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Sample records for brachiopods argyrotheca cordata

  1. Comparative larval myogenesis and adult myoanatomy of the rhynchonelliform (articulate) brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    , diductors, dorsal and ventral pedicle adjustors, mantle margin muscles, a distinct musculature of the intestine, and striated muscle fibres in the tentacles for all three species. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that larvae of rhynchonelliform brachiopods share a common muscular bodyplan and are thus derived...... in these two species. The first anlagen of the musculature develop in the pedicle lobe, followed by setae muscles and the mantle lobe musculature. Late-stage larvae show a network of strong pedicle muscles, central mantle muscles, longitudinal muscles running from the mantle to the pedicle lobe, setae pouch...... muscles, setae muscles, a U-shaped muscle, serial mantle muscles, and apical longitudinal as well as apical transversal muscles. Fully developed A. cistellula larvae differ from the former species in that they have only two visible body lobes and lack setae. Nevertheless, we found corresponding muscle...

  2. New phenylethanoids from Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, L; Martínez, E; Castañeda, P; Franzblau, S; Timmermann, B N; Linares, E; Bye, R; Mata, R

    2000-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude extract of the stem bark of Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata with significant antimycobacterial activity led to the isolation of a mixture composed by ten new long-chain esters of 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethanol (1-10), along with the lichen metabolites methyl beta-orcinolcarboxylate (11) and beta-orcinolcarboxylate (12). Extensive HPLC allowed the separation of the major components of the mixture, which were characterized by spectral means as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl stearate (3), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl behenate (6), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl lignocerate (8). The minor esters were identified as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl palmitate (1), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl heptadecanoate (2), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl nonadecanoate (4), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl arachidate (5), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl tricosanoate (7), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl pentacosanoate (9), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl hexacosanoate (10) by GC-MS analysis of the methyl esters derivatives of the fatty acids obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of the mixture. Compound 8 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC = 64 micrograms/ml).

  3. Lithium in Brachiopods - proxy for seawater evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspers, Natalie; Magna, Tomas; Tomasovych, Adam; Henkel, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Marine biogenic carbonates have the potential to serve as a proxy for evolution of seawater chemistry. In order to compile a record of the past and recent δ7Li in the oceans, foraminifera shells, scleractinian corals and belemnites have been used. However, only a foraminifera-based record appears to more accurately reflect the Li isotope composition of ocean water. At present, this record is available for the Cenozoic with implications for major events during this period of time, including K/T event [1]. A record for the entire Phanerozoic has not yet been obtained. In order to extend this record to the more distant past, Li elemental/isotope systematics of brachiopods were investigated because these marine animals were already present in Early Cambrian oceans and because they are less sensitive to diagenesis-induced modifications due to their shell mineralogy (low-Mg calcite). The preliminary data indicates a species-, temperature- and salinity-independent behavior of Li isotopes in brachiopod shells. Also, no vital effects have been observed for different shell parts. The consistent offset of -4‰ relative to modern seawater is in accordance with experimental data [2]. Further data are now being collected for Cenozoic specimens to more rigorously test brachiopods as possible archives of past seawater in comparison to the existing foraminiferal records. [1] Misra & Froelich (2012) Science 335, 818-823 [2] Marriott et al. (2004) Chem Geol 212, 5-15

  4. Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) brachiopods from the Eastern Alborz Mountains, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Leonid E.; Mansoureh Ghobadi Pour; Mohammad Reza Kebriaee-Zadeh

    2011-01-01

    Six linguliform and two rhynchonelliform brachiopods, including three new species Eurytreta ahmadii, Wahwahlingula kharbashi and Nanorthis bastamensis are described from Tremadocian strata (Paltodus deltifer deltifer conodont Biozone) in the Deh-Molla area southwest of Shahrud, Northern Iran. The fauna is dominated by micromorphic lingulides and acrotretides and shows distinct similarity to the contemporaneous micromorphic brachiopod association from Tremadocian chalcedonites of the Holy Cros...

  5. PERMIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM KARAKORUM (PAKISTAN PART. 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA ANGIOLINI

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Wordian (Guadalupian brachiopods from Member 2 of the Panjshah Formation in the Karakorum (N Pakistan are described. The brachiopod assemblage, dated by the associated fusulinids and conodonts, consists of 29 genera (3 of which are questionable and 1 unidentifiable of the orders Productida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida and Terebratulida. Hunzininae, a new subfamily of the Spiriferellidae is proposed; it includes Darbandia n. gen., with type species D. vagabunda n. sp. and Elivina chapursani n. sp. A third new species is assigned to the genus Anchorhynchia of the family Wellerellidae: A. cimmerica n. sp.A quantitative biostratigraphic analysis demonstrates two major faunal changes in the Elivina chapursani- Chapursania tatianae Assemblage Zone of the upper part of Member 2, which are not strictly linked to lithological changes. This biozone is correlated with the brachiopod faunas of the Gnishik Formation of Armenia and those of the basal Takhtabulak Formation of SE Pamir.The faunal elements of the Elivina chapursani- Chapursania tatianae Assemblage Zone are an admixture of wide-ranging, Tethyan (particularly abundant, Gondwanan and endemic (Cimmerian genera, representing a transitional fauna and a biostratigraphic tool for intercontinental correlation, which are particularly problematic in this time interval. The Panjshah transitional fauna demonstrates the persistence of the Transhimalayan Province of the Cimmerian Region into the late Guadalupian, which originated at the end of the Cisuralian and occupied Armenia, Central Afghanistan, Karakorum and SE Pamir. It provides also some insights into the biodiversity pattern before the mass extinction at the end of the Guadalupian, and suggests that this event was as rapid as the end- Permian mass extinction, at least in Central Asia. 

  6. Phylogenetic paleobiogeography of Late Ordovician Laurentian brachiopods

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    Jennifer E. Bauer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis of four brachiopod genera was used to uncover large-scale geologic drivers of Late Ordovician biogeographic differentiation in Laurentia. Previously generated phylogenetic hypotheses were converted into area cladograms, ancestral geographic ranges were optimized and speciation events characterized as via dispersal or vicariance, when possible. Area relationships were reconstructed using Lieberman-modified Brooks Parsimony Analysis. The resulting area cladograms indicate tectonic and oceanographic changes were the primary geologic drivers of biogeographic patterns within the focal taxa. The Taconic tectophase contributed to the separation of the Appalachian and Central basins as well as the two midcontinent basins, whereas sea level rise following the Boda Event promoted interbasinal dispersal. Three migration pathways into the Cincinnati Basin were recognized, which supports the multiple pathway hypothesis for the Richmondian Invasion.

  7. How brachiopods get covered with nanometric silicon chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüter, Carsten

    2004-12-07

    The investigation of an early pelagic juvenile of the discinid brachiopod Discinisca cf. tenuis elucidates the so far enigmatic origin of nanometric silicon chips covering the brachiopod's juvenile shell. The siliceous tablets are products of an intracellular process within specialized cells of the animal's inner mantle epithelium. These specialized cells are arranged in a circumferential row and contain vesicles, which provide 'reaction chambers' osmotically separated from the cytoplasm. Up to 15 tablets per vesicle are released into the cell by vesicle burst, followed by a coordinated extrusion onto the periostracum. In conjunction with the conveyor belt mechanism of periostracum formation, the regime of tablet release accounts for the highly ordered arrangement of siliceous tablets in parts of the shell's surface. The siliceous tablets are discussed as a protective cover against solar radiation, inherited from Palaeozoic linguliform brachiopods.

  8. Utilizing next generation sequencing to characterize microsatellite loci in a tropical aquatic plant species Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata (Araceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosazlina, Rusly; Jacobsen, Niels; Ørgaard, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata (2n = 34) is an aquatic plant species distributed from the southern part of Peninsular Thailand through the Malay Peninsula. It propagates both sexually and asexually via stolons. The current study is aimed at developing nuclear microsatellite markers...

  9. Modes of Brachiopod Body Size Evolution throughout the Phanerozoic Eon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Body size correlates with numerous physiological and behavioral traits and is therefore one of the most important influences on the survival prospects of individuals and species. Patterns of body size evolution across taxa can therefore complement taxonomic diversity and geochemical proxy data in quantifying controls on long-term trends in the history of life. In contrast to widely available and synoptic taxonomic diversity data for fossil animal families and genera, however, no comprehensive size dataset exists, even for a single fossil animal phylum. For this study, we compiled a comprehensive, genus-level dataset of body sizes spanning the entire Phanerozoic for the phylum Brachiopoda. We use this dataset to examine statistical support for several possible modes of size evolution, in addition to environmental covariates: CO2, O2, and sea level. Brachiopod body size in the Phanerozoic followed two evolutionary modes: directional trend in the Early Paleozoic (Cambrian - Mississippian), and unbiased random walk from the Mississippian to the modern. We find no convincing correlation between trends in any single environmental parameter and brachiopod body size over time. The Paleozoic size increase follows Cope's Rule, and has been documented in many other marine invertebrates, while the Mesozoic size plateau has not been. This interval of size stability correlates with increased competition for resources from bivalves beginning during the Mesozoic Marine Revolution, and may be causally linked. The Late Mesozoic decline in size is an artifact of the improved sampling of smaller genera, many of which are less abundant than their Paleozoic ancestors. The Cenozoic brachiopod dataset is similarly incomplete. Biodiversity is decoupled from size dynamics even within the Paleozoic when brachiopods are on average becoming larger and more abundant, suggesting the presence of different controls. Our findings reveal that the dynamics of body size evolution changed over time in

  10. Mode of action of Buddleja cordata verbascoside against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, J G; de Liverant, J G; Martínez, A; Martínez, G; Muñoz, J L; Arciniegas, A; Romo de Vivar, A

    1999-07-01

    We evaluate the mode of action of verbascoside obtained from Buddleja cordata against Staphylococcus aureus by killing kinetics and incorporation of precursors methods. Verbascoside induced lethal effect on S. aureus, by affecting protein synthesis and inhibiting leucine incorporation.

  11. Geochemical signatures in Late Triassic brachiopods from New Caledonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, C. V.; Campbell, H. J.; Frei, R.

    2014-01-01

    .7065, and light δ13C values of c.-20‰, suggesting major contributions by oxidized organic matter. Diagenetic equilibrium was reached at δ18O values of c.-12‰, very low Sr/Ca ratios of ...Brachiopod fossils from the sedimentary sequences of the Téremba Terrane (New Caledonia) provide a unique opportunity to study the environmental parameters of the Late Triassic. 87Sr/86Sr ratios, δ13C and δ18O values, and Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios were measured on brachiopods from Oretian...... to Otapirian (Norian to Rhaetian) fossil localities of the Baie de St.-Vincent area. Post-depositional impacts on the geochemical proxies were investigated by analysing calcite cements and partly recrystallized shell material. Diagenetic fluids carried strontium with a low 87Sr/86Sr ratio of c. 0...

  12. The oldest brachiopods from the lower cambrian of South Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Holmer, Lars E.; Skovsted, Christian B.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported...... from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense...... and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part...

  13. Early Ordovician (Tremadocian brachiopods from the Eastern Alborz Mountains, Iran

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    Leonid E. Popov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Six linguliform and two rhynchonelliform brachiopods, including three new species Eurytreta ahmadii, Wahwahlingula kharbashi and Nanorthis bastamensis are described from Tremadocian strata (Paltodus deltifer deltifer conodont Biozone in the Deh-Molla area southwest of Shahrud, Northern Iran. The fauna is dominated by micromorphic lingulides and acrotretides and shows distinct similarity to the contemporaneous micromorphic brachiopod association from Tremadocian chalcedonites of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. New data on the early ontogeny of the enigmatic lingulide Diencobolus show a very distinct pattern, including the presence of a metamorphic protegulum ornamented with flat-based pits and a single pair of larval setal bundles, which links this taxon to Paterula and suggests close phylogenetic relationships of both taxa to the Discinoidea.

  14. Brachiopod biogeochemistry and isotope stratigraphy from the Rhaetian Eiberg section in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    2017-01-01

    -Triassic extinction, a total of 675 and 108 carbonate δ13C and δ18O values have been measured from bulk rock carbonate and articulate brachiopod samples from the Rhaetian Eiberg quarry succession (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria) respectively. Both brachiopod and bulk rock oxygen isotope trends are compatible...

  15. BRACHIOPODS FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC REEF HABITATS OF THE NORTHERN CALCAREOUS ALPS (DACHSTEIN LIMESTONE, HOCHSCHWAB, AUSTRIA

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    MILOS SIBLÍK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper Triassic brachiopods from 2 localities in the reef Dachstein Limestone of the SE Hochschwab massif in Styria, Austria are systematically described and illustrated. About 900 variably preserved specimens belong to 28 species, representing thus the most diverse brachiopod fauna known from the North Alpine Dachstein Limestone. This indicates that brachiopods were common inhabitants of reef habitats during the Alpine Norian. Oxycolpella, Sinucosta and Aulacothyropsis are dominant. Seven brachiopod species are known from the Kössen Formation (Rhaetian. Adygella biplicata (Dagys and Ladinian Hungarispira loretzi (Bittner are the newcomers in the Nordalpine Dachstein Limestone. In addition to brachiopods, only some fragments of bivalves were found. Conodonts of the species Epigondolella triangularis (Budurov 1972 indicate the Early Norian age.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Articulate Brachiopod Terebratal ia transversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-07-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. The circular genome is 14,291 bp in size, relatively small compared to other published metazoan mtDNAs. The 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNA are present; the size decrease is due to the truncation of several tRNA, rRNA, and protein genes, to some nucleotide overlaps, and to a paucity of non-coding nucleotides. Although the gene arrangement differs radically from those reported for other metazoans, some gene junctions are shared with two other articulate brachiopods, Laqueus rubellus and Terebratulina retusa. All genes in the T. transversa mtDNA, unlike those in most metazoan mtDNAs reported, are encoded by the same strand. The A+T content (59.1 percent) is low for a metazoan mtDNA, and there is a high propensity for homopolymer runs and a strong base-compositional strand bias. The coding strand is quite G+T-rich, a skew that is shared by the confamilial (laqueid) specie s L. rubellus, but opposite to that found in T. retusa, a cancellothyridid. These compositional skews are strongly reflected in the codon usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins, with markedly different usage observed between T. retusa and the two laqueids. This observation, plus the similarity of the laqueid non-coding regions to the reverse complement of the non-coding region of the cancellothyridid, suggest that an inversion that resulted in a reversal in the direction of first-strand replication has occurred in one of the two lineages. In addition to the presence of one non-coding region in T. transversa that is comparable to those in the other brachiopod mtDNAs, there are two others with the potential to form secondary structures; one or both of these may be involved in the process of transcript cleavage.

  17. Genetic analysis of Aralia cordata Thunb by RAPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fan; Zhou, Jue; Zhou, Zhou; Li, Huiyu; Burrows, Elizabeth

    2008-10-25

    In the research, genetic analysis of Aralia cordata Thunb. (Araliaceae) was conducted using randomly amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD). 161 loci were detected with 12 RAPD primers. Percentage of Polymorphic Band (PPB) varied from 34.78% to 63.35%. All the samples were respectively collected from the eight provinces richest in Aralia cordata Thunb resources in China, including Hunan, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Anhui, Shanxi and Gansu. The results showed that Hunan Province enjoyed the highest level of genetic differentiation and Gansu was the lowest. The total genetic diversity (H(T)) of RAPD, intraspecific genetic diversity (H(S)) and genetic diversity (D(ST)) of the various places was respectively 26.33%, 11.14%, and 49.36%. The differentiation among the species accounted for 98.76% of total genetic diversity (G(ST)). Based on the cluster results of genetic distance, the 8 samples were classified into three groups. It is concluded that Hunan Province enjoyed the highest level of genetic differentiation of Aralia cordata Thunb and Gansu was the lowest, which provides a basis for the taxonomic identification and germplasm resource research of Aralia cordata Thunb in the future.

  18. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Drymaria cordata (Linn.) Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, and tail clip tests were used to evaluate analgesic activity while the 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-, d-amphetamine-, and ... that the aqueous whole plant extract of Drymaria cordata possesses analgesic and antipyretic properties mediated through peripheral and central mechanisms.

  19. Anti-Neuroinflammatory Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract on LPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, interleukin (IL)-6 expressional level were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Results: Ethyl actetae (HC-EA) extract of H. cordata significantly scavenged DPPH free radicals in a concentration-dependent fashion. The increased ...

  20. Stegocornu and associated brachiopods from the Silurian (Llandovery of Central Iran

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    Vachik Hairapetian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A Llandovery (mid-upper Aeronian brachiopod fauna is described for the first time from the Niur Formation of Central Iran. It is dominated by two succeeding rhynchonellide species Stegocornu procerum Dürkoop, 1970 and Stegocornu denisae sp. nov. In addition, there are three common and four rarer brachiopod species, including Dalejina? rashidii sp. nov., Isorthis (Ovalella inflata sp. nov. and Striispirifer? ocissimus sp. nov. The Stegocornu Association gives a distinct biogeographic signature to the mid to late Llandovery rhynchonellide-dominated shallow-water brachiopod faunas of Central Iran, Kope-Dagh and Afghanistan. Its proliferation in temperate latitude peri-Gondwana was one of the earliest signs of biogeographical differentiation of the brachiopod faunas in the early Silurian. The affinities of Stegocornu and Xerxespirifer are discussed.

  1. Ultrastructure of the coelom in the brachiopod Lingula anatina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temereva, Elena N

    2017-07-01

    The organization of the coelomic system and the ultrastructure of the coelomic lining are used in phylogenetic analysis to establish the relationships between major taxa. Investigation of the anatomy and ultrastructure of the coelomic system in brachiopods, which are poorly studied, can provide answers to fundamental questions about the evolution of the coelom in coelomic bilaterians. In the current study, the organization of the coelom of the lophophore in the brachiopod Lingula anatina was investigated using semithin sectioning, 3D reconstruction, and transmission electron microscopy. The lophophore of L. anatina contains two main compartments: the preoral coelom and the lophophoral coelom. The lining of the preoral coelom consists of ciliated cells. The lophophoral coelom is subdivided into paired coelomic sacs: the large and small sinuses (= canals). The lining of the lophophoral coelom varies in structure and includes monociliate myoepithelium, alternating epithelial and myoepithelial cells, specialized peritoneum and muscle cells, and podocyte-like cells. Connections between cells of the coelomic lining are provided by adherens junctions, tight-like junctions, septate junctions, adhesive junctions, and direct cytoplasmic bridges. The structure of the coelomic lining varies greatly in both of the main stems of the Bilateria, that is, in the Protostomia and Deuterostomia. Because of this great variety, the structure of the coelomic lining cannot by itself be used in phylogenetic analysis. At the same time, the ciliated myoepithelium can be considered as the ancestral type of coelomic lining. The many different kinds of junctions between cells of the coelomic lining may help coordinate the functioning of epithelial cells and muscle cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2014-01-01

    Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow-water palaeoenvironm......Middle Ordovician brachiopod faunas from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia are poorly known. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone was sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils in order to provide new information on marine benthic diversity in this clastic-dominated, shallow...

  3. Late Ordovician deep-water brachiopod fauna from Raheen, Waterford Harbour, Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, David A.T.; Parkes, Matthew A.; Ren-Bin, Zhan

    2017-01-01

    The Raheen Formation at Newtown Head in Waterford Harbour is a small isolated section of Ordovician rocks, dominated by volcanics of the Duncannon Group, but with interbedded fossiliferous shales. Although a brachiopod and trilobite dominated fauna has been known since the mid-nineteenth century, only the trilobites and cystoids have been assessed in modern terms. This paper describes the brachiopod fauna for the first time. The assemblage from Raheen is overwhelmingly dominated by the dalman...

  4. Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Timothy P.; Holmer, Lars E.; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Ecological interactions, including symbiotic associations such as mutualism, parasitism and commensalism are crucial factors in generating evolutionary novelties and strategies. Direct examples of species interactions in the fossil record generally involve organisms attached to sessile organisms in an epibiont or macroboring relationship. Here we provide support for an intimate ecological association between a calcareous brachiopod (Nisusia) and the stem group mollusc Wiwaxia from the Burgess Shale. Brachiopod specimens are fixed to Wiwaxia scleritomes, the latter showing no signs of decay and disarticulation, suggesting a live association. We interpret this association as the oldest unambiguous example of a facultative ectosymbiosis between a sessile organism and a mobile benthic animal in the fossil record. The potential evolutionary advantage of this association is discussed, brachiopods benefiting from ease of attachment, increased food supply, avoidance of turbid benthic conditions, biofoul and possible protection from predators, suggesting commensalism (benefiting the symbiont with no impact for the host). While Cambrian brachiopods are relatively common epibionts, in particular on sponges, the association of Nisusia with the motile Wiwaxia is rare for a brachiopod species, fossil or living, and suggests that symbiotic associations were already well established and diversified by the ``middle'' (Series 3, Stage 5) Cambrian.

  5. Ecological interactions on macroevolutionary time scales: clams and brachiopods are more than ships that pass in the night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Reitan, Trond; Harnik, Paul G

    2015-10-01

    Competition among organisms has ecological and evolutionary consequences. However, whether the consequences of competition are manifested and measureable on macroevolutionary time scales is equivocal. Marine bivalves and brachiopods have overlapping niches such that competition for food and space may occur. Moreover, there is a long-standing debate over whether bivalves outcompeted brachiopods evolutionarily, because brachiopod diversity declined through time while bivalve diversity increased. To answer this question, we estimate the origination and extinction dynamics of fossil marine bivalve and brachiopod genera from the Ordovician through to the Recent while simultaneously accounting for incomplete sampling. Then, using stochastic differential equations, we assess statistical relationships among diversification and sampling dynamics of brachiopods and bivalves and five paleoenvironmental proxies. None of these potential environmental drivers had any detectable influence on brachiopod or bivalve diversification. In contrast, elevated bivalve extinction rates causally increased brachiopod origination rates, suggesting that bivalves have suppressed brachiopod evolution. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. First report on the Early Devonian (Lochkovian) brachiopods from eastern Central Pamirs, Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzalevskaya, Tatiana L.; Popov, Leonid E.; Ghobadi Pour, Mansoureh; Dufour, MiKhail S.

    2017-05-01

    A low diversity brachiopod fauna including Meristella? aksuensis sp. nov., Ouraniorhynchus dronovi gen. et. sp. nov., Nikiforovaena sp., Nucleospira sp., and Protathyris sp. aff. P. sibirica, has been recovered from quartzites assigned to the Burak Member. It is suggested the presence of Early Devonian (Lochkovian) deposits not previously reported from the Central Pamirs (south-eastern Tajikistan). The Pamirs brachiopod fauna shows mixed faunal signatures suggesting links with Lochkovian brachiopod faunas of the Rhenish-Bohemian Region of the Old World Realm, the Australian segment of Gondwana, the Zerafshan-Hyssar Region, and South China, while it was probably located outside the Silurian Sino-Australian Province. In addition, the paper gives a brief review of the poorly known Ordovician and Silurian stratigraphy of the Central Pamirs.

  7. Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-12-04

    Magellania venosa, the largest recent brachiopod, occurs in clusters and banks in population densities of up to 416 ind m-2 in Comau Fjord, Northern Chilean fjord region. Below 15 m, it co-occurs with the mytilid Aulacomya atra and it dominates the benthic community below 20 m. To determine the question of why M. venosa is a successful competitor, the in situ growth rate of the brachiopod was studied and its overall growth performance compared with that of other brachiopods and mussels. The growth in length was measured between February 2011 and March 2012 after mechanical tagging and calcein staining. Settlement and juvenile growth were determined from recruitment tiles installed in 2009 and from subsequent photocensus. Growth of M. venosa is best described by the general von Bertalanffy growth function, with a maximum shell length (L∞) of 71.53 mm and a Brody growth constant (K) of 0.336 year-1. The overall growth performance (OGP index = 5.1) is the highest recorded for a rynchonelliform brachiopod and in the range of that for Mytilus chilensis (4.8-5.27), but lower than that of A. atra (5.74). The maximal individual production (PInd) is 0.29 g AFDM ind-1 year-1 at 42 mm shell length and annual production ranges from 1.28 to 89.25 g AFDM year-1 m-2 (1-57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass of the population (P/B--ratio) is low (0.535) and M. venosa may play only a minor role in the food chain. Settling dynamics indicates that M. venosa is a pioneer species with low juvenile mortality. The coexistence of the brachiopod and bivalve suggests that brachiopod survival is affected by neither the presence of potential brachiopod predators nor that of space competitors (i.e. mytilids).

  8. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive, an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin, and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract. The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P<0.05. The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics.

  9. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties.

  10. Resolving early Mid-Ordovician (Kundan) bioevents in the East Baltic based on brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Mac Ørum; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Bed-by-bed sampling of brachiopods from selected Kundan Stage localities in the East Baltic has permitted the construction of a-diversity curves, unprecedented in detail from this particular stage and region. These a-diversity curves can be correlated between the investigated sections, along an e...

  11. The World's second oldest strophomenoid-dominated benthic assemblage in the first Dapingian (Middle Ordovician) brachiopod fauna identified from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, L. E.; Cocks, L. R. M.

    2017-06-01

    Rocks previously mapped as Devonian at Gerd-Kuh in the Eastern Alborz Mountains of Iran have yielded Middle Ordovician faunas including the brachiopods described here, the first rhynchonelliform brachiopods of Dapingian age ever described from Iran. The shells described are defined as a new Dirafinesquina Benthic Association, and which is the second oldest strophomenoid-dominated assemblage from anywhere in the World. There are six brachiopods, three of which are newly named as the strophomenoid Dirafinesquina antiqua sp. nov., the orthoid Zhanorthis gerdkuhensis gen. et sp. nov., and the porambonitoid Eoporambonites raziabadensis sp. nov.

  12. LATEST DEVONIAN (FAMENNIAN TO EARLIEST CARBONIFEROUS (TOURNAISIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM THE BACHU FORMATION OF THE TARIM BASIN, XINJIANG PROVINCE, NORTHWEST CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Q. CHEN

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Brachiopods are described from two horizons of the Bachu Formation from the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, northwest China. We assign the brachiopods from the basal Bachu Formation to late Famennian and correlate those from its upper part to the Eochoristites-Martiniella Assemblage of South China, of early Tournaisian age. The brachiopod fauna of the Bachu Formation exhibits strong generic and specific links with coeval South Chinese faunas, suggesting a close biogeographical affinity with the South China block. Eleven species are described, including one new species, Ptychomaletoechia bachuensis sp. nov. 

  13. Houttuynia cordata modulates oral innate immune mediators: potential role of herbal plant on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satthakarn, S; Chung, W O; Promsong, A; Nittayananta, W

    2015-05-01

    Epithelial cells play an active role in oral innate immunity by producing various immune mediators. Houttuynia cordata Thunb (H. cordata), a herbal plant found in Asia, possesses many activities. However, its impacts on oral innate immunity have never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of H. cordata extract on the expression of innate immune mediators produced by oral epithelial cells. Primary gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were treated with various concentrations of the extract for 18 h. The gene expression of hBD2, SLPI, cytokines, and chemokines was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The secreted proteins in the culture supernatants were detected by ELISA or Luminex assay. Cytotoxicity of the extract was assessed using CellTiter-Blue Assay. H. cordata significantly induced the expression of hBD2, SLPI, IL-8, and CCL20 in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. The secreted hBD2 and SLPI proteins were modulated, and the levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ were significantly induced by the extract. Our data indicated that H. cordata can modulate oral innate immune mediators. These findings may lead to the development of new topical agents from H. cordata for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated oral diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Inheritance of flower color in pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, Lyn A; Wofford, David S

    2007-01-01

    Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 16), erect, emergent, herbaceous aquatic perennial. The showy inflorescences of pickerelweed make this species a prime candidate for inclusion in water gardens and aquascapes. The objective of this experiment was to determine the number of loci, number of alleles, and gene action controlling flower color (blue vs. white) in pickerelweed. Two blue-flowered and one white-flowered parental lines were used in this experiment to create S(1) and F(1) populations. F(2) populations were produced through self-pollination of F(1) plants. Evaluation of S(1), F(1), and F(2) generations revealed that flower color in these populations was controlled by 2 alleles at one locus with blue flower color completely dominant to white. We propose that this locus be named white flower with alleles W and w.

  15. Genetic control of albinism in pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, Lyn A; Wofford, David S

    2007-01-01

    Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 16) perennial aquaphyte. Preliminary studies revealed that a group of nonalbino pickerelweed plants maintained for breeding and inheritance studies regularly produced albino seedlings. The objective of this experiment was to determine the number of loci, number of alleles, and gene action controlling albinism in pickerelweed. Five nonalbino parental lines were used in this experiment to create S(1) and F(1) populations. F(2) populations were produced through self-pollination of F(1) plants. Evaluation of S(1), F(1), and F(2) generations allowed us to identify a single diallelic locus controlling albinism in these populations of pickerelweed, with albinism completely recessive to normal green leaf production. We propose that this locus be named albino with alleles A and a.

  16. Systematic analysis of components and contents in Houttuynia cordata Thunb

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    Xin-Yi Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to provide the material basis for the molecular mechanism of Yuxingcao (Houttuynia cordata Thunb, HCT through the method of evidence-based study to summarize the natural constituents isolated from HCT. Methods: We searched CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, Pubmed and relevant conference compilations. The keywords were “Yuxingcao or Houttuynia cordata Thunb” and “components” or “ingredients” or “constituent” or “volatile oil” or “flavonoids” or “terpene” or “content”, both in Chinese and English. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the reported compositions and contents have been summarized, and SPSS software was used to draw the boxplot of contents. Results: A total of 603 natural compounds in 11 categories were obtained from pooled articles. In the diverse components, the number of aliphatic compounds (n = 259 and terpenoids (n = 158 are more than those of flavonoids (n = 26, alkaloids (n = 42 and aromatics (n = 42. While, in the part of volatile oils of HCT, the largest components are aliphatic compounds (mainly distributed on the ground and terpenoids (mainly distributed in the underground. Although, methyl n-nonylketone is distributed in the whole herb plant, a large proportion is present in the underground parts. As for non-volatiles, the flavonoid content (mainly distributed on the ground was the highest, among which quercetin and its glycosyl derivatives were the prominent. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a more comprehensive material basis for the further study of HCT. It is also helpful to explain the mechanisms of anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects from the molecular target and molecular network levels.

  17. Element/Ca, C and O isotope ratios in modern brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, C. V.; Frei, Robert; Korte, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Fossil brachiopods are of major importance for the reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions, particularly of the Paleozoic. In order to better understand signals of ancient shell materials, modern analogue studies have to be conducted. Here we present C and O isotope data in conjunction...... with Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca data for nine modern rhynchonellid and terebratulid brachiopod species from tropical to intermediate latitudes and shallow to very deep marine settings. C and O isotope signals of most species suggest formation of secondary shell layers near or in isotopic equilibrium...... linking the incorporation behaviour of alkaline earth metals to phylogeny. Sr/Ca show a strong negative correlation with δ13C values in terebratellidinid species which exhibit major isotopic disequilibrium and also combined data from three localities for which two species were studied indicate...

  18. Platystrophia (Orthida) and new related Ordovician and Early Silurian brachiopod genera

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, David A.T.; Zuykov, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    More than 150 Ordovician and Early Silurian brachiopod species have been assigned to the genus Platystrophia King, 1850 mainly on the basis of their Spirifer-like shell exteriors. King’s concept of the genus was based on Platystrophia biforata King, which is not conspecific with Terebratulites biforatus Schlotheim, traditionally regarded as the type species of Platystrophia. Porambonites costatus Pander, 1830 is formally proposed as the type species of the genus to replace P. biforata; the la...

  19. Late Ordovician palaeogeography and the positions of the Kazakh terranes through analysis of their brachiopod faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Leonid E.; Cocks, Robin M.

    2017-09-01

    Detailed biogeographical and biofacies analyses of the Late Ordovician brachiopod faunas with 160 genera, grouped into 94 faunas from individual lithotectonic units within the Kazakh Orogen strongly support an archipelago model for that time in that area. The Kazakh island arcs and microcontinents within several separate clusters were located in the tropics on both sides of the Equator. Key units, from which the Late Ordovician faunas are now well known, include the Boshchekul, Chingiz-Tarbagatai, and Chu-Ili terranes. The development of brachiopod biogeography within the nearly ten million year time span of the Late Ordovician from about 458 to 443 Ma (Sandbian, Katian, and Hirnantian), is supported by much new data, including our revised identifications from the Kazakh Orogen and elsewhere. The Kazakh archipelago was west of the Australasian segment of the Gondwana Supercontinent, and relatively near the Tarim, South China and North China continents, apart from the Atashu-Zhamshi Microcontinent, which probably occupied a relatively isolated position on the south-western margin of the archipelago. Distinct faunal signatures indicate that the Kazakh terranes were far away from Baltica and Siberia throughout the Ordovician. Although some earlier terranes had joined each other before the Middle Ordovician, the amalgamation of Kazakh terranes into the single continent of Kazakhstania by the end of the Ordovician is very unlikely. The Late Ordovician brachiopods from the other continents are also compared with the Kazakh faunas and global provincialisation statistically determined.

  20. BRACHIOPODS FROM THE TYPE-SECTION OF THE BITHYNIAN SUBSTAGE (ANISIAN, MIDDLE TRIASSIC, NORTHWESTERN TURKEY

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    MAURIZIO GAETANI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bithynian substage of the Anisian stage (Middle Triassic was established by Assereto in the Gebze area (Kocaeli peninsula, northwestern Turkey, within the middle member of Nodular Limestone formation, now included in the Tepeköy Formation. The rich fauna, represented by conodonts, foraminifera and ammonoids, was described since a long time. The brachiopod fauna occurring in the Bithynian type-section is here revised. It consists of four species: Austriellula kavakensis (Arthaber, 1914, Holchorhynchella edhemi (Toula, 1896, Ptychomentzelia propontica (Toula, 1896, and Angustothyris angustaeformis (Böckh, 1872. The fauna is mostly endemic, with high number of specimens for the first three quoted species. Rare specimens of P. propontica occur also in the lower member of the Nodular Limestone, who delivered the conodont Neogondolella regalis, suggesting an Aegean age. The brachiopod fauna of the Bithynian substage continues upward with rare specimens in the lowermost part of the overlying Pelsonian succession. In the Illyrian, very rare “Rhynchonella” tscharkensis Arthaber, 1914, and Koeveskallina koeveskalyensis (Stur, 1865 were found. The Bithynian brachiopod fauna from Gebze has no counterpart in the Europe and in the surrounding regions, like Northern Caucasus and Aghdarband in Iran, even if some of the ammonoids found in Gebze are also present in the these areas.

  1. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Sekita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata (HC (Saururaceae has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care.

  2. Reproductive ecology of Scalesia cordata (Asteraceae), an endangered species from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2010-01-01

    The genus Scalesia is endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Scalesia cordata is a tree occurring only in the southern part of Isabela as small, remnant populations of larger forests. We studied the reproductive ecology of a population protected in an enclosure in order to reveal the extent to which...... of the genus. The small population size, with its potential derived consequences, is most certainly a prominent threat to S. cordata. The pressure from introduced plant species found in the enclosure also contributes to the seemingly poor condition of the population. To recover S. cordata, we suggest enlarging...... the enclosure, removing the introduced plant species and continuing to cultivate plants as a genetic reserve. Introducing new genetic material is likely to increase the seed set of the population...

  3. The evolution of angiosperm lianescence without vessels--climbing mode and wood structure-function in Tasmannia cordata (Winteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Taylor S; Chatelet, David S; Balun, Lawong; Schilling, Edward E; Evans, Robert

    2012-01-01

    • The lack of extant lianescent vessel-less seed plants supports a hypothesis that liana evolution requires large-diameter xylem conduits. Here, we demonstrate an unusual example of a lianoid vessel-less angiosperm, Tasmannia cordata (Winteraceae), from New Guinea. • Wood mechanical, hydraulic and structural measurements were used to determine how T. cordata climbs and to test for ecophysiological shifts related to liana evolution vs 13 free-standing congeners. • The tracheid-based wood of T. cordata furnished low hydraulic capacity compared with that of vessel-bearing lianas. In comparison with most nonclimbing relatives, T. cordata possessed lower photosynthetic rates and leaf and stem hydraulic capacities. However, T. cordata exhibited a two- to five-fold greater wood elastic modulus than its relatives. • Tasmannia cordata provides an unusual example of angiosperm liana evolution uncoupled from xylem conduit gigantism, as well as high plasticity and cell type diversity in vascular development. Because T. cordata lacks vessels, our results suggest that a key limitation for a vessel-less liana is that strong and low hydraulically conductive wood is required to meet the mechanical demands of lianescence. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Study on Medicinal Plant Active Substances Extraction and Antibacterial Activity of Houttuynia Cordata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubin, Ji; Junjun, Yang; Miao, Yu; Yue, Cao; Shizhen, Guo; Anna, Qiao

    2017-12-01

    This study was about the effective component extraction from Houttuynia cordata by steam distillation and antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The extraction of Herba Houttuyniae extract of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were certain inhibitory effect of, which inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus the most obvious.

  5. Conditioned food aversion to control outbreaks of intoxication by Ipomoea carnea and Turbina cordata in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...

  6. Chemical Composition and Hepatoprotective Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Houttuynia cordata Tea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.; Shi, X.L.; Yu, L.H.; Zhu, J.; Ma, R.; Yang, X.B.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity, hepatoprotective effect, and phenolic composition of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) extracted from Houttuynia cordata tea. EAF was shown to exhibit strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging activity against DPPH

  7. Brachiopod associations from the Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela, Yves; Hansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups and their pr......The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups...... and their preferences in the late Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, southern Norway, than ever before. The brachiopod faunas are described in the present article, which include a new genus and a new species respectively Wandaasella modheimrensis and Cyclomyonia vikersundi. The brachiopod fauna is largely dominated...... in muddy to marly deposits formed around maximal storm wave base and an orthid-dominated association representing an environment characterised by a fairly coarse or hard bottom substrate formed well above storm wave base but below fair weather wave base....

  8. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrotron light beams are sharply focused like a laser beam. We report encouraging results from the use of SRXTM for purely taxonomic purposes in brachiopods: an attempt to find a non-destructive and more efficient alternative to serial sectioning and several other methods of dissection together with the non-destructive method of X-ray computerised micro-tomography. Two brachiopod samples were investigated using SRXTM. In “Rhynchonella” flustracea it was possible to visualise the 3D shape of the crura and dental plates. In Terebratulina imbricata it was possible to reveal the form of the brachidium. It is encouraging that we have obtained such promising results using SRXTM with our very first two fortuitous samples, which had respectively fine-grained limestone and marl as infilling sediment, in contrast to the discouraging results communicated to us by some colleagues who have tested specimens with such infillings using X-ray micro-tomography. In future the holotypes, rare museum specimens or delicate Recent material may be preferentially subjected to this mode of analysis.

  9. Variation in expression of trimorphic incompatibility in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S C; Anderson, J M

    1985-07-01

    Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae), a perennial diploid, possesses the rare genetic polymorphism tristyly. A controlled pollination programme was conducted over a three year period, under glasshouse conditions, on 36 clones of P. cordata var. cordata to examine the nature of the self-incompatibility system. The three major findings of the pollination study were: (1) the three floral morphs display different levels of self-incompatibility, (2) pollen from the two anther levels within a flower exhibits different compatibility behaviour in self-pollinations, (3) considerable individual genetic variation in the expression of self-incompatibility is evident among clones within floral morphs. Similar results were also obtained from a smaller study on 15 clones of P. cordata var. lancifolia conducted over a 6 month period. In common with other Pontederia species the mid-styled morph (M) of P. cordata produces large amounts of seed when self-pollinated with pollen from long-level anthers. A developmental model is proposed to explain the high level of self-compatibility of the M morph in Pontederia species. Self-pollination of segregating progenies from M and S morphs of known incompatibility status demonstrated that the expression of incompatibility is closely associated with style length. It is suggested that overall differences in incompatibility behaviour among the floral morphs may be due to the pleiotropic effects of major genes controlling sub-characters of the tristylous syndrome, rather than linked modifier genes. However, the variable expression of trimorphic incompatibility within floral morphs suggests that this variation may be polygenic in origin.

  10. A bradoriid and brachiopod dominated shelly fauna from the furongian (Cambrian) of Västergötland, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Skovsted, Christian B.; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2013-01-01

    A small assemblage of shelly fossils, dominated by the brachiopod Treptotreta jucunda and the bradoriid arthropod Mongolitubulus aspermachaera new species is described from a Furongian limestone of Västergötland, south-central Sweden. Mongolitubulus aspermachaera is represented in the assemblage ...

  11. Brachiopods and rugose corals in an upper Serpukhovian (Mississippian) biostrome: preliminary results from the Djebel Arhlal (Bechar Basin, Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atif, K. F. T.; Aretz, M.; Legrand-Biain, M.; Bouzidi, A.; Aimouche, M.

    2016-10-01

    The Djebel Arhlal is the southernmost outcrop of upper Serpukhovian strata in the Bechar Basin. Here the Djenien member of the Djenien Formation is three-folded and it contains a 10 m-thick coral biostrome in its middle unit formed by Siphonodendron, Diphyphyllum and Lithostrotion. Distances between in situ colonies are in the order of several decimetres and the space between them is filled with bioclastic limestone containing coral rubble. Few brachiopods and solitary corals are found as dwellers within the biostrome, but these groups are much more common in the strata below and above the coral biostrome. This is especially true for the brachiopods, which reach diversities of more than a dozen species in specific horizons. They mainly belong to the orders Productida, Spiriferida and Athyridida. Agitated open-marine platform interior or platform margin settings are the general facies encountered in the Djenien member at the Djebel Arhlal. The field data, including brachiopod coquinas and many fragmented brachiopods and corals, are confirmed by microfacies analysis. However, the coral biostrome records a quieter setting at the interface of middle and outer ramp settings, as seen in the co-existence of in situ coral growth, input of reworked material, deposition of carbonate mud, and sparitic textures. This autoparabiostrome at Djebel Arhlal is compared to other rather thick and of exceptional horizontal extension upper Serpukhovian biostromes (few kilometres). (Author)

  12. Brachiopod faunas after the end Ordovician mass extinction from South China: Testing ecological change through a major taxonomic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing; Harper, David A. T.; Rong, Jiayu; Zhan, Renbin

    2017-05-01

    Classification of extinction events and their severity is generally based on taxonomic counts. The ecological impacts of such events have been categorized and prioritized but rarely tested with empirical data. The ecology of the end Ordovician extinction and subsequent biotic recovery is tracked through abundant and diverse brachiopod faunas in South China. The spatial and temporal ranges of some 6500 identified specimens, from 10 collections derived from six localities were investigated by network and cluster analyses, nonmetric multidimensional scaling and a species abundance model. Depth zonations and structure of brachiopod assemblages along an onshore-offshore gradient in the late Katian were similar to those in the latest Ordovician-earliest Silurian (post-extinction fauna). Within this ecological framework, deeper-water faunas are partly replaced by new taxa; siliciclastic substrates continued to be dominated by the more 'Ordovician' orthides and strophomenides, shallow-water carbonate environments hosted atrypides, athyridides and pentamerides, with the more typical Ordovician brachiopod fauna continuing to dominate until the late Rhuddanian. The end Ordovician extinctions tested the resilience of the brachiopod fauna without damage to its overall ecological structure; that commenced later at the end of the Rhuddanian.

  13. Brachiopod and fusulinid assemblages of Kasimovian (Pennsylvanian) age from the Ándara Massif (Picos de Europa, northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Chacón, M.L.; Merino-Tomé, O.A.; Villa, E.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of early Kasimovian (Pennsylvanian) brachiopod assemblages from two fossiliferous localities of the Las Llacerias Formation (Ándara Massif, Picos de Europa, northern Spain) improve our knowledge of this fossil group in the Cantabrian Zone. At the Morra de Lechugales Peak (locality 1),

  14. Interactive effects of salinity and low potassium on growth, physiology response of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. W01-100

    OpenAIRE

    Zou Y. T.; Dai S.; Li J. Y.; Liu Z. Q.; Wu W.

    2012-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is a plant enrichment in potassium in plant was reported. Salinity and low potassium availability are important environmental factors restricting plant growth and productivity throughout the world. The interactive effects of salinity and potassium on growth, water content, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation content, ion accumulations and K+/Na+ ratio, and organic accumulations as well as oxidative enzymes were investigated in Houttuynia cordata Thunb.. Plants ...

  15. Mollusc and brachiopod skeletal hardparts: Problematic archives of past seawater properties (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons may act as support or serves as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hardparts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrix, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth-increments and their respective multi-proxy geochemical signatures that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. We here compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hardparts secreted by molluscs (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hardparts. Despite the fact that molluscs and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil shell hardparts precipitated, under favourable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration, in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or endocytosis and vesicle transport, precursor mineralogies etc.) is surprisingly

  16. Reappraisal of the brachiopod Acrotreta socialis von Seebach, 1865

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Harper, David A. T.; Ahlberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    revisions and redescriptions of the species with much of the taxonomic shuffling occurring before the mid-20th century. A major problem with the early documentation of acrotretide brachiopods is that many species were described in the days before the advent of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM......The acrotretide Acrotreta socialis von Seebach, 1865 has suffered a long and tumultuous history since its original description from the middle Cambrian (Guzhangian Stage) Andrarum Limestone of Bornholm, Denmark. Uncertainties regarding key morphological characters have resulted in numerous......), resulting in dubious interpretations of significant morphological characteristics, like the position of the pedicle foramen and the internal morphology of both valves. A detailed revision of Acrotreta species resulted in the proposal that the genus is restricted solely to the Ordovician with the Bornholm...

  17. Geochemistry of the brachiopod Hemithiris psittacea from the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens V.; Korte, Christoph; Bitner, M. Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Fossil shell material from high palaeo-latitudes is increasingly studied for environmental forcings specific to these latitudes and as sensitive archives of climate change. However, more detailed studies of modern analogues are necessary for putting findings into global and high latitude...... perspectives.Here we present δ13C and δ18O values, as well as Mg, Sr, Na, Mn and Fe contents for the rhynchonellide brachiopod Hemithiris psittacea from Friday Harbor, U.S.A. and twenty-five sites from Canada ranging in latitude from 48° to 71°N. Median Mn/Ca ratios are below 0.1mmol/mol and Fe/Ca ratios...

  18. Identifying the most surprising victims of mass extinction events: an example using Late Ordovician brachiopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø.; Harper, David A. T.

    2017-01-01

    Mass extinction events are recognized by increases in extinction rate and magnitude and, often, by changes in the selectivity of extinction. When considering the selective fingerprint of a particular event, not all taxon extinctions are equally informative: some would be expected even under a ‘background’ selectivity regime, whereas others would not and thus require special explanation. When evaluating possible drivers for the extinction event, the latter group is of particular interest. Here, we introduce a simple method for identifying these most surprising victims of extinction events by training models on background extinction intervals and using these models to make per-taxon assessments of ‘expected’ risk during the extinction interval. As an example, we examine brachiopod genus extinctions during the Late Ordovician Mass Extinction and show that extinction of genera in the deep-water ‘Foliomena fauna’ was particularly unexpected given preceding Late Ordovician extinction patterns. PMID:28954854

  19. Biogeographic and bathymetric determinants of brachiopod extinction and survival during the Late Ordovician mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Seth; Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian; Harper, David A. T.

    2016-01-01

    The Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME) coincided with dramatic climate changes, but there are numerous ways in which these changes could have driven marine extinctions. We use a palaeobiogeographic database of rhynchonelliform brachiopods to examine the selectivity of Late Ordovician......–Early Silurian genus extinctions and evaluate which extinction drivers are best supported by the data. The first (latest Katian) pulse of the LOME preferentially affected genera restricted to deeper waters or to relatively narrow (less than 35°) palaeolatitudinal ranges. This pattern is only observed...... in the latest Katian, suggesting that it reflects drivers unique to this interval. Extinction of exclusively deeper-water genera implies that changes in water mass properties such as dissolved oxygen content played an important role. Extinction of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges suggests that interactions...

  20. Decadal climate variation recorded in modern global carbonate archives (brachiopods, molluscs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanin, Marco; Zaki, Amir H.; Davis, Alyssa; Shaver, Kristen; Wang, Lisha; Aleksandra Bitner, Maria; Capraro, Luca; Preto, Nereo; Brand, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The progress of the Earth's warming trend has rapidly accelerated in the last few decades due to the increase in emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The exchange of heat between the atmosphere and seawater has consequently elevated the rate of temperature buildup in the low and high latitude ocean. Records of the variation in seawater temperature in response to local and global changes in climate are preserved within the carbonate structures of marine biogenic archives. Investigating the isotopic composition of the archives' growth increments documents the magnitude of sea surface temperature (SST) change. A long-term (1956-2012) record of temperature change in sub-tropical seawater was acquired from the giant clam Tridacna maxima collected from the Red Sea in conjunction with published results of the oyster Hyotissa hyotis (Titschack et al., 2010). Variation in polar-subpolar SST was obtained from the brachiopod Magellania venosa recovered from the coastal area of southern Chile, and from the proxy record of Hemithiris psittacea of Hudson Bay (Brand et al., 2014). The former reveals a long-term (1961-2012) time-series of Antarctic-induced oceanographic change in the southern hemisphere, while the latter represents a trend of Hudson Bay seawater SST in the northern hemisphere. Evaluation of the isotopic compositions confirms the equilibrium incorporation of oxygen isotopes with respect to ambient seawater in brachiopods and some bivalves. A general trend of decreasing δ18O values in the Red Sea molluscs is observed, indicating an increase in tropical seawater temperature of about 0.79°C since 1988. The δ18O values of the polar-subpolar brachiopods display similar depletion slopes but of larger magnitudes than that of the Red Sea archives. This signifies a rise in seawater temperature of about 1.47°C in Hudson Bay since 1991, and about 2.08°C in southern Chile since 1988. The 2013 IPCC report suggests an increase in SST of +0.094°C per decade (average

  1. Phytochemical investigation and nephroprotective potential of Sida cordata in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Nigussie, Dereje

    2017-08-04

    Plants are an efficient source of natural antioxidant against free radicals causing kidney damages. Sida cordata ethyl acetate fraction has been reported for strong in vitro antioxidant potency, previously. In the present study, our objective was to evaluate its in vivo antioxidant potency against CCl 4 induced nephrotoxicity and investigates the bioactive phytochemicals by HPLC-DAD analysis. Phytochemical analysis was performed by HPLC-DAD methodology. For in vivo study, 42 male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with alternatively managed doses for 60 days. Group I animals were remained untreated. Group II animals were treated with vehicle (1 mL of olive oil) by intragastric route on alternate days. Group III was treated with 30% CCl 4 (1 mL/kg b.w.) i.p. Group IV was treated with 30% CCl 4 (1 mL/kg b.w.) i.p and silymarin intragastric. Group V and VI rats were treated with 30% CCl 4 and SCEE (150 and 300 mg/kg b.w., respectively) intragastric. Group VII animals were treated with SCEE (300 mg/kg b.w.) intragastrically. Blood parameters, Serum proteins and urine profile were investigated. Activities of tissue enzyme i.e. catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, GSH and γ-GT were evaluated. Histopathological observations, total protein contents, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and relative weight were also analyzed. Gallic acid, catechin and caffeic acid were identified in SCEE fraction by HPLC-DAD. Decrease in the count of red blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and concentration of hemoglobin whereas increase in lymphocyte count and estimation of sedimentation rate (ESR) with 1 mL CCl 4 (30% in Olive oil) administration (30 doses in 60 days) was restored dose dependently with co-treatment of SCEE (150 and 300 mg/kg b.w.). Treatment of rats with CCl 4 markedly (P < 0.01) increased the count of urinary red blood cells and leucocytes, concentration of urea, creatinine and urobilinogen and specific

  2. Neuromuscular development in Novocrania anomala: evidence for the presence of serotonin and a spiralian-like apical organ in lecithotrophic brachiopod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2010-01-01

    and transversal muscles. After settlement, the anterior and posterior adductor muscles and delicate mantle retractor muscles begin to form. Comparison of the larval muscular system of Novocrania anomala with that of rhynchonelliform (articulate) brachiopod larvae shows that the former has a much simpler muscular......SUMMARY The phylogenetic position of Brachiopoda remains unsettled, and only few recent data on brachiopod organogenesis are currently available. In order to contribute data to questions concerning brachiopod ontogeny and evolution we investigated nervous and muscle system development...... stages. In the juveniles, the nervous system stained by a-tubulin is characterized by two ventral neurite bundles with three commissures. Our data are the first direct proof for the presence of an immunoreactive neurotransmitter in lecithotrophic brachiopod larvae and demonstrate the existence of flask...

  3. The succession of Hirnantian events based on data from Baltica: brachiopods, chitinozoans, conodonts, and carbon isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaljo, Dimitri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hirnantian (late Ordovician environment was complex and dynamic. Understanding the correct order of events and their precise correlation with a time scale are extremely important for the development of different kinds of environmental interpretations. The lower boundary of the Hirnantian Stage is officially defined by “the lowest occurrence of Normalograptus extraordinarius, the base of major positive carbon-13 isotope excursion, and the beginning of a pronounced sea-level fall associated with onset of a major glaciation” (ICS website. Our aim is to check if these events are synchronous, particularly how the situation is with respect to the Baltic. Thus several sections were analysed using mainly East Baltic data (drill cores, but also data from elsewhere, including brachiopod, chitinozoan, and conodont biostratigraphy combined with graptolite and carbon isotope data. Brachiopod faunas of the Pirgu and Porkuni stages are rather similar to those of the Ellis Bay Formation of Anticosti Island, Quebec, but the Pirgu assemblage, as well as that of the lower Ellis Bay Fm. lack key elements of the Hirnantian faunas. The primary criterion quoted above is stable, but auxiliary data like the isotope curve are less convincing. When the latter is used, it should be specified, e.g. that the carbon isotope excursion begins usually slightly earlier (in the Diceratograptus mirus Biozone, but it might be conventionally placed into the N. extraordinarius Biozone when a biostratigraphical proxy is available. The peak of the excursion is in the lower N. persculptus Biozone, but the main increase in values takes place in the N. extraordinarius Biozone. The Spinachitina taugourdeaui Biozone marks at many localities the bottom of the Hirnantian, and only the recent chitinozoan–graptolite data from the topmost Lousy Cove Member (on Anticosti Island suggest a mid-Hirnantian age, which is at variance with common correlation schemes.

  4. Optimum storage and germination conditions for seeds of pickerelweed (Pontetieria cordata L.) from Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn A. Gettys; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Clean seeds of pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L. [Pontederiaceae]) germinated best (84 to 94%) under water, even after being stored dry up to 6 mo at about 25 °C (77 °F), but germination of clean seeds under water was reduced to 43% when seeds were stored at 4 °C (39 3 F) for 6 mo. Underwater germination of seeds enclosed in fruits was less...

  5. HISTORICAL FACTORS AND ANISOPLETHIC POPULATION STRUCTURE IN TRISTYLOUS PONTEDERIA CORDATA: A REASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Martin T; Barrett, Spencer C H

    1988-05-01

    Theoretical models of floral-morph frequencies in tristylous species predict a single equilibrium with all three morphs represented in equal proportions (isoplethy). North American populations of Pontederia cordata exhibit considerable heterogeneity of morph frequencies between populations, with the short-styled morph often in excess of isoplethic expectations and the long-styled morph commonly underrepresented. In a previous study, it was proposed that anisoplethic population structure in P. cordata is the result of differential male fertility, owing to genetic differences in pollen production among the morphs. In this study, the influence of historical factors on morph frequencies prior to equilibrium was investigated using a deterministic computer model. Nonequilibrium frequencies are strongly influenced by the genotypes of founding individuals, and, because tristyly is under the control of two diallelic loci, phenotypic equilibrium is approached asymptotically. The model indicates that in nonequilibrium populations the short-styled morph will be in excess and the long-styled morph will be underrepresented. This suggests that historical factors play an important role in determining population structure in P. cordata. Several features of the population ecology of the species lend support to this interpretation. Historical factors should be taken into account when interpreting data from population surveys of morph frequencies in tristylous species and of other genetic polymorphisms not under single-locus control. © 1988 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Protective effect of Sida cordata leaf extract against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Sunil; Dutt, K R; Jena, J

    2013-04-13

    To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Sida cordata (Malvaceae) (S. cordata) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. Wister albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Group I served as control; Group II served as hepatotoxic (CCl(4) treated) group; Group III, IV and V served as (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) S. cordata leaf extract (SCLE) treated groups; Group VI served as positive control (Silymarin) treated group. Liver marker enzymes serum glutamate oxyloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured and compared along with histopathological studies. Obtained results show that the treatment with SCLE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently reduced CCl4 induced elevated serum level of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SCLE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels, which was confirmed by the histopathological studies. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SCLE against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats and thereby scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brachiopod faunas after the end Ordovician mass extinction from South China : testing ecological change through a major taxonomic crisis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Bing; Harper, David A.T.; Rong, Jiayu; Zhan, Renbin

    2017-01-01

    Classification of extinction events and their severity is generally based on taxonomic counts. The ecological impacts of such events have been categorized and prioritized but rarely tested with empirical data. The ecology of the end Ordovician extinction and subsequent biotic recovery is tracked through abundant and diverse brachiopod faunas in South China. The spatial and temporal ranges of some 6500 identified specimens, from 10 collections derived from six localities were investigated by n...

  8. The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina in the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina and the dispersal pathways along western Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Muñoz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina is reported for the first time from the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina. It is represented by a species similar to A. ferrigena from the Tremadocian of the Prague Basin, increasing the faunal affinities between the Central Andean Basin and the South European microcontinents, in particular the Bohemian region (Perunica. Nine out of the fourteen brachiopod genera reported from the Tremadocian of the Central Andean Basin (~64% are shared with the Mediterranean region, four of which (~28% have been recorded in the Prague Basin, and two (Kvania and Apheoorthina are restricted to the Central Andes and Perunica. Dispersal pathways around Gondwana are analyzed in the light of major factors affecting large-scale distribution of brachiopods (environment, larval capacity for dispersal, oceanic currents. The presence in Apheoorthina aff. ferrigena of a well-preserved larval protegulum measuring 420 μm in width and 210 μm in length strongly suggests that this species had planktotrophic larvae capable of long-distance dispersal. According to recent ocean-atmosphere general circulation models for the Ordovician Period, the Central Andean margin was dominated by the cold-water Antarctica Current. Despite the complex non-zonal pattern produced by current deflections around the peri-Gondwanan microcontinents, the general westward circulation sense favoured larval dispersal from the Andean region to North Africa, Avalonia, the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, and Perunica. On the other hand, the eastwards flowing Gondwana Current connected the North Gondwana waters with the South American epicontinental seas, which could explain the reversed migration of some brachiopods.

  9. Development of Houttuynia cordata Extract-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery: High Drug Loading Efficiency and Controlled Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Heon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata has been used for diuresis and detoxification in folk medicine as well as a herbal medicine with antiviral and antibacterial activities. H. cordata extract-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (H-SLNs were prepared with various concentration of poloxamer 188 or poloxamer 407 by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. H-SLNs dispersion was freeze-dried with or without trehalose as a cryoprotectant. The physicochemical characteristics of H-SLNs were evaluated by dynamic laser scattering (DLS, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Additionally, the in vitro release and in vitro cytotoxicity of H-SLNs were measured. Encapsulation efficiencies of H-SLNs (as quercitrin were 92.9–95.9%. The SEM images of H-SLNs showed that H-SLNs have a spherical morphology. DSC and FT-IR showed that there were no interactions between ingredients. The increased extent of particle size of freeze-dried H-SLNs with trehalose was significantly lower than that of H-SLNs without trehalose. H-SLNs provided sustained release of quercitrin from H. cordata extracts. Cell viability of Caco-2 cells was over 70% according to the concentration of various formulation. Therefore, it was suggested that SLNs could be good carrier for administering H. cordata extracts.

  10. Chemical characterisation of kernels, kernel meals and oils from Jatropha cordata and Jatropha cardiophylla seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Meza, Nohemí; Alday-Lara, Perla P; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus; Medina-Juárez, Luis A

    2013-05-01

    Jatropha cordata and Jatropha cardiophylla are native to northwestern Mexico and are adapted to arid and semi-arid conditions (antinutrients in the defatted kernel meals of these species. Kernels of J. cordata and J. cardiophylla seeds analysed in this study were rich in crude protein (283 and 289 g kg(-1) respectively) and lipid (517 and 537 g kg(-1) respectively). The main fatty acids in J. cordata and J. cardiophylla oils were linoleic and oleic acids. High levels of trypsin inhibitor and phytates and low levels of saponins were present in the meals. The phorbol ester contents in J. cordata and J. cardiophylla kernel meals were 2.73 and 1.46 mg g(-1) respectively. For both J. cordata and J. cardiophylla it could be inferred that (a) the oil and kernel meal were toxic and the kernel meal could be used as livestock feed only after detoxification, (b) the oil could be used for non-alimentary purposes, i.e. biodiesel production, and (c) the seed or oil could be used for isolating various bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Biogeographic and bathymetric determinants of brachiopod extinction and survival during the Late Ordovician mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Seth; Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø.; Harper, David A. T.

    2016-01-01

    The Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME) coincided with dramatic climate changes, but there are numerous ways in which these changes could have driven marine extinctions. We use a palaeobiogeographic database of rhynchonelliform brachiopods to examine the selectivity of Late Ordovician–Early Silurian genus extinctions and evaluate which extinction drivers are best supported by the data. The first (latest Katian) pulse of the LOME preferentially affected genera restricted to deeper waters or to relatively narrow (less than 35°) palaeolatitudinal ranges. This pattern is only observed in the latest Katian, suggesting that it reflects drivers unique to this interval. Extinction of exclusively deeper-water genera implies that changes in water mass properties such as dissolved oxygen content played an important role. Extinction of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges suggests that interactions between shifting climate zones and palaeobiogeography may also have been important. We test the latter hypothesis by estimating whether each genus would have been able to track habitats within its thermal tolerance range during the greenhouse–icehouse climate transition. Models including these estimates are favoured over alternative models. We argue that the LOME, long regarded as non-selective, is highly selective along biogeographic and bathymetric axes that are not closely correlated with taxonomic identity. PMID:27122567

  12. Hierarchical architecture of the inner layers of selected extant rhynchonelliform brachiopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Danièle; Nouet, Julius

    2016-11-01

    In spite of several attempts for a best knowledge of the phylum, brachiopods remain, compared with molluscs, among those least analysed in terms of biomineralization. The lack of economic impact for extant species is probably liable for that situation. Much attention has been on the microstructure of calcite biomaterials (rhynchonelliforms and craniiforms). Here, we emphasize the sub-micrometric structure of selected examples of rhynchonelliform shells using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to complement Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. The hierarchical organization of the shell layers (secondary and/or tertiary elements) is highlighted for species non-yet observed from this point of view, and is compared to a few already mentioned in the literature. Previous analysis revealed that granules are composed of a complex aggregation of sub-units in intimate relation with an intracrystalline matrix. Their shape, size and probably early orientation depend on the species as well as age and living environments of the specimens studied. The control of the inorganic part of the composite fibrous elements is constrained by the deposition of nearly arched shape or polygonal protein membranes at the inner boundary of the primary layer, prior to the deposition of the first granules, membranes becoming proteinaceous sheathes progressively enshrining fibres. The diverse orientations of the granules in fibrous neighbours thus further increase arguments in favour of the tendency to improve the shell strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Platystrophia (Orthida and new related Ordovician and Early Silurian brachiopod genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harper, David A. T.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 150 Ordovician and Early Silurian brachiopod species have been assigned to the genus Platystrophia King, 1850 mainly on the basis of their Spirifer-like shell exteriors. King’s concept of the genus was based on Platystrophia biforata King, which is not conspecific with Terebratulites biforatus Schlotheim, traditionally regarded as the type species of Platystrophia. Porambonites costatus Pander, 1830 is formally proposed as the type species of the genus to replace P. biforata; the latter is considered to be a nomen dubium. In our revised diagnosis, Platystrophia is restricted to a group of Arenig to upper Caradoc species from Baltica and Avalonia, whereas the Ashgill and lower Silurian taxa of these regions, hitherto assigned to Platystrophia, are placed in the new genus Neoplatystrophia. Platystrophia ponderosa Foerste, 1909 from the Upper Ordovician of North America is proposed as the type species of a new genus Vinlandostrophia. Two new species, Platystrophia baltica and Platystrophia pogrebovi from the Llanvirn–Caradoc of the East Baltic are also described.

  14. Do the Available Data Permit Clarifcation of the Possible Dependence of Palaeozoic Brachiopod Generic Diversity Dynamics on Global Sea-Level Changes? A Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At a glance, progress in palaeontology and eustatic reconstructions in the past decade permits to prove or to disprove the possible dependence of Palaeozoic brachiopod generic diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes. However, the available diversity curve is of much lower resolution than the eustatic curve. This problem can be resolved by decreasing the resolution of the latter. The other restriction linked to the chronostratigraphical incompatibility of the available data allows to focus on the Middle Palaeozoic only. A series of mass extinctions and other biotic crises in the Silurian-Devonian does not allow to interpret correctly the results of direct comparison of the brachiopod generic diversity dynamics with global sea-level changes. With the available data, it is only possible to hypothesize that the eustatic control was not playing a major part in diversity dynamics of Middle Palaeozoic brachiopods. The resolution of the stratigraphic ranges of Palaeozoic brachiopods should be increased signifcantly, and these ranges should be plotted against the most up-to-date geologic time scale. Until this task will be achieved, it is impossible to judge about the existence of any dependence (either full or partial of the Palaeozoic brachiopod diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes.

  15. Taxonomic diversity dynamics of early cretaceous brachiopods and gastropods in the Azerbaijanian domains of the Lesser Caucasus (Neo-Tethys Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palaeontological data available from the Azerbaijanian domains (Somkhit-Agdam, Sevan-Karabakh, and Miskhan-Kafan tectonic zones of the Lesser Caucasus permit reconstruction of the regional taxonomic diversity dynamics of two groups of Early Cretaceous marine benthic invertebrates. Stratigraphical ranges of 31 species and 14 genera of brachiopods and 40 species and 31 genera of gastropods are considered. The total number of species and genera of brachiopods was low in the Berriasian-Valanginian and then rose to peak in the Barremian. Then, the diversity declined in the Aptian, and brachiopods are not known regionally from the Albian. Gastropods appeared in the Hauterivian and experienced a strong radiation in the Barremian. The diversity of species and genera declined in the Aptian (with a minor radiation in the Middle Aptian, and no gastropods are reported from the Albian. Globally, the number of brachiopod genera remained stable through the Early Cretaceous, and the number of gastropod genera increased stepwise with the maximum in the Albian. The regional and global patterns of the diversity dynamics differed for the both groups of marine benthic invertebrates. The Barremian maximum of the taxonomic diversity coincided with the regional flourishing of reefal ecosystems. The taxonomic diversity dynamics of brachiopods in the Azerbaijanian domains of the Lesser Caucasus is very similar to those of the Northern Caucasus, which is an evidence of proximity of these regions during the Early Cretaceous.

  16. Alkaloids from aerial parts of Houttuynia cordata and their anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jongmin; Chae, Hee-Sung; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Jinwoong

    2017-06-15

    New alkaloids, houttuynamide B and C (1, 2) and houttuycorine (14), were isolated from the aerial parts of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. in addition to eighteen known alkaloids. Their structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis. All the isolates were tested for their inhibitory activity against NO production in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. Of the tested compounds, compound 15 showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 8.7μM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cold seep-related occurrence of the Early Jurassic rhynchonellid brachiopod Anarhynchia from the Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálfy, József; Price, Gregory D.; Vörös, Attila; Kovács, Zsófia; Johannson, Gary G.

    2017-04-01

    Cold seeps, where seepage of methane and/or other hydrocarbon-rich fluids and hydrogen-sulfide occurs in the sea floor, are sites which harbor highly specialized ecosystems associated with distinctive carbonate sediments. Although their Mesozoic record is scarce and patchy, it commonly includes rhynchonellid brachiopods, often of large size. Each new occurrence is valuable in filling gaps and providing additional insight into these peculiar ecosystems. Here we report a monospecific assemblage of Anarhynchia from a boulder-sized limestone clast of Early Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) age in the Inklin Formation of the Whitehorse Trough in Stikine terrane, recovered from a locality at Copper Island in Atlin Lake, northern British Columbia, Canada. Specimens are of unusually large size, up to 9 cm in length, and their external and internal morphology allows assignment to Anarhynchia but warrants introduction of a new species. Although d13C and d18O values of the shells are close to equilibrium with ancient seawater, early precipitated carbonate cement phases of the enclosing limestone are characterised by highly depleted carbon isotopic composition, indicative of the influence of microbial oxidation of methane derived from a cold seep. Carbonate petrography of the isopachous, banded-fibrous cement supports its origin in a cold seep environment. Volcanogenic detrital grains in the micritic matrix of the limestone clast are indistinguishable from those in the sandstone layers in the siliciclastic sequence, suggesting that the seep carbonate is broadly coeval with the enclosing conglomerate. Previously, Anarhynchia has been known from the Lower Jurassic of California and Oregon, from both cold seep and hydrothermal vent deposits. Our new record extends the geographic range and species-level diversity of the genus, but supports its endemism to the East Pacific and membership in chemosynthesis-based ecosystems.

  18. Antihyperglycemic Activity of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study is an attempt to investigate plausible mechanism involved behind antidiabetic activity of standardized Houttuynia cordata Thunb. extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The plant is used as a medicinal salad for lowering blood sugar level in North-Eastern parts of India. Oral administration of extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level daily for 21 days showed a significant (P<0.05 decrease in fasting plasma glucose and also elevated insulin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It also significantly reversed all the alterations in biochemical parameters, that is, total lipid profile, blood urea, creatinine, protein, and antioxidant enzymes in liver, pancreas, and adipose tissue of diabetic rats. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the extract significantly reversed the expression patterns of various glucose homeostatic enzyme genes like GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and caspase-3 levels but did not show any significant effect on PPAR-γ protein expressions. Additionally, the extract positively regulated mitochondrial membrane potential and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activity in diabetic rats. The findings justified the antidiabetic effect of H. cordata which is attributed to an upregulation of GLUT-4 and potential antioxidant activity, which may play beneficial role in resolving complication associated with diabetes.

  19. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oh, Se Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H...

  20. Investigation on flavonoid composition and anti free radical potential of Sida cordata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sida cordata, a member of Family Malvaceae is used in folk medicine for various ailments including liver diseases. In this study we investigated, its flavonoid constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against different free radicals and hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rat. Methods Dried powder of S. cordata whole plant was extracted with methanol and the resultant (SCME) obtained was fractionated with escalating polarity to obtain n-hexane fraction (SCHE), ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE), n-butanol fraction (SCBE) and the remaining soluble portion as aqueous fraction (SCAE). Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions. On account of marked scavenging activity SCEE was selected to investigate the hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley male rats by assessing the level of serum markers (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, and γ-glutamyltransferase) and of liver antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transfers (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Histology of the liver was performed to study alteration in histoarchitecture. Existence of active flavonoids was established by thin layer chromatographic studies. Results Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolic contents were recorded in the methanol extract and its derived fractions. Although the extract and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities however, the most distinguished scavenging potential was observed for SCEE. Treatment of SCEE decreased

  1. Investigation on flavonoid composition and anti free radical potential of Sida cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Ahmad, Bushra; Noureen, Farah; Rashid, Umbreen; Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2013-10-22

    Sida cordata, a member of Family Malvaceae is used in folk medicine for various ailments including liver diseases. In this study we investigated, its flavonoid constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against different free radicals and hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rat. Dried powder of S. cordata whole plant was extracted with methanol and the resultant (SCME) obtained was fractionated with escalating polarity to obtain n-hexane fraction (SCHE), ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE), n-butanol fraction (SCBE) and the remaining soluble portion as aqueous fraction (SCAE). Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions. On account of marked scavenging activity SCEE was selected to investigate the hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley male rats by assessing the level of serum markers (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, and γ-glutamyltransferase) and of liver antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transfers (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Histology of the liver was performed to study alteration in histoarchitecture. Existence of active flavonoids was established by thin layer chromatographic studies. Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolic contents were recorded in the methanol extract and its derived fractions. Although the extract and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities however, the most distinguished scavenging potential was observed for SCEE. Treatment of SCEE decreased the elevated level of serum

  2. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic and antioxidative compounds from lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakul Prommajak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is an Asian herb which has many biological activities, including antioxidative property from polyphenolic compounds. Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design were employed to study the effect of extraction temperature (30 to 70°C, extraction time (10 to 30 min, ethanol concentration (30 to 70%, and solvent to sample ratio (2 to 6 ml/g on ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from lizard tail and antioxidant capacity of the herb extract. Extraction temperature was the most relevant factor on the responses. Optimal condition was the extraction temperature of 70°C for 30 min, using 60% ethanol concentration at the solvent to sample ratio of 5 ml/g. Model adequacies were confirmed by extraction at the optimal condition and normality of standardized residuals.

  3. Analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Roy, Jayanti Datta; Buragohain, Bhaben; Barua, Acheenta Gohain; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

    2011-04-01

    To study the analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata Willd. Wistar rats and Swiss albino mice were used for studying analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of Drymaria cordata hydroethanolic extract (DCHE) at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. Various models viz. acetic acid induced writhing model (female mice), Eddy's hot plate (mice) and tail flick model (rat) for analgesic study and formalin-induced paw licking model (mice) were used for anti-nociceptive study. In acetic acid induced writhing model, effect of DCHE was better than the standard drug- indomethacin 10 mg/kg (p.o.). In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 60 min at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o., which was higher than the standard drug morphine sulfate (1.5 mg/kg i.p.), whereas in the tail flick model, effect was comparable with morphine sulfate. In formalin-induced paw licking model, administration of DCHE completely abolished the early phase at 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and in the late phase, the effect of DCHE (200 mg/kg p.o.) was higher than indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o.). DCHE was effective in both non-narcotic and narcotic models of nociception, suggesting its possible action via peripheral and central mechanism. It also abolished the early phase in formalin-induced paw licking model, suggesting complete inactivation of C-fiber at higher dose. The activity can be attributed to the phyto-constituents viz tannins, diterpenes, triterpenes and steroids present in the DCHE extract. In conclusion, DCHE can be developed as a potent analgesic and anti-nociceptive agent in future.

  4. Photoprotection of Buddleja cordata extract against UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Acevedo, José Guillermo; Espinosa González, Adriana Montserrat; De Maria y Campos, Diana Matamoros; Benitez Flores, José del Carmen; Hernández Delgado, Tzasna; Flores Maya, Saul; Campos Contreras, Jorge; Muñoz López, José Luis; García Bores, Ana María

    2014-08-03

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using botanical agents to prevent skin damage resulting from solar UV-irradiation. Buddleja cordata is a plant that is known as "tepozan". Some people in Mexico use the leaves of this plant to treat tumours, abscesses, sores and burns. The purpose of this study is to investigate the photoprotective properties of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract (BCME) against UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice at the macroscopic and histological levels. BCME was characterised to determine its spectroscopic, chromatographic and antioxidant (DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals) properties. To conduct the photoprotection studies, BCME was applied topically to the skin of SKH-1 mice before acute exposure to UVB for 10 minutes. The murine skin samples were used for macroscopic and histological studies to assess tissue damage. Penetration of active components of BCME into stratum corneum on the dorsal area of mice was investigated in vivo by the tape stripping method. Moreover, genotoxicity of BCME was evaluated in a Vicia faba cell root micronucleus model. BCME displayed absorbance over the entire UVB spectrum, and its principal components included verbascoside and linarin. BCME exhibited antioxidant activity and significantly scavenged hydroxyl radicals. BCME reduced erythema, sunburn cell production, vessel congestion and epidermal thickening of UVB irradiated mouse skin. BCME penetrate the skin of mice. BCME did not exhibit genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. The topical administration of BCME protected against acute UVB-induced damage in mouse SKH-1 skin, and our results suggest that BCME may potentially prevent photodamage.

  5. Growth increments of the recent brachiopod Magellania venosa mechanically marked in Paso Comau and Comau Fjord, Chile, 2011/2012, supplement to: Baumgarten, Sebastian; Laudien, Jürgen; Jantzen, Carin; Häussermann, Verena; Försterra, Günter (2013): Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region. Marine Ecology, 35(4), 401-413

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Magellania venosa, the largest recent brachiopod, occurs in clusters and banks in population densities of up to 416 ind/m**2 in Comau Fjord, Northern Chilean fjord region. Below 15 m, it co-occurs with the mytilid Aulacomya atra and it dominates the benthic community below 20 m. To determine the question of why M. venosa is a successful competitor, the in situ growth rate of the brachiopod was studied and its overall growth performance compared with that of other brachiopods and mussels. The growth in length was measured between February 2011 and March 2012 after mechanical tagging and calcein staining. Settlement and juvenile growth were determined from recruitment tiles installed in 2009 and from subsequent photocensus. Growth of M. venosa is best described by the general von Bertalanffy growth function, with a maximum shell length (Linf) of 71.53 mm and a Brody growth constant (K) of 0.336/year. The overall growth performance (OGP index = 5.1) is the highest recorded for a rynchonelliform brachiopod and in the range of that for Mytilus chilensis (4.8-5.27), but lower than that of A. atra (5.74). The maximal individual production (PInd) is 0.29 g AFDM/ind/year at 42 mm shell length and annual production ranges from 1.28 to 89.25 g AFDM/year/m**2 (1-57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass of the population (P/B-ratio) is low (0.535) and M. venosa may play only a minor role in the food chain. Settling dynamics indicates that M. venosa is a pioneer species with low juvenile mortality. The coexistence of the brachiopod and bivalve suggests that brachiopod survival is affected by neither the presence of potential brachiopod predators nor that of space competitors (i.e. mytilids).

  6. Development and antioxidant capacity of sapota pulp Jelly (Quararibea cordata Vischer Desenvolvimento e capacidade antioxidante de geleia da polpa de sapota (Quararibea cordata Vischer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Silva Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sapote (Quararibea cordata Vischer, also known as a chupa-chupa, is originated from the Brazilian, Peruvian and Colombian Amazon. The pulp of the ripe fruit is edible, fibrous, of intense orange color, sweet flavor and aromatic. Since the fruit is known in the Amazon only in its domesticated state, this work becomes necessary. With the aim of meeting the demand for new products in domestic and international markets, sapota pulp jelly has been developed. The jelly was assessed for moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, pectin, pH, total acidity, solids soluble, sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The final product met the standards required by Brazilian law, and 32.68% moisture and 61.06% °Brix. Also, in accordance with the laws attributed to this product, jelly sapota pulp can be considered a food rich in fiber, as presented content above 5%. The jelly, showed content of total phenolics compounds (102 mg GAE. 100 -1 in relation to fresh fruit (21 mg GAE.100 g-1. There was the identification in the antioxidant capacity (9.05% scavering of DPPH radical, giving the final product antioxidant properties. Also were analyzed the microbiological characteristics of the product which was not observed the presence of thermotolerants coliforms, yeast and molds. The sapota can be considered effective raw materials in the preparation of jam and this had an antioxidant activity and source of fiber.A sapota (Quararibea cordata Vischer, também conhecida como chupa-chupa, é originária da Amazônia Brasileira, Peruana e Colombiana A polpa do fruto maduro é comestível, fibrosa, de cor alaranjada intensa, sabor doce e aromática. Por ser conhecida na Amazônia somente no seu estado domesticado, torna-se necessário este trabalho Assim, visando a atender a demanda por novos produtos no mercado nacional e internacional, foi desenvolvida a geleia da polpa de sapota. A geleia foi avaliada quanto

  7. Characterization of Root-Associated Methanotrophs from Three Freshwater Macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia†

    OpenAIRE

    Calhoun, A.; King, G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Root-associated methanotrophic bacteria were enriched from three common aquatic macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia. At least seven distinct taxa belonging to groups I and II were identified and presumptively assigned to the genera Methylosinus, Methylocystis, Methylomonas, and Methylococcus. Four of these strains appeared to be novel on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The root-methanotroph association did not appear to be...

  8. [Study on balance group in steady-state extraction process of Chinese medicine and experimental verification to Houttuynia cordata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Zhang, Xili; He, Fuyuan; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Haiqin; Wu, Dezhi; Chen, Zuohong

    2011-11-01

    To establish and experimental verification the mathematical model of the balance groups that is the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine in extraction. Using the entropy and genetic principles of statistics, and taking the coefficient of variation of GC fingerprint which is the naphtha of the Houttuynia cordata between strains in the same GAP place as a pivot to establish and verify the mathematical model was established of the balance groups that is the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine in extraction. A mathematical model that is suitable for the balance groups of the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine and preparation in extraction, and the balance groups which is 29 683 strains (approximately 118.7 kg) were gained with the same origin of H. cordata as the model drug. Under the GAP of quality control model, controlling the stability of the quality through further using the Hardy-Weinberg balance groups of the H. cordata between strains, the new theory and experiment foundation is established for the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine in extraction and quality control.

  9. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Macleaya cordata (Willd) R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Yong; Zhong, Yi-Rong; Yu, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Macleaya cordata R.Br. obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sixty-eight compounds consisting of up to 92.53% of the essential oil were identified. Antioxidant activities of the essential oil were evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity. In addition, the essential oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms, with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 ± 0.5 to 17.2 ± 1.2 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration values from 125 to 500 μg/mL. We selected the most sensitive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus as model to observe of the action of essential oils of M. cordata on the membrane structure by scanning electron microscopy. The treated cell membranes were damaged severely. The results presented here indicate that the essential oil of M. cordata may be potential sources of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in the future.

  10. In vitro assessment of Macleaya cordata crude extract bioactivity and anticancer properties in normal and cancerous human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Lin, Yu-ling; Chen, Xuan-Ren; Liao, Chi-Cheng; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the bioactivity and anticancer properties of Macleaya cordata crude extract in vitro using normal fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 and adenocarcinomic epithelial cell A549 as model systems,. Treatment of extract induced cell detachment, rounding, and irregularity in shape, in both normal and adenocarcinomic human lung cells, in accompanied of significant reduction in cell proliferation. The data indicated that necrosis appeared to be involved in compromising cell growth in both types of lung cells since membrane permeability and cell granularity were elevated. Although apoptosis was evident, the responses were differential in normal and diseased lung cells. Viability of treated MRC5 cells was reduced in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating that the normal lung cells are sensitive to the extract. Surprisingly, A549 viability was slightly elevated in response to extract exposure at low concentration, implying that cells survived were metabolically active; the viability was reduced accordingly to treatment at higher concentrations. The present findings demonstrate that the crude extract of M. cordata contains agents affecting the functioning of normal and diseased lung cells in vitro. The observed cytotoxic effects against adenocarcinomic lung cells validate the potential of using M. cordata as herbal intervention in combined with conventional chemotherapy for lung cancer treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. δ18O and δ13C Values in Living and Holocene Brachiopods and the Relationship with Oceanographic Variability across Australia's Vast Southern Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, R.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of brachiopods are commonly used to reconstruct secular changes in ocean chemistry through the Phanerozoic but few studies have focused on the variations that occur laterally and concurrently across a single vast depositional system. Previous studies have identified significant isotopic variability to occur within an individual stratigraphic layer and the scatter in values has been attributed to diagenesis, non-equilibrium fractionation effects, and variability in oceanography. In order to further investigate these hypotheses, this study evaluates the δ18O and δ13C values from 346 living and Holocene brachiopods collected from surficial sediments across the latitude-parallel southern Australian shelf, a lateral distance of ~3000 km. Modern oceanographic measurements were used to calculate the range in δ18O values of calcite precipitated in apparent equilibrium with ambient seawater. A total of 84% of δ18O values from brachiopod samples (n = 684) fall within the range of calculated equilibrium calcite and accurately record a combination of normal shelf water conditions, winter downwelling across the shelf, and local summer upwelling. Most δ18O outliers are attributed to seasonal upwelling (90 of 108 outliers) and imply that either upwelling occurred in an area that has not been well established as an upwelling zone, or it occurred in a known upwelling area but the intensity was greater than previously measured. The δ13C values of brachiopods increase with increasing depth, which is the opposite of what is reported elsewhere. This unusual δ13C trend is caused by deeper slope currents being sourced from surface water southwest of Tasmania, an area with relatively high δ13C of DIC. The δ13C values of living specimens are consistently lower by 0.5-1.0‰ than most dead specimens, which is attributed to the decrease in δ13C values in the carbon cycle due to combustion of isotopically light fossil fuels over the last 200

  12. Determination of physiological parameters of Tilla cordata Mill. in different environments cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksat Bekboevich Matraimov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the effect of different container design on growth and development of Small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.. Experimental plants acquired in the Netherlands were of standardized height 0.4 meters, with diameter of the root neck of 3–5 mm. To monitor the effect of different types of containers (“Air-Pot™” container – Bohemiaseed, s. r. o., Squared containers “Vet” – SINCO Ltd., Containers 50 Series MCI/MCC – round plastic nursery containers, “Air pot” garden bags – Arbo ® Standard, Poland on the physiological and morphological parameters of plants, three types of nursery containers were selected with open ground as control variant. Statistically significant difference between fluorescence and time of measurement was also found. In the Small-leaved lime the container type did not affect chlorophyll content or chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm; plants grown in Containers 50 Series MCI/MCC showed a lower chlorophyll content compared to plants grown in “Air-Pot ™” containers. As reported in literature, Fv/Fm ratio is a reliable indicator of the occurrence of environmental stresses, including water stress, on air-pot bag for several woody and herbaceous species.

  13. Antibiofilm and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Houttuynia cordata Decoction for Oral Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Sekita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental biofilms that form in the oral cavity play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several infectious oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and oral candidiasis. Houttuynia cordata (HC, Saururaceae is a widely used traditional medicine, for both internal and external application. A decoction of dried HC leaves (dHC has long been consumed as a health-promoting herbal tea in Japan. We have recently reported that a water solution of HC poultice ethanol extract (wHCP exerts antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects against several important oral pathogens. It also exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on human keratinocytes. In our current study, we examined the effects of dHC on infectious oral pathogens and inflammation. Our results demonstrated that dHC exerts moderate antimicrobial effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and other oral microorganisms. dHC also exhibited antibiofilm effects against MRSA, Fusobacterium nucleatum (involved in dental plaque formation, and Candida albicans and inhibitory effects on interleukin-8, CCL20, IP-10, and GROα productions by human oral keratinocytes stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (a cause of periodontal disease, without cytotoxic effects. This suggests that dHC exhibits multiple activities in microorganisms and host cells. dHC can be easily prepared and may be effective in preventing infectious oral diseases.

  14. Italian alder (Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. - new species for Allochtonous dendroflora of Serbia

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    Bobinac Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign tree species, Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. (Italian alder, (Betulaceae/Loisel./Duby, not previously recorded in the dendroflora of Serbia, is described in this paper. Italian alder trees in an experimental plot in the area of Erdevik, aged 11 years, show good vitality and fast growth, and bear fruits since their 10th year. Tree heights are in range from 10.4 to 16.2 m, and diameters at the breast height range from14.6 to 34.9 cm. The morphological properties of leaves, fruiting organs (“cones” and male catkins are in concordance with the values in literature sources, although they show great variability. Since the time of plantation establishment, the absolute minimum air temperature in the nearby meteorological station of Sremska Mitrovica was -26.50C, so it can be assumed that the species is frost hardy. On the basis of the researched properties of Italian alder, it can be concluded that this species can be cultivated in Serbia as an ornamental in urban areas and as a fast growing species in forest plantations for biomass production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  15. Genetic control of floral morph in tristylous Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, Lyn A; Wofford, David S

    2008-01-01

    Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 16) tristylous aquatic perennial. Populations usually contain 3 floral morphs that differ reciprocally in style length and anther height (referred to as the long-, mid-, and short-styled morphs, hereafter L-, M-, and S-morphs). The floral polymorphism promotes disassortative mating among the 3 floral morphs and is maintained in populations by negative frequency-dependent selection. The objective of this study was to determine the number of loci, number of alleles, and gene action controlling floral morph in pickerelweed. Three parental lines (one each of the L-, M-, and S-morph) were used to create S1 and F1 populations. F2 populations were produced through self-pollination of F1 plants. Progeny ratios of S1, F1, and F2 generations revealed that tristyly is controlled by 2 diallelic loci (S and M) with dominant gene action. The S locus is epistatic to the M locus, with the S-morph produced by plants with the dominant S allele (genotype S _ _ _). Plants with recessive alleles at the S locus were either L-morph (ssmm) or M-morph (ssM_). The results of this experiment demonstrate that the inheritance of tristyly in pickerelweed is the same as previously reported for several tristylous species in the Lythraceae and Oxalidaceae.

  16. Cortical development in roots of the aquatic plant Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, J L; Peterson, C A; Enstone, D E

    2000-08-01

    Adventitious roots of marsh-grown Pontederia cordata were examined to determine cortical development and structure. The innermost layer of the ground meristem forms the endodermis and aerenchymatous cortex. The outermost layer of the early ground meristem undergoes a precise pattern of oblique and periclinal cell divisions to produce a single or double layer of prohypodermis with an anchor cell for each radial file of aerenchyma cells. At maturity, endodermal cell walls are modified only by narrow Casparian bands. The central regions of the ground meristem become proaerenchyma and exhibit asymmetric cell division and expansion. They produce an aerenchymatous zone with barrel-shaped large cells and irregularly shaped small cells traversing the aerenchyma horizontally along radii; some crystalliferous cells with raphides are present in the aerenchyma. The walls of the hypodermis are modified early by polyphenols. The outermost layer of the hypodermis later matures into an exodermis with Casparian bands that are impermeable to berberine, an apoplastic tracer dye. The nonexodermal layer(s) of the hypodermis has suberin-modified walls. Radial files of aerenchyma are usually connected by narrow protuberances near their midpoints, the aerenchyma lacunae having been produced by expansion of cells along walls lining intercellular spaces. We are terming this type of aerenchyma development, which is neither schizogenous nor lysigenous, "differential expansion."

  17. Effects of planting densities on water quality improvements and Pontederia cordata's physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Various planting densities (5, 10, or 20 plants per tank) of Pontederia cordata were water-cultivated in purifying tanks to treat polluted water. Seasonal effects of the planting densities on the water quality improvement and the morphology and physiology of the plant were analyzed. Results indicated that planting densities affected the nitrogen and phosphorus removal of water, and the morphology and physiology of plants, including activity of peroxidise and catalase, content of chlorophyll and soluble protein (SP), the length of root, stem and leaf, tiller number and root density. When planting density increased from 10 to 20 plants per tank, the morphology and physiology of plants, and the nitrogen and phosphorus removal by plants improved slowly, but caused a tiller number decline in individual plants. This variation was significant in autumn, and associated with seasonal variations of plant physiology. During autumn, there were 26 tillers in each plant with 10 plants per tank, compared to 14 tillers per plant with 20 plants per tank. Increase in the nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the plants for 5-10 plants per tank was 5.41 and 0.79 g kg(-1), compared to 1.17 and 0.12 g kg(-1) for 10-20 plants per tank, respectively.

  18. Boron isotopes in brachiopods during the end-Permian mass extinction: constraints on pH evolution and seawater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurikova, Hana; Gutjahr, Marcus; Liebetrau, Volker; Brand, Uwe; Posenato, Renato; Garbelli, Claudio; Angiolini, Lucia; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2017-04-01

    The global biogeochemical cycling of carbon is fundamental for life on Earth with the ocean playing a key role as the largest and dynamically evolving CO2 reservoir. The boron isotope composition (commonly expressed in δ11B) of marine calcium carbonate is considered to be one of the most reliable paleo-pH proxies, potentially enabling us to reconstruct past ocean pH changes and understand carbon cycle perturbations along Earth's geological record (e.g. Foster et al., 2008; Clarkson et al., 2015). Brachiopods present an advantageous and largely underutilised archive for Phanerozoic carbon cycle reconstructions considering their high abundance in the geological record and its origin dating back to the early Cambrian. Moreover, their shell made of low-magnesium calcite makes these marine calcifiers more resistant to post-depositional diagenetic alteration of primary chemical signals. We have investigated the δ11B using MC-ICP-MS (Neptune Plus) and B/Ca and other elemental ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Al/Ca, Li/Ca, Ba/Ca, Na/Ca and Fe/Ca) using ICP-MS-Quadrupole (Agilent 7500cx) from the same specimens in pristine brachiopod shells from two sections from northern Italy during the Late Permian. These sections cover the δ13C excursion in excess of ˜4 ‰ (Brand et al., 2012) and are associated with major climate and environmental perturbations that lead to the mass extinction event at the Permian-Triassic boundary. Particular emphasis will be placed on the implications of our new paleo-pH estimates on the seawater chemistry during the Late Permian. Brand, U., Posenato, R., Came, R., Affek, H., Angiolini, L., Azmy, K. and Farabegoli, E.: The end-Permian mass extinction: A rapid volcanic CO2 and CH4-climatic catastrophe, Chemical Geology 323, 121-144, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.06.015, 2012. Clarkson, M.O., Kasemann, S.A., Wood, R.A., Lenton, T.M., Daines, S.J., Richoz, S., Ohnemueller, F., Meixner, A., Poulton, S.W. and Tipper, E.T.: Ocean acidification and the Permo

  19. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F; Gardner, D R; Medeiros, R M T; Barros, S S; Anjos, B L; Lucena, R B

    2007-01-01

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with grain. Clinical signs were observed after the ingestion of 62 and 106 g/kg body weight in 28 and 54 days, respectively. The concentration of swainsonine in the plant varied from less than 0.001% to 0.14% (dry weight). Clinical signs of natural and experimental cases included difficulties in standing, ataxia, hypermetria, wide-based stance, intention tremors, spastic paresis mainly in the hind legs, nystagmus, abnormal postural reactions, head tilting, and falling. Diffuse vacuolation of neurons, epithelial cells of pancreas, thyroids, and renal tubules were observed on the histology. From the electron microscopy of Purkinje cells the vacuoles represented dilated lysosomes. These findings demonstrated that T. cordata causes an acquired glycoprotein lysosomal storage disease. The intoxication occurs at least in an area of 27,000 km2 causing severe losses in goats, and some farmers report the disease also in cattle.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract in the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Parkinson's disease rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Barrón, Gabriela; Avila-Acevedo, José Guillermo; García-Bores, Ana María; Montes, Sergio; García-Jiménez, Sara; León-Rivera, Ismael; Rubio-Osornio, Moisés; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the irreversible loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway with subsequent dopamine deficiency. Environmental causes have been proposed through molecules, such as 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), to induce oxidative stress. The methanolic extract of plants of the genus Buddleja has been reported to have in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties to protect against neuronal death. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract in the MPP(+) PD rat model was investigated. Animals were administered orally with 50 or 100 mg/kg of methanolic extract every 24 h for 14 days. Twenty hours later, rats were infused with an intrastriatal stereotaxic microinjection of 10 µg MPP(+) in 8 μl sterile saline solution. Six days later, the animals were treated with 1 mg/kg apomorphine to record ipsilateral rotations for 1 h. All the rats were killed by decapitation and the lesioned striatum was dissected for dopamine and lipid peroxidation quantifications. Both methanolic extract doses led to a significantly lower (P Buddleja cordata methanolic extract in the MPP(+) PD rat model, possibly due to the involvement of phenylpropanoids.

  1. Interactive effects of salinity and low potassium on growth, physiology response of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. W01-100

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    Zou Y. T.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is a plant enrichment in potassium in plant was reported. Salinity and low potassium availability are important environmental factors restricting plant growth and productivity throughout the world. The interactive effects of salinity and potassium on growth, water content, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation content, ion accumulations and K+/Na+ ratio, and organic accumulations as well as oxidative enzymes were investigated in Houttuynia cordata Thunb.. Plants of three-leaf-stage were selected for uniformity, then treated with four levels of Na+ (50, 100, 200 mmol/L and K+(0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 mmol/L for 20 days. Plant biomass production, ratio of root and shoot, root numbers, water content and MDA content significantly declined in the combined effect of salinity and K+ deprivation, and increased with salinity. However, salinity in conjunction with K+ deprivation led to an increase on leaf chlorophyll content, which even increased with increasing salinity levels. As expected, K+ content in plant was positive correlated with supplementary K+ concentrations, while Na+ was well correlated with salinity, especially enhanced by the interactive effects of salinity and K+ deprivation. Soluble sugar and proline contents remarkable increased by the highest salinity. SOD activity also substantial increased by the highest salinity, and increased with supplementary K+ concentrations. However, elevated CAT and POD activities were not accompanied with an increase in SOD activity.

  2. In Vitro Study on Glucose Utilization Capacity of Bioactive Fractions of Houttuynia cordata in Isolated Rat Hemidiaphragm and Its Major Phytoconstituent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Satyendra K; Hemalatha, Siva

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The whole plant of Houttuynia cordata has been reported to have potent antihyperglycemic activity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glucose utilization capacity of bioactive fractions of ethanol extract of Houttuynia cordata (HC) in isolated rat hemidiaphragm. Methods. All the fractions, that is, aqueous (AQ), hexane (HEX), chloroform (CHL), and ethyl acetate (EA), obtained from ethanol extract of H. cordata were subjected to phytochemical standardization use in quercetin as a marker with the help of HPTLC. Further, glucose utilization capacity by rat hemidiaphragm was evaluated in 12 different sets of in vitro experiments. In the study, different fractions from H. cordata as mentioned above were evaluated, where insulin was used as standard and quercetin as a biological standard. Results. Among all the tested fractions, AQ and EA significantly increased glucose uptake by isolated rat hemidiaphragm compared to negative control. Moreover, AQ fractions enhanced the uptake of glucose significantly (p fractions may be attributed to the presence of quercetin, which was found to be 7.1 and 3.2% w/w, respectively, in both the fractions.

  3. A Review of the Characteristics of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Their Implications for Silviculture in a Changing Climate

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    Tanguy De Jaegere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tilia cordata Mill. is a minor European broadleaved species with a wide but scattered distribution. Given its scarcity and low value in the wood market, it has received little attention from researchers and forest managers. This review summarizes the main aspects of T. cordata ecology and growth. Its main limiting factor is its need for warm summer temperatures to ensure successful seed production. It has a height growth pattern relatively similar to that of Acer pseudoplatanus L., with a slight delay in the early stages. Yield tables report great productivity, especially in eastern Europe. T. cordata used to be a major species in Europe, in contrast to its present distribution, but it is very likely to receive renewed interest in the future. Indeed, with the potential change of competition between species in some regions and the need for important diversification in others, T. cordata may play an important role in forest adaptation to climate change, especially owing to its wide ecological tolerance and its numerous ecosystem services. It is necessary to increase our knowledge about its regeneration and its responses to environmental and silvicultural factors, to establish clear management recommendations.

  4. In Vitro Study on Glucose Utilization Capacity of Bioactive Fractions of Houttuynia cordata in Isolated Rat Hemidiaphragm and Its Major Phytoconstituent

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    Manish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The whole plant of Houttuynia cordata has been reported to have potent antihyperglycemic activity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glucose utilization capacity of bioactive fractions of ethanol extract of Houttuynia cordata (HC in isolated rat hemidiaphragm. Methods. All the fractions, that is, aqueous (AQ, hexane (HEX, chloroform (CHL, and ethyl acetate (EA, obtained from ethanol extract of H. cordata were subjected to phytochemical standardization use in quercetin as a marker with the help of HPTLC. Further, glucose utilization capacity by rat hemidiaphragm was evaluated in 12 different sets of in vitro experiments. In the study, different fractions from H. cordata as mentioned above were evaluated, where insulin was used as standard and quercetin as a biological standard. Results. Among all the tested fractions, AQ and EA significantly increased glucose uptake by isolated rat hemidiaphragm compared to negative control. Moreover, AQ fractions enhanced the uptake of glucose significantly (p<0.05 and was found to be more effective than insulin. Conclusions. The augmentation in glucose uptake by hemidiaphragm in presence of AQ and EA fractions may be attributed to the presence of quercetin, which was found to be 7.1 and 3.2% w/w, respectively, in both the fractions.

  5. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic, Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activity of Fish-mint (Houttuynia cordataThunb.) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram S; Joshi, Neeta; Padalia, Rajendra C; Singh, Ved R; Goswami, Prakash; Kumar, Ajay; Iqbal, Hina; Verma, Rajesh K; Chanda, Debabrata; Chauhan, Amit; Saikia, Dharmendra

    2017-10-01

    Fish-mint (Houttuynia cordataThunb.), belonging to family Saururaceae, has long been used as food and traditional herbal medicine. The present study was framed to assess the changes occurring in the essential-oil composition of H. cordata during annual growth and to evaluate allelopathic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiacetylcholinesterase activities. The essential-oil content ranged from 0.06 - 0.14% and 0.08 - 0.16% in aerial parts and underground stem, respectively. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR (1 H and 13 C). Major constituents of aerial-parts oil was 2-undecanone (19.4 - 56.3%), myrcene (2.6 - 44.3%), ethyl decanoate (0.0 - 10.6%), ethyl dodecanoate (1.1 - 8.6%), 2-tridecanone (0.5 - 8.3%), and decanal (1.1 - 6.9%). However, major constituents of underground-stem oil were 2-undecanone (29.5 - 42.3%), myrcene (14.4 - 20.8%), sabinene (6.0 - 11.1%), 2-tridecanone (1.8 - 10.5%), β-pinene (5.3 - 10.0%), and ethyl dodecanoate (0.8 - 7.3%). Cluster analysis revealed that essential-oil composition varied substantially due to the plant parts and season of collection. The oils exhibited significant allelopathic (inhibition: 77.8 - 88.8%; LD50 : 2.45 - 3.05 μl/plate), antibacterial (MIC: 0.52 - 2.08 μl/ml; MBC: bacteriostatic) and antifungal (MIC: 2.08 - 33.33 μl/ml; MFC: 4.16 - 33.33 μl/ml) activities. The results indicate that the essential oil from H. cordata has a significant potential to allow future exploration and exploitation as a natural antimicrobial and allelopathic agent. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Characterization of Root-Associated Methanotrophs from Three Freshwater Macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, A.; King, G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Root-associated methanotrophic bacteria were enriched from three common aquatic macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia. At least seven distinct taxa belonging to groups I and II were identified and presumptively assigned to the genera Methylosinus, Methylocystis, Methylomonas, and Methylococcus. Four of these strains appeared to be novel on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The root-methanotroph association did not appear to be highly specific, since multiple methanotrophs were isolated from each of the three plant species. Group II methanotrophs were isolated most frequently; though less common, group I isolates accounted for three of the seven distinct methanotrophs. Apparent Km values for methane uptake by representative cultures ranged from 3 to >17 μM; for five of the eight cultures examined, apparent Km values agreed well with apparent Km estimates for plant roots, suggesting that these strains may be representative of those active in situ. PMID:16349515

  7. Characterization of Root-Associated Methanotrophs from Three Freshwater Macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, A; King, G M

    1998-03-01

    Root-associated methanotrophic bacteria were enriched from three common aquatic macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia. At least seven distinct taxa belonging to groups I and II were identified and presumptively assigned to the genera Methylosinus, Methylocystis, Methylomonas, and Methylococcus. Four of these strains appeared to be novel on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The root-methanotroph association did not appear to be highly specific, since multiple methanotrophs were isolated from each of the three plant species. Group II methanotrophs were isolated most frequently; though less common, group I isolates accounted for three of the seven distinct methanotrophs. Apparent K(m) values for methane uptake by representative cultures ranged from 3 to >17 muM; for five of the eight cultures examined, apparent K(m) values agreed well with apparent K(m) estimates for plant roots, suggesting that these strains may be representative of those active in situ.

  8. Plant regeneration by somatic embryogenesis from cultured immature embryos of oak (Querem robur L.) and linden (Tilia cordata Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupa, V

    1990-11-01

    Embryogenic cultures and somatic embryos were obtained from immature zygotic embryos of oak (Quercus robur L.) cultured on a modified MS medium and WPM containing BAP (1 mg·l(-1)) and GA3 (1 mg·l(-1)) or BAP and IBA. Germination and conversion of oak somatic embryos into plantlets was achieved on WPM containing a reduced concentration of cytokinin. Linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) somatic embryos developed in embryogenic tissues initiated from immature zygotic embryos cultured on a modified MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (0.3-2.0 mg·l(-1)). Germination of linden somatic embryos and plantlet formation occurred on MS medium containing a low concentration of IBA. Oak and linden plantlets produced from somatic embryos were successfully established in soil. Somatic embryos and plantlets were also regenerated from embryogenic cultures of Quercus petraea and Tilia platyphyllos.

  9. Extraction and identification of bioactive components in Sida cordata (Burm.f.) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Mani; Mohankumar, Murugan

    2017-09-01

    Sida cordata (Burm.f.) is a pineal tropical plant in the family Malvaceae that is found throughout India and used to treat various diseases and ailments in many complementary and alternative medicine systems. This study identified the bioactive components present in whole-plant ethanol extracts of S. cordata using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Based on their retention times (RT) and mass-to-charge ratios (m/z), 29 bioactive compounds were identified: nonanoic acid, vitamin D3, 3-trifluroacetoxypentadecane, α-d-glucopyranoside, O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1.fwdarw.3)-α-d-fructofuranosyl,3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecan-1-ol, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, phytol, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (E,E), 9,12,15-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (Z,Z,Z), oleic acid, 1,2-15,16-diepoxyhexadecane, 3-hexadecyloxycarbonyl-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylimidazolium ion, methoxyacetic acid, 4-tetradecyl ester, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester, 1-iodo-2-methylundecane, dodecane, 2,6,10-trimethyl-, 2-piperidinone-N-[4-bromo-n-butyl]-, squalene, octadecane-1-(ethenyloxy)-, Z,Z-2,5-pentadecadien-1-ol, 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-, spiro[androst-5ene-17,1'-cyclobutan]-2'-one-3-hydroxy-, (3a,17a)-, diethylene glycol monododecyl ether, vitamin E, cholestan-3-ol, 2-methylene-, (3a,5a)-, 2H-pyran, 2-(7-heptadecynyloxy)tetrahydro-, and cis-Z-α-bisabolene epoxide. The presence of various bioactive compounds justifies the use of this plant for treating various ailments by traditional practitioners.

  10. Analysis of the Impact of Isoquinoline Alkaloids, Derived from Macleaya cordata Extract, on the Development and Innate Immune Response in Swine and Poultry

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    Hengjia Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal extract has been chronicled extensively in traditional Chinese medicine. Isoquinoline alkaloids, extract of Macleaya cordata (Willd. R. Br., have been used as feed additive in both swine and poultry. Dietary supplementation with isoquinoline alkaloids increases feed intake and weight gain. In addition, recent researches have demonstrated that isoquinoline alkaloids can regulate metabolic processes, innate immune system, and digestive functioning in animals. This review summarizes the latest scientific researches on isoquinoline alkaloids which are extracted from Macleaya cordata (Willd. R. Br. This review specifically focuses on its role as a feed supplement and its associated impact on growth performance and innate immune system, as well as its capacity to act as a substitute for oral antibiotics.

  11. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.

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    Astrid Moser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researched. This study aimed to analyze the annual growth and drought tolerance of two common urban tree species, namely small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. (T. cordata and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. (R. pseudoacacia, in two cities in southern Germany in relation to their urban growing conditions. Marked growth reductions during drought periods and subsequent fast recovery were found for R. pseudoacacia, whereas T. cordata exhibited continued reduced growth after a drought event, although these results were highly specific to the analyzed city. We further show that individual tree characteristics and environmental conditions significantly influence the growth of urban trees. Canopy openness and other aspects of the surrounding environment (water supply and open surface area of the tree pit, tree size, and tree species significantly affect urban tree growth and can modify the ability of trees to tolerate the drought stress in urban areas. Sustainable tree planting of well adapted tree species to their urban environment ensures healthy trees providing ecosystem services for a high quality of life in cities.

  12. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

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    Se Yeon Oh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different parts of the plant such as leaves, aerial stems, and underground stems for H. cordata Thunb. Sixteen compounds were identified. β-Myrcene, cis-ocimene and decanal are the dominant volatiles for leaves (71.0% and aerial stems (50.1%. While, monoterpenes (74.6% are the dominant volatiles for underground stems. 2-Undecanone (1.3% and lauraldehyde (3.5% were found to be the characteristic components for leaves. Each part of the plant has its own characteristic fragrance pattern owing to its individual chemical compositions. Moreover, its individual characteristic fragrance patterns are conducive to discrimination of the three different parts of the plant. Consequently, fast GC/SAW can be a useful analytical method for quality control of the different parts of the plant with pharmacological volatiles as it provides second unit analysis, a simple and fragrant pattern recognition.

  13. Evolution of the carbon cycle and seawater temperature from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary to the Early Toarcian based on brachiopod geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Tamás; Tomašových, Adam

    2017-04-01

    The ecological crisis and extinction at the end of the Triassic coincides with several environmental perturbations such as global temperature rise, ocean acidification and carbon isotope anomalies, with a large observed negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in the Late Rhaetian as well. Followed by the ETE, the Early Jurassic was characterized by marked fluctuations of the global seawater temperature and carbon cycle. Carbon isotope records are showing positive and remarkable negative excursions. A particular example of these phenomena is connected to the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (TOAE). The δ13C record of the TOAE is showing a negative excursion of a high magnitude, suggesting the injection of large amount of light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, coinciding with rapid global warming and widespread anoxia. Beside the TOAE there are many other, smaller scale carbon isotope anomalies and environmental perturbations at the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian transition or at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary. In our study, we provide new brachiopod δ13C, δ18O, and Mg/Ca data from the time interval starting in the Rhaetian till the end of the Early Toarcian. Considering the strong resistance of brachiopod shells against diagenesis, our aim is to reconstruct seawater temperature, seawater Mg/Ca, and carbon cycle evolution based on a reliable geochemical proxy database of the studied time interval. The samples have been collected from various localities across Europe achieving a good, at least ammonite subzone scale resolution for the Rhaetian stage and for the Lower Jurassic. The geochemical preservation of the shell material have been tested by several approaches. Thin-sections were made from the shells and analyzed by electron microprobe and ICP-OES to evaluate their preservation by assessing concentrations of Fe, Mn, Sr, and their ratios (Mn/Ca, Sr/Ca). Considering the various elemental composition data of fossil and recent brachiopods published by several

  14. The acclimation of Tilia cordata stomatal opening in response to light, and stomatal anatomy to vegetational shade and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasamaa, Krõõt; Aphalo, Pedro José

    2017-02-01

    Stomatal anatomical traits and rapid responses to several components of visible light were measured in Tilia cordata Mill. seedlings grown in an open, fully sunlit field (C-set), or under different kinds of shade. The main questions were: (i) stomatal responses to which visible light spectrum regions are modified by growth-environment shade and (ii) which separate component of vegetational shade is most effective in eliciting the acclimation effects of the full vegetational shade. We found that stomatal opening in response to red or green light did not differ between the plants grown in the different environments. Stomatal response to blue light was increased (in comparison with that of C-set) in the leaves grown in full vegetational shade (IABW-set), in attenuated UVAB irradiance (AB-set) or in decreased light intensity (neutral shade) plus attenuated UVAB irradiance (IAB-set). In all sets, the addition of green light-two or four times stronger-into induction light barely changed the rate of the blue-light-stimulated stomatal opening. In the AB-set, stomatal response to blue light equalled the strong IABW-set response. In attenuated UVB-grown leaves, stomatal response fell midway between IABW- and C-set results. Blue light response by neutral shade-grown leaves did not differ from that of the C-set, and the response by the IAB-set did not differ from that of the AB-set. Stomatal size was not modified by growth environments. Stomatal density and index were remarkably decreased only in the IABW- and IAB-sets. It was concluded that differences in white light responses between T. cordata leaves grown in different light environments are caused only by their different blue light response. Differences in stomatal sensitivity are not dependent on altered stomatal anatomy. Attenuated UVAB irradiance is the most efficient component of vegetational shade in stimulating acclimation of stomata, whereas decreased light intensity plays a minor role. © The Author 2016. Published

  15. Variability of morphometric leaf traits in small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mili. under the influence of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kosiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns the ecological responses of Tilia cordata Mill. to pollution and describes the advantages of estimating of the degree of environmental pollution. The aim was, to find out whether the degree of pollution conforms to the contents of the investigated elements in leaves, the assessment of variability of morphometric leaf traits and the cationic equilibrium values. The study has shown a statistically significant differentiation between the analysed sites in respect of dust fall, concentrations of elements in soils and leaves, morphometric traits of leaves and the cationic equilibrium. The hierarchical tree plot of cluster analysis qualified the sites as polluted and non-polluted. In polluted sites the contents of metals in leaves were significantly higher and the cationic equilibrium in leaves was disturbed. The surface, width and asymmetry of leaves, and also the variability of these measures were higher in polluted sites. In sites, which are not directly affected by pollution the cationic equilibrium is close to the const. value, whereas leaf traits have shown the lowest values and a considerably lower variability. The investigations show that leaf traits and cationic equilibrium correspond to the level of pollution and can be used as a tool for evaluation of the environment status.

  16. Evaluation of physical and chemical parameters of the Sapota (Quararibea cordata Vischer: A fruit of the Amazon Brazilian

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    Vania Silva Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sapote  (Quararibea  cordata Vischer,  also  known  as  a  chupa-chupa,  is  originated  from  the Brazilian,PeruvianandColombianAmazon.Thepulpoftheripefruitisedible,fibrous,of intenseorangecolor,sweetflavorandaromatic.Sincethefruitisknowninthe Brazilian Amazononlyin itsdomesticatedstate,thisworkbecomesnecessary,whichevaluatesthephysicalandchemical profileofthefruitandprovidesmoreinformationaboutitsindustrialpotential.Thefollowing parameterswereassessed:totalmass(glongitudinalandtransversaldiameters(mm,proximal composition,caloricvalue,carotenoids,totalpectin,totaltitratableacidity,pH,totalsoluble sugars,organicacids,color,antioxidantpotentialandphenoliccompounds.TheSapote grown in Goiânia hasaveragemassof595g,longitudinaldiameterof10.06cm andtransversaldiameterof10.68cm.The fruitcontainslargeamountsofdietaryfiber(11.94% and  carotenoids  (1.91μg.g-1,and  high  total  pectin  content  (5.24%.  Thefruitalsohasphenoliccompoundsinthealcoholicextractsof 6.31mgGAE.100g-1 and15.06mgGAE.100g-1  intheaqueousextract.Thismakesthefruitto haveafunctionalfeature.Thus,itcanbeincludedintheindustrialcontext,withthemainfeature ofbeing an exotic fruit with properties thatgive itgood nutritionalperformance.

  17. Medicinal plants of the genus Macleaya (Macleaya cordata, Macleaya microcarpa): A review of their phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Liu, Yan-Chun; Huang, Jia-Lu; Liu, Xiu-Bin; Qing, Zhi-Xing; Zeng, Jian-Guo; Liu, Zhao-Ying

    2018-01-01

    In the genus Macleaya, Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa have been recognized as traditional herbs that are primarily distributed in China, North America, and Europe and have a long history of medicinal usage. These herbs have been long valued and studied for detumescence, detoxification, and insecticidal effect. This review aims to provide comprehensive information on botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies on plants in the genus Macleaya. Plants from the genus of Macleaya provide a source of bioactive compounds, primarily alkaloids, with remarkable diversity and complex architectures, thereby having attracted attention from researchers. To date, 291 constituents have been identified and/or isolated from this group. These purified compounds and/or crude extract possess antitumor, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, and antibacterial activities in addition to certain potential toxicities. Macleaya species hold potential for medicinal applications. However, despite the pharmacological studies on these plants, the mechanisms underlying the biological activities of active ingredients derived from Macleaya have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Additionally, there is a need for research focusing on in vivo medical effects of Macleaya compounds and, eventually, for clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A near infrared spectroscopic study of the structural modifications of lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) wood during hydro-thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Popescu, Maria-Cristina

    2013-11-01

    The modifications and/or degradation of lime (Tillia cordata) wood components during wood heat treatment under low temperature at about 140 °C and 10% percentage of relative humidity were evaluated. The aim of this study was to obtain results by simple NIR coupled with second derivative, principal component analysis and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy in order to better understand how these techniques are able to evaluate structural differences resulted under hydro-thermal treatment of the wood over a period of 504 h. The NIR spectra of treated samples were compared with the reference one. Due to the broad bands in the NIR spectra, the assignment and modifications occurring during treatment is difficult, therefore the second derivative principal component analysis were applied. Principal component analysis by first two components was able to differentiate the samples series, PC1 being considered as the time axis, and PC2 as the axis representing the structural modification of wood components. 2D NIR correlation spectroscopy was able to estimate the sequential order of the groups variations under the hydro-thermal treatment time as external perturbation, indicating as first moment changes the OH and Csbnd O groups from carbohydrates and lignin, followed by Carsbnd H, Csbnd H and CH2 groups from lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses.

  19. Structural modifications of Tilia cordata wood during heat treatment investigated by FT-IR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Froidevaux, Julien; Navi, Parviz; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela

    2013-02-01

    It is known that heat treatment of wood combined with a low percent of relative humidity causes transformations in the chemical composition of it. The modifications and/or degradation of wood components occur by hydrolysis, oxidation, and decarboxylation reactions. The aim of this study was to give better insights on wood chemical modifications during wood heat treatment under low temperature at about 140 °C and 10% percentage of relative humidity, by infrared, principal component analysis and two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy. For this purpose, hardwood samples of lime (Tilia cordata) were investigated and analysed. The infrared spectra of treated samples were compared with the reference ones, the most important differences being observed in the "fingerprint" region. Due to the complexity of this region, which have contributions from all the wood constituents the chemical changes during hydro-thermal treatment were examined in detail using principal component analysis and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. By hydro-thermal treatment of wood results the formation of acetic acid, which catalyse the hydrolysis reactions of hemicelluloses and amorphous cellulose. The cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages and splitting of the aliphatic methoxyl chains from the aromatic lignin ring was also observed. For the first treatment interval, a higher extent of carbohydrates degradation was observed, then an increase of the extent of the lignin degradation also took place.

  20. EFECTO DE DOS NIVELES DE FORRAJE ARBÓREO TEPOZÁN (Buddleia cordata EN EL COMPORTAMIENTO PRODUCTIVO Y MICROBIOLÓGICO RUMINAL EN CABRAS

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    Marcos Perez-Sato

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la inclusión (0, 15 y 30 % de forraje arbóreo de Buddleida cordata (Tepozán en el comportamiento productivo y los microorganismos del rumen en cabras. Se distribuyeron al azar 30 cabras criollas con un peso vivo promedio de 14 kg en tres tratamientos y fueron alojadas en corrales individuales durante 45 días. Se midió ganancia diaria de peso (GDP, consumo de materia seca (CMS, pH ruminal, concentración de bacterias totales, celulolíticas y protozoarios a los, 30 y 45 días del periodo experimental. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con mediciones repetidas a través del tiempo, analizando los datos de GDP, CMS y pH ruminal con PROC MIXED. El número de bacterias fue estadísticamente analizado por intervalos de confianza. No hubo diferencias entre tratamientos (p>0.05 por la inclusión de B. cordata en la dieta sobre la GDP, CMS, pH ruminal, concentración de bacterias totales, celulolíticas y protozoarios. No se presentaron diferencia entre periodos (p>0.05 en ninguna variable. Se concluye  que el henificado de B. cordata muestra potencial para ser incluido en la dieta de cabras hasta un máximo de 30%, sin afectar negativamente las variables productivas ni a los microorganismos del rumen. Â

  1. The influence of procyanidins isolated from small-leaved lime flowers (Tilia cordata Mill.) on human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwińska, Monika E; Dudek, Marta K; Pawłowska, Karolina A; Pruś, Anna; Ziaja, Maria; Granica, Sebastian

    2018-02-12

    Linden flower is a wildly used plant material among patients in the treatment of common cold symptoms and mucosa inflammations. However, the structure and bioactivity of flavan-3-ol derivatives present in infusions from flowers of Tilia cordata have not been studied so far. The aim of current study was to isolate and identify main procyanidins present in the flowers of small-leaved lime and to evaluate their influence on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils ex vivo. The chemical structure of isolated compounds was established by 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The bioactivity of obtained compounds was tested in human neutrophils model. Cytotoxicity and influence of compounds on apoptosis was established by flow cytometry. The levels of produced cytokines were established by ELISA after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species was checked by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence method after N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP) induction. The phytochemical work resulted in the isolation of 10 compounds. Compounds were identified as oligomeric procyanidins and their precursor epicatechin. The potential anti-inflammatory activity of compounds was evaluated in the concentration range 5-20 μM. All compounds were able to decrease the production of ROS from f-MLP-stimulated neutrophils. Most of compounds were able to inhibit the LPS-induced release of IL-8. Some trimeric and tetrameric derivatives were also able to decrease the production of MIP-1β. Obtained results partially support the traditional usage of infusion from lime flowers in the treatment of symptoms of inflammation and irritation of mucosa in common cold, pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. BIVALVES AND BRACHIOPODS NEAR THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY FROM THE BÜKK MOUNTAINS (BÁLVÁNY-NORTH SECTION, NORTHERN HUNGARY

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    RENATO POSENATO

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Bükk Mountains the Upper Permian is represented by the Nagyvisnyó Limestone, which contains very rich marine assemblages. It is overlain by the Gerennavár Limestone (uppermost Permian-Lower Triassic which records the effects of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction with a dramatic decrease in diversity and abundance of fossils. The basal Gerennavár Limestone is represented by a clayey marl unit (basal beds deposited in a quiet, low-energy marine environment below the storm wave-base, whose maximum thickness, about one meter, is recorded in the Bálvány-North section. From this locality a relatively diversified and abundant marine benthonic assemblage has been collected, and is here described. Bivalves are represented by: Bakevellia cf. ceratophaga (Schlotheim, ? Pterinopectinidae gen. et sp. indet., Eumorphotis lorigae sp. n., the most abundant species, Entolium piriformis (Liu and Pernopecten latangulatus Yin. Brachiopods are less frequent, and the following four species have been identified: Spinomarginifera sp., Orthothetina ladina (Stache, Ombonia tirolensis (Stache and Orbicoelia tschernyschewi (Likharew. An exact age of this fauna, based on conodonts, is not yet available, but the strong affinities with those of the lower Tesero Member (Dolomites and the Lower Kathwai Member (Pakistan suggest a latest Permian age (? Hindeodus praeparvus Zone. If so, the Bálvány-North section becomes one of the few in the world which records the last bioevents of the Palaeozoic.

  3. Development of a size-exclusion HPLC method with evaporative light-scattering detection for the quantitation of polysorbate 80 in Houttuynia cordata injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Li, Xiao D; Lin, Rui C; Jin, Shao H

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and accurate size-exclusion HPLC method for the quantitation of polysorbate 80 (PS80) in Houttuynia cordata injection, a Chinese traditional medicine, was developed and validated. The assay was conducted on an Agilent 1100 HPLC system with a TosoHaas TSKgel G2000 SWxL column (30 cm x 7.8 mm, 5 pm particle size) and an Alltech evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) 2000. The mobile phase was 20 mmoL/L ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (90 + 10, v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min under isocratic conditions. The ELSD was operated in the impactor "off" mode, the drift tube temperature was set at 110 degrees C, and nitrogen flow was maintained at 2.3 L/min. The LOD was 0.25 mg/mL. Linearity was obtained between the log of concentration (C) and the log of peak area (Y) of PS80 in the range of 0.5-20 mg/mL according to the equation: Log Y 1.4529 Log C - 0.8232 (r2 = 0.9976). An RSD of 1.6% (n = 6) for the determination demonstrated the good precision of the optimized method. PS80 content in several commercial H. cordata injection products from different manufacturers was determined. The data for PS80 content is useful in evaluation of the safety of the products from different manufacturers.

  4. Remediation of Urban River Water by Pontederia Cordata Combined with Artificial Aeration: Organic Matter and Nutrients Removal and Root-Adhered Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dungang; Xu, Huan; He, Yan; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Macrophyte combined with artificial aeration is a promising in situ remediation approach for urban rivers polluted with nutrients and organic matter. However, seasonal variations and aeration effects on phytoremediation performance and root-adhered microbial communities are still unclear. In this study, Pontederia cordata was used to treat polluted urban river water under various aeration intensities. Results showed that the highest removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and total nitrogen (TN) were attained under aeration of 30 L min(-1) in spring and summer and 15 L min(-1) in autumn, while total phosphorus (TP) removal reached maximum with aeration of 15 L min(-1) in all seasons. Moderate aeration was beneficial for increasing the diversity of root-adhered bacteria communities, and the shift of bacterial community structure was more pronounced in spring and autumn with varying aeration intensity. The dual effect, i.e. turbulence and dissolved oxygen (DO), of aeration on the removal of COD(Cr) and TN prevailed over the individual effect of DO, while DO was the most influential factor for TP removal and the root-adhered bacterial community diversity. P. cordata combined with 15 L min(-1) aeration was deemed to be the best condition tested in this study.

  5. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

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    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  6. Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

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    Nur Hakimah Abdullah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3, scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4, 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5, quercetin (6, kaempferol (7, taxifolin (8, loganin (9 and β-sitosterol (10. Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS. In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus

  7. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

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    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato

  8. Âge et contexte dynamique des calcaires à brachiopodes téthysiens (Zeilleriidés multiplissés) du Grand pic de l'Ouarsenis(Tell algérien)Age and dynamic context of the multicostate zeilleriids limestones of the Grand Pic de l'Ouarsenis (Algiers Oran tell, western Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, Miloud; Elmi, Serge; Alméras, Yves

    2000-12-01

    The vertical range of the brachiopods in the Ouarsenis depends closely on the sedimentary evolution and on the local geodynamic controls. During the Late Sinemurian and the Early Carixian, several Zeilleriid coquinas have accumulated on a shallow carbonate platform. These brachiopods are well levelled in the biochronologic scale and their age is confirmed by the discovery of an ammonite ( Gemmellaroceras sp.). Aborted reefs were built laterally following tectonic movements. The sedimentary evolution has happened during a relative sea-level rise. The brachiopods appeared at the beginning and disappeared when the filling progressed. A forced regression occurred at the end of the Early Carixian. It is marked by incisions, emersions and karstifications. Large bivalve limestones ( Cochlearites, Opisoma) have been deposited later. Their local chronological position ranges from the Middle Carixian to the Late Carixian (Demonense and Dilectum Zones).

  9. Mite species (Acari: Mesostigmata new and rare to Polish fauna, inhabiting the soil of broadleaved forests dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. in Kwidzyn Forest District (N Poland

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    FALEŃCZYK-KOZIRÓG KATARZYNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During a two-year study on mites of the order Mesostigmata in broadleaved forest stands dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill., 117 mite species were identified. Among them, 3 had been so far rarely recorded in Poland (Haemogamasus nidi, Stylochirus rovenensis and Eugamasus crassitarsis and 2 were classified as new to the Polish fauna (Veigaia sibirica and Digamasellus perpusillus.

  10. Inter- and intraannual growth patterns of urban small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata mill.) at two public squares with contrasting microclimatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Astrid; Rahman, Mohammad A; Pretzsch, Hans; Pauleit, Stephan; Rötzer, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The effects of urban conditions on tree growth have been investigated in an increasing number of studies over the last decades, emphasizing the harsh environment of cities. Urban trees often grow in highly paved, compacted sites with consequently less soil moisture, higher soil temperatures, and greater vapor pressure deficits. However, there is still a knowledge gap regarding the impact of harsh paved environments on urban tree growth during drought years on the growth patterns of urban trees. The present study investigated the structure and growth of the common urban tree species small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata) at a highly paved public square (CPS) compared with a contrasting more open, greener square (OGS). Continuously, measured high precision dendrometer data along with meteorological data of the extreme dry and warm summer 2015 as well as dendrochronological data of the sampled trees were investigated to analyze tree growth during a drought year. The results highlight different tree dimensions and growth patterns of the trees at both sites, influenced by tree age and distinct site conditions. While the trees at OGS grew up to 2.5 mm from July until mid of August, the trees at CPS had only 0.4-mm diameter increment. After the initial expansion at CPS, tree diameter contracted again during summer to the point of shrinkage (up to 0.8 mm) at the end of our investigation. Further drought year analysis confirmed the patterns of significant stem growth reductions in the consecutive two years following the drought. A correlation analysis revealed that transpiration, air temperature, and vapor pressure deficit were negatively correlated with the daily diameter growth, whereas precipitation had a strong positive effect. Due to high transpiration rates associated with anisohydric water use behavior, T. cordata was able to provide evaporative cooling even during drought. However, this anisohydric behavior resulted in substantial growth decline afterwards especially

  11. Découverte de brachiopodes du Sinémurien dans la Sierra Harana (Subbétique Interne, Cordilleres Bétiques, prov. de Grenade, Espagne. Implications stratigraphiques

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    Foucault, A.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Two Lower Sinemurian brachiopod species from the NW european province [Calcirhynchia calcaria Buckman and Calcirhynchia calcicosta (Quenstedt] have been found for the first time in the lower dolomitic beds of the Lower lurassic carbonate ensemble of the Sierra Harana unit (Internal Subbetic. Their presence allow to detail the evolution of the installation of the carbonate platform in the southern iberian domains during the Lower Lias transgression.Dos especies de braquiópodos del Sinemuriense inferior de la provincia NW europea [Calcirhynchia calcaria Buckman y Calcirhynchia calcicosta (Quenstedt] han sido encontradas por primera vez en los materiales dolomíticos inferiores del conjunto carbonatado infrajurásico de la Unidad de Sierra Harana (Subbético Interno. Su presencia permite precisar los momentos sucesivos de la implantación de la plataforma carbonatada en el dominio del paleomargen sudibérico durante la transgresión del Lías inferior.

  12. Checklist of Recent thecideoid brachiopods from the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, with a description of a new species of Thecidellina from Europa Island and a re-description of T. blochmanni Dall from Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Alan; Hoffmann, Jana; Lüter, Carsten

    2015-09-08

    Compilation of a checklist of Recent thecideoid brachiopods from the Indian Ocean and Red Sea indicates that members of this superfamily are represented by a small number of species. The subfamily Lacazellinae is represented by Ospreyella maldiviana from the Maldive Islands but the presence of Lacazella cannot yet be confirmed in the Indian Ocean as the holotype of Lacazella mauritiana from Mauritius is lost. The subfamily Thecidellininae is represented by Thecidellina blochmanni from Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean and the Red Sea while a new species T. europa is here described from Europa Island in the Mozambique Channel. The subfamily Minutellinae is represented by Minutella minuta from Samper Bank and Walters Bank in the south-western Indian Ocean and in the Red Sea. Since the holotype of Thecidellina blochmanni from Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island is also lost, this species is re-described and illustrated mainly from topotypes in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, from which a suggested neotype has been selected.

  13. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    , this typically inland, shallow-water fauna is found associated with genera like Bimuria, suggesting a transitional marginal facies with outer shelf benthos. The current study describes a Hiscobeccus fauna that lived at the seaward edge of its preferred habitat. Furthermore, an unpublished Hiscobeccus fauna, from...

  14. Isotopic and elemental proxies in mollusc and brachiopod calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    . Additional to environmental parameters, the composition of the shell is controlled by biological processes (i.e. vital effects), and post-depositional alteration. The chemical fingerprints of all the parameters influencing the shell composition need to be understood and ideally quantified in order to allow...

  15. Biodiversity, biogeography and phylogeography of Ordovician rhynchonelliform brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, David A. T.; Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian; Liljeroth, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Ordovician (Dapingian-Darriwilian), marine life experienced an unprecedented hike in diversity at the species, genus and family levels that firmly installed the suspension-feeding benthos as the main component of the Palaeozoic fauna. However, this may have occurred in response to an early Darriwilian....... Biodiversity epicentres were located on most of the larger palaeoplates, as well as within the Iapetus Ocean. Provincial patterns were disrupted during the Sandbian and early Katian with the migration of many elements of the benthos into deeper-water regimes, enjoying a more cosmopolitan distribution. Later...

  16. Anti-Neuroinflammatory Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract on LPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthcare Institute, Chungju, 380-150, Republic of Korea. *For correspondence: Email: hkang@kku.ac.kr; Tel: 82-43-840-3603; Fax: 82-43-852-3616. Received: 10 April .... A spin adduct was measured on an ESR spectrometer exactly after 2 min. Experimental conditions were as follows: central field, 3,475 G; modulation ...

  17. Identifying the most surprising victims of mass extinction events: an example using Late Ordovician brachiopods

    OpenAIRE

    Finnegan, Seth; Christian M. Ø. Rasmussen; Harper, David A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Mass extinction events are recognized by increases in extinction rate and magnitude and, often, by changes in the selectivity of extinction. When considering the selective fingerprint of a particular event, not all taxon extinctions are equally informative: some would be expected even under a ‘background’ selectivity regime, whereas others would not and thus require special explanation. When evaluating possible drivers for the extinction event, the latter group is of particular interest. Here...

  18. Brachiopod paleoecology during Late Paleozoic climate change (Pennsylvanian-Early Permain, Bolivia)

    OpenAIRE

    Badyrka, Kira Anna

    2012-01-01

    Studies of modern ecological communities demonstrate that climate change may trigger changes in diversity and taxonomic composition; however, these studies are fundamentally limited to short timescales and therefore cannot demonstrate the full impact of major climate change. Understanding the ecological response of marine invertebrate communities to the Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA), the last complete transition from icehouse to greenhouse, can establish a more complete picture of the climate...

  19. Late Ordovician brachiopod distribution and ecospace partitioning in the Tvären crater system, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Åsa M.; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2013-01-01

    . At the crater rim communities were established early on, although the crater depression was not inhabited until deposition of the upper third of the remaining crater fill. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment where sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession....... Moreover the development of new community types and narrowly-defined niches helped further drive both a and p biodiversity during a critical phase of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Transition areas in the domain patterns of storeyed cambium of Tilia cordata Mill.

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    Wiesław Włoch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of interlocked grain, generated by storeyed cambium, was observed in the wood of linden. The inclination of the grain changed periodically every two to four years. In general, the direction of the change of grain was compatible with the occurrence of configuration Z or S of cellular events. 1f, in the cambium during the generation of a growth ring, the domain border did not pass the examined area, the events were of one configuration type only, otherwise, there were two types of events aggregated into microareas. The microareas were the result of unsynchronous activities of groups of cambium cells. A growth ring area through which a domain border passed during the year under consideration was called the transition area.

  1. [Diurnal variations in purifying-tanks when use Pontederia cordata treating the Malodorous River water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-jun; Lu, Xiao-ming; Lu, Shao-yong; Jin, Xiang-can; Huang, Min-sheng; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Feng

    2009-12-01

    Aquatic plants (Ponsederie cordaza) were waked in two purifying-tanks to investigate the effects of illumination intensity and aeration on diurnal variations of Chla, SP, POD of Ponsederia cordaza and pH, DO, COD, NH4+ -N, TP of water from purifying-tanks when treating the malodorous river water at seven different times, another blank purifying-tank was set as a control. Comparative studies and correlation analysis of these different indicators were carried out to improve the plants working efficiency and provide scientific basis for optimal operation of plant purifying-tanks. Results showed that all indicators affected by changes of light, TP shows best correlation coefficient Cr = 0.93, p < 0.01) of physicochemical indicators and SP behaves best correlation coefficient Cr = 0.91 , p < 0.01) of plant physiology indicators in non-aeration purifying-tank;aeration is necessary as diurnal average of DO shows an increase of 0.13 mg/L by treatment of plant meanwhile 1.8 mg/L by plant with aeration,purifying-tanks with aeration got 7.1%, 6.3% higher removing rates of COD, NH4+ -N and 38% less TP removing rate than non-aeration plant purifying-tanks (p < 0.01); with aeration treatment, significant reduction of Chla, SP content (p < 0.05) and increase of POD activity (p < 0.05) observed in plants; the changes of illumination intensity and aeration can significantly affect physiological characteristics of plants and should be considered carefully and need further study when treating malodorous river water by plant purifying-tanks.

  2. Systematics of some Lower and Middle Devonian spiriferid brachiopods from Gaspe with a revision of the superfamily Delthyridoidea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Lespérance, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The component subfamilies of the Delthyridoidea are critically reviewed and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. This shows the presence of two clades, assigned to the Delthyrididae and Acrospiriferidae, within the superfamily. The subfamilial categories are redefined mainly on the basis of the ch......The component subfamilies of the Delthyridoidea are critically reviewed and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. This shows the presence of two clades, assigned to the Delthyrididae and Acrospiriferidae, within the superfamily. The subfamilial categories are redefined mainly on the basis...... of the characters used in the phylogenetic analysis. The spiriferid, mainly delthyridide, Gaspe fauna is formally revised and redescribed. This new taxonomic treatment leads to more precise biostratigraphy and to the recognition of a new subfamily, the Gaspespiriferinae, based on the new genus Gaspespirifer. Five...... new species aye described: Howellella (Howellella) forillonensis, Brachyspirifer (Brachyspirifer) briseboisi, Paraspirifer desbiensi, Brevispirifer florentinus, and B. quebecensis, The occurrence of Brevispirifer species with Middle Devonian chonetaceans confirms the presence of marine Eifelian strata...

  3. Revision of the plectorthoid brachiopod Platystrophia dentata (Pander, 1830 from the Middle Ordovician of the East Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Zuykov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the scanty description of Porambonites dentata Pander, 1830 and loss of its single type specimen, the name dentata has been subsequently attributed to various Ordovician to Silurian species of the genus Platystrophia s.l. with two costae in the sulcus and three on the fold. In The Natural History Museum, London, there is a complete shell identified presumably by Christian Pander himself as Spirifer dentatus from Pulkowa. That specimen is selected here as neotype to Platystrophia dentata, i.e. to a species, which on the basis of new material is restricted to the lower Darriwilian in the St Petersburg region. Considering differences in the interior of the dorsal valve, the other species (some with subspecies of the so-called dentata-group, especially from the stratigraphically younger strata, are discussed and excluded from the material described here of P. dentata.

  4. Paleoecology of brachiopod communities during the late Paleozoic ice age in Bolivia (Copacabana Formation, Pennsylvanian-Early Permian)

    OpenAIRE

    Badyrka, K; Clapham, ME; López, S.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of modern ecological communities demonstrate that climate change may trigger changes in diversity and taxonomic composition; however, these studies are fundamentally limited to short timescales and therefore cannot demonstrate the full impact of major climate change. Understanding the ecological response of marine invertebrate communities to the Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA), the last complete transition from icehouse to greenhouse, can establish a more complete picture of the climate...

  5. Drug: D10240 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10240 Crude, Drug Aralia root (non-JP); Wakyoukatsu; Araliae cordatae radix Aralia cord...ata [TAX:29746] Same as: E00844 Araliaceae (ginseng family) Aralia cordata root Crude drugs [BR:br08305

  6. Drug: D10240 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10240 Crude ... Drug Aralia root (non-JP); Wakyoukatsu; Araliae cordatae radix ... Aralia cord...ata [TAX:29746] ... Same as: E00844 Therapeutic category: 5100 ... Araliaceae (ginseng family) Aralia cordata root ... PubChem: 163312271 ...

  7. The intrusive growth of initial cells in re-arangement of cells in cambium of Tilia cordata Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Włoch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cambium of linden producing wood with short period of grain inclination change (2-4 years, the intensive reorientation of cells takes place. This is possible mainly through an intrusive growth of cell ends from one radial file entering space between tangential walls of neighboring file and through unequal periclinal divisions that occur in the "initial surface". The intrusive growth is located on the longitudinal edge of a fusiform cell close to the end, and causes deviation of cell ends in a neighbouring file from the initial surface. Unequal periclinal division divides a cell with a deviated end into two derivatives, unequal in size. The one of them, which inherits the deviated end, leaves the initial surface becoming a xylem or phloem mother cell. This means that the old end is eliminated. The intensity of intrusive growth and unequal periclinal divisions is decisive for the velocity of cambial cell reorientation. The oriented intrusive growth occurs only in the initial cells. For that reason, changes in cell-ends position do not occur within one packet of cells but are distinct between neighbouring packets.

  8. Environmental Analysis of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, Its Surrounding Wetlands, and Selected Land Uses. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    rubellus Water-horehound Panicum spp. Panic grass Phytolacca americana. Pokeweed Polygonum punctatum Smartweed Pontederia cordata Pickereiweed...lettuce Polygonum punctatum Smartweed Polypodium polypodioides Resurrection fern Pontederia cordata Pickereiweed Riccia. spp. Aquatic liverwort

  9. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study. Biota Assessment. Phase I. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    latifolia and T. angustifolia) * Type 7, Peltandra virginica/ Pontederia cordata community * Type 8, Phagmites australis community e Type 9, Nuphar...are very common: Acorus calamus Polygonum spp. Hibiscus palustris Pontederia cordata Leersia spp. Sagittaria latifolia Nuphar leiteum Typha

  10. Maximizing Sampling Efficiency and Minimizing Uncertainty in Presence/Absence Classification of Rare Salamander Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    palustris mermaidweed obligate Myrica cerifera waxmyrtle facultative Panicum virgatum switchgrass facultative Pontederia cordata ...graminaceous pickerelweed: Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed): NWI indicator status – obligate; structure – aq1 pitcherplant: Sarracenia spp

  11. Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilu...

  12. 78 FR 56025 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... panicgrass. Pluchea foetida stinking camphorweed. Polygonum hydropiperoides swamp smartweed. Pontederia cordata pickerelweed. Rhynchospora corniculata shortbristle horned beaksedge. Sesbania herbacea bigpod...

  13. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the South Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Pontederia cordata (Pickerel-weed) Sagitarria spp. (Arrowhead) 28 Scirpus spp. (Sedge) b. Wet Savannahs. Aletris farinosa (Stargrass) Ihex glabra... Pontederia cordata L. Pin oak Quercus palustris Muenchh. Pitcher plant Sarracenia flava L. Pitcher plant Sarracenia spp. Pond cypress Taxodiwn ascendens...Loblolly pine Planera aquatica Walt. Water elm Pluchea purpurascens (Swartz) DC. Camphorweed Pot ygonwn spp. Tearthumb, or Smartweed Pontederia cordata L

  14. Fort Devens Feasibility Study for Group 1A Sites. Final Feasibility Study Shepley’s Hill Landfill Operable Unit Data Item A009

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    lapathifolium FACW+ Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata OBL Pondweed Potamogeton spp. OBL Swamp Buttercup Ranunculus septentrionalis OBL Blackberry Rubus...Polygonum lapathifolium FACW+ Pickereiweed Pontederia cordata OBL Pondweed Potamogeton spp. OBLUCommon Cinquefoil Potentilla simplex FACU- Buttercup... cordata ) were all noted in this community and comprise 80-90% of the plant species present. 2* I. I I NEW ENGLAND ENVIRONMENTAL, INC. I Emergent

  15. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Flats Wetlands in the Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    virginica Green arrow arum Polygonum hydropiperoides Swamp smartweed Pontederia cordata Pickerelweed Sagittaria lanceolata Bulltongue arrowhead...cane Peftandra virginica Green arrow arum Polygonum hydropiperoides Swamp smartweed Pontederia cordata Pickerelweed Sagittarla lanceolata Bulltongue...Maiden cane Peltandra virginica Green arrow arum Polygonum hydropiperoides Swamp smartweed Pontedena cordata Pickerelweed Sagittaria lanceolata

  16. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Tidal Fringe Wetlands Along the Mississippi and Alabama Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Eleocharis spp Ipomoea sagittata Pontederia cordata Sagittaria spp. Spartina patens...X X OBL Polygonaceae Polygonum setaceum Bog smartweed X X FACW Pontederiaceae Pontederia cordata Pickerelweed X...Marshes1 Scientific Name Common Name Wetland Indicator Status Ampelopsis arborea Peppervine FAC+ Ampelopsis cordata Heart-leaf peppervine FAC

  17. Paleocommunity turnover in an Early Pliocene seamount from southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego Antonio; Zuschin, Martin

    2017-04-01

    remarkable bryoliths of Celleporaria palmata, Turbicellepora coronopus, and reteporiform colonies of Reteporella sp. in the less densely-packed beds. The cirripede Creusia phryxa is very common. Pectinid assemblages are dominated by Hinnites crispus, H. ercolanianus, Manupecten pesfelis, Mimachlamys varia and Crassadoma multistriata. Oysters are represented by Neopycnodonte and large Hyotissa. The upper part of the lower interval records clumps of Neopycnodonte sp. This is the Pliocene locality in Spain recording the highest diversity of brachiopods: Novocrania anomala, Joania cordata, Megathiris detruncata, Megerlia truncata, Terebratulina retusa, Lacazella mediterranea, Aphelesia bipartita and Terebratula calabra. The latter two species are more abundant in the middle part of the section, Terebratula forming pavements. Most common echinoids are Stylocidaris? sp., Echinocyamus, and Arbacina, while fragments of spatangoids like Ova and Spatangus are less common. Crinoid cirrals and ophiourid vertebrae are scarce. The upper interval commences with sparse rhodolith debris while at the very top complete rhodoliths are the dominant bioclasts together with pectinids. Common taxa in the lower interval decrease in abundance or disappear. Pectinids are replaced by Pecten spp. and rare Gigantopecten latissimus; Aequipecten scabrellus is most abundant in the middle part and A. opercularis dominates at the very top. Fragments of Clypeaster start to occur and Ostrea is increasingly common. Preliminary results indicate a decrease of diversity concomitant with a shallowing upward trend.

  18. Comprehensive Base Realignment/Closure and Fort Belvoir Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Zizania aquatica), pickerel weed ( Pontederia cordata ), and arrow arum I (Peltandra virginica). The brackish tidal wetlands on Fort Belvoir are confined to...Ampelopsis cordata simple-leaved ampelopsis S2 RSC swamps and river banks Anemone canadensis round-leaved anemone SIS2 RSC low grounds Asclepias rubra...Belvoir. State Federal State3!Scientific Name Common Name Rank Status Status Habitat Plants Arnpelopsis cordata simple-leaved ampelopsis S2 RSC swamps

  19. Remedial Investigation Addendum Report Data Item A009. Volume 4: Appendices I-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    spp. OBL Water Lily Nuphar spp. OBL Pale Smartweed Polygonum lapathifolium FACW+ f Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata OBL Pondweed Potamogeton spp. OBL...Water Lily Nymphaea odorata OBL Pale Smartweed Polygonum lapathifolium FACW+ Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata OBLI Pondweed Potamogeton spp. OBL Common...northern arrowhead (Sagittaria cuneata), and pickerelweed (Pontedaria cordata ) were all noted in this community and comprise 80-90% of the plant species

  20. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Large-Scale Operations Management Test (LSOMT) of Insects and Pathogens for Control of Waterhyacinth in Louisiana. Volume 1. Results for 1979-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    densa Walker, a native moth whose larvae feed preferentially on pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata L.), but also on waterhyacinth to some extent; (b...on water- hyacinth, or infrequently on Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth and Pontederia * cordata L. Population survival is dependent on the presence...feeds on Pontederia cordata , has adapted to and is capable of completing its life a. Adults b. Larva Figure 10. Adults and larva of Arzama cycle on

  1. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study. Appendix E. Biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Polygonum spp. Hibiscus palustris Pontederia cordata Leersia spp. 5aittaria latifolia Nuphar leiteum p utolia Peltandra virginica Typha latifolia Phragmites...virginica/ Pontederia cordata above it. Above this zone the species can become quite diverse, and, in the absence of relief, the marsh may merge very...angustifolia) * Type 7, Peltandra virginica/ Pontederia cordata community * Type 8, Phagmites australis community e Type 9, Nuphar luteum community e Type

  2. Test Plan for the Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Insects and Pathogens for Control of Water Hyacinth in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    waterhyacinth. In controlled tests, the adult insect fed slightly on Pontederia cordata and Eichhorniae azurep (Pontederiaciae) and Commelina virginica and... Pontederia cordata , but did not reproduce on this species (31). A6 It has also been tested against 50 species in Australia, and was found to reproduce only...to be native. It feeds extensively on pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata L.), a native aquatic plant closely related to waterhyacinth, and this was

  3. Comprehensive Base Realignment/Closure and Fort Belvoir Development: Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    cattail (7pa latifolia), 3 wild rice (Zizania aquatica), pickerel weed ( Pontederia cordata ), and arrow arumU (Peltandra virginica). The brackish tidal...IHabitat Plants I Amipelopsis cordata simple-leaved ampelopsis S2 RSC swamps and river banks Anemone canadensis round-leaved anemone SI 52 RSC low...Rank Status Status Habitat Plants Ampelopsis cordata simple-leaved ampelopsis S2 RSC swamps and river banks Anemone canadensis round-leaved anemone SIS2

  4. In vitro conservation of twenty-three overexploited medicinal plants belonging to the Indian sub continent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

    2012-01-01

    ..., Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata...

  5. Ciliary and mucus-net filter feeding, with special reference to fluid mechanical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.B.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    feeding characterized by processing of water at low pressures (.ltoreq. 1 mm H2O). Mechanisms of water processing and particle retention in brachiopods and bivalves are compared. Laminar flow of through-currents and surface-currents in brachiopods is consistent with the hypothesis of capture of suspended...

  6. The Evolution of Brachiopoda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sandra J.

    2016-06-01

    Brachiopods are (perhaps all too) familiar to any geology student who has taken an invertebrate paleontology course; they may well be less familiar to biology students. Even though brachiopods are among the most significant components of the marine fossil record by virtue of their considerable diversity, abundance, and long evolutionary history, fewer than 500 species are extant. Reconciling the geological and biological perspectives is necessary in order to test hypotheses, not only about phylogenetic relationships among brachiopods but also about their spectacular decline in diversity in the end-Permian mass extinction, which permanently reset their evolutionary trajectory. Studying brachiopod ontogeny and development, population genetics, ecology, physiology, and biogeography, as well as molecular systematics and phylogenomics, enables us to better understand the context of evolutionary processes over the short term. Investigating brachiopod morphological, taxonomic, and stratigraphic records over the Phanerozoic Eon reveals historical patterns of long-term macroevolutionary change, patterns that are simply unknowable from a biological perspective alone.

  7. Existing Fish and Wildlife Resources Related to the Southern New Jersey Water Resources Study, Burlington, Camden and Gloucester Counties, New Jersey. Phase I Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    hibiscus Hibiscus moscheutos L. Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata L. Pondweed Potamogeton spp. (Tourn.) L. Small cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccus L...Floating heart Nymphoides cordata (Ell.) Fern. Goldenrod, Elliott’s Solidago elliottii T. and G. Goldenrod, wand-like Solidago stricta Ait. Grass, broad

  8. Gulf Coast Deep Water Port Facilities study. Appendix B. North Central Gulf Hydrobiological Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    Cladium jamaicense) Fresh Maiden cane (Panicum hemitomon) 1,193,325 Pennywort (Hydrocotyl sp.) Pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata ) Alligator weed...typical of trawl samples are Penaeus a:recus. Squilla empusa. Pitar cordata , and the fish, Prionotus rubio. The presumably burrowing "lobster," Calocaris

  9. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 2. First Year Poststocking Results. Volume II. The Fish, Mammals, and Waterfowl of Lake Conway, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    latifolia), maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata ), and fuirena (Fuirena scirpoides) form a fringe of emergent vegetation in...food sources. Pontederia cordata and Eichhornia crassipes communities generally were sought, as indicated by Ivlev’s Index (Table 9); maidencane and

  10. Proceedings, 15th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Planning and Operations Review, held 17-20 November 1980, Savannah, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata L.) (Vogel and Oliver 1969 a,b; Center 1975, 1976). The authors of those studies stated that "A. densa populations could be...fed on pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata L.), but now they also utilize waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) as a food source. The larvae

  11. Draft Reformulation. Phase I. General Design Memorandum and Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Geneva-on-the-Lake, Ohio Small Boat Harbor. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Spatter-dock Pickerel-weed Pontederia cordata Bladderwort Narrow-leaved cattail Phragmites Broadleaf arrow-head Wool-rush Nuttall’s pondweed...Deep Marsh Arrow-he ad( Giant bur-reed Sparfganium cuycarum Narrow-leaved cattail Typha angutif~olia Pickerel-weed Pontederia cordata 4 E. Floating

  12. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Steud Polygonum spp. smartweed N Emergent Pontederia cordata L. pickerelweed N Emergent Potamogeton illinoensis Illinois pondweed N Submersed Morong...H. verticillata Ludwigia spp. M. spicatum P. cordata Tamarisk spp. Polygonum spp. P. illinoensis Scirpus spp. Above Eagle Pass, boat launch 8/19/03

  13. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Kentucky Supplement (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Iaevigata Leaf Cup e Pontederia cordata Pickerel Weed s Potamogeton praelongus Pond Weed s Potamogeton puicher Spotted Pondweed s Prenanthes alba Lion’s Foot...Mock Orange e Philadeiphus pubescens Mock Orange Phios bifida ssp. stellaria Cleft Phlox Physostegia intermedia False Dragonhead e Plantago cordata

  14. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Low Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    watermilfoil E Submersed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.ex Steud common reed ? Emergent Polygonum spp. smartweed N Emergent Pontederia cordata L...spicatum Below Del Rio 8/18/03 313582 323531 3245477 3238196 C. demersum H. dubia Hydrocotyle spp. Ludwigia spp. P. cordata Polygonum spp. P

  15. Environmental Statement, Oswego Steam Station, Unit Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-29

    Lythrum salicaria), red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata ), arrowhead (Sagittaria), and the tiny floating aquatic...bracken fern (Pteridium acruilinum partridge berry (Mitchella repens) Marsh areas buttonbush (Cepha.Lanthus occidentalis) pickereiweed ( Pontederia ... cordata ) sedges (Cyperaceae) arrowhead (Sagittaria sp. cattail (Typha latifolia) duckweed (Lemna minor purple loosestrife (Lythru salicaria) sensitive

  16. Geneva-on-the-Lake, Ohio. Small-Boat Harbor. Final Reformulation. Phase I. General Design Memorandum and Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Spatter-dock Pickerel-weed Pontederia cordata Bladderwort Narrow-leaved cattail Phragmites Broadleaf arrow-head Wool-rush Nuttall’s pondweed...Narrow-leaved cattail ha angustifolia Pickerel-weed Pontederia cordata 4E. Floating-Leaved Deep Marsh Spatter-dock Nuphar advena Lesser duckweed Lemna

  17. Oxygenation of the Root Zone and TCE Remediation: A Plant Model of Rhizosphere Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Pontederia cordata , Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology: 1099-1105 (March 1998). Cheremisinoff...of wetland plants into the atmosphere. Calhoun attributed methane loss from methanotrophic activity associated with the wetland plants P. cordata and

  18. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 10. Evaluation of Bird and Mammal Utilization of Dike Systems Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Melanerpes carolinus Red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus Red-headed woodpecker Picoides pubescens Downy woodpecker Picoides villosus Hairy ...arborea - + + + - + + + + - Ampelopsis cordata - - + + - - - - 4 - Aster lateriflorus - - + - - + - - - - Aster pilosus - + + + - - - - - - Bidens spp

  19. La capacidad desfaunante del extracto de plantas en el rumen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ley de Coss, Alejandro; Martinez Tinajero, Jaime Jorge; Marroquin Agreda, Francisco Javier; Garcia Castillo, Carlos Gumaro; Montanez Valdez, Oziel Dante; Guerra Medina, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la capacidad de eliminar protozoarios del rumen con el uso del extracto soluble en agua de las plantas Buddleia cordata, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Datura...

  20. Environmental Assessment for Management of South End of Runway Wetlands, Moody AFB, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    arum (Peltandra virginica), narrow leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia), orange milkwort (Polygala lutea), and narrow leaved pickerelweed ( Pontederia ... cordata var. lancifolium). The intermixed palustrine emergent and scrub-shrub habitat in the southern section of the south EOR wetlands has

  1. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Abbreviations: RAPD: Randomly Amplified Polymorphism DNA; CTAB: Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide;. PPB: Percentage of Polymorphic Band; Shannon I: ... The root of Aralia cordata Thunb. contains essential oil, saponins, sesquiterpenes and diterpene acids, seven diterpenes, four polyacetylenes, a lipid glycerol, and ...

  2. Southern Ocean seaweeds: A resource for exploration in food and drugs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Verlecar, X.N.

    and abundant throughout infra-littoral and in upper few metres of the sub-littoral zones. This species along with I. cordata grow abundantly forming a dense canopy between 4 and 8 m depth and forms homogeneous population at 12 m depth. Bischoff... Current on the dispersal of seaweed propagules (Luning, 1990) many non-endemic species of the Antarctic seaweedflora have a circumpolardistribution. At least twenty seaweed species from Antarctic waters are cosmopo- litan. Red seaweed I. cordata, Plocamium...

  3. Regulation of root-associated methanotrophy by oxygen availability in the rhizosphere of two aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, A; King, G M

    1997-08-01

    The relative importance of oxygen for root-associated methanotrophy was examined by using sediment-free, intact freshwater marsh plants (Pontederia cordata and Sparganium eurycarpum) incubated in split chambers. The root medium contained approximately 100 (mu)M methane. Methane oxidation was calculated from the difference between methane loss from chambers in the presence and absence of 1 mM 1-allyl-2-thiourea, a methanotrophic inhibitor. When the root medium was oxic, methane oxidation accounted for 88 and 63% of the total methane depletion for S. eurycarpum and P. cordata, respectively; the remainder represented diffusional loss to the atmosphere via roots, stems, and leaves. Under suboxic conditions, methane oxidation was not detectable for S. eurycarpum but accounted for 68% of total methane depletion for P. cordata. The introduction of a biological oxygen sink, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, resulted in complete loss of methane oxidation in S. eurycarpum chambers under oxic conditions, while methane consumption continued (51.6% of total methane depletion) in P. cordata chambers. The differences between plant species were consistent with their relative ability to oxygenate their rhizospheres: during a suboxic incubation, dissolved oxygen decreased by 19% in S. eurycarpum chambers but increased by 232% for P. cordata. An in situ comparison also revealed greater methanotrophic activity for P. cordata than S. eurycarpum.

  4. The lower Maastrichtian Hivdskud succession, Møns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelby, M.E.; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Surlyk, Finn

    2014-01-01

    zonation. The succession, which belongs to the brachiopod spinosa-subtilis to pulchellus-pulchellus zones, extends upwards from calcareous nannofossil subzone UC16ii to UC19ii and encompasses δ13C events M1+ to M2+. A new chronostratigraphic and geochronological age model is proposed based on correlation.......9 Ma for the base of the succession and a duration of >680 kyr for the investigated interval. The Hvidskud succession is well-exposed, easily accessible, and the new stratigraphic framework and precise age model suggest that it can be used as a key locality for stratigraphic correlation of the lower...... Maastrichtian in north-western Europe. Information on palaeo-seawater temperatures can be drawn from oxygen isotope records obtained from bulk rock samples and 24 micromorphic brachiopod specimens (Terebratulina faujasii). The brachiopod data show a clear diagenetic trend but point to an upper range...

  5. An early 'handwritten' shell exchange catalogue of the Leiden Museum, with notes on the collectors Rethaan Macaré and Tischbein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    2013-01-01

    A ‘handwritten’ (lithographed) shell exchange catalogue of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands), dated 1850 and containing 864 nominal taxa (861 molluscs and 3 brachiopods), is discussed in the context of the history of the museum. This catalogue must have been

  6. Tectonics, islands and island hopping in the Early Palaeozoic benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harper, D.A.T.; Liljeroth, M.; Rasmussen, C.M.Ø.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses confirm the roles of the oceanic provinces as both cradles and museums of evolution (Harper & Mac Niocaill, 2002), with reference to the development of the global brachiopod fauna through the Floian-Sandbian (mid Early – early Late Ordovician) interval. Moreover, groups of taxa with

  7. Can the functional stability of forest ecosystems be evaluated from the spatial analysis of stands? A case study from the Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bobiec

    2000-01-01

    Variability of external and internal factors entails specific spatial patterns and functional dynamics of communities. The study of the oak-lime-hornbeam (Quercus robur-Tilia cordata-Carpimus) forest in the Bialowieza Primeval Forest supports the concept of silvatic unit, determining the minimal structural area. To find out if the dynamics of a stand...

  8. Indicators of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    glabra Alnus serrulata Malus Fraxinus americana, F. pennsylvanica Tilia americana Persea borbonia, P. palustris, Gordonia lasianthus, Magnolia...P. angustifolia, P. caroliniana, P. umbellata Castanea dentata Castanea pumila, C. ashei Malus angustifolia Magnolia acuminata , M. cordata, M...vegetation (e.g., Myrica cerifera L., Alnus serrulata, B. G. Lockaby, Auburn University, unpublished data). The positive relationship between pH and

  9. Florae Malesianae Precursores II. The Convolvulaceae of Malaysia IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1953-01-01

    Erycibe beccariana Hoogl. sp. nov. — Frutex scandens, ramulis junioribus sparsim stellato-hirsutis, adultioribus glabrescentibus cortice rimis longitudinalibus fisso. Folia elliptica ad elliptico-oblonga, 9—13 X 4— 71/2 cm, apice breviter acuminata, basi rotundata vel minute cordata, supra glabra,

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nociceptive activities of Curcuma wenujin ET C. Ling and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Abstract PDF · Vol 6, No 1 (2009) - Articles Genetic analysis of Aralia cordata thunb by RAPD Abstract PDF · Vol 6, No 1 (2009) - Articles Whether ...

  11. Upper Mississippi River System Environmental Management Program, Definite Project Report (R-6F) with Integrated Environmental Assessment (R-6F), Peoria Lake Enhancement, Peoria Pool, Illinois Waterway, River Miles 178.5 to 181, State of Illinois. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    vegetation, the slopes of the islands to elevation 441 could be planted with individual cattail or pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata ) or clumps. The use of...possibilities for floating and rooted aquatics. In very shallow still water, pickerelweed ( Pontederia lanceolata), arrowhead, and softstem bulrush (Scirpus

  12. GREAT I Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Technical Appendixes. Volume 5. Fish and Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    pentapentala Lotus Nuphar variegatum Yellow Water Lily Nymphaea odorata Sweet 𔃾ater Lily Nymphaea tuberosa White Water Lily Family Pontederiaceae Pontederia ... cordata Pickerelweed 2u Family Scirpus Scirpus fluviatilis River Bulrush Scirpus validus Soft-stemmed Bulrush Family Sparganiaceae Sparganium...continued Class Symbol Type Description Aquatic and Pt Pontederia (pickerelweed) Marsh Vegetation Pg Phragmites (reed grass) Py Polygonum (smartweed

  13. Evaluation of Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Perchlorate in Groundwater (Indian Head)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ranges between 50 and 100 feet wide (80 feet average). During the warmer months of the year, Zone 2 is covered in vegetation such as Pontederia ... cordata (pickerelweed) and Zizaniopsis miliacea (giant cut grass) and other wetland vegetative species (Figure 3-11). 22 Figure 3-11

  14. Antibacterial activity of the endophytic fungi from medicinal herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 48 endophytic fungal isolates were separated from the healthy roots of Macleaya cordata R. Br. (Papaveraceae), a traditional medicinal herb mainly distributed in China. Nine distinct isolates (Macof01 to Macof09) were selected for further taxonomical identification by morphological traits and internal transcribed ...

  15. Effects of salicylic acid on monoterpene production and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in plant defense responses. However, little is available about its effects on monoterpene responses. Therefore, monoterpene contents and antioxidant systems were measured three days after foliar application of SA with different concentrations in Houttuynia cordata. SA at low ...

  16. Foliar epidermal anatomy and its systematic implication within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micro morphological investigations of the foliar epidermal anatomy, particularly the diversity and distribution of glandular and eglandular trichomes on leaves of Sida alba L., S. alii S. Abedin var. alii, S. cordata (Burm. F.) Brss, S. mysorensis Wight and Arn, S. ovata Forssk. S. spinosa L and S.yunnanensis S.Y.Hu have been ...

  17. Taphonomy of a thick Terebratula bioherm from the Pliocene of southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.

    2015-04-01

    Brachiopods were extremely abundant during the Paleozoic era but underwent a dramatic loss of biodiversity at the Permo-Triassic boundary. The comparison of brachiopod and bivalve diversity through geological time shows that the latter were the most successful counterpart at best recovering from mass extinction events. Nonetheless, there are cases where Post-Paleozoic brachiopods stand out as the dominant marine benthos in particular environments, forming paucispecific brachiopod-dominated bioherms. This note describes an example of shallow-water brachiopod bioherm dominated by the terebratulid Terebratula calabra. The shell bed is found in mixed siliciclastic-temperate carbonate deposits of late Early Pliocene age nearby Águilas (southeastern Spain). This unique brachiopod concentration may be helpful to understand the particular success of large-sized brachiopods like Terebratula in Cenozoic environments typically dominated by bivalves. The bioherm attains 1.5 meters in thickness and crops out along a band up to 140 meters wide. The lithology consists of bioturbated fine-grained sands containing poorly sorted bioclasts, mostly fragments of Terebratula. This shell bed also records a diverse fauna, including five brachiopod genera, pectinids (4 genera), oysters (3 genera), in addition to rare gastropods, echinoids, bryozoans, etc. The density and sorting of bioclasts is laterally variable, and the biofabrics range from loosely dispersed to densely-packed, including examples of concave-up vertical stacking and nesting of shells. Most of the fragments of Terebratula preserve the posterior part of the shell only. These fragments generally display corrasion (rounded fractured margins, rounded to completely missing symphytium), bioerosion (prevailing the ichnogenera Entobia, Gnathichnus and Podichnus) and encrustation (mainly by bryozoans, Ancistrocrania, and Pododesmus). The good preservation of Pododesmus contrasts with that of most fragments of Terebratula, although

  18. Homeobox gene expression in Brachiopoda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Martinez, Pedro; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The molecular control that underlies brachiopod ontogeny is largely unknown. In order to contribute to this issue we analyzed the expression pattern of two homeobox containing genes, Not and Cdx, during development of the rhynchonelliform (i.e., articulate) brachiopod Terebratalia transversa....... Not is a homeobox containing gene that regulates the formation of the notochord in chordates, while Cdx (caudal) is a ParaHox gene involved in the formation of posterior tissues of various animal phyla. The T. transversa homolog, TtrNot, is expressed in the ectoderm from the beginning of gastrulation until...... formation. TtrNot expression is absent in unfertilized eggs, in embryos prior to gastrulation, and in settled individuals during and after metamorphosis. Comparison with the expression patterns of Not genes in other metazoan phyla suggests an ancestral role for this gene in gastrulation and germ layer...

  19. CLASTS OF UPPERMOST ALBIAN (VRACONIAN LIMESTONE IN THE EOCENE CUCCURU 'E FLORES CONGLOMERATE OF THE M. ALBO MASSIF (EASTERN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGINIO DIENI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare clasts of richly fossiliferous uppermost Albian (Vraconian auctt. glauconitic and phosphatic, ammonite-bearing limestone have been found in the Eocene Cuccuru ’e Flores Conglomerate in the area of M. Albo massif (eastern Sardinia. The limestone is wholly comparable in facies and fossil assemblage to the classical outcrop known in the Orosei area. The fossil content includes also brachiopods and abundant planktonic foraminifers of the Thalmanninella (formerly Rotalipora appenninica Zone. In the palaeontological part the brachiopods Orbirhynchia parkinsoni and Capillithyris capillata are described and discussed. Vraconian highly condensed deposits, characterized by basal erosional gaps of variable importance, have particular relevance, being known to be widely distributed in the northern Tethyan margin with common characteristics, such as authigenic glauconite, phosphatic nodules and a rich outer-shelf fauna. 

  20. Climatic basis for sluggish macroevolution during the late Paleozoic ice age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Matthew G.

    2005-05-01

    Rates of origination and extinction for marine invertebrates fell at the onset of the late Paleozoic ice age in late Mississippian time and remained low until glaciation ended in middle Permian time. Through the use of a database of stratigraphic and geographic occurrences of brachiopod genera, these macroevolutionary changes are traced to the loss of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges, which had intrinsically high turnover rates, at the onset of glaciation in late Viséan time. When glaciation waned in late Sakmarian time, narrowly distributed genera rebounded abruptly and restored the global fauna to its pre ice-age configuration. Because narrowly distributed brachiopod genera had dominated tropical diversity, the major biotic effects of the late Paleozoic ice age were felt at low latitudes. The climatic regime of this ice age thus altered the marine ecosystem to one characterized by broadly adapted, long-lived genera.

  1. Devonian stratigraphy in Estonia: current state and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elga Mark-Kurik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An updated version of the Devonian stratigraphical chart of Estonia with comments is presented. Estonian regional stratigraphical units are correlated with the standard conodont zonation and miospore zonation, used in the western part of the East European Platform. The fossil fish zonations, largely accepted in the Main Devonian Field, are discussed. Differences in the position of series and stage boundaries and age determination of regional units in the Baltic area, Belarus and NW Russia are dealt with. Two key markers for the correlation of the Middle Devonian of the Baltic area and Scotland, based mainly on placoderms, are described. Special attention is paid to occurrences of inarticulate brachiopods and finds of rare articulate brachiopods in siliciclastic rocks of the Baltic area, indicating their marine origin.

  2. A new species of Conchicolites (Cornulitida, Tentaculita from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new cornulitid species, Conchicolites crispisulcans sp. nov., is described from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden. The undulating edge of C. crispisulcans sp. nov. peristomes is unique among the species of Conchicolites. This undulating peristome edge may reflect the position of setae at the tube aperture. The presence of the undulating peristome edge supports the hypothesis that cornulitids had setae and were probably related to brachiopods.

  3. Trans-border (South-Eastern Serbia/South-Western Bulgaria) correlations of the Jurassic sediments: The Getic and Supra-Getic units

    OpenAIRE

    Tchoumatchenco Platon; Rabrenović Dragoman; Radulović Vladan; Malešević Nenad; Radulović Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The Getic and Supra-Getic are palaeogeographic units in SE Serbia and SW Bulgaria. Based on the presence (in Eastern) or absence (in Western) of Lower Jurassic marine deposits, the Getic is divided into Eastern and Western. In the Eastern Getic, the Lower Jurassic sedimentation in SE Serbia is represented by the Vidlič Clastites covered by the Lukanja Coal Beds, Lukanja Quartz Sandstones, Lukanja Brachiopods Beds, Lukanja Marlstones, Lukanja Belemnitic-Gryphaean Beds and Lukanja Cephalopod Li...

  4. EVIDENCE OF A GUADALUPIAN AGE FOR THE KHUFF FORMATION OF SOUTHEASTERN OMAN: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA ANGIOLINI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalupian succession of the Huqf area (Sultanate of Oman represents a mega-sequence comprising the fluvial terrigenous Gharif Formation and the overlying marine Khuff Formation. The Khuff Fm. is subdivided into four members and is composed of marls and bioclastic limestones. The Khuff Fm. yields a rich fauna of brachiopods, conodonts, foraminifers, bivalves, gastropods, ostracods and cephalopods. The brachiopod fauna of the Khuff Fm. includes strophomenids, productids, orthids and terebratulids. The associated conodont fauna includes Hindeodus excavatus Behnken, Merrilina sp., M. praedivergens Kozur & Mostler, and Sweetina n. sp. (systematic descriptions of conodonts are given in the Paleontological Appendix. Foraminifers are represented by species of Miliolina and Rotaliina. The Khuff Fm. is given a Wordian age, based on brachiopods and conodonts. The depositional environment of the Khuff Fm. of southeastern Oman corresponds to the outer shelf of a large carbonate platform covering most of the Arabian Platform. The Khuff Fm. is interpreted as a major transgressive-regressive cycle related to differential subsidence. 

  5. Three new earthworm species of the genus Polypheretima Michaelsen, 1934 (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung T; Tran, Binh T T; Nguyen, Anh D

    2015-01-14

    The paper provides descriptions of three new species of the earthworm genus Polypheretima Michaelsen, 1934 from Dong Nai Province, South Vietnam. They are named Po. cattienensis sp. nov., Po. militium sp. nov., and Po. cordata sp. nov.. All three species are characterized by spermathecal pores in 5/6/7 and the absence of genital markings. Po. cattienensis sp. nov. is distinguished by paired spermathecal pores and seven spermathecae per porus. Po. militium sp. nov. is diagnosed by paired spermathecal pores and a variable number of spermathecae, 21-40 altogether, with 7-17 in 5/6 and 11-23 in 6/7. Po. cordata sp. nov. is recognized by one pair of spermathecal pores in 5/6 and two in 6/7, by only one spermatheca per porus, and by a heart-shaped spermathecal ampulla. 

  6. DATE PRELIMINARE PRIVIND VIABILITATEA POLENULUI CA BIOINDICATOR AL CALITĂŢII AERULUI ÎN TIMIŞOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Această cercetare prezintă date obţinute prin prelevarea polenului de la patru specii (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Tilia cordata şi testarea viabilităţii acestuia prin tratare cu TTC. Aceste date preliminare sunt insuficiente pentru a da o concluzie specifică. Oricum, se poate spune că viabilitatea polenului poate fi un parametru reprezentativ pentru a stabili care plante sunt mai bine adaptate mediului urban. Modificarea viabilităţii polenului indică prezenţa gazelor cu caracter poluant, rezultate mai ales din traficul rutier, la toate cele patru specii. Polenul de Plantago lanceolata şi Tilia cordata ar putea fi folosit ca bio-indicator al calităţii aerului într-un ecosistem urban.

  7. Electron transport efficiency at opposite leaf sides: effect of vertical distribution of leaf angle, structure, chlorophyll content and species in a forest canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mänd, Pille; Hallik, Lea; Peñuelas, Josep; Kull, Olevi

    2013-02-01

    We investigated changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence from alternate leaf surfaces to assess the intraleaf light acclimation patterns in combination with natural variations in radiation, leaf angles, leaf mass per area (LMA), chlorophyll content (Chl) and leaf optical parameters. Measurements were conducted on bottom- and top-layer leaves of Tilia cordata Mill. (a shade-tolerant sub-canopy species, sampled at heights of 11 and 16 m) and Populus tremula L. (a light-demanding upper canopy species, sampled at canopy heights of 19 and 26 m). The upper canopy species P. tremula had a six times higher PSII quantum yield (Φ(II)) and ratio of open reaction centres (qP), and a two times higher LMA than T. cordata. These species-specific differences were also present when the leaves of both species were in similar light conditions. Leaf adaxial/abaxial fluorescence ratio was significantly larger in the case of more horizontal leaves. Populus tremula (more vertical leaves), had smaller differences in fluorescence parameters between alternate leaf sides compared with T. cordata (more horizontal leaves). However, optical properties on alternate leaf sides showed a larger difference for P. tremula. Intraspecifically, the measured optical parameters were better correlated with LMA than with leaf Chl. Species-specific differences in leaf anatomy appear to enhance the photosynthetic potential of leaf biochemistry by decreasing the interception of excess light in P. tremula and increasing the light absorptance in T. cordata. Our results indicate that intraleaf light absorption gradient, described here as leaf adaxial/abaxial side ratio of chlorophyll a fluorescence, varies significantly with changes in leaf light environment in a multi-layer multi-species tree canopy. However, this variation cannot be described merely as a simple function of radiation, leaf angle, Chl or LMA, and species-specific differences in light acclimation strategies should also be considered.

  8. Regulation of Root-Associated Methanotrophy by Oxygen Availability in the Rhizosphere of Two Aquatic Macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Calhoun, A.; King, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The relative importance of oxygen for root-associated methanotrophy was examined by using sediment-free, intact freshwater marsh plants (Pontederia cordata and Sparganium eurycarpum) incubated in split chambers. The root medium contained approximately 100 (mu)M methane. Methane oxidation was calculated from the difference between methane loss from chambers in the presence and absence of 1 mM 1-allyl-2-thiourea, a methanotrophic inhibitor. When the root medium was oxic, methane oxidation accou...

  9. Biological Control of Aquatic Plants with Pathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    United States only on Pontederia cordata L. and P. lanceolata Nutt. in New Ycrk, Florida, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Missouri...Waterhyacinth Rust, and Uromyces pontederiae ," Mycologia., Vol 67, pp 653-657. Charudattan, R., and McKinney, D. E. 1978. "A Dutch Isolate of Fusarium...the teliospore in the rust on Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth. and the confirmation of this rust as Uromyces pontederiae Gerard. The fact that

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (14th) Aquatic Plant Control Research Planning and Operations Review, Held at Lake Eufaula, Oklahoma on 26-29 November 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    beaches; however, cattails (Typha latifolia), maidencane (Panicwn hemitomon), pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata ), and furiena (Furiena scirpoides) form a...primarily from four areas containing dense stands of Pontederia lanceolata or Typha latifolia. The second most common frog, Gastrophryne carolinensis...habitats or where the grass was mowed to the water’s edge. Hyla cinerea was heard calling mostly from stands of Pontederia tnceolata or Typhalatifolia

  11. Selectivity of Metsulfuron Methyl to Six Common Littoral Species in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Chiconela, Tomas; Koschnick, T. J.; Haller, W. T.

    2004-01-01

    Many Central Florida lakes, particularly those in the Kissimmee River watershed, are maintained 0.5 to 1.0 m lower than historic (pre-1960) levels during the summer hurricane season for flood control purposes. These lower water levels have allowed proliferation and formation of dense monotypic populations of pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata L.) and other broadleaf species that out compete more desirable native grasses (Hulon, pers. comm., 2002). Due to the limited ...

  12. A Comparative Study of Sodium Houttuyfonate and 2-Undecanone for Their in Vitro and in Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Activities and Stabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (H. cordata is an anti-inflammatory herbal drug that is clinically used in Asia. The essential oil obtained from H. cordata is known to contain 2-undecanone (2-methyl nonyl ketone. In addition, sodium houttuyfonate is a compound that can be derived from H. cordata and has important clinical uses as an anti-inflammatory agent. Sodium houttuyfonate can be converted to decanoyl acetaldehyde (houttuynin and then to 2-undecanone. Therefore, the experiments described here explore the comparative anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds. Sodium houttuyfonate showed more potent anti-inflammatory activities than that of 2-undecanone at the same dosage, both in vitro and in vivo, although both compounds significantly inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, but increased the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, both compounds showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on xylene-induced mouse ear edema. In a previous study, we found sodium houttuyfonate to be transformed to 2-undecanone during steam distillation (SD. Optimum therapeutic effects are related to the stability and pharmacological activity of the drugs. Consequently, we studied the stability of sodium houttuyfonate under a simulated gastrointestinal environment with the main influencing factors being solvent, temperature and pH effects. For the first time, sodium houttuyfonate and 2-undecanone were detected simultaneously in the mouse serum and the gastrointestinal tissue after oral administration. Sodium houttuyfonate is detected within a short period of time in the systemic circulation and tissues without conversion to 2-undecanone.

  13. Comparison of Torpedograss and Pickerelweed Susceptibility to Glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Gettys, Lyn A.; Sutton, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Torpedograss (Panicum repens L.) is one of the most invasive exotic plants in aquatic systems. Repeat applications of (N-phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate) herbicides provide limited control of torpedograss; unfortunately, glyphosate often negatively impacts most non-target native species that grow alongside the weed. This experiment studied the effect of glyphosate on pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.), a native plant that shares habitats with torpedograss. Actively gr...

  14. Temperature limits for preservation of primary calcite clumped isotope paleotemperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Gregory A.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Shenton, Brock J.; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Yancey, Thomas E.

    2014-08-01

    Solid-state reordering of C-O bonds in the calcite lattice can alter the clumped isotope composition of paleotemperature archives such as fossil brachiopod shells without inducing significant changes in shell microstructure and trace element concentrations, metrics commonly used to gauge preservation quality. To correctly interpret the paleoenvironmental significance of clumped isotope-derived paleotemperatures, it is necessary to understand the temperature-time domain in which solid-state C-O bond reordering is important. We address this question using a combination of laboratory and natural geological experiments on Paleozoic brachiopod shells. The laboratory experiments involve heating fossil brachiopod calcite at different temperatures and times to directly observe rates of 13C-18O bond reordering. The resulting Arrhenius parameters are indistinguishable from values previously determined for an optical calcite with similar trace element compositions. We develop an alternative kinetic model for reordering that accounts for non-first-order reaction progress observed during the initial several hundred minutes of laboratory heating experiments, and show that the simplified first-order approximation model (Passey and Henkes, 2012) predicts reaction progress equally well for temperatures and timescales relevant to sedimentary basins. We evaluate our laboratory-based rate predictions by studying brachiopod calcite from several sedimentary basins with independently constrained burial temperature histories. Specifically, we use the laboratory-derived Arrhenius parameters to predict the evolution of brachiopod calcite clumped isotope compositions during successive one million-year time steps reflecting the burial and exhumation temperature paths of each basin. While this exercise is limited by the relatively large uncertainties in the temperature histories of these basins, we find general correspondence, within error, between predicted and observed clumped isotope values

  15. Exotic plant species attack revegetation plants in post-coal mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Muhammad; Arisoesilaningsih, Endang

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to explore some invasive exotic plant species that have the potential to disrupt the growth of revegetation plants in post-coal mining areas. This research was conducted in a revegetation area of PT, Amanah Anugerah Adi Mulia (A3M) Kintap site, South Borneo. Direct observation was carried out on some revegetation areas by observing the growth of revegetation plants disturbed by exotic plant species and the spread of exotic plant species. Based on observation, several invasive exotic plant species were identified including Mikania cordata, Centrosema pubescence, Calopogonium mucunoides, Mimosa pudica, Ageratum conyzoides, and Chromolaena odorata. These five plant species grew wild in the revegetation area and showed ability to disrupt the growth of other plants. In some tree species, such as Acacia mangium, Paraserianthes falcataria, M. cordata could inhibit the growth and even kill the trees through covering the tree canopy. So, the trees could not receive optimum sun light for photosynthesis processes. M. cordata was also observed to have the most widespread distribution. Several exotic plant species such as C. mucunoides, M. pudica, and A. conyzoides were observed to have deep root systems compared with plant species used for revegetation. This growth characteristic allowed exotic plant species to win the competition for nutrient absorption with other plant species.

  16. Comunidade de Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae das dunas litorâneas do Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Community of Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae from the coastal sand dunes of Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The Euglossini community structure was analyzed by attracting males with the scents eucalyptol, eugenol, vanillin, benzyl benzoate and methyl salicylate, and by netting bees on flowers. The samplings took place three times a month along one year from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. The scent baits attracted 670 individuals belonging to seven species of three genus. The predominant species were Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758 (76.6% and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (21.8%. Euglossini males visited the scents along the whole year, being more abundant in May and in August. The most efficient fragrance was eucalyptol, attracting 624 individuals of five species. The males abundance fluctuated along the day, being the highest frequency observed between 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. Forty eigth Euglossini females of four species were netted visiting flowers of 14 plant species belonging to 13 families. Solanaceae and Caesalpiniaceae were the most visited. The species catched on flowers were Euglossa cordata, Eulaema nigrita, Euplusia mussitans (Fabricius, 1787 and Eulaema meriana flavescens Friese 1899. Euglossa cordata was the predominant species on flowers (64.6%, being collected during almost the whole year. Euplusia mussitans was the only species netted on flowers which males were not sampled on the scents.

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vatľák

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of Tilia cordata Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum which had been described in herbal books, were screened for their antimicrobial activity against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The following strains of bacteria for antimicrobial activity were used gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix thermosphacta CCM 4769, Enterococcus raffinosus CCM 4216, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1828, Paenobacillus larvae CCM 4483 and Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418 using disc diffusion method and microbroth dilution technique according to CLSI. Probit analysis was used in this experiment. Of the 2 plant extracts tested, all extracts showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The highest antibacterial activity of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum methanolic extract was measured against gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa used with disc diffusion method. The strong antimicrobial activity with microbroth dilution method of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum were found against Listeria ivanovii.

  18. TILIA-DOMINATED CALCICOLOUS FORESTS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC FROM A CENTRAL EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CHYTRY

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The Seslerio albicantis-Tilietum cordatae is described as a new association of the calcicolous forests in the Czech Republic. It includes species-rich Tilia cordata or T. platyphyllos dominated forests with a mixture of mesophilous forest species and thermophilous oak-forest species in the field layer, confined to shallow soils of the upper slopes. During the postglacial period, these forests probably developed from Sesleria albicans-grassland and Corylus avellana-scrub and preserved a number of relict species. Comparative analysis of selected literature data on Central European calcicolous forests dominated by Tilia species yielded 6 major floristically defined groups and a few communities of local importance. These groups include: (1 Asperulo taurinae-Tilietum of Swiss föhn valleys, (2 Aceri-Tilietum of central and southern Germany and NW Switzerland, (3 Aceri-Carpinetum aconitetosum vulpariae of the Czech Republic (nutrient-rich habitats, (4 Seslerio albicantis-Tilietum cordatae of the Czech Republic (nutrient-poor habitats, (5 Mercuriali-Tilietum of the Hungarian Central Range, (6 Tilio- Fraxinetum excelsioris of the Carpathian fringes in Hungary and Romania.

  19. TILIA-DOMINATED CALCICOLOUS FORESTS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC FROM A CENTRAL EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SADLO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The Seslerio albicantis-Tilietum cordatae is described as a new association of the calcicolous forests in the Czech Republic. It includes species-rich Tilia cordata or T. platyphyllos dominated forests with a mixture of mesophilous forest species and thermophilous oak-forest species in the field layer, confined to shallow soils of the upper slopes. During the postglacial period, these forests probably developed from Sesleria albicans-grassland and Corylus avellana-scrub and preserved a number of relict species. Comparative analysis of selected literature data on Central European calcicolous forests dominated by Tilia species yielded 6 major floristically defined groups and a few communities of local importance. These groups include: (1 Asperulo taurinae-Tilietum of Swiss föhn valleys, (2 Aceri-Tilietum of central and southern Germany and NW Switzerland, (3 Aceri-Carpinetum aconitetosum vulpariae of the Czech Republic (nutrient-rich habitats, (4 Seslerio albicantis-Tilietum cordatae of the Czech Republic (nutrient-poor habitats, (5 Mercuriali-Tilietum of the Hungarian Central Range, (6 Tilio- Fraxinetum excelsioris of the Carpathian fringes in Hungary and Romania.

  20. Siberian Origins of Neoproterozoic to Upper Triassic Rocks of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, J. G.; Blodgett, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Evidence for a connection of the Arctic Alaska plate (including Chukotka) with Siberia from Cambrian until Late Triassic time can be made on the basis of paleobiogeography. Arctic Alaska contains a number of biogeographically distinctive megafossils for select time intervals, notably the Middle Cambrian, Early and Late Ordovician, Early and Middle Devonian, Mississippian, and Late Triassic. Middle Cambrian trilobites are strictly Siberian in affinity, but also show close affinities with coeval trilobites from the Farewell terrane of SW Alaska. Late Ordovician brachiopods, gastropods, trilobites, and ostracodes are known from the Shublik Mountains, NE Brooks Range and York Mountains of the Seward Peninsula. Affinities are likewise primarily with Siberia (sharing the primarily Siberian pentameroid brachiopod genera Tcherskidium and Eoconchidium and the strictly Siberian trilobite genus Monorakos), but also with the Farewell terrane. Late Early Devonian and Middle Devonian brachiopods and calcareous green algae from Arctic Alaska are similarly allied with Siberia and the Farewell and Alexander terranes of southern Alaska. Early Mississippian faunas from the lower part of the Lisburne Group and underlying Endicott Group contain relatively widespread fauna, including taxa recognized both in North America and Eurasia, consistent with the relatively cosmopolitan paleobiogeographic conditions of this interval. However, Late Mississippian brachiopod fauna from the upper part of the Lisburne Group contain many brachiopods of strictly Eurasian affinities, notably the gigantoproductids, which are unknown in cratonic North America, but widespread across Eurasia and even North Africa. Late Mississippian lycopods from this terrane have previously been noted as demonstrating strong Angaran affinities. Permian faunas of Arctic Alaska show strong affinities as well with the Siberian Arctic, virtually lacking any fusilinids and reefal buildups, which in contradistinction are commonly

  1. Early Silurian (Aeronian East Point Coral Patch Reefs of Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada: First Reef Recovery from the Ordovician/Silurian Mass Extinction in Eastern Laurentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisuo Jin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An extensive late Aeronian patch reef swarm outcrops for 60–70 km on Anticosti Island, eastern Canada, located in the inner to mid-shelf area of a prominent tropical carbonate platform of southeastern Laurentia, at 20°–25° S paleolatitude of the southern typhoon belt. This complex, described here for the first time, includes more than 100 patch reefs, up to 60–80 m in diameter and 10 m high. Reefs are exposed three-dimensionally on present-day tidal flats, as well as inland along roads and rivers. Down the gentle 1°–2° paleoslope, the reefs grade into coral-sponge biostromes, and westerly they grade into inter-reef or deeper ‘crinoidal meadow’ facies. The reef builders were dominantly tabulate and rugose corals, with lesser stromatoporoids. Other components include crinoids, brachiopods, green algae (especially paleoporellids, and encrusting cyanobacteria: reefs display some of the earliest known symbiotic intergrowths of corals and stromatoporoids. Reefs were variably built on a base of crinoidal grainstones, meadows of baffling tabulate corals, brachiopod shells, or chlorophytes. These reefs mark an early phase of reef recovery after a prominent reef gap of 5–6 million years following the Ordovician/Silurian mass extinction events. The reefs feature a maximal diversity of calcifying cyanobacteria, corals and stromatoporoids, but low diversity of brachiopods, nautiloids and crinoids. Following the North American Stratigraphic Code, we define herein the Menier Formation, encompassing the lower two members of the existing Jupiter Formation.

  2. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Krzysztof R.; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  3. A new species of the Gondwanan genus Cardiolaria Munier-Chalmas in the Sandbian of northwestern Argentina: Paleobiogeographic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Teresa M.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2011-03-01

    A new species of afghanodesmatid, Cardiolaria benicioi, is recorded from Sandbian strata of northwestern Argentina. This species confirms the strong paleobiogeographic relationships between the western Argentina basin and other peri-Gondwanan areas. The Mid-Late Ordovician distribution of bivalves fit well into the Mediterranean Province defined upon brachiopod and trilobite faunas. Similitudes between Tremadocian and Floian bivalves from the western Gondwana and the peri-Gondwanan areas indicate that such 'Mediterranean' paleobiogeographic patterns can be traced back well into the Early Ordovician.

  4. Particle capture in ciliary filter-feeding gymnolaemate and phylactolaemate bryozoans - a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Okamura, Beth; Funch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We studied particle capture using video-microscopy in two gymnolaemates, the marine cheilostome Electra pilosa and the freshwater ctenostome Paludicella articulata, and three phylactolaemates, Fredericella sultana with a circular funnel-shaped lophophore, and Cristatella mucedo and Lophophus...... crystallinus, both with a horseshoe-shaped lophophore. The video-microscope observations along with studies of lophophore morphology and ultrastructure indicated that phylactolaemate and gymnolaemate bryozoans with a diversity of lophophore shapes rely on the same basic structures and mechanisms for particle...... capture. Our study also demonstrates that essential features of the particle capture process resemble one another in bryozoans, brachiopods and phoronids....

  5. Jurassic animals and algae in the flooring of Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Poznań

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    Antczak Mateusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The flooring of Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Poznań is made of Jurassic rocks from the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (also known as Holy Cross Mountains and contain abundant marine invertebrate fossils: sponges, bivalves, brachiopods, various families of cephalopods, etc. Some of them can be identified to the genus level. The fossils make it possible to describe the environment and ecosystem of the Jurassic sea and biostratigraphy of the sediment. There are also some significant inorganic structures, which suggest post-diagenetic tectonic movements.

  6. Fossils from the Falkland Islands in the collection of the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Phil; Sharpe, Tom; Owens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A small collection of fossils from the Falkland Islands, hitherto resting in obscurity, is to be found in Cardiff, at the National Museum of Wales (NMW). It comprises twelve specimens illustrating four of the well-known species that are fairly widely preserved in the sandstone of the Fox Bay Formation (Devonian Period, about 405 million years old), three brachiopods and a trilobite. The museum reference numbers are NMW20.328.G1 to G12, assigned as follows: G1-G3 … Schellwien...

  7. Palaeoenvironmental changes in the Late Triassic (Rhaetian) of the Northern Calcareous Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mette, Wolfgang; Elsler, Armin; Korte, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    a progressive decrease of ~2.5°C in seawater bottom temperature in the middle-late Rhaetian. The carbonate microfacies as well as macro- and microfossil assemblages indicate a gradual increase of water depth in the Eiberg Basin, and thereby explain the observed bottom water cooling. The oxygen isotope data...... further suggest that the palaeobathymetric temperature gradient in the Eiberg Basin was rather low, indicating that almost no deep water exchange with Tethys existed at that time. Carbon isotopes from brachiopod shells and from bulk carbonates show a trend to heavier values from the Hochalm Member up...

  8. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Krzysztof R; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  9. Paleoceanographic conditions at approximately 20 and 70 ka recorded in Kikaithyris hanzawai (Brachiopoda) shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Mamoru; Takayanagi, Hideko; Yamamoto, Koshi; Abe, Osamu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2017-10-01

    The δ13C and δ18O values of fossil brachiopod shells have been widely used as paleoenvironmental proxies. In this study, we investigated intrashell and intraspecific variations in the isotopic and minor element concentrations of well-preserved shells of the brachiopod Kikaithyris hanzawai (Yabe) from the last glacial period (∼20 ka [Last Glacial Maximum; LGM] and ∼70 ka [Marine Isotope Stage 4; MIS4]), collected in the Central Ryukyus, and used these data to estimate the paleoceanographic conditions (seawater temperature, concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC], and δ13C value of DIC [δ13CDIC]). The δ13C and δ18O profiles along the maximum growth axis, obtained from the inner shell surface, show three distinct intervals, corresponding to changes in shell morphology. These results suggest that the bulk isotopic compositions of brachiopods with complex shell morphologies are unsuitable for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Nevertheless, there exists a specific shell portion with relatively small intrashell and intraspecific variations. The past seawater temperatures derived from the δ18O values of this portion are consistent with the alkenone- and planktic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-based past seawater temperatures reported in previous studies. The past δ13CDIC values estimated from the δ13C values of the specific shell portion are within the range of the past δ13CDIC values calculated from known atmospheric and oceanographic parameters. The past DIC concentrations reconstructed from the brachiopod-based δ13CDIC values are lower than the present concentrations in the East China Sea, which can be explained by low partial pressure of CO2 during the last glacial period. These results indicate that the δ13C and δ18O values obtained from K. hanzawai shells are potential paleoenvironmental indicators. The intrashell and intraspecific variations in the K. hanzawai shells are different for each minor element. Some anomalously high Mn and Fe

  10. Community ecology of euglossine bees in the coastal Atlantic forest of São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Garofalo, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest stretches along Brazil's Atlantic coast, from Rio Grande do Norte State in the north to Rio Grande do Sul State in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina. This biome is one of the eight biodiversity hotspots in the world and is characterized by high species diversity. Euglossini bees are known as important pollinators in this biome, where their diversity is high. Due to the high impact of human activities in the Atlantic Forest, in the present study the community structure of Euglossini was assessed in a coastal lowland area, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar--Núcleo Picinguaba (PESM), and in an island, Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta (PEIA), Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly, from August 2007 to July 2009, using artificial baits with 14 aromatic compounds to attract males. Twenty-three species were recorded. On PEIA, Euglossa cordata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) represented almost two thirds of the total species collected (63.2%). Euglossa iopoecila (23.0%) was the most abundant species in PESM but was not recorded on the island, and Euglossa sapphirina (21.0%) was the second most frequent species in PESM but was represented by only nine individuals on PEIA. The results suggest that these two species may act as bioindicators of preserved environments, as suggested for other Euglossini species. Some authors showed that Eg. cordata is favored by disturbed environments, which could explain its high abundance on Anchieta Island. Similarly, as emphasized by other authors, the dominance of Eg. cordata on the island would be another factor indicative of environmental disturbance.

  11. Does the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants? The case of Meehania (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Nie, Ze-Long; Drew, Bryan T; Volis, Sergei; Kim, Changkyun; Xiang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yue-Hua; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable progress, many details regarding the evolution of the Arcto-Tertiary flora, including the timing, direction, and relative importance of migration routes in the evolution of woody and herbaceous taxa of the Northern Hemisphere, remain poorly understood. Meehania (Lamiaceae) comprises seven species and five subspecies of annual or perennial herbs, and is one of the few Lamiaceae genera known to have an exclusively disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We analyzed the phylogeny and biogeographical history of Meehania to explore how the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis and two possible migration routes explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid sequences (rbcL, rps16, rpl32-trnH, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) and two nuclear (ITS and ETS) gene regions. Divergence times and biogeographic inferences were performed using Bayesian methods as implemented in BEAST and S-DIVA, respectively. Analyses including 11 of the 12 known Meehania taxa revealed incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear trees, particularly in the positions of Glechoma and Meehania cordata, possibly indicating allopolyploidy with chloroplast capture in the late Miocene. Based on nrDNA, Meehania is monophyletic, and the North American species M. cordata is sister to a clade containing the eastern Asian species. The divergence time between the North American M. cordata and the eastern Asian species occurred about 9.81 Mya according to the Bayesian relaxed clock methods applied to the combined nuclear data. Biogeographic analyses suggest a primary role of the Arcto-Tertiary flora in the study taxa distribution, with a northeast Asian origin of Meehania. Our results suggest an Arcto-Tertiary origin of Meehania, with its present distribution most probably being a result of vicariance and southward migrations of populations during

  12. Simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone by High-performance liquid chromatography in roots of eight Sida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M D; Pai, Sandeep R; Ankad, Gireesh M; Hegde, Harsha V; Roy, Subarna; Hoti, S L

    2016-01-01

    Sida L. is a medicinally important genus widely used in conventional systems of medicine in India. The present study aims toward simultaneous determination of two bioactive compounds vasicine and vasicinone in root extracts of eight Sida spp. from Western Ghats, India. Determination of vasicine and vasicinone was undertaken in methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida acuta, Sida cordata, Sida cordifolia, Sida rhombifolia, Sida spinosa, Sida indica, Sida retusa and Sida mysorensis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The standards were prepared with the concentration of mg/mL. Data were expressed as mean values of three reading and relative standard deviations. The separation was achieved on a Waters, Nova-Pack, C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) column, with acetonitrile - 0.1 M phosphate buffer-glacial acetic acid (15: 85: 1, v/v/v) as solvent system at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. The effluent was monitored using ultraviolet detection at a wavelength of 300 nm. Both calibration curves of standard showed good linear regression (R2 > 0.994). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for vasicine was 0.110 and 0.333 μg/mL and for vasicinone was 0.059 and 0.179 μg/mL respectively. The vasicine content was highest in S. cordifolia (9.891 ± 0.495 μg/100 mg) and vasicinone content was rich in S. cordata (33.013 ± 1.651 μg/100 mg.) The content of vasicinone was higher than vasicine. HPLC method provides simple, accurate, and reproducible quantitative analysis for simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone. Among the selected Sida species, S. cordifolia and S. cordata were found to be rich in the vasicine and vasicinone contents, respectively.

  13. As espécies de Euglossa Latreille do nordeste de São Paulo (Apidae, Euglossinae The species of Euglossa Latreille from the northeast of São Paulo, Brazil (Apidae, Euglossinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Macário Rebelo

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A key and short descriptions are given to the males of the eleven species of Euglossa Latreillle, 1802. collected in cineole; eugenol and vanillin in natural forest reserves of the Northeast of São Paulo State (Cajuru, Sertãozinho, Dumont, Ribeirão Preto, Luís Antônio and Pedregulho. Namely: E. imperialis Cockerell. 1922; E. annectans Dressler. 1982; E. pleosticta Dressler. 1982; E. townsendi Cockerell. 1904; E. melanotricha Moure, 1967; E. cordata (Linaeus, 1758; E. securigera Dressler, 1982; E. fimbriata. sp.n.; E. leucotricha. sp.n.; E. truncata, sp.n. and E. violaceifrons, sp.n..

  14. Evaluation of Alnus species and hybrids. [For biomass energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.B. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US). Dept. of Forestry); Burgess, D. (Petawawa National Forestry Inst., Chalk River, Ontario (CA))

    1990-01-01

    Trials of a common set of seed lots representing 39 parents and five species of Alnus have been started in four countries: Belgium, Canada, the UK, and the US. Initial results indicate that cold hardiness is a problem in using A. acuminata but that sufficiently hardy A. rubra sources are available. A. glutinosa had the best growth in the nursery, and A. cordata had the best survival under severe moisture-stress conditions. A summary also is given of a workshop on alder improvement that further demonstrates the potential for developing the genus for biomass energy production. (author).

  15. Final Environmental Impact Statement Relating to the Operation and Maintenance of the Fox River, Wisconsin Navigation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    P, W 2.0-4.2 c, g, p, s Nymphaes odorata B, P, W 1.4-3.4 c, g, p, s Phragmites australis B, W 1.8-4.8 g, s Po Zygonum coccineum P ...... Pontederia ... cordata B, P, W 2.0-3.4 g, s Potanogeton natans B, P, W 1.7-3.4 g, s Potanogeton nodosus B, P, W 1.4-3.8 t Potanogeton pectinatus B, P, W 1.9-3.9 t

  16. Biogás a partir de plantas aquáticas

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, José Elias de

    1984-01-01

    Apresenta artigo de testes para obtenção de biogás foram feitos com plantas secas de duas espécies de Monocotiledônea:Eleocharis elegans Roem. & Schult e Pontederia cordata L. var. ovalis (Mart.) Solms. Para cada espécie, foram realizados dois testes: um no período de temperatura mais baixa (entre maio e agosto) e o outro no período de temperatura mais alta (entre dezembro e março). Também foi analisada a estrutura interna do caule e da folha das duas espécies.

  17. Flora do Rio de Janeiro: Pontederiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Michele Guarany Quintanilha; Moreira, Andréia Donza Rezende; Bove, Claudia Petean

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo tem como objetivo contribuir para o conhecimento das espécies de Pontederiaceae ocorrentes no estado do Rio de Janeiro. O trabalho tem por base a análise morfológica de materiais depositados em herbários e coletas de campo, além da compilação de dados de literatura. Foram registrados três gêneros e cinco espécies: Eichhornia azurea, Eichhornia crassipes, Heteranthera reniformis, Pontederia cordata e Pontederia sagittata. Chave para identificação, descrições, dados sob...

  18. Anatomía y etnobotánica de las especies medicinales de monocotiledóneas de la Estepa Pampeana de Argentina: Orchidaceae y Pontederiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa, María Cecilia; Vizcaíno, Claudia E.; Colares, Marta N.

    1998-01-01

    En la estepa pampeana de Argentina se encuentran 34 especies medicinales de Monocotiledóneas, de las cuales 5 son tratadas en el presente estudio: Cyclopogon elatus (Sw.) Schlecht. y Oncidiurn bifolium Sims (Orchiúaceae), Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach y Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae). De ellas se brindan: basónimos, principales sinónimos, nombres vulgares, descripción, análisis histológico de las partes utilizadas, mapa de distribución en la...

  19. Terpenoids in Buddleja: relevance to chemosystematics, chemical ecology and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Peter J; Mensah, Abraham Y; Iessa, Noha; Hong, Liao Yong

    2003-09-01

    The terpenoids reported from Buddleja species are described. The antifungal activity of chloroform extracts of B. cordata and B. davidii stembark against the soil fungi Fusarium culmorum and Sordari fimicola is reported, with buddledin A shown to be the major compound responsible. The terpenoids present support the view that the Buddlejaceae should be classified in a taxon with Scrophulariaceae rather than Loganiaceae. Ecological aspects of the terpenoids are considered in relation to insects and soil fungi and the role of terpenoids in the chemical basis of the use of Buddleja in traditional medicine is also discussed, especially with regard to their anti-inflammatory properties.

  20. Vegetative propagation of native species potentially useful in the restoration of México City's vegetation Propagación vegetativa de especies nativas potencialmente útiles en la restauración de la vegetación de la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos-Palacios

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hardwood and softwood cuttings of Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq and Senecio praecox D.C. were tested to know their ability to form adventitious roots. Cuttings were prepared in 2 different seasons (wet and dry and treated with different microclimatic conditions and auxin concentrations (IBA and NAA. Hardwood and softwood cuttings of B. cordata rooted during the dry and wet season, whilst hardwood and softwood cuttings of D. viscosa rooted only in the wet season, cuttings of S. praecox rooted only in wet season with a higher rooting for hardwood than softwood cuttings. Low hormone concentrations (10 - 100 ppm favored the rooting percentage more than high concentrations (1000 - 10 000 ppm. However, high hormone concentrations favored number, length of roots and number of developed shoots. Natural regeneration of these species is limited and the species are difficult to propagate from seeds. Vegetative propagation of these species could be an alternative to get clonal planting stock for reforestation programs in some Mexico City areas.Se probó la habilidad de estacas lignificadas y suaves de Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq y Senecio praecox D.C. para formar raíces adventicias. Las estacas se prepararon en las estaciones húmeda y seca; se trataron con diferentes concentraciones de auxinas (IBA y NAA y en diferentes condiciones microclimáticas. Las estacas de madera lignificadas y madera suave de B. cordata enraizaron durante la estación seca y húmeda, mientras que las de D. viscosa lo hicieron sólo en la época húmeda, las estacas de S. praecox sólo en la estación seca teniendo las estacas lignificadas un mayor enraizamiento que las de madera suave. Las concentraciones bajas de hormonas (10 - 100 ppm favorecieron más el porcentaje de enraizamiento que las altas concentraciones (1000 - 10 000 ppm. . Sin embargo, las concentraciones altas de hormonas favorecieron el número y la longitud de las raíces, además del

  1. Macromycetes of oak-lime-hornbeam woods in the Niepołomice Forest near Kraków (S Poland - monitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysława Wojewoda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1994-1996 studies on macromycetes of the Niepołomice Forest near Kraków were made in four plots designated in deciduous forests (Tilio-Carpinetum stachyetosum with a population of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata (the size of each plot was 1000 m2. The observations were made through an international project "Mycological monitoring in European oak forests". As many as 274 species were recorded, including 234 saprobic, 33 mycorrhizal, and 7 parasitic fungi. Moreover, 15 species of fungi are connected with oak, 24 species of fungi are threatened, and 16 species are new to Poland.

  2. Drug: D06742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 89], Quercitrin [CPD:C01750], Isoquercitrin [CPD:C05623], Decanoylacetaldehyde [CPD:C16947], alpha-Pinene [C...PD:C09880], Limonene [CPD:C06078], 2-Undecanone [CPD:C01875], Dodecylaldehyde [CPD:C02278], Pottasium salt, ...ame as: E00113 Therapeutic category: 5100 Saururaceae (lizard's-tail family) Houttuynia herb (flower season) Major component: Dec...Flavonoid glycoside, Benzamide derivative, Lauric aldehyde, Methyl-n-nonylketone,... Capric aldehyde, 3-Ketodecanal, Methyllauryl sulfide, Myrcene [CPD:C06074] Houttuynia cordata [TAX:16752] S

  3. Microbialites in the shallow-water marine environments of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian biotic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakociński, Michał; Racki, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Microbial carbonates, consisting of abundant girvanellid oncoids, are described from cephalopod-crinoid and crinoid-brachiopod coquinas (rudstones) occurring in the lowermost Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. A Girvanella-bearing horizon (consist with numerous girvanellid oncoids) has been recognised at the Psie Górki section, and represents the northern slope succession of the drowned Dyminy Reef. This occurrence of microbialites in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian event is interpreted as the result of opportunistic cyanobacteria blooms, which, as 'disaster forms', colonised empty shallow-water ecological niches during the survival phase following the Frasnian metazoan reef collapse, due to collapsed activity of epifaunal, grazing, and/or burrowing animals. The anachronistic lithofacies at Psie Górki is linked with catastrophic mass mortality of the cephalopod and crinoid-brachiopod communities during the heavy storm events. This mass occurrence of girvanellid oncoids, along with Frutexites-like microbial shrubs and, at least partly, common micritisation of some skeletal grains, records an overall increase in microbial activity in eutrophic normal marine environments. Microbial communities in the Holy Cross Mountains are not very diverse, being mainly represented by girvanellid oncoids, and stand in contrast to the very rich microbial communities known from the Guilin area (China), Canning Basin (Australia) and the Timan-northern Ural area (Russia). The association from Poland is similar to more diverse microbial communities represented by oncoids, trombolites and stromatolites, well known from the Canadian Alberta basin.

  4. An abrupt extinction in the Middle Permian (Capitanian) of the Boreal Realm with a causal link to anoxia, acidification and mercury poisoning

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    Bond, David; Wignall, Paul; Joachimski, Michael; Sun, Yadong; Savov, Ivan; Grasby, Stephen; Beauchamp, Benoit; Blomeier, Dierk

    2016-04-01

    The controversial Capitanian (Middle Permian, 262 Ma) extinction event is mostly known from equatorial latitudes and consequently its global extent is poorly resolved. We demonstrate that there were two, severe extinctions amongst brachiopods in northern Boreal latitudes (Spitsbergen), in the Middle to Late Permian, separated by a recovery phase. New age dating of the Kapp Starostin Formation of Spitsbergen using strontium and carbon isotopic trends suggests that the first crisis occurred in the Capitanian. This age assignment indicates that this Middle Permian extinction is manifest at higher latitudes. Redox proxies (pyrite framboids and trace metals) show that the Boreal crisis coincided with an intensification of oxygen depletion, implicating anoxia in the extinction scenario. The highly toxic metal mercury becomes enriched in strata at the Middle Permian extinction level implicating death-by-toxicity (and a possible link to volcanism). Finally, the near-total loss of carbonates across the Boreal Realm in the Middle to Late Permian also suggests a role for acidification. New in prep. data from Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (samples collected July 2015) tentatively suggests that this potent "three strikes and you're out" extinction mechanism was a Boreal-wide phenomenon. The Late Permian recovery interval saw the appearance of new brachiopod and bivalve taxa alongside survivors, and an increased mollusk dominance, resulting in an assemblage reminiscent of younger Mesozoic assemblages. The subsequent end-Permian mass extinction terminated this Late Permian radiation.

  5. Phylogeny and mitochondrial gene order variation in Lophotrochozoa in the light of new mitogenomic data from Nemertea

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    von Döhren Jörn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new animal phylogeny established several taxa which were not identified by morphological analyses, most prominently the Ecdysozoa (arthropods, roundworms, priapulids and others and Lophotrochozoa (molluscs, annelids, brachiopods and others. Lophotrochozoan interrelationships are under discussion, e.g. regarding the position of Nemertea (ribbon worms, which were discussed to be sister group to e.g. Mollusca, Brachiozoa or Platyhelminthes. Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. Results In this study we present the first complete mitochondrial genome record for a member of the Nemertea, Lineus viridis. Except two trnP and trnT, all genes are located on the same strand. While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. Conclusion Almost all recent analyses with large datasets show good support for a taxon comprising Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida and Nemertea. But the relationships among these taxa vary between different studies. The analysis of gene order differences gives evidence for a multiple independent occurrence of a large inversion in the mitochondrial genome of Lophotrochozoa and a re-inversion of the same part in gastropods. We hypothesize that some regions of the genome have a higher chance for intramolecular recombination than others and gene order data have to be analysed carefully to detect convergent rearrangement events.

  6. Patterns of fossil distributions within their environmental context from the Middle Triassic in South Canyon, Central Nevada, USA

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    Pedro M. Monarrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Triassic records the return of diverse marine communities after the severe effects of the end-Permian mass extinction. This diversification leads to the Mesozoic/modern adaptive radiation resulting in substantial changes in marine communities in comparison to their Paleozoic predecessors. This analysis focuses on the faunal abundance, ecological patterns, and environmental interpretation of a Middle Triassic section in Central Nevada. Twelve bulk samples were collected. Visible fossils were identified and tallied from hand samples and thin-sections were used to aid in environmental interpretation. Beginning in the Late Anisian, we observed an ammonoid dominated to flat-clam, epifaunal dominated benthic community within a muddy, quiet, inner shelf depositional environment. Through time, epifaunal bivalves dominate within a middle shelf environment followed by an increase in infaunalization and shell-thickness. During this time the presence of oncoids and the reported finding of corals suggest the middle shelf environment gave way to a higher energy patch reef shelf edge environment. Finally, we observe epifaunal brachiopods communities at the top of our section deposited in a middle shelf environment. In sum, we observe the dominance of modern taxa (i.e., bivalves with Paleozoic ecologies (i.e., epifaunal, followed by the dominance of modern taxa with Modern ecologies (i.e., infaunal, thick shells and then a return to Paleozoic taxa (i.e., brachiopods and Paleozoic ecologies within an overall transgressive environment.

  7. Upper Sandbian–lower Katian bio- and chemostratigraphy in the Pajevonys-13 core section, Lithuania

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    Linda Hints

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The succession of five formations (Auleliai, Vilučiai, Alvitas, Šakiai, Jakšiai corresponding to the upper Sandbian and lower Katian in southern Lithuania is dated based on new bio- and chemostratigraphical data from the Pajevonys-13 core section. The dating of the Auleliai and Vilučiai formations is controversial: chitinozoans suggest younger ages (Keila and Oandu than brachiopods (Haljala and Keila for this interval. Chemostratigraphical data (δ13Ccarb and δ13Cbrach agree better with the dating based on brachiopods: the Alvitas and Šakiai formations correspond to the Oandu Stage, the older Vilučiai Formation is of Keila age. The Jakšiai Formation is commonly dated as of Rakvere age, but it is problematic in the studied section. However, its upper boundary is well defined by the appearance of subzonal chitinozoans Armoricochitina reticulifera characteristic of the lowermost Nabala Stage. The Ancyrochitina bornholmensis and Fungochitina spinifera chitinozoan zones, and the upper Amorphognathus tvaerensis, A. superbus and the lowermost A. ordovicicus conodont zones were identified in the studied section.

  8. Revised megafossil biostratigraphic zonation for Carboniferous of northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutro, J.T. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    Carboniferous megafossils are widely distributed in the Kayak Shale and Lisburne Group throughout the northern Brooks Range. Diverse assemblages of brachiopods, corals, and mollusks, with subordinate echinoderms and bryozoans, were collected from 40 measured sections. The combined stratigraphic ranges and abundances of more than 300 species were assessed to construct a biostratigraphic zonation that can be applied regionally for correlation. Preliminary zonations, used for more than a quarter century, were revised to account for the rapidly accumulating data. In the central and western Brooks Range, the deeper water Kuna formation contains a low-diversity fauna of mollusks and brachiopods. Goniatites are found at several levels but never more than two zones in any partial section. Regionally, these goniatite zones, from youngest to oldest, are: Delephinoceras (late Chesterian), Goniatites americanus (late Meramecian - early Chesterian), Beyrichoceras (early to middle Meramecian), Ammonellipsites (Osagean) and Muensteroceras-Protocanites (late Kinderhookian.). Correlations of megafossil zones with the foraminiferal zones of Mamet are discussed. The 15 Mississippian zones have an average age-resolution of about 2 m.y. By themselves, the goniatite zones give an ageresolution of about 6 m.y. zone.

  9. SPAD-502 readings in response to photon fluence in leaves with different chlorophyll content

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    Helena Cristina Santos Nascimento

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502 is widely used to estimate chlorophyll content, but non-uniform chloroplast distribution can affect its accuracy. This study aimed to assess the effect of photon fluence (F, irradiance x time of illumination in leaves with different chlorophyll content and determine the effect of chlorophyll a/b on SPAD values of four tropical tree species (Croton draconoides Müll. Arg., Hevea guianensis Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril L. and Matisia cordata H.B.K.. There were also determined calibration equations for the chlorophyll meter and assessed the effect of F on SPAD values between 07:00 h and 17:00 h. Calibration equations were obtained after determining leaf chlorophyll content in the laboratory. Increases in F with time caused a reduction in SPAD values in species with a high chlorophyll content, with reductions of 20% in M. cordata and 10% in H. guianensis. Leaves of C. draconoides and H. courbaril had lower chlorophyll content and showed no changes in SPAD values with increase in F. The chlorophyll a/b ratio increased with SPAD values and the SPAD/chlorophyll relationship was best described by an exponential equation. It seems that F may affect SPAD values in leaves with high chlorophyll content, probably due to non-uniform chloroplast distribution at high irradiance. This indicates that SPAD values tend to be more accurate if recorded early in morning when irradiance is low.

  10. Inventory of Green Spaces and Woody Plants in the Urban Landscape in Ariogala

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    Lina Straigytė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Regulation of urban greenery design, management and protection was approved in 2008 in Lithuania after the Green Space Law was passed, allowing protection of public green spaces and woody plants. Protection of these resources first requires an inventory, and we have created a digital database that will help in management of urban green spaces. Material and Methods: An inventory of green spaces and woody plants was conducted in the public urban territory of Ariogala, using GIS technology. A digital cartographic database was created using ArcGis 9.1 software. Results and Conclusion: Most of the woody plants in the survey area are deciduous trees, and the survey results highlighted the major green space management problems. Often, planted trees grow under power lines, and their crowns touch the power cables. Near blocks of flats, trees are often in the wrong place-planted too close to buildings, trees shade windows and their roots heave pavers and penetrate building foundations. According to the inventory, street trees sustain the most damage, most commonly showing injuries on their trunks and roots. Leaves of Aesculus hipocastanum L. show massive damage from Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić, and Tilia cordata Mill. are damaged by Cercospora microsora Sacc. T. cordata is a favourite city tree, but is susceptible to infestation and when damaged appears unsightly, ending its vegetation period very early. The inventory of green spaces also showed that there are sufficient public parks.

  11. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Hoang Ha; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Sano, Sakae; Mai, Trong Nhuan

    2011-02-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg(-1) dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sakakibara, Masayuki, E-mail: sakakiba@sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sano, Sakae [Department of Geology, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nhuan, Mai Trong [Department of Environmental Geology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-02-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg{sup -1} dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium).

  13. Reduction of nutrient contaminants into shallow eutrophic waters through vegetated treatment beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P; Vijayaraghavan, K; Reuben, S; Estrada, E S; Joshi, U M

    2013-01-01

    One of the most effective mitigative approaches to eutrophication is the reduction of nutrient loading into water bodies. Bioremediation presents an economically viable and ecologically sustainable technology to nutrient pollution control taking advantage of the remarkable ability of plants and their associated microbial community to assimilate and remove nutrients from the environment. In this study, four emergent macrophytes (Cyperus haspan, Pandanus amaryllifolius, Pontederia cordata and Thalia geniculata) and two floating plants (Hygroryza aristata and Pistia stratiotes) were deployed in bank-side treatment beds and comparatively assessed for their remediative capabilities for nutrient control. P. stratiotes exhibited the highest removal efficiency for both nitrate and phosphate among the six plant species studied. Emergent macrophytes, P. amaryllifolius, C. haspan and P. cordata, were also found to be highly effective in nutrient uptake exhibiting removal efficiencies up to 100%. With the exception of T. geniculata, depletion of nutrients as a result of plant uptake significantly impeded the natural colonization of algae invariably leading to improvements in water quality in terms of turbidity and pH. Suppression of algae proliferation by T. geniculata was not preceded by a reduction in nutrient concentrations suggesting that T. geniculata may be directly inhibiting algal growth through allelopathy.

  14. UPLC-MS/MS Profile of Alkaloids with Cytotoxic Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants of the Berberidaceae and Papaveraceae Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Och, Anna; Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Załuski, Daniel; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most occurring diseases in developed and developing countries. Plant-based compounds are still researched for their anticancer activity and for their quantity in plants. Therefore, the modern chromatographic methods are applied to quantify them in plants, for example, UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the content of sanguinarine, berberine, protopine, and chelidonine in Dicentra spectabilis (L.) Lem., Fumaria officinalis L., Glaucium flavum Crantz, Corydalis cava L., Berberis thunbergii DC., Meconopsis cambrica (L.) Vig., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt., Macleaya cordata Willd., and Chelidonium majus L. For the first time, N,N-dimethyl-hernovine was identified in M. cambrica, B. thunbergii, M. aquifolium, C. cava, G. flavum, and C. majus; methyl-hernovine was identified in G. flavum; columbamine was identified in B. thunbergii; and methyl-corypalmine, chelidonine, and sanguinarine were identified in F. officinalis L. The richest source of protopine among all the examined species was M. cordata (5463.64 ± 26.3 μg/g). The highest amounts of chelidonine and sanguinarine were found in C. majus (51,040.0 ± 1.8 μg/g and 7925.8 ± 3.3 μg/g, resp.), while B. thunbergi contained the highest amount of berberine (6358.4 ± 4.2 μg/g).

  15. UPLC-MS/MS Profile of Alkaloids with Cytotoxic Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants of the Berberidaceae and Papaveraceae Families

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    Anna Och

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most occurring diseases in developed and developing countries. Plant-based compounds are still researched for their anticancer activity and for their quantity in plants. Therefore, the modern chromatographic methods are applied to quantify them in plants, for example, UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the content of sanguinarine, berberine, protopine, and chelidonine in Dicentra spectabilis (L. Lem., Fumaria officinalis L., Glaucium flavum Crantz, Corydalis cava L., Berberis thunbergii DC., Meconopsis cambrica (L. Vig., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt., Macleaya cordata Willd., and Chelidonium majus L. For the first time, N,N-dimethyl-hernovine was identified in M. cambrica, B. thunbergii, M. aquifolium, C. cava, G. flavum, and C. majus; methyl-hernovine was identified in G. flavum; columbamine was identified in B. thunbergii; and methyl-corypalmine, chelidonine, and sanguinarine were identified in F. officinalis L. The richest source of protopine among all the examined species was M. cordata (5463.64 ± 26.3 μg/g. The highest amounts of chelidonine and sanguinarine were found in C. majus (51,040.0 ± 1.8 μg/g and 7925.8 ± 3.3 μg/g, resp., while B. thunbergi contained the highest amount of berberine (6358.4 ± 4.2 μg/g.

  16. [Composition and seasonality of Euglossina Species (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in forest and dune in the Environmental Protection Area of the Mamanguape River Bar, PB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Rodrigo C A P; Madeira-da-Silva, Maria C; Pereira-Peixoto, Maria H; Martins, Celso F

    2008-01-01

    By using artificial fragrances as baits, we studied richness, composition, abundance and seasonality of Euglossina species in two areas (forest and dune) in the Environmental Protection Area of the Mamanguape River Bar, State of Paraiba, Brazil, between August 2002 and July 2004. Bees were attracted with wads of absorbent paper containing each of the fragrances: benzyl acetate, ionone beta, skatole, eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin, and captured with insect net. We collected a total of 3,132 males of nine species of Euglossina. On both areas, Euglossa cordata (L.) and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier were present throughout the year and were the most abundant species in the forest and the first one was the most abundant specie at the dune. Concerning to the composition, the Atlantic Rainforest areas in Paraíba State were more similar among themselves, the same occurring to the dune areas in Paraíba and Bahia States. In the forest, Euglossina species showed higher seasonality, being more abundant during the drier period, specially E. cordata. At the dune, species were homogeneously distributed in the dry and rainy periods.

  17. Juglans regia L. tree plantations for wood production in mining area of S. Barbara (AR. Evaluation of N-fixing accessory trees effect

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    Tani A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in experimental plots located in the Arno valley (Cavriglia, province of Arezzo - Italy. The experimental plots, walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations both pure and mixed to accessory trees (Alnus cordata Loisel., Corylus avellana L., Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L., were established in 1986 and 1989. Data on grown and architectural characteristics were collected in different periods on trees aged 9, 13 and 16. Walnut trees grown with accessory trees showed the best performances, especially if associated with N-fixing species. These positive effects are probably due to many co-occuring favourable causes, a remarkable aspect of which is the higher availability of N. To better investigate the above effect, N concentration in the soil and in walnut leaves was measured in plantations both pure and mixed with Italian alder (Alnus cordata or black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, and N concentration values were compared with growth characteristics. The results showed that Juglans regia trees associated with Italian alder grow faster, with straighter stems and better stem shapes for qualified wood production. Even if walnut trees growing in plantations with black locust show similar N concentration values, growth performances are worse.

  18. Biogenic hardparts: Difficult archives of the geological past (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons can act as support or serve as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hard parts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrices, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of many biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth patterns and their ability to record ambient environmental conditions in the form of multiple geochemical properties (multi-proxy archives) that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. Here, we compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hard parts secreted by mollusks (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hard parts. Despite the fact that mollusks and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil hard parts precipitated (under favorable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration) in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or

  19. Conodont succession and reassessment of major events around the Permian-Triassic boundary at the Selong Xishan section, southern Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dong-Xun; Zhang, Yi-Chun; Shen, Shu-Zhong

    2018-02-01

    A major discrepancy for the age of the Selong Group from middle Cisuralian (Early Permian) to Changhsingian resulted from previous reports of Sakmarian, Kungurian and Guadalupian (Middle Permian) conodonts and Lopingian (Late Permian) brachiopods. Recently, Cisuralian and Guadalupian conodonts were reported again from the Selong Group and the basal part of the Kangshare Formation at the Selong section, but the age discrepancy remains. We present our conodont materials based on large samples collected from the Selong Group and our interpretation based on identifications using a sample population approach. Three conodont zones are recognized in our re-investigation of the upper part of the Selong Group. They include the Vjalovognathus sp., the Mesogondolella hendersoni, and the M. sheni zones, in ascending order. These zones are overlain by the basal Triassic Hindeodus parvus Zone and the Otoceras woodwardi Zone. Our reassessment of conodonts reported by previous studies from Selong and nearby sections suggest that all specimens consistently point to a Lopingian age; the upper part of the Selong Group is latest Changhsingian in age based on the presence of Clarkina orchardi and Mesogondolella sheni. Previously reported early Cisuralian and Guadalupian conodonts are misidentified using a form species concept. A hiatus may be present at the erosional surface between the Selong Group and the Waagenites Bed of the basal part of the Kangshare Formation. However, the hiatus is minimal because conodont and brachiopod assemblages above and below this surface are very similar, and it results from a latest Changhsingian transgression just before the extinction that follows a global latest Changhsingian regression. There is a distinct rapid end-Permian mass extinction at Selong within the Waagenites Bed, as indicated by the disappearances of all benthic brachiopods, rugose corals and Permian bryozoans. The burst of Clarkina species in the Waagenites Bed and throughout the

  20. Paleozoic Hydrocarbon-Seep Limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, J.

    2007-12-01

    To date, five Paleozoic hydrocarbon-seep limestones have been recognized based on carbonate fabrics, associated fauna, and stable carbon isotopes. These are the Middle Devonian Hollard Mound from the Antiatlas of Morocco [1], Late Devonian limestone lenses with the dimerelloid brachiopod Dzieduszyckia from the Western Meseta of Morocco [2], Middle Mississippian limestones with the dimerelloid brachiopod Ibergirhynchia from the Harz Mountains of Germany [3], Early Pennsylvanian limestones from the Tantes Mound in the High Pyrenees of France [4], and Late Pennsylvanian limestone lenses from the Ganigobis Shale Member of southern Namibia [5]. Among these examples, the composition of seepage fluids varied substantially as inferred from delta C-13 values of early diagenetic carbonate phases. Delta C-13 values as low as -50 per mil from the Tantes Mound and -51 per mil from the Ganigobis limestones reveal seepage of biogenic methane, whereas values of -12 per mil from limestones with Dzieduszyckia associated with abundant pyrobitumen agree with oil seepage. Intermediate delta C-13 values of carbonate cements from the Hollard Mound and Ibergirhynchia deposits probably reflect seepage of thermogenic methane. It is presently very difficult to assess the faunal evolution at seeps in the Paleozoic based on the limited number of examples. Two of the known seeps were typified by extremely abundant rhynchonellide brachiopods of the superfamily Dimerelloidea. Bivalve mollusks and tubeworms were abundant at two of the known Paleozoic seep sites; one was dominated by bivalve mollusks (Hollard Mound, Middle Devonian), another was dominated by tubeworms (Ganigobis Shale Member, Late Pennsylvanian). The tubeworms from these two deposits are interpreted to represent vestimentiferan worms, based on studies of the taphonomy of modern vestimentiferans. However, this interpretation is in conflict with the estimated evolutionary age of vestimentiferans based on molecular clock methods

  1. Does the Arcto-Tertiary Biogeographic Hypothesis Explain the Disjunct Distribution of Northern Hemisphere Herbaceous Plants? The Case of Meehania (Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Nie, Ze-Long; Drew, Bryan T.; Volis, Sergei; Kim, Changkyun; Xiang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yue-Hua; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable progress, many details regarding the evolution of the Arcto-Tertiary flora, including the timing, direction, and relative importance of migration routes in the evolution of woody and herbaceous taxa of the Northern Hemisphere, remain poorly understood. Meehania (Lamiaceae) comprises seven species and five subspecies of annual or perennial herbs, and is one of the few Lamiaceae genera known to have an exclusively disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We analyzed the phylogeny and biogeographical history of Meehania to explore how the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis and two possible migration routes explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid sequences (rbcL, rps16, rpl32-trnH, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) and two nuclear (ITS and ETS) gene regions. Divergence times and biogeographic inferences were performed using Bayesian methods as implemented in BEAST and S-DIVA, respectively. Analyses including 11 of the 12 known Meehania taxa revealed incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear trees, particularly in the positions of Glechoma and Meehania cordata, possibly indicating allopolyploidy with chloroplast capture in the late Miocene. Based on nrDNA, Meehania is monophyletic, and the North American species M. cordata is sister to a clade containing the eastern Asian species. The divergence time between the North American M. cordata and the eastern Asian species occurred about 9.81 Mya according to the Bayesian relaxed clock methods applied to the combined nuclear data. Biogeographic analyses suggest a primary role of the Arcto-Tertiary flora in the study taxa distribution, with a northeast Asian origin of Meehania. Our results suggest an Arcto-Tertiary origin of Meehania, with its present distribution most probably being a result of vicariance and southward migrations of populations during

  2. Bioconcentration of triclosan, methyl-triclosan, and triclocarban in the plants and sediments of a constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Frederick M; Schulwitz, Sarah E; Stevens, Kevin J; Venables, Barney J

    2012-07-01

    Constructed wetlands are a potential method for the removal of two pharmaceutical and personal care products from wastewater effluent. Triclosan (TCS; 5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]phenol) and triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanillide) are antimicrobial agents added to a variety of consumer products whose accumulation patterns in constructed wetlands are poorly understood. Here, we report the accumulation of TCS, its metabolite methyl-triclosan (MTCS; 5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]), and TCC in wetland plant tissues and sediments. Three wetland macrophytes: Typha latifolia, Pontederia cordata, and Sagittaria graminea were sampled from a constructed wetland in Denton, Texas, USA. MTCS concentrations were below the method detection limit (MDL) for all species. TCS root tissue concentrations in T. latifolia were significantly greater than root concentrations in P. cordata (mean±SE in ng g(-1): 40.3±11.3 vs. 15.0±1.9, respectively), while for TCC, shoot tissue concentrations in S. graminea were significantly greater than in T. latifolia (22.8±9.3 vs. 9.0 (MDL), respectively). For both TCS and TCC, T. latifolia root tissue concentrations were significantly greater than shoot concentrations (TCS: 40.3±11.3 vs. 17.2±0.2, TCC: 26.0±3.6 vs. 9.0, (MDL)). TCC concentrations in P. cordata roots were significantly greater than in shoots (34.4±5.3 vs. 15.4±2.8, respectively). TCS concentrations in T. latifolia roots and sediments and TCC concentrations in sediments generally decreased from wetland inflow to outflow. To our knowledge, this is the first study documenting species and tissue specific differences in the accumulation of TCS and TCC in plants from an operational constructed wetland. The species specific differences in bioaccumulation suggest TCS and TCC removal from constructed wetlands could be enhanced through targeted plantings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. I.; Mao, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ordovician radiation of marine life was among the most substantial pulses of diversification in Earth history and coincided in time with a major increase in the global level of orogenic activity. To investigate a possible causal link between these two patterns, the geographic distributions of 6576 individual appearances of Ordovician vician genera around the world were evaluated with respect to their proximity to probable centers of orogeny (foreland basins). Results indicate that these genera, which belonged to an array of higher taxa that diversified in the Middle and Late Ordovician (trilobites, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, monoplacophorans), were far more diverse in, and adjacent to, foreland basins than they were in areas farther removed from orogenic activity (carbonate platforms). This suggests an association of orogeny with diversification at that time.

  4. The mitochondrial genome of phoronis architecta--Comparisons demonstrate that phoronids are lophotrochozoan protostomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-31

    The proper reconstruction of the relationships among the animal phyla is central to interpreting patterns of animal evolution from the genomic level to the morphological level. This is true not only of the more speciose phyla, but also of smaller groups. We report here the nearly complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the phoronid Phoronis architecta, which has a gene arrangement remarkably similar to that of a protostome animal, the chiton Katharina tunicata. Evolutionary analysis of both gene arrangements and inferred amino acid sequences of these taxa, along with those of three brachiopods and other diverse animals, strongly supports the hypothesis that lophophorates are part of the large group that includes mollusks and annelids, i.e., the Lophotrochozoa, and solidly refutes the alternative of their being deuterostomes.

  5. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.

  6. The post-Laramide clastic deposits of the Sierra de Guanajuato: Compositional implications on the tectono-sedimentary and paleographic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miranda-Avilés

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the study on sedimentation, sedimentary environments, tectono-sedimentary and paleogeographic evolution of post-Laramide clastic deposits and pre-volcanism of the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Sierra de Guanajuato, central Mexico. The Eocene Duarte Conglomerate and Guanajuato Conglomerate were deposited in the middle and distal parts of alluvial fans. The studied rocks are composed of limestone clasts, granite, andesite, metasediments, diorite, and pyroxenite, indicating the erosion of uplifted blocks of the basal complex of the Sierra de Guanajuato (Arperos basin. The petrographic and compositional analysis of limestone shows a textural variation from basin limestones and shallow platform limestones. The shallow platform limestone contain bivalves, brachiopods, gastropods, echinoderms and benthic foraminifera from the Berriasian-Valanginian. The shallow-water limestone corresponds to the boundary of the Arperos basin whose original outcrops currently not outcrop in the Sierra de Guanajuato.

  7. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, corals and calcareous algae. Daonella pseudograbensis n. sp. is based on very well preserved specimens, which are often articulated and closed, all coming from the same locality. The new species shows a narrow range of intraspecific and ontogenetic morphologic variations. It is easy distinguishable from the other species of the genus for the outline and ornamentation; it therefore differs from D. grabensis Kittl, 1912, the most similar species, for the longer anterior dorsal margin.Pdf

  8. Fine structural and immunocytochemical studies on the eyeless aesthetes of Leptochiton algesirensis, with comparison to Leptochiton cancellatus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, S; Salvenmoser, W; Haszprunar, G

    1997-01-01

    The aesthetes of Leptochiton algesirensis (Capellini, 1859) and Leptochiton cancellatus (Sowerby, 1840) consist of six to eight microaesthetes surrounding one macroaesthete. The monocellular microaesthetes include many microtubules, neurosecretory vesicles, and unperforated, subsidiary caps. Basally they are in contact with tiny nerve processes via probably electrical synapses. Each macroaesthete consists of a perforated apical cap and various cell types: flattened peripheral cells, various types of mucous cells, and three or four monociliary sensory cells. Although lacking photoreceptors, the aesthetes of Leptochiton algesirensis combine storage-secretory and sensory functions. The latter function is confirmed by positive immunoreactions against (neuro-)tubulin and synaptophysine. The high degree of structural and functional similarity between polyplacophoran aesthetes and the analogous caeca of brachiopods is demonstrated.

  9. Late Cenozoic Bryozoa from diamictites of Cape Lamb, Vega Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamonis Susana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bryozoans were found in upper Cenozoic diamictite debris that crops out at the southwestern tip of Cape Lamb, Vega Island. The diamictite is the youngest deposit on the island and richly composed of foraminifers, brachiopods and scallops. The foraminifera assemblage recovered from the Cape Lamb diamictite and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic age obtained from the pectinid Adamussium colbecki in the nearby locality of Terrapin indicates a Pleistocene age for this deposit. The main goal of this contribution is to present a bryozoan assemblage of Microporella stenoporta Hayward et Taylor, Hippothoa flagellum Manzoni, Ellisina antarctica (Kluge, Micropora notialis Hayward et Ryland and an indeterminate crisiid constituting the first record of these bryozoan taxa in Cenozoic diamictites of the Antarctic Peninsula.

  10. Respiratory proteins in Sipunculus nudus--implications for phylogeny and evolution of the hemerythrin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Achim; Lieb, Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    Three major classes of respiratory proteins are known, hemoglobin, molluscan and arthropod hemocyanin, and hemerythrin (Hr). Similar to hemoglobin, respiratory Hr is packed into erythrocytes floating in the coelomic fluid and is only known from sipunculids, brachiopods, and priapulids. Owing to this scattered distribution, the presence of Hr is generally assumed to be the plesiomorphic condition without phylogenetic importance. By sequencing 2000 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Sipunculus nudus, we found 75 Hr-coding ESTs assembled to 20 cDNA contigs classified as four distinct Hr isoforms: three polymeric Hrs (subunit A, A', and B) and the monomeric myo-hemerythrin (myoHr). Phylogenetic analyses revealed a clade of annelid and sipunculan monomeric Hrs, distinct from polymeric Hrs. Monomeric Hrs from annelids and sipunculids can be clustered together using Maximum Likelihood tree-building and network analyses, as well as applying Bayesian methods. Three distinct Hr clusters were found for S. nudus, suggesting a new monomeric Hr isoform.

  11. Impact Theory of Mass Extinctions and the Invertebrate Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Walter; Kauffman, Erle G.; Surlyk, Finn; Alvarez, Luis W.; Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.

    1984-03-01

    There is much evidence that the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was marked by a massive meteorite impact. Theoretical consideration of the consequences of such an impact predicts sharp extinctions in many groups of animals precisely at the boundary. Paleontological data clearly show gradual declines in diversity over the last 1 to 10 million years in various invertebrate groups. Reexamination of data from careful studies of the best sections shows that, in addition to undergoing the decline, four groups (ammonites, cheilostomate bryozoans, brachiopods, and bivalves) were affected by sudden truncations precisely at the iridium anomaly that marks the boundary. The paleontological record thus bears witness to terminal-Cretaceous extinctions on two time scales: a slow decline unrelated to the impact and a sharp truncation synchronous with and probably caused by the impact.

  12. Middle to Late Ordovician faunal studies from central Australia and Tasmania during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube

    A profound transformation of the marine biosphere took place during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), recognized as the longest interval of sustained biodiversification in the history of life. Successions through the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin in...... environments are rather dissimilar the study indicates that GOBE is not particularly well-expressed in the Middle Ordovician in Australia - at least not at a local scale.......A profound transformation of the marine biosphere took place during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), recognized as the longest interval of sustained biodiversification in the history of life. Successions through the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin......, but the preservation and low number of specimens prevent formal definition of additional new taxa. Although highly endemic at species level, the investigated brachiopod, trilobite and mollusc faunas display a high degree of overall similarity at generic level with Middle Ordovician faunas from North China. Other...

  13. The post-Laramide clastic deposits of the Sierra de Guanajuato: Compositional implications on the tectono-sedimentary and paleographic evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda-Aviles, R.; Puy-Alquiza, M.J.; OmaNa, L.; Loza-Aguirre, I.

    2016-07-01

    This article presents the results of the study on sedimentation, sedimentary environments, tectono-sedimentary and paleogeographic evolution of post-Laramide clastic deposits and pre-volcanism of the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Sierra de Guanajuato, central Mexico. The Eocene Duarte Conglomerate and Guanajuato Conglomerate were deposited in the middle and distal parts of alluvial fans. The studied rocks are composed of limestone clasts, granite, andesite, metasediments, diorite, and pyroxenite, indicating the erosion of uplifted blocks of the basal complex of the Sierra de Guanajuato (Arperos basin). The petrographic and compositional analysis of limestone shows a textural variation from basin limestones and shallow platform limestones. The shallow platform limestone contain bivalves, brachiopods, gastropods, echinoderms and benthic foraminifera from the Berriasian-Valanginian. The shallow-water limestone corresponds to the boundary of the Arperos basin whose original outcrops currently not outcrop in the Sierra de Guanajuato. (Author)

  14. Testing the role of competition in fossil communities using limiting similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoyian, Casey S.; Leighton, Lindsey R.; Kaplan, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Study of interspecific competition in the fossil record is problematic, but morphological information can provide evidence for such interactions. Ecological theory predicts a limit to morphological similarity among competing species, ideally manifested as a constant (Hutchinsonian) ratio of mean sizes among successive pairs of competing species. However, this pattern breaks down in many modern ecological systems because the effects of competition are mitigated by nonequilibrium factors such as predation and spatial heterogeneity. To test whether a consistent limit to similarity exists in a competition-dominated system, we analyzed the morphology of four coexisting brachiopod species in an Ordovician paleoenvironment in which nonequilibrium factors were negligible. Analysis of feeding-structure lengths using probabilistic models demonstrates that (1) ratios between means of successive species are unexpectedly constant (p interspecific competition. Demonstration of limiting similarity in this ancient community suggests that similar approaches could be used to assess the relative influence of interspecific competition on community diversity and structure through deep time.

  15. Thecamoebians (Testate Amoebae) Straddling the Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Guryul Ravine Section, India: Evolutionary and Palaeoecological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vartika; Pandita, Sundeep K; Tewari, Rajni; van Hengstum, Peter J; Pillai, Suresh S K; Agnihotri, Deepa; Kumar, Kamlesh; Bhat, G D

    2015-01-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved organic remains of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) were preserved in marine sediments that straddle the greatest extinction event in the Phanerozoic: the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Outcrops from the Late Permian Zewan Formation and the Early Triassic Khunamuh Formation are represented by a complete sedimentary sequence at the Guryul Ravine Section in Kashmir, India, which is an archetypal Permian-Triassic boundary sequence. Previous biostratigraphic analysis provides chronological control for the section, and a perspective of faunal turnover in the brachiopods, ammonoids, bivalves, conodonts, gastropods and foraminifera. Thecamoebians were concentrated from bulk sediments using palynological procedures, which isolated the organic constituents of preserved thecamoebian tests. The recovered individuals demonstrate exceptional similarity to the modern thecamoebian families Centropyxidae, Arcellidae, Hyalospheniidae and Trigonopyxidae, however, the vast majority belong to the Centropyxidae. This study further confirms the morphologic stability of the thecamoebian lineages through the Phanerozoic, and most importantly, their apparent little response to an infamous biological crisis in Earth's history.

  16. Marine macrofossil communities in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Surlyk, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Three successive marine habitats and their benthic macrofossil communities have been recognised and assessed in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. The mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member was deposited below the photic zone under the influence of persistent, non-erosive bo......Three successive marine habitats and their benthic macrofossil communities have been recognised and assessed in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. The mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member was deposited below the photic zone under the influence of persistent, non...... fauna of bivalves, echinoids, polychaetes, gastropods and brachiopods. Attached forms were dependent on hard, mainly small substrates provided largely by dead bryozoans, and on a steady nutrient supply. The bivalve fauna is richer and occurs in slightly higher densities in the Højerup Member than...

  17. The Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation fossil assemblage and the evolution of modern Antarctic marine communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Rowan J.; Quaglio, Fernanda; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Crame, J. Alistair

    2014-01-01

    The fossil community from the Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation (King George Island, Antarctica) does not show the archaic retrograde nature of modern Antarctic marine communities, despite evidence, such as the presence of dropstones, diamictites and striated rocks, that it was deposited in a glacial environment. Unlike modern Antarctic settings, and the upper units of the Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctica, which are 10 million years older, the Cape Melville Formation community is not dominated by sessile suspension feeding ophiuroids, crinoids or brachiopods. Instead, it is dominated by infaunal bivalves, with a significant component of decapods, similar to present day South American settings. It is possible that the archaic retrograde structure of the modern community did not fully evolve until relatively recently, maybe due to factors such as further cooling and isolation of the continent leading to glaciations, which resulted in a loss of shallow shelf habitats.

  18. CO2-forced climate and vegetation instability during Late Paleozoic deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez, Isabel P; Tabor, Neil J; Niemeier, Deb; Dimichele, William A; Frank, Tracy D; Fielding, Christopher R; Isbell, John L; Birgenheier, Lauren P; Rygel, Michael C

    2007-01-05

    The late Paleozoic deglaciation is the vegetated Earth's only recorded icehouse-to-greenhouse transition, yet the climate dynamics remain enigmatic. By using the stable isotopic compositions of soil-formed minerals, fossil-plant matter, and shallow-water brachiopods, we estimated atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and tropical marine surface temperatures during this climate transition. Comparison to southern Gondwanan glacial records documents covariance between inferred shifts in pCO2, temperature, and ice volume consistent with greenhouse gas forcing of climate. Major restructuring of paleotropical flora in western Euramerica occurred in step with climate and pCO2 shifts, illustrating the biotic impact associated with past CO2-forced turnover to a permanent ice-free world.

  19. The highest-latitude Foliomena Fauna (Upper Ordovician, Portugal) and its palaeogeographical and palaeoecological significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmenar Lallena, Jorge; Pereira, Sofia; Sá, Artur Abreu

    2017-01-01

    Here we report and describe for the first time the Foliomena Fauna fossil record from Portugal (Kralodvorian, upper Katian). This deep-water brachiopod association originates from the uppermost beds of the Porto de Santa Anna Formation (uppermost Katian), cropping out in several localities...... of the youngest. In the analyses carried out, the two Portuguese associations are grouped together with the other peri-Gondwanan associations (Sardinia and Carnic Alps) and are included within a major grouping including associations previously interpreted as inhabiting deep-water environments and also...... predominantly late Katian in age. According to these results, the association of Locality 2 may have inhabited a slightly deeper environment than the one present in Locality 3. This agrees with the presence in the former of a greater number of deep-water genera. Despite of the occurrence of a great number...

  20. Lophotrochozoan mitochondrial genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valles, Yvonne; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-10-01

    Progress in both molecular techniques and phylogeneticmethods has challenged many of the interpretations of traditionaltaxonomy. One example is in the recognition of the animal superphylumLophotrochozoa (annelids, mollusks, echiurans, platyhelminthes,brachiopods, and other phyla), although the relationships within thisgroup and the inclusion of some phyla remain uncertain. While much ofthis progress in phylogenetic reconstruction has been based on comparingsingle gene sequences, we are beginning to see the potential of comparinglarge-scale features of genomes, such as the relative order of genes.Even though tremendous progress is being made on the sequencedetermination of whole nuclear genomes, the dataset of choice forgenome-level characters for many animals across a broad taxonomic rangeremains mitochondrial genomes. We review here what is known aboutmitochondrial genomes of the lophotrochozoans and discuss the promisethat this dataset will enable insight into theirrelationships.

  1. Lophotrochozoan relationships and parasites. A snap-shot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleidorn C.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lophotrochozoa has been consistently recovered in molecular phylogenetic analyses using different markers. Current knowledge of lophotrochozoan relationships is reviewed and the place that parasites occupy in this phylogeny is discussed. Two major taxa are identified within Lophotrochozoa: Platyzoa and Trochozoa. Monophyly of both taxa is still under debate. Relationships within Trochozoa remain largely unclear, however, there is strong evidence that the so called “minor phyla” Sipuncula, Echiura, and Myzostomida are all nested within annelids. Monophyly of the former “Lophophorata” is rejected, and a close relationship between phoronids and brachiopods, as well as between bryozoans and kamptozoans is suggested instead. The movement of the field of systematics into the genomic era will greatly improve our knowledge in the near future.

  2. Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Joachimski, Michael M.; Korn, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    diagenetically resistant apatite of conodonts and low-Mg calcite of brachiopods from stratigraphically well-constrained Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary successions in northwestern Iran. A new evaluation is made for previously published conodont δ18O values from South China and revised palaeotemperatures...... to over 35°C. The results are consistent with re-calculated SSTs of the South Chinese sections. Warming was associated with an enhanced hydrological cycle involving increased tropical precipitation and monsoonal activity in the Tethys Sea. Global warming, intensification of the hydrological cycle...... are presented together with new data from Wuchiapingian to Griesbachian sections in Iran. δ18O data from P-Tr sections in Iran document tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) of 27-33°C during the Changhsingian with a negative shift in δ18O starting at the extinction horizon, translating into a warming of SSTs...

  3. Lower Silurian biostratigraphy of the Viirelaid core, western Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of five groups of fossils in the upper Llandovery (Telychian and Wenlock of the Viirelaid core section, Estonia, is presented and discussed in terms of their biozones (conodonts and chitinozoans and mutual positions (scolecodonts, ostracods, and brachiopods. Graphical correlation of the Viirelaid and Paatsalu sections shows a stronger linear correlation for zonal conodonts than for chitinozoans and scolecodonts. In the given case, this is caused by different nature of zones: chitinozoan zones are based on appearances and/or disappearances of ordinal taxa whereas conodont zonation corresponds, as a rule, to evolutionary succeeding species in the Pterospathodus lineage. At the same time, the positions of chitinozoan zones in the Viirelaid, Ruhnu, Aizpute, and Paatsalu cores are oscillating with respect to conodont zones.

  4. The benthic fauna from the lower Maastrichtian chalk of Kronsmoor (Saturn quarry, northern Germany): composition and palaeoecologic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, Julia; Linnert, Christian; Mutterlose, Jörg; Wilmsen, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The Saturn quarry near Kronsmoor (northern Germany) offers an undisturbed section of upper Campanian to lower Maastrichtian chalks. The target interval of the DFG project "Biodiversity and plankton-benthos coupling: an integrated ecosystem analysis from the Late Cretaceous Chalk" is focused on the lower Maastrichtian Belemnella obtusa Zone to mid-Belemnella sumensis Zone, i.e. to the uppermost Kronsmoor and lowermost Hemmoor formations. In this interval, a conspicuous increase in macrofossil abundance without apparent lithofacies changes has been observed and the project intends to integrate planktic, benthic and geochemical proxies for a comprehensive understanding of the Chalk Sea ecosystem. The aim of this study is the analysis of the benthic community. In a first step, the benthic body fossils of the c. 25-m-thick section were semi-quantitatively studied based on a collection of more than 1,000 specimens. Two successive benthic macrofossil assemblages were recognised: the lower interval (upper part of the Kronsmoor Formation, B. obtusa Zone) is characterized by low abundances, only about 100 macroinvertebrates were collected, mostly irregular and regular echinoids, brachiopods and crinoids. The upper interval (B. sumensis Zone) shows an eight times higher macroinvertebrate abundance and a conspicuous dominance of brachiopods, increasing from only 30 to over 500 specimens. In order to quantify the observed qualitative palaeoecological changes, 33 bulk samples of about 6 kg each were retrieved in a distance of c. 0.75 m. The bulk samples were frozen and thawed, washed and sieved in different sizes. The fraction 500 μm-1 mm and >1 mm were picked, sorted and counted. A diverse assemblage of bryozoans, foraminifers, shell fragments of brachiopods and bivalves, spines and test fragments of different echinoid taxa, parts of asteroids and ophiuroids, sponge debris, crinoids and small serpulids, is present. Reduced abundances in the lower part and generally higher

  5. Sr Isotopes at the Onset of the Ice Ages at the Northern Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Rita; Lazar, Boaz; Angiolini, Lucia; Crippa, Gaia; Stein, Mordechai

    2017-04-01

    Sr isotopes can be used to constrain the marine Sr budget. The temporal variations in the 87Sr/86Sr ratios (radiogenic Sr) have been reconstructed over the past few decades based on marine macro and micro fossils data (e.g. brachiopods and foraminifera). It is used to constrain the sources and amounts of strontium that dictate the temporal variations in oceanic Sr throughout the Phanerozoic. On the other hand, the study of processes controlling the composition stable Sr isotopes (δ88/86Sr) is very new and only limited research was conducted on this topic during the past few years. Up to date, no δ88/86Sr data are available for considerable parts of Earth's history and the contribution of the potential Sr sources to the oceans is poorly constrained. Here, we set to examine the behavior of radiogenic and stable Sr isotopes in the marine environment of the northern Apennines (Italy) during the time interval of the late Pliocene to early-Middle Pleistocene - upon the onset of ice ages in the northern latitudes. We collected fossil mollusks from outcrops of the Arda and Stirone Rivers that are rich in bivalves, brachiopods, foraminifera (that were used for establishing the chronostratigraphy of the sections) and other genera. Ecological and sedimentological analysis of the section suggest a normal marine environment of depth range of several tens of meters that existed on the southern flanks of the large Po embayment. In order to evaluate the potential of the fossil assemblages in the Arda and Stirone sections to serve as reliable recorders of the marine δ88/86Sr of seawater during the desired period, we examined mineralogical and chemical properties of the fossils (e.g. distribution of trace elements like Sr and Mg in the skeletons, microstructures like secondary fillings of punctate shells in brachiopod) and measured the 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Among the species analyzed, Aequipecten opercularis (bivalve) and Glycymeris inflata (bivalve) have aragonite skeletons that

  6. Climate change and trophic response of the Antarctic bottom fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Richard B; Moody, Ryan M; Ivany, Linda C; Blake, Daniel B; Werner, John E; Glass, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    As Earth warms, temperate and subpolar marine species will increasingly shift their geographic ranges poleward. The endemic shelf fauna of Antarctica is especially vulnerable to climate-mediated biological invasions because cold temperatures currently exclude the durophagous (shell-breaking) predators that structure shallow-benthic communities elsewhere. We used the Eocene fossil record from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, to project specifically how global warming will reorganize the nearshore benthos of Antarctica. A long-term cooling trend, which began with a sharp temperature drop approximately 41 Ma (million years ago), eliminated durophagous predators-teleosts (modern bony fish), decapod crustaceans (crabs and lobsters) and almost all neoselachian elasmobranchs (modern sharks and rays)-from Antarctic nearshore waters after the Eocene. Even prior to those extinctions, durophagous predators became less active as coastal sea temperatures declined from 41 Ma to the end of the Eocene, approximately 33.5 Ma. In response, dense populations of suspension-feeding ophiuroids and crinoids abruptly appeared. Dense aggregations of brachiopods transcended the cooling event with no apparent change in predation pressure, nor were there changes in the frequency of shell-drilling predation on venerid bivalves. Rapid warming in the Southern Ocean is now removing the physiological barriers to shell-breaking predators, and crabs are returning to the Antarctic Peninsula. Over the coming decades to centuries, we predict a rapid reversal of the Eocene trends. Increasing predation will reduce or eliminate extant dense populations of suspension-feeding echinoderms from nearshore habitats along the Peninsula while brachiopods will continue to form large populations, and the intensity of shell-drilling predation on infaunal bivalves will not change appreciably. In time the ecological effects of global warming could spread to other portions of the Antarctic coast. The differential

  7. Stratigraphic and biofacies patterns in the Middle Pennsylvanian Magoffin Marine Unit in the Appalachian Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennington, J.B. [Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1996-11-01

    The Magoffin marine unit is a Middle Pennsylvanian age interval of marine strata that directly overlies the Taylor, Copeland, and correlative coal zones in the Appalachian Basin. For this study the Magoffin was measured, described, and sampled at 17 localities along a northeast to southwest transect in the center of the Middle Pennsylvanian outcrop belt in eastern Kentucky and West Virginia. Throughout the study area the base of the Magoffin is characterized by a thin, dark, highly fossiliferous limestone with a brachiopod-dominated fossil assemblage. The limestone base is usually overlain by a firing-upward sequence consisting of fossiliferous dark shales or mudstone with mollusk-dominated assemblages. These dark mudstones include a fissile black shale with a distinctive {ital Posidonia} fauna deposited over part of the study area. The lower, fining sequence is overlain by a thicker, coarsening sequence bearing brachiopod-dominated fossil assemblages. The lower beds of the Magoffin, particularly the basal limestone, are persistent and relatively uniform throughout the study area. In contrast, strata in the upper part of the Magoffin sequence show a high degree of geographic variability, with localities in the southwestern half of the study area showing two successive, thick, coarsening-upward sequences of strata, while those to the northeast record a single thinner coarsening-upward sequence. The widespread, uniform nature of the basal Magoffin limestone appears to indicate rapid transgressive flooding of the coal-swamp and associated environments accompanied by a hiatus in clastic influx into the Magoffin seaway. The onset of regression is indicated by the reverse of the stratigraphic sequence of faunas observed during transgression, and by the return of rapid clastic influx into the basin. 48 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Climate change and trophic response of the Antarctic bottom fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Aronson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As Earth warms, temperate and subpolar marine species will increasingly shift their geographic ranges poleward. The endemic shelf fauna of Antarctica is especially vulnerable to climate-mediated biological invasions because cold temperatures currently exclude the durophagous (shell-breaking predators that structure shallow-benthic communities elsewhere. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the Eocene fossil record from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, to project specifically how global warming will reorganize the nearshore benthos of Antarctica. A long-term cooling trend, which began with a sharp temperature drop approximately 41 Ma (million years ago, eliminated durophagous predators-teleosts (modern bony fish, decapod crustaceans (crabs and lobsters and almost all neoselachian elasmobranchs (modern sharks and rays-from Antarctic nearshore waters after the Eocene. Even prior to those extinctions, durophagous predators became less active as coastal sea temperatures declined from 41 Ma to the end of the Eocene, approximately 33.5 Ma. In response, dense populations of suspension-feeding ophiuroids and crinoids abruptly appeared. Dense aggregations of brachiopods transcended the cooling event with no apparent change in predation pressure, nor were there changes in the frequency of shell-drilling predation on venerid bivalves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rapid warming in the Southern Ocean is now removing the physiological barriers to shell-breaking predators, and crabs are returning to the Antarctic Peninsula. Over the coming decades to centuries, we predict a rapid reversal of the Eocene trends. Increasing predation will reduce or eliminate extant dense populations of suspension-feeding echinoderms from nearshore habitats along the Peninsula while brachiopods will continue to form large populations, and the intensity of shell-drilling predation on infaunal bivalves will not change appreciably. In time the ecological effects of

  9. Combined Analysis of Extant Rhynchonellida (Brachiopoda) Using Morphological and Molecular Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapst, David W; Schreiber, Holly A; Carlson, Sandra J

    2017-05-08

    Independent molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses have often produced discordant results for certain groups which, for fossil-rich groups, raises the possibility that morphological data might mislead in those groups for which we depend upon morphology the most. Rhynchonellide brachiopods, with more than 500 extinct genera but only 19 extant genera represented today, provide an opportunity to explore the factors that produce contentious phylogenetic signal across datasets, as previous phylogenetic hypotheses generated from molecular sequence data bear little agreement with those constructed using morphological characters. Using a revised matrix of 66 morphological characters, and published ribosomal DNA sequences, we performed a series of combined phylogenetic analyses to identify conflicting phylogenetic signals. We completed a series of parsimony-based and Bayesian analyses, varying the data used, the taxa included, and the models used in the Bayesian analyses. We also performed simulation-based sensitivity analyses to assess whether the small size of the morphological data partition relative to the molecular data influenced the results of the combined analyses. In order to compare and contrast a large number of phylogenetic analyses and their resulting summary trees, we developed a measure for the incongruence between two topologies, and simultaneously ignore any differences in phylogenetic resolution. Phylogenetic hypotheses generated using only morphological characters differed amongst each other, and with previous analyses, while molecular-only and combined Bayesian analyses produced extremely similar topologies. Characters historically associated with traditional classification in the Rhynchonellida have very low consistency indices on the topology preferred by the combined Bayesian analyses. Overall, this casts doubt on the use of morphological systematics to resolve relationships among the crown rhynchonellide brachiopods. However, expanding our

  10. A phylogenomic profile of hemerythrins, the nonheme diiron binding respiratory proteins

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    Mizuguchi Kenji

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemerythrins, are the non-heme, diiron binding respiratory proteins of brachiopods, priapulids and sipunculans; they are also found in annelids and bacteria, where their functions have not been fully elucidated. Results A search for putative Hrs in the genomes of 43 archaea, 444 bacteria and 135 eukaryotes, revealed their presence in 3 archaea, 118 bacteria, several fungi, one apicomplexan, a heterolobosan, a cnidarian and several annelids. About a fourth of the Hr sequences were identified as N- or C-terminal domains of chimeric, chemotactic gene regulators. The function of the remaining single domain bacterial Hrs remains to be determined. In addition to oxygen transport, the possible functions in annelids have been proposed to include cadmium-binding, antibacterial action and immunoprotection. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree revealed a split into two clades, one encompassing archaea, bacteria and fungi, and the other comprising the remaining eukaryotes. The annelid and sipunculan Hrs share the same intron-exon structure, different from that of the cnidarian Hr. Conclusion The phylogenomic profile of Hrs demonstrated a limited occurrence in bacteria and archaea and a marked absence in the vast majority of multicellular organisms. Among the metazoa, Hrs have survived in a cnidarian and in a few protostome groups; hence, it appears that in metazoans the Hr gene was lost in deuterostome ancestor(s after the radiata/bilateria split. Signal peptide sequences in several Hirudinea Hrs suggest for the first time, the possibility of extracellular localization. Since the α-helical bundle is likely to have been among the earliest protein folds, Hrs represent an ancient family of iron-binding proteins, whose primary function in bacteria may have been that of an oxygen sensor, enabling aerophilic or aerophobic responses. Although Hrs evolved to function as O2 transporters in brachiopods, priapulids and sipunculans, their function in

  11. Hirnantian (latest Ordovician bio- and chemostratigraphy of the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia

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    Hints, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated study of the uppermost Ordovician Porkuni Stage in the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia, has revealed one of the most complete Hirnantian successions in the eastern Baltic region. The interval is characterized by two shallowing upwards depositional sequences that correspond to the Kuldiga and Saldus formations. The whole-rock carbon stable isotope curve indicates a long rising segment of the Hirnantian carbon isotope excursion, with the highest peak in the upper part of the Kuldiga Formation. The bioclast carbon and oxygen curves fit well with the whole-rock carbon data. Micro- and macrofossil data enabled seven combined associations to be distinguished within the Hirnantian strata. The early Porkuni fauna of the Spinachitina taugourdeaui Biozone, with pre-Hirnantian affinities, is succeeded by an interval with a Hindella–Cliftonia brachiopod association, a specific polychaete fauna, the chitinozoan Conochitina scabra, and the conodont Noixodontus girardeauensis. The middle part of the Kuldiga Formation is characterized by a low-diversity Dalmanella testudinaria brachiopod association, high diversity of scolecodonts, and the occurrence of the chitinozoan Lagenochitina prussica. From the middle part of the Kuldiga Formation the youngest occurrence yet known of the conodont Amorphognathus ordovicicus is reported. Also typical of the Kuldiga Formation is the occurrence of the trilobite Mucronaspis mucronata. The uppermost Hirnantian Saldus Formation contains no shelly fauna, but yields redeposited conodonts and at least partly indigenous chitinozoans and scolecodonts. Palaeontological criteria and stable isotope data enable correlation of the Stirnas section with other Hirnantian successions in the Baltic region and elsewhere.

  12. Proposed Auxiliary Boundary Stratigraphic Section and Point (ASSP) for the base of the Ordovician System at Lawson Cove, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James F.; Evans, Kevin R.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Freeman, Rebecca; Loch, James D.; Repetski, John E.; Ripperdan, Robert; Taylor, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Ordovician System is at the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Iapetognathus fluctivagus at Green Point in Newfoundland, Canada. Strata there are typical graptolitic facies that were deposited near the base of the continental slope.We propose establishing an Auxiliary boundary Stratotype Section and Point (ASSP) at the FAD of I. fluctivagus at the Lawson Cove section in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. There, strata consist of typical shelly facies limestones that were deposited on a tropical carbonate platform and contain abundant conodonts, trilobites, brachiopods, and other fossil groups. Cambrian and Ordovician strata in this area are ~5300m thick, with the Lawson Cove section spanning 243m in three overlapping segments. Six other measured and studied sections in the area show stratigraphic relationships similar to those at Lawson Cove. Faunas have been used to divide these strata into 14 conodont and 7 trilobite zonal units. The widespread olenid trilobite Jujuyaspis occurs ~90cm above the proposed boundary at Lawson Cove; this genus is generally regarded as earliest Ordovician. Rhynchonelliform and linguliform brachiopods are common to abundant and are useful for correlation. The FAD of Iapetognathus fluctivagus and occurrences of Jujuyaspis and the Lower Ordovician planktonic graptolite Anisograptus matanensis all occur within a 2.4m interval of strata at a nearby section. Non-biological correlation tools include a detailed sequence stratigraphic classification and a detailed carbon-isotope profile. Especially useful for correlation is a positive 13C excursion peak ~15cm below the proposed boundary horizon. All of these correlation tools form an integrated framework that makes the Lawson Cove section especially useful as an ASSP for global correlation of strata with faunas typical of shallow, warm-water, shelly facies.

  13. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo

    2012-04-15

    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha}, IL-8, IL-1{beta} and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING LINDEN TREE LEAVES AS NATURAL TRAPS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION: A PILOT STUDY IN TRANSILVANIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHÁLY BRAUN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution caused by toxic elements is an emerging problem of concern. Tree leaves have been widely used as indicator of atmospheric pollutions and they are effective alternatives to the moreusual biomonitoring methods. Tree leaves can be used as natural traps of atmospheric deposition. Elemental composition of dust deposited onto leaf surfaces can be used to characterize the urban environment. A pilot survey including 16 Romanian settlements was carried out in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air pollutants. Tree leaves (Tilia tomentosa, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos were collected and used for the measurements. Elemental analyses were carried out by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Principal component and discriminant analyses were used to characterizing and estimating the level of pollution. Settlements were grouped on the basis of discriminant function values. Multivariate comparison of chemical data ordered the settlements into 3 main groups, which showed a systematic geographic distribution.

  15. SAMITAL®: a new botanical drug for the treatment of mucositis induced by oncological therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morazzoni, Paolo; Petrangolini, Giovanna; Bombardelli, Ezio; Ronchi, Massimo; Cabri, Walter; Riva, Antonella

    2013-11-01

    SAMITAL(®) (Indena SpA, Milan, Italy) is a new multicomponent and multiacting botanical formulation rationally designed for the relief of oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in oncological patients. Each of the individual botanical constituents of SAMITAL-standardized extracts of Vaccinium myrtillus, Macleaya cordata and Echinacea angustifolia have a long history of clinical use that corroborates their safety and activity in SAMITAL. A number of pilot trials in oncological patients demonstrated that SAMITAL has good clinical efficacy and tolerability as evidenced by its significant effects in terms of reduction of mucositis, pain and a general improvement in patient quality of life. Importantly, the use of this botanical formulation had the added benefit that patients were able to complete their chemotherapy/radiotherapy regimen. Phase II trials with SAMITAL as part of an overall clinical development program are currently ongoing in Italy and are planned in the USA.

  16. Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Surassmo, Suvimol; Nukoolkarn, Veena S; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2007-09-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the activity of Thai medicinal plants on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes in terms of free radical scavenging and cytokine reducing properties. P. acnes have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH scavenging and NBT reduction assay. The result showed that Garcinia mangostana possessed the most significant antioxidant activity and reduced reactive oxygen species production. Houttuynia cordata, Eupatorium odoratum, and Senna alata had a moderate antioxidant effect. In addition, Garcinia mangostana extracts could reduce the TNF-alpha production as determined by ELISA. Garcinia mangostana was highly effective in scavenging free radicals and was able to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study has identified the promising source of anti-inflammatory agent which could be useful in treatment of acne vulgaris.

  17. Oxalate contents of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, James; Huang, Chris; Liebman, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To assess the total and soluble oxalate contents of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. Twenty-two Chinese medicinal herbs were extracted in both acid and water prior to determination of total and soluble oxalate, respectively. Oxalate was assayed in herbal extracts using a well-established enzymatic procedure. Among the 22 medicinal herbs, there was significant variation in oxalate content; Houttuynia cordata contained the highest amount of soluble oxalate (2146 mg/100 g) and Selaginella doederleinii contained the lowest amount (71 mg/ 100 g). The results indicated that different Chinese medicinal herbs, even from the same family, contain significantly different amounts of oxalate. In susceptible individuals, the use of medicinal herbs with the highest oxalate contents could increase risk of kidney stone formation.

  18. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (pherb additives revealled lower (pherbs can improve growth performance, and prevent diarrhea incidence in pigs, it can also increase LMA in finishing pigs. PMID:25049522

  19. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

  20. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  1. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  2. Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Beverly S; Sharitz, Rebecca R; Coughlin, Daniel P

    2005-05-01

    Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands in each system contained Myriophyllum aquaticum and Nymphaea odorata; shallow wetlands contained Juncus effusus and Pontederia cordata. Shoot elemental concentrations differed between plants of deep and shallow wetlands, with higher Zn, Al, and Fe concentrations in plants in shallow wetlands and higher Na, Mn, and P concentrations in plants in deep wetlands. Root and shoot concentrations of most elements differed between species in each wetland type. Over two seasons, these four common wetland plants did help remediate acidic, metal-contaminated runoff from a coal storage pile.

  3. Distribution and abundance of larval Coquillettidia perturbans in a Florida freshwater marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C D; Callahan, J L; Lewis, R H

    1990-09-01

    All instars of larval Coquillettidia perturbans were found in the same habitats, but early instar larvae were more aggregated than later instars. Larvae were most numerous in areas dominated by arrow-arum (Peltandra virginica) and maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), less so in areas dominated by sedges (Carex spp.) and miscellaneous mixed vegetation, and least abundant in pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata) areas. Larvae were uncommon in open water or in areas dominated by small floating plants such as water fern (Salvinia rotundifolia), duckweekd (Lemna minor) and mosquito fern (Azolla caroliniana). Larval concentrations were greatest in water 35-70 cm deep. There was also a tendency for them to concentrate in areas beyond 25 m from shore. Larvae were log-normally distributed in favorable sites and became progressively more aggregated as sites became less favorable.

  4. Communities of tree vegetation and wood-destroying fungi in parks of the Kyiv city, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkova Olena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selected forestry parameters were investigated in the system of tree vegetation and wood-destroying fungi in parks of the Kyiv city along a gradient of recreational transformation. We investigated vitality, age structure and health conditions of woody plants (Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Carpinus betulus L., Frangula alnus Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Q. rubra L., Sambucus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., and species, systematic, trophic and spatial compositions of xylotrophic fungi (27 species of xylotrophs representing 22 genera, 16 families, 6 orders of divisions Basidiomycota; class Agaricomycetes. The results showed that the communities of tree vegetation and xylotrophic fungi in parks depend on the degree of recreational transformation of the environment. Vitality, age structure and health conditions of trees altered species composition of xylotrophs.

  5. In vitro effects of Thai medicinal plants on human lymphocyte activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Chavalittumrong

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of Cleistocalyx nervosum var paniala, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Gynura procumbens, Houttuynia cordata, Hyptis suaveolens, Portulaca grandiflora, Phytolacca americana and Tradescantia spathacea on lymphocyte proliferation and the effects of C. nervosum, G. pentaphyllum, H. suaveolens and P. grandiflora on natural killer (NK cells activity. All of the extracts significantly stimulated human lymphocyte proliferative responses at various concentrations depending on each extract. The extracts of C. nervosum and H. suaveolens were significantly enhanced NK cells activity while those of G. pentaphyllum and P. grandiflora did not alter NK cells function. Our results suggested that the extracts of those plants have stimulating activity on human lymphocytes and could be clinically useful for modulating immune functions of the body.

  6. Compostos voláteis em méis florais Volatile compounds in floral honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A review about origin, composition and importance of volatile compounds in floral honeys is presented. Hydrocarbons, aromatic components, acids, diacids, terpenoids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and alcohols have been found in honey aroma of different botanical origin. Cis-rose oxide has been proposed as an indicator for Tilia cordata honey. Citrus honeys are known to contain methyl anthranilate, a compound which other honeys virtually lack. Linalool, phenylethylalcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde and benzaldehyde are important contributors for the aroma of different unifloral honeys. Both isovaleric acid, gama-decalactone and benzoic acid appears to be important odourants for Anarcadium occidentale and Croton sp. honeys from Brazil. The furfurylmercaptan, benzyl alcohol, delta-octalactone, eugenol, phenylethylalcohol and guaiacol appear to be only relevant compounds for Anarcadium occidentale. The vanillin was considered an important odourant only for Croton sp..

  7. Lapuočių miškų sezoninė dinamika Kamšos botaniniame - zoologiniame draustinyje

    OpenAIRE

    Abraitienė, Jolita

    2007-01-01

    Darbo tikslas: nustatyti lapuočių miškų augalų kitimą vegetacijos sezono metu botaniniame – zoologiniame Kamšos draustinyje. Darbo objektas: Kamšos botaninis – zoologinis draustinis, esantis prie Kauno miesto ir apimantis 321 ha. plotą. Kamšos botaninis – zoologinis draustinis botaniniu požiūriu ypatingas. Čia vyrauja lapuočiai, sudarydami mišrius Tilia cordata, Carpinus betulus, Populus tremula, kai kur Quercus robur. Žolinei augalijai būdinga didelė rūšių įvairovė. Dažniausiai sutinkamos...

  8. Structural analysis of lime wood biodegraded by white rot fungi through infrared and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Gradinariu, Petronela; Popescu, Maria-Cristina

    2016-11-01

    The action of the white rot fungi Phanerochaete crisosporium on the structure of lime wood (Tilia cordata) has been studied. The degree of decay was determined by weight loss, which was of 37% after 110 days. The samples were further analyzed by infrared and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy. The recorded spectra for different intervals of decay indicate variations in the intensities and width or wavenumber shifts of the bands assigned, both, for lignin and carbohydrates. An increase in the intensities of the bands from the carbonyl region due to formation of new structures, accompanied by the reduction of the methoxyl and methyl/methylene groups in lignin was evidenced. Further, the differences between reference and decayed wood spectra were examined in detail using 2DCOS spectroscopy and the second derivative analysis and the sequential order of modifications were established.

  9. Aspecte privind diversitatea şi succesiunea în ecosisteme forestiere marginale (Dealul Radu din Obcinele Bucovinei [Aspects regarding the diversity and succesion in marginal ecosystems (Dealul Radu from the North of Eastern Carpathians

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    Cenușă R

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is performed in marginal ecosystems from the Northern part of Eastern Carpathians. Aim of the study was sustained by some reasons: (i the presence of Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus betulus and Tilia cordata in an area where these are not typicaly; (ii favorable ecological conditions which have promoted the conservation of, after glacial age species (Carpinus betulus. The evaluation of the main characteristics regarding the diversity was performed using specific indices and the study of the succesion included assertions regarding geology and soil, insolation and from hystorical books related to the study area. Relationship between diversity and succesion suggest the presence of the initial stages, sustained by some characteristic species: Crategus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Malus sylvestris etc. Some future possible pathways of succesion, function of the land use, are presented.

  10. Diversidade Palinológica das Convolvulaceae do Parque Nacional do Catimbau, Buíque, PE, Brasil Pollen diversity of Convolvulaceae at Catimbau National Park, Buíque, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Maria Teresa Aureliano Buril Vital

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram registradas quatorze espécies de Convolvulaceae no Parque Nacional do Catimbau. Com base na morfologia polínica, os táxons foram subdivididos em dois grupos: Psiloconiae - Evolvulus elegans Moric, E. frankenioides Moric, E. glomeratus Choisy, E. linarioides Meisn, Jacquemontia densiflora Hallier, J. montana Meisn, Jacquemontia sp. e Merremia cissoides Hallier, e Echinoconieae - Ipomoea bahiensis Willd., I. brasiliana (Choisy Meissn, I. pintoi O'Donnel, I. rosea Choisy, I. subincana Meisn e Turbina cordata (Choisy Austin & Staples. As espécies de Evolvulus são diferenciadas por diâmetro dos grãos de pólen e espessura da exina. Jacquemontia mostrou dois tipos polínicos - pantocolpado e tricolpado. Em Merremia cissoides, os grãos de pólen são tricolpados e as columelas são ramificadas. Ipomoea e Turbina têm grãos de pólen espinhosos. Entretanto, apenas em Ipomoea os espinhos apresentam base bulbar. Palinologicamente, Convolvulaceae no Parque Nacional do Catimbau é bastante diversificada e com grupos facilmente reconhecidos.Fourteen species of Convolvulaceae from Catimbau National Park were recognized. Based on pollen-grain morphology, the taxons were split into two groups: Psiloconiae - Evolvulus elegans Moric, E. frankenioides Moric, E. glomeratus Choisy, E. linarioides Meisn, J. densiflora Hallier, J. montana Meisn, Jacquemontia sp. and Merremia cissoides Hallier, and Echinoconieae - Ipomoea bahiensis Willd., I. brasiliana (Choisy Meissn, I. rosea Choisy, I. pintoi O'Donnel, I. subincana Meisn, and Turbina cordata (Choisy Austin & Staples. Evolvulus species are distinguished by differences in exine thickness and pollen-grain diameter. Merremia cissoides has tricolpate pollen grains and bifid columellae. The pollen grains of both Ipomoea and Turbina are echinate; however, the spines have a bulbous base only in Ipomoea. This paper confirms the high diversity of pollen morphology in the family.

  11. Dinâmica de populações de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em mata ciliar, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brasil Population dynamics of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae in riparian forest, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brazil

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    Cristiane C. de Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Machos de Euglossina foram coletados por meio de iscas-odores de benzoato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, salicilato de metila, vanilina, durante um ano em área de mata ciliar, no município de Urbano Santos, Maranhão. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre 8 h e 16 h, totalizando 96 horas de amostragem. Foram amostrados 283 indivíduos, 4 gêneros e 16 espécies. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 foi o gênero mais abundante, seguido por Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 e Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol foi a essência mais atrativa. As maiores freqüências de visitas ocorreram no período da manhã e a maior diversidade de espécies ocorreu no período chuvoso.Males of Euglossina bees were collected in benzil benzoate, eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin scent baits, during one year in a riparian forest area, located in the municipality of Urbano Santos, Maranhão. The collections were carried out monthly, between 8 am and 4 pm, totalling 96 hours of sampling, resulting in 283 individuals, 4 genera and 16 species. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 was the most abundant genus, followed by Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. The most frequent species were Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol was the most attractive chemical bait. The highest frequencies of visits were in the morning and the highest diversity of species occurred in the rainy period.

  12. ON THE DARWINIAN HYPOTHESIS OF THE ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE OF TRISTYLY.

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    Barrett, Spencer C H; Glover, Deborah E

    1985-07-01

    Darwin proposed that the function of the stamen-style polymorphism in heterostylous plants is to increase the probability of legitimate (compatible) pollinations among the floral morphs. Conspicuous pollen trimorphism in tristylous Pontederia cordata enables a test of the hypothesis. Comparison of the composition of pollen loads in naturally pollinated stigmas of intact and emasculated flowers were made at a population in Paugh Lake, Ontario, which was visited primarily by bumblebees. The magnitude of legitimate pollination was analyzed by ANOVA. In intact flowers, significant legitimate pollination was detected in the long-styled morph only. Following emasculation legitimate pollination was evident in the long- and short-styled morphs, with the mid-styled morph just short of displaying significant legitimate pollination. Similar results were obtained by chi-square analysis. It has been suggested that heterostyly may reduce mutual interference between maternal and paternal reproductive function. Two aspects of pollen-stigma interference were investigated in P. cordata. The potential importance of stigmatic or stylar clogging by incompatible pollen was examined by controlled field pollinations and measurements of seed set. The results indicate that prior application of large amounts of incompatible pollen has no significant effect on the seed set of open-pollinated inflorescences. Comparison of legitimate pollen capture in intact and emasculated flowers provided no evidence that the presence of stamens within flowers of the floral morphs interferes with the receipt of legitimate pollen. Pollen-stigma interference remains to be demonstrated in heterostylous plants. © 1985 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

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    Tales S. Assis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  14. Chemosynthesis-based communities through time

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    Kaim, Andrzej

    2010-05-01

    The discovery of chemosynthesis-based communities in late 1970s was probably one of the biggest surprises in the marine biology of 20th century. There are three basic types of locations where such communities may develop: hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and vertebrate falls. Also sunken wood communities are partially chemosynthetically fueled. Reports of these unusual aggregation of benthic animals in the deep sea prompted a quest for their counterparts in the fossil record. Soon it has been revealed that a number of exotic carbonate rocks rich in fossils in otherwise siliciclastic deep water facies could easily be interpreted as a result of ancient cold seeps' activity. Later on also numerous hot vent, whale fall, and sunken wood associations have been described from the geological past. The earliest-known chemosynthesis-based association containing metazoan animals has been described from Silurian of Ural Mountains. This and the other Paleozoic chemosynthesis-based associations are dominated by worm tubes, mollusks (monoplacophorans, bivalves, and gastropods), and brachiopods. Nothing is known from the period encompassing Permian and Triassic and the Mesozoic record of chemosynthesis-based communities starts in Jurassic. The Lower Jurassic hydrothermal vent association from California consists of worm tubes, gastropods, and brachiopods which are not really comparable to their counterparts from Recent chemosynthesis-based communities. First associations composed of fossils recollecting animals from the Recent chemosynthesis-based communities appear in Late Jurassic. Oxfordian cold seep deposits from France are dominated by lucinid bivalves and similar deposits from Tithonian of Alexander Island in the Antarctic are known to contain lucinids and mass aggregations of hokkaidoconchids-extinct group of gastropods related to Recent Provannidae. Early Cretaceous is an epoch of rhynchonellide brachiopod Peregrinella which occurs worldwide abundantly at hydrocarbon seep

  15. Ciliary photoreceptors in the cerebral eyes of a protostome larva

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    Passamaneck Yale J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eyes in bilaterian metazoans have been described as being composed of either ciliary or rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Phylogenetic distribution, as well as distinct morphologies and characteristic deployment of different photopigments (ciliary vs. rhabdomeric opsins and transduction pathways argue for the co-existence of both of these two photoreceptor types in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Both receptor types exist throughout the Bilateria, but only vertebrates are thought to use ciliary photoreceptors for directional light detection in cerebral eyes, while all other invertebrate bilaterians studied utilize rhabdomeric photoreceptors for this purpose. In protostomes, ciliary photoreceptors that express c-opsin have been described only from a non-visual deep-brain photoreceptor. Their homology with vertebrate rods and cones of the human eye has been hypothesized to represent a unique functional transition from non-visual to visual roles in the vertebrate lineage. Results To test the hypothesis that protostome cerebral eyes employ exclusively rhabdomeric photoreceptors, we investigated the ultrastructure of the larval eyes in the brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. We show that these pigment-cup eyes consist of a lens cell and a shading pigment cell, both of which are putative photoreceptors, deploying a modified, enlarged cilium for light perception, and have axonal connections to the larval brain. Our investigation of the gene expression patterns of c-opsin, Pax6 and otx in these eyes confirms that the larval eye spots of brachiopods are cerebral eyes that deploy ciliary type photoreceptors for directional light detection. Interestingly, c-opsin is also expressed during early embryogenesis in all potential apical neural cells, becoming restricted to the anterior neuroectoderm, before expression is initiated in the photoreceptor cells of the eyes. Coincident with the expression of c-opsin in the presumptive neuroectoderm

  16. The upper Palaeozoic Godar-e-Siah Complex of Jandaq: Evidence and significance of a North Palaeotethyan succession in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Fabrizio; Zanchi, Andrea; Angiolini, Lucia; Vachard, Daniel; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Zanchetta, Stefano; Bergomi, Maria; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Kouhpeyma, Meyssam

    2017-05-01

    The Upper Palaeozoic Godar-e-Siah Complex of Jandaq, Central Iran, comprises three isolated, fault-bounded outcrops exposing Palaeozoic fossiliferous carbonates, volcanics and siliciclastics, which are markedly distinct from the surrounding sedimentary successions. The three outcrops, that emerge below Cretaceous and younger sediments, are the Chah Rizab outcrop, the Godar-e-Siah northern outcrop, and the Godar-e-Siah central outcrop. Their sedimentary successions strongly differ from the typical passive margin successions of Gondwanan affinity that characterize the Yazd, Lut and Tabas blocks of Central Iran and the Alborz in North Iran. To understand the origin of these profound differences, we first calibrated the age of the Jandaq successions: U-Pb radiometric zircons ages, obtained from granitoid boulders in the conglomerates at Chah Rizab and in the Godar-e-Siah northern outcrop, gave a Late Devonian to Mississippian age. Biostratigraphic data from brachiopods and fusulinids from the Godar-e-Siah northern and central outcrops indicate a Pennsylvanian age. The age of the successions is thus post-Visean to Pennsylvanian. The petrographic composition of the siliciclastic deposits indicates the erosion of a magmatic arc. To understand where the Jandaq complex could have been located at that time, we have assessed the palaeobiogeographic affinity of the faunas. The collected brachiopods and fusulinids assemblages are mostly similar to coeval faunas from Spain, Donbass, Urals, and Yukon Territory (Canada) and have a North-Palaeotethyan affinity. The Godar-e-Siah Complex of Jandaq likely represents part of the southern active margin of Eurasia (northern margin of the Palaeotethys), in contrast to the surrounding Central and North Iran blocks, which were at that time located along the southern margin of the Neotethys. Our investigations confirm a complex palaeogeographic evolution for the studied outcrops, suggesting that they represent fragments of the southern

  17. Agglutinated foraminifera from the Ludlow (Silurian) of Ireland

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    Kaminski, Michael; Ferretti, Annalisa; Messori, Fabio; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Sevastopulo, George

    2017-04-01

    Agglutinated foraminifera are one of the most primitive groups of foraminifera, possibly already appearing in the Cryogenian but usually rare in lower Paleozoic rocks. Their mean standing diversity slowly increased during Cambrian and Ordovician times, reaching a stable value of about 50 genera in the mid-Silurian which remained fairly constant up to the Triassic. An assemblage of agglutinated foraminifera was unexpectedly found in conodont residue from material collected in the Dingle Peninsula, County Kerry, southwestern Ireland. This material comes from rare calcareous occurrences in volcanoclastics previously known for their rich trilobite and conodont assemblages. The limestones are trilobite-crinoidal silty wackestone to packstone, with local brachiopod concentrations, documenting brachiopod-trilobite-crinoidal dominated communities of shallow and well-ventilated water that might have periodically colonized the bottom intercalating with volcanic events and then successively redeposited in deeper waters. The conodont fauna indicates an early Ludlow (Gorstian-earliest Ludfordian) age (Kaminski et al., 2016). The foraminiferal assemblage has limited potential for stratigraphical correlation as long-range taxa are present, but it represents the first record from the Silurian of Ireland. The assemblage is dominated by tubothalamids (Rectoammodiscus and rare Sansabaina), with less abundant monothalamids (Psammosiphonella and Psammosphaera). The assemblage displays low diversity compared with other assemblages described from the British Isles (Kircher & Brasier, 1989). At the species level, this assemblage is identical to those described previously from the Silurian of North America but with lower diversity. Only Rectoammodiscus diai had apparently a wider geographic distribution, including not only the central USA (Oklahoma and Kansas) but also the Welsh Borderlands and Senegal. The affinities with the assemblages reported at several localities in the central

  18. Stratigraphic implications of trace element and strontium-isotope analyses of Kimmeridgian shell calcite from the Lower Saxony Basin, Germany

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    Zuo, Fanfan; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Huck, Stefan; Erbacher, Jochen; Bodin, Stephane

    2017-04-01

    Stratigraphic uncertainties due to the lack of open marine marker fossils (e.g. ammonites) hamper the precise age assignment and stratigraphic correlation of Kimmeridgian strata found in the Lower Saxony Basin of Northern Germany. Correlation of these deposits with the Jurassic standard ammonite zonation is still difficult, since the existing ostracod biostratigraphy is facies-controlled and of only limited stratigraphic precision. In this study, a chemostratigraphic approach has been chosen and biogenic shell material produced by brachiopods, oysters and lithiotids is evaluated for its reliability to act as proxy of the original Jurassic seawater strontium isotope composition. Low-Mg calcite shells have been collected from three stratigraphic sections accessible in open-cast quarries located in the Lower Saxony Basin of Northern Germany. In order to identify diagenetically altered shell calcite, trace element and stable isotope analysis of 227 calcite samples (oysters=101; brachiopods=60; Trichites=52) has been carried out. The geochemical results reveal that (1) concentration of different trace elements varies between the different groups of shell-forming organisms, which may be related to vital effects and (2) high strontium contents, low Mn and Fe contents and the lack of correlation between these elements indicate near-pristine calcite shells, and therefore shells are supposed to record the ambient sea water composition during the Late Jurassic. Strontium-isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analysis of diagenetically screened samples indicates an Early Kimmeridgian age of the studied deposits, which is in accordance with ostracod biostratigraphic data. An increasing trend in 87Sr/86Sr with stratigraphic height fits well with the global strontium-isotope curve. Besides, similar 87Sr/86Sr ratios derived from different organisms from a single stratigraphic level highlight the suitability of the shells for strontium-isotope stratigraphy. Despite the shallow-marine character of

  19. Homeobox gene expression in Brachiopoda: the role of Not and Cdx in bodyplan patterning, neurogenesis, and germ layer specification.

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    Altenburger, Andreas; Martinez, Pedro; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The molecular control that underlies brachiopod ontogeny is largely unknown. In order to contribute to this issue we analyzed the expression pattern of two homeobox containing genes, Not and Cdx, during development of the rhynchonelliform (i.e., articulate) brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. Not is a homeobox containing gene that regulates the formation of the notochord in chordates, while Cdx (caudal) is a ParaHox gene involved in the formation of posterior tissues of various animal phyla. The T. transversa homolog, TtrNot, is expressed in the ectoderm from the beginning of gastrulation until completion of larval development, which is marked by a three-lobed body with larval setae. Expression starts at gastrulation in two areas lateral to the blastopore and subsequently extends over the animal pole of the gastrula. With elongation of the gastrula, expression at the animal pole narrows to a small band, whereas the areas lateral to the blastopore shift slightly towards the future anterior region of the larva. Upon formation of the three larval body lobes, TtrNot expressing cells are present only in the posterior part of the apical lobe. Expression ceases entirely at the onset of larval setae formation. TtrNot expression is absent in unfertilized eggs, in embryos prior to gastrulation, and in settled individuals during and after metamorphosis. Comparison with the expression patterns of Not genes in other metazoan phyla suggests an ancestral role for this gene in gastrulation and germ layer (ectoderm) specification with co-opted functions in notochord formation in chordates and left/right determination in ambulacrarians and vertebrates. The caudal ortholog, TtrCdx, is first expressed in the ectoderm of the gastrulating embryo in the posterior region of the blastopore. Its expression stays stable in that domain until the blastopore is closed. Thereafter, the expression is confined to the ventral portion of the mantle lobe in the fully developed larva. No Ttr

  20. The preliminary data on the Aeronian (Silurian) machaerids from Lithuania (Baltic Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzevičius, S.; Ekleris, A.

    2012-04-01

    Machaerids are stem-Lophotrochozoans, closely related to the Annelids, and known from the Early Ordovician to Middle Permian. Machaerids is a group of worm-like benthic marine, bilaterally symmetrical, armoured invertebrate. Their body is covered by an external scleritome. The scleritome is imbricated of longitudinally arranged series of plates or sclerites. Completely articulated specimens of machaeridians are very rare, yet the systematic position of machaerids is controversial. Machaeridians had been assigned to different groups, such as barnacles, mollusks, echinoderms and annelids. The latter is prevailing, however their exact place within the annelids still remains unresolved. New findings of disarticulated Silurian machaerids have been recorded in western Lithuania, Geniai-1 core. This well has been drilled with exploration purposes regarding the Cambrian oil reservoir; therefore the biggest part of the Silurian core has not been collected. The exceptions are some parts of the Llandovery and Ludlow, which have partially recovered well core, but the identification of the precise stratigraphical position is complicated. Disarticulated sclerites of machaeridians have been found at the 1756.4 m depth, in the argillite, together with some graptolites and brachiopods. Several rhabdosome fragments of Normalograptus scalaris (Hisinger) were found together with the machaenid sclerites as well. N. scalaris has wide biostratigraphical distribution from the Rhudanian to the lower part of Telychian, which comprises the convolutus - triangulates graptolite biozones, corresponding to the 1756.8 - 1756 m depth. Convolutus - triangulates biozones represent Aeronian, and the machaeridian sclerites come from this interval, together with the Jonsea grayi (Davidson) brachiopod shells, which are very common and correspond to the BA 5-6 benthic assemblage, as well as do the graptolites found together. In previous studies, two orders of machaerids have been recognized: the

  1. The evolution of Phanerozoic seawater - Isotope paleothermometry finds consensus on Early Paleozoic warmth and constant seawater δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E. L.; Henkes, G. A.; Passey, B. H.; Shenton, B.; Yancey, T. E.; Perez-Huerta, A.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of metazoan life is closely linked to the Phanerozoic evolution of ocean temperatures and chemistry. Oxygen isotopic evidence for early Phanerozoic paleotemperatures has been equivocal, with decreasing δ18O values with age being interpreted as warmer early oceans, decreasing seawater δ18O with age, or increasing diagenetic alteration in older samples. Here we compare an updated compilation of oxygen isotope data for carbonate and phosphate fossils and microfossils (Grossman, 2012, Geol. Time Scale, Elsevier, 195-220) with a compilation of new and existing clumped isotope data. Importantly, these data are curated based on sample preservation with special consideration given to screening techniques, and tectonic and burial history. Burial history is critical in the preservation of carbonate clumped isotope temperatures in particular, which can undergo reordering in the solid state. We use a model derived for reordering kinetics (Henkes et al., 2014, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 139:362-382) to screen clumped isotope data for the effects of solid-state burial alteration. With minor but significant exceptions (Late Cretaceous, Early Triassic), average δ18O values (4 m.y. window, 2 m.y. steps) for post-Devonian brachiopods, belemnites, and foraminifera, representing tropical-subtropical surface ocean conditions, yield average isotopic temperatures below 30°C (assuming a seawater δ18O value [ -1‰ VSMOW] of an "ice-free" world). In contrast, Ordovician to Devonian data show sustained temperatures of 35-40°C. Likewise, isotopic paleotemperatures from conodont apatite, known to be resistant to isotopic exchange, follow the same pattern. Clumped isotope data derived from Paleozoic brachiopod shells that experienced minimal burial (< 100 °C) and <1% reordering according to the taxon-specific clumped isotope reordering model yield typical temperatures of 25-30°C for the Carboniferous, and 35-40°C for the Ordovician-Silurian. Inserting clumped temperatures and

  2. Correction of two Upper Paleozoic stratigraphic units in the Tianshan Mountains region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and implications on the Late Paleozoic evolution of Tianshan tectonic complex, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Qiang Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses two tectonostratigraphic concerns on the Late Paleozoic Tianshan tectonic complex (TTC, Xinjiang, Northwest (NW China: (1 stratigraphic succession and age constraint of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange, eastern Tianshan Mountains and (2 timing of closure of the southern Tianshan ocean and accretion of the Siberian craton recorded in the Aiweiergou (AWEG area, eastern Tianshan Mountains by integrating stratigraphy, palaeontology, tectonopalaeogeography and palaeobiogeography. In the Bayingou area, the detailed palaeontological survey denies the presence of brachiopod Gigantoproductus fauna, typical of the Early Carboniferous faunas in central–south Tianshan complex, in the Anjihai Formation. In contrast, the Anjihai brachiopod assemblage, as a whole, appears to have a high affinity with the Late Devonian faunas of the eastern Junggar Basin, northern Xinjiang, suggesting a Late Devonian age for the Anjihai Formation. The overlying Shadawang Formation yields the Early Carboniferous radiolarians. These two units form the main part of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange, which therefore is likely Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous in age. The Bayingou area has been likely part of the northern Tianshan-Junggar block since the Late Devonian, although it may have been part of the Central Tianshan tectonostratigraphic province prior to the Late Devonian. The topmost strata of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange are characterized by alternation of volcanics, conglomerate and mudstone, and are better re-assigned to the Taoxigou Group rather than the Keguqingshan Formation. The Bayingou ophiolite mélange comprises the Late Devonian Anjihai Formation, the Carboniferous Bayingou and Shadawang Formations, and the Early Permian Taoxigou Group. In the AWEG area, the Permian and Triassic rocks were previously misinterpreted as the Late Permian turbidites and Late Triassic red beds, respectively. In fact, the Permian successions in AWEG

  3. Catalogue of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2018-01-01

    angustula Casey, 1890, Stethasida stricta Casey, 1912, Stethasida muricatula languida Casey, 1912, Stethasida pertinax Casey, 1912, Stethasida socors Casey, 1912, Stethasida angustula inepta Casey, 1912, Stethasida tenax Casey, 1912, and Stethasida vegrandis Casey, 1912 [= Stenomorpha muricatula (LeConte, 1851]; Stethasida obsoleta expansa Casey, 1912, Stethasida obsoleta opacella Casey, 1912, Stethasida brevipes Casey, 1912, Stethasida torpida Casey, 1912, Stethasida convergens Casey, 1912, Stethasida discreta Casey, 1912, Stethasida longula Casey, 1912, Stethasida adumbrata Casey, 1912, Stethasida occulta Casey, 1912, Stethasida tarsalis Casey, 1912, Stethasida unica Casey, 1912, and Pelecyphorus laevigatus Papp, 1961 [= Stenomorpha obsoleta (LeConte, 1851]; Trichiasida eremica Wilke, 1922 [= Stenomorpha difficilis (Champion, 1884]; Trichiasida lineatopilosa Casey, 1912 [= Stenomorpha hirsuta (LeConte, 1851]; Trichiasida tenella Casey, 1912 [= Stenomorpha hispidula (LeConte, 1851]; Trichiasida duplex Casey, 1912 [= Stenomorpha villosa (Champion, 1884]; Alaudes squamosa Blaisdell, 1919, Alaudes testacea Blaisdell, 1919, and Alaudes fallax Fall, 1928 [= Alaudes singularis Horn, 1870]; Edrotes barrowsi Dajoz, 1999 [=Edrotes ventricosus LeConte, 1851]; Nyctoporis tetrica Casey, 1907 and Nyctoporis maura Casey, 1907 [= Nyctoporis aequicollis Eschscholtz, 1831]; Nyctoporis pullata Casey, 1907 [= Nyctoporis sponsa Casey, 1907]; Eleodes tibialis forma oblonga Blaisdell, 1909 [= Eleodes tibialis Blaisdell, 1909]; Eleodes (manni var. variolosa Blaisdell, 1917 [= Eleodes constrictus LeConte, 1858]; Eleodes cordata forma sublaevis Blaisdell, 1909, Eleodes cordata forma intermedia Blaisdell, 1909, Eleodes cordata forma oblonga Blaisdell, 1909, Eleodes cordata forma elongata Blaisdell, 1909, and Eleodes (cordata var. adulterina Blaisdell, 1917 [= Eleodes cordata Eschscholtz, 1829]; Eleodes hornii var. monticula Blaisdell, 1918 and Eleodes manni sierra Blaisdell, 1925 [= Eleodes fuchsii

  4. Impact of emissions of Pridneprovsk TPP in Dnipropetrovsk on the anatomical indices of stem of two-year whip of the Tilia genus representatives

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    Z. V. Gritzay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents discussion of the results of studying the impact of environmental contamination because of emissions of Pridneprovsk TPP in Dnipropetrovsk city on the anatomical indices of stem of two-year whip of the Tilia genus representatives. Objects of study were T. platyphyllos Scop., T. europaea L. and T. cordata Mill. Material was collected in September 2015 on two sampling areas: experimental plot – tree plantations adjacent to Pridneprovsk TPP which emissions mainly comprise the pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, with the share in total volume of emissions of the Plant being 67.3%, 18.7%, 13.3%, respectively; control plot (conditionally clean – territory of the Botanical garden of Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University. For research, two-year whips located in the apical portion of branches of the same order of branching were taken. Sections were made at the medium cross-line of the stem, and stained with the alcoholic solution of phloroglucinol. 30 sections for each species were measured on each sampling area. In the objects under study on technogenically contaminated area the changes in dimensions of histological elements of the stem were found and the nature of such changes had specific differences. T. platyphyllos and T. europaea under action of toxic emissions of TPP demonstrated the increase of total size of primary cortex of stem and width of its individual components (plug, collenchyma, cortex parenchyma, maintenance of stable dimensions of the bark and its histological elements (hard and soft bast, and in T. europaea the wood radius as well, which we considered as the indicators of relative stability of these species in technogenic environment. In T. cordata in the TPP emission zone we revealed the increase in the width of plug, cortex parenchyma, and total radius of primary cortex, which could provide certain tolerance of plants of this species in the adverse conditions of

  5. Bee community of a beach dune ecosystem on Maranhão Island, Brazil

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    Patricia Maia Correia de Albuquerque

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The bee-plant community in a beach dune ecosystem in north-eastern of Brazil was studied concerning phenology and floral preference. The bees visited thirty-three species of 20 families of plants. The most visited species were Vernonia arenaria (Asteraceae, Chamaecrista hispidula (Caesalpiniaceae, Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae and Turnera melochioides (Turneraceae. Fifty-five percent of plants presented an annual or long flowering period (from 5 to 7 months. The largest number of species blooming was observed from March to August (dry season, corresponding to the period of greatest abundance and diversity of bees. Based on the range of floral sources used by the dominant bees, three guilds of bees were noted: bees with a restricted range of floral sources: Melitoma segmentaria, Centris tarsata, Centris flavifrons, Ceratinula sp.; moderate generalists: Megachile (Leptorachis sp., Euglossa cordata, Augochlorella sp., Eulaema nigrita and Xylocopa frontalis; and generalists: Xylocopa cearensis, Apis mellifera, Exomalopsis analis and Pseudaugochloropsis pandora.A comunidade de abelhas silvestres de um ecossistema de dunas de praia do nordeste do Brasil foi estudada quanto a fenologia e preferência por recursos florais. As abelhas visitaram trinta e três espécies de 20 familias de plantas. As espécies mais visitadas foram Vernonia arenaria (Asteraceae, Chamaecrista hispidula (Caesalpiniaceae, Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae e Turnera melochioides (Turneraceae. Cinquenta e cinco porcento das plantas apresentaram um padrão de florescimento anual ou longo (de 5 a 7 meses. O maior número de espécies floridas foi observada de março a agosto (estação seca, que é o período de maior abundância e diversidade de abelhas. Com base na utilização dos recursos florais pelas abelhas predominantes, três guildas foram observadas: abelhas com uma utilização restrita de recursos polínicos: Melitoma segmentaria, Centris tarsata, Centris

  6. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

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    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  7. Fitosociología y sucesión en el volcán Paricutín (Michoacan, México

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    Giménez de Azcárate Cornide Joaquín

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociologic survey of the current vegetation covering the cone and lava flow of Paricutín Volcano was conducted 44 years after eruption. A cluster analysis of a total of 57 relevés was made using a two-way indicator species algorithm, Twinspan. Four groups were differentiated, which were assembled in vegetation tables and correspond with the following associations: (1 Gnaphalio canescentis-Gaulterietum lancifoliae, (2 Gnaphalio semiamplexicaulis-Aegopogonetum cenchroidis, (3 Phlebodio araneosae-Elaphoglossetum pringleiy (4 Buddleio cordatae-Coriarietum ruscifoliae. A detailed description for each of the associations is provided including physiognomy and floristic characterization, its relationship with environmental factors, its successional position and its conections with the neighboring communities; each sequence is related to the surrounding territory's potential vegetation. Finally, an analysis of the floral richness based on relevés was carried out.Se efectuó un estudio fitosociológico de la vegetación presente en el cono y el derrame lávico del volcán Paricutín, 44 años después del cese de su actividad. Siguiendo la metodología sigmatista se realizaron un total de 57 levantamientos de vegetación. Para la definición de las comunidades vegetales se efectuó un agrupamiento de especies y muestras con base en un algoritmo de correspondencia automatizada, Twinspan. Esto permitió diferenciar cuatro grupos, reunidos en sendas tablas de vegetación, que se corresponden con las siguientes asociaciones: (1 Gnaphalio canescentis-Gaulterietum lancifoliae, (2 Gnaphalio semiamplexicaulis-Aegopogonetum cenchroidis, (3 Phlebodio araneosae-Elaphoglossetum pringlei y (4 Buddleio cordatae-Coriarietum ruscifoliae. Para cada una se establece su caracterización florística y fisionómica, relación con el ambiente, posición sucesional, variabilidad y sus conexiones con las comunidades vecinas; dicha secuencia se vinculó con la vegetaci

  8. Distribuição de macrófitas aquáticas numa lagoa na fazenda Nhumirim, Nhecolândia, Pantanal, MS

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    Vali J Pott

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A Nhecolândia, uma sub-região arenosa do Pantanal, possui muitas lagoas ("baías" rasas e subcirculares. Levantou-se, em outubro de 1988, através de duas transecções, a vegetação aquática de uma lagoa permanente, denominada "Baía da Sanguessuga", com 250m de diâm. e até 1,2m prof. (época seca, na fazenda Nhumirim (18º59'S e 56º39'W, e alt 90m. As plantas foram coletadas e depositadas nos Herbários CP AP e COR. São apresentadas lista de 37 plantas ocorrentes, suas formas biológicas, e gráficos de frequência das principais espécies. As espécies mais freqüentes são: Utricularia spp., Salvinia auriculata, Cabomba pyauhyensis, Hydrocieis nymphoides, Cyperus cf. polystachyos, Eleocharis spp., Pontederia cordata, Nymphaea amazonwn e Echinodorus spp. Observou-se zonação na distribuição das principais espécies, explicada pela relação entre profundidade e forma biológica das plantas.Nhecolandia, a sandy sub-region of the Pantanal, has many shalow and subcircular lakes. In October 1988 two transects were established to survey the aquatic vegetation of a permanent pond, named "Baia da Sanguessuga", 250 m diameter and 1,2 m deep (dry season, at Nhumirim farm (18º59'S, 56º39'W, and 90 m alt.. Plants were colected and kept at CPAP and COR Herbaria. A list of 37 plants, their life forms and frequency graphs are presented. The most frequent species are: Utricularia spp., Salvinia auriculata, Cabomba pyauhyensis, Hydrocleis nymphoides, Cyperus cf. polystachyos, Eleocharis spp., Pontederia cordata, Nymphaea amazonum and Echinodorus spp. There is a relation between depth and life form, and a zonation on the distribution of the most important species.

  9. Levantamento da infestação de plantas aquáticas em Porto Primavera antes do enchimento final do reservatório Aquatic plant infestation assessment in Porto Primavera reservoir before final filling

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    D Martins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as plantas aquáticas e os níveis de infestação de cada espécie em Porto Primavera antes do enchimento final do reservatório. Foram avaliados todos os focos de vegetação aquática no reservatório (72 pontos, sendo os pontos demarcados com um aparelho de GPS. As espécies foram identificadas e estimouse visualmente (tamanho da área a distribuição proporcional das plantas no foco de infestação. Após a identificação, foram encontradas 18 espécies de plantas aquáticas vegetando no reservatório, das quais foram determinadas a frequência de espécie de planta aquática e a distribuição dentro do sistema de geração de energia. As espécies encontradas no reservatório foram: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes, Paspalum repens, Cyperus brevifolius, Paspalum conspersum, Echinochloa polystachya, Egeria densa, Egeria najas, Polygonum hidropiperoides, Polygonum lapathifolium, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Eleocharis sellowiana, Nymphaea ampla, Pontederia cordata, Salvinia auriculata, Salvinia rotundifolia e Typha angustifolia. As maiores frequências relativas foram observadas em: E. azurea (36,11%, E. crassipes (16,67%, P. stratiotes (13,89%, S. auriculata (13,89%, C. brevifolius (11,11% e P. lapathifolium (6,94%.The objective of this work was to identify the aquatic plants and their infestation levels in Porto Primavera Reservoir in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, before the reservoir was filled. The aquatic vegetation in the dam (72 sites were evaluated and marked with GPS equipment. The species were identified and a visual estimate (site size of the proportional distribution of the plants in the infestation foci was carried out. After plant identification, eighteen macrophyte species were found in the dam and their frequency and distribution were determined as follows: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes, Paspalum repens, Cyperus brevifolius

  10. Calibrating the Ordovician Radiation of marine life: implications for Phanerozoic diversity trends

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    Miller, A. I.; Foote, M.

    1996-01-01

    It has long been suspected that trends in global marine biodiversity calibrated for the Phanerozoic may be affected by sampling problems. However, this possibility has not been evaluated definitively, and raw diversity trends are generally accepted at face value in macroevolutionary investigations. Here, we analyze a global-scale sample of fossil occurrences that allows us to determine directly the effects of sample size on the calibration of what is generally thought to be among the most significant global biodiversity increases in the history of life: the Ordovician Radiation. Utilizing a composite database that includes trilobites, brachiopods, and three classes of molluscs, we conduct rarefaction analyses to demonstrate that the diversification trajectory for the Radiation was considerably different than suggested by raw diversity time-series. Our analyses suggest that a substantial portion of the increase recognized in raw diversity depictions for the last three Ordovician epochs (the Llandeilian, Caradocian, and Ashgillian) is a consequence of increased sample size of the preserved and catalogued fossil record. We also use biometric data for a global sample of Ordovician trilobites, along with methods of measuring morphological diversity that are not biased by sample size, to show that morphological diversification in this major clade had leveled off by the Llanvirnian. The discordance between raw diversity depictions and more robust taxonomic and morphological diversity metrics suggests that sampling effects may strongly influence our perception of biodiversity trends throughout the Phanerozoic.

  11. Les séries du carbonifère inférieur de la région d'Adarouch, NE du Maroc central: lithologie et biostratigraphieEarly carboniferous series of the Adarouch area, northeast central Morocco: lithology and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhli, M.; Vachard, D.; Paicheler, J.-C.

    2001-05-01

    The early Carboniferous series of the Adarouch area (northeast central Morocco) are subdivided into three sedimentological and biostratigraphical units. The first unit, which belongs to the Late Visean zones V3bβ and V3bγ, was deposited on shallow carbonate platforms. The second unit belongs to the Late Visean zone, V3c, and incudes terrigenous deposits, such as turbidites, shales and olistostromes. The third unit belongs to the Serpukhovian stage and consists of sandstones and limestones. A new biostratigraphical analysis, which is based on foraminiferal, algae and pseudoalgae, allows an accurate dating of the units. The deposits of the zones V3bβ and V3bγ contain characteristic calcareous microfossils, such as Stacheoides sp., Pseudoendothyra sp. and Ungdarella uralica. The V3c zone (300-400 m) is shown in two oolitic beds of the Mouarhaz and Akerchi Formations, respectively, with Janischewskina sp. and Asteroarchaediscus sp. The Serpukhovian stage is characterised by the disappearance of the algae Koninckopora and the appearance of the brachiopod Titanaria. The new data from the Adarouch area confirm the Moroccan biostratigraphical scale of the Moroccan meseta.

  12. Sedimentology of the Ripogenus Formation, Maine: A Silurian carbonate-siliciclastic depositional system

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    Comrie, T.A.; Caldwell, D.W. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Ripogenus Formation of north-central Maine is shallow marine unit of probable Wenlockian age characterized by interbeds of sandstone and limestone less than 50 cm. in thickness and separated by sharp, often erosional, contacts. Reefal material with abundant stromatoporoids is exposed in the eastern part of the formation and is overlain locally by Silurian andesite and Siluro-Devonian redbeds. Sediment size and bed thickness decrease to the west, as does the relative amount of carbonate sediment. Common fossils also include stromatolites, brachiopods, gastropods, crinoids, and corals. Large fossils, notably the stromatoporoids and stromatolites, are often found in growth position, but smaller fossils are usually found to have been abraided and transported. The formation was deposited in an area shown by paleogeographic reconstructions to have been located just south of the equator (probably near one or more islands) in the lapetus Ocean prior to its closure. Although sedimentary structures are often not well preserved due to its closure. Although sedimentary structures are often not well preserved due to soft-sedimentary deformation and slight metamorphism, there is some evidence of storm-controlled deposition. Deposition of this unit and other Silurian carbonates found in Maine and the Maritime Provinces are unlike those found throughout N. America in that they are the product of localized deposition in an unstable tectonic environment.

  13. Preliminar results of paleontological salvage at Belo Monte Powerplant construction.

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    Tomassi, H Z; Almeida, C M; Ferreira, B C; Brito, M B; Barberi, M; Rodrigues, G C; Teixeira, S P; Capuzzo, J P; Gama-Júnior, J M; Santos, M G K G

    2015-08-01

    In this paper some preliminary fossil specimens are presented. They represent a collection sampled by Belo Monte's Programa de Salvamento do Patrimônio Paleontológico (PSPP), which includes unprecedented invertebrate fauna and fossil vertebrates from Pitinga, Jatapu, Manacapuru, Maecuru e Alter do Chão formations from Amazonas basin, Brazil. The Belo Monte paleontological salvage was able to recover 495 microfossil samples and 1744 macrofossil samples on 30 months of sampling activities, and it is still ongoing. The macrofossils identified are possible plant remains, ichnofossils, graptolites, brachiopods, molluscs, athropods, Agnatha, palynomorphs (miosphores, acritarchs, algae cysts, fungi spores and unidentified types) and unidentified fossils. However, deep scientific research is not part of the scope of the program, and this collection must be further studied by researchers who visit Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, where the fossils will be housed. More material will be collected until the end of the program. The collection sampled allows a mosaic composition with the necessary elements to assign, in later papers, taxonomic features which may lead to accurate species identification and palaeoenvironmental interpretations.

  14. Cyclostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of a bioclastic storm-dominated carbonate ramp (late Pliensbachian, Iberian Basin)

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    Val, Jorge; Bádenas, Beatriz; Aurell, Marcos; Rosales, Idoia

    2017-06-01

    Deposition of regressive successions and coeval positive trend in the oxygen stable isotope record in relatively deep marine successions of the upper Pliensbachian of western European basins have been related to a cooling interlude within the warm greenhouse conditions of the Pliensbachian. Sedimentological, cyclostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic analyses carried out in two upper Pliensbachian successions exposed in the Iberian Chain (Obón and San Pedro localities, Spain) allowed the characterization of the imprint of this cooling interlude on the relatively shallow areas of the Iberian carbonate ramp. The upper Pliensbachian succession is characterized by skeletal limestones and encompasses proximal mid-ramp to proximal outer-ramp facies, in which resedimentation and reworking by storm-induced flows controlled the accumulation of bioclastic debris. Two orders of high-frequency, metre-scale sequences have been identified: bundles of beds, and deepening-shallowing sets of bundles. According to the age calibration (previous biostratigraphic data and new strontium isotopes data) and correlation with nearby sections, these sequences are suggested as formed in tune with the short-term and long-term eccentricity Milankovitch cycles. The isotopic data from brachiopod shells and belemnite rostra indicate progressively increasing δ18O and slightly decreasing δ13C trends for the uppermost Pliensbachian Spinatum Zone, reflecting the influence of cooling conditions. However, facies analysis reflects that the expected coeval long-term regression was interrupted by a tectonically driven transgressive event in the uppermost part of the Spinatum Zone.

  15. THE GEN. COMELICANIA FRECH, 1901 (BRACHIOPODA FROM THE SOUTHERN ALPS: MORPHOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION

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    RENATO POSENATO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the internal characters, especially the cardinalia and brachidium, of the brachiopod Comelicania Frech from the Southern Alps, confirmed the attribution of this genus to the Superfam. Athyridoidea Davidson and provided a more complete taxonomic description of the Fam. Comelicaniidae Merla. This family includes two genera which differ in the morphology of their cardinalia, i.e. Gruntallina Waterhouse & Gupta, type-species Gruntallina triangularis (Grunt from the lower Dorashamian of Transcaucasia and Comelicania, type-species Comelicania megalotis (Stache from the uppermost Bellerophon Fm. of the Southern Alps. The study of a collection composed of more than a hundred specimens highlighted a broad variability of the morphological characters and a pattern of ontogenetic development which demonstrates that classification at the species level is possible only when using mature specimens. Taxonomic revision at the specific level reduced the eleven species of Comelicania from the Southern Alps, described by previous authors, to: C. megalotis (Stache and C. haueri (Stache. In addition a new species, C. merlai, which characterises the upper Comelicania beds, is proposed. 

  16. Late Cretaceous marine biodiversity dynamics in the Eastern Caucasus, northern Neo-Tethys ocean: Regional imprints of global events

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    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Late Cretaceous, marine organisms experienced significant changes in their biodiversity. These diversity changes were influenced, particularly, by the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 near the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary (93.6 Ma. Here, stratigraphic ranges of 80 marine macroinvertebrate genera (cephalopods, brachiopods, gastropods, corals, and echinoids were employed to assess the Late Cretaceous biodiversity dynamics in the Eastern Caucasus, which covered a large region located in the northern Neo-Tethys Ocean. Our results outline three prominent diversity minima, which occurred in the late Cenomanian-late Turonian, the early Santonian-late Campanian, and the late Maastrichtian. Probably, the latter two were just local. Despite of some differences in trends between the regional and global marine biodiversity dynamics, the late Cenomanian-late Turonian biotic crisis appeared both on the regional and global scales and was probably a long-term consequence of the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2. Oxygen depletion and eustaticallydriven shoreline shifts are considered as plausible causes of the observed biodiversity dynamics.

  17. Gut contents as direct indicators for trophic relationships in the Cambrian marine ecosystem.

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    Jean Vannier

    Full Text Available Present-day ecosystems host a huge variety of organisms that interact and transfer mass and energy via a cascade of trophic levels. When and how this complex machinery was established remains largely unknown. Although exceptionally preserved biotas clearly show that Early Cambrian animals had already acquired functionalities that enabled them to exploit a wide range of food resources, there is scant direct evidence concerning their diet and exact trophic relationships. Here I describe the gut contents of Ottoia prolifica, an abundant priapulid worm from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5 Burgess Shale biota. I identify the undigested exoskeletal remains of a wide range of small invertebrates that lived at or near the water sediment interface such as hyolithids, brachiopods, different types of arthropods, polychaetes and wiwaxiids. This set of direct fossil evidence allows the first detailed reconstruction of the diet of a 505-million-year-old animal. Ottoia was a dietary generalist and had no strict feeding regime. It fed on both living individuals and decaying organic matter present in its habitat. The feeding behavior of Ottoia was remarkably simple, reduced to the transit of food through an eversible pharynx and a tubular gut with limited physical breakdown and no storage. The recognition of generalist feeding strategies, exemplified by Ottoia, reveals key-aspects of modern-style trophic complexity in the immediate aftermath of the Cambrian explosion. It also shows that the middle Cambrian ecosystem was already too complex to be understood in terms of simple linear dynamics and unique pathways.

  18. Lipid and fatty acid fractions in Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda: an intertidal benthic fauna in the West Bengal-Orissa coast, India

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    Samaresh Samanta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To record the fractional components of lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids of Lingula anatina (L. anatina, a Precambrian intertidal benthic brachiopod, giving emphasis on -ω series group especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA alongside assessing their biotransformation within the population and mangrove-estuarine associated community. Methods: Different biological samples after being collected from three contrasting study sites viz. SI, SII and SIII at Talsari (Longitude 87°5′ E to 88°5′ E and Latitude 20°30′ N to 22°2′ N were stored at -20 °C until analyzed. Total lipids were extracted from each sample following Bligh and Dryer method. Identification and conformation of fatty acids were done by following Ackman method. Results: On analyzing different collected samples, muscles of L. anatina exhibited the highest amount of total lipids (2.95% of which 54.03% belongs to phospholipid groups. Different body parts of studied species contained appreciable and greater amount of EPA and DHA than α-linolenic acid. Conclusions: Different collected samples exhibited variabilities in respect of total lipids and its fractional fatty acid components. The muscles of L. anatina showed maximum storage of lipids and fatty acids. Differential occurrences of EPA and DHA in different body parts of L. anatina are supposed to be due to the biotransformation process converting the α-linolenic acid from its primary food sources.

  19. Anoxia, toxic metals and acidification: volcanically-driven causes of the Middle Permian (Capitanian) mass extinction in NW Pangaea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David; Grasby, Stephen; Wignall, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The controversial Capitanian (Middle Permian, 262 Ma) mass extinction, mostly known from equatorial latitudes, has recently been identified in a Boreal setting in Spitsbergen. We now document this extinction in the record of brachiopods from the Sverdrup Basin in NW Pangaea (Ellesmere Island, Canada), confirming Middle Permian losses as a global crisis on par with the "Big Five". Redox proxies (pyrite framboids and trace metals) show that the high latitude crisis coincided with an intensification of oxygen-poor conditions - a potent killer that is not clearly developed in lower latitude sections. Mercury becomes briefly enriched in strata at the level of the Middle Permian extinction level in Spitsbergen and Ellesmere Island, indicating voluminous but short-lived volcanism that is likely to have been the emplacement of the Emeishan large igneous province (LIP) in SW China. A potent cocktail of poisons appears to have impacted across the Boreal Realm, whilst the near-total loss of carbonates near the extinction level is also consistent with reduced pH across the region. Multiple stresses, possibly with origins in low-latitude LIP volcanism, are therefore implicated in the Middle Permian extinction and there was no respite even in the far-distant Boreal Realm.

  20. The biological consequences of flood basalt volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, M.

    2012-12-01

    Flood basalt eruptions are among the largest environmental perturbations of the Phanerozoic. The rapid release of CO2 from a large igneous province would have triggered a chain of events that can include climate warming, ocean acidification, reduced seawater carbonate saturation, and expanded oceanic anoxia. Those stressors have widely negative impacts on marine organisms, especially on calcified taxa, by affecting their respiratory physiology and reducing energy available for growth and reproduction. Many Phanerozoic extinctions, most notably the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions, coincided with flood basalt eruptions and shared distinctive patterns of taxonomic and ecological selectivity. In these extinctions, highly active organisms were more likely to survive because they possess physiological adaptations for maintaining internal pH during activity, which also proves useful when buffering pH against ocean acidification. In contrast, species that did not move and had low metabolic rates, such as brachiopods and sponges, suffered considerable losses during these extinctions. Heavily-calcified organisms, especially corals, were particularly vulnerable; as a result, ocean acidification and saturation state changes from flood basalt eruptions often triggered crises in reef ecosystems. This characteristic pattern of selectivity during "physiological" extinctions that closely coincided with flood basalts provides a template for assessing the causes of other extinction events. Because these crises also provide deep time analogues for the ongoing anthropogenic crisis of warming, ocean acidification, and expanded anoxia, the selectivity patterns can also help constrain "winners" and "losers" over upcoming decades.

  1. MIDDLE JURASSIC BELEMNITES AND AMMONITES (CEPHALOPODA FROM TELMA-DAREH, NORTHERN IRAN

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    HORACIO PARENT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ammonites and belemnites from a Middle Jurassic section at Telma-Dareh (Alborz Mountains, northern Iran are described. The lithology of the studied section consists of an alternation of marls and limestones attributed to the Dalichai Fm., overlying the top of the Shemshak Fm. (sandstones and underlying the Lar Fm. (limestones. Fossils are rather abundant but concentrated in ten scattered levels, ranging from the Aalenian (Scissum-Murchisonae zones up to the Bajocian. Ammonites (Tmetoceras scissum, Leioceras cf. comptum, Ludwigia cf. murchisonae, Onychoceras ? sp., and Leptosphinctes sp., belemnites (Brevibelus breviformis, Holcobelus cf. munieri  and bivalves are the most abundant and well-preserved fossils; accessory elements are scarce brachiopods and gastropods. The palaeobiogeographic affinities of the belemnite fauna is Subboreal-Submediterranean, whereas the ammonites have Submediterranean-Tethyan affinities. The Aalenian age of the lower part of the Dalichai Fm. at Telma-Dareh differs from the Bajocian age attributed by other authors to this formation in other localities. 

  2. The fossil record, function, and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobluk, D.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Mapes, R.H. (Ohio Univ., Athens (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Fossil invertebrate shells and carapaces displaying preserved original color patterns are among the rarest fossils. The fossil record of color patterns extends into the Middle Cambrian where the trilobite Anomocare displays a fan-like array of stripes on the pygidium. About 180 Paleozic genera are known with patterns, including trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and crustaceans. Based upon an analysis of these taxa, it appears that patterns and pigments in middle and late Paleozoic invertebrates may have served several functions such as warning displays, light screening, camouflage, or waste disposal. However, the presence of color patterns in fossil invertebrates in the early Paleozoic may have developed prior to the evolution of vision sufficiently sophisticated to see them. This suggests that camouflage and warning displays were not the original functions of color patterns, and that in the earliest Paleozoic they may not have been functional. The authors propose a hypothesis that involves three developmental phases in the evolution of invertebrate color patterns: (1) the incorporation of metabolic by-products, perhaps some pigmented and some not pigmented, into shells and carapaces as a means of disposal of dietary or metabolic wastes, (2) use of these pigments and patterns as an environmental adaptation, such as light screening, and (3) display during and following the evolution of vision in predators sufficiently sophisticated to see the patterns.

  3. Preliminar results of paleontological salvage at Belo Monte Powerplant construction

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    HZ. Tomassi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper some preliminary fossil specimens are presented. They represent a collection sampled by Belo Monte’s Programa de Salvamento do Patrimônio Paleontológico (PSPP, which includes unprecedented invertebrate fauna and fossil vertebrates from Pitinga, Jatapu, Manacapuru, Maecuru e Alter do Chão formations from Amazonas basin, Brazil. The Belo Monte paleontological salvage was able to recover 495 microfossil samples and 1744 macrofossil samples on 30 months of sampling activities, and it is still ongoing. The macrofossils identified are possible plant remains, ichnofossils, graptolites, brachiopods, molluscs, athropods, Agnatha, palynomorphs (miosphores, acritarchs, algae cysts, fungi spores and unidentified types and unidentified fossils. However, deep scientific research is not part of the scope of the program, and this collection must be further studied by researchers who visit Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, where the fossils will be housed. More material will be collected until the end of the program. The collection sampled allows a mosaic composition with the necessary elements to assign, in later papers, taxonomic features which may lead to accurate species identification and palaeoenvironmental interpretations.

  4. The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-yue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Chang-yong; Lü, Tao; Xie, Tao; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Benton, Michael J

    2011-08-07

    The timing and nature of biotic recovery from the devastating end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) are much debated. New studies in South China suggest that complex marine ecosystems did not become re-established until the middle-late Anisian (Middle Triassic), much later than had been proposed by some. The recently discovered exceptionally preserved Luoping biota from the Anisian Stage of the Middle Triassic, Yunnan Province and southwest China shows this final stage of community assembly on the continental shelf. The fossil assemblage is a mixture of marine animals, including abundant lightly sclerotized arthropods, associated with fishes, marine reptiles, bivalves, gastropods, belemnoids, ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods, conodonts and foraminifers, as well as plants and rare arthropods from nearby land. In some ways, the Luoping biota rebuilt the framework of the pre-extinction latest Permian marine ecosystem, but it differed too in profound ways. New trophic levels were introduced, most notably among top predators in the form of the diverse marine reptiles that had no evident analogues in the Late Permian. The Luoping biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagerstätten in the world, providing a new and early window on recovery and radiation of Triassic marine ecosystems some 10 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction.

  5. Marine ostracod provinciality in the Late Ordovician of palaeocontinental Laurentia and its environmental and geographical expression.

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    Mohibullah Mohibullah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examine the environmental, climatic and geographical controls on tropical ostracod distribution in the marine Ordovician of North America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the inter-regional distribution patterns of Ordovician Laurentian ostracods, focussing particularly on the diverse Late Ordovician Sandbian (ca 461 to 456 Ma faunas, demonstrates strong endemicity at the species-level. Local endemism is very pronounced, ranging from 25% (e.g. Foxe basin to 75% (e.g. Michigan basin in each basin, a pattern that is also reflected in other benthic faunas such as brachiopods. Multivariate (ordination analyses of the ostracod faunas allow demarcation of a Midcontinent Province and a southern Marginal Province in Laurentia. While these are most clearly differentiated at the stratigraphical level of the bicornis graptolite biozone, analyses of the entire dataset suggest that these provinces remain distinct throughout the Sandbian interval. Differences in species composition between the provinces appear to have been controlled by changes in physical parameters (e.g. temperature and salinity related to water depth and latitude and a possible regional geographic barrier, and these differences persist into the Katian and possibly the Hirnantian. Local environmental parameters, perhaps operating at the microhabitat scale, may have been significant in driving local speciation events from ancestor species in each region. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work establishes a refined methodology for assessing marine benthic arthropod micro-benthos provinciality for the Early Palaeozoic.

  6. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2014-10-10

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids.

  7. Benthic biodiversity and ecological gradients in the Seno Magdalena (Puyuhuapi Fjord, Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, F.; Bavestrello, G.; Bo, M.; Enrichetti, F.; Loi, A.; Wanderlingh, A.; Pérez-Santos, I.; Daneri, G.

    2017-11-01

    Due to its complex hydrological, geomorphological and climatic features, the Chilean fjords region is considered among the most productive areas of the world. The benthic fauna of this region accounts for more than 1600 species showing marked latitudinal biogeographic differences characterizing this as one of the most important hotspot of biodiversity of cold-temperate environments. Despite numerous studies have been conducted to depict the biological characteristics of the fjords, the present situation is strongly unbalanced towards specific taxa. Hence, this study takes into consideration a community approach, highlighting the distribution of six benthic assemblages thriving on vertical walls along the Seno Magdalena fjord (Aysen region). Underwater pictures were used to characterize the trends in abundance and diversity of the main taxa showing distinct responses to salinity and turbidity. Among the less tolerant taxa to high fresh water inputs there are encrusting algae, mainly found in the most external sites lashed by outer currents, far from the estuarine plume. The bathymetric zonation of the assemblages, instead, is characterized by a dense mussel belt in the first 10 m, within a thick layer of low-salinity, nutrient-enriched waters. Rich assemblages of sponges, brachiopods, gorgonians and scleractinians thrive in deeper, marine, clear waters. The evaluation of the ecological role of benthic species leads both to the definition of potential bioindicator taxa responding to anthropic disturbances and to the promotion of protected areas.

  8. Bioerosion and encrustation: Evidences from the Middle ‒ Upper Jurassic of central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hedeny, Magdy; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Al Farraj, Saleh

    2017-10-01

    The Middle ‒ Upper Jurassic hard substrates of central Saudi Arabia displayed considerable signs of bioerosion and encrustations. They include organic (oysters, other bivalves, gastropods, corals and brachiopods) and an inorganic carbonate hardground that marks the boundary between the Middle Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone and the Upper Jurassic Hanifa Formation. Traces of bioerosion in organic substrates include seven ichnotaxa produced by bivalves (Gastrochaenolites Leymerie, 1842), polychaete annelids (Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932; MaeandropolydoraVoigt, 1965 and CaulostrepsisClarke, 1908), sponges (Entobia Bronn, 1837), acrothoracican cirripedes (Rogerella Saint-Seine, 1951), gastropods (Oichnus Bromley, 1981) and probable ?Centrichnus cf. eccentricus. The encrusting epifauna on these substrates consist of several organisms, including oysters, serpulid worms, corals and foraminifera. In contrast, the carbonate hardground was only bioeroded by Gastrochaenolite, Trypanites and Entobia. Epibionts on this hardground include ;Liostrea Douvillé, 1904-type; oysters, Nanogyra nana Sowerby, 1822 and serpulids. In general, bioerosion and encrustation are less diversified in hardground than in organic substrates, indicating a long time of exposition of organic substrates with slow to moderate rate of deposition in a restricted marine environment. Both organic and inorganic commuinities are correlated with those of other equatorial, subtropical and temperate equivalents.

  9. Gondolellid conodonts and depositional setting of the Phosphoria Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Bruce R.

    2015-01-01

    The Phosphoria Formation and related rocks were deposited over an 8.9 m.y. interval beginning approximately 274.0Ma and ending approximately 265.1Ma. The Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member was deposited in southeastern Idaho and adjacent Wyoming over 5.4 m.y. from approximately 273.2 to 268.6 Ma. The Retort Phosphatic Shale Member was deposited in southwestern Montana and west-central Wyoming over 1.3 m.y. from approximately 267.4 to 266.1Ma. The base of the Roadian Stage of the Middle Permian occurs within the lower phosphate zone of the Meade Peak. The base of the Wordian Stage occurs within the upper phosphate zone of the Meade Peak. The presence of a cool-water brachiopod fauna, cool-water conodont faunas, and the absence of fusulinids throughout the Phosphoria basin indicate the presence of pervasive cool, upwelling waters. Acritarchs are intimately associated with phosphorites and phosphatic shales and may have been the primary organic producer to help drive phosphate production. The gondolellid conodont fauna of the Phosphoria Formation links a geographic cline of Jinogondolella nankingensis from the Delaware basin, West Texas, to the Sverdrup basin, Canadian Arctic, and shows distinct differentiation in species distribution, as do other conodont groups, within the Phosphoria basin. Ten species and two subspecies of gondolellid conodonts are recognized from the Phosphoria Formation and related rocks that belong to Mesogondolella and Jinogondolella.

  10. Silurian stratigraphy of Central Iran - an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairapetian, Vachik; Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi; Popov, Leonid E.; Männik, Peep; Miller, C. Giles

    2017-06-01

    The Silurian biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and facies of Central Iran including the Kashmar (Boghu Mountains), Tabas (Derenjal Mountains, Ozbak-Kuh), Anarak (Pol-e Khavand) and Kerman regions is reviewed and updated. The current state of knowledge of the Silurian in the Zagros Basin, Alborz, Kopet-Dagh and Talysh regions, as well as in a few areas scattered across the Sabzevar Zone, and the Sanandaj-Sirjan terranes is also reviewed. Silurian volcanism in various parts of Iran is briefly discussed. The end of the Ordovician coincided with a widespread regression across Iran synchronous with the Hirnantian glaciation, and only in the Zagros Basin is there a continuous Ordovician-Silurian transition represented by graptolitic black shales of the Sarchahan Formation. In the Central-East Iranian Platform marine sedimentation re-commenced in the early to mid Aeronian. By the Sheinwoodian, carbonate platform depositional environments were established along its north-eastern margin. In other parts of Iran (e.g., Kopet-Dagh and the Sabzevar Zone), siliciclastic sedimentation continued probably into the late Silurian. The Silurian conodont and brachiopod biostratigraphy of Central Iran is significantly updated facilitating a precise correlation with the Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Scale, as well as with key Silurian sections in other parts of Iran. The Silurian lithostratigraphy is considerably revised and two new lithostratigraphical units, namely the Boghu and Dahaneh-Kalut formations, are introduced.

  11. THE TRIASSIC/JURASSIC BOUNDARY IN THE ANDES OF ARGENTINA

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    ALBERTO C. RICCARDI

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arroyo Malo Formation at Alumbre Creek, on the northern bank of the Atuel River, west central Argentina, comprises a c. 300 m thick continuous marine succession across the Triassic-Jurassic System boundary, consisting of massive and laminated pelites indicative of a slope depositional environment. Late Triassic invertebrates, including ammonoids, nautiloids, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and corals are restricted to the lower 150 m. Beds between 125-135 m from the bottom yield Choristoceras cf. marshi Hauer, a species found in the Marshi/Crickmayi Zone of Europe and North America, together with loose fragments of Psiloceras cf. pressum Hillebrandt, coeval with the lower to middle part of the Hettangian Planorbis Zone. About 80 m higher are beds yielding Psiloceras cf. rectocostatum Hillebrandt, a species that gives name to an Andean biozone partially coeval with the Johnstoni and Plicatulum Subzones, upper Planorbis Zone. Other fossils recorded in the Rhaetian strata of this section are foraminifers, ostracods and plant remains identified as Zuberia cf. zuberi (Szaj. Freng. and Clathropteris sp. The section was also sampled for conodonts and radiolarians, thus far with negative results. A palaeomagnetic study is underway.

  12. Proposed stratotype for the base of the highest Cambrian stage at the first appearance datum of Cordylodus andresi, Lawson Cove section, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.F.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Evans, K.R.; Holmer, L.E.; Loch, James D.; Popov, L.E.; Repetski, J.E.; Ripperdan, R.L.; Taylor, John F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a candidate for the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the highest stage of the Furongian Series of the Cambrian System. The section is at Lawson Cove in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. The marker horizon is the first appearance datum (FAD) of the conodont Cordylodus andresi Viira et Sergeyeva in Kaljo et al. [Kaljo, D., Borovko, N., Heinsalu, H., Khazanovich, K., Mens, K., Popov, L., Sergeyeva, S., Sobolevskaya, R., Viira, V., 1986. The Cambrian-Ordovician boundary in the Baltic-Ladoga clint area (North Estonia and Leningrad Region, USSR). Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised. Geologia 35, 97-108]. At this section and elsewhere this horizon also is the FAD of the trilobite Eurekia apopsis (Winston et Nicholls, 1967). This conodont characterizes the base of the Cordylodus proavus Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of the world. This trilobite characterizes the base of the Eurekia apopsis Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of North America. The proposed boundary is 46.7 m above the base of the Lava Dam Member of the Notch Peak Formation at the Lawson Cove section. Brachiopods, sequence stratigraphy, and carbon-isotope geochemistry are other tools that characterize this horizon and allow it to be recognized in other areas. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  13. Thecamoebians (Testate Amoebae Straddling the Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Guryul Ravine Section, India: Evolutionary and Palaeoecological Implications.

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    Vartika Singh

    Full Text Available Exceptionally well-preserved organic remains of thecamoebians (testate amoebae were preserved in marine sediments that straddle the greatest extinction event in the Phanerozoic: the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Outcrops from the Late Permian Zewan Formation and the Early Triassic Khunamuh Formation are represented by a complete sedimentary sequence at the Guryul Ravine Section in Kashmir, India, which is an archetypal Permian-Triassic boundary sequence. Previous biostratigraphic analysis provides chronological control for the section, and a perspective of faunal turnover in the brachiopods, ammonoids, bivalves, conodonts, gastropods and foraminifera. Thecamoebians were concentrated from bulk sediments using palynological procedures, which isolated the organic constituents of preserved thecamoebian tests. The recovered individuals demonstrate exceptional similarity to the modern thecamoebian families Centropyxidae, Arcellidae, Hyalospheniidae and Trigonopyxidae, however, the vast majority belong to the Centropyxidae. This study further confirms the morphologic stability of the thecamoebian lineages through the Phanerozoic, and most importantly, their apparent little response to an infamous biological crisis in Earth's history.

  14. ENVIRONMENTS AND FAUNAL PATTERNS IN THE KACHCHH RIFT BASIN, WESTERN INDIA, DURING THE JURASSIC

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    FRANZ THEODOR FÜRSICH

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine Jurassic sediments (Bajocian-Tithonian of the Kachchh Basin were deposited in a ramp setting. Except during the Middle and Late Bathonian, when a carbonate regime became established, the fill of the basin consists predominantly of siliciclastics. The sediments represent environments that range from coastal plains (rivers and associated flood plains with caliche nodules, deltas, brackish water lagoons, nearshore sand and iron-oolite bars of the inner ramp, generally situated above fair-weather wave-base, to the middle ramp influenced by storm-waves and by storm-generated currents, and finally to the outer ramp which is characterised by low energy, fine-grained sediments. Changes in relative sea level produced a cyclic sedimentation pattern. The rich benthic fauna of macroinvertebrates is dominated by bivalves, followed by brachiopods, gastropods, corals, serpulids, and sponges. The analysis of 370 statistical samples and more than 27, 000 specimens produced more than 40 benthic associations and assemblages. They show a relationship to several environmental parameters, two of which, salinity and climate, are briefly discussed. The spatial distribution of the facies and biota is outlined for two time slices, the Bathonian and the Callovian-Oxfordian, respectively.

  15. A paleothermometer based on abundances of 13C-18O bonds in bioapatite: Calibration and reconstruction of the body temperatures of extinct Cenozoic mammals and Mesozoic dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, R.; Schauble, E. A.; Tripati, A. K.; Fricke, H. C.; Tuetken, T.; Eiler, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The stable isotope compositions of biologically precipitated apatite in bone, teeth, and scales are widely used to obtain information on the diet, behavior, and physiology of extinct organisms, and to reconstruct past climate in terrestrial and marine settings. Here we report the application of a new type of geochemical measurement to bioapatite, a ‘clumped isotope’ thermometer based on the thermodynamically driven preference for 13C and 18O to bond with each other within carbonate ions in the crystal lattice of apatite. This effect is dependent on temperature but unlike conventional stable isotope paleotemperature proxies, is independent from the isotopic composition of water from which the mineral formed. We show that the abundance of 13C-18O bonds in the carbonate component of apatite from modern teeth is proportional to the body temperature of the organism, with an accuracy of 1-2oC, and that the empirical calibration is supported by a theoretical model of isotopic ordering. We also report initial paleothermometry results from analyses of Cenozoic fossil mammal teeth and Mesozoic dinosaur teeth. Therefore, clumped isotope analysis of bioapatite represents a new approach in the study of the physiology of extinct species by allowing the first relatively assumption-free measurement of their body temperatures. It will also open new avenues in the study of paleoclimate, as the measurements of clumped isotopes in apatite from fossils, such as conodonts and brachiopods, as well as phosphorites, have the potential to record environmental temperatures.

  16. Przekształcenia kompozycji, dendroflora i stan ochrony zespołu pałacowo-parkowego w Orłowie Murowanym (województwo lubelskie

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    Marek Dąbski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zespół pałacowo-parkowy w Orłowie Murowanym założono w XIX wieku. Park krajobrazowy wraz z pałacem, oficynami i folwarkiem zajmuje powierzchnię 6,4 ha. Do pałacu prowadzi aleja dojazdowa długości 455 m. W latach 2012–2014 sporządzono szczegółową inwentaryzację dendrologiczną parku obejmującą 1265 drzew i krzewów, z czego 85 okazów ma wymiary pomnikowe. Największy udział w drzewostanie mają Carpinus betulus L., Tilia cordata Mill., Populus alba L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. i Larix decidua L. Na skutek wieloletnich zaniedbań zabytkowy pałac niszczeje, a brak pielęgnacji i postępująca sukcesja powodują stopniową zmianę XIX-wiecznego parku krajobrazowego w kompleks leśny.

  17. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Reproductive biology of endemic Solanum melissarum Bohs (Solanaceae) and updating of its current geographic distribution as the basis for its conservation in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, C P; Gomes, D C; Guilherme, F A G; Souza, L F

    2017-11-01

    The genus Solanum (family Solanaceae) includes more than 1400 species and has buzz-pollinated flowers with poricidal anthers. The present study aimed to describe the distribution, breeding system and pollination mechanism of Solanum melissarum, a species endemic to Brazil. The study of breeding system was conducted in an urban forest fragment in Jataí, GO. Distribution data were gathered from floristic surveys and digital plant databases. The floral morphology and the pollination mechanism were studied on through field observations and preserved flowers. The breeding system was determined through hand pollination treatments. The species has a distribution only in the Brazilian Atlantic forest coastal, and this study provides the first records of S. melissarum for the state of Goiás. The pendulous flowers have poricidal anthers close to the stigma, with membranous thecae joined by a connective bearing osmophores that attract males of Euglossa cordata bees. As they collect fragrances, the bees press the thecae and pollen is released through a bellows mechanism. Based on the hand-pollination treatments, this species is self-incompatible. Isolated forest fragments may not include enough pollinators to ensure the pollination of plants with specialized systems. However, they are essential for the conservation of species with interesting phytogeographic patterns, such as the vicariance observed in S. melissarum, and for the conservation of regional diversity.

  19. Moss mites (Acari: Oribatida in soil revitalizing: a chance for practical application in silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oribatida (known as moss mites or beetle mites increase the breakdown of organic material in the soil. The paper analyses the dynamics of their abundance and number of species after various treatments enriching the soil in 4 study areas: afforested post-agricultural area in the Tuchola Forest, afforested degraded post-military training area in Bydgoszcz-Jachcice, and forest nurseries at Białe Błota and Bielawy. The results show that in post-agricultural and degraded soils at the initial stages of forest succession, the density and number of species of oribatid mites were low, even after phyto-land-improvement (afforestation and lupin as green manure. In the forest nurseries, however, we recorded a positive effect of soil revitalizing after mulching with forest ectohumus (i.e. organic surface layer of the soil. The inoculation of soils with forest mesofauna appeared more effective in nursery plantations of silver birch (Betula pendula and small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata, as compared with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris. Thus to revitalize degraded soils effectively and to accelerate forest succession, apart from phytoland- improvement, it is advisable also to reintroduce mesofauna, e.g. with the use of forest ectohumus.

  20. Hairy Stalagmites, a new biogenic root speleothem from Botswana

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    Gerhard C. Du Preez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ngamiland in northwestern Botswana hosts the Gcwihaba Caves which present unique subterranean environments and host speleothems never before recorded. Cave atmospheric conditions can be extreme with temperatures as high as 28°C and relative humidity nearing 99.9%. Within Dimapo and Diviner’s Caves peculiar root speleothems that we named ‘Hairy Stalagmites’ were found. These stalagmites are closely associated with the roots of Namaqua fig (Ficus cordata trees that enter the cave environment in search of water. Pieces of broken stalagmites were sampled from Dimapo Cave for further investigations. Stereo and electron microscopy revealed that the Hairy Stalagmites consist of multiple intertwined tubes created when thin films of CaCO3 are deposited around fine lateral roots. The importance of the roots is substantiated with evidence of calcified epidermal cells, apical meristems and epidermal imprints. The development of these stalagmites starts when roots accumulate on the cave floor in the vicinity of a water drip and a root nest is created to capture the water. From this point the roots grow upwards (positive hydrotropism allowing the development of the calcite structure, and as CO2 diffusion and evaporation occurs, CaCO3 is deposited. The environmental conditions necessary for the growth of Hairy Stalagmites, as well their developmental mechanism, are discussed and illustrated.

  1. Notes on the nesting biology of five species of Euglossini (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Fernando Carvalho-Filho

    2017-04-01

    Resumo. As abelhas-da-orquídea (Euglossini possuem tamanho médio a grande, corpo parcialmente ou completamente metálico e são relativamente comuns na região Neotropical. Apesar disso, a biologia de nidificação da maioria das espécies permanece desconhecida. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo e fornecer novas informações sobre a biologia de nidificação de cinco espécies de Euglossini encontradas em área urbana e florestada da Amazônia Brasileira. Os ninhos de Eufriesea pulchra (Smithe Euglossa chalybeata Frieseforam registrados pela primeira vez, encontrados dentro de ninho de formiga Azteca sp. e em uma árvore apodrecida caída, respectivamente. O ninho de Euglossa townsendiCockerell foi registrado pela primeira vez em uma folha da planta ornamental Cordyline sp. (Asparagaceae. Euglossa intersecta Latreillefoi registrada nidificando dentro de um ninho abandonado de cupim e Euglossa cordata (Linnaeusfoi encontrada nidificando em uma maçaneta tubular de metal de uma janela.

  2. Riqueza e Abundância de Abelhas Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae em Parques Urbanos de Goiânia, Goiáse em parques urbanos de Goiânia, Goiás

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    Vanessa Grandolfo

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Urban environments have become a refuge for many species, including some bees of the tribe Euglossini. The group includes species with large capacity flight, so they are considered important neotropical pollinators. Euglossini is scarce information about the Cerrado, incomplete information like geographic distribution, which are endemic and which are cosmopolitan. This study aimed to identify and analyze the composition of bee species of the tribe Euglossini occurring in urban parks as to abundance, richness and attractiveness through the use of scent baits. The specimens of Euglossini were collected monthly from April to August 2008 in four urban parks in Goiânia, Goiás. The bees were sampled with the aid of scent traps, exposed from 8 am to 12 noon, containing one of the essences: salicylate methyl, benzyl acetate, cineole, vanillin. We collected 147 male orchid bees belonging to three genera and five species. There was a strong dominance of individuals Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (95.23%, followed by Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus (2.72%. The Cineol was the essence that attracted the greatest abundance of males and methyl salicylate had the highest species richness attracted. This study is the first record of species occurrence of Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin and Euglossa imperialis Cockerell for the Midwest and Euglossa variabilis Friese for the Cerrado. The preservation of all these areas will keep bee populations of wild these regions ecological importance of maintaining the service pollination of plant species.

  3. Remarks to the ecology of the boreo-montane polypore Amylocystis lapponica based on data from the Czech Republic and Poland

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    Jan Holec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, the rare polypore Amylocystis lapponica continuously occurs in the Boubínský prales virgin forest (southern Bohemia: Šumava Mts. where it has been documented for more than 60 years. Similarly, in Poland it has been known only from the Puszcza Białowieska virgin forest (northeastern Poland for more than 50 years. Generally, it is considered a species of boreal coniferous forests of northern Europe (taiga and montane coniferous forests in Central and Southern Europe. However, the data from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and western Ukraine show that it also grows in mixed montane forests composed mainly of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies and Abies alba. In Poland, the locality is situated in a lowland forest consisting mostly of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata. In Central Europe, A. lapponica occurs only in virgin forest refuges with the following habitat conditions: vegetation continuity (never cut, natural tree species composition, multi-aged structure, rich presence of dead wood in various stages of decay, relatively large area of the virgin forest surrounded by near-natural forests, stable, cold and humid meso- and microclimate. Consequently, A. lapponica may be considered an indicator of long-term vegetation continuity and stable habitat conditions.

  4. In vitro conservation of twenty-three overexploited medicinal plants belonging to the Indian sub continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  5. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

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    Priyanka Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  6. Management of gastrointestinal mucositis due to cancer therapies in pediatric patients: results of a case series with SAMITAL(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoglio, Juan Carlos; Folatre, Isabel; Bombardelli, Ezio; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Ronchi, Massimo; Petrangolini, Giovanna

    2012-11-01

    Gastrointestinal mucositis is a common debilitating complication of chemotherapy and one for which there is currently no effective long-term treatment. To report our experience with the use of SAMITAL(®), a new oral suspension formulation based on the combination of three standardized extracts from Vaccinium myrtillus, Macleaya cordata fruits and Echinacea angustifolia roots in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in pediatric patients. 20 pediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy for a range of oncological conditions were followed. Patients initially received oral SAMITAL(®) to treat gastrointestinal mucositis and were then given SAMITAL(®) prophylactically to prevent recurrences with successive cycles of chemotherapy. SAMITAL(®) significantly decreased gastrointestinal mucositis grade after the first episode with a reduction of mean scores from 3.2 ± 0.7 at baseline to 0.4 ± 0.6 at the end of treatment (p patients' overall condition and quality of life after the first administration and lowered the need for parenteral nutrition. Importantly, it allowed chemotherapy cycles to be continued without complications. Results from this case series suggest that SAMITAL(®) may play an important role in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in children and adolescents and as such warrants investigation in controlled studies.

  7. Energetic evaluation of indigenous tree and shrub species in Basilicata, Southern Italy

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    Todaro L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of energetic characteristics such as high calorific value (on ash-free dry weight basis, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and moisture content of 12 indigenous tree and shrub species of Southern Italy (Basilicata Region was carried out. The studied species are the most abundant in this area: Quercus cerris L., Quercus pubescens Willd., Fraxinus ornus L., Populus canescens (Aiton Smith, Salix alba L., Alnus cordata L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Olea europaea L., Spartium junceum L., Rubus hirtus W., Onopordum illirium L., Arundo donax L. For Q. cerris, Q. pubescens and O. europaea L., the energetic characteristics were measured by separating the wood components from the leaves. Q. cerris leaves contained the greatest high calorific value. F. ornus leaves had a greater ash content than the other samples while the lowest values were measured for S. junceum, Q. pubescens and R. pseudoacacia. The highest content of Carbon was in O. europaea leaves. A. donax and O. illirium had the lower level of high calorific value and Carbon than all the other species. The highest Nitrogen content was measured in Q. cerris leaves and the lowest one in F. ornus wood components.

  8. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-08-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estudios químicos y moleculares de jatrophas de Sonora como fuente potencial de aceites

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    Luis Ángel Medina Juárez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas del género Jatropha, pertenecientes a la familia de las Euphorbiaceae, pueden ser consideradas como alternativa para la obtención de semilla, con uso potencial en la fabricación de biocombustibles por su contenido alto de aceite. Se conocen alrededor de 186 especies distribuidas alrededor del mundo, de las cuales 48 se encuentran en México. En Sonora se conocen principalmente las especies de Jatropha cardiophylla, Jatropha cordata, Jatropha cinerea y Jatropha cuneata. La información que se tiene hasta el momento para especies adaptadas a zonas áridas en cuanto a la composición química de sus semillas es escasa y se desconoce el aspecto molecular relacionado con la síntesis de ácidos grasos. Por tal razón, se ha iniciado el estudio de la composición química y su relación con la expresión de genes, involucrados en la síntesis de ácidos grasos específicamente de los ácidos oleico y linoleico en las semillas de las especies de Jatropha nativas de Sonora.

  10. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O{sub 3} in the 2001 season.

  11. Synanthropization of dendroflora near main roads in Białystok (NE Poland

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    Łaska Grażyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the species composition of the dendroflora near four main roads in the city of Białystok, taking into regard their geographical and historical origin. The wildlife inventory was conducted in the vegetation season of 2011. The inventory revealed presence of a total of 837 trees and bushes representing 36 species and 18 families. The most abundant trees were those from the family Aceraceae (63.8%, while the most abundant bushes were those representing Rosaceae (48.9%. The contribution of native species (65.7% was found to be about twice as high as that of alien ones (34.3%. The dominant species among the native trees was Acer platanoides L., while the principal bush species was Crataegus monogyna Jacq. The alien tree species were most commonly represented by Acer negundo L., and bushes - by Ligustrum vulgare L. Spontaneously settled trees and bushes were clearly dominant (59.9% over those originating from plantations (40.1%. Among the native species of local origin, the prevailing species were synanthropic spontaneophytes (52%, including Acer platanoides and Tilia cordata Mill. Anthropophytes were more abundantly represented by diaphytes (22.7%, followed by kenophytes (10.4%. The most abundant species among diaphytes was Ligustrum vulgare, and among kenophytes - Acer negundo.

  12. Modelling of the Distribution of European Mistletoe (Viscum album with Dependence on Local Factors in the Castle Park in Lednice

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    Tivadar Baltazár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European mistletoe (Viscum album infection intensity and frequency of their host taxa individuals was monitored within the sections of the Castle Park in Lednice during the last four years. The data analysis was carried out only with these infected host taxa which occur in the park the most frequently: Acer campestre, A. platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus, Crataegus monogyna, C. pedicellata, Juglans nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos. For the statistical modelling it was used total 3039 individuals, among them 1424 are already infected by mistletoe (47%. Nine local factors (tree age, development stage, location of individuals, physiological and biomechanical aspect of vitality, tree height, diameter at breast height, crown projection area and crown volume were examined with dependence on mistletoe infection. Due to our results, all of examined factors have strong impact to the infection in the majority of host taxa; except of vitality, this relationship is directly proportional. No statistical significant impact was observed in case of Crataegus pedicellata. There is a big difference among the hosts, the largest mistletoe amount was observed in case of Juglans nigra. It was also proved that neither host nor mistletoe distribution are spread uniformly.

  13. Reproductive biology of endemic Solanum melissarum Bohs (Solanaceae and updating of its current geographic distribution as the basis for its conservation in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    C. P. Coelho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Solanum (family Solanaceae includes more than 1400 species and has buzz-pollinated flowers with poricidal anthers. The present study aimed to describe the distribution, breeding system and pollination mechanism of Solanum melissarum, a species endemic to Brazil. The study of breeding system was conducted in an urban forest fragment in Jataí, GO. Distribution data were gathered from floristic surveys and digital plant databases. The floral morphology and the pollination mechanism were studied on through field observations and preserved flowers. The breeding system was determined through hand pollination treatments. The species has a distribution only in the Brazilian Atlantic forest coastal, and this study provides the first records of S. melissarum for the state of Goiás. The pendulous flowers have poricidal anthers close to the stigma, with membranous thecae joined by a connective bearing osmophores that attract males of Euglossa cordata bees. As they collect fragrances, the bees press the thecae and pollen is released through a bellows mechanism. Based on the hand-pollination treatments, this species is self-incompatible. Isolated forest fragments may not include enough pollinators to ensure the pollination of plants with specialized systems. However, they are essential for the conservation of species with interesting phytogeographic patterns, such as the vicariance observed in S. melissarum, and for the conservation of regional diversity.

  14. Relationships between browsing damage and the species dominance by the highly food-attractive and less food-attractive trees

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    Petr Čermák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses data on the browsing damage to Acer pseudoplatanus, Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus spp., Tilia cordata and Fagus sylvatica. Field research was carried out in the period 2007–2010 and analysed data came from 33 transects at 10 localities with the various abundance of game in the CR (everywhere Capreolus capreolus, on several plots also Cervus elaphus, Ovis musimon or Dama dama. Trees were monitored up to a height of 150 cm in natural regeneration under stands and in plantations and the occurrence was noted of new browsing damage. Differences between the percentage of damaged individuals of the given species of a food-attractive species (A. p., C. b., F. e. and the percentage of damaged individuals of all tree species on a transect as well as the proportion of these parameters correlate negatively with the given species dominance and thus, they appear to be suitable parameters for the analysis of relationships between the damage intensity and dominance. The higher the percentage proportions of highly food-attractive species and the lower the percentage of less-attractive species, the lower the relative intensity of damage to highly food-attractive species. At the same time, the higher the percentage proportion of highly food-attractive species and the lower the percentage of less-attractive species then the lower a difference between damage to less food-attractive species and all species.

  15. Aquaculture biological waste as culture medium to cultivation of Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Reinsch Korshikov

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    L. H. Sipaúba-Tavares

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current study investigated the effectiveness of different macrophytes as culture media for Ankistrodesmus gracilis in laboratory conditions. Significant difference (p < 0.05 was reported in cell density with regard to conventional culture medium (CHU12 and macrophytes culture media. Mean cell density in NPK, Eichhornia crassipes and E. azurea media was higher (p < 0.05 than in conventional culture medium. Chlorophyll-a was higher than 1 g.L-1, except in CHU12 (0.7 ± 0.4 g.L-1 and T. domingensis (0.8 ± 0.3 g.L-1 media. Nitrate decreased sharply as from the 7th-day of the experiment. Ammonium and total phosphorus were highest in culture media and ranged between 0.4 g.L-1 (P. cordata medium and 1.7 g.L-1 (CHU12 medium for ammonium, and between 0.8 g.L-1 (CHU12 medium and 1.9 g.L-1 (T. domingensis medium for total phosphorus. Results revealed inorganic fertilizer and macrophytes combined with vitamins may be effective as culture media and strongly supports the growth of Ankistrodesmus gracilis, since cell density and biochemical composition are similar to or higher than conventional culture medium (CHU12. Macrophyte is a tool for aquaculture since biological wastes may be used with nutrients to improve the cultivation of microalgae.

  16. Flowering phenological changes in relation to climate change in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint

    2016-09-01

    The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species ( Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering.

  17. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLID WOOD PANELS MADE FROM HEAT-TREATED SPRUCE AND LIME WOOD STRIPS

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    Cristina Marinela OLARESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental research performed with spruce (Picea abies L. and lime (Tilia cordata wood originating from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania. Solid wood panels were manufactured from heat-treated strips, and also from untreated strips, as controls. The thermal conductivity (λ of the panels was measured on a HFM 436/6/1 Lambda equipment at a temperature difference of 30°C between the cold and the hot plate. The results showed that the panels made from heat-treated wood strips had by 13% lower values of λ in case of spruce and by 6% lower values in case of lime and thus better heat-insulating properties than the panels made from untreated wood of the same species. With λ values around 0.07-0.08 W/m⋅K, 20mm thick solid wood panels made from heat-treated spruce and lime strips are comparable to wool from the viewpoint of the thermal insulating capacity.

  18. Diversity of Pharmacological Properties in Chinese and European Medicinal Plants: Cytotoxicity, Antiviral and Antitrypanosomal Screening of 82 Herbal Drugs

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    Thomas Efferth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive screening, the antiviral, antitrypanosomal and anticancer properties of extracts from 82 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine and European phytomedicine were determined. Several promising plants that were highly effective against hepatitis B virus (HBV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV—a flavivirus used here as a surrogate in vitro model of hepatitis C virus, trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei brucei and several cancer cell lines were identified. Six aqueous extracts from Celosia cristata, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Houttuynia cordata, Selaginella tamariscina, Alpinia galanga and Alpinia oxyphylla showed significant antiviral effects against BVDV without toxic effects on host embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr cells, while Evodia lepta, Hedyotis diffusa and Glycyrrhiza spp. demonstrated promising activities against the HBV without toxic effects on host human hepatoblastoma cells transfected with HBV-DNA (HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Seven organic extracts from Alpinia oxyphylla, Coptis chinensis, Kadsura longipedunculata, Arctium lappa, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Saposhnikovia divaricata inhibited T. b. brucei. Moreover, among fifteen water extracts that combined high antiproliferative activity (IC50 0.5–20 µg/mL and low acute in vitro toxicity (0–10% reduction in cell viability at IC50, Coptis chinensis presented the best beneficial characteristics. In conclusion, traditional herbal medicine from Europe and China still has a potential for new therapeutic targets and therapeutic applications.

  19. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayworm, Marco A S; Buckeridge, Marcos S; Marquez, Ursula M L; Salatino, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average) and oils (21. 6%). Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%), while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average). The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds). The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora), oleic (Qualea and Salvertia) or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species). The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid), for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid) or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C(20) or C(22) chains) or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids). The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.

  20. Design and application of two novel degenerate primer pairs for the detection and complete genomic characterization of potyviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, C; Coombs, S; Revill, P A; Harding, R M; Vu, M; Dale, J L

    2008-01-01

    Two pairs of degenerate primers were designed from sequences within the potyviral CI (CIFor/CIRev) and HC-Pro-coding regions (HPFo/HPRev), and these were shown to be highly specific to members of the genus Potyvirus. Using the CIFor and CIRev primers, three novel potyviruses infecting crop and weed species from Vietnam were detected, namely telosma mosaic virus (TelMV) infecting telosma (Telosma cordata, Asclepiadaceae), peace lily mosaic virus (PeLMV) infecting peace lily (Spathiphyllum patinii, Araceae) and wild tomato mosaic virus (WTMV) infecting wild tomato (Solanum torvum, Solanaceae). The fragments amplified by the two sets of primers enabled additional PCR and complete genomic sequencing of these viruses and a banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) isolate from the Philippines. All four viruses shared genomic features typical of potyviruses. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that WTMV was most closely related to chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) and pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), while PeLMV, TelMV and BBrMV were related to different extents to members of the bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) subgroup.

  1. Urban climate modifies tree growth in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhausen, Jens; Rötzer, Thomas; Biber, Peter; Uhl, Enno; Pretzsch, Hans

    2017-12-01

    Climate, e.g., air temperature and precipitation, differs strongly between urban and peripheral areas, which causes diverse life conditions for trees. In order to compare tree growth, we sampled in total 252 small-leaved lime trees (Tilia cordata Mill) in the city of Berlin along a gradient from the city center to the surroundings. By means of increment cores, we are able to trace back their growth for the last 50 to 100 years. A general growth trend can be shown by comparing recent basal area growth with estimates from extrapolating a growth function that had been fitted with growth data from earlier years. Estimating a linear model, we show that air temperature and precipitation significantly influence tree growth within the last 20 years. Under consideration of housing density, the results reveal that higher air temperature and less precipitation led to higher growth rates in high-dense areas, but not in low-dense areas. In addition, our data reveal a significantly higher variance of the ring width index in areas with medium housing density compared to low housing density, but no temporal trend. Transferring the results to forest stands, climate change is expected to lead to higher tree growth rates.

  2. The role of a hybrid phytosystem in landscape water purification and herbicides removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirumba, George; Ge, Ling; Wei, Dongyang; Xu, Cong; He, Yiliang; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Cheng; Mao, Feijian

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a hybrid phytosystem in landscape water purification and herbicides removal was investigated. The phytosystem operating in an arboretum is located in the Minhang Campus of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. The phytosystem is composed of two purification stages: sedimentation Stage 1 without external air supply; and Stage 2 with an external air supply. Stage 2 is also vegetated with three major kinds of plants, namely Pontederia cordata L., Typha latifolia L. and Cyperus alternifolius L. The system's hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was maintained at 1.632 m/day between December 2013 and November 2014. Sedimentation, filtration and adsorption by filter media, combined microbial processes in the rhizosphere (nitrification-denitrification) and plant uptake of the pollutants were all responsible for water purification in the phytosystem. The biological and physical parameters analyzed were total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), nitrate (NO3-N), nitrite (NO2-N), ammonia (NH3-N), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), turbidity, chlorophyll-a and algal cells number. Highest removal efficiencies for TDN, TDP, turbidity, DOC, chlorophyll-a and algal cells were 56.9%, 73.3%, 92.4%, 29.9%, 94.3% and 91.0%, respectively. When the phytosystem was considered for herbicides removal, removal efficiencies of more than 25% were noted for all the herbicides.

  3. Modified AFLP technique for rapid genetic characterization in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, D G; Kane, M E; Guy, C L; Li, Q B

    2000-10-01

    The standard amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was modified to develop a convenient and reliable technique for rapid genetic characterization of plants. Modifications included (i) using one restriction enzyme, one adapter molecule and primer, (ii) incorporating formamide to generate more intense and uniform bands and (iii) using agarose gel electrophoresis. Sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.), pickerel-weed (Pontederia cordata L.), Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) and Penstemon heterophyllus Lindl. were used to determine the ability to generate adequate resolution power with both self- and cross-pollinated plant species including cultivars, ecotypes and individuals within populations. Reproducibility of bands was higher in all the AFLP experiments compared to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Formamide with or without bovine serum albumin improved band intensities compared to dimethyl sulfoxide and the standard reaction mixture with no organic solvents. Comparison between RAPD and modified AFLP using sea-oats population samples proved that modified AFLP exhibits (i) a low number of faint bands with increased specificity of amplified bands, (ii) a significantly higher number of polymorphic loci per primer, (iii) less primer screening time, (iv) easy scoring associated with fewer faint bands and (v) greatly enhanced reproducibility. The technique described here can be applied with a high degree of accuracy for plant genetic characterization.

  4. Rhizospheric methane oxidation determined via the methyl fluoride inhibition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Michelle A.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    1993-10-01

    Methane oxidation rates in the rhizosphere of aquatic macrophytes were quantified by development of a technique employing a recently described inhibitor of methane oxidation, methyl fluoride. Unlike other inhibitors, methyl fluoride appears to be nontoxic to the plants, allowing them to act as natural conduits, transporting the inhibitor from the headspace to the rhizosphere. Increases in methane emissions were recorded after closed chamber methyl fluoride incubations, primarily in greenhouse (Pontederia cordata and Sagittaria landfolia) experiments with some preliminary outdoor and field (Oryza sativa and Typha latifolia) data. Comparison of emissions before and after incubation indicated oxidation of 23 to 90% of the methane produced (defined as CH4 emission in the absence of oxidation) in greenhouse studies and 10 to 47% in field and outdoor studies. A comparison of 1.5 and 3.0% methyl fluoride chamber headspace incubations as well as initial dose response data indicated that the lower concentration was sufficient to obtain inhibition of methane oxidation in the greenhouse studies without significantly affecting methanogenesis. Inhibition was possible with one 16- to 18-hour incubation period. Methyl fluoride within the rhizosphere disappeared after approximately 1 week due to plant ventilation and possible bacterial uptake.

  5. [Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fatima R J da; Marques, Marinêz I; Battirola, Leandro D; Lhano, Marcos G

    2010-01-01

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Poconé, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the "Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth" project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the first stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso.

  6. The influence of complex fermentation broth on denitrification of saline sewage in constructed wetlands by heterotrophic nitrifying/aerobic denitrifying bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guiping; Yu, Tianyu; Huangshen, Linkun; Han, Jingyi

    2017-11-21

    An experimental vertical-flow constructed wetland (CW) was tested to treat salt-containing sewage. CW clogging deposits and withered Pontederia cordata L. were collected into a complex fermentation broth to serve as the carbon source and its effects on the denitrification capacity and microbial composition of the CW were examined. Addition of the complex fermentation broth into the CW influent (1.8% salinity) led to high removal efficiencies of NH 4 + -N > 99.82 ± 0.00% and TN > 90.39 ± 0.05%. Heterotrophic nitrifiers and aerobic denitrifiers were entirely dominant in the middle and upper layers of the CW, where obligate halophilic, aerobic denitrifiers Zobellella occurred. The CW successfully cultivated and enriched heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacteria, overcoming the effects of salinity and insufficient organic carbon sources on the denitrification capacity of CW. This type of complex carbon sources can also facilitate the utilization of waste resources, such as CW clogging deposits and withered wetland plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Environmental reservoirs for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in south Asian Gangetic riverine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Ram, Siya; Shanker, Rishi

    2010-08-15

    Forecasting diarrheagenic E. coli contamination of aquatic resources to prevent outbreaks largely depends on rapid and accurate diagnostic testing in a few hours. Real-time PCR is widely used for quick culture-free quantitative enumeration of pathogenic bacteria in environmental samples. In this study, real-time PCR in molecular beacon format was used for detection and culture-free quantitative enumeration of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) harboring LT1 gene in a sewage-impacted south Asian Gangetic riverine system. The quantitative budget for ETEC in surface water was observed to vary significantly (DMRT, p Pontederia cordata, Najas indica and strands of Spirogyra spp.) collected between sites 1 and 9 exhibited significant high levels of ETEC in comparison to their representatives collected from pristine area. The level of ETEC harboring LT1 gene observed in leafy vegetables cultivated along the banks was in the following order: mint leaves > coriander > spinach > methi leaves. The study suggests that the aquatic flora and cultivated leafy vegetables in the south Asian Gangetic riverine system are environmental reservoirs for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

  8. Concentrations of zinc and chromium in aquatic macrophytes from the sudbury and muskoka regions of Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, P; Duthie, H C

    1993-01-01

    Root and shoot samples of Eriocaulon septangulare, Nuphar variegatum, Nymphaea odorata and Pontederia cordata were collected from 15 lakes in central Ontario during the summer of 1988 to investigate possible relationships between zinc and chromium levels in aquatic macrophytes and water and sediment variables. Although concentrations of zinc and chromium differed greatly among the four species, both metals were consistently higher in Eriocaulon. Generally, root and rhizome tissue contained higher zinc and chromium than shoot tissues of the same species and site. Zinc concentrations (dry weight) ranged from 6.3 microg g(-1) in Nuphar shoots to 87.7 microg g(-1) in whole Eriocaulon. Chromium ranged from 0.23 microg g(-1) in Pontederia shoots to 23.9 microg g(-1) in whole Eriocaulon. No significant trends were detected throughout the growing season in macrophyte or sediment concentrations of either metal. Results of multiple linear regression analyses of several water quality and environmental variables on Eriocaulon indicated that sediment zinc was the best predictor of plant zinc, and sediment chromium and calcium were the best predictors of plant chromium.

  9. Effects of ecological restoration on speciation and release of copper in lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weijie; Zhao, Liangyuan; Li, Qingyun; Zhao, Weihua; Li, Huan

    2017-05-01

    The conclusion about the effect of macrophytes rhizosphere and mollusks bioturbation on morphology and mobility of heavy metals in the sediments is not entirely consistent. It is necessary to study further on influence mechanism of macrophytes growth and macrobenthos bioturbation on speciation and release of heavy metals in natural water body. This study intends to explore the influence mechanism of Bellamya aeruginosa (Bel) bioturbation and Pontederia cordata (Pon) growth on the speciation and release kinetics of Cu in sediment through construction of an aquatic organism-water-sediment system by indoor potted experiment. The results show that the particulate Cu in water of the control group and Pon treatment always maintain in lower level and the particulate Cu concentration in water of Bel treatment and Pon+Bel treatment appeared to a certain level of fluctuations at latter period. There was a significant positive correlation between the content of particulate Cu in water and the water turbidity. Bellamya aeruginosa bioturbation has not significantly affected the different speciation of heavy metals in surface sediments and the concentration of reducible Cu and Zn in the rhizosphere sediment was significantly lower than that in the control group.

  10. Effect of plant-based carbon sources on denitrifying microorganisms in a vertical flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guiping; Huangshen, Linkun; Guo, Zhipeng; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of supplementing plant-based carbon sources, fermented tissues of Arundo donax and Pontederia cordata, and a combination of the two plants, on the nitrogen removal efficiency and microbial composition in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) were examined. The results showed that the addition of the composite carbon source produced the highest removal efficiencies of NH 4 + -N 91.5%, NO 3 - -N 94.5% and TN 92.8% in VFCW. The detected abundance of amoA, nirS, and nxrA genes indicated that ammonia oxidation bacteria and denitrifying bacteria were more abundant than the nitrite oxidation bacteria. Furthermore, the addition of the composite carbon source significantly promoted the growth of the denitrifying bacteria in VFCW. The results indicated that supplementing the system with plant-based carbon sources achieved partial nitrification and denitrification, as well as classic denitrification in VFCWs. The study suggested that multiple nitrogen removal pathways were required to feasibly and efficiently remove nitrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil; Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) em Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) no norte do pantanal de Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fatima R.J da; Marques, Marinez I., E-mail: fateca@gmail.com.b, E-mail: marinez@ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ecologia e Conservacao da Biodiversidade; Battirola, Leandro D., E-mail: ldbattirola@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Sinop, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Naturais, Humanas e Sociais; Lhano, Marcos G., E-mail: marcos@ufrb.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Ambientais e Biologicas

    2010-07-15

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Pocone, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the - Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth - project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the fi rst stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. (author)

  12. The orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina in a forest fragment from western Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An orchid bee inventory was carried out in Parque Estadual São Camilo, Palotina, Paraná (Brazil; conservation unit with about 400 hectares of Semidecidual Seasonal forest. Three bait traps were installed at the border of the fragment, each one containing the following fragrances: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and vanilin. Sampling was carried out from 09am to 03pm, October 2011 to June 2012, summing up nine sampling days. A total of 186 specimens distributed among seven species were sampled. Eufriesea violacea with 140 specimens was the most common species, followed by Euglossa fimbriata (31, Euglossa annectans (9, Eulaema nigrita (4, Euglossa cordata (1, Euglossa pleosticta (1, and Exaerete smaragdina (1. According to qualitative and NMDS analysis, the orchid bee fauna of Parque Estadual São Camilo is representative of Semidecidual Seasonal forest, with richness comparable with other assemblages in the southern distribution of Euglossina. The sampled bee richness indicates that forest fragments, even small and isolated, are important in the conservation of this bees.

  13. Antileishmanial, Toxicity, and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Collected from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50=10.9±1.1 μg/mL in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea “ethyl acetate fraction” was more active (IC50=5.3±0.2 μg/mL against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0±0.1 μg/mL. All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 >100 in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.

  14. Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. Sofia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, relative abundance, seasonal changes in the species abundance and scent association of male Euglossini collected in a semi-deciduous forest fragment in the north of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, were recorded. Euglossine males were collected twice a month, for twelve months, from 8:00 am to 3:00 pm. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol, vanillin, methyl salicylate and benzyl acetate were used as baits. A total of 434 males distributed among 3 genera and 9 species were attracted to the chemical baits. Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840 (49.8%, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (23.0% and Euglossa pleosticta Dressler, 1982 (13.8% were dominant in number of individuals. Among the non-dominant species, Euglossa fimbriata Rebêlo & Moure, 1995 was more common (9.0%, followed by E. cordata (L., 1758 (1.8%, E. truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1995 (1.4%, E. melanotricha Moure, 1967 (0.7%, E. townsendi Cockerell, 1904 (0.23% and Eufriesea auriceps Friese, 1899 (0.23%. In general, bees were more abundant in warm-wet season (September-March. Eufriesea violacea was the most seasonal species, showing activity through the warm-wet season, from October to February. Eucalyptol was the most attractive fragrance, which was responsible for 92.6% of all visits by euglossine bees.

  15. Inventário da fauna de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae do baixo sul da Bahia, Brasil Inventory of the Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae fauna of southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinaldo Luz das Neves

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results concerning collection of Euglossinae bees in a mangrove ecosystem in Valença(13º22'08"S and 39º04'20"W, Bahia. These samples were made twice a month, for a year. The chemical baits Citronella, Eucalyptol, Eugenol, Metyl Salicylate and Vanillin attracted 1,144 specimens distributed among twelve species and two genera: Eulaema (Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa (Latreille, 1802. The predominam bee species was Eulaema nigrita (Lepeletier, 1841 consisting of 49.4% of the collected specimens, followed by Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758 with 44.88%, Euglossa imperialis (Cockerell, 1922 with 2.4% and Eulaema meriana flavescens (Friese, 1899 with 1.6%. Theothers species, considering sporadic visitors, Euglossa securigera (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa chalybeata (Friese, 1925, Euglossa liopoda (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa townsendi (Cockerell, 1904, Euglossa truncata (Rebelo & Moure, 1995, Euglossa melanotricha (Moure, 1967 and Euglossa sapphirina (Moure, 1968 represented together only 1.8% of the total sample. The Euglossinae were more active from October to May. Eucalyptol was the most attractive bait, attracting 1,120 specimens. Methyl Salicylate attracted 17 specimens, followed by Eugenol, which attracted 04 specimens and Vanillin, which attracted 03 specimens. Citronella was not an attractive chemical.

  16. Allometric biomass equations for 12 tree species in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaijiang; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Fousseni, Folega; Wang, Jinsong; Dai, Haijun; Yang, Song; Zuo, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country. Biomass allocation was examined and biomass models were developed using diameter as independent variable for individual tree species and all species combined. The results showed that the largest biomass allocation of all species combined was on stems (57.1%), followed by coarse root (21.3%), branch (18.7%), and foliage (2.9%). The log-transformed model was statistically significant for all biomass components, although predicting power was higher for species-specific models than for all species combined, general biomass models, and higher for stems, roots, above-ground biomass, and total tree biomass than for branch and foliage biomass. These findings supplement the previous studies on this forest type by additional sample trees, species and locations, and support biomass research on forest carbon budget and dynamics by management activities such as thinning and harvesting in the northeastern part of China.

  17. Diversity of bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) in western Mediterranean: recognition of the genus Themis and descriptions of T. ballesterosii sp. nov., T. iberica sp. nov., and Pyropia parva sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Noemí; Vergés, Alba; Peteiro, César; Sutherland, Judith E; Brodie, Juliet

    2014-10-01

    The diversity of the bladed species of the red algal order Bangiales from the Iberian Mediterranean shores has been reassessed after a detailed study of this region. Prior to this study, 11 bladed species of Bangiales had been reported from Mediterranean waters: Porphyra atropurpurea, P. cordata, P. coriacea, P. dioica, P. linearis, P. purpurea, P. umbilicalis, Pyropia leucosticta, Pyropia koreana (as P. olivii), Py. elongata (as P. rosengurttii) and Py. suborbiculata. A combined analysis of the nuclear nSSU and the plastid rbcL genes together with detailed morphological studies has confirmed the presence of species within the genera Porphyra and Pyropia and also revealed a third, undescribed genus, Themis gen. nov. Porphyra linearis, Pyropia elongata and the introduced Pyropia koreana had been previously listed for the Mediterranean and were recorded in this study. An additional four species, including the introduced Pyropia suborbiculata and three new species: Pyropia parva sp. nov., Themis ballesterosii sp. nov., and Themis iberica sp. nov. were also observed. Hence, most of the Porphyra species traditionally reported along these shores were not reported in this survey. This new floristic Bangiales composition confirms the importance of the Mediterranean basin as a hotspot for biodiversity, possible endemics of ancient origin and high proportion of introductions. Our data also continue to confirm the extent of Bangiales diversity at regional and worldwide levels. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  18. Anti-fungal and Anti-Mycobacterial activity of plants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Blanca Alicia Alanis; Arroyo, Joel López; González, Gloria González; González, Elvira Garza; González, Elvira Garza; de Torres, Noemí Waksman; Aranda, Ricardo Salazar

    2017-01-01

    Severe fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida spp, have increased in recent decades and are associated with an extremely high rate of morbidity and mortality. Since plants are an important source of potentially bioactive compounds, in this work the antifungal activity of the methanol extracts of 10 plants (Acacia rigidula, Buddleja cordata, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Parkinsonia aculeata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Quercus canbyi, Ricinus communis, Salvia coccinea and Teucrium bicolor) were evaluated. The activity was evaluated according to the micro dilution assay described in CLSI M27-A protocol using some clinical isolates of different species of Candida (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. glabrata). All extracts showed MIC values Quercus canbyi (0.93-7.5μg/mL) had antifungal activity against 7 strains with MIC values <8μg/mL in all cases. Furthermore excerpts activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain H37rv) was evaluated. Only Salvia coccinea and Teucrium bicolor showed MIC values125μg/mL by the method of MABA.

  19. Complex Ornament Machining Process on a CNC Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the CNC routering possibilities for three species of wood, namely ash (Fraxinus Excelsior, lime wood (Tilia cordata and fir wood (Abies Alba, in order to obtain right surfaces of Art Nouveau sculptured ornaments. Given the complexity of the CNC tool path for getting wavy shapes of Art Nouveau decorations, the choice of processing parameters for each processed species of wood requires a laborious research work to correlate these parameters. Two Art Nouveau ornaments are proposed for the investigation. They are CNC routered using two types of cutting tools. The processed parameters namely the spindle speed, feed speed and depth of cut were the three variables of the machining process for the three species of wood, which were combined so, to provide good surface finish as a quality attribute. There were totally forty six variants of combining the processing parameter which were applied for CNC routering the samples made of the three species of wood. At the end, an optimum combination of the processed parameters is recommended for each species of wood.

  20. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

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    Stephanie Schelfhout

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus, beech (Fagus sylvatica, ash (Fraxinus excelsior, Norway spruce (Picea abies, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur and lime (Tilia cordata. We studied the chemical characteristics of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer and Tilia, which is related to calcium-rich litter and low soil acidification. Epigeic earthworms were indifferent to calcium content in leaf litter and were shown to be mainly related to soil moisture content and litter C:P ratios. Almost no earthworms were found in Picea stands, likely because of the combined effects of recalcitrant litter, low pH and low soil moisture content.

  1. Middle to late Cambrian shallow marine trace fossils from the Imfout Syncline (Western Meseta, Morocco): Palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental significance in NW-Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukassou, Mostafa; Lagnaoui, Abdelouahed; Raji, Mohammed; Michard, André; Saddiqi, Omar

    2017-05-01

    The present research provides the first evidence of invertebrate activity assigned to the ichnogenus Selenichnites occurring together with moderately diverse ichnofossils from the middle to late Cambrian of the Moroccan Meseta. The invertebrate traces occur in sandstone strata of the El Hank Formation within the Imfout Syncline, in the northern part of the Rehamna Massif (Coastal Block, western Moroccan Meseta). Bedding surfaces from the top of the El Hank Formation near the Imfout Dam show diverse forms of current ripples and distincts crescentic ichnofossils in concave epirelief scattered on the surface. In this section, the traces provide evidence of the ethology of an organism inhabiting the relatively shallow waters of the area during this time. Selenichnites co-occurs with the ichnogenera Arenicolites, Diplocraterion, Lingulichnus, Monocraterion, Skolithos and unidentified burrows, and the ichnoassemblage is referred to the Skolithos ichnofacies. These traces can be referred to arthropods (e.g. polychaete worms and amphipod crustaceans), lingulid brachiopods, annelids and/or phoronids. The Imfout Selenichnites represents the first occurrence of this ichnogenus from the Cambrian of the Moroccan Meseta, and the second from the Cambrian deposits of Morocco. The potential tracemakers are still questionable, but were most likely xiphosurans, trilobites, euthycarcinoids or crustaceans. If so, the Imfout traces could be among the oldest pieces of evidence for the presence of horseshoe crabs during the Cambrian. The combination of sedimentological and ichnological data indicates that the El Hank Formation was deposited in a sublittoral soft ground environment next to a sandy shore. It was originally part of an early Palaeozoic shallow marine epicontinental platform in west-central Morocco. In addition to the equivalent Cambrian deposits from the Anti-Atlas, the El Hank Formation constituted a part of the northern Gondwana platform domain during the transgression

  2. Low functional evenness in a post-extinction Anisian (Middle Triassic) paleocommunity: A case study of the Leidapo Member (Qingyan Formation), south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, Ashley A.; Fraiser, Margaret L.; Tong, Jinnan

    2015-10-01

    Functional diversity, defined as the abundance and distribution of traits present in a community, has important implications for the functioning of ecosystems in the wake of events of major disturbance. Here, we examine the functional diversity of a Middle Triassic paleocommunity in the wake of the largest mass extinction in Earth's history, the Permo-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). Field data was collected and analyzed for a highly diverse invertebrate marine fossil assemblage, the Middle Triassic (Anisian) Leidapo Member (Qingyan Formation) of Qingyan, south China. Previously interpreted to represent a fully restructured paleocommunity in the aftermath of the PTME, our results indicate that the fauna of Leidapo Member had high taxonomic diversity and high functional richness, however was functionally uneven. Despite the presence of 24 different functional groups, the paleocommunity was numerically and ecologically dominated by one functional group consisting of mostly attached epifaunal suspension feeding brachiopods. The overwhelming dominance of this Anisian paleocommunity by one functional group implies that either, 1) resource availability in the community was uneven, and/or 2) strong environmental or niche filtering was in effect. As such, while the Anisian Leidapo Member paleocommunity was deposited in a fairly stable shallow water paleoenvironment, this biotic assemblage would have been very vulnerable to biotic and environmental perturbations. While it is uncertain whether or not this pattern is typical of paleocommunities in the aftermath of the PTME, these results imply that some Anisian paleocommunities may not have been as fully restructured as previously thought, and may have been inherently unstable due to the numerous biotic and environmental changes present in the Triassic.

  3. Biodiversity in marine invertebrate responses to acute warming revealed by a comparative multi-omics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melody S; Sommer, Ulf; Sihra, Jaspreet K; Thorne, Michael A S; Morley, Simon A; King, Michelle; Viant, Mark R; Peck, Lloyd S

    2017-01-01

    Understanding species' responses to environmental change underpins our abilities to make predictions on future biodiversity under any range of scenarios. In spite of the huge biodiversity in most ecosystems, a model species approach is often taken in environmental studies. To date, we still do not know how many species we need to study to input into models and inform on ecosystem-level responses to change. In this study, we tested current paradigms on factors setting thermal limits by investigating the acute warming response of six Antarctic marine invertebrates: a crustacean Paraceradocus miersi, a brachiopod Liothyrella uva, two bivalve molluscs, Laternula elliptica, Aequiyoldia eightsii, a gastropod mollusc Marseniopsis mollis and an echinoderm Cucumaria georgiana. Each species was warmed at the rate of 1 °C h(-1) and taken to the same physiological end point (just prior to heat coma). Their molecular responses were evaluated using complementary metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches with the aim of discovering the underlying mechanisms of their resilience or sensitivity to warming. The responses were species-specific; only two showed accumulation of anaerobic end products and three exhibited the classical heat shock response with expression of HSP70 transcripts. These diverse cellular measures did not directly correlate with resilience to heat stress and suggested that each species may have a different critical point of failure. Thus, one unifying molecular mechanism underpinning response to warming could not be assigned, and no overarching paradigm was supported. This biodiversity in response makes future ecosystems predictions extremely challenging, as we clearly need to develop a macrophysiology-type approach to cellular evaluations of the environmental stress response, studying a range of well-rationalized members from different community levels and of different phylogenetic origins rather than extrapolating from one or two arbitrary model species

  4. Observing Evolutionary Entropy in Relation to Body Size Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idgunji, S.; Zhang, H.; Payne, J.; Heim, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Second Law of Thermodynamics, according to Clausius, states that entropy will always increase in the universe, meaning systems will break down and become simple and chaotic. However, this is seemingly contradicted by the existence of living organisms, which can have highly complex and organized systems. Furthermore, there is a greater contradiction in the theory of evolution, which sees organisms growing larger and becoming more complex over time. Our research project revolved around whether organisms actually became more complex over time, and correlating these findings with the body size of these organisms. We analyzed the relationship between body size and cell types of five different marine phyla: arthropods, brachiopods, chordates, echinoderms, and mollusks. We attempted to find a relation between the biovolume of these different phyla and the number of specialized cell types that they had, which is a common measure of biocomplexity. In addition, we looked at the metabolic intensity, which is the mass-specific rate of energy processing applied to an organism's size, because it is also correlated to genetic complexity. Using R programming, we tested for correlations between these factors. After applying a Pearson correlation test, we discovered a generally positive correlation between the body sizes, number of cell types, and metabolic intensities of these phyla. However, one exception is that there is a negative correlation between the body size and metabolic intensity of echinoderms. Overall, we can see that marine organisms tend to evolve larger and more complex over time, and that is a very interesting find. Our discovery yielded many research questions and problems that we would like to solve, such as how the environment is thermodynamically affected by these organisms.

  5. Trilobites, scolecodonts and fish remains occurrence and the depositional paleoenvironment of the upper Monte Alegre and lower Itaituba formations, Lower - Middle Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Luciane Profs; Nascimento, Sara; Scomazzon, Ana Karina; Lemos, Valesca Brasil

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the scolecodonts, trilobite pygidium fragments and fish remains of an outcropped region in the southern Amazonas Basin, comprising the uppermost section of the Monte Alegre Formation and the basal section of the Itaituba Formation. These, correspond to part of the marine portion of the Tapajós Group, related to an intracratonic carbonate platform. The Monte Alegre Formation includes a deposition of fluvial-deltaic and aeolian sandstones, siltstones and shales of interdunes and lakes, intercalated with transgressive carbonates of a shallow restrict nearshore marine environment. The Itaituba Formation comprises a thickest deposit of marine carbonates, representing the establishment of widespread marine conditions, and is the richest interval containing organisms of shallow marine environment in the Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin. The associated fauna includes brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, crinoids, echinoids, bryozoans, corals, foraminifers, sponges, ostracods, trilobites, scolecodonts, fish remains and conodonts, mainly in the packstones, and subordinately in the wackestones and mudstones. Conodonts Neognathodus atokaensis, Diplognathodus orphanus, Idiognathodus incurvus, and foraminifers Millerella extensa, Millerella pressa, Millerella marblensis, Eostaffella ampla, Eostaffella pinguis and Eostaffella advena characterizes a predominant Atokan age to the analyzed profile. The fossil association herein presented is taxonomically diversified and biologically interesting, comprising an important and well preserved, for the first time occurrence of two molds and two fragments of Proetida trilobites. Well preserved Eunicida and Phyllodocida scolecodonts and paleonisciform fish remains. These fossils help in the paleoenvironmental establishment of the studied interval in the Amazonas Basin and as a potential biostratigraphic and paleoecological tool to correlate regionally and globally the Pennsylvanian.

  6. The importance of Hindeodus parvus (Conodonta for the definition of the Permian-Triassic boundary and evaluation of the proposed sections for a global stratotype section and point (GSSP for the base of the Triassic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij D. Zakharov

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The biostratigraphic Permian/Triassic (P/T boundary is defined by the first appearance of H. parvus. The first appearance of H. parvus within the dine H. latidentatus-H. parvus is a globally recognizable event in the conodont evolution.The first appearance of H. parvus is not facies related and can be observed both in ammonoid-free shallow-water deposits and in ammonoid-bearing pelagic deposits. H. parvus is a common, easily determinable species known so far from the entire Tethys, Japan, western North America, Boreal realm (Greenlandand the Tethyan margin of Gondwana. H. parvus is the first species withworld-wide distribution to appear after the absolute minimum in the faunal diversity indicated by the minimum in The Meishan section (South China contains a continuous, pelagic sedimentaryrecord across the P/T boundary without stratigraphie gaps. It is nearly unaltered thermally (CAI = 1-1.5. Its fossil content (ammonoids, conodonts, foraminifers,bivalves, brachiopods, sporomorphs etc. and event succession have been thoroughlystudied. Absolute age and magnetostratigraphy have also been subjected to intensive studies. The section is readily accessible and under protection of the government. This section is best suitable as a global stratotype section and point (GSSP for the base of the Triassic. No other section in the world is known tobe qualified for defining the P/T boundary in a GSSP. H. parvus made its earliest appearence in the middle part of Boundary Bed 2 (Bed 27 at Meishan. It evolved within Bed 27 from H. latidentatus within a phylomorphogenetic continuum in a continuous and monofacial stratum. The biostratigraphic P/T boundary lies very close to the event boundary (15 cm above the event boundary at the baseof Boundary Bed 1 = Bed 25, and a few centimetres above the minimum in Ô'13C in the lower Boundary Bed 2.

  7. Ancestral morphology of crown-group molluscs revealed by a new Ordovician stem aculiferan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Jakob; Parry, Luke; Briggs, Derek E G; Van Roy, Peter

    2017-02-23

    Exceptionally preserved fossils provide crucial insights into extinct body plans and organismal evolution. Molluscs, one of the most disparate animal phyla, radiated rapidly during the early Cambrian period (approximately 535-520 million years ago (Ma)). The problematic fossil taxa Halkieria and Orthrozanclus (grouped in Sachitida) have been assigned variously to stem-group annelids, brachiopods, stem-group molluscs or stem-group aculiferans (Polyplacophora and Aplacophora), but their affinities have remained controversial owing to a lack of preserved diagnostic characters. Here we describe a new early sachitid, Calvapilosa kroegeri gen. et sp. nov. from the Fezouata biota of Morocco (Early Ordovician epoch, around 478 Ma). The new taxon is characterized by the presence of a single large anterior shell plate and polystichous radula bearing a median tooth and several lateral and uncinal teeth in more than 125 rows. Its flattened body is covered by hollow spinose sclerites, and a smooth, ventral girdle flanks an extensive mantle cavity. Phylogenetic analyses resolve C. kroegeri as a stem-group aculiferan together with other single-plated forms such as Maikhanella (Siphogonuchites) and Orthrozanclus; Halkieria is recovered closer to the aculiferan crown. These genera document the stepwise evolution of the aculiferan body plan from forms with a single, almost conchiferan-like shell through two-plated taxa such as Halkieria, to the eight-plated crown-group aculiferans. C. kroegeri therefore provides key evidence concerning the long debate about the crown molluscan affinities of sachitids. This new discovery strongly suggests that the possession of only a single calcareous shell plate and the presence of unmineralised sclerites are plesiomorphic (an ancestral trait) for the molluscan crown.

  8. Phylogenetic Clustering of Origination and Extinction across the Late Ordovician Mass Extinction.

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    Andrew Z Krug

    Full Text Available Mass extinctions can have dramatic effects on the trajectory of life, but in some cases the effects can be relatively small even when extinction rates are high. For example, the Late Ordovician mass extinction is the second most severe in terms of the proportion of genera eliminated, yet is noted for the lack of ecological consequences and shifts in clade dominance. By comparison, the end-Cretaceous mass extinction was less severe but eliminated several major clades while some rare surviving clades diversified in the Paleogene. This disconnect may be better understood by incorporating the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa into studies of mass extinctions, as the factors driving extinction and recovery are thought to be phylogenetically conserved and should therefore promote both origination and extinction of closely related taxa. Here, we test whether there was phylogenetic selectivity in extinction and origination using brachiopod genera from the Middle Ordovician through the Devonian. Using an index of taxonomic clustering (RCL as a proxy for phylogenetic clustering, we find that A both extinctions and originations shift from taxonomically random or weakly clustered within families in the Ordovician to strongly clustered in the Silurian and Devonian, beginning with the recovery following the Late Ordovician mass extinction, and B the Late Ordovician mass extinction was itself only weakly clustered. Both results stand in stark contrast to Cretaceous-Cenozoic bivalves, which showed significant levels of taxonomic clustering of extinctions in the Cretaceous, including strong clustering in the mass extinction, but taxonomically random extinctions in the Cenozoic. The contrasting patterns between the Late Ordovician and end-Cretaceous events suggest a complex relationship between the phylogenetic selectivity of mass extinctions and the long-term phylogenetic signal in origination and extinction patterns.

  9. Stratigraphy and petroleum possibilities of lower Upper Devonian (Frasnian and lower Framennian) strata, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    The lower Upper Devonian rocks in southwestern Utah--the Guilmette Formation and equivalents--represent a final regressive pulse of the major Late Devonian marine inundation of the Western Interior of the United States and record marine carbonate deposition on a wide continental shelf. They consist primarily of limestone, dolomite, and quartz arenite deposited in a shallow north-trending miogeosyncline, which constituted a single major basin of accumulation on this shelf. The Guilmette Formation and equivalents were deposited in shallow normal to hypersaline marine waters. The environments of deposition include: a moderate- to high-energy intertidal environment, a moderate-energy subtidal environment, a lower energy, deeper subtidal environment below effective wave base, and a high-energy environment in local shallow areas of mud mounds and bioherms. The carbonate deposition of the Guilmette Formation and equivalents was interrupted periodically by the deposition of quartz arenites. These may represent the breaking up of the miogeosynclinal-cratonic pattern of deposition. In most areas, the Guilmette and equivalents are overlain by a thin transgressive marine quartz arenite deposit--the Cove Fort Quartzite and basal Leatham equivalent. Previous paleontologic evidence indicated a general Middle to Late Devonian age for the Guilmette Formation. The present study narrows this range and suggests that the age of the Guilmette Formation and its equivalents is late Middle Devonian (Stringocephalus brachiopod zone) to early Late Devonian (Uppermost Palmatolepis gigas conodont zone). Available subsurface data suggest that the petroleum possibilities of the Guilmette Formation and equivalents in southwestern Utah are poor. Several tests have penetrated .the interval with only minor shows of oil in rocks with low porosity and permeability. Nevertheless, many outcrop samples of the same interval, appear to have excellent porosity and permeability and a strongly fetid odor,

  10. Phylogenetics of Lophotrochozoan bHLH Genes and the Evolution of Lineage-Specific Gene Duplicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yongbo; Xu, Fei; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2017-04-01

    The gain and loss of genes encoding transcription factors is of importance to understanding the evolution of gene regulatory complexity. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes encode a large superfamily of transcription factors. We systematically classify the bHLH genes from five mollusc, two annelid and one brachiopod genomes, tracing the pattern of bHLH gene evolution across these poorly studied Phyla. In total, 56-88 bHLH genes were identified in each genome, with most identifiable as members of previously described bilaterian families, or of new families we define. Of such families only one, Mesp, appears lost by all these species. Additional duplications have also played a role in the evolution of the bHLH gene repertoire, with many new lophotrochozoan-, mollusc-, bivalve-, or gastropod-specific genes defined. Using a combination of transcriptome mining, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization we compared the expression of several of these novel genes in tissues and embryos of the molluscs Crassostrea gigas and Patella vulgata, finding both conserved expression and evidence for neofunctionalization. We also map the positions of the genes across these genomes, identifying numerous gene linkages. Some reflect recent paralog divergence by tandem duplication, others are remnants of ancient tandem duplications dating to the lophotrochozoan or bilaterian common ancestors. These data are built into a model of the evolution of bHLH genes in molluscs, showing formidable evolutionary stasis at the family level but considerable within-family diversification by tandem gene duplication. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. A Survey of Macro-invertebrate Gleaning in the Banate Bay Intertidal Area, Eastern Panay Island

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    Annabelle del Norte-Campos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The gleaning fishery on the intertidal areas of Banate Bay, eastern Panay was surveyed monthly fromFebruary 2002 to January 2003, to derive information on species composition, catch, catch rates, andannual value. Total biomass, gleaning and turnover rates were determined from a fishery-independentsurvey conducted in June 2005. Catches of the fishery consisted of a total of 17 species, comprised ofmollusks, crustaceans and a brachiopod. The bivalves Katelysia hiantina, Scapharca inaequivalvis, andGafrarium tumidum were the top three species, together comprising 88.79 % of the total catch. The totalmean daily catch per gleaner for all species was equivalent to 73.75 g/m-2/gleaner-1. Catch rate and catchvolume for the mollusks were highest between May-July and November-December, coinciding with thesouthwest and northeast monsoons, respectively. The large riverine inputs to the area, together with themangrove-derived organic matter, periodically resuspended by the tidal fluctuations, are seen asresponsible for increasing organic matter content of the substrates and abundance of the species. Totalannual catch of the fishery is estimated to range from 20,988.7 to 43, 527.62 kg, with a median value of31,205.6 kg. This latter value divided by the estimated total biomass in the area of 2,441. 03 kg gives aturnover rate of 12.8. The total annual catch for the entire fishery is equivalent to a total value of PhP421T to 897T/yr-1. The latter correspond to an annual income of PhP 14,043.90 to 29,904.67/gleaner-1/yr-1, small amounts which may be sustainable due to the high turnover rate of the system.

  12. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky with an atlas of some common fossils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence of eastern North America is a distinctive stratigraphic interval generally characterized by low clastic influx, high organic production in the water column, anaerobic bottom conditions, and the relative absence of fossil evidence for biologic activity. The laminated black shales which constitute most of the black-shale sequence are broken by two major sequences of interbedded greenish-gray, clayey shales which contain bioturbation and pyritized micromorph invertebrates. The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence of benthic life. The rare brachiopods, crinoids, and molluscs that occur in the black shales were probably epiplanktic. A significant physical distinction between the environment in which the black sediments were deposited and that in which the greenish-gray sediments were deposited was the level of dissolved oxygen. The laminated black shales point to anaerobic conditions and the bioturbated greenish-gray shales suggest dysaerobic to marginally aerobic-dysaerobic conditions. A paleoenvironmental model in which quasi-estuarine circulation compliments and enhances the effect of a stratified water column can account for both depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom environments and the absence of oxygen replenishment during black-shale deposition. Periods of abundant clastic influx from fluvial environments to the east probably account for the abundance of clays in the greenish-gray shale as well as the small amounts of oxygen necessary to support the depauparate, opportunistic, benthic faunas found there. These pulses of greenish-gray clastics were short-lived and eventually were replaced by anaerobic conditions and low rates of clastic sedimentation which characterized most of black-shale deposition.

  13. Variscan tectonics in Dodecanese, Kalymnos island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziioannou, Eleftheria; Grasemann, Bernhard; Schneider, David; Hubmann, Bernhard; Soukis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Kalymnos island is located in the Dodecanese, southeastern Aegean Sea, and geologically appears to be part of the external Hellenides. Pre-Alpidic basement rocks on the Dodecanese islands have been suggested to record compelling similarities with the basement rocks in Eastern Crete with respect to their lithologies and pre-Alpidic metamorphic evolution. The lithotectonic units experienced greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions during the Variscan orogeny. Whereas the rocks in Eastern Crete reveal Alpine high-pressure overprint, the Variscan basement units in the Dodecanese record no or low-grade Alpine metamorphism. A field study of basement rocks below Mesozoic limestones and dolomites in the NW part of Kalymnos near Emporios uncovered a complex history of metamorphism, folding and faulting. Three different tectonic units can be discriminated from top to bottom: a) a quartz-mica schist, b) a white-grey, fossiliferous coarse grained marble and c) a fine-grained fossiliferous blue-grey marble. In the marbles macrofossils such as brachiopods, ammonoid cephalopods (Goniatids?) and crinoids suggest a Middle-Upper Devonian deposition age (Givetian- Frasnian). Structural mapping the area resolved a dominant W-E shortening event, resulting in an overall inverted metamorphic gradient. The lowermost blue-grey marble unit is folded into large-scale upright folds, which are truncated by top-to-east overthrusting of the white-grey marble unit. Whereas deformation mechanisms in the blue-grey marble unit are dominated by dissolution-precipitation creep, the white-grey marble suffered intense crystal plastic deformation with localized high-strain mylonitic shear zones. The uppermost quartz-mica schist unit is separated from the lower units by a cataclastic phyllonitic shear zone. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating on white micas from the quartz-mica schists yielded cooling ages between 240 and 334 Ma indicative of Variscan cooling. Our data suggest that this part of the

  14. Low global sensitivity of metabolic rate to temperature in calcified marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Morley, Simon A; Bates, Amanda E; Clark, Melody S; Day, Robert W; Lamare, Miles; Martin, Stephanie M; Southgate, Paul C; Tan, Koh Siang; Tyler, Paul A; Peck, Lloyd S

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic rate is a key component of energy budgets that scales with body size and varies with large-scale environmental geographical patterns. Here we conduct an analysis of standard metabolic rates (SMR) of marine ectotherms across a 70° latitudinal gradient in both hemispheres that spanned collection temperatures of 0-30 °C. To account for latitudinal differences in the size and skeletal composition between species, SMR was mass normalized to that of a standard-sized (223 mg) ash-free dry mass individual. SMR was measured for 17 species of calcified invertebrates (bivalves, gastropods, urchins and brachiopods), using a single consistent methodology, including 11 species whose SMR was described for the first time. SMR of 15 out of 17 species had a mass-scaling exponent between 2/3 and 1, with no greater support for a 3/4 rather than a 2/3 scaling exponent. After accounting for taxonomy and variability in parameter estimates among species using variance-weighted linear mixed effects modelling, temperature sensitivity of SMR had an activation energy (Ea) of 0.16 for both Northern and Southern Hemisphere species which was lower than predicted under the metabolic theory of ecology (Ea 0.2-1.2 eV). Northern Hemisphere species, however, had a higher SMR at each habitat temperature, but a lower mass-scaling exponent relative to SMR. Evolutionary trade-offs that may be driving differences in metabolic rate (such as metabolic cold adaptation of Northern Hemisphere species) will have important impacts on species abilities to respond to changing environments.

  15. Microconchids from microbialite ecosystem immediately after end-Permian mass extinction: ecologic selectivity and implications for microbialite ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Chen, Z.; Wang, Y. B.; Ou, W.; Liao, W.; Mei, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) carbonate successions are often characterized by the presence of microbialite buildups worldwide. The widespread microbialites are believed as indication of microbial proliferation immediately after the P-Tr mass extinction. The death of animals representing the primary consumer trophic structure of marine ecosystem in the P-Tr crisis allows the bloom of microbes as an important primary producer in marine trophic food web structure. Thus, the PTB microbialite builders have been regarded as disaster taxa of the P-Tr ecologic crisis. Microbialite ecosystems were suitable for most organisms to inhabit. However, increasing evidence show that microbialite dwellers are also considerably abundant and diverse, including mainly foraminifers Earlandia sp. and Rectocornuspira sp., lingulid brachiopods, ostrocods, gastropods, and microconchids. In particular, ostracods are extremely abundant in this special ecosystem. Microconchid-like calcareous tubes are also considerably abundant. Here, we have sampled systematically a PTB microbialite deposit from the Dajiang section, southern Guizhou Province, southwest China and have extracted abundant isolated specimens of calcareous worm tubes. Quantitative analysis enables to investigate stratigraphic and facies preferences of microconchids in the PTB microbialites. Our preliminary result indicates that three microconchid species Microconchus sp., Helicoconchus elongates and Microconchus aberrans inhabited in microbialite ecosystem. Most microconchilds occurred in the upper part of the microbialite buildup and the grainstone-packstone microfacies. Very few microconchilds were found in the rocks bearing well-developed microbialite structures. Their stratigraphic and environmental preferences indicate proliferation of those metazoan organisms is coupled with ebb of the microbialite development. They also proliferated in some local niches in which microbial activities were not very active even if those

  16. Preliminary report on the Oldenburg “butter shale” in the Upper Ordovician (Katian; Richmondian Waynesville Formation, USA

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    Christopher D. Aucoin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician; upper Katian of the Cincinnati Arch region, Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky contains several bed packages informally referred to as “butter shales” or “trilobite shales”. These packages are typically 1–2 m of relatively pure, homogeneous claystone with isolated, lenticular limestone beds. These claystones are most widely known for their excellent preservation of abundant trilobites, especially Isotelus and Flexicalymene, as well as diverse and commonly articulated bivalves, and nautiloids. A newly recognized butter shale interval in the Clarksville Member of the Waynesville Formation contains a typical butter-shale fossil assemblage, dominated by bivalves, orthoconic cephalopods and trilobites. To better study the fabric of this claystone, a large, epoxy-coated block of the claystone was dry-cut. Polished surfaces show a variety of otherwise cryptic features, including pervasive bioturbation and the presence of probable lingulid escape burrows (Lingulichnus, as well as abundant fodinichnia (Chondrites, Planolites, Teichichnus. Preservation of articulated trilobites and closed bivalves in approximate living position, as well as escape burrows, indicates deposition as a series of mud burial events or obrution deposits. We suggest that the butter shales resulted from net accumulation of multiple episodes of re-suspended mud deposition, which rapidly smothered organisms and resulted in exceptional preservation. Between events the seafloor was colonized by abundant deposit-feeding infaunal organisms, which destabilized the substrate and generated turbidity near the sediment–water interface, thus inhibiting sessile suspension feeders. Rapid net deposition was also interrupted by more prolonged periods (tens to hundreds of years of low sedimentation that permitted colonization by epifaunal brachiopod-dominated communities. While most butter shale units are regionally extensive, the Oldenburg is

  17. Biological response to geochemical and hydrological processes in a shallow submarine cave

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    M. RADOLOVIĆ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian coastal karst abounds in submerged caves that host a variety of environmental conditions depending on the geomorphology, depth and submarine groundwater discharge. One example is the Y-Cave, a shallow, mostly submerged, horizontal cave on Dugi Otok Island, on the eastern Adriatic coast. This study was aimed at examining the temporal and spatial variability of the marine cave environment, including temperature, salinity, light intensity, cave morphology and hydrodynamism, along with the dissolutional effect caused by the mixing of sea and freshwater. The general distribution of organisms in the Y-Cave was positively correlated to the light gradient and reduced water circulation, thus the highest species diversity and abundance were recorded in the front part of the cave. The phylum Porifera was the most dominant group, and the poriferan species diversity in the cave ranks among the ten highest in the Mediterranean. The middle part of the cave, although completely dark, hosts an abundant population of the gastropod Homalopoma sanguineum and clusters of the gregarious brachiopod Novocrania anomala, whose presence could be connected to tidal hydrodynamics. The absence/scarcity of sessile marine organisms and pronounced corrosion marks at shallow depths inside the cave suggest a freshwater impact in the upper layers of the water column. A year long experiment with carbonate tablets revealed three different, independent ongoing processes affected by the position in the cave: bioaccumulation, dissolution and mechanical erosion. The results of long-term temperature readings also revealed water column stratification within the cave, which was not disturbed by either tidal or wave action. The shallow, partly submerged and relatively small Y-Cave is characterised by a suite of complex environmental conditions, which, together with the resulting distribution of organisms, are unique to this cave.

  18. The end-triassic mass extinction event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, A.

    1988-01-01

    The end-Triassic is the least studied of the five major episodes of mass extinction recognized in the Phanerozoic, and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary is not precisely defined in most parts of the world, with a paucity of good marine sections and an insufficiency of biostratigraphically valuable fossils. Despite these limitations it is clear that there was a significant episode of mass extinction, affecting many groups, in the Late Norian and the existing facts are consistent with it having taken place at the very end of the period. The best record globally comes from marine strata. There was an almost complete turnover of ammonites across the T-J boundary, with perhaps no more than one genus surviving. About half the bivalve genera and most of the species went extinct, as did many archaeogastropods. Many Paleozoic-dominant brachiopods also disappeared, as did the last of the conodonts. There was a major collapse and disappearance of the Alpine calcareous sponge. Among terrestrial biota, a significant extinction event involving tetrapods was recognized. With regard to possible environmental events that may be postulated to account for the extinctions, there is no evidence of any significant global change of climate at this time. The existence of the large Manicouagan crater in Quebec, dated as about late or end-Triassic, has led to the suggestion that an impact event might be implicated, but so far despite intensive search no unequivocal iridium anomaly or shocked quartz was discovered. On the other hand there is strong evidence for significant marine regression in many parts of the world. It is proposed therefore that the likeliest cause of the marine extinctions is severe reduction in habitat area caused either by regression of epicontinental seas, subsequent widespread anoxia during the succeeding transgression, or a combination of the two.

  19. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

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    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  20. Calibrating water depths of Ordovician communities: lithological and ecological controls on depositional gradients in Upper Ordovician strata of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA

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    Carlton E. Brett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Limestone and shale facies of the Upper Ordovician Grant Lake Formation (Katian: Cincinnatian, Maysvillian are well exposed in the Cincinnati Arch region of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA. These rocks record a gradual change in lithofacies and biofacies along a gently northward-sloping ramp. This gradient spans very shallow, olive-gray, platy, laminated dolostones with sparse ostracodes in the south to offshore, nodular, phosphatic, brachiopod-rich limestones and marls in the north. This study uses facies analysis in outcrop to determine paleoenvironmental parameters, particularly those related to water depth (e.g., position of the photic zone and shoreline, relative degree of environmental energy. Within a tightly correlated stratigraphic interval (the Mount Auburn and Straight Creek members of the Grant Lake Formation and the Terrill Member of the Ashlock Formation, we document the occurrence of paleoenvironmental indicators, including desiccation cracks and light-depth indicators, such as red and green algal fossils and oncolites. This permitted recognition of a ramp with an average gradient of 10–20 cm water depth per horizontal kilometer. Thus, shallow subtidal (“lagoonal” deposits in the upramp portion fall within the 1.5–6 m depth range, cross-bedded grainstones representing shoal-type environments fall within the 6–18 m depth range and subtidal, shell-rich deposits in the downramp portion fall within the 20–30 m depth range. These estimates match interpretations of depth independently derived from faunal and sedimentologic evidence that previously suggested a gentle ramp gradient and contribute to ongoing and future high-resolution paleontologic and stratigraphic studies of the Cincinnati Arch region.

  1. Global Links to Local Carbon Cycling Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Montanez, I. P.; Wang, X.; Qi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon cycle perturbations recorded by stable carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) play an important role in understanding climate, oceanography, and the biosphere through time. Recent studies, however, reveal the influence of regional processes on apparent global CIEs. Deconvolving local/regional from global processes imprinted in the carbon isotopic records of sedimentary successions requires integrated sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study. Here we present coupled C and Sr isotopic records of diagenetically screened micrite and brachiopods from late Mississippian shallow-marine, carbonate platform and contemporaneous carbonate slope successions from the east Paleotethys Ocean region (South China). These records reveal distinctly different signatures of the depositional response to the onset of Carboniferous glaciation. C and Sr isotopic compositions of the platform carbonates exhibit systematic fluctuations in step with inferred sea-level changes captured by depositional cycles. CIEs in the platform succession can be correlated to the contemporaneous C isotope record from the Antler carbonate ramp (Idaho, USA). In contrast, slope carbonate and conodont isotopic records exhibit minimal variability interpreted to record the open-ocean seawater composition. The isotopic disparity between successions is interpreted to record the influence of local depositional, but not diagenetic, processes operating on the carbonate platform in response to glacioeustasy. Variability in the nature of coupled isotopic and inferred sea level fluctuations is interpreted to record stepwise onset of the late Paleozoic ice age in the late Mississippian. Initial large magnitude shifts in C and Sr isotopic compositions of late Visean to early Serpukhovian carbonates correspond to 1 to 2 myr-scale cycles driven by the buildup of continental glaciers. Subsequent decreased magnitude of isotopic shifts coincident with a shift to shorter duration and smaller magnitude sea

  2. Late Permian – Early Triassic conodonts of the Zal section at the northwest of Iran

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    Aber Isaa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, gray, green, red to cream limestone, shale and marly deposits of the Julfa, Alibashi and lower part of Elikah Formation at the Zal stratigraphic section, NW Iran, with 67.20 meter thickness have been studied based on conodonts. This investigation is led to identification of 27 species and 4 subspecies belong to 5 different genera of conodonts while a proposed new subspecies Clarkina leveni zalensis n. sub sp. belonging to the species Clarkina leveni have been described. Also, 18 conodont zones with the age of Wuchiapingian – Griesbachian have been determined. Amongst them, 5 biozones belong to Wuchiapingian, 10 to Changhsingian and 3 to Griesbachian whereas the Late Permian extinction horizon is located on the upper surface of the Paratirolites Limeston last bed like other sections in the Alibashi Mountains re gion. In addition, Wuchiapingian – Changhsingian boundary is located at the Julfa to Alibashi formations boundary and the Permian – Triassic boundary placed at the gray calcareous parts of the lower Elikah Formation, +0.90 m above the extinction horizon. Unlike some recent entries, the boundary between Alibashi and Elikah formations are continuous due to the presence of two conodont zones Clarkina meishanensis – Hindeodus praeparvus As. Zone and Merrillina ultima – Stepanovites ?mostleri As. Zone in the marine shaly Araxes member and lower carbonate part of the Elikah Formation, occurrence of small orthotetid brachiopods, bellerophontid gastropods and numerous Bairdiidae ostracods in this shaly member even several preceding geochemical and isotopic studies.

  3. EARTH’S ROTATIONAL DECELERATION: DETERMINATION OF TIDAL FRICTION INDEPENDENT OF TIMESCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deines, Steven D. [Donatech Corporation, Fairfield, IA 52556 (United States); Williams, Carol A., E-mail: steven.deines@gmail.com, E-mail: cw@math.usf.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Prof. emeritus), University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This paper determines Earth's rotational deceleration without relying on atomic or ephemeris timescales. Earth's rotation defines the civil time standard called Universal Time (UT). Our previous paper did not examine tidal friction in depth when analyzing the timescale divergence between UT and International Atomic Time (TAI). We examine all available paleontological fossils and deposits for the direct measurements of Earth's past rotation rates, because that record includes all contributing effects. We examine paleontological reports that date Earth's rotation rate using corals, bivalves, brachiopods, rhythmites, and stromatolites. Contributions that vary Earth's moment of inertia, such as continental plate drifts, coastline changes, ice age formations, and viscous glacial rebounds, are superimposed with the secular deceleration. The average deceleration of Earth's rotation rate from all available fossil data is found to be (5.969 ± 1.762) × 10{sup −7} rad yr{sup −2}. Our value is 99.8% of the total rotational deceleration determined by Christodoulidis et al., who used artificial satellite data, and our value is 96.6% of the expected tidal friction value obtained by Stephenson and Morrison. Taking the derivative of conserved angular momentum, the predicted lunar orbital deceleration caused by the average rotational deceleration corresponds closely to lunar models. When evaluating the significant time gaps between UT and TAI, Earth's rotational deceleration is a minor contributing factor. Also, the secular deceleration rate is necessary to correctly date ancient astronomical events. We strongly encourage that more ocean paleontological evidence be found to supplement the record to separate the many periodic variations embedded in these data.

  4. Mississippian clastic-to-carbonate transition in the northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska: Depositional cycles of the Endicott and Lisburne Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepain, D.L.; Crowden, R.K.; Watts, K.F. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The Ellesmerian sequence in northeastern Alaska consists of a thick succession of Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous platform carbonate and terrigenous clastic rocks. At the base of the Ellesmerian sequence, clastic rocks of the Endicott Group are the lower part of a major transgressive sequence that passes gradationally upward into carbonates of the Lisburne Group. In the Endicott Group, the basal Kekiktuk Conglomerate was deposited in fluvial and marginal marine environments. A broad suite of tidally influenced, shallow-marine environments are recorded in the overlying Kayak Shale. The transition into carbonate platform rocks of the Lisburne Group is recorded in a series of depositional cycles developed within the upper half of the Kayak Shale. In the lower beds of the transition, the depositional cycles are multiple upward-thickening and upward-coarsening successions composed of (1) organic-rich siltstone containing flaser-bedded and lenticular-bedded fine-grained sandstone, (2) fine-grained, ripple-laminated quartzarenite, and (3) an intensely bioturbated horizon of medium- to coarse-grained quartzarenite that contains scattered brachiopods, bryozoa, and crinoids. Each cycle is terminated by a sharp transgressive surface that consists of a thin shale drape. Near the top of the Kayak Shale, the coarse-grained horizons become increasingly replaced by wackestone, grainstone, and coralline boundstone. Despite the lithologic change, the vertical upward-thickening and upward-coarsening cycles continue in the basal limestone of the Lisburne Group. Repeated upward-shallowing episodes, followed by coastal onlap, are likely mechanisms for this cyclicity and suggests a genetic relation between both the clastic and carbonate depositional cycles.

  5. What lies within; Annelid polychaetes found in micro-habitats of coral/carbonate material from SW Indian ocean seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Rea, T.; Serpetti, N.; Lamont, P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Individual corals, coral framework and rubble are generally quite abundant on seamounts, with carbonate materials derived from an unknown source also being found. These micro-habitats are known to often harbour higher abundance of smaller sized fauna and thus potentially increases the biodiversity of that region. However, very few studies have examined what may reside within the coral and carbonate structures themselves, if anything at all. Samples that were collected on five seamounts during a research cruise to the South West Indian Ocean Ridge in 2011, were examined opportunistically in order to determine if there were any animals to be found inside the hard coral framework/rubble material. The hard material was dissolved away using 10% acetic acid and was examined on a twice daily basis to remove any animals that had been released through the dissolution process. There were a surprising number of phyla found inside the micro-habitats created by the coral rubble/framework material including sponges, brachiopods and a number of different polychaete families. As the polychaetes were more numerous, they were investigated more closely and a total of 34 different families were identified, with the Syllidae being found in every sample examined. The methodology presented here highlights that a "controlled" weak acid dissolution can be used to release the fauna from deep inside the coral rubble/framework material. Frequent removal (twice daily or more often) of liberated material meant that the fauna released were exposed to the acid for a minimum amount of time resulting in specimens in better condition and with more identifiable features. The preliminary results also illustrate the importance of sampling the dead coral framework/rubble/carbonate material, not only to identify them for what they are, but to look more closely at the fauna residing inside the structure themselves.

  6. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses

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    Marco A. S Mayworm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average and oils (21. 6%. Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%, while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average. The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds. The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora, oleic (Qualea and Salvertia or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species. The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid, for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C20 or C22 chains or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids. The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.Teores de proteínas, carboidratos solúveis e óleos de sementes de 57 indivíduos de Vochysiaceae, compreendendo uma espécie de Callisthene, seis de Qualea, uma de Salvertia e oito de Vochysia foram determinados. As principais reservas de sementes de Vochysiaceae são proteínas (20% em média e óleos (21, 6%. A média dos teores de carboidratos foi de 5, 8%. Callisthene apresentou o mais baixo teor de proteínas (16, 9%, enquanto Q. cordata foi a espécie com o mais elevado teor (30% em média. Teores de carboidratos solúveis em etanol foram muito superiores aos solúveis em água. Os teores de

  7. Trap-nesting bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea in areas of dry semideciduous forest and caatinga, Bahia, Brazil Abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea que nidificam em ninhos-armadilha em áreas de floresta semi-decídua e caatinga, Bahia, Brasil

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study were examined the species richness and seasonal abundance of cavity-nesting bees in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest and caatinga in the State of Bahia, Brazil. Sampling was done employing two types of trap-nests: bamboo canes and tubes made of black cardboard with dimensions of either 58 x 6 mm or 105 x 8 mm. The traps were inspected once a month. One hundred and forty-six nests of 11 bee species were collected in the forest, and 121 nests of seven species were collected in the caatinga. Five species of cleptoparasitic bees were also reared from these nests. The highest nesting frequencies occurred in the wet season in both areas. Nests parasitism was important only for Centris tarsata Smith, 1874, and was higher at the caatinga site than in the forest. The mortality of pre-emergent adults was high, especially in C. tarsata,Tetrapedia diversipes Klug, 1810 and Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758. Information on the number of cells per nest, the size, shape, and arrangement of brood cells in the nests, as well as the number of adults produced and the number of generations per year are also presented. Species richness, temporal patterns of nesting, and percentage of parasitism were compared with other habitats.Neste estudo foram investigadas a riqueza de espécies e a abundância sazonal de abelhas que nidificam em cavidades em áreas de Floresta estacional semi-decídua e Caatinga na Bahia. A amostragem foi realizada com dois tipos de ninhos-armadilha (= N.A.: gomos de bambu e tubos de cartolina preta (58 x 6 mm e 105 x 8 mm. Os N.A. foram inspecionados uma vez por mês. Foram coletados 146 ninhos de 11 espécies de abelhas na floresta e 121 ninhos de sete espécies na caatinga. Além disso, cinco espécies de abelhas cleptoparasitas foram criadas a partir destes ninhos. As freqüências de nidificação mais altas ocorreram na estação úmida em ambas as áreas. Parasitismo de ninhos foi importante apenas para Centris tarsata

  8. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae Comportamiento alimentario de las larvas del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae que se crían en el aerénquima de Pontederiaceae

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    M. Cristina Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae, digging a mine near the epidermis and forming several holes to the exterior. T. romus Bickel & Hernández develop in E. azurea (Sw. Kunth petioles; the mine is curved and short compared with other Thrypticus species. T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández develops in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, and digs the mine between the epidermis and the big central cell of the petioles. T. taragui Bickel & Hernández breeds in submersed stems of P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, and forms a mine close to the epidermis with branches to the central vascular stele. The mines of T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus and T. azuricola could not be associated with the corresponding species. Neither predators nor parasites were found associated with the group, but some cases of cannibalism were observed when two mines were confluent. The truncatus group species have a very specific feeding habit, live completely enclosed within host plant tissues, and feed on the sap obtained from holes chewed in the vascular bundles of the petioles, possibly using yeast as supplementary nourishment. Extensive field collections and laboratory tests indicate that each species in the truncatus group is associated with a specific host plant in the Pontederiaceae. Such specialization suggests a long association between the members of this group and their respective host plants.Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms

  9. Comunidades de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no Sudeste do Brasil Euglossine bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae community in Atlantic Forest fragments in southeastern Brazil

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    André Villaça Ramalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comunidade de abelhas Euglossina foi amostrada através de armadilhas com iscas aromáticas, ao longo de 12 meses (novembro de 2004 a outubro de 2005 em cinco fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica submontana com diferentes tamanhos e níveis de degradação, na bacia do Rio São João, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro: Reserva Biológica União (3126 ha, Andorinhas (145 ha, Imbaú (130 ha, Estreito (21 ha e Afetiva (19 ha. Foram registrados 4094 indivíduos pertencentes a 17 espécies de três gêneros (Euglossa, Eulaema e Exaerete nas 5 áreas. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa sapphirina Moure, 1968, sendo maior a importância relativa desta última nos fragmentos menores. Dentre as espécies encontradas, Euglossa analis Westwood, 1840 é sugerida como possível indicadora de florestas mais preservadas. Na comparação entre as cinco áreas foram verificadas correlações positivas e significativas da riqueza de espécies de abelhas com o tamanho da área e da diversidade de abelhas (H´ com a diversidade florística (H´. Estes dados sugerem que perdas de área e qualidade de hábitat influenciam negativamente a comunidade destas abelhas, reduzindo a riqueza e diversidade de espécies. Os maiores valores de similaridade foram observados na comparação entre os fragmentos da região do Imbaú, distantes entre si por até 2 Km, sugerindo que estes não estejam isolados para as populações de Euglossina, ou que venham sofrendo igualmente os efeitos da fragmentação.The Euglossine bee community was sampled with chemical bait traps throughout 12 months (November 2004 to October 2005 in five remnants of submontane Atlantic Forest in São João river basin, in the north of Rio de Janeiro state with different sizes and degradation levels: Reserva Biológica União (3126 ha, Andorinhas (145 ha, Imbaú (130 ha, Estreito

  10. PENURUNAN COD, TSS DAN TOTAL FOSFAT PADA SEPTIC TANK LIMBAH MATARAM CITRA SEMBADA CATERING DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN WASTEWATER GARDEN (Degradation of COD, TSS and Total Phosphate in Septic Tank Wastewater of Mataram Citra Sembada Catering Using Wastewater

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    Dradjat Suhardjo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Sumber limbah berasal dari septictank industri restauran (catering Citra Sembada Catering, termasuk dalam kategori limbah domestik. Limbah tersebut banyak mengandung komponen yang tidak diinginkan bila dibuang ke badan air. Konsentrasi limbah yang masih di atas baku mutu, di antaranya akan memunculkan masalah pencemaran. Reaktor Wastewater Garden yang menggunakan krikil (0,5Cm-1cm dan 6 jenis tanaman yaitu : melati air (Echinodoras paleafias, Cyperus (Cyperus, Futoi (Hippochaetes lymnenalis, Pisang air (Typhonodorum indleyanum, Pickerel rush (Pontedoria cordata, Cattail (Typha latifulia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat efektivitas reaktor Wastewater Garden, apabila digunakan untuk menurunkan konsentrasi Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS dan Fosfat Total sebagai faktor pencemar pada limbah industri restauran (Citra Sembada Catering yang tertampung pada septictank. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Wastewater Garden dengan sistem batch dan dimensi reaktor lm x 0.5m x lm. Zona air limbah 75 cm, dan zona substrat atau krikil 80 cm, akar tanaman ditanam sedalam l0-15 cm. Metode penelitian yang digunakan berdasarkan SNI, di mana COD mengacu pada SNI 06-6989.2-2004 metode refluks tertutup secara spektrofotometri, TSS mengacu pada SK SNI M-03-1990-F metode pengujian secara gravimetri dan Fosfat total mengacu pada SNI M-52-1990-03 metode asam askorbat dengan alat spektrofotometer. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 12 hari di mana setiap 3 hari sampel diambil pada outlel kemudian dianalisis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, diperoleh bahwa penggunaan wastewater garden pada limbah cair Mataram Citra Sembada Catering dapat menurunkan COD dengan efektivitas optimum 40,81% pada hari ke-6, penurunan TSS 89,l2% pada efektifitas optirnum hari ke-12 dan penurunan fosfat total dengan efektivitas optimum pada hari ke-6 yaitu sebesar 99,73 %. Tanaman dapat hidup dengan subur.   ABSTRACT  Wastewater

  11. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae Comunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinatorsComunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Abelhas Euglossina são importantes polinizadores nas florestas e em

  12. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae

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    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores, os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae, em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base do gineceu e é acumulado em câmara nectarífera. Os grãos de pólen são liberados gradativamente, prolongando-se a fase de doação de pólen. As abelhas Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius e C. tarsata Smith são os polinizadores da espécie. Destaca-se pilhagem primária de néctar, por abelhas, e secundária, por borboletas e beija-flor. A espécie é auto-incompatível, apresentando baixos índices de formação de frutos em condições naturais (Frutos/Flores = 12,2%. Foi registrado padrão de floração "cornucópia", entre os meses de dezembro a março (estação quente/chuvosa, com pico em janeiro. As sementes são anemocóricas e liberadas gradativamente na estação fria e seca.This work deals with the floral biology, the foraging activities of floral visitors (pollinators and robbers, phenology and reproductive system of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae in the "restinga" of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2000. The flowers display daytime anthesis and last only one day. These attractive pink flowers are tubular, hermaphroditic, odoriferous and produce nectar as the floral reward. The nectar is secreted by a nectariferous disk concealed within a chamber. The pollen grains are gradually released throughout anthesis, extending the pollen presentation phase. The bees Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius and C. tarsata Smith are the pollinator species. Primary and secondary

  13. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica) - A Synthesis and Final Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Roksana; Convey, Peter; De Stefano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum) and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium) supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea). Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2–5 m) was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments. PMID:27078637

  14. Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita (L. Rusby – properties and application

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    Anna Kasprzyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia mallow (or Virgina fanpetals belongs to the Malvaceae family and it originates from the Southeastern parts of North America. In the 20th century, the plant was brought to Europe, specifically to Ukraine, and then it was introduced in Poland (Kasprzyk et al. 2013. Virginia mallow is mainly used in industry as biomass for energy generation and as a source of fibers or forage. It is a subject of interest to many researchers due to the fact that it is a fast growing plant with a high potential yield and the ability of multiple regrowth even after cutting. Highly adaptable to different climates and soil conditions indicate a potential increase in the area occupied by the species. It can be grown on the slopes of eroded areas, land which is excluded from agricultural use, on chemically degraded areas, also on dumps and landfills of garbage. In the family Malvaceae, there are several species commonly used in medicine, such as Sida acuta Burm.f., S. cordata (Burm.f. Borss.Waalk. or S. cordifolia L. and therefore the interest in the healing properties of Virginia mallow seems natural. Recent studies have shown that there is a possibility of the use of Virginia mallow as herbal material. Studies have shown that the extracts from seeds of S. hermaphrodita (L. Rusby have caused a decrease of viability and deformation of Mycobacterium smegmatis cells (Lewtak et al. 2013. There are also studies about anticancer activity of S. hermaphodita extracts against SiHa (human cervical cancer lines. Two tests (MTT and NR uptake were used and the results showed absence of cytotoxic effect using MTT tests, and a slight cytotoxic effect using NR uptake (Frant et al. 2013.

  15. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  16. PATTERNS OF PEDOTURBATION BY TREE UPROOTING IN FOREST SOILS

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    M.V. Bobrovsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fall of a tree accompanied by its uprooting is the most common natural end of the tree life. To understand how soil is affected by treefalls, it is necessary to recognize their signs in soil profiles, even when their surface features (pit-and-mound topography are erased. The paper reviews these signs of treefalls in soil profiles, which can be used to distinguish the patterns of old treefall-related pedoturbations. The paper is based on a literature analysis and results of authors’ long-term studies of forest soil in the European part of Russia and in the Western Siberia. Two main types of uprooting of a falling tree (hinge and rotational treefalls are considered. The paper presents data on the sizes of 424 pit-and-mound soil complexes for nine tree species (Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus glabra, Quercus robur, Betula pendula, Populus tremula, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris and describes peculiarities of soil relocation in the process of different treefalls, which is necessary to recognize old treefall complexes in soil profiles. The following soil-profile signs of treefalls are considered: (1 treefall pits (cauldrons; (2 spotty or streaky structures of different degrees of contrast; (3 blocks of “buried material” from the upper soil layers; (4 washed (bleached material depositing at the bottom of pits and filling soil pores and channels of various origins; (5 signs of hydrogenous changes of soil material resulting from water stagnation in the pits; (6 root channels at the bottom of the pit and (7 inclusions of litter and charcoal. As shown by our studies, treefall-related pedoturbations affect soil profiles at a depth larger than the depth usually described by the soil horizons A, E, Bhs, etc. A conclusion is made that in most forest soils, the middle and lower parts of profiles have patterns originating from the transfer of soil material upon treefalls.

  17. Effect of controlled inoculation with specific mycorrhizal fungi from the urban environment on growth and physiology of containerized shade tree species growing under different water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Alessio; Frangi, Piero; Amoroso, Gabriele; Piatti, Riccardo; Faoro, Marco; Bellasio, Chandra; Ferrini, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of selected mycorrhiza obtained in the urban environment on growth, leaf gas exchange, and drought tolerance of containerized plants growing in the nursery. Two-year-old uniform Acer campestre L., Tilia cordata Mill., and Quercus robur L. were inoculated with a mixture of infected roots and mycelium of selected arbuscular (maple, linden) and/or ectomycorrhiza (linden, oak) fungi and grown in well-watered or water shortage conditions. Plant biomass and leaf area were measured 1 and 2 years after inoculation. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and water relations were measured during the first and second growing seasons after inoculation. Our data suggest that the mycelium-based inoculum used in this experiment was able to colonize the roots of the tree species growing in the nursery. Plant biomass was affected by water shortage, but not by inoculation. Leaf area was affected by water regime and, in oak and linden, by inoculation. Leaf gas exchange was affected by inoculation and water stress. V(cmax) and J(max) were increased by inoculation and decreased by water shortage in all species. F(v)/F(m) was also generally higher in inoculated plants than in control. Changes in PSII photochemistry and photosynthesis may be related to the capacity of inoculated plants to maintain less negative leaf water potential under drought conditions. The overall data suggest that inoculated plants were better able to maintain physiological activity during water stress in comparison to non-inoculated plants.

  18. Linking xylem water storage with anatomical parameters in five temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupa, Radek; Plavcová, Lenka; Gloser, Vít; Jansen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The release of water from storage compartments to the transpiration stream is an important functional mechanism that provides the buffering of sudden fluctuations in water potential. The ability of tissues to release water per change in water potential, referred to as hydraulic capacitance, is assumed to be associated with the anatomy of storage tissues. However, information about how specific anatomical parameters determine capacitance is limited. In this study, we measured sapwood capacitance (C) in terminal branches and roots of five temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L., Quercus robur L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Tilia cordata Mill.). Capacitance was calculated separately for water released mainly from capillary (CI; open vessels, tracheids, fibres, intercellular spaces and cracks) and elastic storage compartments (CII; living parenchyma cells), corresponding to two distinct phases of the moisture release curve. We found that C was generally higher in roots than branches, with CI being 3-11 times higher than CII Sapwood density and the ratio of dead to living xylem cells were most closely correlated with C In addition, the magnitude of CI was strongly correlated with fibre/tracheid lumen area, whereas CII was highly dependent on the thickness of axial parenchyma cell walls. Our results indicate that water released from capillary compartments predominates over water released from elastic storage in both branches and roots, suggesting the limited importance of parenchyma cells for water storage in juvenile xylem of temperate tree species. Contrary to intact organs, water released from open conduits in our small wood samples significantly increased CI at relatively high water potentials. Linking anatomical parameters with the hydraulic capacitance of a tissue contributes to a better understanding of water release mechanisms and their implications for plant hydraulics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  19. Population dynamics of Euglossinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an early second-growth forest of Cajual Island, in the State of Maranhão, Brazil

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    SILVA F. S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in an early second-growth forest aiming at knowing the richness, relative abundance, seasonal distribution, and hourly frequency of euglossine bees, and their association with scent baits. Male bees were attracted to cineole, vanillin, methyl salicylate, and eugenol. The baits were hooked 1.5 m high and 6 m from one another. The specimens were collected from December 1997 to November 1998, once a month, from 7:00 to 17:00 h. A total of 339 male euglossine bees were caughts, accounting for 19 species and four genera. The most common species was E. cordata, making up 69.9% of the individuals, followed by E. truncata (2.3%, E. violaceifrons, and E. smaragdina (2.1%. The most attractive scent was cineole, which baited 87% of the specimens and 73.7% of the species. Vanillin, the second most visited bait, eured 7.6% of the specimens and 26.3% of the species. E. surinamensis was only collected with this bait. Methyl salicylate and eugenol baited combined 2.6% of the specimens. However, by species numbers Methyl salicylate attracted 21% whereas eugenol was attractive for 15.8% of them. In general, the species were more abundantly found in the rainy season (January-June. The hourly activity data showed that the euglossine bees were attracted to the baits all day long, but at a higher frequency in the morning period, peaking between 8:00 and 10:00 h.

  20. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Poznań, 2003-2004

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    Alicja Stach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the Łukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Poznań, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

  1. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

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    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  2. Metalaxyl toxicity, uptake, and distribution in several ornamental plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P C; Whitwell, T; Klaine, S J

    2001-01-01

    Phytoremediation depends on the ability of plants to tolerate and assimilate contaminants. This research characterized the interaction between several ornamental plant species and the fungicidal active ingredient, metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)alanine methyl ester]. Species evaluated included sweetflag (Acorus gramineus Sol. ex Aiton), canna (Canna hybrida L. 'Yellow King Humbert'), parrotfeather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.], and pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.). Metalaxyl tolerance levels for each species were determined by exposing plants for 7 d to solutions containing 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg metalaxyl L-1 aqueous nutrient media. Response endpoints included fresh mass production after 7 d exposure and 7 d post-exposure and quantum efficiency using dark-adapted (Fv/Fm) and light-adapted (fluorescence yields) plants. Metalaxyl uptake and distribution within the plant was determined by growing plants in aqueous nutrient media containing 1.18 x 10(6) Bq L-1 [14C]metalaxyl (0.909 mg L-1) for 1, 3, 5, or 7 d. Plant tissues were combusted and analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Metalaxyl had no effects on the endpoints measured, except for fresh mass production of sweetflag at the 75 and 100 mg L-1 treatment levels. However, leaf necrosis was apparent in most species after 5 d exposure to concentrations greater than 25 mg L-1. Metalaxyl removal from the spiked nutrient media ranged from 15 to 60% during the 7-d exposure period. The majority of metalaxyl removed from the solution was detected within individual plants. In nearly all cases, activity from the radiolabeled pesticide accumulated in the leaves. Uptake of metalaxyl was correlated with water uptake throughout the 7 d. These results suggest that all species examined may be good candidates for incorporation into a phytoremediation scheme for metalaxyl.

  3. Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J; Bell, Cameron

    2014-11-15

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) consist of emergent macrophytes that are placed on a floating mat in a pond for water treatment and aesthetic purposes. FTWs may have unique advantages with respect to treating urban runoff within existing retention ponds for excess nutrients. However, research is lacking in providing guidance on performance of specific species for treating urban runoff, and on timing of harvest. Harvesting is needed to remove nutrients permanently from the retention pond. We investigated vegetation effects on FTWs on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal performance and storage in above-ground FTW macrophyte tissues. The study evaluated pickerelweed (PW, Pontederia cordata L.) and softstem bulrush (SB, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) over time in microcosms flushed with water obtained from a nearby urban retention pond in northern Virginia near Washington, DC. While the literature exhibits a wide range of experimental sizes, using the term mesocosm, we have chosen the term microcosm to reflect the small size of our vessel; and do not include effects of sediment. The experiment demonstrated PW outperformed SB for P and N removal. Based upon analysis of the accumulated nutrient removal over time, a harvest of the whole PW and SB plants in September or October is recommended. However, when harvesting only the aerial parts, we recommend harvesting above-ground PW tissues in July or August to maximize nutrient removal. This is because PW translocates most of its nutrients to below-ground storage organs in the fall, resulting in less nutrient mass in the above-ground tissue compared to the case in the summer (vegetative stage). Further research is suggested to investigate whether vegetation can be overly damaged from multiple harvests on an annual basis in temperate regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

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    M. Cristina HERNÁNDEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae, minando cerca de la epidermis y abriendo varios orificios al exterior. La larva de T. romus Bickel & Hernández crece en E. azurea (Sw. Kunth, formando una mina curva, corta en comparación con las otras especies. La larva de T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández se desarrolla en Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, excavando la mina entre la epidermis y la gran celda central de los pecíolos. Por último, la larva de T. taragui Bickel & Hernández se cría en tallos sumergidos de P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, formando una mina subepidérmica con ramificaciones hacia la estela central del tallo. No se pudieron asociar las minas correspondientes a las especies T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus y T. azuricola. No se encontraron predadores ni parásitos de larvas o pupas, se observaron casos de canibalismo entre larvas cuando el trazado de dos minas confluye. Las especies del grupo truncatus poseen un modo de alimentación sumamente específico, confinadas al aerénquima, se alimentan de la savia extraída de los orificios roídos en los haces vasculares de los pecíolos y tallos, posiblemente con levaduras simbiontes como suplemento para la nutrición. Numerosas colecciones en el campo y pruebas en el laboratorio, indican que estos insectos están asociados con plantas hospedadoras específicas dentro de la misma familia. Esta especialización sugiere una larga asociación insecto-hospedadora.

  5. Prime waterfront real estate: Apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites

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    Colin H. KYLE, Alexis W. KROPF, Romi L. BURKS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available While difficult to prevent introductions, scientific research can help guide control efforts of exotic, invasive species. South American island apple snails Pomacea insularum have quickly spread across the United States Gulf Coast and few control measures exist to delay their spread. Usually occupying cryptic benthic habitats, female apple snails crawl out of the water to deposit large, bright pink egg clutches on emergent objects. To help identify the most likely place to find and remove clutches, we conducted four lab experiments to investigate what specific object qualities (i.e. material; shape and height; plant species; natural and artificial attracted P. insularum females to lay clutches. In our fourth experiment, we specifically examined the relationship between female size and reproductive output. To further understand reproductive output, we quantified experimental clutch chara- cteristics (height above water, dimensions, mass, approximate volume, number of eggs, hatching efficiency. Pomacea insularum females laid more clutches on plant material, chose round over flat surfaces and failed to differentiate between tall and short structures. In comparison to a common native plant in the eastern US, Pontederia cordata, snails clearly preferred to lay clutches on a widely distributed exotic, invasive plant (wild taro, Colocasia esculenta. Unexpectedly, smaller snails showed higher overall total fecundity as well as more eggs per clutch than larger snails. Therefore, hand removal efforts of large females may not be enough to slow down clutch production. Collectively, our results indicate that conservationists and managers should search emergent plants for P. insularum clutches carefully to guard against established populations [Current Zoology 57 (5: 630–641, 2011].

  6. Antioxidant activity of herbaceous plant extracts protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbaceous plants containing antioxidants can protect against DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances, antioxidant activity, and protection of DNA from oxidative damage in human lymphocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our methods used acidic methanol and water extractions from six herbaceous plants, including Bidens alba (BA), Lycium chinense (LC), Mentha arvensis (MA), Plantago asiatica (PA), Houttuynia cordata (HC), and Centella asiatica (CA). Methods Antioxidant compounds such as flavonol and polyphenol were analyzed. Antioxidant activity was determined by the inhibition percentage of conjugated diene formation in a linoleic acid emulsion system and by trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Their antioxidative capacities for protecting human lymphocyte DNA from H2O2-induced strand breaks was evaluated by comet assay. Results The studied plants were found to be rich in flavonols, especially myricetin in BA, morin in MA, quercetin in HC, and kaemperol in CA. In addition, polyphenol abounded in BA and CA. The best conjugated diene formation inhibition percentage was found in the acidic methanolic extract of PA. Regarding TEAC, the best antioxidant activity was generated from the acidic methanolic extract of HC. Water and acidic methanolic extracts of MA and HC both had better inhibition percentages of tail DNA% and tail moment as compared to the rest of the tested extracts, and significantly suppressed oxidative damage to lymphocyte DNA. Conclusion Quercetin and morin are important for preventing peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, and the leaves of MA and HC extracts may have excellent potential as functional ingredients representing potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:24279749

  7. Two widespread green Neottia species (Orchidaceae) show mycorrhizal preference for Sebacinales in various habitats and ontogenetic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Těšitelová, Tamara; Kotilínek, Milan; Jersáková, Jana; Joly, François-Xavier; Košnar, Jiří; Tatarenko, Irina; Selosse, Marc-André

    2015-03-01

    Plant dependence on fungal carbon (mycoheterotrophy) evolved repeatedly. In orchids, it is connected with a mycorrhizal shift from rhizoctonia to ectomycorrhizal fungi and a high natural (13)C and (15)N abundance. Some green relatives of mycoheterotrophic species show identical trends, but most of these remain unstudied, blurring our understanding of evolution to mycoheterotrophy. We analysed mycorrhizal associations and (13)C and (15)N biomass content in two green species, Neottia ovata and N. cordata (tribe Neottieae), from a genus comprising green and nongreen (mycoheterotrophic) species. Our study covered 41 European sites, including different meadow and forest habitats and orchid developmental stages. Fungal ITS barcoding and electron microscopy showed that both Neottia species associated mainly with nonectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade B, a group of rhizoctonia symbionts of green orchids, regardless of the habitat or growth stage. Few additional rhizoctonias from Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae, and ectomycorrhizal fungi were detected. Isotope abundances did not detect carbon gain from the ectomycorrhizal fungi, suggesting a usual nutrition of rhizoctonia-associated green orchids. Considering associations of related partially or fully mycoheterotrophic species such as Neottia camtschatea or N. nidus-avis with ectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade A, we propose that the genus Neottia displays a mycorrhizal preference for Sebacinales and that the association with nonectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade B is likely ancestral. Such a change in preference for mycorrhizal associates differing in ecology within the same fungal taxon is rare among orchids. Moreover, the existence of rhizoctonia-associated Neottia spp. challenges the shift to ectomycorrhizal fungi as an ancestral pre-adaptation to mycoheterotrophy in the whole Neottieae. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica--A Synthesis and Final Conclusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Majewska

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea. Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2-5 m was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments.

  9. QUALITY EVALUATION OF UNIFLORAL AND MULTIFLORAL HONEYS FROM SLOVAKIA AND OTHER COUNTRIES

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    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the blossom honey samples divided into the three groups: acacia (Robinia psedoacacia honeys (n=14, other unifloral honeys (clover Trifolium pratense, lime Tilia cordata, rape Brassica napus, buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum, chestnut Castanea sativa; n=8 and multifloral honeys (n=16. We tested the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of honeys. Followed physico-chemical parameters were tested: water, water content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, pH, free acidity and diastase. From microbiological parameters, we found total plate count (TPC, TPC of anaerobic microorganisms, counts of coliform bacteria, sporulating bacteria and microscopic fungi in the honey samples using dilution plating method. Water content ranged from 13.60 to 21.90 g 100g-1 and two samples of multifloral honeys exceeded the limit value for water content (max 20.00 g 100g-1. HMF ranged from 0.77 to 10.93 mg kg-1 that is typical for fresh and heat-untreated honeys. Average values of pH were 5.02 ± 0.25 for acacia honey, 4.98 ± 0.31 for other unifloral honeys and 4.66 ± 0.45 for multifloral honeys. One sample of multifloral honeys exceeded the limit value for free acidity (max 50 meq kg-1. Higher TPC (above 2.00 log CFU g-1 was detected in 2 out of 14 acacia honeys (14.29%, in 2 out of 8 other unifloral honeys (25.00% and in 5 out of 16 multifloral honeys (31.25%. Microscopic fungi were not found in 3 acacia honeys (21.43%, 2 other unifloral honeys (25.00% and 2 multifloral honeys (12.50%. Overall, the obtained results showed good quality of evaluated honeys.

  10. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinators

  11. INFLUENCIA DE COBERTURAS EN SUELO SOBRE LA SELECCIÓN DEL HOSPEDANTE POR Bemisia tabaci, EN CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO

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    Luko Hilje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque varios tipos de coberturas en suelo (inertes o vivas pueden reducir la afluencia de adultos de B. tabaci en plantas de tomate, se desconoce el mecanismo específico de acción de cada una de ellas. Por tanto, se realizó un experimento en un invernadero en Turrialba, Costa Rica, para determinar su respuesta tanto a coberturas inertes (metal verde y plástico plateado y amarillo como vivas: maní forrajero (Arachis pintoi, Fabaceae, cinquillo (Drymaria cordata, Caryophyllaceae y culantro (Coriandrum sativum, Umbelliferae. Se les comparó con un testigo (suelo desnudo. Hubo 4 repeticiones de cada tratamiento. Cada cobertura se sembró en una maceta grande, rodeado de una plántula de tomate de 15 cm de altura. Las macetas se colocaron sobre el piso del invernadero, espaciadas 40 cm entre sí. Cada experimento se repitió en 4 días consecutivos, para lo cual los tratamientos se aleatorizaron todos los días. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas, con las coberturas como la parcela principal y las fechas como las subparcelas. La víspera de cada repetición se liberaron 1200 adultos de B. tabaci (biotipo A en el área experimental y al día siguiente se registraron sus datos tanto en la planta de tomate como en cada cobertura. Los números de adultos fueron mucho mayores (p0,05. Aunque todas interfieren con la habilidad de los adultos para localizar las plantas de tomate, el mecanismo específico de acción difirió según la naturaleza de cada una, excepto en las coberturas vivas, que parecen compartir el mismo mecanismo.

  12. A contribution to the knowledge of biology and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Attelabidae

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    Jaroslav Urban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurrence, development and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L.. The majority of field studies was carried out at Training Forest Enterprise (TFE Masaryk Forest in Křtiny (District Brno-venkov in 2010 and 2011. In addition to this, the species was studied in detail also in a laboratory. It occurred mostly on Betula pendula and Carpinus betulus. Rarely, the species was found on Alnus glutinosa and Corylus avellana and only sporadically on Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos. In the studied area, larvae and pupae hibernate. Beetles occur on trees from the end of April to the beginning of July, sporadically later. Females lay on average 2.5 (in the laboratory 4.4 eggs into rolls on B. pendula, on C. betulus 2.2 eggs. During two months, they damage on average 5.3 cm2 leaves creating 14 rolls and laying 35 eggs into the rolls. Larvae consume only 1.7 cm2 leaf blade. The development of the species takes three to four months from egg laying to the departure of larvae into soil. On leaves of B. pendula of an average area of 14.2 cm2, females roll up the same area (about 11.2 cm2 as on leaves of C. betulus of an area of 21.7 cm2. Into the rolls, they lay on average the same number of eggs. The average number of eggs in rolls increases with the increased area of B. pendula leaf blade. Trees partly compensate for the reduction of assimilatory area also by the growth of the area of neighbouring undamaged leaves (on average by 12.7 %.

  13. A multi-proxy approach to identifying short-lived marine incursions in the Early Carboniferous

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    Bennett, Carys; Davies, Sarah; Leng, Melanie; Snelling, Andrea; Millward, David; Kearsey, Timothy; Marshall, John; Reves, Emma

    2015-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), which examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland and the Borders, which contains rare fish and tetrapod material. The Ballagan Formation is characterised by sandstones, dolomitic cementstones, paleosols, siltstones and gypsum deposits. The depositional environment ranges from fluvial, alluvial-plain to marginal-marine environments, with fluvial, floodplain and lacustrine deposition dominant. A multi-proxy approach combining sedimentology, palaeontology, micropalaeontology, palynology and geochemistry is used to identify short-lived marine transgressions onto the floodplain environment. Rare marginal marine fossils are: Chondrites-Phycosiphon, Spirorbis, Serpula, certain ostracod species, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common non-marine fauna include Leiocopida and Podocopida ostracods, Mytilida and Myalinida bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and fish. Thin carbonate-bearing dolomitic cementstones and siltstone contain are the sedimentary deposits of marine incursions and occur throughout the formation. Over 600 bulk carbon isotope samples were taken from the 500 metre thick Norham Core (located near Berwick-Upon-Tweed), encompassing a time interval of around 13 million years. The results range from -26o to -19 δ13Corg, with an average of -19o much lighter than the average value for Early Carboniferous marine bulk organic matter (δ13C of -28 to -30). The isotope results correspond to broad-scale changes in the depositional setting, with more positive δ13C in pedogenic sediments and more negative δ13C in un-altered grey siltstones. They may also relate to cryptic (short-lived) marine incursions. A comparison of δ13C values from specific plant/wood fragments, palynology and bulk

  14. Stratigraphy and paleontology of Lower Permian rocks north of Cananea, northern Sonora, Mexico

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    Blodgett, R.B.; Moore, T.E.; Gray, F.

    2002-01-01

    Lower Permian carbonate and overlying red bed clastic rocks are present in a 2 km2 stratigraphic window in the vicinity of Rancho La Cueva, Santa Cruz sheet (scale 1:50,000), northern Sonora, Mexico. This exposure lies unconformably beneath predominantly intermediate Upper Cretaceous volcanics yielding 40Ar/39Ar ages of 73.4?? 0.18 and 71.1 ?? 0.35 Ma. The lower part of the Permian succession consists of light- to medium-gray colored limestones of the Colina Limestone, with a minimum thickness of 235 m. Sedimentary features suggest shallow water, slightly restricted depositional environments. Although lacking observable fossils for the most part, two intervals of richly fossiliferous, silicified shell beds are present near the base and top of the Colina Limestone. The lower fauna consist mostly of gastropods and bivalves. The presence of a new microdomatid gastropod species. Glyptospira sonorensis n. sp., close to Glytospira arelela Plas, suggests a late Wolfcampian age for this horizon. The upper fauna are predominantly molluscan dominated (gastropods and bivalves), but some brachiopods (productids and the rhynchonellid genus Pontisia) are also present. Gastropod genera include Bellerophon, Warthia, Euomphalus (represented by the species, Euomphalus kaibabensis Chronic), Baylea, Worthenia, Naticopsis, Goniasma, Kinishbia, Cibecuia, and Glyptospira. The gastropods suggest a Leonardian (late Early Permian) age for this horizon, and many of the species have previously been recorded from the Supai Group and Kaibab Formation of northern and central Arizona. The Colina Limestone is conformably overlain by 11.2 m of light-gray lime mudstone and dolostone, assigned here to the Epitaph Dolomite, which in turn is succeeded by 58.8 m of red-colored sandstone and gray lime mudstone, assigned here to the Scherrer Formation. This Lower Permian succession is significant because it further strengthens the stratigraphic ties of southeastern Arizona rocks with those of northern

  15. Trans-border (South-Eastern Serbia/South-Western Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic sediments: The Getic and Supra-Getic units

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    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Getic and Supra-Getic are palaeogeographic units in SE Serbia and SW Bulgaria. Based on the presence (in Eastern or absence (in Western of Lower Jurassic marine deposits, the Getic is divided into Eastern and Western. In the Eastern Getic, the Lower Jurassic sedimentation in SE Serbia is represented by the Vidlič Clastites covered by the Lukanja Coal Beds, Lukanja Quartz Sandstones, Lukanja Brachiopods Beds, Lukanja Marlstones, Lukanja Belemnitic-Gryphaean Beds and Lukanja Cephalopod Limestones; in SW Bulgaria, the sedimentation commenced with the Tuden Formation, followed by the Kostina Formation and the Ozirovo Formation with a few members. The Middle Jurassic in SE Serbia commenced with the Senokos Siltstones and Shales and the Gulenovci Beds, while in SW Bulgaria with black shales (the Etropole Formation, followed by marls and clayey limestones of the Bov Formation. The Middle Jurassic sediments are represented in the Western Getic of SE Serbia by the Kurilovo Clastites and the Kurilovo Limestones (synonym to Gumpina Limestones of KRAÜTNER & KRSTIĆ 2003; in the Supra-Getic of SE Serbia they are formed by the Jerma Clastites and Jerma Limestones (synonym of the Gumpina Limestones. In SW Bulgaria the Middle Jurassic sediments are represented by the sandstones of the Gradets Formation and by the bioclastic limestones of the Polaten Formation. During the Callovian (Middle? started the formation of a carbonate platform with micritic limestones. In SE Serbia, it is Basara Limestones, Vidlič Limestones, Beljanica and Ždrelo Limestones, and in SW Bulgarian, the Belediehan Formation of Callovian-Kimmeridgian p.p. age. Characteristic for the Supra- Getic is the formation of a few grabens with specific sedimentation: the Svetlya Graben (the Zhablyano and Ozirovo Formations and the Lobosh Formation; the Treklyano Graben (the Dobridol and Sredorek Formations, and out of it - the Methohya and Sredorek Formation. During the Callovian

  16. Stratigraphic palaeobiology around the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary at Altavilla Milicia (Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Stefano; Benvenuti, Marco; Garilli, Vittorio; Uchman, Alfred; Pollina, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The Pliocene-Pleistocene around Altavilla Milicia, near Palermo (Sicily), includes a thick siliciclastic succession rich with shell beds, dominated by molluscs, brachiopods and annelids in fine-grained, totally bioturbated sandstones. Taphonomy of fossil assemblages indicates the importance of taphonomic feedback and within-habitat time-averaging in proximity of maximum flooding intervals. The trace fossil suite is characterized by the abundance of Thalassinoides paradoxicus boxworks and by local occurence of Scalichnus, Piscichnus, ?Scolicia, ?Bichordites, Ophiomorpha, ?Gyrolithes, Palaeophycus, Diopatrichnus and ?Taenidium. These trace fossils are typical of the archetypal Cruziana ichnofacies, with local elements of the proximal Cruziana ichnofacies, which point to deposition mainly below the fairweather wave base. Three depositional sequences, characterized by geometries driven by the interplay of eustatism and regional tectonics, were recognized through sedimentary facies analysis. Biostratigraphic data frame the oldest sequence in the upper Pliocene, whereas the thickest part of the succession, occupied by the second sedimentary sequence, includes biozone NN16b/17 of calcareous nannoplankton stratigraphy, thereby comprising the base of the Pleistocene. Transgressive deposits of the third and uppermost sequence are marked by encrusted and bioeroded pebbles with sparse oyster shells. The whole time interval is characterized by glacio-eustatic fluctuations in the 50-100 m range and with 100 ky-periodicity. We performed a multivariate analysis of 22 samples yielding 92 species of mollusks collected in the first and second sequences. Clustering and ordination analysis allowed to recognize a gradient controlled by depth-related environmental variables. At one end of the continuum we have a very-shallow water assemblage dominated by the bivalve Loripes orbiculatus, indicating an organic-rich seagrass bottom. Opposite in the continuum is an offshore assemblage

  17. Body Size Preference of Marine Animals in Relation to Extinction Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, A.; Idgunji, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our project encompasses an extremely specific aspect in relation to the five mass extinctions in geologic history. We asked ourselves whether larger or smaller body sizes would be better suited for surviving a mass extinction. To conduct research for our project, we used the body sizes of 17,172 marine animal genera as our primary data. These animals include echinoderms, arthropods, chordates, mollusks, and brachiopods. These creatures are perfect model organisms in terms of finding data on them because they have an excellent fossil record, and are well documented. We focused on the mean body size of these animals before and after each of the five mass extinctions (end-Ordovician, Late Devonian, end-Permian, end-Triassic, and end-Cretaceous). Our hypothesis was that the average biovolume of animals increased after each of the extinctions, with the mean size being greater after than it was before. Our size data is from the Ellis & Messina Catalogue of Ostracoda and the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. We obtained stratigraphic range data The Treatise and Sepkoski (2002). In our analyses, we compared the mean size of the different animal genera before and after each extinction event. We further partitioned size change across mass extinction boundaries into three categories: the surviving genera, the extinct genera, and the newly originating genera that came about after the extinction. According to our analyses, the mean sizes did not change significantly from the genera living during the stages before the extinctions and after the extinctions. From our results, we can assume that there were not enough major increases in the overall volume of the organisms to warrant a definite conclusion that extinctions lead to larger body sizes. Further support for our findings came from the T-tests in our R code. Only the Cretaceous period showed true evidence for size changing because of the extinction; in this case, the mean size decreased. T-tests for the Cretaceous

  18. A new dimension to the Sr isotope system - (88/86)Sr record of marine carbonates in the Phanerozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstaedt, H.; Eisenhauer, A.; Krabbenhoeft, A.; Farkas, J.; Veizer, J.

    2009-12-01

    For the first time we extend and complete the application of the radiogenic Sr isotope system (87Sr/86Sr) with a simultaneous measurement of radiogenic and stable strontium (Sr) isotopes (δ(88/86)Sr[‰]=(88Sr/86Srsample/88Sr/86Sr(NBS987)-1)*1000). Taking Sr isotope fractionation into account this opens a new dimension for the Sr isotope system allowing to gain quantitative information about the Sr output from the ocean. Applying a 87Sr/84Sr-double spike we measured paired δ(88/86)Sr-87Sr/86Sr* ratios of Phanerozoic marine carbonates samples which were screened for diagenesis prior to the measurement. The 87Sr/86Sr* ratios are renormalized to δ(88/86)Sr=0‰ (88Sr/86Sr=8.375209) in order to be compatible to the radiogenic Sr isotope system values. Data reduction and denormalization follows an iterative algorithm by Krabbenhöft et al. (2009). External δ(88/86)Sr reproducibility based on an internal coral carbonate standard (JCp-1) corresponds to 0.008‰ (2SEM). Our data reveal that the δ(88/86)Sr values of Phanerozoic brachiopods and belemnites samples are in the range of modern marine carbonates (JCp-1 coral standard value: 0.192±0.008‰) but isotopically lighter than modern seawater (δ(88/86)Sr(IAPSO)= 0.385±0.007‰) being in the range between ~0.080‰ and ~0.370‰ (mean of 0.168). We observe a decrease in δ(88/86)Sr from Ordovician (0.200‰) to Silurian period (0.080‰) with a consequent increase in δ(88/86)Sr towards the upper Permian period. Highest values (~0.370‰) of δ(88/86)Sr are reached close to the Permian/Triassic boundary. This study examines the main factors that control δ(88/86)Sr on Phanerozoic timescale. It was found that temperature is not the main factor that drives δ(88/86)Sr of marine carbonates. Rather we suggest that the δ(88/86)Sr of Phanerozoic seawater is controlled by changes in the Sr fluxes in and out of the ocean. Modeling of our data allows a quantification of the Phanerozoic imbalance between the Sr input and

  19. An in situ shelly fauna from the lower Paleozoic Zapla diamictite of northwestern Argentina: Implications for the age of glacial events across Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Juan L.; Halpern, Karen; de la Puente, G. Susana; Monaldi, César R.

    2015-12-01

    A shelly fauna from the upper part of the Zapla glacial diamictite includes the lingulate brachiopod Orbiculoidea radiata Troedsson, the rhynchonelliforms Dalmanella cf. testudinaria (Dalman) and Paromalomena sp., the bivalve Modiolopsis? sp., and the trilobite Dalmanitina subandina Monaldi and Boso. Both taphonomic and paleoecologic data indicate a lack of transport reflecting the original community. The assemblage is closely comparable to the widespread latest Ordovician Hirnantia-Dalmanitina fauna. The Hirnantian age of the Zapla diamictite is further corroborated by the record of the northern Gondwana chitinozoans Spinachitina cf. oulebsiri Paris and Desmochitina minor typica Eisenack. The graptolites and chitinozoans from the overlying Lipeón Formation indicate that the postglacial transgression took place in the earliest Llandovery (Parakidograptus acuminatus Biozone). According to the tectonosedimentary evidence, the Early Silurian age of the Cancañiri and San Gabán diamictites of north-central Bolivia and south Peru based on their palynological record is more likely the age of posglacial gravity flows and not that of the glaciation. We support the hypothesis that the weakly lithified glacigenic deposits of Hirnantian age were reworked and redistributed by high-energy marine processes during the postglacial transgression and then transported to the adjacent deep-marine trough. Iron-rich horizons have been recognized in many basins of southern South America reflecting eustatic and paleoclimatic fluctuations. Most of them formed during the early stages of the postglacial transgression at the Ordovician/Silurian transition and are associated with low sedimentation rates and condensed intervals. The mild maritime postglacial climate, the increasing atmospheric CO2, and possibly the presence of incipient vegetated areas led to extensive weathering of glacigenic sediments supplying iron into the marine system to form ferruginous deposits. The sea level fall

  20. 2010 Dry and 2009 - 2010 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, W

    2011-03-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) requested that Condor Country Consulting, Inc. (CCCI) perform wet season surveys and manage the dry season sampling for listed branchiopods in two ponded locations within the Site 300 Experimental Test Site. Site 300 is located in Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, located between the Cities of Livermore and Tracy. The two pool locations have been identified for possible amphibian enhancement activities in support of the Compensation Plan for impacts tied to the Building 850 soil clean-up project. The Building 850 project design resulted in formal consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as an amendment (File 81420-2009-F-0235) to the site-wide Biological Opinion (BO) (File 1-1-02-F-0062) in the spring of 2009 and requires mitigation for the California tiger salamander (AMCA, Ambystoma californiense) and California red-legged frog (CRLF, Rana draytonii) habitat loss. Both pools contain breeding AMCA, but do not produce metamorphs due to limited hydroperiod. The pool to the southeast (Pool BC-FS-2) is the preferred site for amphibian enhancement activities, and the wetland to northwest (Pool OA-FS-1) is the alternate location for enhancement. However, prior to enhancement, LLNL has been directed by USFWS (BO Conservation Measure 17 iii) to 'conduct USFWS protocol-level branchiopod surveys to determine whether listed brachiopod species are present within the compensation area.' CCCI conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2009-2010 wet season to determine the presence of federally-listed branchiopods at the two pools (previous surveys with negative findings were performed by CCCI in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 onsite). Surveys were conducted to partially satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS 'Interim Survey Guidelines to Permittees for Recovery Permits under Section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Endangered Species Act for the Listed Vernal Pool Branchiopods' ('Guidelines, USFWS

  1. Main consistent patterns of Stromatoporoid Development in the Late Ordovician and Silurian in the North Urals Palaeobasin

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    Antropova, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the history of the Earth there have been no basins with similar characteristics. The North Urals palaeobasin had its own unique features. The dominant benthic organisms of basin ecosystem during the Ordovician and Silurian were stromatoporoids, corals, and brachiopods. This fauna is vitally important for the aims of stratigraphy so long as conodonts are extremely rare in sections of the Northern Urals area. The most complete ordering of stromatoporoid complexes has been established and made it possible to estimate rates and measures of extinction at a level of the province. It was also found out that stromatoporoids were organisms responsive to subtle changes of environment and that they accommodated differently to those changing conditions. The evolution of stromatoporoids was accompanied by phylogenetic reorganization and formation of endemic communities in the Late Ordovician and Early Silurian. In the Late Silurian taxonomical diversity of stromatoporoids was mainly controlled by migration processes and cosmopolites with wide palaeogeographic links prevailed in the palaeobasin. Therefore palaeobasin at that time was open to stromatoporoid fauna migration which is confirmed by the occurrence of genera and species that disperse in coeval deposits of many areas, for example, Baltic States, Sweden, Ukraine (Podolia), Western Siberia, Arctic islands of Russia, Mongolia, Canada (islands). The evolution of stromatoporoid communities in the Ordovician-Silurian was intermitted by biotic crises. The analysis of stromatoporoid development helps to define crucial points of ecosystem's reorganizations coinciding with critical geological and biotic events in the history of the North Urals palaeobasin existence, as well as global events during the Ordovician and Silurian (Hirnantian Event, Ireviken Event, Lau Event). The analysis of crises indicates local dependence of stromatoporoid biodiversity on depositional environments. Large local biocenos reorganizations and biotic

  2. Palaeontological evidence bearing on global Ordovician-Silurian continental reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortey, Richard A.; Cocks, L. Robin M.

    2003-06-01

    The discreteness or otherwise of major Ordovician and Silurian terranes can be recognised by the shallow-water benthic faunas which lived upon them. Their borders are often indicated by the disposition of progressively shallow- to deep-water assemblages at the terrane edge as well as by structural features. Their positions relative to each other in the Early Palaeozoic can be best indicated by a combination of palaeomagnetic and faunal evaluation: the latter is the topic of this paper. Faunal evaluation is now possible quantitatively as well as quantitatively. Global palaeobiogeography is reviewed for the period as deduced from faunal evidence. There was one supercontinent, Gondwana, which stretched from West Gondwana (today's southern Europe and North Africa) at high latitudes to tropical East Gondwana (Australasia and adjacent areas), with intermediate palaeolatitudes in the Middle East and South America. Around Gondwana, especially to its north, were a large number of peri-Gondwanan terranes, particularly Avalonia, Perunica, parts of Turkey and Arabia and Sibumasu. In addition, there were the substantial independent continents of Laurentia, Baltica, Siberia, Annamia, North China and South China. Analysis of the shallow-water benthos, particularly trilobites and brachiopods, provides distinctive signatures for palaeo-position in most cases. Despite a large faunal turnover particularly corresponding with the latest Ordovician glacial event, the progressive evolution of the ecologies of benthic shelly faunas were also much influenced by changing geographies during the 80-Ma period. In the early Ordovician, oceans were at their widest, enabling Baltica and Laurentia to have different signatures from either East or West Gondwana. Siberia in early Ordovician times had faunal contact with Laurentia and East Gondwana, but in the mid-Ordovician, there were more endemics, and by the late Silurian, it was the only continent of substance in the northern hemisphere (hosting

  3. Devonian Terrestrial Revolution: the palaeoenvironment of the oldest known tetrapod tracks, Zachełmie Quarry, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzki, G.

    2012-04-01

    Numerous trackways and isolated prints with digit impressions, which are similar to the foot anatomy of early tetrapods such as Ichthyostega, were found on the three dolomite bed-surfaces in the lower part of the Wojciechowice Formation exposed in the Zachełmie Quarry in the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland), (Niedźwiedzki et al., 2010). The age of the tetrapod track-bearing strata is well-constrained, but the detailed sedimentology of the lower section with tetrapod ichnites is still under study. The Wojciechowice Formation represent one of the first carbonate stages of a transgressive succession that begins with Early Devonian continental to marginal marine clastics and culminates in the development of a Givetian coral-stromatoporoid carbonate platform. The tetrapod track-bearing complex is composed of grey to reddish, thin- to medium-bedded dolomitic shales and marly dolomite mudstones. These deposits from the tetrapod track-bearing horizon lack definitive marine body fossils, and may have formed in a marginal marine environment, e.g. around a coastal lagoon. Mudcracks, columnar peds, root traces, and microbially induced sedimentary structures were found in three distinct pedotypes of very weakly to weakly developed paleosols (Retallack, 2011). Conodonts of the costatus zone (mid-Eifelian) were found 20 m above the uppermost surface with tetrapod tracks in limestones of the upper Wojciechowice Formation, which contain also brachiopod and crinoidal debris. The overlying Kowala Formation is a marine coral limestone and dolostone. The parts of profile with tetrapod ichnites and invertebrate and conodont fossils contain also records of invertebrate traces. Seven ichnotaxa are distributed among four recognized ichnoassemblages. The recognized ichnocoenoses are typical for the shallow-marine (Cruziana ichnofacies) and land-water transitional (Skolithos/Psilonichnus ichnofacies) carbonate depositional environments. The ichnocoenoses are dominated by trace

  4. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    burrows belonging to Thalassinoides, which were interconnected galleries likely made by arthropods after the sediment became somewhat consolidated. Slabs bearing fossils are typically avoided in construction for esthetic reasons and because some impart weaknesses. Such slabs have, however, become increasingly popular for decorative surfaces not exposed to the elements, since the macrofossil content is so striking. Most common are receptaculitids, followed by solitary rugose corals, stromatoporoid sponges, colonial rugose and tabulate corals, brachiopods, bryozoans, gastropods, cephalopods, and trilobites; echinoderm ossicles are common in the muddy matrix. Fossil relative abundances vary stratigraphically, suggesting that subtle environmental changes took place over time.

  5. Rys historyczny i analiza dendrologiczna zespołu pałacowego Podzamcze w Bychawie

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    Marek Dąbski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zespół pałacowy Podzamcze w Bychawie, z ruinami zamku, drewnianym dworem i budynkami gospodarczymi to jeden z ciekawszych zabytków regionu bychawskiego, wpisany na listę zabytków woj. lubelskiego. Budowę bychawskiego zamku rozpoczął Mikołaj Pilecki herbu Leliwa w 1539 roku. Zamek położony był na półwyspie, otoczony z trzech stron stawami, odcięty od lądu fosą i połączony z podzamczem mostem zwodzonym. Bychawa często zmieniała swoich właścicieli – byli nimi m.in. ród Myszkowskich z Pińczowa, Andrzej Leopold Ossowski, Dominik Stoiński, Karol Scipio del Campo, rodzina Łaniewskich. W XIX w. otoczenie pałacu obsadzono topolami włoskimi, cyprysami i żywotnikami. Pomiędzy pałacem a stawem znajdowały się tarasowe ogrody włoskie, a w dalszej części terenu rozciągał się park typu krajobrazowego, wzdłuż którego dróg poprowadzono szpalery i aleje drzew. Pałac opustoszał po pożarze, który miał miejsce w latach 80. XIX w. Obecnie stanowi malowniczą ruinę, niepozbawioną wartości historycznych. Drzewostan parkowy reprezentowany jest przez 21 taksonów, a największa liczba egzemplarzy należy do gatunków: Acer platanoides L. (89 szt., Fraxinus excelsior L. (80, Tilia cordata Mill. (54 i Populus alba L. (38. Wśród podszytu najliczniejsze grupy stanowią krzewy z gatunków: Sambucus nigra L., Cornus mas L., Salix purpurea L. i Corylus avellena L. Projekt rewaloryzacji obiektu powinien zmierzać do poprawy walorów estetycznych obszaru, ekspozycji wzgórza zamkowego z odtworzeniem zatartych osi widokowych, podkreślenia kulturowej i dydaktycznej funkcji miejsca oraz stworzenie dla mieszkańców przyjaznego i dostępnego terenu rekreacji.

  6. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

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    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-01-01

    (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Białowieża National Park.

  7. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, As a Component of Autotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine

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    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the robin, Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758 as a consort of autotrophic consortia is considered. It has been found that representatives of 9 higher taxa of animals (Mammalia, Aves, Gastropoda, Insecta, Arachnida, Acarina, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Clitellata have trophic and topical links with the robin. At the same time, the robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753 (24.6 %, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768 (17.5 %, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753 (22.8 %, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae. The robin also belongs to the concentre of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and forms a complex trophic system. In the diet of its nestlings, there have been found 717 objects from 32 invertebrate taxa, belonging to the phylums Arthropoda (99.2 %, 31 species and Annelida (0.8 %, 1 species. The phylum Arthropoda was represented by the most numerous class Insecta (76.9 %, in which 10 orders (Lepidoptera (46.8 % dominates and 20 families were recorded, and also by the classes Arachnida (15.0 %, Malacostraca (5.3 % and Diplopoda (1.9 %. The invertebrate species composition was dominated by representatives of a trophic group of zoophages (14 species; 43.8 %; the portion of phytophages (7 species; 21.9 %, saprophages (18.7 %, and necrophages (15.6 % was the less. The highest number of food items was represented by phytophages (N = 717; 51 %, followed by zoophages (34 %, saprophages (12 %, and necrophages (3 %. The difference among study areas according to the number of food items and the number of species in the robin nestling diet is shown. In NNP “HF”, the highest number of food items was represented by phytophages - 47 % (N = 443, whereas zoophages were the most species-rich group (43.3 %, 13 species. In NNP “H”, phytophages also prevailed in

  8. Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.

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    Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( Jīn Yín Hūa), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Qīn Yè), Radix Isatidis ( Bǎn Lán Gēn), Viola yedoensis ( Zǐ Huā Dì Dīn), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu Wēn), Andrographis paniculata ( Chuān Xīn Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú Xīng Cǎo), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn Cǎo), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug.

  9. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

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    J. H. Cho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i CON, basal diet, ii DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05 ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05 ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05. Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05 ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05 score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = 54.10±1.20 kg, average age = 54±3 d were allotted to three treatments: i CON, basal diet; ii YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05 ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05. Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05 among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05 through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05 score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05 longissimus muscle area (LMA than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can

  10. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J H; Zhang, S; Kim, I H

    2012-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = 54.10±1.20 kg, average age = 54±3 d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can

  11. The denitrification properties of soils under three different shelterbelts and in adjoining cultivated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajdak, L.; Augustin, J.; Gaca, W.; Meysner, T.; Styla, K.

    2009-04-01

    The investigations were carried out in Agroecological Landscape Park in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań). Intensively agricultural is observed in this region. Characteristic features of this landscape are shelterbelts created in the XIX century by general Dezydery Chlapowski. All shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were introduced on Hapludalfs soils. Three shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were selected for this experiment. Two of them were created approximately 200 years ago. The first shelterbelt consists mainly of Robinia pseudoacacia and small admixture Quercus robur and Quercus petraea. The second one consists of Crataegus monogyna. The third one - a young shelterbelt was created in 1993 and consists of several species of plants such as: Quercus petraea and Quercus robur, Larix deciduas, Pinus sylvestris, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus intermedia, Tilia cordata and some other tree species. On soils were determinated: activity of nitrate reductase, activity of peroxidase, activity of urease and activity of xantine oxidase, total iron, Fe+3, Fe+2, total nitrogen, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), current N2O, N2 and CH4 flux rates, and pH (in 1M KCl). The contents of total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, N-NO3- and N-NH4+ were higher in the soil under old shelterbelts (Robinia pseudoacacia and Crataegus monogyna) than under young one. It points out the highest accumulation of organic matter in soils under two old shelterbelts. The same also applied to the current N2O and N2 fluxes. Unlike this CH4exchange was just low everywhere. Nitrate reductase, urease, xantine oxidase and peroxidase activities participates in the cycle of nitrogen and are sensitive on redox potential in soil. The highest activity of nitrate reductase and xantine oxidase activity were observed in young shelterbelt. Activity of urease and activity of peroxidase were higher under two old shelterbelts Robinia

  12. Cloning of NAD-SDH cDNA from plum fruit and its expression and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Teng-Fei; Li, Kai-Tuo; Zhong, Feng-Lin; Lin, Lin; Pan, Dong-Ming; Lu, Liu-Xin

    2012-08-01

    A full-length cDNA consisting of 1444 bp for NAD dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH) was cloned from fruit of plum (Prunus salicina var. cordata cv. Younai) by means of RT-PCR and RACE. The cDNA containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1101 bp encoded a polypeptide of 367 amino acid residues. The maltose binding protein fusion SDH (MBP-SDH) was expressed and partially purified from Escherichia coli cells, and biochemical properties of MBP-SDH and SDH cleaved from the fusion protein by factor Xa were characterized. The MBP-SDH had the specific affinity for NAD and was able to oxidize sorbitol, xylitol, l-ribitol and mannitol but not ethyl alcohol, arabitol and other polyols. The optimum pH for the oxidation of sorbitol and the reduction of fructose was 9.0 and 7.0, respectively; the maximum reaction rate occurred when temperature increased up to 50 °C in the presence of sorbitol. The MBP-SDH with a subunit of 80 kDa appears to be a hexamer. Its molecular weight was 478.6 kDa estimated by gel filtration and 493.2 kDa estimated using native linear gradient PAGE. The K(m) values for sorbitol, NAD, fructose and NADH were 95.86 mM, 0.31 mM, 1.04 M and 0.038 mM, respectively. However, when MBP was cleaved from the fusion enzyme, the SDH exists as a homotetramer with the native molecular weight of 164.8 kDa estimated by gel filtration. The K(m) values were 111.8 mM, 0.35 mM, 1.25 M and 0.048 mM for sorbitol, NAD, fructose and NADH, respectively. The MBP-SDH and the SDH were similar with respect to their kinetic characteristics despite their difference in quaternary structures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative phylogenies and host specialization in the alder ectomycorrhizal fungi Alnicola, Alpova and Lactarius (Basidiomycota in Europe

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    Manzi Sophie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycorrhizal fungi form intimate associations with their host plants that constitute their carbon resource and habitat. Alnus spp. (Betulaceae are known to host an exceptional species-poor and specialized ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal community compared to other tree species, but the host-specificity pattern and its significance in terms of fungal diversification and speciation remain poorly documented. The degree of parallel speciation, host switching, and patterns of biogeography were explored in the historical associations between alders and three ECM taxa of Basidiomycetes: Alnicola (Agaricales, Alpova (Boletales, and Lactarius (Russulales. The aim was to develop an evolutionary framework on host specificity and diversification of Basidiomycetes in this highly specialized plant-fungus symbiosis. Results Sporocarps of Alnicola (220, Lactarius (61 and Alpova (29 were collected from stands of the four European alder species (A. alnobetula including the endemic subsp. suaveolens in Corsica, A. cordata, A. glutinosa, A. incana in Western Europe (mainly in France and Austria, from 1995 to 2009. Specimens were morphologically identified to the species level. From these, 402 sequences of four DNA regions (ITS, rpb2, gpd, and the V9 domain of the mit-SSU rDNA were successfully obtained and analyzed in addition with 89 sequences available in GenBank and UNITE databases. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on all sequence data sets (individual and combined using maximum likelihood reconstruction and Bayesian inference. Fungal phylogenies are compared and discussed in relation to the host, with a focus on species boundaries by associating taxonomic, systematic and molecular information. Conclusions Patterns of host specificity and phylogenies of Alnicola and Lactarius suggest coevolution as a basal factor of speciation in relation with the subgeneric diversification of Alnus, possibly due to the very selective pressure of the host. A

  14. Ethnobotanical investigations on plants used in folk medicine in the regions of Constantine and Mila (North-East of Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouelbani, Rayene; Bensari, Souheir; Mouas, Toma Nardjes; Khelifi, Douadi

    2016-12-24

    Constantine and Mila regions have been investigated in an ethnobotanical study for the first time. A total of 102 medicinal plants have been cited to treat human ailments. Twenty-eight new species of 31 common plants with 151 new therapeutic applications and 12 new cited species including one endemic specie Zygophyllum cornutum Coss were found as compared to other Algerian regions. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, 369 new medicinal uses of 75 known plants, were reported for the first time in the Mediterranean basin. This study is aimed at contributing to safeguard world cultural heritage and document ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Algeria and the Mediterranean basin; data on the national and global uses in the world were obtained to extract new potential species for further phytochemical and clinical investigations. The survey was carried out in two cities in the northeast of Algeria: Constantine and Mila. It was based on semi-structured interviews of 79 local informants. Data were analyzed using quantitative indices, namely, informant consensus factor, fidelity level (FL), use value (UV), and relative frequency citation (RFC), to evaluate the reliability and richness of herbal knowledge in the region. The interviewed persons used 102 plant species belonging to 90 genera and distributed among 53 families, represented mainly by Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, and Asteraceae (30%, 13%, and 10%, respectively), which were used to treat 14 ailment categories. The category of most frequent ailments (16%) was digestive disorders (diarrhea, constipation, and stomach bloating). The highest RFC was found for Origanum glandulosum Desf. With regard to the fidelity level, a higher FL was found for Tilia cordata Mill. (100%), followed by Artemisia herba alba Asso. with an FL of 95.74% and Punica granatum L. with an FL of 93.09%) to treat gastrointestinal system diseases, and Aloe sp. L. with an FL of 96.67% for skin diseases. The highest UV was found for Origanum glandulosum

  15. Assessment of the nutrient removal effectiveness of floating treatment wetlands applied to urban retention ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J

    2014-05-01

    The application of floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) in point and non-point source pollution control has received much attention recently. Although the potential of this emerging technology is supported by various studies, quantifying FTW performance in urban retention ponds remains elusive due to significant research gaps. Actual urban retention pond water was utilized in this mesocosm study to evaluate phosphorus and nitrogen removal efficiency of FTWs. Multiple treatments were used to investigate the contribution of each component in the FTW system with a seven-day retention time. The four treatments included a control, floating mat, pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.), and softstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani). The water samples collected on Day 0 (initial) and 7 were analyzed for total phosphorus (TP), total particulate phosphorus, orthophosphate, total nitrogen (TN), organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate-nitrite nitrogen, and chlorophyll-a. Statistical tests were used to evaluate the differences between the four treatments. The effects of temperature on TP and TN removal rates of the FTWs were described by the modified Arrhenius equation. Our results indicated that all three FTW designs, planted and unplanted floating mats, could significantly improve phosphorus and nitrogen removal efficiency (%, E-TP and E-TN) compared to the control treatment during the growing season, i.e., May through August. The E-TP and E-TN was enhanced by 8.2% and 18.2% in the FTW treatments planted with the pickerelweed and softstem bulrush, respectively. Organic matter decomposition was likely to be the primary contributor of nutrient removal by FTWs in urban retention ponds. Such a mechanism is fostered by microbes within the attached biofilms on the floating mats and plant root surfaces. Among the results of the four treatments, the FTWs planted with pickerelweed had the highest E-TP, and behaved similarly with the other two FTW treatments for nitrogen removal

  16. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment

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    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  17. Occurrence, Biology and Harmfulness of Byctiscus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Rhynchitidae

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    Jaroslav Urban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, was studied the occurrence, biology and harmfulness of Byctiscus betulae (L. (Rhynchitidae on forest woody plants in the Brno region. Leaf rolls were found on 13 species (and 10 genera of woody plants. Most frequently, they occurred on Fagus sylvatica, Tilia spp. (namely on T. cordata, Salix caprea and Populus tremula. The beetles hibernate in ground pupal chambers and appear on woody plants in the last decade of April. After hibernation, females live on average seven (males five weeks, and damage on average 40 (males 25 cm2 of leaves. The females create leaf rolls on annual shoots they have gnawed, exceptionally (in 2% on leaves with damaged petioles. In the rolls on F. sylvatica, they roll on average 5.6 leaves whose total average area is 49.5 cm2 and lay on average 5.1 eggs. In the rolls on Tilia spp., they roll on average 3.3 leaves whose total area is 63.2 cm2 and lay on average 4.9 eggs. In the rolls on S. caprea, they roll on average 3.3 leaves whose total area is 38.3 cm2 and lay on average 3.5 eggs. The maximum number of laid eggs (on average 8.0 was observed in the leaf rolls on Vitis vinifera. The average number of eggs in the leaf rolls was decreasing from May to July. The number of eggs was increasing with the increasing total leaf area rolled. The females lay on average 50 eggs. On P. tremula, S. caprea and Pyrus pyraster they create about 15 leaf rolls, on F. sylvatica and Tilia spp. about 10 leaf rolls and on V. vinifera ca. 8 leaf rolls. Embryogenesis lasts from 8 to 9 days. Larvae develop over 3 instars and damage ca. 300 mm2 of leaves. Coming of age within 4−7 weeks, they leave the leaf rolls from mid-June to the beginning of September.

  18. In Vitro Activity of Sodium New Houttuyfonate Alone and in Combination with Oxacillin or Netilmicin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Lu, Yun; Ren, Zhitao; Zhao, Longyin; Hu, Xinxin; Jiang, Jiandong; You, Xuefu

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus can cause severe infections, including bacteremia and sepsis. The spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) highlights the need for novel treatment options. Sodium new houttuyfonate (SNH) is an analogue of houttuynin, the main antibacterial ingredient of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro activity of SNH and its potential for synergy with antibiotics against hospital-associated MRSA. Methodology A total of 103 MRSA clinical isolates recovered in two hospitals in Beijing were evaluated for susceptibility to SNH, oxacillin, cephalothin, meropenem, vancomycin, levofloxacin, minocycline, netilmicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole by broth microdilution. Ten isolates were evaluated for potential for synergy between SNH and the antibiotics above by checkerboard assay. Time-kill analysis was performed in three isolates to characterize the kill kinetics of SNH alone and in combination with the antibiotics that engendered synergy in checkerboard assays. Besides, two reference strains were included in all assays. Principal Findings SNH inhibited all test strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 16 to 64 µg/mL in susceptibility tests, and displayed inhibition to bacterial growth in concentration-dependent manner in time-kill analysis. In synergy studies, the combinations of SNH-oxacillin, SNH-cephalothin, SNH-meropenem and SNH-netilmicin showed synergistic effects against 12 MRSA strains with median fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices of 0.38, 0.38, 0.25 and 0.38 in checkerboard assays. In time-kill analysis, SNH at 1/2 MIC in combination with oxacillin at 1/128 to 1/64 MIC or netilmicin at 1/8 to 1/2 MIC decreased the viable colonies by ≥2log10 CFU/mL. Conclusions/Significance SNH demonstrated in vitro antibacterial activity against 103 hospital-associated MRSA isolates. Combinations of sub-MIC levels of SNH and oxacillin or netilmicin

  19. An ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants on Suva planina mountain (south-eastern Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mačukanović-Jocić, Marina; Djurdjević, Lola; Mitrović, Miroslava; Kostić, Olga; Karadžić, Branko; Pavlović, Pavle

    2015-12-04

    This study documents the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal importance of plants in the Suva planina mountain region (south-eastern Serbia). It is reflected in their high diversity and their wide range of uses in the treatment of the local population. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of data collected in the Suva planina region with relevant data from the Western Balkans, which included identifying the 'most popular' plants, as well as those species which are used specifically for treatment solely in the research area. Ethnobotanical research was carried out between 2012 and 2014 and data was collected through both open and semi-structured interviews with locals. A total of 66 people were interviewed (37 women and 29 men), aged between 49 and 90 (with a mean age of 71). This study identified 128 plants and 2 fungi which are used in ethnomedicine, 5 plant species used in ethnoveterinary medicine, and 16 plants used for 'other' purposes. Lamiaceae (20), Asteraceae (17), Rosaceae (16), Brassicaceae (5), Alliaceae (4) and Apiaceae (4) have the greatest diversity of species. Results showed that Achillea mellefolium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Gentiana lutea, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Salvia officinalis, Sempervivum tectorum, Tilia cordata and Thymus sepyllum are the 'most popular' medicinal plants (UV=1). Those plants with the most phytotherapeutic uses are Gentiana cruciata (14), H. perforatum (11) and A. sativum (10), while the most common conditions treated with medicinal plants are respiratory (79), urogenital (53), gastrointestinal (51), skin (43) and those relating to the circulatory system (35). A comparative analysis of the data collected in the research area and that from other parts of the Western Balkans showed that there are great similarities within Serbia between Suva planina and the Zlatibor region (37.2%) and Kopaonik Mt. (32

  20. Structural study of photodegraded acrylic-coated lime wood using Fourier transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy.

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    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Simionescu, Bogdan C

    2013-06-01

    The weathering of acrylic films and acrylic-coated lime wood (Tillia cordata Mill.) were examined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results showed chemical changes induced by exposure to weathering conditions, in both films and coated wood. The observed spectral changes of the acrylic films refer to the absorption band assigned to the C-O stretching, which progressively decreases with increasing exposure time. In the spectra of treated wood samples the main signal indicating the advance of oxidation during the photodegradation exposure is the gradual increase and broadening of the band in the carbonyl region. This is due to the formation of the non-hydrogen bonded aliphatic carboxylic acids and γ-lactone structures in the acrylic resin and of the nonconjugated ketones, carboxyl groups, and lactones in wood. As a consequence, the increase of the 1734 cm(-1) band is due to the degradation of lignin from wood surface. These observations are also supported by the decreased intensities of the bands at 1598 and 1505 cm(-1), assigned to C=C of aromatic skeletal (lignin). The relative intensity of the characteristic aromatic lignin band at 1505 cm(-1) decreases up to 25% of its original value after weathering, being less than half of the value obtained for uncoated wood. Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) correlation spectroscopy was used to identify the sequence of the modifications of the different stretching vibrations bands under the weathering conditions, the method allowing the prediction of the order of degradation reactions. The acrylic resin degradation starts with the formation of radicals by abstraction of the tertiary hydrogen atoms of the methyl acrylate units and the α-CH3 groups from the ethyl methacrylate units. The subsequent decomposition and oxidation led to the formation of alcohol groups, hydroperoxides, ketones, and/or carboxylic acid groups. The 2D IR correlation spectra of

  1. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Francinaldo S Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Água e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%, Eufriesea (15.2% and Exaerete (7.6%. The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%, Eulaema cingulata (19% and Euglossa cordata (18.3%. Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62

  2. An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh 1

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    Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2012-01-01

    cochinchinensis, Trichosanthes anguina, Trichosanthes cordata, Trichosanthes dioica, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. The review of the available scientific literature showed that the use of a number of the above-mentioned plants in folk medicine can be validated based on their reported pharmacological activity studies. Conclusion: Taken together, the plants present excellent potential for further scientific studies, which may result in discovery of novel compounds of therapeutic interest.

  3. Carbon dioxide fluxes dynamics comparison in Moscow urban forest and adjacent urban areas

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    Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In the beginning of the 2014 in northern district of Moscow was installed eddy covariance tower on the edge of Timiryazevskiy urban forest and Timiryazevskiy district of Moscow. Tower 34m high was constructed inside the territory of LOD (Lesnaya Opytnaya Dacha) experimental station in the south-eastern part of the forest. Main tree species of urban forest and neighboring urban areas are Acer Plantanoides, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula, Quercus robur, Pinus sylvestris. Forest itself is mixed with some small plots dominated only by deciduous or coniferous species, whether trees in urban areas was mainly deciduous. Mean canopy height is about 30m. in both forest and urban areas. The soil cover of the studied sections is represented by sod-podzolic soils with different degree of development of the humus horizon. All soils have well-developed profile of sod-podzolic soil with low power litter (only in forest area) and developed humus-accumulative horizon with high humus content (3,24%) Carbon dioxide daily fluxes from investigated area was calculated for six months of 2014 (from April till October) utilizing eddy covariance method. Most (90%) of fluxes footprints was no longer than 500m for all wind directions during the time of monitoring. Forest in 500m radius around tower is a zone of active recreation with several roads and wide path network. On the other hand closest to tower urban area characterized by a low-rise buildings (in most cases no more than 5 floors) which are mainly administration ones and have wide green areas around them very few roads and low traffic. As a result difference in calculated fluxes was not so dramatic, as it was expected. Diurnal carbon dioxide fluxes dynamics was pretty the same for all months except August, due to long period without precipitation and higher soil moisture under the forest canopy. Estimated daily fluxes values was higher in forest areas for the whole period of investigation, except August, and ranged from -2 to 8 g C CO

  4. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

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    M D Subramanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g, total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA; Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM. Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity, 2, 2Ͳ-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid ABTS + antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM. It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  5. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal tea plants from the traditional markets in Chaoshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Duan, Lei; Deng, Shuang-Wen; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ai-Hua; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2017-06-09

    Herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in China, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. Herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of Chaoshan people. The aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in Chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea. Information and data were obtained from all 83 stall holders in 12 traditional markets, semi-structured informant interviews were carried out individually with the stall holders, 10 questions were asked. In this study, 186 species of herbal tea plants belonging to 65 families and 156 genera were indicated by 83 stall holders, with Asteraceae being the most prevalent family with 22 species. Herbs are main sources of herbal tea plants in Chaoshan area, with whole plants (97 species) being the most used parts. Herbal drinks are mostly consumed for heat-clearing and detoxification, and a large number of plant species were reported to treat coughs, colds, dysentery, dampness and sore throats. The most cited species were Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (47 times mentioned), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (46), Plantago asiatica L. (43), Houttuynia cordata Thunb (42), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (36), Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. (35) and Morus alba L. (31), and 5 protected species were recorded in the list of the nationally protected species of China: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E. Smith) Lindl. and Pholidota chinensis Lindl. The selling price of most fresh herbal tea plants in the market varied from¥10-16/kg, with the profit margin of sales ranging from 12.5% to 20%. The consumption of herbal tea for one family costs about ¥3-5/day. Chaoshan herbal teas, prepared by diverse

  6. The Late Glacial and Holocene development of vegetation in the area of a fossil lake in the Skaliska Basin (north-eastern Poland inferred from pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

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    Kołaczek Piotr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of vegetation in the Skaliska Basin has been reconstructed on the basis of palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating (AMS technique of 6 sites from the late phase of the Bolling- Allerod interstadial complex to modern times. Although the area covers 90 km2, the mosaic character of habitats led to the development of different patterns of vegetation changes during the Late Glacial and Holocene. Only one site located in the eastern part of the Skaliska Basin reflected the ‘pine phase’ of Allerod, and this is the oldest data on vegetation in the Skaliska Basin. Interesting discrepancies were recorded during the Younger Dryas when patches of shrublands with Juniperus were distinct around some of the sites, while steppe with Artemisia was common in others. The beginning of the Holocene brought an expansion of birch-pine forest, but around 9600 cal. BC a cold oscillation took place which was reflected in an increase in birch in the woodlands in the western and eastern part of the Skaliska Basin. In the Preboreal chronozone elm (Ulmus also expanded in the area but its appearance was non-synchronous. The vegetation of the Boreal chronozone was similar in the whole area and the most characteristic feature was the rapid expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana which displaced Betula from the most of its sites. At that time a distinct redeposition of pollen material in the Parchatka river valley was detected which was probably the effect of an increase in fluvial activity of the river (humid oscillation. The following stage of vegetation development was climax woodlands with Tilia cordata, Ulmus, Quercus, Corylus avellana, and Alnus in damp places. At the beginning of the Subboreal chronozone the expansion of Quercus took place, which was subsequently replaced by Picea abies and partly Carpinus betulus. The pattern of Picea abies expansion distinctly presents two maxima which is characteristic of many sites in the north-eastern Poland

  7. Palaeobotanical studies on Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation development and transformations of the ‘Wielkie Błoto’ mire near Gołdap (north-eastern Poland

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    Karpińska-Kołaczek Monika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of palynological, macrofossil and peat analyses that were conducted on deposits from a profile collected from the Wielkie Błoto mire near Bałupiany (north eastern Poland. The investigation revealed that the recorded changes of vegetation span the period from the decline of the Younger Dryas (ca 9600 cal. yr BC to the late Subboreal or early Subatlantic chronozone, but due to a 40 cm long sediment gap a complete reconstruction was not possible. At the beginning, the area was occupied by steppe and tundra communities together with abundant Juniperus stands. A subsequent expansion of birch (Betula woodlands with pine (Pinus sylvestris took place in the Preboreal chronozone in which a rise in the water level and/or basin deepening was recorded at the site as well. The domination of such woodlands lasted to the end of the Boreal chronozone when Corylus avellana expanded rapidly. In the Atlantic chronozone multispecies deciduous forests developed with Tilia cordata and Quercus, while Ulmus together with Alnus spread in damp habitats. During this chronozone, traces of the occurrence of Carpinus betulus were detected in the macrofossil analysis, while the pollen analysis failed to record its presence. The expansion of Carpinus betulus and Picea abies was characteristic of the Subboreal chronozone when both taxa presented antagonistic optima. Alone in north-eastern Poland, there was a re-expansion of deciduous forest in the younger part of the Subboreal chronozone caused probably by low human impact, which is reflected in the whole profile. The first probable traces of human activity were noticed in the Atlantic chronozone and attributed to peoples of the Mesolithic or Early Neolithic cultures, while the first evidence of cultivation was correlated to the Bronze Age. However, the low resolution of the radiocarbon dates did not allow a more precise reconstruction of the chronology. The analysis of macrofossils and tissues

  8. Ecological studies in a Scanian woodland and meadow area, southern Sweden. Ti. Plant biomass, primary production and turnover of organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, F.

    1970-01-01

    As a part of an IBP project the productivity of the south Swedish deciduous woodland ecosystems and their secondary successional stages a comparison between the distribution of organic matter in a mixed deciduous woodland dominated by Quercus robur, Tilia cordata, Corylus avellana and Anemone nemorosa and a tall herb meadow with Filipendula ulmaria within the nemoral zone in the southernmost part of Sweden has been made. Estimations of the plant biomass and production in the woodland was made by a dimension analysis applying allometric equations. A total plant biomass of 240 t/ha was found with 201 t/ha and 39 t/ha as above-and below-ground figures respectively. The corresponding figures of the net primary production are 15.6, 13.3 and 2.3 t/ha. A production of 0.77 t/ha is included for the above-ground production of the field layer. The litter fall, fractions less than 50 cm long, during a three year period amounted to 5.28 t/ha with considerable variation between years. Including coarser litter fractions an yearly input to the ground of 6.5 t/ha was found. After estimation of the remaining litter before the leaf fall, 6.1 t/ha, the yearly turnover of the litter layer is calculated to 52%. As the humus fraction amounts to 218 t/ha, the total content of organic matter in the woodland ecosystem thus is 463 t/ha with an almost equal distribution between above-and below-ground portions. In the meadow the distribution of above-and below-ground portions of the organic matter is 1/49, calculated from the following figures: Above-ground biomass 4.7 t/ha, below-ground biomass 13.2 t/ha, surface litter 2.4 t/ha and humus 304 t/ha making the total organic matter of the meadow ecosystem 324 t/ha. The yearly above-ground production is estimated to be 7.2 t/ha and taking this as the yearly litter input to the ground and taking the remaining litter into account a turnover of the litter layer 75% is calculated.

  9. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

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    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  10. Chinese vegetative materia medica in a venereological treatise by Jean Astruc from 1740.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnik, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    Historical medical sources can be still queried for forgotten cures and remedies. Traditional Chinese medicine has dealt with lues venerea (syphilis) since the Five Dynasties period (10th century). Chinese indigenous materia medica and remedies recorded, studied or imported by the Europeans can reveal known or quite unknown medicinal plants. The studied Jean Astruc's work is a published ethnopharmacological survey carried out in Beijing in the 1730s and it deserves a modern interpretation. This is the first proposal to identify historical Chinese medicinal plants listed in a scarcely known medical treatise De Morbis venereis… ('On venereal diseases…') by Jean Astruc from 1740. I searched for the current uses and position of the taxonomically identified herbal stock in both traditional Chinese and official medical knowledge, with special attention to syphilis. Chinese names of drugs and their botanical identities (originally expressed by means of pre-Linnaean polynomials, and now interpreted as accepted binomials) were independently cross-checked with younger till most recent taxonomical and ethnopharmacological sources. Plants and drugs identified this way were queried for their modern applications in traditional Chinese and official medicine with special attention to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and other uses which are similar to the 18th-century understanding of venereology. For 24 items of medicinal stock, 34 medicinal plants have been identified or suspected: Acacia catechu, Achyranthes bidentata, Akebia quinata, Angelica dahurica, A. sinensis, Aquilaria sinensis, Aralia cordata, Aristolochia fangchi, Chaenomeles sinensis, Ch. speciosa, Clematis vitalba, Coix lacryma-jobi, Commiphora myrrha, Cydonia oblonga, Daemonorops draco, D. jenkinsiana, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Dryobalanops sumatrensis, Forsythia suspensa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lonicera confusa, L. hypoglauca, L. japonica, Ligusticum striatum (=L. chuanxiong), Piper kadsura, Pterocarpus

  11. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M D; Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Bhagwat, Shalini S; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2'-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS(+) antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  12. Ladinian skonca beds of the Idrija Ore Deposit (W Slovenia

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    Jože Čar

    2013-12-01

    part of sequence C has a carbonate structure (subsequence C1 and the top part has a siliceous structure (subsequence C2, the rocks cannot be distinguished from one another by their appearance. All are strongly bituminous and shaly. Sequence C is comprised of grey to black bituminous dolomite and quartz sandstone rich in pyrite and marcasite, dolomite or quartz siltstone, and shaly claystone with coal inclusions. The sequence of C rocks ends with clayey-lythic quartz sandstone containing remains of the brachiopod Discina. These are followed by various pyroclastic rocks of sequence D. The Skonca beds and the rich bedded cinnabar ores have various sedimentary structures which accurately define the events and environments of their origin. Except for the erosion channels, which are filled with dolomite gravel, there are no other presedimentary structures in the Skonca beds (subsequence C1. However, the beds are rich in synsedimentary physical forms, particularly various stratifications, laminations and various forms of graded bedding. Among the postsedimentary structures, mention should be made of the abundant sinking and slump structures. In some places, bioturbation and the replacement of organic particles with pyrite can be observed. The Skonca beds were deposited in a spatially complex, marsh-lacustrine-lagoonal environment. The rocks of sequence A and partly also of sequence B were formed in an alkaline, oxygen-rich environment, and the lithological units of subsequence C1 in a reductive environment. The rapid transitions among rocks indicate strictly limited and slow lateral inflows of fresh water into the marshy environment overgrown with low vegetation. The rocks in subsequence C2 prove that the freshwater marsh was flooded with sea water. Deposited in the shallow, closed lagoon overgrown with low vegetation were various bituminous shales, mudstones and sandstones filled with numerous radiolarians and needles of siliceous sponges and coal intercalations. The

  13. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

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    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  14. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  15. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Francinaldo S Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Água e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%, Eufriesea (15.2% and Exaerete (7.6%. The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%, Eulaema cingulata (19% and Euglossa cordata (18.3%. Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62

  16. Analysis of a intra-Carixian clay horizon into carbonate platform of the Ouarsenis (Algeria): composition, dynamic and paleo-climatic implication

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    Benhamou, M.; Salhi, A. [Oran Univ., Faculte des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Amenagement du Territoire, Dpt. de Geologie (Algeria)

    2005-07-01

    During the Late Sinemurian a carbonate platform has developed on the Ouarsenis area (external Tell o f the Algerian Alpine belt) with setting deposits of the Kef Sidi Amar Carbonate Formation. A first maximum flooding materialized by a brachiopods (Zeilleriids) layer, is occurring during the Late Carixian. The Late Carixian deepening has been followed by a sea-level fall documented by several meters incisions filled by transgressive breccia and conglomerates. After this episode, this material was sealed by a pedogenic bed (0,05 to 0,20 m) which corresponds to a yellow clay deposit containing well rounded particles interpreted as pedo-genetic globules. These corpuscles are composed of reddish and hardened clay, corroded quartz grains, rhombic and zoned dolomite crystals and ankerite, monocrystalline and xeno-morphous detrital quartz grains (1-2 mm). The observed characteristics allow to recognize a typical calcrete. They are the result of pedo-genetic diagenesis developed inside the phreatic water-table near the surface: this is an alteration profile. The mineralogic fraction has been analyzed by X-Ray which show results of association clay mineral as a predominance of illite (85%) and mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite (I-M, 10%) associated with a low ration of chlorite (5%) and kaolinite trace (1%). This mineralogic clay association indicates a shallow water (hydro-morphic zone). Among these clay minerals, the illite reveals the precious indications in a source area. In this case, it comes from the decomposition of the schist paleo-relief located in the internal domain. This rock was transformed by acid leaching (action of the sour humus) into kaolinite with the presence of the quartzification. The origin of the mixed-layer clay I-M (10%) is the result of the active pedogenesis. The simultaneous presence of the illite, chlorite, kaolinite and the mixed-layer clay I-M seems to be result from the erosion exercised on the alteration product or arenitisation of the

  17. Development of the larval anterior neurogenic domains of Terebratalia transversa (Brachiopoda) provides insights into the diversification of larval apical organs and the spiralian nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Scott; Resh, Carlee; Hejnol, Andreas; Martindale, Mark Q; Passamaneck, Yale J

    2012-01-24

    Larval features such as the apical organ, apical ciliary tuft, and ciliated bands often complicate the evaluation of hypotheses regarding the origin of the adult bilaterian nervous system. Understanding how neurogenic domains form within the bilaterian head and larval apical organ requires expression data from animals that exhibit aspects of both centralized and diffuse nervous systems at different life history stages. Here, we describe the expression of eight neural-related genes during the larval development of the brachiopod, Terebratalia transversa. Radially symmetric gastrulae broadly express Tt-Six3/6 and Tt-hbn in the animal cap ectoderm. Tt-NK2.1 and Tt-otp are restricted to a central subset of these cells, and Tt-fez and Tt-FoxQ2 expression domains are already asymmetric at this stage. As gastrulation proceeds, the spatial expression of these genes is split between two anterior ectodermal domains, a more dorsal region comprised of Tt-Six3/6, Tt-fez, Tt-FoxQ2, and Tt-otp expression domains, and an anterior ventral domain demarcated by Tt-hbn and Tt-NK2.1 expression. More posteriorly, the latter domains are bordered by Tt-FoxG expression in the region of the transverse ciliated band. Tt-synaptotagmin 1 is expressed throughout the anterior neural ectoderm. All genes are expressed late into larval development. The basiepithelial larval nervous system includes three neurogenic domains comprised of the more dorsal apical organ and a ventral cell cluster in the apical lobe as well as a mid-ventral band of neurons in the mantle lobe. Tt-otp is the only gene expressed in numerous flask-shaped cells of the apical organ and in a subset of neurons in the mantle lobe. Our expression data for Tt-Six3/6, Tt-FoxQ2, and Tt-otp confirm some aspects of bilaterian-wide conservation of spatial partitioning within anterior neurogenic domains and also suggest a common origin for central otp-positive cell types within the larval apical organs of spiralians. However, the field of

  18. Invertebrate Paleontology of the Wilson Grove Formation (Late Miocene to Late Pliocene), Sonoma and Marin Counties, California, with some Observations on Its Stratigraphy, Thickness, and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Allen, James R.; Holland, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The Wilson Grove Formation is exposed from Petaluma north to northern Santa Rosa, and from Bennett Valley west to Bodega Bay. A fauna of at least 107 invertebrate taxa consisting of two brachiopods, 95 mollusks (48 bivalves and 46 gastropods), at least eight arthropods, and at least two echinoids have been collected, ranging in age from late Miocene to late Pliocene. Rocks and fossils from the southwest part of the outcrop area, along the Estero de San Antonio, were deposited in a deep-water marine environment. At Meacham Hill, near the Stony Point Rock Quarry, and along the northern margin of the outcrop area at River Road and Wilson Grove, the Wilson Grove Formation was deposited in shallow marine to continental environments. At Meacham Hill, these shallow water deposits represent a brackish bay to continental environment, whereas at River Road and Wilson Grove, fossils suggest normal, euhaline (normal marine salinity) conditions. A few taxa from the River Road area suggest water temperatures slightly warmer than along the adjacent coast today because their modern ranges do not extend as far north in latitude as River Road. In addition, fossil collections from along River Road contain the bivalve mollusks Macoma addicotti (Nikas) and Nuttallia jamesii Roth and Naidu, both of which are restricted to the late Pliocene. The late Miocene Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992) also crops out northeast of the River Road area and underlies the late Pliocene section at Wilson Grove by almost 300 m. Outcrops in the central part of the region are older than those to the northeast, and presumably younger than deposits to the southwest. The Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992) occurs at Steinbeck Ranch in the central portion of the outcrop area. At Spring Hill, also in the central part of the outcrop area, the sanddollar Scutellaster sp., cf. S. oregonensis (Clark) has been recently collected. This species, questionably identified here, is restricted to the late Miocene from

  19. Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada

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    Desborough, George A.; Poole, F.G.; Hose, R.K.; Radtke, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    . In fresh rock, bluish-white opaline-like silica (chalcedonic quartz) fills microfractures, and is believed to have originated by diagenetic mobilization of opaline silica from radiolarian tests and sponge spicules. As revealed by microscopic study, the Gibellini facies originally consisted of siliceous muds, slimes, and oozes high in organic constituents. The organic matter is amorphous flaky and stringy sapropel, and probably includes remains of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and minor higher plants. Recognizable organic remnants include radiolarian tests, sponge spicules, conodonts, brachiopod shells, algae, and humic debris. Diagnostic radiolarians indicate a Late Devonian age for the Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation. Some pyrite is disseminated through the rock and may be primary (syngenetic) but significant pyrite and marcasite occur in chalcedonic quartz veinlets and appear to be diagenetic. In fresh rock, black solid bitumen and liquid oil fill voids and microfractures. These early phase hydrocarbons probably were released during diagenesis from complex nonhydrocarbon molecular structures originating from living organisms, and formed without any major thermal degradation of the kerogen. Gas chromatographic analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction indicates a very complex mixture dominated by branched and cyclic compounds. Conodont and palynomorph color alteration, vitrinite reflectance, and other organic geochemical data suggest that the organic matter in the rock is thermally immature and has not been subjected to temperatures greater than 60?C since deposition in Devonian time. All of these characteristics are consistent with the interpretation of a relatively low temperature and a shallow-burial history for the Gibellini facies on ridge 7129.

  20. The Late Ordovician Extinction: How it became the best understood of the five major extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, P.

    2003-04-01

    epicontinental seas were drained in many places. An extensive record of changes of all the major faunal groups has been established and work continues. Compilations by Sepkoski and Benton established the Ordovician extinction as one of the five major Phanerozoic extinctions, ranking second only to the end Permian extinction in terms of taxonomic loss. However, as the ecologic changes caused by the extinction became better understood it was realized that of the five extinction events the Ordovician extinction caused the least ecologic perturbation. Given the interest and extensive study extinction events have generated in the last 20 years it is surprising the oldest of the five extinctions has the most well understood cause and the best global record of the faunal changes. In fact only one other extinction event (K/T event) has a widely accepted cause, darkness associated with an impact event. The general faunal changes allow at least a preliminary comparison of two events with differing causes. The most important factor promoting survival in both events is wide geographic distribution. Other ecologic factors differ considerably between the events. Extinction was very high in epicontinental seas during the Ordovician but not in the Cretaceous. Cretaceous organisms that could survive several months without food (such as animals with low metabolic rates, or larval stages that included dormancy) preferentially survived, while this was not a factor in the Ordovician when low metabolic rates of animals like brachiopods and echinoderms provided little advantage. Animals capable of feeding on detritus during the loss of sunlight preferentially survived the Cretaceous extinction, but this was not a buffer to extinction in the Ordovician.