Eocene is characterized by bearing one of the highest frequencies of penguin bones and the phospatic brachiopod Lingula., together with remains of Gadiforms, sharks and primitive mysticete whales. Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, Delphinornis gracilis, D. arctowski, Archaeospheniscus lopdelli, and Palaeeudyptes antarcticus are exclusively of the La Meseta Formation. Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi was evidently the largest penguin recorded at the James Ross Basin, whereas Delphinornis arctowski is the smallest, and include one of the worldwide highest morphological and taxonomic penguin diversity living sympatrically. The progressive climate cooling of the Eocene could have affected the penguin populations, because of climatic changes linked with habitat availability and food web processes. However, there is not available evidence about Antarctic penguins' evolution after the end of the Eocene.Las aves fósiles antárticas pueden ser asignadas a órdenes y familias vivientes, incluyendo restos de un Anseriformes que recuerda al ganso overo, dos colimbos y una supuesta seriema, todos registrados en sedimentos cretácicos de

  10. Marine Faura and Its Environmental Analysis of Xiangbai Formation in Yangfeng Village of Dushan County, South Guizhou%黔南独山县羊凤乡祥摆组海相动物群及其环境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗威; 熊发挥; 石和

    2011-01-01

    Xiangbai Formation was scarce of the fossil records which most parts were constituted of phytolite in South Guizhou. A marine fauna, which was comprised of the brachiopod. The coralline, the bryozoan, the cephalopod and the trace fossils, was discovered in Xiangbai Formation of Yangfeng Village of Dushan County. According to the lithologic, mineral and deposit characteristics of the neighborhood in the horizon of marine fauna, on the basis of the fossils' identify with the palaeoecology method, the results showed that the marine fauna lived in a desalted lagoon which mainly located between Pingtang County and Dushan County. The barriers of lagoon and open sea were mainly located in the northeast of Baizhe-Mawei with NW extension. In the north part, Xiangbai Formation had evolved with the main flood plain deposits near the Tuchang. The structure within the lagoon was complete, and the limited low-energy environment could form well hydrocarbon source rock. Therefore, the distribution has great significance on the study of lithofacies and paleogeography as well as the assemblage of the source-reservoir-seal association in oil and gas fields.%黔南祥摆组的化石资料稀少且以植物化石为主,在独山县羊凤乡祥摆组中发现了一个海相动物群,主要化石有腕足类、珊瑚类、苔藓虫类、头足类和遗迹化石,其中以腕足类最为丰富.在鉴定分析所发现化石的基础上,结合该动物群所在层位的岩性特征、矿物特征和区域上该时期的沉积特征,采用古生态学分析方法,认为该动物群生存环境为一个淡化潟湖.区域上,该潟湖主要位于平塘县与独山县之间,而构成潟湖与外海的障壁则主要位于摆者至麻尾一线东北,呈北西向延伸;在北部兔场附近祥摆组已演变为以泛滥平原沉积为主.潟湖范围内现今构造形态完整,同时这种局限低能的沉积环境可以形成良好的烃源岩,因此它们在区域上的分布对岩相古

  11. A revised Mississippian lithostratigraphy of County Galway (western Ireland) with an analysis of carbonate lithofacies, biostratigraphy, depositional environments and palaeogeographic reconstructions utilising new borehole data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markus Pracht; Ian D Somerville

    2015-01-01

    éan, shallow-water limestones of the Burren Formation extend across much of the south-ern part of the region. They are characterized by the presence of rich concentrations of large brachiopod shells and colonial coral horizons which developed in predominantly high-energy conditions. These limestones also exhibit palaeokarstic surfaces and palaeosols which formed during regressive conditions of glacio-eustatically controlled cyclicity. Locally, slightly deeper water, lower energy conditions developed on the shelf with the formation of rare bryozoan-rich mud-mounds. Deep-water basinal facies were maintained in the central and southeastern parts of the region between the two shelves with the persistence of the Lucan Formation. Ac-tive syn-sedimentary faulting inlfuenced deposition in the Viséan and interifngering of basinal sediments with slumps and shallow-water shelf carbonates are recognized.

  12. 湖北房县下寒武统西蒿坪段钉形骨片化石%NAIL-SHAPED SCLERITE FOSSILS FROM THE LOWER CAMBRIAN XIHAOPING MEMBER OF FANGXIAN, HUBEI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    那琳; 李国祥

    2011-01-01

    far unresolved. Without soft-bodied preservation, it is rather difficult to evaluate the function of these sclerites bearing on their biological affinities. It could not exclude that morphological similarities of the sclerites may be due to convergence.The nail-shaped sclerites described in this paper were collected from the Xihaoping Member at the Sanzuoan section, Fangxian County, Hubei Province. Systematically, two species, including Parazhijinites guizhouensis and Cambroclavus fangxianensis, are described in detail. Parazhijinites guizhouensis comes from the basal part of the Xihaoping Member, co-occurring fossils including Neogloborilusspinatus, Hyolithellus cf. Micans, Archaeospiraor-nata , Allonnia erromenosa , Archiasterella pentactina , Chancelloria sp. , Halkeria sp. < etc. This assemblage indicates the basal part may be of the late Meishucunian in age. While the major part of the Xihaoping Member is of the Qiongzhusian in age for the occurrence of C. Fangxianensis, Ninella, Microdictyon and linguloid brachiopods. C. Fangxianensis shows extensive morphological variability and three types of sclerites are recognized. Type I has the typical morphology of a dumb-bell base and a spine projecting from the anterior end. Type H and Type ffl sclerites lack projecting spines, but they show distinctive variability in base form.

  13. Sedimentology, conodonts and ostracods of the Devonian - Carboniferous strata of the Anseremme railway bridge section, Dinant Basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casier, J.-G.; Mamet, B.; Preat, A.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Seven major carbonate microfacies are defined in the Devonian - Carboniferous (D/C) strata (50 m) of the Anseremme railway bridge section, south of Dinant. They permit recognition of several levels encompassing the Etroeungt and Hastie??re formations. "Bathymetric" sequences range from open marine, below the storm wave base, to semi-restricted lagoon. This sequence records a shallowing-upward trend of the relative sea level, from environments below the storm wave base to strongly eroded supraticial pre-evaporitic environments. Faunal components (echinoderms, brachiopods...) indicate open-marine domain for the first six microfacies located within the dysphoticeuphotic zone in relatively shallow waters. The textures of the rocks (mudstones to rudstones) associated with lamination characteristics indicate the position of the storm (SWB) and the fair-weather (FWWB) wave bases. Microfacies seven suggests a semi-restricted platform with salinity fluctuations from hypersaline brines to brackish waters. Thus, the boundary of the Etroeungt/Hastie??re formations is marked by an abrupt drop in sea level. Carbonate micro-conglomerates recording an important erosive phase and a sedimentary hiatus. The environment is again open marine in the upper part of the Hastie??re Formation. Our conclusion is that the Anseremme section is not a reliable continuous succession for the study of the D/C boundary. This confirms the VAN STEENWINKEL (1988, 1993 hypothesis based on other arguments. Conodont faunas demonstrate that the Devonian sequence spans the five youngest conodont zones, but that two of these zones are not represented. The Epinette Formation is dated as the youngest part of the Middle expansa Zone. Thus, the boundary with the Late praesulcata Zone probably coincides with the sharp sedimentological change at the base of the Etroeungt Formation, which is interpreted to belong entirely to this zone. The disconformably overlying basal bed 159 of the Hastie??re Formation is dated

  14. Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, James, P.

    2010-05-26

    effects of high CO2 waters on marine animals (Barry et al. 2008). This system is capable of controlling oxygen, pH, and temperature of seawater for use in studies of the physiological responses of animals under acidified conditions. We have investigated the tolerance of deep- and shallow-living crabs to high CO2 levels (Pane and Barry 2007; Pane et al. 2008), and are now working on brachiopods (Barry et al. in prep.) and a comparison of deep and shallow living sea urchins. This research program, supported in part by DoE has contributed to a number of other publications authored or co-authored by Barry (Caldeira et al. 2005; Brewer and Barry 2008; Barry et al. 2006, 2010a,b,c; National Research Council, in press; Hoffman et al. in press) as well as over 40 invited talks since 2004, including Congressional briefings and testimony at U.S. Senate Hearings on Ocean Acidification. Through the grant period, the research emphasis shifted from studies of the effects of direct deep-sea carbon dioxide sequestration on deep-sea animals, to a broader conceptual framework of the effects of ocean acidification (whether purposeful or passive) on the physiology and survival of deep and shallow living marine animals. We feel that this has been a very productive program and are grateful to DoE for its support.

  15. Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Poole, F.G.; Hose, R.K.; Radtke, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    . In fresh rock, bluish-white opaline-like silica (chalcedonic quartz) fills microfractures, and is believed to have originated by diagenetic mobilization of opaline silica from radiolarian tests and sponge spicules. As revealed by microscopic study, the Gibellini facies originally consisted of siliceous muds, slimes, and oozes high in organic constituents. The organic matter is amorphous flaky and stringy sapropel, and probably includes remains of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and minor higher plants. Recognizable organic remnants include radiolarian tests, sponge spicules, conodonts, brachiopod shells, algae, and humic debris. Diagnostic radiolarians indicate a Late Devonian age for the Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation. Some pyrite is disseminated through the rock and may be primary (syngenetic) but significant pyrite and marcasite occur in chalcedonic quartz veinlets and appear to be diagenetic. In fresh rock, black solid bitumen and liquid oil fill voids and microfractures. These early phase hydrocarbons probably were released during diagenesis from complex nonhydrocarbon molecular structures originating from living organisms, and formed without any major thermal degradation of the kerogen. Gas chromatographic analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction indicates a very complex mixture dominated by branched and cyclic compounds. Conodont and palynomorph color alteration, vitrinite reflectance, and other organic geochemical data suggest that the organic matter in the rock is thermally immature and has not been subjected to temperatures greater than 60?C since deposition in Devonian time. All of these characteristics are consistent with the interpretation of a relatively low temperature and a shallow-burial history for the Gibellini facies on ridge 7129.

  16. Clumped isotope thermometry of modern and early Cretaceous molluscan carbonate from high-latitude seas (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, G. A.; Price, G. D.; Ambrose, W. G.; Carroll, M. L.; Passey, B. H.

    2010-12-01

    The carbonate clumped isotope thermometer is based on the temperature sensitivity of the relative abundance of carbonate ion groups containing 13C-18O bonds. One application of clumped isotope thermometry is to determine the temperature of ancient seawater from the skeletal material of calcium carbonate-secreting marine organisms. The relationship between Δ47, a parameter describing isotopic clumping, and the temperature of carbonate biomineralization has been well-defined for fish otoliths, corals, foraminifera, and coccolithophore tests, but few data have been published for brachiopods and bivalve mollusks. A comprehensive evaluation of the Δ47-temperature relationship for mollusks is required for paleotemperature interpretations from the marine fossil record. Here we present a more comprehensive calibration for modern mollusks, including bivalves, cephalopods, and gastropods. Further, we focus on a subset of cold water, high-latitude species collected in the northern Barents Sea. The observed Δ47-temperature relationship is similar to the theoretical relationship presented by Guo et al. (2009) but deviates at low temperatures from the original Ghosh et al. (2007) calibrat