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Sample records for brachiopods argyrotheca cordata

  1. Comparative larval myogenesis and adult myoanatomy of the rhynchonelliform (articulate) brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    the ongoing controversy concerning its phylogenetic position. In order to contribute new morphogenetic data for phylogenetic and evolutionary inferences, we describe herein the ontogeny and myoanatomy of larvae and adults of the rhynchonelliform brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and...... very similar in these two species. The first anlagen of the musculature develop in the pedicle lobe, followed by setae muscles and the mantle lobe musculature. Late-stage larvae show a network of strong pedicle muscles, central mantle muscles, longitudinal muscles running from the mantle to the pedicle...... and are thus derived from a common ancestral larval type. Comparison of the muscular phenotype of rhynchonelliform larvae to that of the other two lophophorate phyla, Phoronida and Ectoprocta, does not indicate homology of individual larval muscles. This may be due to an early evolutionary split of...

  2. Comparative larval myogenesis and adult myoanatomy of the rhynchonelliform (articulate brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninger Andreas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant methodological progress, Brachiopoda remains one of the lophotrochozoan phyla for which no recent ontogenetic data employing modern methodologies such as fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy are available. This is particularly astonishing given the ongoing controversy concerning its phylogenetic position. In order to contribute new morphogenetic data for phylogenetic and evolutionary inferences, we describe herein the ontogeny and myoanatomy of larvae and adults of the rhynchonelliform brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa using fluorescence F-actin labelling combined with confocal laserscanning microscopy. Results Fully grown larvae of A. cordata and T. transversa consist of three distinct body regions, namely an apical lobe, a mantle lobe with four bundles of setae, and a pedicle lobe. Myogenesis is very similar in these two species. The first anlagen of the musculature develop in the pedicle lobe, followed by setae muscles and the mantle lobe musculature. Late-stage larvae show a network of strong pedicle muscles, central mantle muscles, longitudinal muscles running from the mantle to the pedicle lobe, setae pouch muscles, setae muscles, a U-shaped muscle, serial mantle muscles, and apical longitudinal as well as apical transversal muscles. Fully developed A. cistellula larvae differ from the former species in that they have only two visible body lobes and lack setae. Nevertheless, we found corresponding muscle systems to all muscles present in the former two species, except for the musculature associated with the setae, in larvae of A. cistellula. With our survey of the adult myoanatomy of A. cordata and A. cistellula and the juvenile muscular architecture of T. transversa we confirm the presence of adductors, diductors, dorsal and ventral pedicle adjustors, mantle margin muscles, a distinct musculature of the intestine, and striated muscle fibres in the

  3. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    , the first anlagen of the musculature develop in the bristle pouches and the pedicle lobe. Late stage larvae show a network of longitudinal muscles running from the apical to the pedicle lobe as well as transversal muscles situated in the apical lobe. Strong muscles attach to both the bristles and the...... pedicle lobe. Our work reveals only few similarities between the larval myoanatomy and myogenesis of A. cordata and the hitherto investigated phoronid and ectoproct species, which may account for an early distinct evolutionary pathway of the general ontogeny...

  4. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    OpenAIRE

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    Brachiopoda is a metazoan phylum with a fossil record dating back tothe lower Cambrium and comprises over 12,000 extinct and 400 recentspecies. Despite some recent progress using mainly palaeontological andmolecular datasets, the discussion concerning the phylogenetic positionof Brachiopoda remains unsettled. While some classic analyses employingmorphological data assign Brachiopoda to Deuterostomia, recent moleculardata propose a sister group relationship of Spiralia to a cladeLophophorata t...

  5. Comparative larval myogenesis and adult myoanatomy of the rhynchonelliform (articulate) brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa

    OpenAIRE

    Wanninger Andreas; Altenburger Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite significant methodological progress, Brachiopoda remains one of the lophotrochozoan phyla for which no recent ontogenetic data employing modern methodologies such as fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy are available. This is particularly astonishing given the ongoing controversy concerning its phylogenetic position. In order to contribute new morphogenetic data for phylogenetic and evolutionary inferences, we describe herein the ontogeny and myoanatomy o...

  6. Ordovician Rhynchonelliform Brachiopod Biogeography and Faunas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljeroth, Maria

    The distribution of the Ordovician (~444–488 Ma) rhynchonelliform brachiopods was investigated for identification of biogeographic provinces and areas constituting focal points for taxon speciation, and to describe the faunas and biodiversity associated with the provinces, palaeoplates, and terra...

  7. Brachiopod Body Size Through the Stratigraphic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, C.; Payne, J.

    2011-12-01

    There have been five major mass extinction events in the history of animal life. These events are known from their effects on biodiversity, but their influences on other aspects of organism and ecosystem function remain incompletely understood. For example, larger organisms are often assumed to be at a higher risk of extinction than their smaller relatives. However, the effects of mass extinction events on body size evolution remain poorly documented. There are no systematic studies examining size change within one animal group across all major mass extinction events. In this study, we use brachiopods, a group of marine animals with an extensive fossil record, to examine the relationship between mass extinction events and body size evolution. We chose to study brachiopods for two reasons. First, this group involves more than 4,000 genera. Secondly, it is present in every time period since the Cambrian.

  8. Non-terrestrial food source for Fiordland brachiopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-13 analyses were determined for brachiopods and particulate organic matter from Fiordland waters. Brachiopod delta 13$0C are about -18 per mille which is significantly enriched in 13C relative to the particulate matter (about -23 per mille) and different from local terrestrial matter (about -28 per mille). There is no carbon-13 evidence for non-marine food in the diet of brachiopods

  9. Biostratigraphy of the Middle Ordovician Brachiopods from Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Abril, Jaime; Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.; Villas, E.

    2011-01-01

    A recent taxonomic study on the rhynchonelliformean brachiopods from the Darriwilian dark shales of the Central-Iberian Zone, Central Spain (Reyes-Abril, 2009; Reyes-Abril et al., 2010) has considerably increased the number of orthides and strophomenides known across the whole Iberian Peninsula. The studied brachiopods were collected in 58 localities of 6 provinces from the regions of Castilla-La Mancha, Andalucía and Extremadura. Middle Ordovician brachiopods previously known in ...

  10. Biogenic calcite granules--are brachiopods different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Dauphin, Yannicke; Cusack, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    Brachiopods are still one of the least studied groups of organisms in terms of biomineralization despite recent studies indicating the presence of highly complex biomineral structures, particularly in taxa with calcitic shells. Here, we analyze the nanostructure of calcite biominerals, fibers and semi-nacre tablets, in brachiopod shells by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We demonstrate that basic mechanisms of carbonate biomineralization are not uniform within the phylum, with semi-nacre tablets composed of spherical aggregates with sub-rounded granules and fibers composed of large, triangular or rod-like particles composed of small sub-rounded granules (40-60 nm). Additionally, proteinaceous envelopes surrounding calcite fibers have been shown for the first time to have a dual function: providing a micro-environment in which granules are produced and acting as the organic template for particle orientation as fiber components. In summary, these new findings in brachiopod shells reveal a complex and distinctive style of biomineralization among carbonate-producing organisms. PMID:23026148

  11. Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) brachiopods from the Eastern Alborz Mountains, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid E. Popov; Mansoureh Ghobadi Pour; Mohammad Reza Kebriaee-Zadeh

    2011-01-01

    Six linguliform and two rhynchonelliform brachiopods, including three new species Eurytreta ahmadii, Wahwahlingula kharbashi and Nanorthis bastamensis are described from Tremadocian strata (Paltodus deltifer deltifer conodont Biozone) in the Deh-Molla area southwest of Shahrud, Northern Iran. The fauna is dominated by micromorphic lingulides and acrotretides and shows distinct similarity to the contemporaneous micromorphic brachiopod association from Tremadocian chalcedonites of the Holy Cros...

  12. Mechanism on bipolar distribution of Permian brachiopods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengwen WANG; Songmei ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    By reasearch on geographic distribution, nine genera in bipolar distribution are selected from Permian brachiopods. These taxa originated from middle-high latitude areas in the boreal realm, of which five genera were derived from Late Carboniferous, and other four genera originated from Permian. They were all in bipolar distribution during some different stages in Permian. Specific diversity for each genus was high in the boreal realm, whereas in the Gondwana realm was very low. Perdurability was long in the boreal realm, and short in the Gondwana realm. It was the time when these nine genera came to their maximum diversity that these genera appeared in the Gondwana and formed bipolar distribution; while they also migrated to the low latitude from high latitude. This shows very close relationship between several main cooling events in Permian and the migration of genera from the boreal realm to the Gondwana realm through the Tethys. Therefore, the cooling events might be the main drive which caused these cold-water-type brachiopods migrated to the Gondwana realm and being bipolar distribution. In this process, the planula tolerance to warm water would be another important factor.

  13. Phytochemical and antimicrobial characterization of Macleaya cordata herb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosina, P.; Gregorová, J.; Grúz, Jiří; Vacek, J.; Kolář, M.; Vogel, M.; Roos, W.; Naumann, K.; Šimánek, V.; Ulrichová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 8 (2010), s. 1006-1012. ISSN 0367-326X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Macleaya cordata * Isoquinoline alkaloids * Phenolic acids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.899, year: 2010

  14. Devonian brachiopods from the sillimanite zone, mount moosilauke, new hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucot, A J; Rumble, D

    1978-07-28

    Devonian brachiopods, identifiable at the generic level, have been recovered from calc-silicate rocks more intensely metamorphosed and metasomatized than any other known fossil occurrence. The fossils are a key stratigraphic link between granulite facies rocks of central New Hampshire and fossiliferous rocks of western New Hampshire and Maine. PMID:17793732

  15. Effect of Botanical Insecticide of Macleya cordata on Physiology and Biochemistry of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effect of Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata in the Brassica oleracea L. investigated, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were determined. The results showed that under the stress of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata at the same concentration, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were significantly lower than those with Cyhalothrin (p<0.05 except the proline content has not significant differences between Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata with a dosage of 50×. The degree of damage with Cyhalothrin is greater than that of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata.

  16. The Bivalve Yangtzedonta is not the Brachiopod Xianfengella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wen

    2005-01-01

    The alleged "holotype" of the bivalve Yangtzedontaprimitiva Yu, 1985 figured by Qian (2001) is a broken and distorted specimen of the brachiopod Xianfengella prima He and Yang, 1982 and not the holotype of Y. primitiva. Qian contends that the oldest recognized monoplacophoran, Maikhanella pristinis (Jiang, 1980), is neither a monoplacophoran nor the oldest molluscan fossil in the Meishucunian Stage of China. Furthermore, he considers that the oldest bivalve Xianfengoconcha elliptica Zhang, 1980 is an inarticulate brachiopod, not a mollusc. Watsonella yunnanensis (He and Yang, 1982), is associated with Yangtzedonta primitiva Yu but indicates no evolutionary relationship between the Classes Rostroconchia and Bivalvia in the Lower Cambrian Zhongyicun Member of the Yuhucun Formation. Qian's confusion in using non-molluscan fossils to discuss the early evolution of shelled molluscs also confuses the basic concepts of the respective groups.

  17. Early Ordovician (Tremadocian brachiopods from the Eastern Alborz Mountains, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid E. Popov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Six linguliform and two rhynchonelliform brachiopods, including three new species Eurytreta ahmadii, Wahwahlingula kharbashi and Nanorthis bastamensis are described from Tremadocian strata (Paltodus deltifer deltifer conodont Biozone in the Deh-Molla area southwest of Shahrud, Northern Iran. The fauna is dominated by micromorphic lingulides and acrotretides and shows distinct similarity to the contemporaneous micromorphic brachiopod association from Tremadocian chalcedonites of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. New data on the early ontogeny of the enigmatic lingulide Diencobolus show a very distinct pattern, including the presence of a metamorphic protegulum ornamented with flat-based pits and a single pair of larval setal bundles, which links this taxon to Paterula and suggests close phylogenetic relationships of both taxa to the Discinoidea.

  18. Lower Permian brachiopods from Oman : their potential as climatic proxies

    OpenAIRE

    Angiolini, L.; D. P. F. Darbyshire; Stephenson, Michael; Leng, Melanie; Brewer, T. S.; F. Berra; F. Jadoul

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Permian of the Haushi basin, Interior Oman (Al Khlata Formation to Saiwan Formation/lower Gharif member) records climate change from glaciation, through marine sedimentation in the Haushi sea, to subtropical desert. To investigate the palaeoclimatic evolution of the Haushi sea we used O, C, and Sr isotopes from 31 brachiopod shells of eight species collected bed by bed within the type-section of the Saiwan Formation. We assessed diagenesis by scanning electron microscopy of ultrastr...

  19. GUADALUPIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM DJEBEL TEBAGA DE MEDENINE, SOUTH TUNISIA

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    VINCENZO VERNA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a Guadalupian brachiopod fauna from units III to V of the shallow water carbonate succession cropping out at Djebel Tebaga de Medenine, South Tunisia. The fauna comprises 29 taxa of the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida and Terebratulida, whose distribution is consistent with the Wordian-Capitanian age suggested by the associated fusulinids and conodonts. Most of the brachiopod taxa are pedicle attached genera or cemented ones and thus were permanently attached, and only two were free living concavo-convex semi-infaunal genera; this indicates that they were mostly living in high energy environmental settings, where the settling strategies require firm attachment to the substrate at shallow depth under the influence of fair-weather waves. The brachiopods from South Tunisia are very similar to the fauna from the allochthonous limestones of Pietra di Salomone, Rupe del Passo di Burgio and Rocca di San Benedetto of Sosio Valley, Sicily, Italy, a fauna which is also dominated by cemented and pediculate taxa. Both regions were located at palaeoequatorial latitudes in the western termination of the Tethyan Gulf during Middle Permian time. 

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Articulate Brachiopod Terebratal ia transversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-07-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. The circular genome is 14,291 bp in size, relatively small compared to other published metazoan mtDNAs. The 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNA are present; the size decrease is due to the truncation of several tRNA, rRNA, and protein genes, to some nucleotide overlaps, and to a paucity of non-coding nucleotides. Although the gene arrangement differs radically from those reported for other metazoans, some gene junctions are shared with two other articulate brachiopods, Laqueus rubellus and Terebratulina retusa. All genes in the T. transversa mtDNA, unlike those in most metazoan mtDNAs reported, are encoded by the same strand. The A+T content (59.1 percent) is low for a metazoan mtDNA, and there is a high propensity for homopolymer runs and a strong base-compositional strand bias. The coding strand is quite G+T-rich, a skew that is shared by the confamilial (laqueid) specie s L. rubellus, but opposite to that found in T. retusa, a cancellothyridid. These compositional skews are strongly reflected in the codon usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins, with markedly different usage observed between T. retusa and the two laqueids. This observation, plus the similarity of the laqueid non-coding regions to the reverse complement of the non-coding region of the cancellothyridid, suggest that an inversion that resulted in a reversal in the direction of first-strand replication has occurred in one of the two lineages. In addition to the presence of one non-coding region in T. transversa that is comparable to those in the other brachiopod mtDNAs, there are two others with the potential to form secondary structures; one or both of these may be involved in the process of transcript cleavage.

  1. BRACHIOPODS FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC REEF HABITATS OF THE NORTHERN CALCAREOUS ALPS (DACHSTEIN LIMESTONE, HOCHSCHWAB, AUSTRIA

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    MILOS SIBLÍK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper Triassic brachiopods from 2 localities in the reef Dachstein Limestone of the SE Hochschwab massif in Styria, Austria are systematically described and illustrated. About 900 variably preserved specimens belong to 28 species, representing thus the most diverse brachiopod fauna known from the North Alpine Dachstein Limestone. This indicates that brachiopods were common inhabitants of reef habitats during the Alpine Norian. Oxycolpella, Sinucosta and Aulacothyropsis are dominant. Seven brachiopod species are known from the Kössen Formation (Rhaetian. Adygella biplicata (Dagys and Ladinian Hungarispira loretzi (Bittner are the newcomers in the Nordalpine Dachstein Limestone. In addition to brachiopods, only some fragments of bivalves were found. Conodonts of the species Epigondolella triangularis (Budurov 1972 indicate the Early Norian age.

  2. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  3. Uptake and translocation of {sup 137}Cs by Houttuynia cordata (in water culture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Shojiro; Yamaoki, Rumi [Osaka Univ. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Takatsuki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    The water culture experiment of Houttuynia cordata of the medicinal plant was carried out, and basic study on {sup 137}Cs accumulation characteristic and internal circulation in H. cordata in the fruiting stage was investigated since the flowering season. H. cordata accumulated 80% of {sup 137}Cs absorbed unlike K to the root, rhizome, terminal bud of the underground part for the rhizome reproduction. {sup 137}Cs content to the young leaf, spike, involucre increased in the flowering season. Thereafter, {sup 137}Cs was recirculated to the developing organs in second generations such as the rhizome and bud. (author)

  4. Uptake and translocation of 137Cs by Houttuynia cordata (in water culture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water culture experiment of Houttuynia cordata of the medicinal plant was carried out, and basic study on 137Cs accumulation characteristic and internal circulation in H. cordata in the fruiting stage was investigated since the flowering season. H. cordata accumulated 80% of 137Cs absorbed unlike K to the root, rhizome, terminal bud of the underground part for the rhizome reproduction. 137Cs content to the young leaf, spike, involucre increased in the flowering season. Thereafter, 137Cs was recirculated to the developing organs in second generations such as the rhizome and bud. (author)

  5. Terrestrial-marine carbon cycle coupling in ~500-m.y.-old phosphatic brachiopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Clinton A.; Fox, David L.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon isotope Compositions (??13C) of inarticulate brachiopod shells from Upper Cambrian sandstone in the cratonic interior of Laurentia record a 5??? positive excursion that correlates biostratigraphically with the global Steptoean positive isotopic carbon excursion. A consistent 6??? negative displacement in brachiopod ??13C relative to carbonate values is interpreted to represent an onshore-offshore gradient in the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in Cambrian seawater. Thus, these ???500-m.y.-old chitinophosphatic brachiopod shells preserve evidence for carbon cycle coupling between the ancient atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial reservoirs in the time before embryophytic land plants. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LEAF AND STEM EXTRACTS OF SIDDHA MEDICINAL PLANT: SIDA CORDATA

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnaz; Savitha

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Phyto chemicals are the secondary metabolites produ ce by the plant for its adaptation, which has medicinal value. The plant Sida cordata is a prostrate herb with medicinal value which is found throughout India .The whole pla nt Sidda cordata is used by the tribal people of Madekeri district to treat various aliment like hepatic disorder, dysentery, cholera etc, it is also one of the component in herbal preparation in Tamilnadu used on cut wounds, to re...

  7. Effects of frying oil and Houttuynia cordata thunb on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Yen Chen; Chiao-Ming Chen; Pi-Yu Chao; Tsan-Ju Chang; Jen-Fang Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of frying oil and Houttuynia cordata Thunb (H. cordata), a vegetable traditionally consumed in Taiwan, on the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of rodents.METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet containing 0%, 2% or 5% H. cordata powder and 15% fresh soybean oil or 24-h oxidized frying oil (OFO)for 28 d respectively. The level of microsomal protein, total cytochrome 450 content (CYP450) and enzyme activities including NADPH reductase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), aniline hydroxylase (ANH), aminopyrine demethylase (AMD), and quinone reductase (QR) were determined. QR represented phase Ⅱ enzymes, the rest of the enzymes tested represented phase Ⅰ enzymes.RESULTS: The oxidized frying oil feeding produced a significant increase in phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ enzyme systems,including the content of CYP450 and microsomal protein,and the activities of NADPH reductase, EROD, PROD, ANH,AMD and QR in rats (P<0.05). In addition, the activities of EROD, ANH and AMD decreased and QR increased after feeding with H. cordata in OFO-fed group (P<0.05). The feeding with 2% H. cordata diet showed the most significant effect.CONCLUSION: The OFO diet induces phases Ⅰ and Ⅱ enzyme activity, and the 2% H. cordata diet resulted in a better regulation of the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system.

  8. DNA sequence evidence for speciation, paraphyly and a Mesozoic dispersal of cancellothyridid articulate brachiopods

    OpenAIRE

    Luter, C.; Cohen, B L

    2002-01-01

    Because the classification of extant and fossil articulate brachiopods is based largely upon shell characters observable in fossils, it identifies morphotaxa whose biological status can, in practice, best be inferred from estimates of genetic divergence. Allozyme polymorphism and restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA RFLP) have been used to show that nuclear and mitochondrial genetic divergence between samples of the cancellothyridid brachiopods Terebratulina se...

  9. Larval adaptations and patterns of brachiopod diversity in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, J. W.; Jablonski, D.

    1983-01-01

    Modern biodistributional patterns suggest that modes of larval development are a factor in determining the patterns of diversity in benthic invertebrates. Paleozoic brachiopods had diversity patterns suggesting that they possessed both planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic modes. It is presently hypothesized that the planktotrophic lineages were lost to extinction, largely or entirely during the Permian-Triassic event, and that the failure of the articulate brachiopods to regain their former importance is substantially due to their nonplanktotrophic developmental mode.

  10. New Lower Maastrichtian brachiopods (Gulpen Formation, Vijlen Member) from southern Limburg (The Netherlands)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Simon

    2005-01-01

    A large suite of Lower Maastrichtian brachiopods, collected by W. M. Felder from strata subsequently assigned to the Vijlen Member (Gulpen Formation; southern Limburg, The Netherlands) and housed in the collections of the Natuurhistorisch Museum Maastricht has been studied. On the basis of these, several new rhynchonellid, terebratulid and terebratelloid generic and specific are erected, and a new family is introduced. These new records considerably augment our knowledge of brachiopod faunas ...

  11. Novi nalazi recentnih ramenonožaca (Brachiopoda) u istočnom dijelu sjevernog Jadrana

    OpenAIRE

    Legac, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Navode se podaci za četiri vrste ramenonožaca nađenih na tri nova nalazišta: u uzorku sedimenta iz morske špilje Medova buža s jednog metra dubine (Novocrania turbinata, Argyrotheca cuneata i Joania cordata), s obraštaja fragmenta amfore u Velom kolu na dubini od 25 m (Argyrotheca cuneata i Megathiris detruncata) otok Rab i u Unijskom kanalu s dubine od 52 m (Joania cordata).

  12. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  13. Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Timothy P.; Holmer, Lars E.; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Ecological interactions, including symbiotic associations such as mutualism, parasitism and commensalism are crucial factors in generating evolutionary novelties and strategies. Direct examples of species interactions in the fossil record generally involve organisms attached to sessile organisms in an epibiont or macroboring relationship. Here we provide support for an intimate ecological association between a calcareous brachiopod (Nisusia) and the stem group mollusc Wiwaxia from the Burgess Shale. Brachiopod specimens are fixed to Wiwaxia scleritomes, the latter showing no signs of decay and disarticulation, suggesting a live association. We interpret this association as the oldest unambiguous example of a facultative ectosymbiosis between a sessile organism and a mobile benthic animal in the fossil record. The potential evolutionary advantage of this association is discussed, brachiopods benefiting from ease of attachment, increased food supply, avoidance of turbid benthic conditions, biofoul and possible protection from predators, suggesting commensalism (benefiting the symbiont with no impact for the host). While Cambrian brachiopods are relatively common epibionts, in particular on sponges, the association of Nisusia with the motile Wiwaxia is rare for a brachiopod species, fossil or living, and suggests that symbiotic associations were already well established and diversified by the ``middle'' (Series 3, Stage 5) Cambrian.

  14. Population structure, growth and production of a recent brachiopod from the Chilean fjord region

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-12-04

    Magellania venosa, the largest recent brachiopod, occurs in clusters and banks in population densities of up to 416 ind m-2 in Comau Fjord, Northern Chilean fjord region. Below 15 m, it co-occurs with the mytilid Aulacomya atra and it dominates the benthic community below 20 m. To determine the question of why M. venosa is a successful competitor, the in situ growth rate of the brachiopod was studied and its overall growth performance compared with that of other brachiopods and mussels. The growth in length was measured between February 2011 and March 2012 after mechanical tagging and calcein staining. Settlement and juvenile growth were determined from recruitment tiles installed in 2009 and from subsequent photocensus. Growth of M. venosa is best described by the general von Bertalanffy growth function, with a maximum shell length (L∞) of 71.53 mm and a Brody growth constant (K) of 0.336 year-1. The overall growth performance (OGP index = 5.1) is the highest recorded for a rynchonelliform brachiopod and in the range of that for Mytilus chilensis (4.8-5.27), but lower than that of A. atra (5.74). The maximal individual production (PInd) is 0.29 g AFDM ind-1 year-1 at 42 mm shell length and annual production ranges from 1.28 to 89.25 g AFDM year-1 m-2 (1-57% of that of A. atra in the respective fjords). The high shell growth rate of M. venosa, together with its high overall growth performance may explain the locally high population density of this brachiopod in Comau Fjord. However, the production per biomass of the population (P/B--ratio) is low (0.535) and M. venosa may play only a minor role in the food chain. Settling dynamics indicates that M. venosa is a pioneer species with low juvenile mortality. The coexistence of the brachiopod and bivalve suggests that brachiopod survival is affected by neither the presence of potential brachiopod predators nor that of space competitors (i.e. mytilids).

  15. Structures, Components and Functions of Secretory Tissues in Houttuynia cordata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Lu Ni; Li Peng; Wen-Zhe Liu

    2007-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb., traditionally used as a therapeutic plant in folk medicine, has shown antioxidant and anticancer activities.The species, as a core component of paleoherbs, is normally characterized based on the presence of different types of secretory tissue: oil cells, three types of secretory cells and glandular hairs.The aim of this work was to study the structural, componential, and the functional characteristics of the secretory tissues in both the floral and vegetative parts.The results indicate that oll cells and secretory cells are distributed in all organs of the plant, while glandular hairs are situated on the aerial stems and leaves.Both oil cells and glandular hairs initiate from the protoderm, but their developmental processes are different.Although three types of secretory cells initiate from different primary meristems, the developmental pattems of different secretory cells are the same.Also, although the origins of secretory cells are different from oil cells, their early developmental processes are the same.Histochemical results show that oil cells, secretory cells and glandular hairs produce flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, lipids, aldehyde and ketone-compounds.In addition, there are terpenoids and pectic-like substances in oil cells, alkaloids in secretory cells of aerial stems, and terpenoids and alkaloids in glandular hairs.These compounds play very important roles in protecting plants from being eaten by herbivores (herbivory) and infected by microbial pathogens.The oil cell and secretory cell, as unicellular secretory tissues, are intermediates between the primitive surface glandular and secretory cavity and canal during the evolution of secretory structures.

  16. Red tides caused by Exuviaella cordata and Exuviaella marina%卵甲藻Exuviaella cordata 和Exuviaella marina赤潮的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周遵春; 闫喜武; 庞军辉; 马志强; 薛克; 雷善敏

    2001-01-01

    Red tides caused by Exuviaella cordata and biology of Exuviaella marina (the first occurrence in shrimp ponds of Qingdui Fisheries Coorporation of Zhuanghe) were described. The reason why red tide occurred and its harmful effects were evaluated. The conformation characteristic, ecological habits of Exuviaella cordata and Exuviaella marina was briefly described. Three species of raft-cultured shellfishes collected at red tides in Dalian Wan Bay were tested for the shellfish poison.%报道了由心形卵甲藻(Exuviaella cordata)和海洋卵甲藻(Exuviaella marina)引发的赤潮(前者于1991年发生在庄河青堆水产公司虾池中,后者于1999年7月发生在大连湾)。并对赤潮发生的原因、危害进行了分析,对引发赤潮藻类的形态和生活习性进行了描述,对大连湾赤潮区养殖的3种贝类进行了贝毒检测。

  17. Houttuynia cordata targets the beginning stage of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Hung

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata, a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-κB-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-κB activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-κB activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV.

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LEAF AND STEM EXTRACTS OF SIDDHA MEDICINAL PLANT: SIDA CORDATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Phyto chemicals are the secondary metabolites produ ce by the plant for its adaptation, which has medicinal value. The plant Sida cordata is a prostrate herb with medicinal value which is found throughout India .The whole pla nt Sidda cordata is used by the tribal people of Madekeri district to treat various aliment like hepatic disorder, dysentery, cholera etc, it is also one of the component in herbal preparation in Tamilnadu used on cut wounds, to relive pain etc. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or bioactive component for the treatment of different health probl ems at affordable cost. Secondary metabolites are responsible for medicinal activity o f plant. Hence, the present study deals with the preliminary phytochemical evaluation of leaf & st em of Sida cordata, the study includes the preparation of different extracts leaf &stem by succe ssive solvent extraction method ,fluorescence analysis of successive extracts & the ir powder are noted under visible &UV light, which showed the visibility of varying colors. Furt her Phytochemical analysis of leaf & stem extracts of Sida cordata was carried out which conf irms the presence of primary metabolites like carbohydrates , amino acids, proteins etc and s econdary metabolites like the alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin etc. Present study is designed t o explore the preliminary phyto-profile and phytochemical analysis of leaf & stem of Sida cordat a, which are responsible for its pharmacological properties

  19. Resolving early Mid-Ordovician (Kundan) bioevents in the East Baltic based on brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Mac Ørum; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Bed-by-bed sampling of brachiopods from selected Kundan Stage localities in the East Baltic has permitted the construction of a-diversity curves, unprecedented in detail from this particular stage and region. These a-diversity curves can be correlated between the investigated sections, along an...

  20. Brachiopods from the Upper Triassic reef habitats of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Dachstein Limestone, Hochschwab, Austria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siblík, Miloš; Bryda, G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 3 (2005), s. 411-435. ISSN 0035-6883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/03/1123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Brachiopods * Upper Triassic * Dachstein Limestone Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.569, year: 2005

  1. A Middle Devonian atrypid brachiopod fauna from the Cantabrian Mountains, northwestern Spain, and its stratigraphic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struve, W.; Mohanti, M.

    1970-01-01

    This paper records for the first time a rich atrypid brachiopod fauna from the Middle Devonian of the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain. A comparison of the Spanish atrypid fauna with that of Germany reveals a close similarity between the two. Even though the species are not identical, yet a comparison an

  2. Reconstructing Cambro-Ordovician Seawater Composition using Clumped Isotope Paleothermometry on Calcitic and Phosphatic Brachiopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, K.; Robles, M.; Finnegan, S.; Hughes, N. C.; Eiler, J. M.; Fischer, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    A secular increase in δ18O values of marine fossils through early Phanerozoic time raises questions about the evolution of climate and the water cycle. This pattern suggests two end-member hypotheses 1) surface temperatures during early Paleozoic time were very warm, in excess of 40°C (tropical MAT), or 2) the isotopic composition of seawater increased by up to 7-8‰. It has been difficult to evaluate these hypotheses because the δ18O composition of fossils depends on both temperature and the δ18O of water. Furthermore, primary isotopic signatures can be overprinted by diagenetic processes that modify geological materials. This too could explain the decrease in δ18O values of marine fossils with age. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry can constrain this problem by providing an independent measure of crystallization temperature and, when paired with classical δ18O paleothermometry, can determine the isotopic composition of the fluid the mineral last equilibrated with. Combined with traditional tools, this method has the potential to untangle primary isotopic signatures from diagenetic signals. We measured the isotopic ordering of CO3 groups (Δ47) substituted into the phosphate lattice of phosphatic brachiopods in Cambrian strata. Phosphatic fossils are generally less soluble than carbonates in surface and diagenetic environments, and so are hypothesized to provide a more robust record of primary growth conditions. They also provide an archive prior to the rise of thick shelled calcitic fossils during the Ordovician Radiation. Additionally, measurements of the δ18O of the CO3 groups can be compared with the δ18O of PO4 groups to test whether their mutual fractionation is consistent with primary growth and the apparent temperature recorded by carbonate clumped isotope measurements. We are constructing a phosphatic brachiopod calibration for carbonate clumped isotope thermometry, and Δ47 values of CO2 extracted from modern phosphatic brachiopods suggest

  3. Protective effects from Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract against acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Yang, Chieh-ling; Yin, Mei-chin

    2014-01-01

    Background Protective effects of Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract (HCAE) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/cA mice were examined. Methods HCAE, at 1 or 2 g/L, was added into the drinking water for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by acetaminophen treatment intraperitoneally (350 mg/kg body weight). Results Acetaminophen treatment significantly depleted hepatic glutathione (GSH) content, increased hepatic malonyldialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ox...

  4. A new method for classification of Brachiopods based on the radon transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ait khouya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brachiopods have a lateral outline which is quite important in systematic studies. It is often assessed by a qualitative evaluation and linear measurements, which are not clear enough and precise for describing the shape of the shell and its changes In this paper we propose a new method for classification of fossils based on the radon transform from their greyscale image. We take the case of brachiopods which has Complex shapes. We use an adaptation of Radon transform called R-transform which is invariant to common geometrical transformations. Each shape is described by R3D transform. We consider the grayscale image as a set of cuts obtained from successive binarization for each gray level in image, and for each segmentation we compute the R-transform then we obtained the R3D transform. The advantages of the proposed method are robustness to noise, and invariant to common geometrical transformations scale, translation and rotation.

  5. Endophytic fungus strain 28 isolated from Houttuynia cordata possesses wide-spectrum antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Zheng-Qiong; Chen, Que; Xu, Ying-Wen; Hou, Kai; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate an endophytic fungus (strain 28) that was isolated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, a famous and widely-used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Based on morphological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, this strain was identified as Chaetomium globosum. An antifungal activity bioassay demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of strain 28 had a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antimicrobial activity, particularly against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard et Suggs, Botrytis cinerea persoon and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Furthermore, the fermentation conditions, extraction method and the heat stability of antifungal substances from strain 28 were also studied. The results showed that optimal antifungal activity can be obtained with the following parameters: using potato dextrose broth (PDB) as the base culture medium, fermentation for 4-8d (initial pH: 7.5), followed by extraction with EtOAc. The extract was stable at temperatures up to 80°C. This is the first report on the isolation of endophytic C. globosum from H. cordata to identify potential alternative biocontrol agents that could provide new opportunities for practical applications involving H. cordata. PMID:26991297

  6. The paleoecology, habitats, and stratigraphic range of the enigmatic cretaceous brachiopod peregrinella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available Modern and Cenozoic deep-sea hydrothermal-vent and methane-seep communities are dominated by large tubeworms, bivalves and gastropods. In contrast, many Early Cretaceous seep communities were dominated by the largest Mesozoic rhynchonellid brachiopod, the dimerelloid Peregrinella, the paleoecologic and evolutionary traits of which are still poorly understood. We investigated the nature of Peregrinella based on 11 occurrences world wide and a literature survey. All in situ occurrences of Peregrinella were confirmed as methane-seep deposits, supporting the view that Peregrinella lived exclusively at methane seeps. Strontium isotope stratigraphy indicates that Peregrinella originated in the late Berriasian and disappeared after the early Hauterivian, giving it a geologic range of ca. 9.0 (+1.45/-0.85 million years. This range is similar to that of rhynchonellid brachiopod genera in general, and in this respect Peregrinella differs from seep-inhabiting mollusks, which have, on average, longer geologic ranges than marine mollusks in general. Furthermore, we found that (1 Peregrinella grew to larger sizes at passive continental margins than at active margins; (2 it grew to larger sizes at sites with diffusive seepage than at sites with advective fluid flow; (3 despite its commonly huge numerical abundance, its presence had no discernible impact on the diversity of other taxa at seep sites, including infaunal chemosymbiotic bivalves; and (4 neither its appearance nor its extinction coincides with those of other seep-restricted taxa or with global extinction events during the late Mesozoic. A preference of Peregrinella for diffusive seepage is inferred from the larger average sizes of Peregrinella at sites with more microcrystalline carbonate (micrite and less seep cements. Because other seep-inhabiting brachiopods occur at sites where such cements are very abundant, we speculate that the various vent- and seep-inhabiting dimerelloid brachiopods since

  7. Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs of the Mengkarang Formation (Early Permian, Sumatra) and their palaeobiogeographical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, G.; Angiolini, L.; Van Waveren, I.; Crow, M. J.; Hasibuan, F.; Stephenson, M. H.; Ueno, K.

    2014-01-01

    Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs from the Lower Permian Mengkarang Formation (Sumatra, Indonesia) have been studied in order to establish the palaeogeographical position and the palaeolatitude of the West Sumatra Block. The position of the West Sumatra Block within the Palaeo-Tethys and Panthalassa oceans and its relationships to their marginal landmasses, in particular the Gondwana supercontinent and the Cathaysian palaeogeographical area, currently is uncertain.

  8. Species-abundance models for brachiopods across the Ordovician–Silurian boundary of South China

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Huang; Renbin Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Species-abundance models have been an important method for investigating community structure in modern biology in the past decades. Different species-abundance models can reflect different ecological meanings. The method is relatively new to palaeoecology. We take the latest Ordovician–earliest Silurian Cathaysiorthis brachiopod fauna of South China as an example, program the calculation in the R language, introduce the application of the species-abundance models and discuss the relationship ...

  9. Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale

    OpenAIRE

    Topper, Timothy P.; Holmer, Lars E.; Jean-Bernard Caron

    2014-01-01

    Ecological interactions, including symbiotic associations such as mutualism, parasitism and commensalism are crucial factors in generating evolutionary novelties and strategies. Direct examples of species interactions in the fossil record generally involve organisms attached to sessile organisms in an epibiont or macroboring relationship. Here we provide support for an intimate ecological association between a calcareous brachiopod (Nisusia) and the stem group mollusc Wiwaxia from the Burgess...

  10. Brachiopods from the uppermost Lower Ordovician of Peru and their palaeogeographical significance

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.; Villas, E.

    2007-01-01

    The studied brachiopod assemblages from the uppermost Lower Ordovician beds of Peru are of very low diversity and are among the northernmost known strata of that age in South America. They have been collected at the Carcel Puncco canyon of the Inambari River, near San Gabán in the easternmost Eastern Cordillera. Of the six species described, Euorthisina orthiformis and Paralenorthis immitatrix were already known from the Bolivian outcrops of the same Andean Eastern Cordillera; two species are...

  11. Exceptionally preserved brachiopods from the Chengjiang Lagerstatte (Yunnan, China) : Perspectives on the Cambriane explosion of metazoans

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhifei; Holmer, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cambrian explosion was coined to describe the geologically sudden appearance of numerous bilaterian body plans (Phyla) around the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition, around 565-520 million years ago. Many explanations and conjectures have been postulated in order to explain the pattern and duration of this explosive radiation of many different phyla of early metazoans. Here, we focus on the evolution of a phylum of marine suspension-feeding animals – the brachiopods, as exemplified by the exce...

  12. Mass Occurrences of the Brachiopod Halorella in Late Triassic Methane-Seep Deposits, Eastern Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Peckmann, J.; Kiel, S.; Sandy, M. R.; Taylor, D G; Goedert, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The temporally and geographically scattered Phanerozoic record of methane-seep deposits hampers reconstruction of the evolution of life in chemosynthesis-based ecosystems. Unlike modern, Cenozoic, and late Mesozoic seeps, many of the known older seep deposits are typified by assemblages with profuse rhynchonellide brachiopods. Late Triassic (Norian) limestone bodies in eastern Oregon are enclosed in deep-water strata, extend laterally for up to a few hundred meters, and contain th...

  13. Reproductive ecology of Scalesia cordata (Asteraceae), an endangered species from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2010-01-01

    The genus Scalesia is endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Scalesia cordata is a tree occurring only in the southern part of Isabela as small, remnant populations of larger forests. We studied the reproductive ecology of a population protected in an enclosure in order to reveal the extent to which the...... of the genus. The small population size, with its potential derived consequences, is most certainly a prominent threat to S. cordata. The pressure from introduced plant species found in the enclosure also contributes to the seemingly poor condition of the population. To recover S. cordata, we suggest...... enlarging the enclosure, removing the introduced plant species and continuing to cultivate plants as a genetic reserve. Introducing new genetic material is likely to increase the seed set of the population...

  14. Lingulate brachiopods from the Acanthopyge Limestone (Eifelian of the Barrandian, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergl M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The lingulate brachiopod fauna of the mid-Devonian Acanthopyge Limestone, Choteč Formation of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic comprises seven species, of which Kosagitella pulsatilla sp. nov., Microbolus minimus gen. et sp. nov., Chynithele amoena sp. nov., and Opatrilkiella kobyla sp. nov. are described as new. Shell microornaments of all taxa are examined. The pitting on the mature shell of Kosagitella, and diverse types of pitting on discinid shells have been observed, including the imprints of suggested siliceous tablets on the first-formed shells of Acrosaccus and Opatrilkiella.

  15. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland: equatorial offshore migration of the Red River fauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø.

    2013-01-01

    thus extended to the easternmost extremity of the Laurentian craton. The assemblage compares specifically with the Hiscobeccus brachiopod fauna, based on key taxa such as notably Hiscobeccus gigas (Wang, 1949), and indicates a late Katian age for this part of the succession. For the first time, this......, 1842) to younger strata exclusively yielding specimens of H.gigas. As H.gigas occurs in the upper part of the Cape Calhoun Formation in Washington Land, it indicates that the upper boundary of the Cape Calhoun Formation is considerably younger than previous estimates, reaching into the uppermost Katian...

  16. ADDITIONAL BRACHIOPOD FINDINGS FROM THE LOPINGIAN SUCCESSION OF THE ALI BASHI MOUNTAINS, NW IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO GARBELLI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this note is to describe additional findings of Lopingian brachiopods along the Main Valley section and at Localities 1, 3, and 4 of the Ali Bashi Mountains, N Iran. Here we provide:1 taxonomic descriptions of two newly recorded taxa, one of which is a new species, Meekella julfensis n. sp.;2 more information on the stratigraphic range of brachiopods from the Ali Bashi Mountains, which show a greater abundance and diversity in the upper part of the Julfa Formation, in the Ali Bashi Formation, and in the Boundary Clay. The newly collected faunas are characterized by miniaturization which is considered to be a response to deep water conditions in well oxygenated, but trophic resource-limited settings, and not a Lilliput-effect related to the end-Permian crisis;3 a discussion on the phylogenetic relationships between Araxathyris and Transcaucasathyris , proposing that the former may have evolved from the latter by the convergence of the dental plates to form a spondylium, that was probably a structure that functioned to optimize the muscle length in response to greater shell volumes.

  17. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrotron light beams are sharply focused like a laser beam. We report encouraging results from the use of SRXTM for purely taxonomic purposes in brachiopods: an attempt to find a non-destructive and more efficient alternative to serial sectioning and several other methods of dissection together with the non-destructive method of X-ray computerised micro-tomography. Two brachiopod samples were investigated using SRXTM. In “Rhynchonella” flustracea it was possible to visualise the 3D shape of the crura and dental plates. In Terebratulina imbricata it was possible to reveal the form of the brachidium. It is encouraging that we have obtained such promising results using SRXTM with our very first two fortuitous samples, which had respectively fine-grained limestone and marl as infilling sediment, in contrast to the discouraging results communicated to us by some colleagues who have tested specimens with such infillings using X-ray micro-tomography. In future the holotypes, rare museum specimens or delicate Recent material may be preferentially subjected to this mode of analysis.

  18. FAUNAL CHANGE NEAR THE END-PERMIAN EXTINCTION: THE BRACHIOPODS OF THE ALI BASHI MOUNTAINS, NW IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABBAS GHADERI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Julfa Formation in the Ali Bashi Mountains, northwest Iran, is very rich in brachiopods, particularly in its lower part, which has been dated by fusulinids and conodonts as Wuchiapingian in age. The brachiopod fauna described herein has been collected along the Main Valley section of the Ali Bashi Mountains, several hundred metres away from the historical sections described in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It comprises 39 species of the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida, and Terebratulida, most of which are known in the coeval successions of Transcaucasia, Alborz Mountains in north Iran and in South China, confirming the Wuchiapingian age indicated by other proxies. A few of the brachiopod taxa range up into the Changhsingian Paratirolites Limestone. The shale and marly limestone at the base of the formation are dominated by semi-infaunal productids, that are progressively succeeded near the top of the lower part of the formation by a more diverse range of pedicle attached and cemented taxa, suggesting a shallowing upward trend and a shift to higher nutrient-substrates in more turbulent waters. The successive deepening trend recorded in the upper part of the Julfa Formation and in the overlying Ali Bashi Formation is very unfavourable for the brachiopods and only a few species survive, represented by small sized pediculate taxa that thrive on hardgrounds.

  19. Mollusc and brachiopod skeletal hardparts: Problematic archives of past seawater properties (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons may act as support or serves as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hardparts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrix, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth-increments and their respective multi-proxy geochemical signatures that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. We here compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hardparts secreted by molluscs (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hardparts. Despite the fact that molluscs and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil shell hardparts precipitated, under favourable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration, in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or endocytosis and vesicle transport, precursor mineralogies etc.) is surprisingly

  20. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic and antioxidative compounds from lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakul Prommajak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lizard tail (Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is an Asian herb which has many biological activities, including antioxidative property from polyphenolic compounds. Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design were employed to study the effect of extraction temperature (30 to 70°C, extraction time (10 to 30 min, ethanol concentration (30 to 70%, and solvent to sample ratio (2 to 6 ml/g on ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from lizard tail and antioxidant capacity of the herb extract. Extraction temperature was the most relevant factor on the responses. Optimal condition was the extraction temperature of 70°C for 30 min, using 60% ethanol concentration at the solvent to sample ratio of 5 ml/g. Model adequacies were confirmed by extraction at the optimal condition and normality of standardized residuals.

  1. Genetic processes and environmental significance of Lower Devonian brachiopod shell concentrations in Longmenshan area, Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjie; Qu, Xuelin; Du, Lingchun; Dai, Tingyong; Yang, Yuchuan; Li, Junwu; Yang, Chengjin

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive features of the Lower Devonian rocks of the Longmenshan area in southwestern China are brachiopod shell concentrations, especially in the Bailiuping, Ganxi and Xiejiawan Formations, where brachiopod shell concentrations occur widely throughout. Depending on the dominant skeletal elements, six types of shell concentrations can be distinguished: Protochonete, Acrospirifer, Howellella, Orientospirifer, polyspecific shell and polyspecific fragments concentrations. According to the shell features, taphonomic signature, host sediments and their relationships, four genetic models of the various shell concentrations are described in this paper. The genetic processes and distributions along an onshore-offshore area were clarified on the base of taphonomic analysis. Pavements of opportunistic species of Protochonetes are autochthonous assemblages living in quieter, deeper, more offshore waters near the maximum storm wave base. The pavements are the result of reduced sedimentation; the substrate was silty and water-saturated with variable turbidity soupy-mud. Transport by high-energy processes is interpreted as the final formation process of polyspecific fragments concentrations with most extensive scope from intertidal zone to the maximum storm wave base. The Acrospirifer, Howellella, and Orientospirifer concentrations have been stirred by storm wave action and quickly buried after short transport tempestite model. They are most easily preserved around the average storm wave-base. The polyspecific shell concentrations, which include large bivalves are autochthonous assemblages living in shallow and relatively quieter water near shore environments. Autochthonous assemblages of the opportunist Protochonetes bailiupingensis occurring in the Bailiuping Formation of the Longmenshan area not only record of storm events, but are also important features to identify and correlate the Bailiuping Formation in the field.

  2. Allergen component of Houttuynia cordata injection%鱼腥草注射液中过敏原成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安丹; 陈聪; 廖雪; 王捷; 吴英良; 王智琴

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索鱼腥草注射液中的过敏原成分及其致敏机理.方法 分别用鱼腥草注射液、鱼腥草蒸馏液、吐温80、阴性对照物和阳性对照物对豚鼠和Brown Norway(BN)大鼠进行全身主动过敏试验,并用吐温80首次静脉注射豚鼠和BN大鼠进行类过敏试验.观察其行为学反应并检测动物血清中组胺、IL-4,IgE,IgG和IgM的水平.结果 阳性对照组、鱼腥草注射液组、吐温80组和鱼腥草蒸馏液组动物都观察到不同程度的行为学过敏反应,且动物血清中的组胺、IgE和IL-4水平,以及阳性对照组和吐温80组的BN大鼠血清中IgM水平与阴性对照组相比显著性升高IgG,IgM及鱼腥草蒸馏液组BN大鼠血清中组胺和IL-4水平无显著变化.吐温80类过敏试验组,动物的行为学及血清中各生化指标均未见显著变化.结论 吐温80为鱼腥草注射液中的主要过敏原,可以引起豚鼠和BN大鼠发生I型全身主动过敏反应,而不引起豚鼠和BN大鼠发生类过敏反应.鱼腥草蒸馏液中含有其他引起过敏反应的过敏原.%Objective To explore the allergen ingredients of Houttuynia cordata injection and the sensitization mechanism.Methods Active systemic anaphylaxis test was carried out on Guinea pigs and the BN rats with Houttuynia cordata injection ,Houttuynia cordata distillate, polysorbate 80, negative control and positive control, and anaphylactoid reactions were carried out by intravenous polysorbate 80 to guinea pigs and BN rats for the first time.The anaphylaxis situations of guinea pigs and BN rats were observed, and the concentrationns of histamine, IgE, IgM, IgG and IL-4 in serum were measured with ELISA.Results Positive control group,Houttuynia cordata injection group ,polysorbate 80 group and Houttuynia cordata distillate group animals had been observed to have various degrees of behavioral hypersensitivity reactions, histamine, meanwhile IgE and IL-4 levels in these groups'serum,and IgM in BN

  3. Development and antioxidant capacity of sapota pulp Jelly (Quararibea cordata Vischer Desenvolvimento e capacidade antioxidante de geleia da polpa de sapota (Quararibea cordata Vischer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Silva Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sapote (Quararibea cordata Vischer, also known as a chupa-chupa, is originated from the Brazilian, Peruvian and Colombian Amazon. The pulp of the ripe fruit is edible, fibrous, of intense orange color, sweet flavor and aromatic. Since the fruit is known in the Amazon only in its domesticated state, this work becomes necessary. With the aim of meeting the demand for new products in domestic and international markets, sapota pulp jelly has been developed. The jelly was assessed for moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, pectin, pH, total acidity, solids soluble, sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The final product met the standards required by Brazilian law, and 32.68% moisture and 61.06% °Brix. Also, in accordance with the laws attributed to this product, jelly sapota pulp can be considered a food rich in fiber, as presented content above 5%. The jelly, showed content of total phenolics compounds (102 mg GAE. 100 -1 in relation to fresh fruit (21 mg GAE.100 g-1. There was the identification in the antioxidant capacity (9.05% scavering of DPPH radical, giving the final product antioxidant properties. Also were analyzed the microbiological characteristics of the product which was not observed the presence of thermotolerants coliforms, yeast and molds. The sapota can be considered effective raw materials in the preparation of jam and this had an antioxidant activity and source of fiber.A sapota (Quararibea cordata Vischer, também conhecida como chupa-chupa, é originária da Amazônia Brasileira, Peruana e Colombiana A polpa do fruto maduro é comestível, fibrosa, de cor alaranjada intensa, sabor doce e aromática. Por ser conhecida na Amazônia somente no seu estado domesticado, torna-se necessário este trabalho Assim, visando a atender a demanda por novos produtos no mercado nacional e internacional, foi desenvolvida a geleia da polpa de sapota. A geleia foi avaliada quanto

  4. Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of Macleaya cordata: a newly potential plant for sustainable phytoremediation in Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jian; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Zheng, Bohong; Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Huan; Xie, Jieli; Gan, Chao; Liu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major concern of the public due to their threats to the safety of food chains. A 60-day pot experiment was conducted using Macleaya cordata as plant material to investigate the phytoremediation potential and anti-oxidative responses of M. cordata under different Cd stress. Significant growth inhibition phenomenon and toxic symptoms were not detected in the experiment. The high biomass of the plant provided high accumulation capacity for Cd with an average dry weight of 3.6 g. The maximum extraction amount of Cd was 393 μg·plant(-1), suggesting that this species had potential for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. A slight increase of chlorophyll (CHL) content was observed in Cd10 treatment. The plant was confirmed to have relatively high tolerance to the Cd stress on the basis of tolerance indexes (TI), relative water content, and CHLa/CHLb ratio. M. cordata could maintain high level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under Cd stress, indicating strong tolerance capacity for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells. Catalase (CAT) activity show a certain range of decline in the experiment compare to the control. And peroxidase (POD) activity in leaves changed irregularly when compared to the control. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as Cd concentration elevated compared to the control. In addition, as an inedible crop with relatively high economic value, M. cordata have shown the advantage of high biomass and high tolerance under Cd stress, which can provide a new plant resource for sustainable phytoremediation. PMID:26875820

  5. Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hakimah Abdullah; Fatimah Salim; Rohaya Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were ...

  6. Characterization of Root-Associated Methanotrophs from Three Freshwater Macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia†

    OpenAIRE

    Calhoun, A.; King, G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Root-associated methanotrophic bacteria were enriched from three common aquatic macrophytes: Pontederia cordata, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Sagittaria latifolia. At least seven distinct taxa belonging to groups I and II were identified and presumptively assigned to the genera Methylosinus, Methylocystis, Methylomonas, and Methylococcus. Four of these strains appeared to be novel on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The root-methanotroph association did not appear to be...

  7. In vitro assessment of Macleaya cordata crude extract bioactivity and anticancer properties in normal and cancerous human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Lin, Yu-ling; Chen, Xuan-Ren; Liao, Chi-Cheng; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the bioactivity and anticancer properties of Macleaya cordata crude extract in vitro using normal fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 and adenocarcinomic epithelial cell A549 as model systems,. Treatment of extract induced cell detachment, rounding, and irregularity in shape, in both normal and adenocarcinomic human lung cells, in accompanied of significant reduction in cell proliferation. The data indicated that necrosis appeared to be involved in compromising cell growth in both types of lung cells since membrane permeability and cell granularity were elevated. Although apoptosis was evident, the responses were differential in normal and diseased lung cells. Viability of treated MRC5 cells was reduced in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating that the normal lung cells are sensitive to the extract. Surprisingly, A549 viability was slightly elevated in response to extract exposure at low concentration, implying that cells survived were metabolically active; the viability was reduced accordingly to treatment at higher concentrations. The present findings demonstrate that the crude extract of M. cordata contains agents affecting the functioning of normal and diseased lung cells in vitro. The observed cytotoxic effects against adenocarcinomic lung cells validate the potential of using M. cordata as herbal intervention in combined with conventional chemotherapy for lung cancer treatment. PMID:23238228

  8. The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina in the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina and the dispersal pathways along western Gondwana

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    Diego F. Muñoz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina is reported for the first time from the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina. It is represented by a species similar to A. ferrigena from the Tremadocian of the Prague Basin, increasing the faunal affinities between the Central Andean Basin and the South European microcontinents, in particular the Bohemian region (Perunica. Nine out of the fourteen brachiopod genera reported from the Tremadocian of the Central Andean Basin (~64% are shared with the Mediterranean region, four of which (~28% have been recorded in the Prague Basin, and two (Kvania and Apheoorthina are restricted to the Central Andes and Perunica. Dispersal pathways around Gondwana are analyzed in the light of major factors affecting large-scale distribution of brachiopods (environment, larval capacity for dispersal, oceanic currents. The presence in Apheoorthina aff. ferrigena of a well-preserved larval protegulum measuring 420 μm in width and 210 μm in length strongly suggests that this species had planktotrophic larvae capable of long-distance dispersal. According to recent ocean-atmosphere general circulation models for the Ordovician Period, the Central Andean margin was dominated by the cold-water Antarctica Current. Despite the complex non-zonal pattern produced by current deflections around the peri-Gondwanan microcontinents, the general westward circulation sense favoured larval dispersal from the Andean region to North Africa, Avalonia, the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, and Perunica. On the other hand, the eastwards flowing Gondwana Current connected the North Gondwana waters with the South American epicontinental seas, which could explain the reversed migration of some brachiopods.

  9. Iowatrypa rotundicollis n. sp., brachiopode atrypidé de la fin du Frasnien

    OpenAIRE

    Godefroid, J

    1994-01-01

    The specimens belonging to the new species Iowatrypa rotundicollis have been collected in the limestone lentils (bioherms) developed during the late Frasnian on the southern border of the Dinant Synclinorium and in the Roly "massif".The species is one of the latest atrypid brachiopods of which the history ends near the close of Frasnian times. It is an uncommon example of inverse vaulting (ventribiconvex shell) in atrypid shells. The genus Iowatrypa, distributed over several localities of the...

  10. Expression of segment polarity genes in brachiopods supports a non-segmental ancestral role of engrailed for bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellutini, Bruno C; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The diverse and complex developmental mechanisms of segmentation have been more thoroughly studied in arthropods, vertebrates and annelids-distantly related animals considered to be segmented. Far less is known about the role of "segmentation genes" in organisms that lack a segmented body. Here we investigate the expression of the arthropod segment polarity genes engrailed, wnt1 and hedgehog in the development of brachiopods-marine invertebrates without a subdivided trunk but closely related to the segmented annelids. We found that a stripe of engrailed expression demarcates the ectodermal boundary that delimits the anterior region of Terebratalia transversa and Novocrania anomala embryos. In T. transversa, this engrailed domain is abutted by a stripe of wnt1 expression in a pattern similar to the parasegment boundaries of insects-except for the expression of hedgehog, which is restricted to endodermal tissues of the brachiopod embryos. We found that pax6 and pax2/5/8, putative regulators of engrailed, also demarcate the anterior boundary in the two species, indicating these genes might be involved in the anterior patterning of brachiopod larvae. In a comparative phylogenetic context, these findings suggest that bilaterians might share an ancestral, non-segmental domain of engrailed expression during early embryogenesis. PMID:27561213

  11. Middle and Late Devonian brachiopod assemblages,sea level change and paleogeography of Hunan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Givetian through middle Famennian brachiopods of Hunan are used to define five biozones,comprising,in ascending order,the Stringocephalus Abundance Zone,the Ambocoeliid-Leiorhynchid Assemblage Zone,the Cyrtospiriferid Assemblage Zone,the Yunnanellina-Sinospirifer Assemblage Zone,and the Yunnanella-Hunanospirifer Assemblage Zone.They correspond approximately to the Po.hemiansatus Zone to Po.varcus Zone,S.hermanni Zone to Pa.punctata Zone,Pa.hassi Zone to Pa.linguiformis Zone,Pa.triangularis Zone to Upper Pa.crepida Zone,and Uppermost Pa.crepida Zone to Pa.marginifera Zone,respectively.Intensified rifting activity in South China during the Devonian began in the middle of the Lower Po.varcus Zone(a level marked by the first appearance of Po.rhenanus),which is consistent with the Lower-Middle Givetian substage boundary suggested by the International Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy(SDS).This assumed that rifting activity in the Lower Po.varcus Zone was signified by the deposition of the Baqi Formation in Guangxi and was marked largely by the extensive deposition of the Qiziqiao Formation in central Hunan,which probably led to an opposite pattern of relative sea level change-rising in deeper water trough areas and lowering in carbonate platform areas.The previously recognized S.hermanni Zone sea level rise in platform margin areas of Guangxi can be identified not only in the trough areas but also in platform areas,which probably indicates an overall marine transgression at this time,rather than tectonically induced sea level change.Similarly,this level coincides with the Middle-Upper Givetian substage boundary suggested by the SDS.Although the sea level rise may have occurred in the deeper water trough areas of South China towards the end of the Givetian,platformal areas experienced uplifting at various degrees,especially in the central and northern regions of Hunan where Early Frasnian deposits were apparently absent in many places.Similarly,the end

  12. Biogeographic and bathymetric determinants of brachiopod extinction and survival during the Late Ordovician mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Seth; Rasmussen, Christian M Ø; Harper, David A T

    2016-04-27

    The Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME) coincided with dramatic climate changes, but there are numerous ways in which these changes could have driven marine extinctions. We use a palaeobiogeographic database of rhynchonelliform brachiopods to examine the selectivity of Late Ordovician-Early Silurian genus extinctions and evaluate which extinction drivers are best supported by the data. The first (latest Katian) pulse of the LOME preferentially affected genera restricted to deeper waters or to relatively narrow (less than 35°) palaeolatitudinal ranges. This pattern is only observed in the latest Katian, suggesting that it reflects drivers unique to this interval. Extinction of exclusively deeper-water genera implies that changes in water mass properties such as dissolved oxygen content played an important role. Extinction of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges suggests that interactions between shifting climate zones and palaeobiogeography may also have been important. We test the latter hypothesis by estimating whether each genus would have been able to track habitats within its thermal tolerance range during the greenhouse-icehouse climate transition. Models including these estimates are favoured over alternative models. We argue that the LOME, long regarded as non-selective, is highly selective along biogeographic and bathymetric axes that are not closely correlated with taxonomic identity. PMID:27122567

  13. Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract induces cytotoxicity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells: Raman spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Li, Zuanfang; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Huang, Hao; Shi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity induced by Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells was investigated by Raman spectroscopy (RS). The average Raman spectra of cell groups treated with HCT (0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 μg ml-1) for 24 h were measured separately. Compared to the control group, the intensities of the selected bands (1002, 1338, and 1448 cm-1) related to protein, DNA, and lipid in the treatment groups decreased obviously as the concentration of HCT increased. Both cell groups treated with 250 and 500 μg ml-1 of HCT could be differentiated from the control group by principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminate analysis (LDA) with a diagnostic accuracy of 100%, suggesting that cytotoxicity occurred and that 250 μg ml-1 was the proper dose for treatment. Simultaneously, the Raman spectra of cells treated with different treatment times with 250 μg ml-1 of HCT were obtained. We can get that treatment with HCT decreased cell viability in a dose and time-dependent fashion. The results indicated that the RS combined with PCA-LDA can be used for pharmacokinetics studies of HCT in NPC cells, which could also provide useful data for clinical dosage optimization for HCT.

  14. Italian alder (Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. - new species for Allochtonous dendroflora of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobinac Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign tree species, Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. (Italian alder, (Betulaceae/Loisel./Duby, not previously recorded in the dendroflora of Serbia, is described in this paper. Italian alder trees in an experimental plot in the area of Erdevik, aged 11 years, show good vitality and fast growth, and bear fruits since their 10th year. Tree heights are in range from 10.4 to 16.2 m, and diameters at the breast height range from14.6 to 34.9 cm. The morphological properties of leaves, fruiting organs (“cones” and male catkins are in concordance with the values in literature sources, although they show great variability. Since the time of plantation establishment, the absolute minimum air temperature in the nearby meteorological station of Sremska Mitrovica was -26.50C, so it can be assumed that the species is frost hardy. On the basis of the researched properties of Italian alder, it can be concluded that this species can be cultivated in Serbia as an ornamental in urban areas and as a fast growing species in forest plantations for biomass production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  15. Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract from Houttuynia cordata poultice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Amoh, Takashi; Ogino, Satoshi; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) has been commonly used as many traditional remedies in local areas of Japan. Although many pharmacological activities of HC have been reported, the mechanism underlying the effect of HC remains unknown. We conducted the interview survey in Japan to verify how HC was actually used. The interview survey revealed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC was most frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases including furuncle and carbuncle with high effectiveness. Ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) showed anti-bacterial effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and showed an anti-biofilm activity against MRSA. eHCP showed dose-dependent inhibition of S. aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced interleukin-8 and CCL20 production in human keratinocyte without any cytotoxicity. These results suggest that HCP is effective for skin abscess and its underlying mechanism might be the complicated multiple activities for both bacteria and host cells. PMID:27023331

  16. Do the Available Data Permit Clarifcation of the Possible Dependence of Palaeozoic Brachiopod Generic Diversity Dynamics on Global Sea-Level Changes? A Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At a glance, progress in palaeontology and eustatic reconstructions in the past decade permits to prove or to disprove the possible dependence of Palaeozoic brachiopod generic diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes. However, the available diversity curve is of much lower resolution than the eustatic curve. This problem can be resolved by decreasing the resolution of the latter. The other restriction linked to the chronostratigraphical incompatibility of the available data allows to focus on the Middle Palaeozoic only. A series of mass extinctions and other biotic crises in the Silurian-Devonian does not allow to interpret correctly the results of direct comparison of the brachiopod generic diversity dynamics with global sea-level changes. With the available data, it is only possible to hypothesize that the eustatic control was not playing a major part in diversity dynamics of Middle Palaeozoic brachiopods. The resolution of the stratigraphic ranges of Palaeozoic brachiopods should be increased signifcantly, and these ranges should be plotted against the most up-to-date geologic time scale. Until this task will be achieved, it is impossible to judge about the existence of any dependence (either full or partial of the Palaeozoic brachiopod diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes.

  17. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Se Yeon Oh

    2015-01-01

    Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different par...

  18. Nitrogen metabolism of woody plants under various ecological conditions. [Robinia pseudoacacia; Aesculus hippocastanum; Tilia cordata; Quercus robur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarabrin, V.P.; Ignatenko, A.A.; Shatskaya, R.M.

    1973-01-01

    The leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia. Aesculus hippocastanum, Tilia cordata, and Quercus robur were examined for content of total protein, amine, and nitrate N, and of 13 amino acids. The plants were grown under both urban and forest conditions and then their leaves were compared. The soil and air pollutants of the urban area caused a reduction in the level of arginine, valine, and methionine found in the leaves and an increase in the level of glutamic acid found in the leaves. 16 references, 4 tables.

  19. Global climatic changes during the Devonian-Mississippian: Stable isotope biogeochemistry of brachiopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Uwe

    1989-12-01

    A progressive trend towards heavier δ 13C values of Devonian-Mississippian brachiopods from North America, Europe, Afghanistan and Algeria probably reflects expansion of the terrestrestrial and/or marine biomass and/or burial of carbon in soils/sediments. Oceanic Productivity crises, based on perturbations in the overall δ 13C trend, are recognized for the Mid Givetian, Early Famennian, Late Kinderhookian, Late Osagean and Early and Late Meramecian. The Givetian productivity crisis was probably accompanied by massive overturn of biologically toxic deep-ocean water. Temperature data, adjusted for the possible secular variation of seawater, support the hypothesis of global greenhouse conditions for the Devonian (mean of 30°C, mean of 26°C if extrinsic data are deleted) and icehouse conditions for the Mississippian (mean of 17°C). During the Mid Givetian, Frasnian and Early Famennian calculated water temperatures for tropical epeiric seas were generally above the thermal threshold limit (˜ 38°C) of most marine invertebrates or epeiric seawater was characterized by unusually low salinities (˜ pp ppt) or a combination of the two. These elevated water temperatures and/or low salinities, in conjunction with the postulated productivity crises and overturning of toxic deep waters are considered prime causes for the biotic crisis of the Late Devonian. In addition, a presumed expanding oxygen-minimum zone and general anoxia in the oceans prevented shallow-water organisms from escaping these inhospitable conditions. Re-population of the tropical seas occurred, after either water temperatures had dropped below the thermal threshold limit and/or salinities were back to normal, and oceanic productivity had increased due to more vigorous oceanic circulation, sometime during the Mid-Late Famennian. Migration of eurythermal, shallow- and deeper-water organisms into the vacant niches of the shallow seas was possible because of, generally, slightly lower sea levels, but, more

  20. Brachiopods and stratigraphy of the Upper Devonian (Frasnian) succession of the Radlin Syncline (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliński, Andrzej; Racki, Grzegorz; Halamski, Adam T.

    2016-06-01

    The lower part of the Frasnian succession in the Radlin Syncline (Kielce-Łagów Synclinorium, southern region of the Holy Cross Mountains), in the two studied successions: Józefka at Górno and (for the first time) Radlin, consists of the rhythmic marly Szydłówek Beds, the fossil-rich limestones of the Wietrznia Beds (locally) and the atypically developed, calcareous Kostomłoty Beds. The carbon isotope chemostratigraphic pattern overall corresponds well to the global Early-Middle Frasnian biogeochemical perturbation, even if the major punctata positive excursion is only fragmentarily recorded in the Kostomłoty intrashelf basin. Two brachiopod assemblages are abundantly represented in both sections: the Phlogoiderhynchus polonicus Assemblage, typical of the Szydłówek Beds, and the Biernatella lentiformis Assemblage, limited to the middle part of the Wietrznia Beds. Both are highly dominated by the index species. Twenty nine lower Frasnian brachiopod species (Craniida - 1 species, Strophomenida - 1, Productida - 2, Protorthida - 1, Orthida - 5, Pentamerida - 1, Rhynchonellida - 4, Atrypida - 4, Athyridida - 3, Spiriferida - 4, Spiriferinida - 3) are described from the Szydłówek and Wietrznia Beds. Seven new species are introduced: Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov., Biernatium minus Baliński sp. nov., Monelasmina montisjosephi Baliński sp. nov., Atryparia (Costatrypa) agricolae Halamski and Baliński sp. nov., Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov., Leptathyris gornensis Baliński sp. nov., and Echinocoelia parva Baliński sp. nov. Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov. is intermediate between Davidsonia Bouchard-Chantereaux, 1849 and Rugodavidsonia Copper, 1996 and is the youngest known representative of the suborder Davidsonioidea Copper, 1996. Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov. is the last representative of the genus. Statistical investigation of a large sample of Spinatrypina (Exatrypa) explanata did not confirm the existence of two dimorphic

  1. A Review of the Characteristics of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Their Implications for Silviculture in a Changing Climate

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    Tanguy De Jaegere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tilia cordata Mill. is a minor European broadleaved species with a wide but scattered distribution. Given its scarcity and low value in the wood market, it has received little attention from researchers and forest managers. This review summarizes the main aspects of T. cordata ecology and growth. Its main limiting factor is its need for warm summer temperatures to ensure successful seed production. It has a height growth pattern relatively similar to that of Acer pseudoplatanus L., with a slight delay in the early stages. Yield tables report great productivity, especially in eastern Europe. T. cordata used to be a major species in Europe, in contrast to its present distribution, but it is very likely to receive renewed interest in the future. Indeed, with the potential change of competition between species in some regions and the need for important diversification in others, T. cordata may play an important role in forest adaptation to climate change, especially owing to its wide ecological tolerance and its numerous ecosystem services. It is necessary to increase our knowledge about its regeneration and its responses to environmental and silvicultural factors, to establish clear management recommendations.

  2. An ethyl acetate fraction derived from Houttuynia cordata extract inhibits the production of inflammatory markers by suppressing NF-кB and MAPK activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Jin Mi; Nho, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Hyo Seon; Lee, A Yeong; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethyl acetate fraction derived from a Houttuynia cordata extract (HCE-EA) on the production of inflammatory mediators and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Methods To measure the effects of HCE...

  3. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Cryptospirifer Fauna (Middle Permian Brachiopods) in the Tethyan Realm and Its Paleogeographic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiaochi; ZHAN Lipei

    2008-01-01

    The middle Permian Cryptospirifer fauna (brachiopod) has hitherto been found in more than 30 localities in the Yangtze Platform, South China. Examination of data from various localities shows that it occurs stratigraphically in three intervals in the range from the upper Kungurian to Wordian.In the Baoshan block in western Yunnan the fauna occurs in the basal part of the Daaozi Formation and is of possibly an early Wordian age. Outside China the Cryptospirifer fauna has been reported from central and northwest Iran and central Turkey, where the fauna may have an age around the Wordian\\Capitanian boundary. Rapid global warming since the late Early Permian and possession of other suitable environmental factors such as proper substrate, clastic input and water depth enabled the Gondwana-derived Baoshan Block and related tectono-stratigraphic units in Iran and Turkey to host the Cryptospirifer fauna, a fauna evolved in the Yangtze Platform that is a type area of the Cathaysian province.

  4. Integration of transcriptome, proteome and metabolism data reveals the alkaloids biosynthesis in Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa.

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    Jianguo Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Macleaya spp., including Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa, are traditional anti-virus, inflammation eliminating, and insecticide herb medicines for their isoquinoline alkaloids. They are also known as the basis of the popular natural animal food addictive in Europe. However, few studies especially at genomics level were conducted on them. Hence, we performed the Macleaya spp. transcriptome and integrated it with iTRAQ proteome analysis in order to identify potential genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We elaborately designed the transcriptome, proteome and metabolism profiling for 10 samples of both species to explore their alkaloids biosynthesis. From the transcriptome data, we obtained 69367 and 78255 unigenes for M. cordata and M. microcarpa, in which about two thirds of them were similar to sequences in public databases. By metabolism profiling, reverse patterns for alkaloids sanguinarine, chelerythrine, protopine, and allocryptopine were observed in different organs of two species. We characterized the expressions of enzymes in alkaloid biosynthesis pathways. We also identified more than 1000 proteins from iTRAQ proteome data. Our results strongly suggest that the root maybe the organ for major alkaloids biosynthesis of Macleaya spp. Except for biosynthesis, the alkaloids storage and transport were also important for their accumulation. The ultrastructure of laticifers by SEM helps us to prove the alkaloids maybe accumulated in the mature roots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Macleaya spp. This work provides clues to the identification of the potential modulate genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis in Macleaya spp., and sheds light on researches for non-model medicinal plants by integrating different high-throughput technologies.

  5. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

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    Se Yeon Oh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different parts of the plant such as leaves, aerial stems, and underground stems for H. cordata Thunb. Sixteen compounds were identified. β-Myrcene, cis-ocimene and decanal are the dominant volatiles for leaves (71.0% and aerial stems (50.1%. While, monoterpenes (74.6% are the dominant volatiles for underground stems. 2-Undecanone (1.3% and lauraldehyde (3.5% were found to be the characteristic components for leaves. Each part of the plant has its own characteristic fragrance pattern owing to its individual chemical compositions. Moreover, its individual characteristic fragrance patterns are conducive to discrimination of the three different parts of the plant. Consequently, fast GC/SAW can be a useful analytical method for quality control of the different parts of the plant with pharmacological volatiles as it provides second unit analysis, a simple and fragrant pattern recognition.

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS, HOTTUYNIA CORDATA, CURCUMA CAESIA AND SYZYGIUM JUMBOS

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    Ahmed Shagufa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to know and compare the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT, Hottuynia cordata (EEHC, Curcuma caesia (EECC and Syzygium jumbos (EESJ on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic plant extracts were prepared from the bark of Syzygium jumbos and leaves of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Hottuynia cordata and Curcuma caesia by percolation method. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College & Hospital. Disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the standard Kirby Bauer method. The whatmann-1 filter paper discs of 6mm sizes impregnated with the plant extracts were placed on Mueller-Hinton agar plates seeded with bacterial cultures of 0.5 Mc Farland standards. Ciprofloxacin (5μg/disc was used as positive control. The antibacterial activities were assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones after incubating the plates at 370c for 24 hours. The ethanolic extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT and Hottuynia cordata (EEHC showed significant anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ethanolic extracts of Syzygium jumbos (EESJ showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli while ethanolic extracts of Curcuma caesia (EECC showed significant anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Maximum zones of inhibition to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exhibited by Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Syzygium jumbos and Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus respectively.

  7. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.

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    Astrid Moser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researched. This study aimed to analyze the annual growth and drought tolerance of two common urban tree species, namely small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. (T. cordata and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. (R. pseudoacacia, in two cities in southern Germany in relation to their urban growing conditions. Marked growth reductions during drought periods and subsequent fast recovery were found for R. pseudoacacia, whereas T. cordata exhibited continued reduced growth after a drought event, although these results were highly specific to the analyzed city. We further show that individual tree characteristics and environmental conditions significantly influence the growth of urban trees. Canopy openness and other aspects of the surrounding environment (water supply and open surface area of the tree pit, tree size, and tree species significantly affect urban tree growth and can modify the ability of trees to tolerate the drought stress in urban areas. Sustainable tree planting of well adapted tree species to their urban environment ensures healthy trees providing ecosystem services for a high quality of life in cities.

  8. 鱼腥草挥发油的化学成分%Chemical constituents of volatile oil from Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾虹燕; 蒋丽娟; 张英超

    2003-01-01

    The volatile oils from Houttuynia cordata Thunb. were obtained with supereritical CO2, steam distillation and petroleum ether extraction and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS. The results showed that the chemical constituents of the volatile oils by three different methods are very different. The extraction rates of volatile oil by above-mentioned three extraction methods are 1.764%, 0.040% and 0.082%, respectively. The volatile oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction, which the content of houttuyninum reached 14.393 %, is better than those with traditional methods.

  9. Field performance of Alnus cordata Loisel (Italian alder) inoculated with Frankia and VA-mycorrhizal strains in mine-spoil afforestation plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumini, E.; Bosco, M.; Puppi, G.; Isopi, R.; Frattegiani, M.; Burseti, E.; Favili, F.

    1994-05-01

    Mixed stands of {ital Alnus cordata}, {ital Eleagnus} spp. and broad leaf timber trees have been successfully used for reclamation of mine spoils in surface mined areas of central Italy. Trials showed that the use of mycorrhizal planting stock may improve the establishment of plants on mine spoils. Alder seeds were sown in pots filled with peat moss and lignite mine spoils and Fungal strains {ital Glomus mosscae} and {ital G. fasciculatum} were inoculated into the pots. A Frankia strain isolated from {ital A. cordata} was also tested. Plants were then outplanted after measuring shoot height and collar diameter. The planting was done in mid-January among commercial trees ({ital Quercus robur}, {ital Fraxinus oxyphilla}, and {ital Prunus avium}). Plants became highly nodulated in the pots. Mycorrhizal infection was about 30% on inoculate plants but did not occur on uninoculated plants. Aboveground biomass at out-planting was significantly greater in the Frankia inoculated plants. There was generally more N in plant leaves in the inoculate plants than in the uninoculated ones. Plant survival in the field after one winter was 83% on average. One year after planting, the inoculated plants were significantly bigger as were the Frankia inoculated plants. The combination of Frankia and Glomus was very effective (contrary to other studies).

  10. Paleocommunity Replacements of Benthic Brachiopod in the Middle-Upper Devonian in the Longmenshan Area, Southwestern China: Responses to Sea Level Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuanren; LI Xianghui

    2005-01-01

    Twelve paleocommunities dominated by benthic brachiopod are recognized in the Givetian-Frasnian stages of the Devonian in the Longmenshan area, southwestern China, in which two kinds of brachiopod community replacement are classified. One is the abrupt replacement, represented by abrupt alternation between the Leiorhynchus community and Zhonghuacoelia-Striatopugnax community in the Frasnian Tuqiaozi Formation. The other is the gradual one, developed in the Givetian Guanwushan Formation, which had been completed by the shift of the Independatrypa lemma-Uncinulus heterocostellis-Emanuella takwanensis community via the Sinospongophyllum irregulare-Pseudomicroplasma fongi community to the Clathrocoilona spissa-Hexagonaria composite reef community. According to analyses of the paleocommunities, either the abrupt or gradual paleocommunity replacement of the Middle-Upper Devonian in the Longmenshan area is suggested as a response to the 5th-order sea level fluctuation due to the replacements of the paleocommunities in a tracts-system of depositional sequence. It is supposed that changes of paleocommunity diversity,one of the results of paleocommunity replacement, are depended on the range and magnitude of sea level fluctuation, but there is not a linear relationship between them. Furthermore, a suggestion is proposed that the concept of paleocommunity succession seem to be abandoned in the paleocommunity analysis because it almost never be practiced to recover the information of community succession in the geological record at present.

  11. Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nur Hakimah; Salim, Fatimah; Ahmad, Rohaya

    2016-01-01

    Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol (7), taxifolin (8), loganin (9) and β-sitosterol (10). Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3%) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL) while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus and

  12. Chemical Constituents of Malaysian U. cordata var. ferruginea and Their in Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

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    Nur Hakimah Abdullah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3, scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4, 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5, quercetin (6, kaempferol (7, taxifolin (8, loganin (9 and β-sitosterol (10. Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS. In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus

  13. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

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    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  14. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

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    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato

  15. 博落回中两个新苯并菲啶类异喹啉生物碱%Two new benzo phenanthridine isoquinoline alkaloids from Macleaya cordata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯锋; 叶冯芝; 李彩莲; 柳文媛; 谢宁

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the chemical constituents of Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R.Br.METHODS:Crude alkaloids were isolated and purified from the fruits with column chromatography of cation exchange,silica gel ad Sephadex LH-20 followed by recrystallization.The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive spectroscopic methods.RESULTS:Two new benzophenanthridine isoquinoline alkaloids,6α-iso-butanonyldihydrosanguinarine (1) and 6α-iso-butanonyldihydrochelerythrine (2),along with other four known alkaloid compounds,6-acetonyldihydrosanguinarine (3),6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (4),dihydrosanguinarine (5)and dihydrocbelerythrine (6) have been isolated from fruits of M.cordata collected in Anhui Province of China.CONCLUSION:Benzophenanthridine isoquinoline alkaloids are featured in M.cordata.Compounds 1 and 2 are new ones.%目的:对中药博落回的化学成分进行研究.方法:依次采用阳离子交换树脂、硅胶、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱法和重结晶等分离技术,对博落回的生物碱进行分离.并运用多种光谱技术对所得生物碱的结构进行鉴定.结果:从博落回中分离并鉴定了6个苯并菲啶类异喹啉生物碱:6α-iso-butanonyldihydrosanguinarine (1),6α-iso-butanonyldihydrochelerythrine (2),6-丙酮基二氢血根碱(6-acetonyldihydrosanguinarine,3),6-丙酮基二氢白屈菜红碱(6-acetonyl-dihydrochelerythrine,4),二氢血根碱(dihydrosanguinarine,5)、二氢白屈菜红碱(dihydrochelerythrine,6).结论:苯并菲啶类异喹啉生物碱是中药博落回的典型化学成分.化合物1和2为新化合物.

  16. Germinação de sementes de Lavoisiera cordata Cogn. e Lavoisiera francavillana Cogn. (Melastomataceae, espécies simpátricas da Serra do Cipó, Brasil Seed germination of Lavoisiera cordata Cogn. and Lavoisiera francavillana Cogn. (Melastomataceae, sympatric plant species from Serra do Cipó, Brazil

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    Bernardo D. Ranieri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo verificou-se o comportamento germinativo de sementes de Lavoisiera cordata Cogn. e Lavoisiera francavillana Cogn. (Melastomataceae, espécies que ocorrem em hábitats com características hídricas e nutricionais diferentes nos campos rupestres da Serra do Cipó, Sudeste do Brasil. Sementes coletadas no ano de 2000 foram postas para germinar em quatro réplicas de 25 nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25 e 30ºC, sob fotoperíodo de 12h. A percentagem de germinação foi mais alta para L. cordata do que para L. francavillana (t=11.803, gl = 30, p0.05, N.S.. As percentagens de germinação correlacionaramse positivamente com as velocidades de emergência para esta espécie (r²=0.63, p0.05, N.S., sendo que as percentagens de germinação se correlacionaram positivamente com as velocidades de emergência (r²=0.90, pIn this study, the seed germination behavior of two sympatric plant species that occur in habitats under diferent nutritional and moisture conditions at Serra do Cipó, Southeastern Brazil, was evaluated. Seeds collected in the year of 2000 were placed to germinate in four replicates of 25 seeds under the temperatures at 15, 20, 25 and 30ºC, and at 12 hour photoperiod. L. cordata showed higher germination percentage than L. francavillana (t=11.803, gl=30, p0.05, N.S.. The germination percentages were correlated with the the radicle emergency rate for this species (r²=0.63, p0.05, N.S.. The germination percentages were also correlated with the radicle emergency rates (r²=0.90, p<0,01, y=4.32x-0.01. Our results indicate fisiological diferences in the seed germination of L. cordata and L. francavillana. Those diferences may reflect adaptations to the diferent microhabitat conditions which the two species are subjected.

  17. Quantitative analysis of intraspecific variations in the carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the modern cool-temperate brachiopod Terebratulina crossei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideko; Asami, Ryuji; Otake, Tsuguo; Abe, Osamu; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2015-12-01

    This study unravels intraspecific variations in the carbon isotope (δ13C) and oxygen isotope (δ18O) compositions of shells of the modern cool-temperate brachiopod Terebratulina crossei collected at a water depth of 70 m in Otsuchi Bay, northeastern Honshu, Japan. Brachiopod shells have been used as proxies of the δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (δ13CDIC) and seawater temperature/δ18O (δ18OSW) values to reconstruct the evolution of Phanerozoic oceans. To identify more reliable shell portions as the proxies, we conducted a rigorous time-series comparison of δ13C and δ18O values between the brachiopod shells and calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater (equilibrium calcite) (δ13CEC and δ18OEC values, respectively). Samples were collected from the outer and inner surfaces of the secondary shell layer along the maximum growth axis (ontogenetic-series and inner-series samples, respectively). The ontogenetic-series δ13C values, which showed regular annual and irregular non-annual cycles, partly fell in but were mostly less than the range of the δ13CEC values. The δ13C cycles were often associated with one or two minor negative peaks. The peaks were likely resulted from an increased incorporation of respiration-derived 12C due to elevated metabolic activity during spawning. The ontogenetic-series δ18O values showed distinct seasonal variations and were mostly within the range of δ18OEC values. The amplitude of the δ18O profiles was relatively large during the younger fast-growth stage, and decreased during the senescent slow-growth stage. The inner-series δ13C and δ18O values of individual shells varied within narrow ranges. The inner-series δ13C values were close to the minimum δ13CEC values. The inner-series δ18O values were in the upper range of the δ18OEC values. Kinetic isotope fractionation effects were evident, but its degree varied among different shells. We identified the shell portions reliably

  18. Mite species (Acari: Mesostigmata new and rare to Polish fauna, inhabiting the soil of broadleaved forests dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. in Kwidzyn Forest District (N Poland

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    FALEŃCZYK-KOZIRÓG KATARZYNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During a two-year study on mites of the order Mesostigmata in broadleaved forest stands dominated by small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill., 117 mite species were identified. Among them, 3 had been so far rarely recorded in Poland (Haemogamasus nidi, Stylochirus rovenensis and Eugamasus crassitarsis and 2 were classified as new to the Polish fauna (Veigaia sibirica and Digamasellus perpusillus.

  19. 不同居群鱼腥草中As和Hg及666·DDT的测定%Determination of As, Hg and 666, DDT of different Houttuynia cordata Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎; 龚寒; 吴卫

    2009-01-01

    [目的]测定鱼腥草中重金属As、Hg以及666、DDT农药残留的含量,比较不同鱼腥草资源间在相同栽培条件下对其积累的差异.[方法]采用海光AFS-3000型双道原子荧光光度计测定As和Hg含量;采用岛津GC-9A型气相色谱仪,按GB/T14551-2003测定666和DDT的含量.[结果]鱼腥草幼嫩地上部分中As平均含量为0.161 mg/kg,Hg平均含量为0.004 mg/kg,地下部分中两者的平均含量分别为0.130和0.0025 mg/kg;仅小部分材料中检出痕量δ-666.[结论]鱼腥草资源间对As、Hg以及666、DDT积累的差异不显著;根据国标规定,鱼腥草中As、Hg以及666、DDT的含量均低于限量.%[Ohjective] The aim was to determine the content of heavy metals As, Hg and 666, DDT pesticides in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. and compare the accumulation of As, Hg and 666, DDT of different H. cordata accessions, which were cultivated in the same environment. [Method] The contents of As and Hg were determined using Haiguang AFS-3000 atomic fluorescence spectrum instrument; the remains of 666, DDT pesticides were determined according to GB/T14551 -2003 using Simadzu GC-9A gas chromatography instrument. [Result] The average content of As was 0.161 mg/kg and the average content of Hg was 0.004 mg/kg in the young aerial parts of H. cordata, and in the underground parts, the average contents of As and Hg were 0. 130 and 0.002 5 mg/kg, respectively; the trace of δ-666 was detected in few accessions. [Conclusion] The accumulation of As, Hg and 666, DDT among different H. cordata accessions was not remarkable. According to national standard, the content of As, Hg and 666, DDT were lower the prescript in H. cordata.

  20. Flavonol glycosides found in hydroethanolic extracts from Tilia cordata, a species utilized as anxiolytics Flavonóides glicosídeos encontrados no extrato hidroalcoólico de Tilia cordata, espécie usada como ansiolítico

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    G. Negri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tilia species, among which is Tilia cordata Mill. (Tiliaceae, have been used in folk medicine as anxiolytic. The hydroethanolic extract was analyzed by using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS in negative ion mode, and its chemical composition was compared to flavonoids reported as anxiolytics. The major flavonoids found were: quercetin-3,7-di-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3,7-di-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-(6"-p-coumaroyl glucoside or tiliroside. The anxiolytic activity of the genus Tilia has been attributed to the presence of quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, while the anxiolytic activity of T. americana var. Mexicana was attributed to tiliroside, which was also found among the major constituents of this species.As espécies de Tilia, entre elas, a Tilia cordata Mill. (Tiliaceae são utilizadas como ansiolíticas na medicina popular. O extrato hidroalcoólico foi analisado usando cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS/MS no modo negativo e a sua composição química foi comparada com os flavonóides já reportados como ansiolíticos. Os principais flavonóides encontrados foram: quercetina-3,7-di-O-rhamnosideo, canferol-3,7-di-O-rhamnosideo, e canferol 3-O-(6"-p-cumaroil glucosideo ou tilirosideo. A atividade ansiolítica do gênero Tília tem sido atribuída à presença de derivados de canferol e quercetina, enquanto que a atividade ansiolítica da T. americana var. Mexicana foi atribuída ao tilirosideo, o qual também foi encontrado entre os principais constituintes desta espécie.

  1. The Evaluation of CP-001 (a Standardized Herbal Mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus for Cytochrome P450-Related Herb-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Hyun Yoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of CP-001, a standardized herbal mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus, on cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme-mediated drug metabolism was investigated in vitro to evaluate the potential for herb-drug interactions. CP-001 was tested at concentrations of 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μg/mL. A CYP-specific substrate mixture was incubated with CP-001 in human liver microsomes, and the metabolites generated by each CYP-specific metabolic reaction were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CP-001 seemed to slightly inhibit some CYP isozymes, but the IC50 values for all CYP isozymes were greater than 100 μg/mL. Furthermore, CP-001 did not exhibit time-dependent CYP inhibitory activities, indicating that it does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP enzymes. In conclusion, the effects of CP-001 on CYP isozyme activities were negligible at the concentrations tested. Therefore, the likelihood of herbal mixture-drug interaction is considered minimal.

  2. The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function (productivity) of the late Middle Permian brachiopods community at the region of Hechuan, Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yong; JIANG LiJun; KE Yan; L(U) Qian; ZHAO Li; LIANG JiaDong; HU Han; LINGHU Bo

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function is a hot topic in ecology and environics.This paper investigates the evolution of diversity of the late Middle Permian brachiopods community in Hechuan,Chongqing,China,and discusses the relationship between species diversity and community productivity in terms of the geohistorical development.This paper shows that the species diversity is externalized by several indexes,and the relationship between diversity and productivity is too complex to be described by a single assumption.The relationship between species diversity and community productivity is restricted by environment and community evolution.When the community succeeds normally,the relationship between species richness index,species diversity index,and species evenness index to productivity is in linear dependence relation to each other,which is met with the third assumption.But,when the environment interference surpasses the bearing capability of the community,not only the community succession will be terminated and be replaced by another one,but also the relationship between species richness index,species diversity index,and species evenness index to productivity is also inversed to negative correlation by the interference from environment.Only the relationship between ecological dominance and productivity is in linear dependence relation to each other and approximately met with the third assumption.It is illustrated that the assumption that the productivity is in linear dependence relation with diversity should be established on the presupposition that the community succession is normal.

  3. 鱼腥草水培营养液的筛选%Screening of the Nutritive Medium for Water Culture of Houttuynia Cordata Thunb

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    许娜; 储俊; 朱明兰; 余琴

    2011-01-01

    Water culture method was used to study Six kinds of common nutritive medium effect for growth and quality of Houttuynia Cordata Thunb. , and to explore the suitable nutritive medium of Houttuynia. The results showed that six kinds of nutritive medium had no significant impact on the growth of Houttuynia, but its content of soluble sugar and chlorophyll had a significant effect. The soluble sugar content of Houttuynia in Hoagland for- mula had the increase of 179.26% compared with the control, and the highest chlorophyll content in Hoagland formula increasing 56.15% compared with the control. Hoagland nutrient solution formula was suitable for water culture of Houttuynia.%采用水培方式研究了6种常用营养液配方对鱼腥草生长和品质的影响,探讨了鱼腥草水培适宜的营养液配方。结果表明,6种营养液配方对水培鱼腥草生长无显著影响,但对其可溶性糖含量和叶绿素含量有显著影响。水培鱼腥草可溶性糖含量以霍格兰配方最高,较对照增加179.26%;叶绿素含量以霍格兰配方最高,较对照增加56.15%。鱼腥草水培营养液配方以霍格兰配方较为适宜。

  4. 鱼腥草注射液致食蟹猴类过敏反应的实验研究%Experimental Study on Macaca Fascicularis Anaphylactoid Reactions Induced by Houttuynia Cordata Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟伟; 李贻奎; 张金艳; 张美玉; 郝伟; 赵乐; 王乃捷; 杜丰; 李连达

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the sensitization of Houttuynia Cordata Injection containing Tween-80 of different concentration and from different producer on Macaca fasciculari by intravenous injection. Methods Macaca fascicularis were randomized into 4 groups with 3 in each,i. e. normal saline group, Houttuynia Cordata Injection containing 0.25 % Guangzhou chemical Tween-80 group (0. 25% Guangzhou group), Houttuynia Cordata Injection containing 0. 25% Nanjing Weir Tween- 80 group (0. 25% Nanjing group), and Houttuynia Cordata Injection containing 0. 30% Nanjing Weir Tween-80 group (0. 30% Nanjing group). The general situations and reactions of animals were observed before intravenous infusion and within 24 hours. The reaction severity was determined according to the grading standard. Blood samples were collected before infusion and at the moment of 10min after infusion ended in order to measure the concentrations of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and the reaction severity was also taken into consideration to evaluate comprehensively the sensitization of different injections on Macaca fascicularis. Results There were no typical anaphylactoid reactions on Macaca fascicularis induced by intravenous infusion of Houttuynia cordata injections, and the content of plasma histamine was not changed significantly compared with that before treatment.Conclusion By controlling the quality of Tween-80 and circumscribing its concentration to below 0. 30%, it is possible to avoid the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions and ensure the effect of solubilization at the same time.%目的 评价不同浓度不同产地的吐温80配制的鱼腥草注射液静脉给药对食蟹猴的致敏性.方法 将食蟹猴随机分为生理盐水组、含0.25%广州化学吐温80鱼腥草注射液组(0.25%广州组)、含0.25%南京威尔吐温80鱼腥草注射液组(0.25%南京组)、含0.30%南京威尔吐温80鱼腥草注射液组(0.30%南京组),每组3只.给药前及给药后24

  5. 鲜鱼腥草及其内生菌挥发性成分分析%Study on volatile components from fresh Houttuynia cordata Thunb. And its endophytes fungus by GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿; 蓝丽华; 易喻; 梅建凤; 应国清; 曹小吉; 周华康

    2012-01-01

    The volatile oil from fresh leaves and stems of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Was extracted by steam distillation. The volatile components from the endophytes Fungus of fresh H. Cordata T. Were extracted by ethyl acetate. All of the extracts were analysed by GC-MS. Twelve compounds were identified from leaves and fifteen compounds were determined from stems. The results showed that the essential oil of leaves and stems have little differences in chemical composition. The relative contents of 2-undecanone as main antibacterial ingredient were 1. 21% and 3. 51%, separately. However, three endophyte fungus compare with fresh leaves and stems of fresh H. Cordata T. , they have different volatile components, but three endophyte fungus contain some decanal analogues such as trans-2-Decenoic acid and trans-crotonic acid, which is an important medicine intermediate.%利用气相色谱-飞行时间质谱(GC-MS)联用技术对鱼腥草及其内生茵挥发性成分进行研究,分析比较鲜鱼腥草不同部位及其内生菌挥发性成分.在鱼腥草叶挥发油组分中鉴定了其中的12个化合物,占叶挥发油总量的80.15%;鱼腥草茎挥发油组分中鉴定了其中的15个化合物,占茎挥发油总量的76.94%,其中主要活性成分甲基正壬酮相对含量在叶和茎中分别占到1.21%和3.51%.另外,在鱼腥草内生菌中未发现鱼腥草有效成分甲基正壬酮、癸醛和乙酸龙脑酯等,但鉴定出了其结构类似物反式-2-癸烯酸,以及具有重要价值的医药中间体巴豆酸等化学成分.

  6. 药食植物鱼腥草对亚硝化反应抑制作用的研究%Study on Inhibition of Nitrosation by Extracts of Food and Medicine Plant Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈达畅; 陈莉丽; 许国权

    2011-01-01

    在固液比1∶10,提取温度80℃,提取时间60 min条件下,研究五种溶剂提取鱼腥草活性物质中的总黄酮和总酚含量及其对亚硝胺合成的阻断作用与对亚硝酸钠的清除效果.结果表明,55%丙酮提取鱼腥草活性物质中的总黄酮和总酚含量最高,对亚硝胺合成的阻断作用与对亚硝酸钠的清除效果最好,其最佳浓度下提取的鱼腥草活性物质对亚硝胺合成的阻断率达92.81%,对亚硝酸钠的清除率达89.53%;当提取物中的总黄酮含量和VC溶液浓度均为2 mg/mL时,二者对亚硝胺的阻断率分别为51.08%和66.91%,对亚硝酸钠的清除率分别为23.04%和38.22%.%This papier studied the content of total flavonoids and total phenols in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Active substance extracted by five different solvents, when the solid-to-liquid ration was 1:10, extraction temperature was 80 ℃, extraction time was 60 minutes. And their blocking effects on the formation of NDMA and scavenging effects on sodium nitrite were studied. The results showed that, the contents of total flavonoids and total phenols in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Active substance was the highest which extracted by 55% acetone, and with the optimum concentration of acetone, the blocking rate of NDMA of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Active substance could reach to 92.81%, and clearance rate of sodium nitrite could reach to 89.53%. When the content of total flavonoids of extract and concentration of VC solution were both 2 mg/mL, their blocking rate of NDMA were 51.08% and 66.91% respectively, and their clearance rate of sodium nitrite were 23.04% and 38.22% respectively.

  7. 博落回内生真菌的分离及其抗菌活性的初步研究%A Preliminary Study on Isolation of Endophytic Fungi from Macleaya Cordata and Its Antimicrobial Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵长莉; 王允; 汪学军

    2012-01-01

    从健康博落回植株中分离内生真菌,用PDA培养基分离纯化菌株,结果纯化得到19株内生真菌,用琼脂块法对获取的菌株进行抗菌活性筛选,其中有2株博落回内生真菌对指示菌株有抑菌作用,占总分离菌株的10.53%,其中有一株内生真菌具有较强的抑菌活性。%Nineteen endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the healthy Macleaya cordata by flat-panel separation.Agar block method was used to obtain the strain for antimicrobial activity screening.The results showed that two endophytic fungi(10.53% of the total strains isolated)had inhibitory activities to the test strains,and a strong inhibitory activity of endophytic fungus was also be found.

  8. Oxygen Isotope of Brachiopods from the Pennsylvanian Coral Reef Area in South Guizhou Province and Its Significance%黔南宾夕法尼亚亚纪珊瑚礁相腕足动物氧同位素组成及其古水温信息

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽; 巩恩普; 张永利; 关长庆; 孙宝亮; 常洪伦

    2011-01-01

    黔南宾夕法尼亚亚纪Triticites带内大型Fomitchevella珊瑚礁群落中见附礁生长的腕足动物Striatifera striata 和Enteletoides shuichengensis,XRD测试结果显示Striatifera striata壳体次生层为保存较好、成分纯净的低镁方解石,完全未受到成岩作用改造;Enteletoides shuichengensis壳层中则含少量Fe、Ni,可能与成岩作用改造有关.两种腕足动物壳体横切面同一生长带棱柱层中的Ni、Fe、Mn、Na、Sr呈对称性分布,表明这两个种壳体原始信息保存良好,可忽略成岩改造对Enteletoides shuichengensis壳体的影响.测得Striatifera striata和Enteletoides shuichengensis壳体棱柱层中的δ18OPDB分别为-3.249‰和-3.385‰,据此推算出古海水温度为21.60~31.18℃.腕足动物壳体具有较高的δ13CPDB值,分别为4.784‰,4.782‰.利用碳氧同位素分析结果计算得到Z值接近135,表明珊瑚礁区古海水盐度正常.%Phylloid algal reefs are dominant in Pennsylvanian all over the world and well exposed in the southGuizhou, China. While the metazoan framework reefs develop well in this area, especially the presence of a rarelylarge-scale Fomitehevella coral reef, which is constructed mostly by big phacelloid Fomitchevella. As a result, SouthGuizhou becomes a unique case of the Carboniferous reef. Stratigraphically, South Guizhou reefs belong to the Maping Formation (the Triticites Zone, Gzhelian, uppermost Pennsylvanian). The depositional environment of the Maping Formation is at shallow marine carbonate platform margin. Furthermore, the faunal association recorded point to a paleogeographical position in a low-latitude close to the equatorial realm in south China during the Pennsylvanian time. Thus, it can be inferred that the growth environment of Fomitchevella reefs is in a relative warm water, fitting the development of coral reefs.Surely we can use fossil brachiopod shells to attain part of environmental information with respect to the

  9. 产学研合作模式研究--以湖南农大“博落回”产学研合作模式为例%Study on Production-Study-Research Cooperation Mode:Taking the"Macleaya Cordata"Production-Study-Research Cooperation Mode in Hunan Agricultural University as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘赛; 王奎武

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the problems of production-study-research cooperation in colleges and universities, this paper deeply studies the "macleaya cordata" production-study-research cooperation mode in Hunan Agricultural University: relying on the superior discipline, constructing the platform of production-study-research cooperation and innovating management and incentive system, strengthening the team construction and so on, to promote the development of veterinary medicine which takes "macleaya cordata" as the main research object, leading to technology innovation and industrialization achievement.%本文在分析目前我国高校产学研合作存在问题的基础上,深入研究湖南农业大学“博落回”产学研合作模式:依托学校优势学科,通过搭建产学研合作平台、创新管理与激励制度、加强团队建设等方式,促进以博落回为主要研究对象的中兽药创制,产生了技术创新和产业化成果。

  10. Characteristics and geological age of Middle Permian brachiopod fauna from Ejin Banner and its vicinities, western Inner Mongolia%内蒙古西部额济纳旗及邻区中二叠统腕足类动物群的特征和时代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜建军; 段先锋; 牛志军

    2011-01-01

    额济纳旗及其邻区中二叠统产丰富的腕足动物群,该动物群具有北方冷水动物和特提斯暖水动物混生的特点,划分为Spiriferella-Kochiproductus-yakovlevia组合,称为"哲斯动物群".在生物古地理分区上,该区为北方生物大区和特提斯生物大区之间的过渡带,称为中蒙生物省.动物群的组成、丰度和分异度等特征在银-额(银根-额济纳旗)盆地的东西部有明显的差异:盆地西部北山地区海水较浅,腕足动物群丰度高,分异度略低,以个体较大、壳体较厚的冷水分子占优势,共生少量的双壳类和珊瑚;东部杭乌拉地区海水略深,腕足动物群丰度稍低,分异度较高,舍有大量的小个体腕足,共生冷水型珊瑚和丰富的海百合类,世界广布分子和暖水分子超过一半.说明该腕足动物群在受纬度和温度控制的同时,也受水体深度的影响,在同一海盆的不同环境中表现出不同的特点.通过对该动物群的起源、区域分布特点和共生生物的分析,认为额济纳旗及其邻区的哲斯动物群的时限为罗甸期-孤峰期.%Abundant brachiopods have been recorded from the Middle Permian strata of Ejin Banner and its vicinities.This fauna,called Zhesi Fauna, is characterized by a mixed fauna composed of boreal cool-water elements and Tethyan warm-water elements.The brachiopod Spiriferella-Kochiproductus-Yakovlevia assemblage has been recognized from this fauna.In paleobiogeography, Ejin Banner and its vicinities were located in a transitional position between Boreal and Tethyan provinces, called Sino-Mongolia province.The fauna pattern in eastem Yine basin is different from that in western Yine basin.In the shallow-water Beishan of western Yine Basin, the brachiopod is dominated by large-sized and thick-shelled cool-water elements, with a higher abundance and a slightly lower diversity in association with a few bivalves and corals, while in the relatively deep-water Hangwula of

  11. 不同水分条件下先锋植物博落回对氮磷胁迫的生物学响应%Biological response of pioneer plant Macleaya cordata to N and P stresses under different water conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 孙泰森

    2015-01-01

    氮及施磷三者之间具有明显的加合效应。磷是襄汾“9.8”溃坝区生土地上博落回生物量形成的第一限制因素。博落回根际土壤微生物数量及土壤酶活性与其根系的活性及生长状况呈显著正相关关系,表明发达的根系促进了根际微生物群落的繁殖,从而提高了根际土壤脲酶和磷酸酶的活性。这一结果最终可促进博落回“根土系统”向熟化方向发展。【结论】博落回能较好地适应当地的环境条件,其抗旱耐瘠,且具有一定的药用价值,故可作为襄汾“9.8”溃坝区的重要备选栽培植物。%[Objectives]On September 8 , 2008 , a catastrophic dam failure accident occurred in the tailing pond of the Xinta Mining Ltd. Co. Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province, China. Residual tailings from the 9. 8Xiangfen tailings dam failure covered the land and mixed with surface soil, and formed immature soil. With the immature soil as culture medium, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate effect of nitrogen ( N ) and phosphorous ( P ) applications on growth and physiological indicators of Macleaya cordata as well as associated soil enzyme activities and rhizosphere microbial quantity under different water conditions, aiming to provide a reference for screening and management of local alternative cultivated plants in the disaster area of the “9. 8” Xiangfen tailings dam failure.[Methods] The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Farm of Shanxi Agricultural University from March to December, 2013. N and P fertilizer was applied at two levels:intermediate N(N 0. 2 g/kg, N1)and low N(N 0 g/kg, N0);and intermediate P(P2O5 0. 2 g/kg, P1)and low P(P2O5 0 g/kg, P0). Water conditions were set at three levels:low water(35%-40% of field capacity, W1 ) , intermediate water(45%-50% of field capacity, W2 ) , and high water ( 75%-80% of field capacity W3 ) . Totally 12 treatments were included: W1 N0 P 0 , W2 N0 P 0 , W3N0P0, W1N0P1, W2N0P1, W3N0P

  12. A permian productoid brachiopod: Life history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R.E.

    1966-01-01

    Spine arrangements on silicified specimens of Waagenoconcha abichi (Waagen) from the Khisor Range of West Pakistan suggest that the juvenile shell attached itself to a foreign object, and that the adult shell lay on its ventral valve in the substrate, anchored and stabilized by a dense corona of long slender spines around the ventral visceral disc.

  13. Anaphylactoid Reactions Inducing Effect of Polysorbate 80 and Polysorbate 80 Contained Houttuynia Cordata Injection on Beagle%聚山梨酯80及其配制的鱼腥草注射液致Beagle犬类过敏反应实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟伟; 李贻奎; 张金艳; 张美玉; 何萍; 郝伟; 赵乐; 李连达

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价多种聚山梨酯80及其配制的鱼腥草注射液静脉给药对Beagle犬的致敏性.方法 Beagle犬是类过敏反应的敏感动物,以动物反应症状与血浆组胺升高为判断标准,综合判定类过敏反应.Beagle犬随机分为18组,每组3只,分别静脉注射不同厂家0.25%、0.10%、0.05%浓度的聚山梨酯80灭菌水溶液,或分别含0.25%、O.30%不同厂家聚山梨酯80的鱼腥草注射液.给药体积10 mL/kg,前肢静脉恒速注射(速度5 mL/min).观察给药前至给药后24 h每只犬的变化,记录症状出现、消失时间,并根据反应症状的轻重判定级别.给药前及停药后10 min取血,EusA方法检测血浆组胺含量,并结合反应症状级别,综合判定致敏性.结果 各厂家、各浓度(0.05%、0.10%、0.25%)聚山梨酯80灭菌液以及各组鱼腥草注射液,均未导致Beagle犬出现典型的类过敏反应症状及血浆组胺升高1倍以上.综合判定,各组受试液均未诱发Beagle犬出现典型的类过敏反应.结论 控制聚山梨酯80质量,并将使用浓度限定在0.30%或0.25%以下,可以在保证药物增溶效果的同时避免类过敏反应的发生.%Objective To evaluate the sensitization effect of polysorbate 80 and polysorbate 80 contained Houttuynia cordata Injection in different concentrations on Beagle. Methods Beagles, a kind of animal highly sensitive to sensitizing agents, were randomly divided into 18 groups, 3 in each group. They received respectively the intravenous infusion of polysorbate 80 made by different factories in different concentrations (0. 25%,0. 10%, 0.05%), and Houttuynia cordata Injection containing polysorbate 80 in concentration of 0.25% or 0. 30%, with the constant infusing speed of 5 mL/min and volume of 10 mL/kg. Changes of animals' condition were observed before infusion and in the 24 h after infusion, time of symptom appearance and disappearance was recorded, and the grade of response was determined. Moreover

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa spp.cv.Tianbao with cDNA encodina S6PDH(NADP-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) from Prunus salicina var.cordata%根癌农杆菌介导的榇S6PDH基因转化香蕉研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡云波; 赖钟雄

    2012-01-01

    研究以香蕉栽培品种“天宝蕉”(Musa spp.cv.Tianbao)横切薄片(Thin cross-sections,TCSs)为材料,采用根癌农杆菌介导的方法,进行棒S6PDH基因转化香蕉的研究.结果表明,在横切薄片继代增殖培养基M4中添加5%~7%(V/V)的椰汁明显增强了香蕉芽苗的生长势;GUS基因瞬时表达检测表明,长势旺盛的香蕉芽苗(直径为7~8 mm)适宜作为香蕉遗传转化的受体材料,横切薄片厚度以2mm左右为佳;采用两步法进行抗性芽的筛选得到37个抗性芽苗,生根移栽后获得31株成活苗;目的基因S6PDH和报告基因GUS的PCR检测表明其中4株是转基因植株.该研究为将蔷薇科山梨醇代谢途径引入香蕉以提高其耐渗透胁迫的能力奠定了重要的基础.%Musa spp. cv. Tianbao was transformed with cDNA encoding S6PDH(NADP-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) isolated from Prunus sa/icina var. cordata by an Agrobacterium-mediated thin cross-sections (TCSs) transformation system. The condition of the buds was effectively improved when the TCSs were transferred onto the medium M4 adding 5%-7%(V/V) coconut water. And the highest GUS transient expression occurred while 2 mm thin TCSs from the healthy and strong buds were used as the recepted material. Total 37 putative transformants were selected via the two-step method and 31 putative transformants survived after transplanting. Finally, four transgenic lines were conformed by PCR analysis of S6PDH gene and GUS gene. Sorbitol synthesis pathway which was unique to the Rosaceae plants had been introduced into Musa spp.cv.Tianbao, laying the groundwork to increase its tolerance to environmental stress.

  15. Isotopic and elemental proxies in mollusc and brachiopod calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    composition of the oceans have changed. These changes of environmental conditions and seawater composition are primarily caused by plate tectonic processes, the cyclic variations of the Earth’s orbital parameters and living organisms, actively causing, and passively adapting to shifting conditions in their...

  16. Biodiversity, biogeography and phylogeography of Ordovician rhynchonelliform brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, David A T; Rasmussen, Christian M Ø; Liljeroth, Maria;

    2013-01-01

    local biodiversity epicentres, notably on the South China Palaeoplate; low-latitude porambonitoid-dominated faunas with early plectambonitoid and clitambonitoid representatives, as well as high-latitude assemblages mostly dominated by orthoids, can be recognized, but many taxa are rooted in Late....... Biodiversity epicentres were located on most of the larger palaeoplates, as well as within the Iapetus Ocean. Provincial patterns were disrupted during the Sandbian and early Katian with the migration of many elements of the benthos into deeper-water regimes, enjoying a more cosmopolitan distribution. Later...

  17. Geochemical signatures in Late Triassic brachiopods from New Caledonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, C. V.; Campbell, H. J.; Frei, R.;

    2014-01-01

    Otapirian (Norian to Rhaetian) fossil localities of the Baie de St.-Vincent area. Post-depositional impacts on the geochemical proxies were investigated by analysing calcite cements and partly recrystallized shell material. Diagenetic fluids carried strontium with a low 87Sr/86Sr ratio of c. 0.7065, and...

  18. SAMPLING IN PALAEONTOLOGY AND A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING UNDERLYING DIVERSITY-AN EXAMPLE OF THE CATHAYSIORTHIS BRACHIOPOD FAUNA%古生物学研究中的采样问题及多样性估计方法——以华夏正形贝动物群为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冰

    2012-01-01

    传统的古生物学采样方法通常很少对同一化石层面展开进行,由此得到的多样性信息往往难以反映化石组合的真实情况.通过观察稀疏化曲线平缓程度来判断化石采样是否充分的经验方法并不严谨.本文在介绍古生物化石采样方法的基础上,提出采样是否充分的本质是采样获得的多样性与所属化石群落潜在多样性之间的接近程度.借鉴现代生物学中的多样性估计方法,以华夏正形贝腕足动物群为例,本研究采用EstimateS软件,定量估计4个化石点的潜在多样性;探讨客观判断采样充分的方法,同时通过曲线拟合法预测达到特定多样性可能需要的样本数量,为二次研究提供重要信息.该多样性估计方法是古生物研究中一个较新的领域,在多样性对比及特定化石群的多样性评估中均有较好应用前景.为得到更全面的多样性信息,文章建议相关研究在使用稀疏化的同时辅以多样性估计方法.%Traditionally? a single fossil bed seldom serves as the target when sampling methods are applied in palaeontological research. So the diversity information extracted cannot reflect the real situation of individual fossil assemblages. The method of relying on the flatness of rarefaction curves is often adopted to test sampling sufficiency; however, such measures are not strict. This paper indicates that sufficiency of sampling can be determined by comparing the consistency between acquired diversity and underlying diversity of fossil assemblages. According to method for estimating species richness introduced from modern biology, the present study took four localities from the Cathaysiorthis brachiopod fauna as an example. Their underlying diversity was estimated by the software Estimates. By means of curve fitting, the calculation of sample size corresponding to a given diversity was made, which can provide important information for future sampling. Such diversity

  19. Cloning,Expression Analysis and Promoter Isolation of Chalcone-synthase Gene from Fruits of Nane,Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata%油果实中查尔酮合成酶基因 PsCHS 的克隆表达分析及其启动子的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠; 王玉珍; 叶新福

    2016-01-01

    Chalcone-synthase (CHS,EC 2.3.1.74)is an important enzyme involved inflavonoids synthesis pathway in plants.This study aimed to investigate the gene structure and expression profile of CHS gene in the fruits of nane (Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata).A full-length cDNA sequence harboring a CHS gene,named PsCHS ,was successfully separated from a normalized full-length cDNA library of matured nane fruits.The up-stream promoter sequence of PsCHS was separated by genome walking strategy using primer pair designed byPsCHS sequence.The length of PsCHS was 1 442 bp with ORF of 1 176 bp and deduced amino acid of 392 aa.From the prediction by an online software,the promoter sequence of PsCHS have typical structure element TATA-box and CAAT-box, photon-response element, anaerote-induced element, endosperm-related element, MYB-bingding element and hormone-response element,etc.RT-PCR indicated that PsCHS had higher expression level at the earlier stage of development of the fruit,especially 40 d after blossom,then decreased to a lower level at the maturing stage. PsCHS seperated in this study was a member of the CHS gene family.Since CHS is a key enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway,PsCHS might act with a regulatory role in biosynthesis of flavonoids.%从成熟果实均一化全长 cDNA 文库中分离了编码 CHS 基因的全长 cDNA 序列,命名为 PsCHS ,根据其序列设计引物,采用 Genome Walking 方法从基因组 DNA 中分离获得 PsCHS 基因上游的调控序列,命名为 PsCHSp ,PsCHS 基因全长1442 bp,其中 ORF 1176 bp,编码392个氨基酸;采用 APA-Walking 技术,获得该基因的5′端调控区,经在线软件预测,启动子序列含有典型的结构特征元件 TATA-box 和 CAAT-box,还包含光响应元件、厌氧诱导元件、胚乳表达相关元件、MYB 结合位点以及激素响应元件;RT-PCR 结果显示,PsCHS 基因在果实发育的前期表达量较高,花后40 d 表达量最高,随

  20. Macleaya cordata Extracts: Effects on Stress Parameters and mRNA Expressions of Immunoglobulin G and Superoxide Dismutase of Cells Challenged by Lipopolysaccharide in Pigs%博落回提取物对脂多糖诱导猪应激细胞应激参数及免疫球蛋白G和超氧化物歧化酶mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满意; 张春勇; 陈克嶙; 李美荃; 郭荣富

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Macleaya cordata (MC) extracts on stress parameters and mRNA expressions of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of cells challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in pigs. Embryo fibroblasts cells on the back of pigs were select-ed as the experimental material. The experiment was carried on normal cells and the stress model challenged by LPS. A basal culture medium was used in the control group, the basal culture medium supplemented with 50 μg/mL oxytetracycline was used in oxytetracycline group ( negative control) , and the basal culture medium supplemented with 50, 100 and 150 ng/mL MC extracts were used in MC groups, respectively. Contents of IgG, lysozyme (LSZ) , nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) , lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH) activity, as while as mRNA expression levels of IgG and SOD were determined. The results showed as fol-lows : 1) contents of IgG, NO, NOS and LSZ in MC group were all significantly higher than those in the con-trol group (P <0. 01) , and contents of IgG and LSZ in oxytetracycline group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0. 01). 2) For stressed and normal cells, IgG mRNA expression level in MC groups was significantly higher than that in the control group and oxytetracycline group (P <0. 01) , and 50 and 150 ng/mL MC groups were significantly higher than 150 ng/mL MC group (P <0. 01). IgG mRNA ex-pression level in oxytetracycline group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0. 01). IgG mRNA expression level of stressed cells was significantly higher than that of normal cells in 100 ng/mL MC group (P<0.01). 3) For stressed and normal cells, compared with the control group, supplementation of 50, 100 and 150 ng/mL MC extracts significantly increased SOD mRNA expression level (P <0.01). SOD expression level in oxytetracycline group was significantly higher than that in the control group and MC group (P

  1. Late Ordovician brachiopod distribution and ecospace partitioning in the Tvären crater system, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Asa M.; Harper, David A. T.

    2013-01-01

    succession accumulated. Within this narrow space environments varied from shallow-water to deeper-waters, about 200 m in depth, and from well oxygenated to hypoxic. Such varied environments generated a rough ecological landscape, facilitating niche partitioning across a relatively small geographic area...

  2. Rhynchonellides (Brachiopodes du Jurassique moyen de la Sierra de los Cameros province de Soria. Espagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurin, B.

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The outcrops of middle Bathonian and lower Callovian of the Sierra de los Cameros contains 4 rhynchonellids species with large morphologic variability. These species, one of which is new, are defined by both qualitative and quantitative analysis, Questions resulting ofvariability of external and internal features are discussed . The two bathonian species , Rhacthorhynchia cf. dumortieri(SZAJN. and Globirhynchia pinillensis nov. sp., are close of north african forms whereas the callovian ones, Rhynchonelloidella spathica (LMK and Septaliphoria mourdoni LAURIN, are still well known in the north-tethysian european realm. Their occurrence in Spain confirm their biostratigraphic interest.

    Les gisements du Bathonien supérieur el du Callovien inférieur de la Sierra de los Cameros renferment quatre espèces de rhynchonelles a large variabilité morphologique, Ces espèces, dont une nouvelle, sont étudiées et définies par des analyses qualitatives et quantitatives. Les problèmes posés par la variabilité de la morphologie externe et des structures internes sont discutés, Les deux espèces bathoniennes Rhacthorhynchia cf. dumortieri(SZAJN. et Globirhynchia pinillensis nov. sp, présentent des affínités avec des faunes d'Afrique du Nord tandis que Rhynchonelloidella spathica (LMK et Septaliphoria mourdoni LAURIN sont dejà bien connues dans le Callovien européen nord-téthysien. Leur présence en Espagne confirme leur intérêt biostratigraphique.
    En los yacimientos del Bathoniense superior y del Calloviense inferior de la Sierra de los Cameros se encuentran cuatro especies de Rhynchonellidae. Presentan una variabilidad morfológica amplia y, además, una de ellas es nueva. El estudio y la definición de todas se efectuaron por análisis cuantitativos y cualitativos. También se discuten aquí los problemas planteados por la variabilidad de la morfología externa y de las estructuras internas. Las dos especies del Bathoniense: Rhacthorhynchia cf. dumortieri(SzAJN. y Globirhynchia pinillensis nov. sp. presentan afin idades con faunas de Africa del Norte, mientras que Rhynchonelloidella spathica (LMK y Septaliphoria mourdoni LAURIN ya están bien conocidas en el Calloviense europeano norte-tethysiano. Por eso, su existencia en España confirma su interés bioestratigráfico.

  3. Biogeographic and bathymetric determinants of brachiopod extinction and survival during the Late Ordovician mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Seth; Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian; Harper, David A. T.

    2016-01-01

    latest Katian, suggesting that it reflects drivers unique to this interval. Extinction of exclusively deeper-water genera implies that changes in water mass properties such as dissolved oxygen content played an important role. Extinction of genera with narrow latitudinal ranges suggests that interactions......–Early Silurian genus extinctions and evaluate which extinction drivers are best supported by the data. The first (latest Katian) pulse of the LOME preferentially affected genera restricted to deeper waters or to relatively narrow (less than 35°) palaeolatitudinal ranges. This pattern is only observed in the...

  4. Brachiopod associations from the Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela, Yves; Hansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups and their...

  5. Phylogenomic analyses of lophophorates (brachiopods, phoronids and bryozoans) confirm the Lophotrochozoa concept

    OpenAIRE

    Helmkampf, Martin; Bruchhaus, Iris; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Based on embryological and morphological evidence, Lophophorata was long considered to be the sister or paraphyletic stem group of Deuterostomia. By contrast, molecular data have consistently indicated that the three lophophorate lineages, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Phoronida, are more closely related to trochozoans (annelids, molluscs and related groups) than to deuterostomes. For this reason, the lophophorate groups and Trochozoa were united to Lophotrochozoa. However, the relationships of...

  6. Transition areas in the domain patterns of storeyed cambium of Tilia cordata Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Włoch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of interlocked grain, generated by storeyed cambium, was observed in the wood of linden. The inclination of the grain changed periodically every two to four years. In general, the direction of the change of grain was compatible with the occurrence of configuration Z or S of cellular events. 1f, in the cambium during the generation of a growth ring, the domain border did not pass the examined area, the events were of one configuration type only, otherwise, there were two types of events aggregated into microareas. The microareas were the result of unsynchronous activities of groups of cambium cells. A growth ring area through which a domain border passed during the year under consideration was called the transition area.

  7. Origin and Lifestyles of early Brachiopods and other Lophotrochozoans : Insights from the Chengjiang and Guanshan Fossil-Lagerstätten

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haizhou

    2014-01-01

    One of the great unsolved evolutionary questions concerns the origin and phylogeny of the major animal phyla that appeared in the fossil record more than 540 million years ago, during the Cambrian explosion. Although new molecular information has been very useful, we still have little understanding about the origin of most of the phyla of bilaterians living today. The richly diverse fossil remains from this critical early Cambrian interval are particularly well exposed in China, where excepti...

  8. The intrusive growth of initial cells in re-arangement of cells in cambium of Tilia cordata Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Włoch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the cambium of linden producing wood with short period of grain inclination change (2-4 years, the intensive reorientation of cells takes place. This is possible mainly through an intrusive growth of cell ends from one radial file entering space between tangential walls of neighboring file and through unequal periclinal divisions that occur in the "initial surface". The intrusive growth is located on the longitudinal edge of a fusiform cell close to the end, and causes deviation of cell ends in a neighbouring file from the initial surface. Unequal periclinal division divides a cell with a deviated end into two derivatives, unequal in size. The one of them, which inherits the deviated end, leaves the initial surface becoming a xylem or phloem mother cell. This means that the old end is eliminated. The intensity of intrusive growth and unequal periclinal divisions is decisive for the velocity of cambial cell reorientation. The oriented intrusive growth occurs only in the initial cells. For that reason, changes in cell-ends position do not occur within one packet of cells but are distinct between neighbouring packets.

  9. The storeyed and non-storeyed arrangement of rays in the storeyed cambium of Tilia cordata Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Włoch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to restructuring of the cellular arrangement, rays in storeyed cambium undergo transformations, that is, uniting and splitting on the borders of storeys, when their height during development exceeds that of the storeys of fusiform cells. The primordial rays on the cambium surface have a non-storeyed arrangement. Prolonged predominance of splitting over uniting can lead to a situation in which the height of the rays does not exceed that of fusiform cell storeys. A storeyed arrangement of rays is thus formed. The maintenance of a given arrangement of rays in successive annual growths is the result of the cumulation of several traits, such as: 1 the seriation of rays, 2 the magnitude of grain inclination, 3 the rate of the restructuring of the cell arrangement. For example, the quicker a storeyed arrangement of rays will be formed the less the rays are seriated, the quicker the cells are restructured and the greater the inclination of their arrangement. The magnitude of the inclination of the grain and the rate of cell restructuring are traits connected with the arrangement of fusiform cells. The seriate nature of rays, however, is characteristic of rays and, moreover, it is a characteristic individual trait. It seems that the seriation of rays can play a valuable role in taxonomic analysis.

  10. Evolution of Silurian and Devonian sedimentary environments in the Prague basin: evidence from isotopic compositions of carbon and oxygen and trace element contents in brachiopod shells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladíková, J.; Hladil, Jindřich; Košler, J.; Jačková, I.

    Frankfurt am Main : European Palaeontological Association, 2000 - (Oschmann, W.; Steininger, F.; Fürsich, F.), s. 43- 45+ 1 nečíslovaná [European Palaeontological Association Workshop 2000 - Biomarkes and Stable Isotopes in Palaeontology. Frankfurt am Main (DE), 30.06.2000-02.07.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/98/0454 Grant ostatní: XX(XX) IGCP386; XX(XC) IGCP421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  11. Experimental Study on Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions of Houttuynia Cordata Injections%鱼腥草注射液过敏及类过敏实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美玉; 李贻奎; 张嘉; 李连达

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价鱼腥草注射液及其辅料吐温80(Tween-80)静脉给药的致敏性.方法 采用Beagle犬类过敏及过敏实验,观察给药后动物行为变化和检测血浆中组胺、IgE、IgM、IgG的含量.结果 含有Tween-80的鱼腥草注射液及Tween-80组动物给药后出现显著的行为异常,血浆组胺升高,而IgE变化不规律,IgG、IgM则无明显改变.结论 鱼腥草注射液中导致犬严重类过敏反应与Tween-80有关.建议Beagle犬的过敏及类过敏试验,应作为中药注射液致敏试验的必做实验,行为异常及血浆中组胺为主要的判定指标,IgE作为辅助判定指标.

  12. Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilu...

  13. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Moser; Thomas Rötzer; Stephan Pauleit; Hans Pretzsch

    2016-01-01

    The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researc...

  14. Experimental Study on Anaphylactoid Reactions of Houttuynia Cordata Injections in Rhesus Macaque%鱼腥草注射液对食蟹猴类过敏实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美玉; 李连达; 李贻奎; 张金艳; 何萍; 孙伟伟

    2009-01-01

    目的:评价鱼腥草注射液及其辅料吐温80(Tween80)和羟丙基-β-环糊精(HP-β-CD)的致敏性.方法:通过静脉注射不同剂量药液,观察药后食蟹猴的行为学变化,检测给药前、后血清中组胺的含量.结果:高浓度Tween80诱发显著的行为异常,组胺显著升高.含有Tween80的鱼腥草注射液原制剂在所用浓度及剂量下,给药后未出现明显的行为异常,但组胺明显升高.HP-β-CD溶液及含有HP-β-CD的鱼腥草新制剂未见明显行为异常和组胺升高.结论:Tween80具有明显的的致敏性、毒性和溶血性,特别是在提高浓度时表现更明显.给予高浓度、大剂量的HP-β-CD,未出现明显的致敏性、毒性和溶血性等不良反应.

  15. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Hay-Schmidt, A

    2000-01-01

    The pattern of development of the serotonergic nervous system is described from the larvae of ctenophores, platyhelminths, nemerteans, entoprocts, ectoprocts (bryozoans), molluscs, polychaetes, brachiopods, phoronids, echinoderms, enteropneusts and lampreys. The larval brain (apical ganglion) of spiralian protostomes (except nermerteans) generally has three serotonergic neurons and the lateral pair always innervates the ciliary band of the prototroch. In contrast, brachiopods, phoronids, echi...

  16. Ciliary and mucus-net filter feeding, with special reference to fluid mechanical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.B.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.; Riisgård, H.U.

    1984-01-01

    feeding characterized by processing of water at low pressures (.ltoreq. 1 mm H2O). Mechanisms of water processing and particle retention in brachiopods and bivalves are compared. Laminar flow of through-currents and surface-currents in brachiopods is consistent with the hypothesis of capture of suspended...

  17. The Evolution of Brachiopoda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sandra J.

    2016-06-01

    Brachiopods are (perhaps all too) familiar to any geology student who has taken an invertebrate paleontology course; they may well be less familiar to biology students. Even though brachiopods are among the most significant components of the marine fossil record by virtue of their considerable diversity, abundance, and long evolutionary history, fewer than 500 species are extant. Reconciling the geological and biological perspectives is necessary in order to test hypotheses, not only about phylogenetic relationships among brachiopods but also about their spectacular decline in diversity in the end-Permian mass extinction, which permanently reset their evolutionary trajectory. Studying brachiopod ontogeny and development, population genetics, ecology, physiology, and biogeography, as well as molecular systematics and phylogenomics, enables us to better understand the context of evolutionary processes over the short term. Investigating brachiopod morphological, taxonomic, and stratigraphic records over the Phanerozoic Eon reveals historical patterns of long-term macroevolutionary change, patterns that are simply unknowable from a biological perspective alone.

  18. Evolutionary patterns of Productida (Brachiopoda) morphology during the Permian in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary patterns of Productida (brachiopod) morphology throughout the Permian show that while the percentage proportion of Productida (brachiopod) with strongly concentric and radial ornamentation declined from the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian, and then increased towards the Changhsingian via Wuchiapingian, the percentage proportion of Productida (brachiopod) with fine concentric and radial ornamentation distinctly increased from the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian, slightly declined towards the Wuchiapingian, and then increased towards the Changhsingian. From the Cisuralian to the Changhsingian, the percentage proportion of brachiopods with spinose ornamentation shows a persistent declining trend. The shell size generally indicates a miniaturization trend at species level during the Wuchiapingian to Changhsingian (including the transitional bed). These evolutionary patterns of brachiopod ornamentation and size are possibly related to the anoxia, food shortage, sea-level fluctuation, and change of substrate in the Permian (including the Permian-Triassic transitional interval) in South China.

  19. Metamorphosis in Craniiformea revisited: Novocrania anomala shows delayed development of the ventral valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg; Holmer, Lars E.

    2013-01-01

    We revisited the brachiopod fold hypothesis and investigated metamorphosis in the craniiform brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larval development is lecithotrophic and the dorsal (brachial) valve is secreted by dorsal epithelia. We found that the juvenile ventral valve, which consists only of a thin...... brachiopods during metamorphosis to cement their pedicle to the substrate. N. anomala is therefore not initially attached by a valve but by material corresponding to pedicle cuticle. This is different to previous descriptions, which had led to speculations about a folding event in the evolution of Brachiopoda...

  20. 星点设计效应面法优选鱼腥草分散片的处方工艺%Optimization of the Formulation Technology of Houttuynia cordata Dispersible Tablets by Central Composite Design and Response Surface Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:优选鱼腥草分散片的处方工艺.方法:以交联聚维酮(PVPP)、交联羧甲基纤维素钠(CCNa)、羧甲基淀粉钠(CMS)用量为考察因素,以崩解时限和累积溶出度为评价指标,采用星点设计效应面法优选鱼腥草分散片的处方工艺.结果:最优处方工艺为PVPP用量为19~20 mg,CCNa用量为29~37 mg,CMS用量为21~27 mg.结论:优选的处方工艺稳定、可行,可用于制备鱼腥草分散片.

  1. Biochemostratigraphy of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary Global Stratotype Section and Point, Griotte Formation, La Serre, Montagne Noire, France

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, U.; Legrand-Blain, M.; Streel, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    The Griotte Formation and the base of Bed 89 exposed at La Serre, Montagne Noire, France represent the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Devonian-Carboniferous (D-C) boundary. This study represents the geochemical work on brachiopods and matrix covering the Siphonodella praesulcata to Siphonodella sulcata Zones at the GSSP. Values of Sr-87/Sr-86 of unaltered brachiopods provide the most powerful biochemostratigraphic tool in recognizing and correlating the Devonian-Carbonifer...

  2. The demosponge Leptomitus cf. L. lineatus, first occurence from the Middle Cambrian of Spain (Murero Formation, Western Iberian Chain)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bellido, Diego

    2003-01-01

    The Middle Cambrian Murero Formation in the Iberian Chain (NE Spain) has yielded a small collection of softbodied fossils (palaeoscolecid worms, onychophorans, algae), a host of fossils from organisms with mineralized skeletons such as trilobites and brachiopods, and some trace fossils. This paper deals with the description of the only specimen of the demosponge Leptomitus known so far from Spain and its association with the brachiopod Micromitra, showing a probable case of commensalism by th...

  3. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... erecta...... Asplenium New scientific name. No. dielerectum. 64 FR 48307 Rubiaceae Hedyotis Kadua cordata ssp. New scientific name. No. schlechtendahliana remyi. var. remyi 57 FR 46325 Rubiaceae Hedyotis... for 124 Species (76 FR 46362). Previous Federal Actions Twenty of the 40 species proposed...

  4. Behavior of lophophorates during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Catherine M.; Bottjer, David J.

    2009-11-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction devastated most marine communities and the recovery was a protracted event lasting several million years into the Early Triassic. Environmental and biological processes undoubtedly controlled patterns of recovery for marine invertebrates in the aftermath of the extinction, but are often difficult to single-out. The global diversity and distribution of marine lophophorates during the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction indicates that stenolaemate bryozoans, rhynchonelliform brachiopods, and lingulid brachiopods displayed distinct recovery patterns. Bryozoans were the most susceptible of the lophophorates, experiencing relatively high rates of extinction at the end of the Permian, and becoming restricted to the Boreal region during the Early Triassic. The recovery of bryozoans was also delayed until the Late Triassic and characterized by very low diversity and abundance. Following the final disappearance of Permian rhynchonelliform brachiopod survivors, Early Triassic rhynchonelliform brachiopod abundance remained suppressed despite a successful re-diversification and a global distribution, suggesting a decoupling between global taxonomic and ecological processes likely driven by lingering environmental stress. In contrast with bryozoans and rhynchonelliforms, lingulid brachiopods rebounded rapidly, colonizing shallow marine settings left vacant by the extinction. Lingulid dominance, characterized by low diversity but high numerical abundance, was short-lived and they were once again displaced back into marginal settings as environmental stress changed through the marine recovery. The presence in lingulid brachiopods of the respiratory pigment hemerythrin, known to increase the efficacy of oxygen storage and transport, when coupled with other morphological and physiological adaptations, may have given lingulids a survival advantage in environmentally stressed Early Triassic settings.

  5. The Middle Givetian pumilio-Events a tool for high time resolution and event-stratigraphical correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, Jan

    The Givetian pumilio Horizons consist of two dark brachiopod packstones intercalated in sequences of cephalopod limestones in Germany, S-France and North Africa. Their exceptional character is not only based on the mass occurrence of Terebratula pumilio (a small brachiopod), but also on additional biofacial and special sedimentological features. Due to their synchronous, extremely short-term deposition the pumilio Horizons are excellent index horizons for a basin-wide correlation of Givetian pelagic limestones and for a further refinement of the middle Givetian time-scale. An interpretation of the pumilio Horizons as tsunami deposits is given.

  6. The lower Maastrichtian Hivdskud succession, Møns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelby, M.E.; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Surlyk, Finn; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Harlou, Rikke; Korte, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    age of ~70.9 Ma for the base of the succession and a duration of >680 kyr for the investigated interval. The Hvidskud succession is well-exposed, easily accessible, and the new stratigraphic framework and precise age model suggest that it can be used as a key locality for stratigraphic correlation of...... the lower Maastrichtian in north-western Europe. Information on palaeo-seawater temperatures can be drawn from oxygen isotope records obtained from bulk rock samples and 24 micromorphic brachiopod specimens (Terebratulina faujasii). The brachiopod data show a clear diagenetic trend but point to an...

  7. Interrogation of distributional data for the End Ordovician crisis interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The uppermost Ordovician–lowermost Silurian (Upper Katian–Rhuddanian) is surveyed with respect to the a- and ß-diversity of rhynchonelliformean brachiopods. The survey is based on new collections as well as existing literature, compiled in a large, georeferenced database. The brachiopod faunas......–earliest Silurian crisis interval, following the concept of Benthic Assemblage zones. Both analyses support the view of a two-phased late Ordovician (Hirnantian) decline in diversity followed by a radiation in the early Silurian (Rhuddanian). These data show that the main taxonomic loss was geographically located...

  8. DATE PRELIMINARE PRIVIND VIABILITATEA POLENULUI CA BIOINDICATOR AL CALITĂŢII AERULUI ÎN TIMIŞOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Această cercetare prezintă date obţinute prin prelevarea polenului de la patru specii (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Tilia cordata şi testarea viabilităţii acestuia prin tratare cu TTC. Aceste date preliminare sunt insuficiente pentru a da o concluzie specifică. Oricum, se poate spune că viabilitatea polenului poate fi un parametru reprezentativ pentru a stabili care plante sunt mai bine adaptate mediului urban. Modificarea viabilităţii polenului indică prezenţa gazelor cu caracter poluant, rezultate mai ales din traficul rutier, la toate cele patru specii. Polenul de Plantago lanceolata şi Tilia cordata ar putea fi folosit ca bio-indicator al calităţii aerului într-un ecosistem urban.

  9. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2011-31 July 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F Keith; Bell, James J; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Bonatto, S L; Cezilly, Frank; Collins, Sarah M; Dubreuil, Christine; Dufort, Matthew J; Eraud, Cyril; Fuseya, Reiko; Heap, E A; Jacobsen, N; Madders, M; McEwing, R; Michel, Andrew P; Mougeot, F; Ogden, R S; Orantes, Lucia C; Othman, A S; Parent, Eric; Pulido-Santacruz, P; Rioux-Paré, Rachel; Roberts, M F; Rosazlina, R; Sakamoto, Takashi; De-León, Pelayo Salinas; Sévigny, Jean-Marie; St-Onge, Philippe; Terraube, J; Tingay, R E; Tremblay, Réjean; Watanabe, Seiichi; Wattier, Rémi A

    2011-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Cryptocoryne × purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea, Mya arenaria, Patagioenas squamosa, Prochilodus mariae, Scylla serrata and Scytalopus speluncae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cryptocoryne × purpurea nothovar. purpurea, Cryptocoryne affinis, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata, Cryptocoryne elliptica, Cryptocoryne griffithii, Cryptocoryne minima, Cryptocoryne nurii and Cryptocoryne schulzei. This article also documents the addition of 24 sequencing primer pairs and 24 allele-specific primers or probes for Aphis glycines. PMID:21951598

  10. Comparison of Torpedograss and Pickerelweed Susceptibility to Glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Gettys, Lyn A.; Sutton, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Torpedograss (Panicum repens L.) is one of the most invasive exotic plants in aquatic systems. Repeat applications of (N-phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate) herbicides provide limited control of torpedograss; unfortunately, glyphosate often negatively impacts most non-target native species that grow alongside the weed. This experiment studied the effect of glyphosate on pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.), a native plant that shares habitats with torpedograss. Actively gr...

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Vatľák; Adriana Kolesárová; Nenad Vukovič; Katarína Rovná; Jana Petrová; Viktória Vimmerová; Lukáš Hleba; Martin Mellen; Miroslava Kačániová

    2014-01-01

    In this study, methanolic extracts of Tilia cordata Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum which had been described in herbal books, were screened for their antimicrobial activity against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The following strains of bacteria for antimicrobial activity were used gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix ...

  12. ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN LEAF LITTER OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES IN URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Konoshina, S.; Khilkova, N.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of heavy metal accumulation of leaf litter of woody plants: Aesculus hippocastanum Aesculus hippocastanum, heart-shaped linden Tilia cordata, Siberian larch Larix sibirica, mountain ash Sorbus aucuparia, warty birch Betula verrucosa, growing within Orel City is given. The kinds of woody plants, which leaf litter has the largest accumulation of heavy metals are determined. The maximum total content of heavy metals in leaf litter was observed in mountain ash and birch.

  13. Compostos voláteis em méis florais Volatile compounds in floral honeys

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria; Ricardo Felipe Alves Moreira

    2003-01-01

    A review about origin, composition and importance of volatile compounds in floral honeys is presented. Hydrocarbons, aromatic components, acids, diacids, terpenoids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and alcohols have been found in honey aroma of different botanical origin. Cis-rose oxide has been proposed as an indicator for Tilia cordata honey. Citrus honeys are known to contain methyl anthranilate, a compound which other honeys virtually lack. Linalool, phenylethylalcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, p-a...

  14. La capacidad desfaunante del extracto de plantas en el rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Ley de Coss; Jaime Jorge Martínez Tinajero; Francisco Javier Marroquín Agreda; Carlos Gumaro García Castillo; Oziel Dante Montañez Valdez; Enrique Guerra Medina

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la capacidad de eliminar protozoarios del rumen con el uso del extracto soluble en agua de las plantas Buddleia cordata, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Datura inoxia, Marrubium vulgare, Mentha piperita y Verbesina perymenioides, las cuales contienen compuestos secundarios con posible efecto tóxico sobre los protozoarios ciliados del rumen. La capacidad desfaunante (CD) del extracto soluble en agua de las plantas se realizó inoculando 0,5 mL de un concen...

  15. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  16. Porovnání sezónních změn ekofyziologických charakteristik dvou vybraných stromů pod vlivem stresu městského prostředí

    OpenAIRE

    Šindelářová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the study of impact of stress to the two types of broadleaved trees in urban environment during the growing season. The studied species were Small-leaved Lime (Tilia cordata) and London Planetree (Platanus acerifolia). Trees are the important part of the urban environment both from an aesthetic standpoint and from the standpoint of the reduction of negative effects of the urban environment. However, these trees are under the constant influence of stress factors with whi...

  17. Chemical Constituents and Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Two Aglaia Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Bin-Gui; LI,Xiao-Ming; PROKSCH,Peter

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the course of searching bioactive natural products from the plant genus Aglaia, we selected two species, A. cordata and A. testicularis, for further chemical study. Totally twenty natural compounds were obtained and structurally elucidated with which eleven of them were discovered for the first time. Among these compounds, lignans, rocaglamides,aglains and bisamides were the main constituents of the two plant species. The results from a bioactive screening indicated that some of the lignans possess potent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  18. Popis gnezditvene naselbine brinovke Turdus pilaris v Ključih pri Rodinah: Survey of a breeding colony of the Fieldfare Turdus pilaris at Ključi near Rodine:

    OpenAIRE

    Kozinc, Boris

    1998-01-01

    The breeding colony of Fieldfares discovered on April 25th 1998 at Ključi comprised 18 nests. The breeding success was poor, for only 11 young left three nests (or o.61 young per nest). All the nests were situated in lime trees. Tilia platyphyllos and Tilia cordata at an average height of 9.5 metresfrom the ground. Half of the nests were hidden in mistletoe.

  19. Surface energy balance affects gas exchange and growth of two transplanted landscape trees

    OpenAIRE

    Montague, Thayne; Kjelgren, Roger; Rupp, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Research was conducted to investigate how energy balance of bark mulch and turf surfaces influence gas exchange and growth of recently transplanted trees. On several occasions over a 3-year period, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature were measured throughout the day on `Emerald Queen' Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and `Greenspire' littleleaf linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) trees growing over each surface. Tree water loss was estimated using a general transport flux equation applied to...

  20. Taphonomy of a thick Terebratula bioherm from the Pliocene of southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.

    2015-04-01

    Brachiopods were extremely abundant during the Paleozoic era but underwent a dramatic loss of biodiversity at the Permo-Triassic boundary. The comparison of brachiopod and bivalve diversity through geological time shows that the latter were the most successful counterpart at best recovering from mass extinction events. Nonetheless, there are cases where Post-Paleozoic brachiopods stand out as the dominant marine benthos in particular environments, forming paucispecific brachiopod-dominated bioherms. This note describes an example of shallow-water brachiopod bioherm dominated by the terebratulid Terebratula calabra. The shell bed is found in mixed siliciclastic-temperate carbonate deposits of late Early Pliocene age nearby Águilas (southeastern Spain). This unique brachiopod concentration may be helpful to understand the particular success of large-sized brachiopods like Terebratula in Cenozoic environments typically dominated by bivalves. The bioherm attains 1.5 meters in thickness and crops out along a band up to 140 meters wide. The lithology consists of bioturbated fine-grained sands containing poorly sorted bioclasts, mostly fragments of Terebratula. This shell bed also records a diverse fauna, including five brachiopod genera, pectinids (4 genera), oysters (3 genera), in addition to rare gastropods, echinoids, bryozoans, etc. The density and sorting of bioclasts is laterally variable, and the biofabrics range from loosely dispersed to densely-packed, including examples of concave-up vertical stacking and nesting of shells. Most of the fragments of Terebratula preserve the posterior part of the shell only. These fragments generally display corrasion (rounded fractured margins, rounded to completely missing symphytium), bioerosion (prevailing the ichnogenera Entobia, Gnathichnus and Podichnus) and encrustation (mainly by bryozoans, Ancistrocrania, and Pododesmus). The good preservation of Pododesmus contrasts with that of most fragments of Terebratula, although

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vatľák

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of Tilia cordata Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum which had been described in herbal books, were screened for their antimicrobial activity against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The following strains of bacteria for antimicrobial activity were used gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix thermosphacta CCM 4769, Enterococcus raffinosus CCM 4216, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1828, Paenobacillus larvae CCM 4483 and Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418 using disc diffusion method and microbroth dilution technique according to CLSI. Probit analysis was used in this experiment. Of the 2 plant extracts tested, all extracts showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The highest antibacterial activity of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum methanolic extract was measured against gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa used with disc diffusion method. The strong antimicrobial activity with microbroth dilution method of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum were found against Listeria ivanovii.

  2. Selective silicification of fossils by syntaxial overgrowths on quartz sand, Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian), New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliva, Robert G.

    1992-07-01

    Some fossil fragments in the Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian) of New York were partially replaced by syntaxial quartz overgrowths. These replacive overgrowths are significant in that they provide insights into the mechanism and controls of quartz replacement of calcite. The susceptibility of the different calcite types of quartz replacement was governed by their microstructural complexity. Fossil fragments with finely crystalline microstructures, such as brachiopods, ostracods, and bryozoans, were partially replaced by quartz, whereas echinoderm ossicles, which consist of single large calcite crystals, were not replaced. Calcite cement was also immune to replacement. Brachiopod, bryozoan, and ostracod bioclasts (with minor exceptions) underwent partial replacement by quartz (with its concomitant shell calcite dissolution) only where the shell fragments were in contact with detrital quartz grains. Proximity to authigenic crystal nucleation sites (i.e., quartz sand grains) was thus the prime control over whether host mineral dissolution occurred, which is a situation unique to the force of crystallization-driven replacement mechanism.

  3. New Devonian fossil localities in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieck, A.; Gagnier, P.-Y.; Bigey, F. P.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Janvier, P.; Loboziak, S.; Rachebȩuf, P. R.; Sempere, T.; Steemans, P.

    1996-11-01

    An examination of Palaeozoic sections west of Cochabamba, and west of Lake Poopó, in western Bolivia, was conducted during a field expedition in 1991. The Río Iglesiani valley, west of Cochabamba, surprisingly yielded a Middle Devonian age to all the visited sites, originally supposed to be Ordovician. This result is based on spores, shelly faunas (brachiopods and bivalves), and trilobites. The Copacabana de Andamarca section, west of Lake Poopó, is also dated as Middle Devonian on account of its rather rich fauna (bryozoans, corals, brachiopods, conulariids, hyolithids, tentaculitids, ostracodes, trilobites, crinoids, vertebrates). Both localities correlate to the Icla and/or Huamampampa Formation of the Tarabuco area and Subandean belt, and to the Belén and/or Sica Sica Formation of the northern Altiplano.

  4. A new species of Conchicolites (Cornulitida, Tentaculita from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new cornulitid species, Conchicolites crispisulcans sp. nov., is described from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden. The undulating edge of C. crispisulcans sp. nov. peristomes is unique among the species of Conchicolites. This undulating peristome edge may reflect the position of setae at the tube aperture. The presence of the undulating peristome edge supports the hypothesis that cornulitids had setae and were probably related to brachiopods.

  5. Earliest report of the genus Phyricodothyris George (Brachiopoda: Reticularioidea) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.L.; Kollar, A.D.; Brezinski, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Described from the Wymps Gap Member of the Mauch Chunk Formation of southwestern Pennsylvania and adjacent Maryland is a new species, Phyricodothyris lauriegrahamae, of the Upper Mississippian reticulariod brachiopod Phyricodothyris George, 1932. The Wymps Gap Limestone from which the type material was collected is middle Chesterian (late Visdan) in age. This is the first report of this genus from confirmed Mississippian rocks in North America.

  6. Environmental parameters of a coral assemblage from the Akerchi Formation (Carboniferous), Adarouch Area, central Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Said, I; Rodríguez, Sergio; Berkhli, M.; Cózar, Pedro; Gómez-Herguedas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    [EN] Rich assemblages of rugose corals occur in the Tizra, Akerchi and Idmarrach formations (Mississippian) near El-Hajeb City. The Akerchi Formation, approximately 140 m thick, is divided into two members. The upper part of the lower member contains a biostrome 2 to 5 m thick, composed mainly of rugose corals and gigantoproductid brachiopods embedded in marly limestone. Its local thickness increases from southwest to northeast in an outcrop extending for more than one kilometre. ...

  7. Prolonged Permian–Triassic ecological crisis recorded by molluscan dominance in Late Permian offshore assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Bottjer, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction was the largest biotic crisis in the history of animal life, eliminating as many as 95% of all species and dramatically altering the ecological structure of marine communities. Although the causes of this pronounced ecosystem shift have been widely debated, the broad consensus based on inferences from global taxonomic diversity patterns suggests that the shift from abundant brachiopods to dominant molluscs was abrupt and largely driven by the catastrophic effec...

  8. High-resolution isotope stratigraphy of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Namur-Dinant Basin, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Amy, K.; Poty, E.; Brand, U.

    2009-01-01

    The Devonian–Carboniferous (D–C) boundary sequence of the Namur–Dinant Basin in southern Belgium consists of marine platform carbonates. Global biostratigraphic correlation of the boundary has been a dilemma due to the absence of index conodont zones. Despite the scarcity of brachiopods, we managed to sample twenty-five calcitic shells from boundary beds at the Royseux-Gare section, to reconstruct biochemostratigraphic profiles of oxygen-, carbon- and strontium-isotopes for correlations with ...

  9. Trait-based diversification shifts reflect differential extinction among fossil taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Peter J; Estabrook, George F.

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in biological diversity often are associated with particular anatomical traits. Anatomical data from over 300 clades of brachiopods, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates show that trait-based diversification shifts are common at even fairly low (genus and species) taxonomic levels. Cambrian taxa present the lone major exception. Among post-Cambrian taxa, diversification shifts correlate strongly with elevated net extinction of primitive taxa rather than elevated net speciat...

  10. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula ne...

  11. 18S rRNA suggests that Entoprocta are protostomes, unrelated to Ectoprocta

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, L.Y.; Winnepenninckx, B.; Wachter, R.; Backeljau, T.; Emschermann, P.; Garey, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Ento- and Ectoprocta are sometimes placed together in the Bryozoa, which have variously been regarded as proto- or deuterostomes. However, Entoprocta have also been allied to the pseudocoelomates, while Ectoprocta are often united with the Brachiopoda and Phoronida in the (super)phylum Lophophorata. Hence, the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa are still much debated. We determined complete 18S rRNA sequences of two entoprocts, an ectoproct, an inarticulate brachiopod, a phoronid, t...

  12. New phylogenomic data support the monophyly of Lophophorata and an Ectoproct-Phoronid clade and indicate that Polyzoa and Kryptrochozoa are caused by systematic bias

    OpenAIRE

    Nesnidal, Maximilian P; Helmkampf, Martin; Meyer, Achim; Witek, Alexander; Bruchhaus, Iris; Ebersberger, Ingo; Hankeln, Thomas; Lieb, Bernhard; Struck, Torsten H; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within the complex metazoan phylogeny, the relationships of the three lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, are particularly elusive. To shed further light on this issue, we present phylogenomic analyses of 196 genes from 58 bilaterian taxa, paying particular attention to the influence of compositional heterogeneity. Results: The phylogenetic analyses strongly support the monophyly of Lophophorata and a sister-group relationship between Ectoprocta and Ph...

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata) - compositional bias affects phylogenetic analyses of lophotrochozoan relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Nesnidal Maximilian P; Helmkampf Martin; Bruchhaus Iris; Hausdorf Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The phylogenetic relationships of the lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, within Lophotrochozoa are still controversial. We sequenced an additional mitochondrial genome of the most species-rich lophophorate lineage, the ectoprocts. Although it is known that there are large differences in the nucleotide composition of mitochondrial sequences of different lineages as well as in the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins, this bias is often n...

  14. Modern Data on the Innervation of the Lophophore in Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda) Support the Monophyly of the Lophophorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temereva, Elena N; Tsitrin, Eugeni B

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships among members of the Lophophorata remain unclear. Traditionally, the Lophophorata included three phyla: Brachiopoda, Bryozoa or Ectoprocta, and Phoronida. All species in these phyla have a lophophore, which is regarded as a homologous structure of the lophophorates. Because the organization of the nervous system has been traditionally used to establish relationships among groups of animals, information on the organization of the nervous system in the lophophore of phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans may help clarify relationships among the lophophorates. In the current study, the innervation of the lophophore of the inarticulate brachiopod Lingula anatina is investigated by modern methods. The lophophore of L. anatina contains three brachial nerves: the main, accessory, and lower brachial nerves. The main brachial nerve is located at the base of the dorsal side of the brachial fold and gives rise to the cross neurite bundles, which pass through the connective tissue and connect the main and accessory brachial nerves. Nerves emanating from the accessory brachial nerve account for most of the tentacle innervation and comprise the frontal, latero-frontal, and latero-abfrontal neurite bundles. The lower brachial nerve gives rise to the abfrontal neurite bundles of the outer tentacles. Comparative analysis revealed the presence of many similar features in the organization of the lophophore nervous system in phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans. The main brachial nerve of L. anatina is similar to the dorsal ganglion of phoronids and the cerebral ganglion of bryozoans. The accessory brachial nerve of L. anatina is similar to the minor nerve ring of phoronids and the circumoral nerve ring of bryozoans. All lophophorates have intertentacular neurite bundles, which innervate adjacent tentacles. The presence of similar nerve elements in the lophophore of phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans supports the homology of the lophophore and the

  15. LES VARIATIONS DU NIVEAU MARIN SUR LE BASSIN DE PARIS AU BATHONIEN-CALLOVIEN. IMPACTS SUR LES COMMUNAUTÉS BENTHIQUES ET SUR L'ÉVOLUTION DES ORNITHELLlDÉS (TEREBRATELLIDINA)

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The study deals with the biological impacts of sea-Ievel changes on evolution of a Jurassic benthic fossil group (Ornithellida, Brachiopoda). The different time and scale at which the shifts in marine environments occur leads to the recognition of three interacting dynamic systems: environmental, communities, populations dynamics. The analysis is thus divided into a three steps hierarchy: sequence stratigraphy, analysis of the diversity of brachiopod assemblages, and analysis of morphological...

  16. Early to Middle Jurassic palaeoenvironmental changes: High resolution δ13C and δ18O records from the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Hesselbo, Stephen; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz;

    Low-Mg-calcite fossils, such as bivalves, belemnites and brachiopods, and bulk rocks have been extensively utilized to reconstruct past seawater chemistry and paleoenviron¬mental changes. Recent work on major bioevents demonstrated that particularly higher resolution stable isotope records are...... of second-order depositional sequences though the Early to Middle Juras¬sic supporting the idea that second-order depositional se¬quences are a result of eustatic sea-level changes at that time....

  17. Charles Darwin's 'Gorgonia' : a palaeontological mystery from the Falkland Islands resolved

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Phil; Rushton, Adrian; Fearnhead, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    During the celebrated voyage of HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin visited the Falkland Islands twice, in March 1833 and March 1834. He thought the islands bleak and inhospitable, but was much excited during his first visit to discover fossils at Port Louis. These he recognised as brachiopods (a type of shellfish) and crinoids (often described descriptively as ‘sea-lilies’ but actually animals related to sea urchins); an example of the kind of fossils that he saw is shown in Figure 1.

  18. Decoding the fossil record of early lophophorates : Systematics and phylogeny of problematic Cambrian Lophotrochozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Aodhán D.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of animal phyla are intimately linked with the Cambrian explosion, a period of radical ecological and evolutionary innovation that begins approximately 540 Mya and continues for some 20 million years, during which most major animal groups appear. Lophotrochozoa, a major group of protostome animals that includes molluscs, annelids and brachiopods, represent a significant component of the oldest known fossil records of biomineralised animals, as disclosed by the enigmat...

  19. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning <4 m.y. Existing hypotheses suggest that the SPICE represents a widespread ocean anoxic event leading to enhanced burial/preservation of organic matter (Corg) and pyrite. We analyzed ??18O values of apatitic inarticulate brachiopods from three Upper Cambrian successions across Laurentia to evaluate paleotemperatures during the SPICE. ??18O values range from ~12.5??? to 16.5???. Estimated seawater temperatures associated with the SPICE are unreasonably warm, suggesting that the brachiopod ??18O values were altered during early diagenesis. Despite this, all three localities show similar trends with respect to the SPICE ??13C curve, suggesting that the brachiopod apatite preserves a record of relative ??18O and temperature changes. The trends include relatively high ??18O values at the onset of the SPICE, decreasing and lowest values during the main event, and an increase in values at the end of the event. The higher ??18O values during the global extinction at the onset of the SPICE suggests seawater cooling and supports earlier hypotheses of upwelling of cool waters onto the shallow shelf. Decreasing and low ??18O values coincident with the rising limb of the SPICE support the hypothesis that seawater warming and associated reduced thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  20. EVIDENCE OF A GUADALUPIAN AGE FOR THE KHUFF FORMATION OF SOUTHEASTERN OMAN: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA ANGIOLINI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalupian succession of the Huqf area (Sultanate of Oman represents a mega-sequence comprising the fluvial terrigenous Gharif Formation and the overlying marine Khuff Formation. The Khuff Fm. is subdivided into four members and is composed of marls and bioclastic limestones. The Khuff Fm. yields a rich fauna of brachiopods, conodonts, foraminifers, bivalves, gastropods, ostracods and cephalopods. The brachiopod fauna of the Khuff Fm. includes strophomenids, productids, orthids and terebratulids. The associated conodont fauna includes Hindeodus excavatus Behnken, Merrilina sp., M. praedivergens Kozur & Mostler, and Sweetina n. sp. (systematic descriptions of conodonts are given in the Paleontological Appendix. Foraminifers are represented by species of Miliolina and Rotaliina. The Khuff Fm. is given a Wordian age, based on brachiopods and conodonts. The depositional environment of the Khuff Fm. of southeastern Oman corresponds to the outer shelf of a large carbonate platform covering most of the Arabian Platform. The Khuff Fm. is interpreted as a major transgressive-regressive cycle related to differential subsidence. 

  1. Design and Evaluation of Processes to Obtain Antioxidant-Rich Extracts from tropical fruits cultivated in Amazon, Caldas and Northern Tolima Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Cerón Salazar, Ivonne Ximena

    2013-01-01

    En esta tesis se presenta un análisis del diseño del proceso para la obtención de extractos ricos en antioxidantes a partir de cinco frutas tropicales (Cordata matisia, Physalis peruviana, Solanum betaceum, Theobroma grandiflorum, Renealmia alpinia). Se utilizaron procedimientos de simulación basado en la caracterización experimental para evaluar el rendimiento de las diferentes tecnologías para las etapas de pretratamiento, extracción y concentración utilizando el software Aspen Plus. Se...

  2. Retrospective study of 14C concentration in the vicinity of NPP Jaslovské Bohunice using tree rings and the AMS technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ješkovský, Miroslav; Povinec, Pavel P.; Steier, Peter; Šivo, Alexander; Richtáriková, Marta; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric radiocarbon has been monitored around the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Jaslovské Bohunice (Slovakia) using CO2 absorption in NaOH solution since 1969. In 2012, tree ring samples were collected from Tilia cordata using an increment borer at Žlkovce monitoring station situated close to the Bohunice NPP. Each tree ring was identified and graphite targets were produced for 14C analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C concentrations obtained from the tree-ring samples have been in a reasonable agreement with the averaged annual 14C concentrations in atmospheric CO2.

  3. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  4. Preliminary Exploration of a Novel Type High-effi-ciency Mosquito-repellent Compound Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei; Jing; Zhou; Yin; Sun; Yizhe; Wang; Tao; Yang; Jingya

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils were extracted from flowers and branches of Cestrum genus plant Telosma cordata(Burm. F.) Merr.,and used for purifying the mosquito-repellent refined oils. The yielded extracts were mixed with single nerve-smoothing or nerve-exciting components from lavender and peppermint or mixed with basal oils(like evening primrose),in order to prepare the novel type compound essential oils conferring mosquito-repellent and air-refreshing actions. The resulted compound was prepared into solid air freshener.

  5. Evaluation of Alnus species and hybrids. [For biomass energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.B. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US). Dept. of Forestry); Burgess, D. (Petawawa National Forestry Inst., Chalk River, Ontario (CA))

    1990-01-01

    Trials of a common set of seed lots representing 39 parents and five species of Alnus have been started in four countries: Belgium, Canada, the UK, and the US. Initial results indicate that cold hardiness is a problem in using A. acuminata but that sufficiently hardy A. rubra sources are available. A. glutinosa had the best growth in the nursery, and A. cordata had the best survival under severe moisture-stress conditions. A summary also is given of a workshop on alder improvement that further demonstrates the potential for developing the genus for biomass energy production. (author).

  6. Números cromosómicos de Asteraceae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), México, Distrito Federal Chromosome numbers in Asteraceae of the Ecological Reserve of the Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), Mexico City, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiola Soto-Trejo; Guadalupe Palomino; José Luis Villaseñor

    2011-01-01

    Se registraron los números cromosómicos mitóticos o meióticos de 31 especies de Asteraceae en la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), y por primera vez, los conteos cromosómicos de 3 especies endémicas de México: Acourtia cordata (2n= 54), Ageratina cylindrica (2n= 34) y Viguiera buddleiiformis (n= 17). Se discuten los resultados obtenidos de acuerdo con los datos disponibles para cada especie analizada.Mitotic or meiotic chromosome numbers are recorded for 31 species of Aster...

  7. Měkkýši PR Velké Doly u Českého Těšína (Slezsko, Česká republika) Molluscs of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve near the town of Český Těšín (Silesia, Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Kupka

    2006-01-01

    The molluscan fauna of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve was surveyed in 1999 and 2006. In total, 27 snail species were found (26 terrestrial gastropods and 1 bivalve). The Natural Reserve is only 1.5 km far from ironworks “Třinecké železárny”. In the 18th century, there was a limestone quarry and beech plantation (as a fuel for ironworks) in the reserve. At the present time the reserve represents the secondary forests society Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum with protected and regional notable plants ...

  8. Tratamiento de aguas residuales por humedales artificiales tropicales en Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Marín Acosta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En las dos últimas décadas, los humedales artificiales han incrementado mundialmente su desarrollo para el tratamiento de aguas residuales. En el presente estudio, doce humedales artificiales tropicales de flujo subsuperficial (HAFS fueron diseñados y operados específicamente para el tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas. La eficiencia de remoción de contaminantes básicos (DBO5, DQO, SST, NT, PT, Turbiedad y Color fue evaluada bajo tres tratamientos: 1 Pontederia cordata (HAFS-Tule, 2 Phragmites australis (HAFS-Carrizo y 3 grava como prueba testigo (HAFS-Grava.

  9. As espécies de Euglossa Latreille do nordeste de São Paulo (Apidae, Euglossinae The species of Euglossa Latreille from the northeast of São Paulo, Brazil (Apidae, Euglossinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Macário Rebelo

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A key and short descriptions are given to the males of the eleven species of Euglossa Latreillle, 1802. collected in cineole; eugenol and vanillin in natural forest reserves of the Northeast of São Paulo State (Cajuru, Sertãozinho, Dumont, Ribeirão Preto, Luís Antônio and Pedregulho. Namely: E. imperialis Cockerell. 1922; E. annectans Dressler. 1982; E. pleosticta Dressler. 1982; E. townsendi Cockerell. 1904; E. melanotricha Moure, 1967; E. cordata (Linaeus, 1758; E. securigera Dressler, 1982; E. fimbriata. sp.n.; E. leucotricha. sp.n.; E. truncata, sp.n. and E. violaceifrons, sp.n..

  10. The impact of urban conditions on different tree species in public green areas in the city of Poznan

    OpenAIRE

    Krzyżaniak Michał; Świerk Dariusz; Walerzak Miłosz; Urbański Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Parks in urbanised areas fulfil an important function as they create a positive climate in cities and contribute to the good health of their inhabitants. The study gives an answer to the question of which of the species under investigation is the most suitable for planting in urbanised areas. The aim of the research conducted from 2013 to 2014 at selected sites in Poznan (Poland) was to determine the state of health of Tilia cordata Mill., Acer platanoides L. and Quercus robur L. trees and to...

  11. Vegetative propagation of native species potentially useful in the restoration of México City's vegetation Propagación vegetativa de especies nativas potencialmente útiles en la restauración de la vegetación de la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos-Palacios

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hardwood and softwood cuttings of Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq and Senecio praecox D.C. were tested to know their ability to form adventitious roots. Cuttings were prepared in 2 different seasons (wet and dry and treated with different microclimatic conditions and auxin concentrations (IBA and NAA. Hardwood and softwood cuttings of B. cordata rooted during the dry and wet season, whilst hardwood and softwood cuttings of D. viscosa rooted only in the wet season, cuttings of S. praecox rooted only in wet season with a higher rooting for hardwood than softwood cuttings. Low hormone concentrations (10 - 100 ppm favored the rooting percentage more than high concentrations (1000 - 10 000 ppm. However, high hormone concentrations favored number, length of roots and number of developed shoots. Natural regeneration of these species is limited and the species are difficult to propagate from seeds. Vegetative propagation of these species could be an alternative to get clonal planting stock for reforestation programs in some Mexico City areas.Se probó la habilidad de estacas lignificadas y suaves de Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq y Senecio praecox D.C. para formar raíces adventicias. Las estacas se prepararon en las estaciones húmeda y seca; se trataron con diferentes concentraciones de auxinas (IBA y NAA y en diferentes condiciones microclimáticas. Las estacas de madera lignificadas y madera suave de B. cordata enraizaron durante la estación seca y húmeda, mientras que las de D. viscosa lo hicieron sólo en la época húmeda, las estacas de S. praecox sólo en la estación seca teniendo las estacas lignificadas un mayor enraizamiento que las de madera suave. Las concentraciones bajas de hormonas (10 - 100 ppm favorecieron más el porcentaje de enraizamiento que las altas concentraciones (1000 - 10 000 ppm. . Sin embargo, las concentraciones altas de hormonas favorecieron el número y la longitud de las raíces, además del

  12. Intoxicação por plantas que contêm swainsonina no Brasil Poisoning by swainsonine-containing plants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto de Oliveira Júnior; Gabriela Riet-Correa; Franklin Riet-Correa

    2013-01-01

    No Brasil, as plantas que contêm swainsonina compõem um grupo muito importante de plantas tóxicas, incluindo Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea riedelii, Ipomoea sericophyla, Ipomoea verbascoidea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia, que causam armazenamento de oligossacarídeos em caprinos e, com menor frequência, em bovinos, equinos, ovinos e cervídeos. Uma característica das plantas que contêm swainsonina é que os animais que iniciam a ingerir essas plantas desenvolvem o hábito de ing...

  13. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sz90 and Cs137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field-proven study of Sr90 and Cs137 absorption activity demonstrated by pinus silvestris l., piceae abies (l) roth, quercus rubra l., acer platanoides l., betula pendula roth., tilia cordata mill. under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. Differences relevant to these parameters could reach 15-fold value

  14. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, J.H.; Zhang, S; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg l...

  15. Inventory of Green Spaces and Woody Plants in the Urban Landscape in Ariogala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Straigytė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Regulation of urban greenery design, management and protection was approved in 2008 in Lithuania after the Green Space Law was passed, allowing protection of public green spaces and woody plants. Protection of these resources first requires an inventory, and we have created a digital database that will help in management of urban green spaces. Material and Methods: An inventory of green spaces and woody plants was conducted in the public urban territory of Ariogala, using GIS technology. A digital cartographic database was created using ArcGis 9.1 software. Results and Conclusion: Most of the woody plants in the survey area are deciduous trees, and the survey results highlighted the major green space management problems. Often, planted trees grow under power lines, and their crowns touch the power cables. Near blocks of flats, trees are often in the wrong place-planted too close to buildings, trees shade windows and their roots heave pavers and penetrate building foundations. According to the inventory, street trees sustain the most damage, most commonly showing injuries on their trunks and roots. Leaves of Aesculus hipocastanum L. show massive damage from Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić, and Tilia cordata Mill. are damaged by Cercospora microsora Sacc. T. cordata is a favourite city tree, but is susceptible to infestation and when damaged appears unsightly, ending its vegetation period very early. The inventory of green spaces also showed that there are sufficient public parks.

  16. Tree Species and Their Space Requirements in Six Urban Environments Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Dahlhausen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban trees have gained in importance during recent decades, but little is known about the temporal dynamic of tree growth in urban areas. The present study investigated the allometric relationships of stem diameter, tree height, and crown radius for six different tree species in six metropolises worldwide. Increment cores of the trees were used for identifying the relationship of basal area and basal area increment and for extrapolating the temporal dynamics for each species in relation to the allometric parameters and growth extensions. Space limitation and its direct influence on growth were quantified, as well as the aboveground woody biomass and the carbon storage capacity. The results show that, among the investigated species, Quercus nigra and Khaya senegalensis have the highest growth rates for stem diameter and crown radius, whereas Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum remain on a lower level. A significant reduction of tree growth due to restricted non-paved area was found for Aesculus hippocastanum and Khaya senegalensis. Estimations of aboveground biomass were highest for Quercus nigra and lowest for Tilia cordata. These results show the species-specific allometries of urban trees over a projected time period. Thus, the data set is highly relevant for planners and urban green managers.

  17. Reduction of nutrient contaminants into shallow eutrophic waters through vegetated treatment beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P; Vijayaraghavan, K; Reuben, S; Estrada, E S; Joshi, U M

    2013-01-01

    One of the most effective mitigative approaches to eutrophication is the reduction of nutrient loading into water bodies. Bioremediation presents an economically viable and ecologically sustainable technology to nutrient pollution control taking advantage of the remarkable ability of plants and their associated microbial community to assimilate and remove nutrients from the environment. In this study, four emergent macrophytes (Cyperus haspan, Pandanus amaryllifolius, Pontederia cordata and Thalia geniculata) and two floating plants (Hygroryza aristata and Pistia stratiotes) were deployed in bank-side treatment beds and comparatively assessed for their remediative capabilities for nutrient control. P. stratiotes exhibited the highest removal efficiency for both nitrate and phosphate among the six plant species studied. Emergent macrophytes, P. amaryllifolius, C. haspan and P. cordata, were also found to be highly effective in nutrient uptake exhibiting removal efficiencies up to 100%. With the exception of T. geniculata, depletion of nutrients as a result of plant uptake significantly impeded the natural colonization of algae invariably leading to improvements in water quality in terms of turbidity and pH. Suppression of algae proliferation by T. geniculata was not preceded by a reduction in nutrient concentrations suggesting that T. geniculata may be directly inhibiting algal growth through allelopathy. PMID:24056424

  18. Early Silurian (Aeronian East Point Coral Patch Reefs of Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada: First Reef Recovery from the Ordovician/Silurian Mass Extinction in Eastern Laurentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisuo Jin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An extensive late Aeronian patch reef swarm outcrops for 60–70 km on Anticosti Island, eastern Canada, located in the inner to mid-shelf area of a prominent tropical carbonate platform of southeastern Laurentia, at 20°–25° S paleolatitude of the southern typhoon belt. This complex, described here for the first time, includes more than 100 patch reefs, up to 60–80 m in diameter and 10 m high. Reefs are exposed three-dimensionally on present-day tidal flats, as well as inland along roads and rivers. Down the gentle 1°–2° paleoslope, the reefs grade into coral-sponge biostromes, and westerly they grade into inter-reef or deeper ‘crinoidal meadow’ facies. The reef builders were dominantly tabulate and rugose corals, with lesser stromatoporoids. Other components include crinoids, brachiopods, green algae (especially paleoporellids, and encrusting cyanobacteria: reefs display some of the earliest known symbiotic intergrowths of corals and stromatoporoids. Reefs were variably built on a base of crinoidal grainstones, meadows of baffling tabulate corals, brachiopod shells, or chlorophytes. These reefs mark an early phase of reef recovery after a prominent reef gap of 5–6 million years following the Ordovician/Silurian mass extinction events. The reefs feature a maximal diversity of calcifying cyanobacteria, corals and stromatoporoids, but low diversity of brachiopods, nautiloids and crinoids. Following the North American Stratigraphic Code, we define herein the Menier Formation, encompassing the lower two members of the existing Jupiter Formation.

  19. Community structure and composition of the Cambrian Chengjiang biota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on previously published species data(228 species in over 18 phyla) and field sampling(114 species and 18406 individuals) in the Chengjiang-Haikou-Anning area,we analyzed quantitatively the paleocommunity composition and structure of the Cambrian Chengjiang biota(Cambrian Series 2,eastern Yunnan,China).Arthropods dominate the community both in species diversity(species:37%) and in abundance(individuals:51.8%).Priapulids(individuals:22.6%) and brachiopods(individuals:16.3%) follow in abundance rank.The arthropod Kunmingella douvillei(26.2%),the priapulid Cricocosmia jinning-ensis(15.4%),and the brachiopod Diandongia pista(11%) are the three most abundant species.Ecological analyses show that the community was dominated by epifaunal organisms(species:63%,individuals:68.4%) followed by infaunal organisms(species:11.9%,individuals:25.9%),nektobenthic organisms(species:11.5%,individuals:2.6%),and pelagic organisms(species:5.3%,individuals:3.1%).The diverse feeding strategies,dominated by suspension feeders(species:35.6%,individuals:26.1%) and hunter/scavengers(species:31.1%,individuals:40.4%),indicate the former existence of a complex food chain and intense competition.Epifaunal vagrant omnivores(28.2%),infaunal vagrant hunter/scavengers(19.8%),epifaunal sessile suspension feeders(17.7%),and epifaunal vagrant hunter/scavengers(15.3%) were the most abundant ecological groups,represented primarily by arthropods,poriferans,priapulids,and brachiopods.Ecological group analyses reveal that the early Cambrian Chengjiang biota is similar in community patterns and functional relations to modern biotas in shallow marine settings.

  20. Constraints on Phanerozoic paleotemperature and seawater oxygen isotope evolution from the carbonate clumped isotope compositions of Late Paleozoic marine fossils (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, G. A.; Passey, B. H.; Grossman, E. L.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Shenton, B.; Yancey, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    A long-standing geoscience controversy has been the interpretation of the observed several per mil increase in the oxygen isotope compositions of marine calcites over the Phanerozoic Eon. Explanations for this trend have included decreasing seawater paleotemperatures, increasing seawater oxygen isotope values, and post-depositional calcite alteration. Carbonate clumped isotope paleothermometry is a useful geochemical tool to test these hypotheses because of its lack of dependence on the bulk isotopic composition of the water from which carbonate precipitated. This technique is increasingly applied to ancient marine invertebrate shells, which can be screened for diagenesis using chemical and microstructural approaches. After several years of clumped isotope analysis of these marine carbonates in a handful of laboratories, a long-term temperature and isotopic trend is emerging, with the results pointing to relatively invariant seawater δ18O and generally decreasing seawater temperatures through the Phanerozoic. Uncertainties remain, however, including the effects of reordering of primary clumped isotope compositions via solid-state diffusion of C and O through the mineral lattice at elevated burial temperatures over hundred million year timescales. To develop a quantitative understanding of such reordering, we present data from laboratory heating experiments of late Paleozoic brachiopod calcite. When combined with kinetic models of the reordering reaction, the results of these experiments suggest that burial temperatures less than ~120 °C allow for preservation of primary brachiopod clumped isotope compositions over geological timescales. Analyses of well-preserved Carboniferous and Permian brachiopods reinforce these results by showing that shells with apparent clumped isotope temperatures of ~150 °C are associated with deep sedimentary burial (>5 km), whereas those with putatively primary paleotemperatures in the 10-30 °C range experienced no more than ~1.5 km

  1. Late Devonian (Frasnian) bivalves from the Nocedo Formation: the results of Wilhelm Kegel’s 1927 field trip to northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Amler, M.R.W.

    2010-01-01

    During a field trip to the Peña-Corada Unit of the southernmost Esla region of the Cantabrian Mountains in 1927, the German stratigrapher Wilhelm Kegel sampled brachiopods and bivalves from a section in the Laoz valley near La Ercina. The stratigraphic position is believed to be part of the Nocedo Formation of Frasnian age. This fauna includes poorly preserved steinkerns of a near-shore bivalve fauna that was prepared for publication including labels and proposed names, but never published. T...

  2. Uranium laterite from Ipora/Amorinopolis region- Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study gives an account of the uranium bearing laterite in the district of Amorinopolis, GO. Emphasis is given in the study of its mineralogy and of the mineralization controls. The uranium mineralization is chiefly found within the arkosic sandstones at the base of the Devonian Ponta Grossa Formation. The ore is tabular and concordant with the bedding, the controls being simultaneously litho-stratigraphic and biochemical. Narrow permeable horizons of arkosic sandstone lie between impermeable shale an siltstone layers. Within the permeable horizon fossil remains (probably brachiopods) are replaced by uranium minerals. The oxidized iron minerals may have acted to insulate and preserve the secondary soluble uranium minerals. (author)

  3. Sedimentary uranium deposit of the Ipora/Amorinopolis region, state of Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mineralization is chiefly found within arkosic sandstones at the base of the Devonian Ponta Grossa Formation. The ore is tabular and concordant with the bedding, the controls being simultaneously litho-stratigraphical and biochemical. Narrow permeable horizons of arkosic sandstone lie between impermeable shale and siltstone layers. Within the permeable horizon, the fossil remains (probably brachiopods) are replaced by uranium minerals. The oxidized iron minerals may have acted as to insulate and preserve the secondary soluble uranium minerals. The mineral paragenesis is represented by renardite, meta - autunite I, fourmarierite, Koninckite, ranquilite, meta-uranocircite II, barite, apatite, calophane, wavelite, varscite, an unnamed uranium mineral, quartz, calcedony, goethite, lepidocrocite and hematite. (Author)

  4. Dating the Cambrian Purley Shale Formation, Midland Microcraton, England

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Mark; Rushton, Adrian W.A.; Cook, Alan F.; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Martin, Adam P.; Condon, Daniel J.; Winrow, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Zircons from a bentonite near the base of the Purley Shale Formation in the Nuneaton area, Warwickshire, yield a 206Pb/238U age of 517.22±0.31 Ma. Based on the fauna of small shelly fossils and the brachiopod Micromitra phillipsii in the underlying Home Farm Member of the Hartshill Sandstone Formation, trilobite fragments that are questionably referred to Callavia from the basal Purley Shale Formation, and the presence of trilobites diagnostic of the sabulosa Biozone 66 m above ...

  5. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Krzysztof R; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution. PMID:26373558

  6. First recognition of the genus Verneuilia Hall and Clarke (Brachiopoda, Spiriferida) from North America (west-central Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, R.B.; Johnson, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The brachiopod genus Verneuilia Hall and Clarke, 1893, is recognized for the first time in North America, where it is represented by a new species described here. V. langenstrasseni. This occurrence extends not only the geographic range of the genus, but also the lower age and stratigraphic limit into the Eifelian (early Middle Devonian). Previously, the oldest known species was the type, V. cheiropteryx d'Archiac and de Verneuil, 1842, from the Givetian (late Middle Devonian) of Germany. Internal structures of V. langenstrasseni n.sp. are similar to those of genera in the ambocoeliid subfamily Rhynchospiriferinae, providing the first good evidence of a systematic relationship. -Authors

  7. Significance of Caucasian Sections for Working out Carbon-Isotope Standard for Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Induan) and Their Correlation with the Permian of North-Eastern Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri D Zakharov; Alexander S Biakov; Aymon Baud; Heinz Kozur

    2005-01-01

    Data obtained on conodont distribution in the Permian-Triassic Sovetashen Section of Transcaucasia provide further limitations on the age of the carbon-isotopic anomalies discovered by Baud et al. (1989). The significance of Caucasian sections for working out the carbon-isotope standard for the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic (Induan) is shown. Original data on carbon-isotope composition of bivalve and brachiopod shells from Permian sediments of North-Eastern Russia (Omolon and Okhotsk areas) have been obtained, which may be used for their correlation.

  8. Precisely locating the Ordovician equator in Laurentia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jisuo; Harper, David A.T.; Cocks, L. Robin M.;

    2013-01-01

    The Late Ordovician equatorial zone, like the zone today, had few hurricane-grade storms within 100 of the equator, as emphasized by the preservation of massive-bedded Thalassinoides ichnofacies in a trans-Laurentian belt more than 6000 km long, from the southwestern United States to North...... Greenland. That belt also includes nonamalgamated shell beds dominated by the brachiopod Proconchidium, which would not have been preserved after hurricane-grade storms. The belt lacks such storm-related sedimentary features as rip-up clasts, hummocky cross-stratification, or large channels. In contrast...

  9. Microfossils in the Ordovician erratic boulders from South-western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nõlvak, J.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitinozoans, ostracods and acritarchs found in four glacially transported limestone boulders from the south-western coast of Finland have been studied in order to test the usefulness of these microfossil groups in age determinations. Also rare specimens of conodonts, inarticulated brachiopods and foraminifers were found. Baltic limestone (or Östersjö limestone was the most problematic, because only fossils with calcitic or phosphatic shells are preserved. It is concluded that the boulders identified correlate with the Uhaku and Rakvere stages of the Middle Ordovician.

  10. Fossils from the Falkland Islands in the collection of the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Phil; Sharpe, Tom; Owens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A small collection of fossils from the Falkland Islands, hitherto resting in obscurity, is to be found in Cardiff, at the National Museum of Wales (NMW). It comprises twelve specimens illustrating four of the well-known species that are fairly widely preserved in the sandstone of the Fox Bay Formation (Devonian Period, about 405 million years old), three brachiopods and a trilobite. The museum reference numbers are NMW20.328.G1 to G12, assigned as follows: G1-G3 … Schellwien...

  11. First Report of a Trilobite in the Carboniferous of Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    LEROSEY-AUBRIL, RAİF KANDEMİR & RUDY

    2011-01-01

    The pre-Mesozoic basement of the Eastern Pontides consists of a Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary sequence including the Çatalçeşme and Hardişi formations. The Çatalçeşme Formation has yielded rich assemblages of fusulinids, corals, gastropods, brachiopods, bryozoans, algae, conodonts and plants. Hitherto trilobites were unknown from this formation; here we report the discovery of a pygidium from a dark grey limestone bed near the top. Trilobites are a minor component of benthic marine communit...

  12. Microbialites in the shallow-water marine environments of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian biotic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakociński, Michał; Racki, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Microbial carbonates, consisting of abundant girvanellid oncoids, are described from cephalopod-crinoid and crinoid-brachiopod coquinas (rudstones) occurring in the lowermost Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. A Girvanella-bearing horizon (consist with numerous girvanellid oncoids) has been recognised at the Psie Górki section, and represents the northern slope succession of the drowned Dyminy Reef. This occurrence of microbialites in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian event is interpreted as the result of opportunistic cyanobacteria blooms, which, as 'disaster forms', colonised empty shallow-water ecological niches during the survival phase following the Frasnian metazoan reef collapse, due to collapsed activity of epifaunal, grazing, and/or burrowing animals. The anachronistic lithofacies at Psie Górki is linked with catastrophic mass mortality of the cephalopod and crinoid-brachiopod communities during the heavy storm events. This mass occurrence of girvanellid oncoids, along with Frutexites-like microbial shrubs and, at least partly, common micritisation of some skeletal grains, records an overall increase in microbial activity in eutrophic normal marine environments. Microbial communities in the Holy Cross Mountains are not very diverse, being mainly represented by girvanellid oncoids, and stand in contrast to the very rich microbial communities known from the Guilin area (China), Canning Basin (Australia) and the Timan-northern Ural area (Russia). The association from Poland is similar to more diverse microbial communities represented by oncoids, trombolites and stromatolites, well known from the Canadian Alberta basin.

  13. An abrupt extinction in the Middle Permian (Capitanian) of the Boreal Realm with a causal link to anoxia, acidification and mercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David; Wignall, Paul; Joachimski, Michael; Sun, Yadong; Savov, Ivan; Grasby, Stephen; Beauchamp, Benoit; Blomeier, Dierk

    2016-04-01

    The controversial Capitanian (Middle Permian, 262 Ma) extinction event is mostly known from equatorial latitudes and consequently its global extent is poorly resolved. We demonstrate that there were two, severe extinctions amongst brachiopods in northern Boreal latitudes (Spitsbergen), in the Middle to Late Permian, separated by a recovery phase. New age dating of the Kapp Starostin Formation of Spitsbergen using strontium and carbon isotopic trends suggests that the first crisis occurred in the Capitanian. This age assignment indicates that this Middle Permian extinction is manifest at higher latitudes. Redox proxies (pyrite framboids and trace metals) show that the Boreal crisis coincided with an intensification of oxygen depletion, implicating anoxia in the extinction scenario. The highly toxic metal mercury becomes enriched in strata at the Middle Permian extinction level implicating death-by-toxicity (and a possible link to volcanism). Finally, the near-total loss of carbonates across the Boreal Realm in the Middle to Late Permian also suggests a role for acidification. New in prep. data from Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (samples collected July 2015) tentatively suggests that this potent "three strikes and you're out" extinction mechanism was a Boreal-wide phenomenon. The Late Permian recovery interval saw the appearance of new brachiopod and bivalve taxa alongside survivors, and an increased mollusk dominance, resulting in an assemblage reminiscent of younger Mesozoic assemblages. The subsequent end-Permian mass extinction terminated this Late Permian radiation.

  14. A preliminary biogeochemistry-based quantification of primary productivity of end-Permian deep-water basin in Dongpan Section ,Guangxi ,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; HE Weihong; FENG Qinglai

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper,the mean primary productivity of the Talung Formation in the deep-water basin(50-500 m depth)of Dongpan,Guangxi,South China,was calculated,of the content of the trace element Cu.Results showed that the primary productivity obtained was comparable with the previously-reported data for the black shale of the Phosphoria Formation,a Permian phosphate deposit in the northwest United States,and also similar to that of the modern deposit in the Cariaco basin,Venezuela.It was observed that the primary productivity increased with the enhanced abundance of algae and photosynthetic bacteria,and with the decrease in both the radiolarian individuals and the body size of brachiopods during the faunal mass extinction.This ecological coupling indicates that the changes of primary productivity are closely related to the propagation and the decline of producers(algae and bacteria),and that consumers(radiolarians and brachiopods)probably have little influence on the changes of primary productivity.

  15. Characteristics of Late Permian Deep-Water Sedimentary Environments: A Case Study of Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yongqun; Yang Fengqing; Peng Yuanqiao

    2005-01-01

    Sediments of carbonate gravity flows and terrigenous debris turbidites, and normal bathyal deposits were found at the Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Through grain-size analysis of some typical sediments at this section, the changing patterns of the grain parameters and the grain-size cumulations were recovered. Results show that the study area was deposited under turbidite control during the Late Permian period, which we also recognized at the outcrop section upon sedimentary characteristics of the sediments. In addition, fossils are abundant in the Upper Permian of the Shaiwa Section, including radiolarians, sponge-spicules, bivalves, brachiopods, ammonoids and trace fossils. Radiolarians and siliceous sponge-spicules are typical deep water assemblages. Bivalves are dominated by genera of Hunanopecten and Claraia, both showing deep water living characteristics. Ammonoids are composed of planktonic types, showing characteristics of smooth and flat shells. Brachiopods are dominated by a small and thin shelled assemblage, which are commonly flat in shape and usually of slight ornamentations on shells. In addition, trace fossils found at the Shaiwa Section are also common types of deep water facies. Thus, the fossil evidence of the Shaiwa Section also suggests a deep water environment, possibly from the bathyal slope to the basin margin facies, of the studied area during the Late Permian period.

  16. Phylogeny and mitochondrial gene order variation in Lophotrochozoa in the light of new mitogenomic data from Nemertea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Döhren Jörn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new animal phylogeny established several taxa which were not identified by morphological analyses, most prominently the Ecdysozoa (arthropods, roundworms, priapulids and others and Lophotrochozoa (molluscs, annelids, brachiopods and others. Lophotrochozoan interrelationships are under discussion, e.g. regarding the position of Nemertea (ribbon worms, which were discussed to be sister group to e.g. Mollusca, Brachiozoa or Platyhelminthes. Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. Results In this study we present the first complete mitochondrial genome record for a member of the Nemertea, Lineus viridis. Except two trnP and trnT, all genes are located on the same strand. While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. Conclusion Almost all recent analyses with large datasets show good support for a taxon comprising Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida and Nemertea. But the relationships among these taxa vary between different studies. The analysis of gene order differences gives evidence for a multiple independent occurrence of a large inversion in the mitochondrial genome of Lophotrochozoa and a re-inversion of the same part in gastropods. We hypothesize that some regions of the genome have a higher chance for intramolecular recombination than others and gene order data have to be analysed carefully to detect convergent rearrangement events.

  17. Mass extinctions: Ecological selectivity and primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Melissa Clark; Thayer, Charles W.

    1991-09-01

    If mass extinctions were caused by reduced primary productivity, then extinctions should be concentrated among animals with starvation-susceptible feeding modes, active lifestyles, and high-energy budgets. The stratigraphic ranges (by stage) of 424 genera of bivalves and 309 genera of articulate brachiopods suggest that there was an unusual reduction of primary productivity at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary extinction. For bivalves at the K/T, there were (1) selective extinction of suspension feeders and other susceptible trophic categories relative to deposit feeders and other resistant categories, and (2) among suspension feed-ers, selective extinction of bivalves with active locomotion. During the Permian-Triassic (P/Tr) extinction and Jurassic background time, extinction rates among suspension feeders were greater for articulate brachiopods than for bivalves. But during the K/T event, extinction rates of articulates and suspension-feeding bivalves equalized, possibly because the low-energy budgets of articulates gave them an advantage when food was scarce.

  18. Seawater temperature and salinity controls on Li/Ca ratios in Mytilus edulis (bivalvia) shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L. J.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.; Kreutz, K. J.; Borns, H. W., Jr.; Introne, D. S.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we have investigated the effects of seawater temperature and salinity on Li/Ca ratios in newly precipitated shell calcite in Mytilus edulis shells, since this potential temperature proxy has not been widely applied beyond brachiopods and inorganic calcite. Juvenile specimens of M. edulis collected from western Greenland were cultured in laboratory aquaria using a four-by-three factorial design that consisted of four circulating temperature baths and three salinities. New shell growth precipitated during the constrained culturing experiment was identified carefully and subsequently dissected from the shells. Following acid dissolution, Li/Ca ratios were measured by ICP-MS, enabling an assessment of temperature and salinity controls on shell Li/Ca ratios. Furthermore, measurement of Li/Ca ratios in the aquaria seawaters has enabled calculation of Li/Ca ratio partition coefficients and direct comparison to Li/Ca ratio to temperature relationships observed for brachiopods and inorganic calcite. The results of this study suggest that bivalve shell Li/Ca ratios can be used as a new temperature proxy.

  19. Características de la fauna de braquiópodos del Toarciense superior en el Sector Central de la Cordillera Ibérica (noroeste de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Joral, F.

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying brachiopod faunas from the Upper Toarcian beds of the Iberian Range (Central Sector, bring out the few number of species and the local range for the majority of them. In relation with that, populations show characteristics (polymorphism, gregarism and generalism that suggest an unstable environment, probably produced by the progressive isolation of the basin, the shallowing trend and the tectosedimentary instability quoted by differents authors, As a consequence of this situation there is a faunistic turnover for the brachiopods at this time, that could be the origin of some lineages developped in the Western European Dogger.

    En el estudio de la fauna de braquiópodos del Toarciense superior del Sector Central de la Cordillera Ibérica destacan el bajo. número de especies que la componen y el ámbito local de la mayoría de ellas. En relación con esto, las poblaciones muestran unas características (polimorfismo, gregarismo y forma generalizada que sugieren un ambiente inestable, provocado probablemente por el aislamiento progresivo de la cuenca, la tendencia somerizadora y la inestabilidad tectosedimentaria que han señalado diversos autores. La consecuencia de esta situación es una renovación faunística para el grupo en esta edad, que puede haber dado origen a algunas de las ramas filéticas que se desarrollan en el Dogger de Europa Occidental.

  20. Patterns of fossil distributions within their environmental context from the Middle Triassic in South Canyon,Central Nevada,USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; M.Monarrez; Nicole; Bonuso

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Triassic records the return of diverse marine communities after the severe effects of the end-Permian mass extinction.This diversification leads to the Mesozoic/modern adaptive radiation resulting in substantial changes in marine communities in comparison to their Paleozoic predecessors.This analysis focuses on the faunal abundance,ecological patterns,and environmental interpretation of a Middle Triassic section in Central Nevada.Twelve bulk samples were collected.Visible fossils were identified and tallied from hand samples and thin-sections were used to aid in environmental interpretation.Beginning in the Late Anisian,we observed an ammonoid dominated to flat-clam,epifaunal dominated benthic community within a muddy,quiet,inner shelf depositional environment.Through time,epifaunal bivalves dominate within a middle shelf environment followed by an increase in infaunalization and shell-thickness.During this time the presence of oncoids and the reported finding of corals suggest the middle shelf environment gave way to a higher energy patch reef shelf edge environment.Finally,we observe epifaunal brachiopods communities at the top of our section deposited in a middle shelf environment.In sum,we observe the dominance of modern taxa(i.e.,bivalves)with Paleozoic ecologies(i.e.,epifaunal),followed by the dominance of modern taxa with Modern ecologies(i.e.,infaunal,thick shells)and then a return to Paleozoic taxa(i.e.,brachiopods)and Paleozoic ecologies within an overall transgressive environment.

  1. MARMARONIA ANGIOLINII, NEW GENUS AND NEW SPECIES OF BAKEVELLIIDAE (PTERIOIDA, BIVALVIA FROM THE MIDDLE PERMIAN OF CHIOS (GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalupian (Middle Permian "Gymnocodiacean Limestones" cropping out in the north-eastern part of the Greek island of Chios (eastern Aegean Sea are amongst the most fossiliferous in the western Tethys. They contain rich assemblages of corals, brachiopods, molluscs, calcareous algae, foraminifers and ostracods. Scant attention was given till now to mollusc faunas compared with brachiopods and foraminifers. In the present paper the new genus Marmaronia, with type-species M. angiolinii n. sp., is established to distinguish some bivalves of the Bakevelliidae King, 1850, from the middle Guadalupian successions of the Marmaro locality in Chios Island. M. angiolinii n. gen. n. sp. is strongly inequivalve, with valves differing in convexity, umbo development and ornamentation. The left valve shows a radial furrow running from the anterior part of the umbonal region anteroventrally and is ornamented by strong radial costae; the right valve is ornamented by concentric sculpture and by thin rugae in the first growth stages of the posterior part of the shell. Both valves have a wide posterior wing. Two hypotheses concerning the epi- or endobyssate adaptation of Marmaronia are also discussed briefly in the present paper.   

  2. A Comparison of the Decontaminating Effects of Hydroponic Plants on Domestic Sewage%几种水培植物对生活污水的净化效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 刘磊; 袁平成; 郭恢财; 胡小飞; 高勇生

    2014-01-01

    The decontaminating effects of ten wetland plant species including Pontederia cordata,Iris ger-manica,Phragmitas communis, Acorus calamus Linn, Vetiveria zizanoides, Scirpus validus, Zizania latifolia, Cyperus alternifolius,Thalia dealbata,Echinodorus amazonicus were studied by using simulated solution culture experiment .The results showed:( 1 ) the annual average rates of pollutant removal of the ten plants were be-tween 40%and 70%,and the removal ability for 4 pollutants showed the order of TP ﹥NH4+-N﹥TN﹥COD.The highest TP removal rate was that of Thalia dealbata being 78%,the highest NH4+-N removal rate was that of Pontederia cordata being 74%,the highest TN removal rate was that of Iris germanica being 70%, the highest COD removal rate was that of Pontederia cordata being 65%;( 2) the average seasonal TP removal rates of the ten species showed the order of autum ﹥ summer ﹥ spring﹥ winter,however the NH4+-N,TN and COD removal rates showed the order of summer ﹥spring﹥autum﹥winter .%利用模拟自然湿地的静态水培试验法,研究了梭鱼草、鸢尾、芦苇、菖蒲、香根草、水葱、茭白、旱伞草、再力花、大皇冠等10种人工湿地植物对生活污水的净化效果。结果表明:(1)10种植物对污染物的年平均去除率在40%~70%,对4种污染物的去除能力由大到小表现为TP、NH4+-N、TN、COD。 TP去除率最高的为再力花,达78%,NH4+-N去除率最高的为梭鱼草,达74%,TN去除率最高的为鸢尾,达70%,COD去除率最高的为梭鱼草,达65%。(2)对TP的去除率由大到小依次表现为秋季、夏季、春季、冬季,对NH4+-N、TN和COD的去除率由大到小依次表现为夏季、春季、秋季、冬季。

  3. Effects of two kinds of medicinal plant extracts on citrus postharvest preservation%两种药用植物提取物对柑橘保鲜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴素明; 曾建国; 程辟; 陈义明; 周翔; 邓子牛

    2012-01-01

    为筛选能应用于柑橘保鲜的药用植物提取物,测定了博落回和虎杖提取物对柑橘绿霉菌的抑菌活性以及对柑橘保鲜的效果.结果表明:博落回和虎杖提取物均能抑制绿霉菌的生长,二者的有效中质量浓度分别为184.32、538.48 mg/L,博落回的抑菌效果比虎杖好;与清水对照相比,2种提取物处理柑橘的腐烂率均显著降低;与常规化学保鲜剂相比,2种提取物冰糖橙的腐烂率差异均无统计学意义,但椪柑的腐烂率均显著升高;2种提取物处理冰糖橙的失水率与常规化学保鲜剂处理的差异均无统计学意义,但显著高于清水处理,2种提取物对冰糖橙的防腐、保鲜能达到常规化学保鲜剂的效果.%For selection of medicinal plant extracts to be applied into citrus postharvest preservation, the inhibition effect of Macleaya cordata and Polygonum cuspidatum on Penicillium digitatum and its preservation effect during citrus storage were studied. The results were as follows: Both M. Cordata and P. Cuspidatum could inhibit growth of P. Digitatum, ED50 of which were 184.32 and 538.48 mg/L respectively, especially the inhibition effect of M cordata was better. With comparison of water treatment, the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts could both effectively prevent Bingtangcheng from decay. With comparison of conventional chemical preservative, the decay rates of Bingtangcheng respectively treated by the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts had no statistical significance, but Ponkan significantly increased. The water losing rates of Bingtangcheng respectively treated by the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts were no statistical significance compared with conventional chemical preservative, but the water losing rates of these three treatments were significantly lower than water treatment. The effects of the two kinds of medicinal plant extracts on decay and fresh-keeping of Bingtangcheng were similar to conventional chemical

  4. A DNA microarray for the authentication of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, Maria; Cheung, Matthew Kin; Moganti, Shanti; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W; Ip, Nancy Y; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2005-06-01

    A silicon-based DNA microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Aconitum carmichaeli, A. kusnezoffi, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Croton tiglium, Datura inoxia, D. metel, D. tatula, Dysosma pleiantha, Dy. versipellis, Euphorbia kansui, Hyoscyamus niger, Pinellia cordata, P. pedatisecta, P. ternata, Rhododendron molle, Strychnos nux-vomica, Typhonium divaricatum and T. giganteum and the leucine transfer RNA gene of Aconitum pendulum and Stellera chamaejasme. The probes were immobilized via dithiol linkage on a silicon chip. Genomic target sequences were amplified and fluorescently labeled by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. Multiple toxic plant species were identified by parallel genotyping. Chip-based authentication of medicinal plants may be useful as inexpensive and rapid tool for quality control and safety monitoring of herbal pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. PMID:15971136

  5. Proximate analysis and some antinutritional factor constituents in selected varieties of Jamaican yams (Dioscorea and Rajana spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnuff, Marie A; Omoruyi, Felix O; Sotelo-López, Angela; Asemota, Helen N

    2005-06-01

    Two wild (Dioscorea polygonoides and Rajana cordata) and seven cultivated varieties of Jamaican yams (Dioscorea spp.) were analyzed for their proximate composition and the levels of antinutritional factors. The protein level range was 47.8 +/- 2.6 to 88.0 +/- 2.5 g/kg dry weight. The lowest level was seen in D. cayenensis. The range for the dietary fiber content in the tubers was 16.3 +/- 0.7 to 63.5 +/- 0.4 g/kg dry weight. The wild yam varieties recorded higher levels. Saponins level was lectins and no alkaloids were detected. The levels of antinutritional factors did not clearly delineate the wild varieties from the edible varieties. PMID:16021837

  6. 鲜鱼腥草多糖与总黄酮抗辐射作用机制的对比%Contrast of Fresh Cordate Houttuynia P olysaccharides and Flavones Radiation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪生; 洪佳璇; 冯丙江; 孙东海; 蒋婧瑾

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨鲜鱼腥草叶提取物对X射线辐射损伤大鼠骨髓造血功能和免疫功能的影响.方法将造模成功的24只大鼠随机分为3个组,分别为模型对照组(模型组)、总黄酮组、多糖组,每组各8只,分别给予等体积的蒸馏水、总黄酮提取液(5.23g/kg)、和多糖粉末混悬液(2g/kg)灌胃.结果鲜鱼腥草多糖与总黄酮皆能够对受X射线辐射损伤的大鼠起到保护和治疗的作用;鱼腥草总黄酮成分可显著增加白细胞数,升高脾脏指数,增加骨髓DNA含量,降低外周血网织红细胞微核率和骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核率,可增加SOD及GSH-Px的含量;鱼腥草多糖可显著升高大鼠胸腺指数和脾脏指数,明显降低外周血和骨髓微核率,显著提高SOD、CAT和GSH-Px含量.结论鲜鱼腥草叶具有较好的抗辐射作用,其提取物的作用机制和作用的有效部位有所不同.%Objective:To investigate the effects of Houttuynia cordata leaf extract damage of bone marrow hemato-poietic function and immune function in rats of X ray radiation. Methods:The rest of the successful model of 24 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:model control group ( model group) , total flavone group and polysac-charide group, each having 8 rats. SLN were poured into the stomach volume of distilled water, total flavonoids extract 5. 23g/kg and polysaccharide powder suspension (2g/kg) gavage. Results:Fresh Houttuynia polysaccha-ride and total flavonoids can have a protective and therapeutic effect on rats injured by x-rays. Houttuynia corda-ta flavonoids can significantly increase the number of white cells, the spleen index and the content of bone mar-row DNA, with the micronucleus rate of red blood cell and the Micronucleus Rate of Bone Marrow Polychromatic Erythrocyte of rats decreased; it can increase the content of SOD and GSH-Px. Polysaccharide of Houttuynia cordata could remarkably increase the thymus index and spleen index of

  7. Elemental composition of annual growth rings in spruce and lime wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trees usually form visible annual growth rings. In order to get a chronological record of trace element pollution in the environment instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine element content (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sm, Sr, W and Zn) in 10-year-old segments of one hundred-old lime Tilia cordata Mill and in 90-old spruce wood Picea abies Karst originating from the area of Central Spis (Slovak Republic) known for the maximum level of pollution with heavy metals [1,2]. Samples were collected from two sides of a lime (SW and NW) and from one side of a spruce. No correlation of elements was observed between two sides of a lime. Correlation of elements in relevant rings of two types of wood was not evident

  8. 福建(木奈)产业发展现状及前景%The Status Survey of Nane Industry in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠; 孙文鹏; 叶新福; 方智振; 周丹蓉; 潘少霖

    2015-01-01

    (木奈)(Prunus salicina Lindli.var cordata J.Y.Zhang et al.)属蔷薇科(Rosaceae),李属(Prunus),是原产福建的名、特、优水果之一,果桃形李实,酸甜适度,风味极佳,是南方的1种重要落叶果树.本文分析了福建省(木奈)产业发展现状趋势,包括各市(木奈)种植区域、面积和产量等,阐述了(木奈)产业发展的具体优势,明确了福建省(木奈)生产现状,为福建省今后发展种植(木奈)提供参考价值.

  9. 福建产业发展现状及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠[1; 孙文鹏[2; 叶新福[1; 方智振[1; 周丹蓉[1; 潘少霖[1

    2015-01-01

    (Prunus salicina Lindli.var cordata J.Y.Zhang et al.)属蔷薇科(Rosaceae),李属(Prunus),是原产福建的名、特、优水果之一,果桃形李实,酸甜适度,风味极佳,是南方的1种重要落叶果树。本文分析了福建省产业发展现状趋势,包括各市种植区域、面积和产量等,阐述了产业发展的具体优势,明确了福建省生产现状,为福建省今后发展种植提供参考价值。

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING LINDEN TREE LEAVES AS NATURAL TRAPS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION: A PILOT STUDY IN TRANSILVANIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHÁLY BRAUN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution caused by toxic elements is an emerging problem of concern. Tree leaves have been widely used as indicator of atmospheric pollutions and they are effective alternatives to the moreusual biomonitoring methods. Tree leaves can be used as natural traps of atmospheric deposition. Elemental composition of dust deposited onto leaf surfaces can be used to characterize the urban environment. A pilot survey including 16 Romanian settlements was carried out in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air pollutants. Tree leaves (Tilia tomentosa, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos were collected and used for the measurements. Elemental analyses were carried out by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Principal component and discriminant analyses were used to characterizing and estimating the level of pollution. Settlements were grouped on the basis of discriminant function values. Multivariate comparison of chemical data ordered the settlements into 3 main groups, which showed a systematic geographic distribution.

  11. Compostos voláteis em méis florais Volatile compounds in floral honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A review about origin, composition and importance of volatile compounds in floral honeys is presented. Hydrocarbons, aromatic components, acids, diacids, terpenoids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and alcohols have been found in honey aroma of different botanical origin. Cis-rose oxide has been proposed as an indicator for Tilia cordata honey. Citrus honeys are known to contain methyl anthranilate, a compound which other honeys virtually lack. Linalool, phenylethylalcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde and benzaldehyde are important contributors for the aroma of different unifloral honeys. Both isovaleric acid, gama-decalactone and benzoic acid appears to be important odourants for Anarcadium occidentale and Croton sp. honeys from Brazil. The furfurylmercaptan, benzyl alcohol, delta-octalactone, eugenol, phenylethylalcohol and guaiacol appear to be only relevant compounds for Anarcadium occidentale. The vanillin was considered an important odourant only for Croton sp..

  12. Ecological significance of light controlled seed germination in two contrasting tropical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vàzquez-Yanes, C; Orozco-Segovia, A

    1990-06-01

    The effects of temperature, photoperiod, phytochrome photoreversion and the response to a R/FR ratio gradient were investigated in seeds of four species from two contrasting tropical habitats; two species from a rain forest (Cecropia obtusifolia and Piper umbellatum) and two from a high altitude lava field covered by low vegetation (Buddleja cordata and Chenopodium ambrosioides). In the rain forest seed species the photoblastic response seems to be adapted to light quality changes due to canopy destruction, on the other hand, the lava field seed species seem to be adapted to instantaneous light stimulus such as would be produced by the sudden exposure of a buried seed to the soil surface light environment. PMID:22160107

  13. A Review of Traditional Medicinal Plants from Kachin State, Northern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Hain Thanda; Sein, Myint Myint; Aye, Mya Mu; Thu, Zaw Min

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants are a vital source of medication in developing countries. In Kachin State, Northern Myanmar, the people have a long history of the use of traditional plants for medicinal purposes. This article deals with the 25 most used medicinal plants in Kachin State. They are: Drynariafortunei, Tetrastigma serrulatum, Bauhinia championii, Goniothalamus cheliensis, Juglans regia, Houttuynia cordata, Osmanthus fragrans, Pothos chinensis, Tabemaemontana coronaria, Eryngiumfoetidum, Chloranthus spicatus, Peperomia pellucida, Zanthoxylum armatum, Polygonumfagopyrum, Cymbidiumfloribundum, Amomum kravanh, Coscinium fenestratum, Solanum nigrum, Gnetum parvifolium, Desmodium triquetum, Begonia augustinec, Mappianthus iodoides, Erycibe obtusifolia, Schefflera venulosa, Holarrhena antidysenterica. The different traditional applications, the known chemical constituents and medicinal properties are reported for each plant. The efficacy of several of these plants has been supported by some scientific evidence, while other plants have to be submitted to further investigations to prove the beneficial medicinal properties attributed to them. PMID:27169181

  14. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  15. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells

  16. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  17. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

  18. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo

    2012-04-15

    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha}, IL-8, IL-1{beta} and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration.

  19. 滇东南黄连山秋海棠属一新种%A New Species of Begonia(Begoniaceae)from Mt.Huanglianshan of SE Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税玉民

    2002-01-01

    @@ 树生秋海棠新种 (秋海棠组) 图1Begonia arboreta Y.M.Shui,sp.nov.[Sect.Diploclium(Wight)A.D C.]Fig.1Habitu B.garretii Craib.similis,sed planta acaulis,folio 1 basali,capsulis obovoideis,alis obovatis differt.Herba perennis,decidua,basi tuberifera,tuberibus subglobosis,1cm diam.Stipulae caducae.Folium 1 basale;lamina glabra et chartacea,late cordata,14-15cm longa ,14-17cm lata,3-5-fida,basi oblique cordata,lobis longo-acuminatis,margine I rregulariter serratis,nervis palmatis,basilaribus 3-5;petioli 12-14cm longi,gl abri.Cymae terminales,3-4-florae,pedunculo 10-12cm longo;bracteae ovatae,0.6 cm longae,0.2cm latae,caducae.Flores ignoti;pedicelli 3.0-3.3cm longi,p enduli.Ovarium anguste obovoideum,triloculare;styli 3,distincti,1.5mm longi,s tigmatibus lunatis papillosis;laminae placentarum ovariorum superiores mediaeque bifidae,inferiores simplices.Capsulae obovoideae,2.0-2.4cm longae,1.2-1.4 cm latae,subaequaliter trialatae;alae horizontales et obovatae,apice obtusae,r eticulatae,1.8-2.0cm longae,0.5-0.6cm latae.Yunnan(云南):Luchun county(绿春县),Mt.Huanglianshan(黄连山),Hydrologic Station( 水文站),1700-1900m,on trees of the evergreen broad-leaved forest,18 Oct 1995, S.G.Wu(武素功),Y.M.Shui(税玉民),Y.P.Yang(杨永平),L.H.Liu(刘伦辉),J.H.He(何疆海), J.Murata,H.Nagamasu,T.Sugawara,X.Chen(成晓),N.Murakami 144(Holotype:KUN 0773200) .

  20. Dinâmica de populações de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em mata ciliar, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brasil Population dynamics of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae in riparian forest, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. de Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Machos de Euglossina foram coletados por meio de iscas-odores de benzoato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, salicilato de metila, vanilina, durante um ano em área de mata ciliar, no município de Urbano Santos, Maranhão. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre 8 h e 16 h, totalizando 96 horas de amostragem. Foram amostrados 283 indivíduos, 4 gêneros e 16 espécies. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 foi o gênero mais abundante, seguido por Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 e Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol foi a essência mais atrativa. As maiores freqüências de visitas ocorreram no período da manhã e a maior diversidade de espécies ocorreu no período chuvoso.Males of Euglossina bees were collected in benzil benzoate, eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin scent baits, during one year in a riparian forest area, located in the municipality of Urbano Santos, Maranhão. The collections were carried out monthly, between 8 am and 4 pm, totalling 96 hours of sampling, resulting in 283 individuals, 4 genera and 16 species. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 was the most abundant genus, followed by Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. The most frequent species were Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol was the most attractive chemical bait. The highest frequencies of visits were in the morning and the highest diversity of species occurred in the rainy period.

  1. The Occurrence of Longfengshania in the Early Cambrian from Haikou, Yunnan, China%龙凤山藻在澄江早寒武世生物群中的发现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆良

    2002-01-01

    Well preserved Early Cambrian small individual megascopic carbonaceous algal fossils have been found from the Chengjiang Biota. This paper deals with the new megascopic algal fossils in the Early Cambrian also from Chengjiang Biota at Ercai Village, Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan, southwest China. Two new taxa, Longfengshania cordata sp. nov. and Plantulaformis sinensis gen. et sp. nov. are described here in detail. These new findings show that the Chengjiang Biota is high in species diversity of fossil algae and might offer new evidence for a better understanding of the Cambrian explosive biological evolution. Moreover, the fossils described here might belong to the megaalgal fossils according to detailed morphological study on the relationships of Longfengshania. Additionally, the occurrence of Longfengshania in the early Cambrian and the Neoproterozoic probably indicates a wide ecological tolerance and flexibility and apparently reflects its evolutionary conservation and a high degree of inherent genetic stability.%主要报道了产自云南昆明海口耳材村早寒武世筇竹寺组玉案山段澄江生物群中可能为自由漂浮生长的宏观藻类化石--心型龙凤山藻(新种)(Longfengshania cordata sp. nov.)和中华豆芽藻(新属、新种)(Plantulaformis sinensis gen. et sp. nov.).这些化石的发现进一步显示了澄江生物群物种多样性,为揭示该生物群爆发性演化提供了新的证据.通过对龙凤山藻属亲缘关系的深入比较研究,进一步证明该类化石应归属宏观藻类以及它们遗传上的稳定性、演化上的保守性和环境上的适应性.

  2. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales S. Assis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  3. Biogenic hardparts: Difficult archives of the geological past (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons can act as support or serve as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hard parts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrices, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of many biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth patterns and their ability to record ambient environmental conditions in the form of multiple geochemical properties (multi-proxy archives) that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. Here, we compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hard parts secreted by mollusks (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hard parts. Despite the fact that mollusks and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil hard parts precipitated (under favorable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration) in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or

  4. Strontium isotope evolution of Late Permian and Triassic seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Christoph; Kozur, Heinz W.; Bruckschen, Peter; Veizer, Ján

    2003-01-01

    The 87Sr/ 86Sr values based on brachiopods and conodonts define a nearly continuous record for the Late Permian and Triassic intervals. Minor gaps in measurements exist only for the uppermost Brahmanian, lower part of the Upper Olenekian, and Middle Norian, and only sparse data are available for the Late Permian. These 219 measurements include 67 brachiopods and 114 conodont samples from the Tethyan realm as well as 37 brachiopods and one conodont sample from the mid-European Middle Triassic Muschelkalk Sea. The Late Permian/Lower Triassic interval is characterized by a steep 1.3 × 10 -3 rise, from 0.7070 at the base of the Dzhulfian to 0.7082 in the late Olenekian, a rate of change comparable to that in the Cenozoic. In the mid-Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian), the isotope values fall to 0.7075, followed again by a rise to 0.7081 in the Middle/Late Norian. The 87Sr/ 86Sr values decline again in the Late Norian (Sevatian) and Rhaetian to 0.7076. The sharp rise in the 87Sr/ 86Sr values during the Late Permian/Early Triassic was coincident with widespread clastic sedimentation. Because of the paucity of tectonic uplifts, the enhanced erosion may have been due to intermittent humid phases, during mainly an arid interval, coupled with the absence of a dense protective land plant cover following the mass extinction during the latest Permian. The apex of the 87Sr/ 86Sr curve at the Olenekian/Anisian boundary coincides with cessation of the large-scale clastic sedimentation and also marks the final recovery of land vegetation, as indicated by the renewed onset of coal formation in the Middle Triassic. The rising 87Sr/ 86Sr values from the Middle Carnian to the Late Norian coincide with the uplift and erosion of the Cimmeride-Indosinian orogens marking the closure of the Palaeotethys. The subsequent Rhaetian decline that continues into Jurassic (Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary), on the other hand, coincides with the opening of the Vardar Ocean and its eastern continuation

  5. The Li isotope composition of modern biogenic carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, M.; West, A. J.; Adkins, J. F.; Paris, G.; Eagle, R.; Freitas, P. S.; Bagard, M. L.; Ries, J. B.; Corsetti, F. A.; Pogge von Strandmann, P.; Ullmann, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The lithium stable isotope composition (δ7Li) of sedimentary carbonates has great potential to unravel weathering rates and intensity in the past, with implications for understanding the carbon cycle over geologic time. However, so far very little is known about the potential influence of fractionation of the stable Li isotope composition of biogenic carbonates. Here, we investigate the δ7Li of various organisms (particularly mollusks, echinoderms and brachiopods) abundant in the Phanerozoic record, in order to understand which geologic archives might provide the best targets for reconstructing past seawater composition. The range of measured samples includes (i) modern calcite and aragonite shells from variable natural environments, (ii) shells from organisms grown under controlled conditions (temperature, salinity, pCO2), and (iii) fossil shells from a range of species collected from Miocene deposits. When possible, both the inner and outer layers of bivalves were micro-sampled to assess the intra-shell heterogeneity. For calcitic shells, the measured δ7Li of bivalve species range from +32 to +41‰ and is systematically enriched in the heavy isotope relative to seawater (31 ‰) and to inorganic calcite, which is characterized by Δ7Licalcite-seawater = -2 to -5‰ [1]. The Li isotope composition of aragonitic bivalves, ranging from +16 to +22‰, is slightly fractionated to both high and low δ7Li relative to inorganic aragonite. The largest intra-shell Li isotope variability is observed for mixed calcite-aragonite shells (more than 20‰) whereas in single mineralogy shells, intra-shell δ7Li variability is generally less than 3‰. Overall, these results suggest a strong influence of vital effects on Li isotopes during bio-calcification of bivalve shells. On the contrary, measured brachiopods systematically exhibit fractionation that is very similar to inorganic calcite, with a mean δ7Li of 27.0±1.5‰, suggesting that brachiopods may provide good

  6. The shifting balance of diversity among major marine animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, J

    2010-09-01

    The fossil record demonstrates that each major taxonomic group has a consistent net rate of diversification and a limit to its species richness. It has been thought that long-term changes in the dominance of major taxonomic groups can be predicted from these characteristics. However, new analyses show that diversity limits may rise or fall in response to adaptive radiations or extinctions. These changes are idiosyncratic and occur at different times in each taxa. For example, the end-Permian mass extinction permanently reduced the diversity of important, previously dominant groups such as brachiopods and crinoids. The current global crisis may therefore permanently alter the biosphere's taxonomic composition by changing the rules of evolution. PMID:20813951

  7. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.

  8. Lophotrochozoan mitochondrial genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valles, Yvonne; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-10-01

    Progress in both molecular techniques and phylogeneticmethods has challenged many of the interpretations of traditionaltaxonomy. One example is in the recognition of the animal superphylumLophotrochozoa (annelids, mollusks, echiurans, platyhelminthes,brachiopods, and other phyla), although the relationships within thisgroup and the inclusion of some phyla remain uncertain. While much ofthis progress in phylogenetic reconstruction has been based on comparingsingle gene sequences, we are beginning to see the potential of comparinglarge-scale features of genomes, such as the relative order of genes.Even though tremendous progress is being made on the sequencedetermination of whole nuclear genomes, the dataset of choice forgenome-level characters for many animals across a broad taxonomic rangeremains mitochondrial genomes. We review here what is known aboutmitochondrial genomes of the lophotrochozoans and discuss the promisethat this dataset will enable insight into theirrelationships.

  9. Impact Theory of Mass Extinctions and the Invertebrate Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Walter; Kauffman, Erle G.; Surlyk, Finn; Alvarez, Luis W.; Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.

    1984-03-01

    There is much evidence that the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was marked by a massive meteorite impact. Theoretical consideration of the consequences of such an impact predicts sharp extinctions in many groups of animals precisely at the boundary. Paleontological data clearly show gradual declines in diversity over the last 1 to 10 million years in various invertebrate groups. Reexamination of data from careful studies of the best sections shows that, in addition to undergoing the decline, four groups (ammonites, cheilostomate bryozoans, brachiopods, and bivalves) were affected by sudden truncations precisely at the iridium anomaly that marks the boundary. The paleontological record thus bears witness to terminal-Cretaceous extinctions on two time scales: a slow decline unrelated to the impact and a sharp truncation synchronous with and probably caused by the impact.

  10. Ciliary and mucus-net filter feeding, with special reference to fluid mechanical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.B.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.;

    1984-01-01

    Filter characteristics were determined and compared in ciliary and mucus-net filter feeders. The ciliary feeders include the polychaete Sabella penicillus, the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, the marine bivalves Monia squama, Cardium glaucum, and Petricola pholadiformis, and the freshwater...... bivalves Dreissena polymorpha, Unio pictorum and Anodonta cygnea. The mucus-net feeders are the polychaete Chaetopterus variopedatus, the gastropod Crepidula fornicata and the ascidians Styela clava, Ciona intestinalis, Ascidia virginea, A. obliqua and A. mentula. Efficiencies of particle retention as a...... function of particle size was determined by counting of particles in samples of inhalant and exhalant water. The lower threshold for efficient particle retention varied from .apprx. 6 .mu.m in T. retuso to .apprx. 1 .mu.m in D. polymorpha. Mucus nets efficiently retained particles down to 1-2 .mu.m. Filter...

  11. Fine structural and immunocytochemical studies on the eyeless aesthetes of Leptochiton algesirensis, with comparison to Leptochiton cancellatus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, S; Salvenmoser, W; Haszprunar, G

    1997-01-01

    The aesthetes of Leptochiton algesirensis (Capellini, 1859) and Leptochiton cancellatus (Sowerby, 1840) consist of six to eight microaesthetes surrounding one macroaesthete. The monocellular microaesthetes include many microtubules, neurosecretory vesicles, and unperforated, subsidiary caps. Basally they are in contact with tiny nerve processes via probably electrical synapses. Each macroaesthete consists of a perforated apical cap and various cell types: flattened peripheral cells, various types of mucous cells, and three or four monociliary sensory cells. Although lacking photoreceptors, the aesthetes of Leptochiton algesirensis combine storage-secretory and sensory functions. The latter function is confirmed by positive immunoreactions against (neuro-)tubulin and synaptophysine. The high degree of structural and functional similarity between polyplacophoran aesthetes and the analogous caeca of brachiopods is demonstrated. PMID:9066152

  12. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, corals and calcareous algae. Daonella pseudograbensis n. sp. is based on very well preserved specimens, which are often articulated and closed, all coming from the same locality. The new species shows a narrow range of intraspecific and ontogenetic morphologic variations. It is easy distinguishable from the other species of the genus for the outline and ornamentation; it therefore differs from D. grabensis Kittl, 1912, the most similar species, for the longer anterior dorsal margin.Pdf

  13. Middle to Late Ordovician faunal studies from central Australia and Tasmania during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube

    A profound transformation of the marine biosphere took place during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), recognized as the longest interval of sustained biodiversification in the history of life. Successions through the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin in...... the investigated environments are rather dissimilar the study indicates that GOBE is not particularly well-expressed in the Middle Ordovician in Australia - at least not at a local scale.......A profound transformation of the marine biosphere took place during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), recognized as the longest interval of sustained biodiversification in the history of life. Successions through the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin in...... the preservation and low number of specimens prevent formal definition of additional new taxa. Although highly endemic at species level, the investigated brachiopod, trilobite and mollusc faunas display a high degree of overall similarity at generic level with Middle Ordovician faunas from North China...

  14. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The Jurassic comprises some 55 million years of Earth history. However, within the Jurassic, only one major environmental change (hyperthermal) event is really well known - the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) at ~183 Ma - and until very recently the extent to which the accompanying......, to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian...... demonstrated that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change...

  15. Multigene analysis of lophophorate and chaetognath phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmkampf, Martin; Bruchhaus, Iris; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of seven concatenated fragments of nuclear-encoded housekeeping genes indicate that Lophotrochozoa is monophyletic, i.e., the lophophorate groups Bryozoa, Brachiopoda and Phoronida are more closely related to molluscs and annelids than to Deuterostomia or Ecdysozoa. Lophophorates themselves, however, form a polyphyletic assemblage. The hypotheses that they are monophyletic and more closely allied to Deuterostomia than to Protostomia can be ruled out with both the approximately unbiased test and the expected likelihood weights test. The existence of Phoronozoa, a putative clade including Brachiopoda and Phoronida, has also been rejected. According to our analyses, phoronids instead share a more recent common ancestor with bryozoans than with brachiopods. Platyhelminthes is the sister group of Lophotrochozoa. Together these two constitute Spiralia. Although Chaetognatha appears as the sister group of Priapulida within Ecdysozoa in our analyses, alternative hypothesis concerning chaetognath relationships could not be rejected. PMID:17937996

  16. A New Arthropod, Guangweicaris Luo, Fu et Hu gen. nov.from the Early Cambrian Guanshan Fauna, Kunming, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Huilin; FU Xiaoping; HU Shixue; LI Yong; HOU Shuguang; YOU Ting; PANG Jiyuan; LIU Qi

    2007-01-01

    The Guanshan Fauna is a soft-bodied fauna dominated by arthropods (including trilobites,trilobitoides, Tuzoia, Isoxys, and bradorids) in association with priapulids, brachiopods,anomalocaridids, vetulicoliids, sponges, chancellorids, and echinoderms. This paper reports and describes a new arthropod from the yellowish green mudstone at the lower part of the Wulongqing Formation, Canglangpuan Stage, Lower Cambrian in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The stratigraphic and geographic distribution, classification, fossil preservation, life style of this new arthropod and comparisons with other fossil arthropods are also discussed in details. The discovery and research of the non-mineralized arthropod, Guangweicaris Luo, Fu et Hu gen. nov. from the Guanshan Fauna adds new members to the taxonomic list and provides new information to the evolution of early arthropods.Furthermore, this study would shed new light into the "Cambrian Explosion" and the evolution of early life.

  17. New Vetulicoliids from the Lower Cambrian Guanshan Fauna,Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Huilin; FU Xiaoping; HU Shixue; LI Yong; CHEN Liangzhong; YOU Ting; LIU Qi

    2005-01-01

    The Guanshan Fauna, a soft-bodied fauna intermediate between the Chengjiang Fauna and the Kaili Fauna and also the Burgess Shale Fauna stratigraphically, consists of trilobites, trilobitoides, Tuzoia, Vetulicola, Paleoscolex, brachiopods and sponges. The discovery and research of this fauna is of great significance in understading the "Cambrian Explosion" and the evolution of early life. The occurrence of vetulicoliids from the Guanshan Fauna not only adds new members to the taxonomic list, but also provides new information to the evolution of this animal group. This paper describe Vetulicola gantoucunensis Luo, Fu et Hu sp. nov. from the Lower Cambrian Wulongqing Formation in the Kunming area. Also presented are the amended description of Vetulicola and the comparisons with related genera within Vetulicoliids. The affinity, distribution, as well as evolution of vetulicoliids are discussed.

  18. Biodiversity and taphonomy of the Early Cambrian Guanshan biota,eastern Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; STEINER

    2010-01-01

    The Guanshan biota from eastern Yunnan(Cambrian Series 2,early Stage 4) is a Burgess Shale-type fossil biota with abundant exceptionally preserved soft-bodied fossils after the discovery of the well-known Cambrian Chengjiang fauna and Kaili biota in South China.The geological settings,sedimentology,taphonomy,and the fossil assemblage of the Guanshan biota are briefly summarized here.The Guanshan biota consists of about 60 taxa belonging to more than 10 metazoan groups and algae,among which the lobopods,eldonids,hyolithids with helens,and green algae are reported for the first time.The common occurrence of soft-bodied preservation in many groups,notably the trilobites and brachiopods,makes the Guanshan biota a significant fossil lagersttte for understanding the metazoan evolution during Cambrian explosion and taphonomy of the Burgess Shale-type fossils.

  19. Biotic Composition In Transgressive Levels Of Pennsylvanian Cyclothems: Bachende Limestone, Cantabrian Zone, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrochano, D.; Barba, P.

    2009-12-01

    Distribution of biotic communities in eustatic cyclothems can be used as an indicator of relative sea level changes. Photic zone and wave base are controlled by glacio-eustatic fluctuations and have direct implications in biota distribution. Our study consists of quantitative and qualitative analysis of skeletal and nonskeletal grains in cyclothems from Bachende Limestone (Middle Pennsylvanian). Bachende Limestone was deposited in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate ramp located in the distal parts of a foreland basin, developed during Pennsylvanian times in the Cantabrian Zone, Spain. This stratigraphic unit includes several high frequency transgressive-regressive sequences (cyclothems). The lower part of the cycles is formed by carbonates corresponding to the transgressive system track, while the upper part includes siliciclastics that represents the progradation of deltaic bodies during regression. Microfacies analysis shows two different biotic communities related with changes of base level. Early transgressive system track, is dominated by ooids, quartz grains, fusulinids, calcisphers and photozoan organisms, like calcareous algae Anthracoporella, Beresella and Archaelythophyllum. The lack of siliciclastic input during transgressions favoured the photosynthetic activity. Late transgressive assemblage is characterized by heterozoan association (red algae, bryozoans, brachiopods, rugose solitary corals and crinoids), the abundance of the foraminifer Ozawainella and the presence of pyrite. These sediments are related to deep subtidal environments and they are followed by maximum flooding interval (drowning surface), formed by dark shales with crinoids and brachiopods. Changes in paleodepth and in paleoceanographic conditions, including sediment influx, nutrients and temperature, strongly influence the biotic distribution in the cyclothem. Waxing and waning of Gondwana continental ice-sheets seems to be the most important factor controlling these changes.

  20. Carbonate facies changes in the Upper Ordovician (Late Katian) of the Cincinnati Arch region: Implications for paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbach, C. E.; Brett, C. E.; Aucoin, C. D.; Dattilo, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Upper Ordovician Rowland Member (Drakes Formation) exposed in the Cincinnati Arch region displays a suite of unusual facies that appear to record an environmental transition during the Late Ordovician. The Rowland displays four well-defined lithofacies, each containing a distinct biofacies. Proximal facies consist of green to gray shaly lime mudstones (often dolomitized), with ripples and desiccation cracks; these facies are sparsely fossiliferous, but show an abundance of infaunal filter feeders indicated by glauconite-filled burrows. These facies pass downramp into pale medium-bedded argillaceous micritic limestones, which are also sparsely fossiliferous but locally contain abundant deposit feeding organisms including brachiopods, small bryozoans, mollusks, and non-calcified algae. Select horizons yield rugosan and large colonial corals. These micritic beds often interfinger with a series of thick skeletal grainstone lenses that represent tidally influenced high-energy shoals and are exceptionally rich in well-preserved gastropods. To the north, these grainstones pass abruptly into offshore gray shaly packstone facies more typical of the Cincinnatian and contain a higher diversity of epifaunal brachiopods and ramose bryozoans. Compared to upramp facies of older Cincinnatian cycles, those of the Rowland show a greater thickness, relatively more micrite and glauconite, and higher abundance of corals and gastropods. These changes appear to be associated with a strong transgression underlain by a regional (and possibly global) lowstand erosional surface, as well as the Waynesville carbon isotope excursion. Additionally, these facies are correlative with similar transgressive facies in other regions, which also overlie regional lowstand unconformities. Increased micrite production instead of skeletal carbonates and the abundance of herbivorous? gastropods rather than echinoderms and bryozoans may indicate large-scale eutrophication and algal production

  1. Hirnantian (latest Ordovician bio- and chemostratigraphy of the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated study of the uppermost Ordovician Porkuni Stage in the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia, has revealed one of the most complete Hirnantian successions in the eastern Baltic region. The interval is characterized by two shallowing upwards depositional sequences that correspond to the Kuldiga and Saldus formations. The whole-rock carbon stable isotope curve indicates a long rising segment of the Hirnantian carbon isotope excursion, with the highest peak in the upper part of the Kuldiga Formation. The bioclast carbon and oxygen curves fit well with the whole-rock carbon data. Micro- and macrofossil data enabled seven combined associations to be distinguished within the Hirnantian strata. The early Porkuni fauna of the Spinachitina taugourdeaui Biozone, with pre-Hirnantian affinities, is succeeded by an interval with a Hindella–Cliftonia brachiopod association, a specific polychaete fauna, the chitinozoan Conochitina scabra, and the conodont Noixodontus girardeauensis. The middle part of the Kuldiga Formation is characterized by a low-diversity Dalmanella testudinaria brachiopod association, high diversity of scolecodonts, and the occurrence of the chitinozoan Lagenochitina prussica. From the middle part of the Kuldiga Formation the youngest occurrence yet known of the conodont Amorphognathus ordovicicus is reported. Also typical of the Kuldiga Formation is the occurrence of the trilobite Mucronaspis mucronata. The uppermost Hirnantian Saldus Formation contains no shelly fauna, but yields redeposited conodonts and at least partly indigenous chitinozoans and scolecodonts. Palaeontological criteria and stable isotope data enable correlation of the Stirnas section with other Hirnantian successions in the Baltic region and elsewhere.

  2. Effects of hydrophytes on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, Scenedesmus obliqnus and Chlorella vulgaris%水生花卉对铜绿微囊藻、斜生栅藻和小球藻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田如男; 孙欣欣; 魏勇; 王守攻

    2011-01-01

    选择黄菖蒲(Iris pseudacorus)、溪荪(I.sanguinea)、梭鱼草(Pontederia cordata)、白花水龙(Jussiaea repens)、水罂粟(Hydrocleys nymphoides)和大藻(Pistia stratiotes)6种具有较高观赏价值的水生花卉,通过将植物种植水与藻类共同培养的方式研究了不同种植时间的种植水对铜绿微囊藻(Microcystis aeruginosa)、斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliqnus)和小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)生长的影响.结果表明:6种水生花卉种植水对3种藻类的化感作用具有选择性.通过6d的处理,种植水对铜绿微囊藻生长的抑制率为31.22% ~ 96.53%,除白花水龙外,其余5种花卉的种植水对铜绿微囊藻生长的抑制率均超过70%,表现出很好的抑藻效果;种植水对斜生栅藻生长的抑制率为23.15%~77.25%;而种植水对小球藻有抑制也有促进,抑制率为-26.07% ~75.70%,大藻、梭鱼草和溪荪抑制小球藻的生长,黄菖蒲、白花水龙表现为低促高抑,水罂粟表现为促进作用.随着种植时间的延长,种植水对3种藻类的抑制作用增强.6种水生花卉种植水对铜绿微囊藻生长的抑制作用由大到小依次为水罂粟>黄菖蒲>梭鱼草>大藻>溪荪>白花水龙;对斜生栅藻生长的抑制作用由大到小依次为梭鱼草>溪荪>黄菖蒲>水罂粟>白花水龙>大藻;对小球藻生长的抑制作用由大到小依次为大藻>梭鱼草>溪荪>黄菖蒲、白花水龙>水罂粟.试验表明,6种水生花卉在控制城市景观水体中的藻类水华有一定的推广价值.%cordata, and /. Sanguined had stronger inhibiting effect on the growth of C. Vulgaris, but the cultured water of I. Pseudacorus and J. Repens promoted the C. Vulgaris growth at lower concentration while inhibited the C. Vulgaris growth at higher concentration. The cultured water of H. Nymphoides promoted the growth of C. Vulgaris. The inhibiting effect of the cultured water on the growth of the three

  3. CUTICULAR STRUCTURE OF TWO ANGIOSPERM FOSSILS IN NEOGENE FROM TENGCHONG, YUNNAN PROVINCE AND ITS PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE%云南腾冲新近纪两种被子植物化石的角质层构造及其古环境意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙柏年; 丛培允; 阎德飞; 解三平

    2003-01-01

    This paper emphatically describes the cuticular characteristics of two fossil angiosperm species Betula mioluminifera Hu et Chaney and Carpinus subcordata Nathorst collected from Neogene in Tengchong, Yunnan. The cuticular characteristics of their Nearest Living Relative species (NLR species), Betula luminifera Winkler and Carpinus cordata B1.var. mollis Cheng et Chen, are analysed. In this experiment, we have got the lower epidermis of C.subcordata, whose characteristics are described as follows: Only the middle and lower parts of leave preserved; length about 7.5 cm, width 5 cm. Midrib strong; angle between ventricumbent and midrib 40°-50°; nearer to the base, bigger the angle; venulose, more than 12 pairs. Upper epidermis a little thicker and net-veined, stomata not found; epidermic cells arrayed rotundly, polygonal, length and width 20-30 μm; length of the net about 350 μm, width about 200 μm; width of nervecourses 50 μm with 3-4 rows of parallel cells; cells in nervecourses oblong, length about 2-3 times of width. Lower epidermis thin with stomata; trichome found; arrangement of epidermic cells as the same of upper epidermis. Distribution of stomata ruleless; type of stomatal apparatus Anomocytic; stomata slightly sunken; guard cells kidney-shaped and slightly lower than surrounding cells; inner surface of guard cells thick; guard cell surrounded by several epidermic cells. The cuticle, with its stomatal pores, represents the interface between plants and atmosphere, and its features such as cuticle thickness, stomatal density (SD), stomatal index (SI) and stomatal ratio (SR) are well used as a palaeoenvironmental indicator. Therefore, we can analyse changes in palaeoenvironment by studying the stomatal parameter of fossil plants which are sensitive to the change in atmospheric CO2 concentration. In this experiment, we have got the stomatal parameter of C.subcordata which indicates that atmospheric CO2 concentration in Neogene was higher than that of

  4. Impact of emissions of Pridneprovsk TPP in Dnipropetrovsk on the anatomical indices of stem of two-year whip of the Tilia genus representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents discussion of the results of studying the impact of environmental contamination because of emissions of Pridneprovsk TPP in Dnipropetrovsk city on the anatomical indices of stem of two-year whip of the Tilia genus representatives. Objects of study were T. platyphyllos Scop., T. europaea L. and T. cordata Mill. Material was collected in September 2015 on two sampling areas: experimental plot – tree plantations adjacent to Pridneprovsk TPP which emissions mainly comprise the pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, with the share in total volume of emissions of the Plant being 67.3%, 18.7%, 13.3%, respectively; control plot (conditionally clean – territory of the Botanical garden of Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University. For research, two-year whips located in the apical portion of branches of the same order of branching were taken. Sections were made at the medium cross-line of the stem, and stained with the alcoholic solution of phloroglucinol. 30 sections for each species were measured on each sampling area. In the objects under study on technogenically contaminated area the changes in dimensions of histological elements of the stem were found and the nature of such changes had specific differences. T. platyphyllos and T. europaea under action of toxic emissions of TPP demonstrated the increase of total size of primary cortex of stem and width of its individual components (plug, collenchyma, cortex parenchyma, maintenance of stable dimensions of the bark and its histological elements (hard and soft bast, and in T. europaea the wood radius as well, which we considered as the indicators of relative stability of these species in technogenic environment. In T. cordata in the TPP emission zone we revealed the increase in the width of plug, cortex parenchyma, and total radius of primary cortex, which could provide certain tolerance of plants of this species in the adverse conditions of

  5. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

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    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  6. Levantamento da infestação de plantas aquáticas em Porto Primavera antes do enchimento final do reservatório Aquatic plant infestation assessment in Porto Primavera reservoir before final filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Martins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as plantas aquáticas e os níveis de infestação de cada espécie em Porto Primavera antes do enchimento final do reservatório. Foram avaliados todos os focos de vegetação aquática no reservatório (72 pontos, sendo os pontos demarcados com um aparelho de GPS. As espécies foram identificadas e estimouse visualmente (tamanho da área a distribuição proporcional das plantas no foco de infestação. Após a identificação, foram encontradas 18 espécies de plantas aquáticas vegetando no reservatório, das quais foram determinadas a frequência de espécie de planta aquática e a distribuição dentro do sistema de geração de energia. As espécies encontradas no reservatório foram: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes, Paspalum repens, Cyperus brevifolius, Paspalum conspersum, Echinochloa polystachya, Egeria densa, Egeria najas, Polygonum hidropiperoides, Polygonum lapathifolium, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Eleocharis sellowiana, Nymphaea ampla, Pontederia cordata, Salvinia auriculata, Salvinia rotundifolia e Typha angustifolia. As maiores frequências relativas foram observadas em: E. azurea (36,11%, E. crassipes (16,67%, P. stratiotes (13,89%, S. auriculata (13,89%, C. brevifolius (11,11% e P. lapathifolium (6,94%.The objective of this work was to identify the aquatic plants and their infestation levels in Porto Primavera Reservoir in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, before the reservoir was filled. The aquatic vegetation in the dam (72 sites were evaluated and marked with GPS equipment. The species were identified and a visual estimate (site size of the proportional distribution of the plants in the infestation foci was carried out. After plant identification, eighteen macrophyte species were found in the dam and their frequency and distribution were determined as follows: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes, Paspalum repens, Cyperus brevifolius

  7. Ciliary photoreceptors in the cerebral eyes of a protostome larva

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    Passamaneck Yale J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eyes in bilaterian metazoans have been described as being composed of either ciliary or rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Phylogenetic distribution, as well as distinct morphologies and characteristic deployment of different photopigments (ciliary vs. rhabdomeric opsins and transduction pathways argue for the co-existence of both of these two photoreceptor types in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Both receptor types exist throughout the Bilateria, but only vertebrates are thought to use ciliary photoreceptors for directional light detection in cerebral eyes, while all other invertebrate bilaterians studied utilize rhabdomeric photoreceptors for this purpose. In protostomes, ciliary photoreceptors that express c-opsin have been described only from a non-visual deep-brain photoreceptor. Their homology with vertebrate rods and cones of the human eye has been hypothesized to represent a unique functional transition from non-visual to visual roles in the vertebrate lineage. Results To test the hypothesis that protostome cerebral eyes employ exclusively rhabdomeric photoreceptors, we investigated the ultrastructure of the larval eyes in the brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. We show that these pigment-cup eyes consist of a lens cell and a shading pigment cell, both of which are putative photoreceptors, deploying a modified, enlarged cilium for light perception, and have axonal connections to the larval brain. Our investigation of the gene expression patterns of c-opsin, Pax6 and otx in these eyes confirms that the larval eye spots of brachiopods are cerebral eyes that deploy ciliary type photoreceptors for directional light detection. Interestingly, c-opsin is also expressed during early embryogenesis in all potential apical neural cells, becoming restricted to the anterior neuroectoderm, before expression is initiated in the photoreceptor cells of the eyes. Coincident with the expression of c-opsin in the presumptive neuroectoderm

  8. Chemosynthesis-based communities through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaim, Andrzej

    2010-05-01

    The discovery of chemosynthesis-based communities in late 1970s was probably one of the biggest surprises in the marine biology of 20th century. There are three basic types of locations where such communities may develop: hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and vertebrate falls. Also sunken wood communities are partially chemosynthetically fueled. Reports of these unusual aggregation of benthic animals in the deep sea prompted a quest for their counterparts in the fossil record. Soon it has been revealed that a number of exotic carbonate rocks rich in fossils in otherwise siliciclastic deep water facies could easily be interpreted as a result of ancient cold seeps' activity. Later on also numerous hot vent, whale fall, and sunken wood associations have been described from the geological past. The earliest-known chemosynthesis-based association containing metazoan animals has been described from Silurian of Ural Mountains. This and the other Paleozoic chemosynthesis-based associations are dominated by worm tubes, mollusks (monoplacophorans, bivalves, and gastropods), and brachiopods. Nothing is known from the period encompassing Permian and Triassic and the Mesozoic record of chemosynthesis-based communities starts in Jurassic. The Lower Jurassic hydrothermal vent association from California consists of worm tubes, gastropods, and brachiopods which are not really comparable to their counterparts from Recent chemosynthesis-based communities. First associations composed of fossils recollecting animals from the Recent chemosynthesis-based communities appear in Late Jurassic. Oxfordian cold seep deposits from France are dominated by lucinid bivalves and similar deposits from Tithonian of Alexander Island in the Antarctic are known to contain lucinids and mass aggregations of hokkaidoconchids-extinct group of gastropods related to Recent Provannidae. Early Cretaceous is an epoch of rhynchonellide brachiopod Peregrinella which occurs worldwide abundantly at hydrocarbon seep

  9. Evidence for an Upper Palaeozoic North-Palaeotethyan succession in Central Iran: The Siah Godar Complex of Jandaq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Fabrizio; Zanchi, Andrea; Malaspina, Nadia; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Koohpeyma, Meysam; Angiolini, Lucia; Vachard, Daniel; Zanchetta, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Palaeozoic successions exposed SW of Jandaq, Central Iran, have been studied in the frame of the DARIUS PROGRAMME. These successions, different from the typical passive margin succession of Gondwanan affinity of the Central Iran block, represent keystones for the reconstruction of the convergence (latest Palaeozoic) and docking (Triassic) of Iran to the margin of Eurasia, despite their original relationships have been modified by Mesozoic to Quaternary tectonics, hampering Palaeozoic palaeogeographic reconstructions. In the Jandaq area, three isolated Upper Palaeozoic outcrops, different for tectonic deformation and lithological composition, are preserved close to amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Jandaq Complex. The southernmost of these outcrops (Chah Rizab) consists of a succession of volcanics interbedded with severely deformed carbonate layers, Fammenian-Tournaisian in age (Bagheri and Stampfli, 2008) according to conodonts, unconformably covered by conglomerates with volcanic and granitoid blocks. The intermediate outcrop is characterized by deformed massive limestones (Early to Late Carboniferous, Sharkovski et al.; 1984) yielding crinoid ossicles, brachiopods (Choristites aff. C. mosquensis, Orulgania sp.)and bryozoans. They are associated with cherty limestones, fine-grained siliciclastics and bedded limestones rich in isolated corals. Shallow marine sedimentation with local episodes of deeper water facies can be inferred. A lithologically different, poorly deformed succession occurs slightly to the north: it consists of alluvial plain sandstones and conglomerates containing marble, volcanic and sedimentary pebbles, as well as granitoids and granophyres. U-Pb radiometric dating on zircons from these rocks are in progress. In the upper part of the unit, marine ingressions are documented by coastal well-selected quartzarenites and a thin limestone intercalation containing brachiopods (Choristites aff. C. mosquensis, Choristites sp

  10. Assessment of potential indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Rezwanul; Inoue, Naoto; Kasajima, Shin-Ya; Shaheen, Riffat

    2008-01-01

    Soil and water contaminated with arsenic (As) pose a major environmental and human health problem in Bangladesh. Phytoremediation, a plant-based technology, may provide an economically viable solution for remediating the As-polluted sites. The use of indigenous plants with a high tolerance and accumulation capacity for As may be a very convenient approach for phytoremediation. To assess the potential of native plant species for phytoremediation, plant and soil samples were collected from four As-contaminated (groundwater) districts in Bangladesh. The main criteria used for selecting plants for phytoremediation were high bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of As. From the results of a screening of 49 plant species belonging to 29 families, only one species of fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), three herbs (Blumea lacera, Mikania cordata, and Ageratum conyzoides), and two shrubs (Clerodendrum trichotomum and Ricinus communis) were found to be suitable for phytoremediation. Arsenic bioconcentration and translocation factors > 1 suggest that these plants are As-tolerant accumulators with potential use in phytoextraction. Three floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Azolla pinnata) and a common wetland weed (Monochoria vaginalis) also showed high BCF and TF values; therefore, these plants may be promising candidates for cleaningup As-contaminated surface water and wetland areas. The BCF of Oryza sativa, obtained from As-contaminated districts was > 1, which highlights possible food-chain transfer issues for As-contaminated areas in Bangladesh. PMID:18709925

  11. Delimiting species in the Phacus longicauda complex (Euglenida) through morphological and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukomska-Kowalczyk, Maja; Karnkowska, Anna; Milanowski, Rafał; Łach, Łukasz; Zakryś, Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Although Phacus longicauda is the type species of the genus Phacus and one of the most common species among autotrophic euglenids, its correct identification is nearly impossible. Over 30 morphologically similar taxa appear in the literature, but there are no good diagnostic features to distinguish them. Using environmental sampling and whole genome amplification, we delimited species within the Phacus longicauda complex. Morphological and molecular characters were analyzed for 36 strains isolated from environmental samples (mainly from Poland). DNA was obtained from a small number of cells (20-30) isolated with a micropipette from every sample (i.e., without setting up laboratory cultures), and phylogenetic analyses were based on variation in nSSU rDNA. Apart from Phacus longicauda, three other species (Phacus circumflexus, Phacus helikoides, and Phacus tortus) were distinguished. Phacus cordata comb. nov. Zakryś et M. Łukomska and Phacus rotunda comb. nov. Zakryś et M. Łukomska had their taxonomic ranks changed and two species new to science, Phacus cristatus sp. nov. Zakryś et M. Łukomska and Phacus crassus sp. nov. Zakryś et M. Łukomska, were described. For all verified species, diagnostic descriptions were amended and epitypes designated. PMID:26987009

  12. Establishment of trees on mixtures of pulverised fuel ash and gypsum. Part II: nutrition and trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P.J.A.; Moffat, A.J.

    1993-10-01

    Pulverised fuel ash (PFA) sites in Britain have traditionally been restored to agriculture, but with the current trend to taking agricultural land out of production there is renewed interest in alternative end uses such as forestry. PFA has been shown to be colonized naturally to trees after 20-plus-years. In a series of experiments, the authors tested the growth and chemical uptake of a variety of tree species ([ital Populus nigra] var 'Italica', [ital P.alba], [ital Pinus nigra] var maritima, [ital Betula pendula], [ital Acer pseudoplatanus], [ital Alnus glutinosa], [ital A. cordata], and [ital Robinia pseudoacacia]) in a variety of mixtures (PFA, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, a 1:1 PFA:gypsum mix and a 2:1 mix, and a compost control). In earlier research several of the species were shown to tolerate the unusual physical and chemical characteristics of the mixtures. Here, elemental content of leaves from the trees after one year indicated that PFA consistently increased foliar levels of K, B, and Mo. Poor performance of some of the tree species in pure PFA was attributed to boron toxicity. Adding gypsum with the PFA tended to reduce B uptake. Fertilizers tended to improve tree performance. The authors were encouraged by the performance of the nitrogen fixing species ([ital Alnus] and [ital Robinia]), indicating that it may be possible to establish a self-sustaining woodland on power plant wastes.

  13. Deposition of particulate matter of different size fractions on leaf surfaces and in waxes of urban forest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzanowski, Kajetan; Popek, Robert; Gawrońska, Helena; Saebø, Arne; Gawroński, Stanislaw W

    2011-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is an air contaminant in urban and industrial areas that often exceeds limit values, creating serious problems due to its harmful effects on health. Planting trees and shrubs as air filters is a way to improve air quality in these areas. However,further knowledge on species effectiveness in air purification is essential This study compared four species of tree (Acer campestre L, Fraxinus excelsior L, Platanus x hispanica Mill. ex Muenchh. 'Acerifolia', Tilia cordata Mill.), three species of shrub (Forsythia x intermedia Zabel, Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim., Spiraea japonica L.), and one climber species (Hedera helix L) that are commonly cultivated along streets in Poland to capture fine, coarse and larger particles from air. Separate gravimetric analyses were performed to quantify PM deposited on surfaces and trapped in waxes. Significant differences were found between the plant species tested. The distribution of different particle size fractions differed between and within species and also between leaf surfaces and in waxes. PMID:21972570

  14. Mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants cultivated by Hmong refugees living in Sacramento, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Jan L; Clegg, Michael S; Keen, Carl L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2002-03-01

    Since the end of the American-Vietnamese War in 1975, more than 1.5 million refugees from Southeast Asia have resettled in the United States. Included among these displaced persons were the Hmong from Laos, a subsistence-based, shifting-cultivation, agricultural society. Hmong who resettled in urban areas have viewed vacant lots adjacent to urban dwellings as potential garden sites for production of familiar herbs and vegetables. In the present study exotic culinary and medicinal herbs grown by Hmong refugees in Sacramento, California were identified and analyzed for mineral composition. The herbs grown in these urban gardens were significant ingredients of Hmong recipes, and herb leaves, or infusions of steamed herb leaves were widely consumed as a component of pregnancy and post-partum diets. Six common species, Acorus gramineus, aff. Angelica, Dendranthema indicum, Eupatorium lindleyana, Sedum aff. sarmentosum, and Sedum aff. spectabile, were used in combination to season chicken. Polygonum odoratum, also widely cultivated, was used to season fish. Exotic culinary-medicinal species with highest mineral profiles included: Basella alba (Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn); Houttuynia cordata (Fe, Mg, Mn); Justica gendarussa (Ca, Mg, Zn); and Polygonum odoratum (Ca, Mg, Mn). While vacant lots sometimes are heavy metal contamination sites, we found no detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, or lead in the samples analyzed. PMID:11939106

  15. Remarks to the ecology of the boreo-montane polypore Amylocystis lapponica based on data from the Czech Republic and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Holec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, the rare polypore Amylocystis lapponica continuously occurs in the Boubínský prales virgin forest (southern Bohemia: Šumava Mts. where it has been documented for more than 60 years. Similarly, in Poland it has been known only from the Puszcza Białowieska virgin forest (northeastern Poland for more than 50 years. Generally, it is considered a species of boreal coniferous forests of northern Europe (taiga and montane coniferous forests in Central and Southern Europe. However, the data from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and western Ukraine show that it also grows in mixed montane forests composed mainly of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies and Abies alba. In Poland, the locality is situated in a lowland forest consisting mostly of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata. In Central Europe, A. lapponica occurs only in virgin forest refuges with the following habitat conditions: vegetation continuity (never cut, natural tree species composition, multi-aged structure, rich presence of dead wood in various stages of decay, relatively large area of the virgin forest surrounded by near-natural forests, stable, cold and humid meso- and microclimate. Consequently, A. lapponica may be considered an indicator of long-term vegetation continuity and stable habitat conditions.

  16. Aspects of the Flora and Vegetation of the “Izvorul Bigar” Nature Reserve (South-Western Romania

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    Alma L. NICOLIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve is located in south-western Romania. The aim of the present paper is to describe some aspects of the flora and vegetation around Bigăr spring. The analysis of the vegetal association was carried out using the method of the Central-European phytocoenological school. The vegetation around the Bigăr spring and waterfall is dominated by compact beech forests with a frequently reduced grassy layer and soil rich in humus. On the banks of the watercourse and on the rocks around the spring there are species specific to flooding plains of the beech sub-stratum and also thermophilous and xerophilous species, many of them Balkan, Pontic or Mediterranean elements. The phytocoenoses we analysed belong to the Phyllitidi - Fagetum Vida (1959 1963 association. The association is characteristic to shady and moist slopes with soils rich in humus and formed on a lime substratum sometimes with surface rocks. The species with high abundance-dominance values are: Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus ornus, Acer pseudoplatanus, Tilia cordata, Hedera helix, Asplenium scolopendrium, Arum orientale, Asarum europaeum, Cardamine bulbifera, Lunaria annua, Polypodium vulgare. Such species as Carpinus orientalis, Cotinus coggygria, Fraxinus ornus, Ruscus hypoglossum, Syringa vulgaris point out the thermophilous character of the forests in southern Banat.

  17. Aspects of the Flora and Vegetation of the “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve (South-Western Romania

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    Ilinca M. IMBREA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve is located in south-western Romania. The aim of the present paper is to describe some aspects of the flora and vegetation around Bigăr spring. The analysis of the vegetal association was carried out using the method of the Central-European phytocoenological school. The vegetation around the Bigăr spring and waterfall is dominated by compact beech forests with a frequently reduced grassy layer and soil rich in humus. On the banks of the watercourse and on the rocks around the spring there are species specific to flooding plains of the beech sub-stratum and also thermophilous and xerophilous species, many of them Balkan, Pontic or Mediterranean elements. The phytocoenoses we analysed belong to the Phyllitidi - Fagetum Vida (1959 1963 association. The association is characteristic to shady and moist slopes with soils rich in humus and formed on a lime substratum sometimes with surface rocks. The species with high abundance-dominance values are: Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus ornus, Acer pseudoplatanus, Tilia cordata, Hedera helix, Asplenium scolopendrium, Arum orientale, Asarum europaeum, Cardamine bulbifera, Lunaria annua, Polypodium vulgare. Such species as Carpinus orientalis, Cotinus coggygria, Fraxinus ornus, Ruscus hypoglossum, Syringa vulgaris point out the thermophilous character of the forests in southern Banat.

  18. Měkkýši PR Velké Doly u Českého Těšína (Slezsko, Česká republika Molluscs of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve near the town of Český Těšín (Silesia, Czech Republic

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    Jiří Kupka

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The molluscan fauna of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve was surveyed in 1999 and 2006. In total, 27 snail species were found (26 terrestrial gastropods and 1 bivalve. The Natural Reserve is only 1.5 km far from ironworks “Třinecké železárny”. In the 18th century, there was a limestone quarry and beech plantation (as a fuel for ironworks in the reserve. At the present time the reserve represents the secondary forests society Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum with protected and regional notable plants in undergrowth (Cephalanthera damasonium, Lilium martagon, Arum alpinum, Hacquetia epipactis, etc. The present character of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve is a result of human activities, nevertheless it is preserved and favourable site for molluscs, since many stenotopic and endangered woodland species occur there (e.g. Discus perspectivus, Petasina unidentata, Oxychilus glaber. The presence of the vulnerable snail Discus perspectivus is notable as first locality in Poland part of Těšín region (the Natural Reserve Velké Doly is located on the Poland border. Occurrence of euryecious species Arion distinctus, Arion lusitanicus and Limax maximus could relate with some human impact (e.g. presence of allotted gardens colony.

  19. Forest communities with Hacquetia epipactis (Scop. DC. in the Cieszyńskie Foothills

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    Mijal Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The strictly protected Hacquetia epipactis, which natural range has its north-eastern limit in the area of the Cieszyńskie Foothills, is one of the most interesting rarities of Polish flora. For one and a half centuries H. epipactis was popular with scientists resulting in a relatively high number of papers addressing this plant. Usually, however, the characteristics of sites where H. epipactis occurs have been overlooked by the researchers. The aim of this work was to fill this gap, at least partly, by determining plant associations that are preferred by this species. Based on previous phytosociological records and by implementing numerical classification methods, it was found that the Hacquetio-Fraxinetum excelsioris Marinček 1990, which is divided into two subassociations (typicum and allietosum with other variants, is the main association in which this plant species occurs. In isolated sites, mostly outside the Cieszyńskie Foothills, it also appears in fragments of Galio sylvatici-Carpinetum betuli Oberd. 1957 and Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum betuli Tracz. 1962 associations.

  20. 2株鱼类致病菌对6种中草药敏感性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔露文; 李秀梅; 王菁

    2012-01-01

    为研究常用中草药对致病菌的作用,选择蒲公英(Taraxacum mongolicum HandMazz)、连翘(Forsyrhia suspense V.)、石榴皮(Punica granatum L)、黄芩(Scutellaria baicalensis G.)、槟榔(Areca catechu L)、鱼腥草(Houttugnia Cordata T.)6种中草药对温和气单胞菌(Amgeromomas sobria)和嗜水气单胞菌(Amgeromomas hydropHila)进行体外抑菌效果试验。试验采用沟槽法进行。结果表明:综合6种中草药沟槽法对温和气单胞菌和嗜水气单胞菌的抑制作用最强的药物是黄芩。沟槽法对温和气单胞菌的6种药抑菌效果由高到低的顺序为:黄芩>鱼腥草>槟榔>连翘>蒲公英>石榴皮;对嗜水气单胞菌的6种药抑菌效果由高到低的顺序为:黄芩>鱼腥草>连翘>蒲公英>槟榔>石榴皮。

  1. Antioxidative activity, polyphenolic content and anti-glycation effect of some Thai medicinal plants traditionally used in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusirisin, W; Srichairatanakool, S; Lerttrakarnnon, P; Lailerd, N; Suttajit, M; Jaikang, C; Chaiyasut, C

    2009-03-01

    Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE), Terminalia chebula Retz. (TC), Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MC), Kaempferia parviflora Wall. (KP) and Houttuynia cordata Thunb.(HC), respectively. Thirty plant extracts were good correlation between total antioxidant activity and antiradical activity by TBARS as well as by glycation (r = 0.856, p<0.01 and r = 0.810, p<0.01). PE had stronger antioxidative activity as well as inhibition of TBARS and glycation than the other plants. The investigation showed that total polyphenol and tannin content of PE and the flavonoid content of HC were the highest. The results imply that these plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants which have free radical scavenging activity and might be used for reducing oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:19275712

  2. The orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina in a forest fragment from western Paraná state, Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An orchid bee inventory was carried out in Parque Estadual São Camilo, Palotina, Paraná (Brazil; conservation unit with about 400 hectares of Semidecidual Seasonal forest. Three bait traps were installed at the border of the fragment, each one containing the following fragrances: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and vanilin. Sampling was carried out from 09am to 03pm, October 2011 to June 2012, summing up nine sampling days. A total of 186 specimens distributed among seven species were sampled. Eufriesea violacea with 140 specimens was the most common species, followed by Euglossa fimbriata (31, Euglossa annectans (9, Eulaema nigrita (4, Euglossa cordata (1, Euglossa pleosticta (1, and Exaerete smaragdina (1. According to qualitative and NMDS analysis, the orchid bee fauna of Parque Estadual São Camilo is representative of Semidecidual Seasonal forest, with richness comparable with other assemblages in the southern distribution of Euglossina. The sampled bee richness indicates that forest fragments, even small and isolated, are important in the conservation of this bees.

  3. Chorologie, écologie et ethnobotanique de certains Ficus L. (Moraceae au Sénégal

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    Diop, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorology, ecology and ethnobotanical fig trees in Senegal. Ficus (Moraceae is one of the most important genera of the tropical flora because of its high number of species. Among the ligneous plants, this genus is the most diversified within the Senegalese flora and accounts for more than 30 species. If the most known species are protected in various forms, the least known ones are frequently slashed to make place for cash crops. This study focused on distribution areas, ecology and uses of Ficus species in order to better valorise them. Interviews were carried out with local people and the results obtained were completed by literature research and information mentioned on herbarium sheets. The chorological and ecological study shows that all the species are African native plants and grow in various biotopes. In Senegal, they are mainly situated in the South with a Guinean and Soudano-Guinean climate. They are very frequent in the humid forests of the Casamance, the gallery forests and the humid valleys of Eastern Senegal. However, F. cordata, F. dicranostyla, F. glumosa, F. platyphylla and F. sycomorus are found in the hot and dry savanna of the Soudanean area, on rock, and lateritic sandy soils. This ethnobotanical study reports a wide range of uses for the Ficus species. Among the 19 native species used by the local populations, 7 type of use have been distinguished.

  4. Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Pocone, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the - Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth - project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the fi rst stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. (author)

  5. Seasonal Variation of Bioactive Alkaloid Contents in Macleaya microcarpa (Maxim. Fedde

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    Jana Gregorová

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Macleaya microcarpa (Maxim. Fedde belongs to the genus Macleaya, family Papaveraceae. Together with the better known and more frequently studied species M. cordata (Willd. R. Br. it is a main source of quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids. Using HPLC we determined the content of eight isoquinoline alkaloids in the aerial and underground parts of 1-, 2-, 12- and 13-year old plants and followed their changes during the vegetative period. The dominant alkaloid of all samples collected in the end of this period was allocryptopine (3.8–13.6 mg/g for aerial parts, 24.2–48.9 mg/g for underground parts. Chelerythrine, sanguinarine and protopine were also present in both parts of the plant. Additionally, measurable concentrations of chelilutine (CL, chelirubine (CR, macarpine (MA and sanguirubine (SR were detected in underground parts. The most important finding was that contents of CR, CL, SR and MA in the 12- and 13-year old plant roots were significantly higher (approximately 3-fold for CR, 6-fold for CL, 5-fold for SR, and at least 14-fold for MA than in 1- or 2-year old plants. The proportion of individual alkaloids in aerial and underground parts thus changed significantly during the vegetative period.

  6. Energetic evaluation of indigenous tree and shrub species in Basilicata, Southern Italy

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    Todaro L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of energetic characteristics such as high calorific value (on ash-free dry weight basis, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and moisture content of 12 indigenous tree and shrub species of Southern Italy (Basilicata Region was carried out. The studied species are the most abundant in this area: Quercus cerris L., Quercus pubescens Willd., Fraxinus ornus L., Populus canescens (Aiton Smith, Salix alba L., Alnus cordata L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Olea europaea L., Spartium junceum L., Rubus hirtus W., Onopordum illirium L., Arundo donax L. For Q. cerris, Q. pubescens and O. europaea L., the energetic characteristics were measured by separating the wood components from the leaves. Q. cerris leaves contained the greatest high calorific value. F. ornus leaves had a greater ash content than the other samples while the lowest values were measured for S. junceum, Q. pubescens and R. pseudoacacia. The highest content of Carbon was in O. europaea leaves. A. donax and O. illirium had the lower level of high calorific value and Carbon than all the other species. The highest Nitrogen content was measured in Q. cerris leaves and the lowest one in F. ornus wood components.

  7. Complex Ornament Machining Process on a CNC Router

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    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the CNC routering possibilities for three species of wood, namely ash (Fraxinus Excelsior, lime wood (Tilia cordata and fir wood (Abies Alba, in order to obtain right surfaces of Art Nouveau sculptured ornaments. Given the complexity of the CNC tool path for getting wavy shapes of Art Nouveau decorations, the choice of processing parameters for each processed species of wood requires a laborious research work to correlate these parameters. Two Art Nouveau ornaments are proposed for the investigation. They are CNC routered using two types of cutting tools. The processed parameters namely the spindle speed, feed speed and depth of cut were the three variables of the machining process for the three species of wood, which were combined so, to provide good surface finish as a quality attribute. There were totally forty six variants of combining the processing parameter which were applied for CNC routering the samples made of the three species of wood. At the end, an optimum combination of the processed parameters is recommended for each species of wood.

  8. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLID WOOD PANELS MADE FROM HEAT-TREATED SPRUCE AND LIME WOOD STRIPS

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    Cristina Marinela OLARESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental research performed with spruce (Picea abies L. and lime (Tilia cordata wood originating from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania. Solid wood panels were manufactured from heat-treated strips, and also from untreated strips, as controls. The thermal conductivity (λ of the panels was measured on a HFM 436/6/1 Lambda equipment at a temperature difference of 30°C between the cold and the hot plate. The results showed that the panels made from heat-treated wood strips had by 13% lower values of λ in case of spruce and by 6% lower values in case of lime and thus better heat-insulating properties than the panels made from untreated wood of the same species. With λ values around 0.07-0.08 W/m⋅K, 20mm thick solid wood panels made from heat-treated spruce and lime strips are comparable to wool from the viewpoint of the thermal insulating capacity.

  9. Floral visitors of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae in a remnant of the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest

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    Petrúcio Alexandre Fonseca Rios J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the floral visitors and potential pollinators of Aechmea constantinii (Mez L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae, a bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Northeast Atlantic Rainforest. Reproductively-active individuals were observed systematically and their visitors were recorded and determined. The main recorded fl oral visitors were Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis ruber and Phaethornis pretrei (hummingbirds which executed frontal functional floral visits in which they touched the parts of the fl owers. Visits of Plebeia flavocincta, Plebeia sp., Trigona spinipes and Euglossa cordata (bees and Talides sergestu and Strymon ziba (butterflies were also recorded. In addition, two ants (Hymenoptera, Insecta, Formicidae were identifi ed in activity on the fl oral scapes and flowers of the studied bromeliad. The suggestion is made in the study that the A. constantinii is pollinated by hummingbirds since these birds executed direct frontal visits to the fl owers, touching reproductive structures. The identification of pollen on the bodies of bees and butterflies, as well as the contact executed by visitors, with the stigma of the visited flowers, offered an indication that these species may exert an influence as secondary pollinators of Aechmea constantinii.

  10. Molecular characterization and expression analyses of an anthocyanin synthase gene from Magnolia sprengeri Pamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shou-Guo; Li, Shan-Ju; Kang, Yong-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin synthase (ANS), which catalyzes the conversion of colorless leucoanthocyanins into colored anthocyanins, is a key enzyme in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. It plays important roles in plant development and defense. An ANS gene designated as MsANS was cloned from Magnolia sprengeri using rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends technology. The full-length MsANS is 1171-bp long and contains a 1080-bp open reading frame encoding a 360 amino acid polypeptide. In a sequence alignment analysis, the deduced MsANS protein showed high identity to ANS proteins from other plants: Prunus salicina var. cordata (74 % identity), Ampelopsis grossedentata (74 % identity), Pyrus communis (73 % identity), and Prunus avium (73 % identity). A structural analysis showed that MsANS belongs to 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygenase family because it contains three binding sites for 2OG. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the transcript level of MsANS was 26-fold higher in red petals than in white petals. The accumulation of anthocyanins in petals of white, pink, and red M. sprengeri flowers was analyzed by HPLC. The main anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-o-glucoside chloride, and the red petals contained the highest concentration of this pigment. PMID:25315387

  11. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-08-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation. PMID:27116401

  12. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O{sub 3} in the 2001 season.

  13. Flowering phenological changes in relation to climate change in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint

    2016-09-01

    The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species (Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering. PMID:26768142

  14. Inventário da fauna de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae do baixo sul da Bahia, Brasil Inventory of the Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae fauna of southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Edinaldo Luz das Neves

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results concerning collection of Euglossinae bees in a mangrove ecosystem in Valença(13º22'08"S and 39º04'20"W, Bahia. These samples were made twice a month, for a year. The chemical baits Citronella, Eucalyptol, Eugenol, Metyl Salicylate and Vanillin attracted 1,144 specimens distributed among twelve species and two genera: Eulaema (Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa (Latreille, 1802. The predominam bee species was Eulaema nigrita (Lepeletier, 1841 consisting of 49.4% of the collected specimens, followed by Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758 with 44.88%, Euglossa imperialis (Cockerell, 1922 with 2.4% and Eulaema meriana flavescens (Friese, 1899 with 1.6%. Theothers species, considering sporadic visitors, Euglossa securigera (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa chalybeata (Friese, 1925, Euglossa liopoda (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa townsendi (Cockerell, 1904, Euglossa truncata (Rebelo & Moure, 1995, Euglossa melanotricha (Moure, 1967 and Euglossa sapphirina (Moure, 1968 represented together only 1.8% of the total sample. The Euglossinae were more active from October to May. Eucalyptol was the most attractive bait, attracting 1,120 specimens. Methyl Salicylate attracted 17 specimens, followed by Eugenol, which attracted 04 specimens and Vanillin, which attracted 03 specimens. Citronella was not an attractive chemical.

  15. Riqueza e Abundância de Abelhas Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae em Parques Urbanos de Goiânia, Goiáse em parques urbanos de Goiânia, Goiás

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    Vanessa Grandolfo

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Urban environments have become a refuge for many species, including some bees of the tribe Euglossini. The group includes species with large capacity flight, so they are considered important neotropical pollinators. Euglossini is scarce information about the Cerrado, incomplete information like geographic distribution, which are endemic and which are cosmopolitan. This study aimed to identify and analyze the composition of bee species of the tribe Euglossini occurring in urban parks as to abundance, richness and attractiveness through the use of scent baits. The specimens of Euglossini were collected monthly from April to August 2008 in four urban parks in Goiânia, Goiás. The bees were sampled with the aid of scent traps, exposed from 8 am to 12 noon, containing one of the essences: salicylate methyl, benzyl acetate, cineole, vanillin. We collected 147 male orchid bees belonging to three genera and five species. There was a strong dominance of individuals Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (95.23%, followed by Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus (2.72%. The Cineol was the essence that attracted the greatest abundance of males and methyl salicylate had the highest species richness attracted. This study is the first record of species occurrence of Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin and Euglossa imperialis Cockerell for the Midwest and Euglossa variabilis Friese for the Cerrado. The preservation of all these areas will keep bee populations of wild these regions ecological importance of maintaining the service pollination of plant species.

  16. Amelioration and reforestation of sulfurous mine soils in Lusatia (eastern Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany nearly 1.550 km2 have been claimed by brown coal mining until now. Mine soils formed of carboniferous and sulfurous overburden are classified as sulfurous mine soils. They remain vegetation-free for decades and may be cultivated only after soil amelioration. The objective of amelioration is a sustained improvement of soil reaction. Lime requirement for the achievement of a certain pH-value is calculated from acid-base-balance (SBB). Lime fertilizers and base-rich brown coal ashes are used for amelioration. As ashes have several advantages, their application is recommended. The ameliorative application of lime fertilizer or brown coal ash should be incorporated intensively into the soil to a depth of 60 cm, better 100 cm. Amelioration includes a mineral fertilization with N, P and K. Afforestation with Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Larix decidua, Larix eurolepis. Tilia cordata, Quercus rubra and Quercus petraea on ameliorated mine soils show surprising good results. Multi-species stands have very positive effects on soil formation. Raw humus is formed under pine and larch, and under deciduous trees moder and mull with higher bioactivity and better development of water and nutrient balance in the topsoil are found. 55 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Knockdown, residual, and antifeedant activity of pyrethroids and home landscape bioinsecticides against Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Linden foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumler, Rebecca E; Potter, Daniel A

    2007-04-01

    Residual toxicity and leaf protection capability of five pyrethroids, professional and home garden azadirachtin formulations, and six other bioinsecticides for the home landscape were evaluated against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), on linden, Tilia cordata L. Capacity of intoxicated beetles to recover and subsequently feed and disperse also was evaluated to provide insight on activity characteristics of the different compounds. Intact shoots were sprayed and left in the field for varying intervals before being challenged with beetles in no-choice and choice tests. All pyrethroids except permethrin gave greater leaf protection, knockdown, and kill than did carbaryl, the standard, after 14 d of weathering. Deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lamda-cyhalothrin gave a high level of protection for at least 19 d, and azadirachtin (Azatin XL) deterred feeding in choice tests for as long as 14 d. Home garden formulations containing pyrethrins in canola oil (Pyola) or azadiractin (Neem-Away) gave good short-term (< 3-d) protection. Formulations of capsaicin, rotenone + pyrethrins, kaolin particle film, D-limonene, or garlic extract were ineffective, the latter two formulations being highly phytotoxic to linden. Results of this study should help support updating of guidelines for insecticidal control of Japanese beetles. PMID:17461070

  18. Diversity of Pharmacological Properties in Chinese and European Medicinal Plants: Cytotoxicity, Antiviral and Antitrypanosomal Screening of 82 Herbal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive screening, the antiviral, antitrypanosomal and anticancer properties of extracts from 82 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine and European phytomedicine were determined. Several promising plants that were highly effective against hepatitis B virus (HBV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV—a flavivirus used here as a surrogate in vitro model of hepatitis C virus, trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei brucei and several cancer cell lines were identified. Six aqueous extracts from Celosia cristata, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Houttuynia cordata, Selaginella tamariscina, Alpinia galanga and Alpinia oxyphylla showed significant antiviral effects against BVDV without toxic effects on host embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr cells, while Evodia lepta, Hedyotis diffusa and Glycyrrhiza spp. demonstrated promising activities against the HBV without toxic effects on host human hepatoblastoma cells transfected with HBV-DNA (HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Seven organic extracts from Alpinia oxyphylla, Coptis chinensis, Kadsura longipedunculata, Arctium lappa, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Saposhnikovia divaricata inhibited T. b. brucei. Moreover, among fifteen water extracts that combined high antiproliferative activity (IC50 0.5–20 µg/mL and low acute in vitro toxicity (0–10% reduction in cell viability at IC50, Coptis chinensis presented the best beneficial characteristics. In conclusion, traditional herbal medicine from Europe and China still has a potential for new therapeutic targets and therapeutic applications.

  19. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O3 in the 2001 season

  20. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M; Schaub, Marcus; Kräuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O3 in the 2001 season. PMID:12804826

  1. Synanthropization of dendroflora near main roads in Białystok (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łaska Grażyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the species composition of the dendroflora near four main roads in the city of Białystok, taking into regard their geographical and historical origin. The wildlife inventory was conducted in the vegetation season of 2011. The inventory revealed presence of a total of 837 trees and bushes representing 36 species and 18 families. The most abundant trees were those from the family Aceraceae (63.8%, while the most abundant bushes were those representing Rosaceae (48.9%. The contribution of native species (65.7% was found to be about twice as high as that of alien ones (34.3%. The dominant species among the native trees was Acer platanoides L., while the principal bush species was Crataegus monogyna Jacq. The alien tree species were most commonly represented by Acer negundo L., and bushes - by Ligustrum vulgare L. Spontaneously settled trees and bushes were clearly dominant (59.9% over those originating from plantations (40.1%. Among the native species of local origin, the prevailing species were synanthropic spontaneophytes (52%, including Acer platanoides and Tilia cordata Mill. Anthropophytes were more abundantly represented by diaphytes (22.7%, followed by kenophytes (10.4%. The most abundant species among diaphytes was Ligustrum vulgare, and among kenophytes - Acer negundo.

  2. Comparison analysis of volatiles from the leaves and flowers of four saururaceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saururaceae (lizard's tail family) comprises three genera and four species (Saururus chinensis (Loureiro) Baillon. (SC), Gymnotheca chinensis Decne. (GC), Gymnotheca involucrata Pei. (GI) and Houttuynia cordata Thunberg. (HC)) in eastern Asia, and they extend from the most primitive to the most evolutionary levels. The purpose of this study is to examine whether and to what extent the diversity of volatiles can support the accepted evolutionary scheme in Saururaceae for the four species. Volatiles from fresh leaves and flowers of Saururaceae species from different regions were analyzed comparatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples studied showed differences in the volatile profiles of leaves and flowers among the species. In the leaves and flowers, concentrations of all monoterpenes and oxides, all alcohols, all acids and all esters were highest in SC, lowest in HC, and the concentrations of these components for GC and GI were between those of SC and HC. Concentrations of all sesquiterpenes and oxides, all straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, all branched aliphatic hydrocarbons, all aldehydes, and all ketones were lowest in SC, highest in HC and the concentrations of these components for GC and GI were between those of SC and HC. The results in this study could support the accepted taxonomical scheme of four species in Saururaceae. (author)

  3. Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil; Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) em Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) no norte do pantanal de Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fatima R.J da; Marques, Marinez I., E-mail: fateca@gmail.com.b, E-mail: marinez@ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ecologia e Conservacao da Biodiversidade; Battirola, Leandro D., E-mail: ldbattirola@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Sinop, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Naturais, Humanas e Sociais; Lhano, Marcos G., E-mail: marcos@ufrb.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Ambientais e Biologicas

    2010-07-15

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Pocone, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the - Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth - project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the fi rst stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. (author)

  4. 非嗜食植物粗提物对美洲斑潜蝇成虫的驱避作用%REPELLING EFFECTS OF THE NON-PREFERABLE PLANTS EXTRACTS ON ADULT OF LIRIOMYZA SATIV AE BLANCHARD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任立云; 曾玲; 张茂新

    2002-01-01

    本文对26个科32种植物的茎叶及果实进行抽提,测定其对美洲斑潜蝇成虫的产卵驱避作用,应用干扰作用控制指数(IIPC)作为评价这些提取物对美洲斑潜蝇的作用效果的指标.试验结果表明,华南毛蕨Cyclosorus parasiticus,海南红豆Radermachera hainanensis,潺稿树 Litsea glutihhosa,芭蕉Musa paradeseaca,大花紫薇Lagerstroemia speciosa,鸡蛋花Passiflora edulis,大叶海金沙Lyglodium flexuosum的成虫驱避作用较好,其干扰作用控制指数分别为0.028,0.076,0.078,0.078,0.119,0.120,0.176,而鱼腥草Houttuynia cordata,竹叶草Oplismenus compositus,五爪金龙Ipomoea cairica,红花酢酱草Oxalis comiculata,假地豆Desmodium heterocarpum,倒扣草Achyranthes aspera等则有引诱作用,倒扣草Achyranthes aspera的引诱作用最为强烈.

  5. Antileishmanial, Toxicity, and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Collected from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50=10.9±1.1 μg/mL in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea “ethyl acetate fraction” was more active (IC50=5.3±0.2 μg/mL against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0±0.1 μg/mL. All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 >100 in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.

  6. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied. PMID:22648665

  7. Biomass dynamics and 137Cs cycling in floating-leaved macrophytes in a nuclear-contaminated aquatic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of these studies was to provide system-wide estimates of quantities of radioactive 137Cs cycling through above-sediment biomass of dominant macrophyte species during a growing season in Pond B, an abandoned cooling reservoir on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, SC. Three floating-leaved species comprised 50-60% of plant standing crop in this softwater system and were the subject of production studies stratified by water depth. Turnover rates for leaf/petiole biomass averaged 2%, 3% and 5% day-1 and 5.9, 7.4 and 14.7 yr-1 for Nymphaea odorata, Brasenia schreberi, and Nymphoides cordata, respectively. Turnover rates varied by season, water depth, and levels of herbivory, depending on species. 137Cs concentrations in plants did not different significantly by water depth, but were higher in petioles than in leaves. Transplant experiments determined that 137Cs was absorbed readily from the water column, and not from sediments, by all three species

  8. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  9. 晚泥盆世弗拉斯期—法门期之交海水 温度变化的同位素证据%Isotopic Evidence for the Temperature Change of the Paleo-Ocean between Late Devonian Fransnian Period and Famennian Period in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大锐; 马学平; 董爱正; 朱德升

    2001-01-01

    The shallow platform sedimentary facies is well-developed along the Laojiangchong section in Xikuangshan mine,Lengshuijiang area,Hunan Province,which includes the well-known Upper Devonian Fransian-Famennian(Fr/Fa) boundary.Long period of field studies and researches led the authors to reveal the palaeotnology as well as sedimentary associations and characteristics.The shells of brachiopod Cyrospirifer vernemili were analysed isotopically and by SEM in this study.The carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses (δ18O:-8.4‰~-9.6‰; δ13C: -2.2‰~0.5‰) show an abnormal shift around the boundary of Fr/Fa in South China,which can serve as a standard of regional tratigraphic correlation.Depending on the calculation of oxygen isotopes within the well preserved brachiopods,the authors drew the inference about temperature decreasing from late Fransian to early Famennian.%位于我国湖南省冷水江地区锡矿山矿区的老江冲剖面为发育良好的浅水台地相沉积,出露著名的上泥盆统弗拉斯—法门阶(Fr/Fa)界线,多年的地层古生物学工作已详细地了解了该区的古生物面貌。本研究采用了基本保存完好的腕足动物Cyrospirifer vernemili 壳体进行了稳定C、O同位素地球化学分析,δ18O值为-8.4‰~-9.6‰;δ13C值为-2.2‰~0.5‰,二值在弗拉斯—法门阶交界处均发生了异常波动,将此值与其他地区的研究结果进行比较,可以认为,弗拉斯—法门期交界时所发生的剧烈而大范围的事件所造成的同位素波动可以作为大区域地层对比的标志。经过计算,推断从弗拉斯期末至法门期初,我国华南地区的古海洋发生了降温事件。

  10. Magnesium stable isotope fractionation in marine biogenic calcite and aragonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Böhm, F.; Gussone, N.; Regenberg, M.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Rüggeberg, A.

    2011-10-01

    This survey of magnesium stable isotope compositions in marine biogenic aragonite and calcite includes samples from corals, sclerosponges, benthic porcelaneous and planktonic perforate foraminifera, coccolith oozes, red algae, and an echinoid and brachiopod test. The analyses were carried out using MC-ICP-MS with an external repeatability of ±0.22‰ (2SD for δ 26Mg; n = 37), obtained from a coral reference sample (JCp-1). Magnesium isotope fractionation in calcitic corals and sclerosponges agrees with published data for calcitic speleothems with an average Δ 26Mg calcite-seawater = -2.6 ± 0.3‰ that appears to be weakly related to temperature. With one exception ( Vaceletia spp.), aragonitic corals and sclerosponges also display uniform Mg isotope fractionations relative to seawater with Δ 26Mg biogenic aragonite-seawater = -0.9 ± 0.2. Magnesium isotopes in high-Mg calcites from red algae, echinoids and perhaps some porcelaneous foraminifera as well as in all low-Mg calcites (perforate foraminifera, coccoliths and brachiopods) display significant biological influences. For planktonic foraminifera, the Mg isotope data is consistent with the fixation of Mg by organic material under equilibrium conditions, but appears to be inconsistent with Mg removal from vacuoles. Our preferred model, however, suggests that planktonic foraminifera synthesize biomolecules that increase the energetic barrier for Mg incorporation. In this model, the need to remove large quantities of Mg from vacuole solutions is avoided. For the high-Mg calcites from echinoids, the precipitation of amorphous calcium carbonate may be responsible for their weaker Mg isotope fractionation. Disregarding superimposed biological effects, it appears that cation light isotope enrichments in CaCO 3 principally result from a chemical kinetic isotope effect, related to the incorporation of cations at kink sites. In this model, the systematics of cation isotope fractionations in CaCO 3 relate to the

  11. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    , onchonotinids, and pagodiids), linguliformean brachiopods (acrotretids, obolids, scaphelasmatids, siphonotretids, and zhanatellids), echinoderms (mitrates, glyptocystitid cystoids, and stromatocystoids), and conodonts belonging to the lower Peltura Zone; and (iii) the subsequent input of new trilobites (asaphids, calymenids, catillicephalids, nileids and remopleurids), which marks the base of the Proteuloma geinitzi Zone, associated with pelmatozoan holdfasts ( Oryctoconus), and a distinct input of late Tremadocian conodonts ( Paltodus deltifer Zone). The biogeographic distribution of latest Middle and Late Cambrian trilobites supports brachiopod data indicating strong affinities between the western Mediterranean region, East Gondwana (North China/Korea, South China, Australia, and Antarctica) and Kazakhstania during the late Languedocian, which became significantly stronger during the Late Cambrian. This major shift may suggest modification in oceanic circulation patterns throughout Gondwana across the Middle-Late Cambrian transition.

  12. 重庆中梁山凉风垭二叠-三叠系界线附近牙形类生物地层研究%CONODONT SUCCESSION ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY OF THE LIANGFENGYA SECTION, CHONGQING, SOUTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁东勋; 沈树忠

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy and stratigraphic distributions of conodonts from the Permian-Triassic boundary beds of the Liangfengya Section at Zhongliang Hill, Chongqing, are described. Seven species in two genera, including Clarkina changxingensis, C. yini, C. meishanensis, Hindeodus typicalis, H. eurypyge, H. praeparvus and H. parvus, are identified and five conodont zones recognized. They are, in ascending order, the Clarkina changxingensis Zone, C. yini Zone, C. meishanensis Zone, Hindeodus praeparvus Zone, and H. Par-vus Zone. Based on their stratigraphic distribution, the changeover from the Clarkina-dominated to the Hindeodus-dominated populations of conodonts occurs in the horizon between samples 30-1 and 30-2. At this horizon, numerous associated brachio-pod, fusulinid and coral species also disappeared except for a few small and thin-shelled brachiopods which survived into the basal Triassic. This extinction pattern is generally comparable with that at the Meishan Section in terms of timing and diversity change. The Permian-Triassic boundary at the Liangfengya Section is at the base of Bed 34 as indicated by the first occurrence of the conodont Hindeodus parvus.%系统研究重庆中梁山凉风垭剖面二叠-三叠系界线附近的牙形类化石及其地层分布,应用样品居群的方法识别出2属7种,并划分为5个牙形类化石带,由下至上依次为:Clarkina changxingensis带,C.yini带,C.meishanensis带,Hindeodus praeparvus带及H.parvus带.确定Clarkina属占优势的居群与Hindeodus属占优势的居群的更替界面位于样品30-1与30-2之间,在此界面之上腕足类、(筵)类和珊瑚类等均发生了大量物种消失现象,仅有少量腕足类延续至三叠系底部,这一生物灭绝过程在时间和模式上与煤山剖面的基本一致.二叠系与三叠系的界线位于34层底部Hindeodus parvus分子首现的位置.

  13. The preliminary data on the Aeronian (Silurian) machaerids from Lithuania (Baltic Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzevičius, S.; Ekleris, A.

    2012-04-01

    Machaerids are stem-Lophotrochozoans, closely related to the Annelids, and known from the Early Ordovician to Middle Permian. Machaerids is a group of worm-like benthic marine, bilaterally symmetrical, armoured invertebrate. Their body is covered by an external scleritome. The scleritome is imbricated of longitudinally arranged series of plates or sclerites. Completely articulated specimens of machaeridians are very rare, yet the systematic position of machaerids is controversial. Machaeridians had been assigned to different groups, such as barnacles, mollusks, echinoderms and annelids. The latter is prevailing, however their exact place within the annelids still remains unresolved. New findings of disarticulated Silurian machaerids have been recorded in western Lithuania, Geniai-1 core. This well has been drilled with exploration purposes regarding the Cambrian oil reservoir; therefore the biggest part of the Silurian core has not been collected. The exceptions are some parts of the Llandovery and Ludlow, which have partially recovered well core, but the identification of the precise stratigraphical position is complicated. Disarticulated sclerites of machaeridians have been found at the 1756.4 m depth, in the argillite, together with some graptolites and brachiopods. Several rhabdosome fragments of Normalograptus scalaris (Hisinger) were found together with the machaenid sclerites as well. N. scalaris has wide biostratigraphical distribution from the Rhudanian to the lower part of Telychian, which comprises the convolutus - triangulates graptolite biozones, corresponding to the 1756.8 - 1756 m depth. Convolutus - triangulates biozones represent Aeronian, and the machaeridian sclerites come from this interval, together with the Jonsea grayi (Davidson) brachiopod shells, which are very common and correspond to the BA 5-6 benthic assemblage, as well as do the graptolites found together. In previous studies, two orders of machaerids have been recognized: the

  14. Silurian Bivalvia from Chichagof Island, Southeast Alaska (Alexander terrane

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    Kříž J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The new Silurian Bivalvia Goniophora thula-Mytilarca boucoti Community from a new locality east of the Hoonah Airport on Chichagof Island, Southeast Alaska, U.S.A. is composed of 9 species [?Colpomya aff. hugini Liljedahl, 1994 and ?Colpomya aff. audae Liljedahl, 1994 (Colpomyidae; Modiolopsis aff. modiolaris Conrad, 1838 (Modiolopsidae; Mytilarca boucoti sp. nov. (Ambonychiidae; ?Schizodus sp. A and ?Schizodus sp. B (Schizodidae; Sanguinolites sp. (Sanguinolitidae; ?Modiomorpha sp. and Goniophora thula sp. nov. (Modiomorphinae]. In this paper two new species are described. The Goniophora thula-Mytilarca boucoti Community most probably occupied a gently inclined upper slope environment lying seaward of a cyanobacterial reef front which marked the outer edge of a late Silurian carbonate platform (represented by the Kennel Creek Limestone. The fauna of this locality consists of a rich benthos, especially rich in brachiopods, but secondarily dominated by bivalves and gastropods. Cephalopods are rare, favositid tabulate corals are also present, but form only a very minor component. The new community is most closely related to the homologous and analogous late Wenlock Bivalvia community described from Gotland, Sweden, Baltica. Similar biotic ties are with the shallow water early Ludlow Janicula potens Community from the Prague Basin, Bohemia, Perunica. Cosmopolitanism is characteristic for the Silurian Bivalvia genera, which were dispersed in most regions of the world due to their relatively long pelagic larval life and relatively small distances between the basins, islands and continents in the Silurian. For the distribution of Bivalvia during the Silurian were more limiting physical factors like temperature, salinity, substrate, food, oxygen content, light, and depth. The fauna described here is from the Alexander terrane, an accreted terrane

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata - compositional bias affects phylogenetic analyses of lophotrochozoan relationships

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    Nesnidal Maximilian P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic relationships of the lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, within Lophotrochozoa are still controversial. We sequenced an additional mitochondrial genome of the most species-rich lophophorate lineage, the ectoprocts. Although it is known that there are large differences in the nucleotide composition of mitochondrial sequences of different lineages as well as in the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins, this bias is often not considered in phylogenetic analyses. We applied several approaches for reducing compositional bias and saturation in the phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial sequences. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (16,089 bp of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata was sequenced. All protein-encoding, rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from the same strand. Flustra shares long intergenic sequences with the cheilostomate ectoproct Bugula, which might be a synapomorphy of these taxa. Further synapomorphies might be the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA L(UUR, the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA S(UCN and the unique anticodon sequence GAG of the tRNA L(CUN. The gene order of the mitochondrial genome of Flustra differs strongly from that of the other known ectoprocts. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial nucleotide and amino acid data sets show that the lophophorate lineages are more closely related to trochozoan phyla than to deuterostomes or ecdysozoans confirming the Lophotrochozoa hypothesis. Furthermore, they support the monophyly of Cheilostomata and Ectoprocta. However, the relationships of the lophophorate lineages within Lophotrochozoa differ strongly depending on the data set and the used method. Different approaches for reducing heterogeneity in nucleotide and amino acid data sets and saturation did not result in a more robust resolution of lophotrochozoan relationships. Conclusion The contradictory and usually weakly

  16. The Enigma of the Origin of Round, Deep, Rimed Lakes in the Russian Heartland-Was Lake Smerdyachie Formed During the Impact of an Extraterrestrial Body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D. H.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Kiselev, A.; Amelin, I. I.; Breger, D. L.; McCafferty, P.

    2014-12-01

    The heartland of Russia has many enigmatic deep lakes. Shallow lakes have a more obvious origin, perhaps as kettle lakes, oxbow lakes or subsidence features. Deep lakes, particularly round lakes with partial or complete rims are more problematic. Traditionally, round or nearly round lakes with rims are candidates for Holocene age impact structures. The problem is that there are too many such lakes in the Russian heartland- a minimum of 15 deep, round lakes with diameters between 0.2 and 3 km. Even with a possibly increased impact rate during the Holocene, these deep lakes would represent the entire budget of Holocene impacts concentrated in one small region of the Earth. We examine here Lake Smerdyachie, a previously proposed impact lake. Smerdyachie is perfectly round with a raised rim. It has a diameter of about 350 meters and a maximum water depth of over 30 m. The basement at Smerdyachie is at~40 meters depth. It consists of Carboniferous age carbonate rock with fossils of brachiopods, crinoids and gastropods. The overlying material consists of unconsolidated, sand and silt-sized, quartz-rich sediments. We found clasts of brachiopod, crinoid and gastropod-bearing Carboniferous carbonate rock up to 32 cm in diameter on the SE rim of Smerdyachie. These clasts are present over about 1/3 of the total circumference of the lake. We also made panned concentrates of the sediment on the rim. To the NW, the concentrated sediment has a negative magnetic susceptibility (-0.07 to -0.03 cgs units), consistent with a higher concentration of pulverized limestone. To the SE, the sediment has a positive magnetic susceptibility (0.06 to 0.35 cgs units). The areas of positive magnetic susceptibility lie on the SE two-thirds of the rim of the lake. The highest susceptibility value is from the sample taken closest to the lake shoreline on the SE rim. This spatial distribution of susceptibility could mean that there is a higher concentration of iron rich material on the SE side of

  17. Calcium isotope evidence for pulses of increased continental weathering during the early Toarcian (Early Jurassic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suan, Guillaume; Brazier, Jean-Michel; Balter, Vincent; Simon, Laurent; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    The Toarcian interval is punctuated by a number of episodes of environmental changes and mass extinctions that are considered as some of the most severe of the Mesozoic era. Significantly, the corresponding strata record marked negative carbon isotope excursions that point to pulses of massive injection of isotopically light carbon to the superficial reservoirs. Potential causes of these perturbations include gas hydrate dissociation, wildfires, and massive inputs of thermogenic and volcanogenic carbon related to the onset of volcanic activity of the Karoo-Ferrar province. All these scenarii imply large increases in chemical weathering rate as key drivers of the accompanying biotic and environmental perturbations (e.g., productivity-driven anoxia and coastal eutrophication). Nevertheless, detailed examination of most likely cause(s) of these events has been hampered by the uncertainty surrounding the timing and intensity of coeval changes in continental weathering. In this study, we reconstruct changes in continental weathering during the Toarcian using new calcium isotope ratios δ44/42Ca of brachiopods and bulk rock sediments from the Peniche section in Portugal. The data reveal two marked (>0.4permil) negative Ca-isotope excursions near the Pliensbachian-Toarcian transition (Pl-To) and at the base of the levisoni ammonite Zone recording the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE). The comparison of the brachiopod and bulk rock Ca isotope data indicates that these excursions reflect changes in the global Ca-isotope composition of seawater rather than changes in the dominant mineralogy of calcifying organisms. Mass balance calculations suggest that the Ca-isotope excursions recorded across the Pl-To transition and T-OAE interval can be explained by the Ca inputs from rivers corresponding respectively to 90% and 34% of the initial mass of oceanic Ca. Based on these values, the injection of tens of thousands of gigatons of carbon with a C-isotope composition

  18. Gamma-ray spectrometry across the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary in the Lusitanian Basin (Western Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marisa; Henriques, Helena; Pena, Rui

    2016-04-01

    The Aalenian - Bajocian boundary was logged for the first time at the Murtinheira (Bajocian GSSP) and the Serra da Boa Viagem II sections, located in the Lusitanian Basin (West Central Portugal) using a portable gamma ray spectrometer, and well calibrated with the ammonite-based biostratigraphical zonation. These two coeval outcrops are represented by a prograding succession of greyish marl and limestone alternations, corresponding to the distal part of a carbonate ramp, which provides rich and diversified fossil (ammonoids, brachiopods) and microfossil (benthic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplancton) record. Different bioevents have been already described for the Concavum Zone (upper Aalenian) - Discites Zone (lower Bajocian) transition in both sections, namely among the ammonites, brachiopods, calcareous nannofossils and especially among the benthic foraminiferal assemblages, which record a remarkable decrease on abundance and diversity, also detected in other coeval sections of different basins located at the northern hemisphere. The gamma-ray data across these sections shows generally low values and variability, 13 to 60 API at Murtinheira section, and 26 to 59 API at Serra da Boa Viagem II section, which are typical of these carbonate hemipelagic facies. Moreover, the Th/U ratio is generally higher than 2 throughout the two sections suggesting well-oxygenated environmental conditions (also documented by the composition of the foraminiferal assemblages), which would have prevented significant organic matter accumulation; some levels displaying low Th/U ratio may reflect depletion in thorium (typical of many marine carbonates) rather than an increase in authigenic uranium, that usually is lower than 1 ppm. Before and after the faunal impoverishment bioevent of Late Concavum - Early Discites Biochron, the K%, Th (ppm) and Th/U ratio at the two sections display a relative increase, probably related to an increment in the detrital supply, and therefore nutrient

  19. The evolution of Phanerozoic seawater - Isotope paleothermometry finds consensus on Early Paleozoic warmth and constant seawater δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E. L.; Henkes, G. A.; Passey, B. H.; Shenton, B.; Yancey, T. E.; Perez-Huerta, A.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of metazoan life is closely linked to the Phanerozoic evolution of ocean temperatures and chemistry. Oxygen isotopic evidence for early Phanerozoic paleotemperatures has been equivocal, with decreasing δ18O values with age being interpreted as warmer early oceans, decreasing seawater δ18O with age, or increasing diagenetic alteration in older samples. Here we compare an updated compilation of oxygen isotope data for carbonate and phosphate fossils and microfossils (Grossman, 2012, Geol. Time Scale, Elsevier, 195-220) with a compilation of new and existing clumped isotope data. Importantly, these data are curated based on sample preservation with special consideration given to screening techniques, and tectonic and burial history. Burial history is critical in the preservation of carbonate clumped isotope temperatures in particular, which can undergo reordering in the solid state. We use a model derived for reordering kinetics (Henkes et al., 2014, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 139:362-382) to screen clumped isotope data for the effects of solid-state burial alteration. With minor but significant exceptions (Late Cretaceous, Early Triassic), average δ18O values (4 m.y. window, 2 m.y. steps) for post-Devonian brachiopods, belemnites, and foraminifera, representing tropical-subtropical surface ocean conditions, yield average isotopic temperatures below 30°C (assuming a seawater δ18O value [ -1‰ VSMOW] of an "ice-free" world). In contrast, Ordovician to Devonian data show sustained temperatures of 35-40°C. Likewise, isotopic paleotemperatures from conodont apatite, known to be resistant to isotopic exchange, follow the same pattern. Clumped isotope data derived from Paleozoic brachiopod shells that experienced minimal burial (< 100 °C) and <1% reordering according to the taxon-specific clumped isotope reordering model yield typical temperatures of 25-30°C for the Carboniferous, and 35-40°C for the Ordovician-Silurian. Inserting clumped temperatures and

  20. Paleoenvironmental changes recorded on UPPer Carboniferous reef in Guangxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG EnPu; CHEN Xiaohong; ZHANG Yongli; GUAN Changqing; CHANG Honglun; HONG Guang

    2014-01-01

    Based on detailed measurement in the field and a comPrehensive analysis of carbonate microfacies, the Pennsylvanian reefal microfacies characteristic and sedimentary environment from Longjiangdong,Guangxi, China are analyzed. The twelve carbonate microfacies have been recognized including micritic/microsParitic limestone,Peloidal/aggregate-grain grainstone,bioclastic wackestone/Packstone,laminated mudstone,bounds-tone,bioclastic wackestone/Packstone with single shell,coral framestone/bafflestone,bioclastic Packstones/grainstones with abundant benthic foraminifera or crinoids,wackestone/mudstone with calcisPheres,bioclastic Packstone/grainstone,unname reef-building organism framestone and brachioPod grainstone. In addition,four facies have been identified including oPen Platform facies,restricted Platform facies,coral reefal facies and shoal facies. According to analysis of microfacies combination and facies evolution,three stages and three reef units during the reef formation Process have been noted. The evolution of each stage indicates a rePeating fluctu-ation of the sea-level,but the water energy is still relatively low overall,which rePresents frequent changes of Paleoclimate in the early Late Carboniferous.

  1. Darwin's great patagoniantertiary formation at the mouth of the río Santa Cruz: a reappraisal

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    Ana Parras

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Theclassical section described by Darwin at the mouth of the Río Santa Cruz was alandmark in the later stratigraphy of the marine Cenozoic of Patagonia.Sedimentological and paleontological studies of rocks from the Monte LeónFormation at the Darwin and Mount Entrance sections - mouth of the Río SantaCruz - suggest that they were deposited in an early Miocene inner shelf tosubtidal - or even intertidal at the top - environment. The base of thesections is covered and the top is unconformably overlain by Quaternarydeposits. The invertebrate fauna (mainly mollusks mentioned herein - theearliest of which were collected by Darwin and described by Sowerby - werecollected from the two sections with a detailed stratigraphic control. Itincludes brachiopods, echinoderms, scaphopods, bivalves, and gastropods. Thesimilarity of this fauna with that one from the sections at Restinga Norte,Cabeza de León, Las Cuevas, Yegua Quemada and Monte Observación, all south ofthe study area, allow correlation with them. In addition to the equivalence ofthe faunas, sedimentological features at all these localities are also thesame. Therefore, all the shell beds involved should be referred to the PuntaEntrada Member of the Monte León Formation. The Monte Observación Member shouldbe restricted to its original use and included as a member at the base of theoverlying Santa Cruz Formation, outcrops at Cerro Monte León and CerroObservación.

  2. Persistence of high diversity in non-equilibrium ecological communities: implications for modern and fossil ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Thomas D

    2012-01-22

    Explaining the origin and maintenance of biodiversity is critical for understanding the potential consequences of present-day environmental change on ecological communities, as well as the evolutionary history of ecosystems in the Earth's past. Much effort in theoretical ecology has focused on identifying mechanisms that promote stable coexistence of species at equilibrium. However, in a consumer-resource model of competition along an environmental gradient, high-diversity assemblages have the potential to persist in non-equilibrium states for millions of generations with very little species loss. Species' populations in such competitively accommodated communities show slow drift; if disrupted, they rapidly reorganize into alternative persistent states. Fossil examples of prolonged ecological stability lasting 1-5 Myr punctuated by rapid reorganization (e.g. brachiopods from the Permian Reef of west Texas) suggest that some palaeocommunities represent a record of periodically disrupted transient states rather than stable equilibria. The similarity between the theoretical results reported here and palaeontological data suggests that the maintenance of high-diversity communities, both in the past and present, may reflect long-duration, non-equilibrium transient dynamics. If so, this has implications for the response of such communities to present-day environmental change, as well as for the evolution of lineages in such systems. PMID:21653592

  3. Computer Technology-Integrated Projects Should not Supplant Craft Projects in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Tabatha J.; Rule, Audrey C.; Suchsland Schneider, Jean; Boody, Robert M.

    2014-03-01

    The current emphasis on computer technology integration and narrowing of the curriculum has displaced arts and crafts. However, the hands-on, concrete nature of craft work in science modeling enables students to understand difficult concepts and to be engaged and motivated while learning spatial, logical, and sequential thinking skills. Analogy use is also helpful in understanding unfamiliar, complex science concepts. This study of 28 academically advanced elementary to middle-school students examined student work and perceptions during a science unit focused on four fossil organisms: crinoid, brachiopod, horn coral and trilobite. The study compared: (1) analogy-focused instruction to independent Internet research and (2) computer technology-rich products to crafts-based products. Findings indicate student products were more creative after analogy-based instruction and when made using technology. However, students expressed a strong desire to engage in additional craft work after making craft products and enjoyed making crafts more after analogy-focused instruction. Additionally, more science content was found in the craft products than the technology-rich products. Students expressed a particular liking for two of the fossil organisms because they had been modeled with crafts. The authors recommend that room should be retained for crafts in the science curriculum to model science concepts.

  4. New paleontological and geological data on the Ordovician and Silurian of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, P. Y.; Blieck, A.; Emig, C. C.; Sempere, T.; Vachard, D.; Vanguestaine, M.

    1996-11-01

    The oldest vertebrates of South America are from the thick Anzaldo (=Cuchupunata) Formation in central Bolivia. At the scale of the basin, the Anzaldo is overlain by the San Benito, Tokochi, Cancañiri, Llallagua and Kirusillas/Uncía formations. The Anzaldo was classically dated Caradoc (early Late Ordovician), but recent paleontological data have suggested a Llanvirn age (early Middle Ordovician). The only significant fossil invertebrates recently collected in the Anzaldo, viz., lingulid brachiopods, give an age not older than Late Ordovician. Fossils from the Tokochi suggest a Caradoc age. The microfossils (acritarchs and foraminifers mainly) collected in the Cancañiri and Kirusillas/Uncía formations indicate an Ashgill to Wenlock age (late Late Ordovician to late Early Silurian) for these formations. A Caradoc (or perhaps older) age thus seems more correct for the Anzaldo Formation. These new paleontological data have major implications on our knowledge of the Ordovician-Silurian basins of Bolivia: 1) transition from a Middle Ordovician marine foreland basin to a Late Ordovician-Llandovery glacial-marine to turbidite trough in the Altiplano occurred in the (late?) Caradoc; 2) a major sea-level rise developed around the Llandovery-Wenlock boundary; 3) a fossiliferous limestone member of shallow origin and early Wenlock age is present approximately between Cochabamba and Santa Cruz.

  5. Distribution of Biomicrofacies and Cement Types in the Changxing Formation (Upper Permian, Western Hubei-eastern Sichuan Provinces, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutwakil Nafi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Changxing formation is subdivided into lower, middle and upper parts. Four types of microfacies were recognized in the Changxing formation. They include SMF-3, SMF-6, SMF-7 and SMF-19. The Changxing Formation is composed of deep basin margin, platform margin and open restricted platform environments. The lower, middle and upper parts are dominated by deep basin margin facies, platform margin facies and open restricted platform facies, respectively. The lower part contains foraminifera, radiolarian and mollusk organisms. The middle part is characterized by presence of crinoids, sponge, rugose, ostracods, trilobite, brachiopods, abundant bryozoans, mollusks and foraminifera organisms. The upper part is marked by dolomite, pyrite and abundant mollusks. Most of these organisms were concentrated within the middle part. The types of cements in the Changxing Formation consist of coarse grain sparite, micrite, microspar, silica and radiaxial cements. The lower part is dominated by silica cement. The middle part shows presence of abundant coarse grain sparite, micrite, microspar and radiaxial cements. The upper part is dominated by micrite, microspar cements.

  6. Silicified sea life - Macrofauna and palaeoecology of the Neuburg Kieselerde Member (Cenomanian to Lower Turonian Wellheim Formation, Bavaria, southern Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Simon; Jager, Manfred; Kroh, Andreas; Mitterer, Agnes; Niebuhr, Birgit; Vodrazka, Radek; Wilmsen, Markus; Wood, Christopher J.; Zagorsk, Kamil

    2013-12-01

    Schneider, S., Jager, M., Kroh, A., Mitterer, A., Niebuhr, B., Vodražka, R., Wilmsen, M., Wood, C.J. and Zagoršek, K. 2013. Silicified sea life - Macrofauna and palaeoecology of the Neuburg Kieselerde Member (Cenomanian to Lower Turonian Wellheim Formation, Bavaria, southern Germany). Acta Geologica Polonica, 63(4), 555-610. Warszawa. With approximately 100 species, the invertebrate macrofauna of the Neuburg Kieselerde Member of the Wellheim Formation (Bavaria, southern Germany) is probably the most diverse fossil assemblage of the Danubian Cretaceous Group. Occurring as erosional relicts in post-depositional karst depressions, both the Cretaceous sediments and fossils have been silicified during diagenesis. The Neuburg Kieselerde Member, safely dated as Early Cenomanian to Early Turonian based on inoceramid bivalve biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy, preserves a predominantly soft-bottom community, which, however, is biased due to near-complete early diagenetic loss of aragonitic shells. The community is dominated by epifaunal and semi-infaunal bivalves as well as sponges that settled on various (bio-) clasts, and may widely be split into an early bivalve-echinoid assemblage and a succeeding sponge-brachiopod assemblage. In addition to these groups we document ichnofauna, polychaete tubes, nautilids and bryozoans. The fauna provides evidence of a shallow to moderately deep, calm, fully marine environment, which is interpreted as a largescale embayment herein. The fauna of the Neuburg Kieselerde Member is regarded as an important archive of lower Upper Cretaceous sea-life in the surroundings of the Mid-European Island.

  7. Les séries du carbonifère inférieur de la région d'Adarouch, NE du Maroc central: lithologie et biostratigraphieEarly carboniferous series of the Adarouch area, northeast central Morocco: lithology and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhli, M.; Vachard, D.; Paicheler, J.-C.

    2001-05-01

    The early Carboniferous series of the Adarouch area (northeast central Morocco) are subdivided into three sedimentological and biostratigraphical units. The first unit, which belongs to the Late Visean zones V3bβ and V3bγ, was deposited on shallow carbonate platforms. The second unit belongs to the Late Visean zone, V3c, and incudes terrigenous deposits, such as turbidites, shales and olistostromes. The third unit belongs to the Serpukhovian stage and consists of sandstones and limestones. A new biostratigraphical analysis, which is based on foraminiferal, algae and pseudoalgae, allows an accurate dating of the units. The deposits of the zones V3bβ and V3bγ contain characteristic calcareous microfossils, such as Stacheoides sp., Pseudoendothyra sp. and Ungdarella uralica. The V3c zone (300-400 m) is shown in two oolitic beds of the Mouarhaz and Akerchi Formations, respectively, with Janischewskina sp. and Asteroarchaediscus sp. The Serpukhovian stage is characterised by the disappearance of the algae Koninckopora and the appearance of the brachiopod Titanaria. The new data from the Adarouch area confirm the Moroccan biostratigraphical scale of the Moroccan meseta.

  8. Biotic recovery from the Late Devonian F-F mass extinction event in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖卫华

    2002-01-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) mass extinction is one of the five great extinctions of marine life during the Phanerozoic. The F-F event killed most of the Devonian reefs, the characteristic Devonian corals, stromatoporoids, bryozoans, nearly all tentaculites, a few superfamilies of brachiopods, such as Atrypacea and Pentameracea and some important elements of goniatites, such as Manticoceras.``The end-Frasnian was a phase of mass extinction. A large number of shelly benthos were killed by the F-F event. Early and middle Famennian was the survival interval. The marine faunas were very rare at that time. The late Famennian was the recovery interval. There appeared to have many new taxa in the Strunian stage. It lacked a radiation interval in Late Devonian Famennian because another event (the D-C mass extinction) happened at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary.``Several causes for the F-F mass extinction have been proposed by some geologists, which have been grouped into two broad types, terrestrial and extraterrestrial. The former is related to sea level changes, climate changes and anoxic water event. The latter is linked with some forms of meteorite impact.``A large-scale eustatic change of sea level and black shales representing an anoxic environment has been invoked to explain one of the causes for the F-F mass extinction.``

  9. Mid-Late Devonian assemblages of herbaceous lycophytes from northern Argentina and Bolivia: Age assessment with palynomorphs and invertebrates and paleobiogeographic importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquo, Mercedes; Noetinger, Sol; Isaacson, Peter; Grader, George; Starck, Daniel; Morel, Eduardo; Folnagy, Heidi Anderson

    2015-11-01

    Implications of a new collection of lycophytes of the genera Haplostigma Seward and Paleostigma Kräusel and Dolianiti from southern Bolivia and northern Argentina are presented. Fragmented herbaceous stems of lycophytes preserved as compressions, impressions and casts come from the Middle and Late Devonian Pescado (Huamampampa), Los Monos and Iquiri formations at Mataral, Yesera, Angosto del Pescado and Balapuca. The interbedded shales and siltstones bearing the lycophytes were also examined for palynology. They yielded mostly terrestrial palynomorphs with Grandispora pseudoreticulata and other Eifelian to Givetian species and fewer microplanktonic species (i.e., acritarchs, prasinophytes, chitinozoans). At Yesera, diagnostic spores and elements of the microplankton suggest a Givetian-Frasnian up to early Famennian age for the Haplostigma beds. Moreover, presence of the same brachiopod taxon in the Haplostigma intervals at Yesera Dique (palynologically barren) and Yesera Centro supports their correlation. This new information supports terrestrial connections between these Bolivian and Argentine areas and other regions of South America in the Eifelian - Givetian Afrosouthamerican Subrealm, which extended up to the early Famennian.

  10. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2014-10-10

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids.

  11. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Sturgeon Lake field, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mederos, S.M. [Maraven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Moslow, T.F. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation in the Sturgeon Lake field located in west-central Alberta. The Montney Formation is grouped into two facies associations. Facies Association 1 is a siliciclastic upward-coarsening sequence deposited by storm, current and wave processes and is interpreted as a low energy progradational lower shoreface. Facies Association 2 is a carbonate shallowing upward sequence deposited in a wave dominated progradational shoreface. The contact between Facies Association 1 and 2 is marked by a major change in lithology and is erosive. Palynological analyses reveal two missing palynologic subzones between Facies Association 1 and Facies Association 2 suggesting a period of erosion and/or nondeposition. The boundary between the two facies association is defined as a sequence boundary which stratigraphically divides the Montney Formation into two sequences in the study area. The Lower Montney sequence is composed of eight retrogradational, aggradational and progradational parasequences and represent the Transgressive and the High-stand System Tract. The Upper Montney sequence is composed only of one parasequence and represents the Transgressive System Tract. The Sturgeon Lake Field has two types of reservoir with respect to lithology, porosity, permeability and geometry. The best reservoir facies is a brachiopod wackestone-packstone with permeabilities up to 8 Darcys. Siliciclastic reservoirs consist of very fine grained sandstones with permeabilities of 132 md when fractured.

  12. Antarctic birds (Neornithes during the Cretaceous-Eocene times

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    C. Tambussi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic fossil birds can be confidently assigned to modern orders and families, such as a goose-like anseriform, two loon-like and a seriema-like, all recorded before the K/T boundary at the López de Bertodano Fomation. Also, the discovery of a ratite and a phororhacids from the uppermost levels of the Submeseta Allomember (Late Eocene, suggests that West Antarctica was functional to dispersal routes obligate terrestrial birds. Representatives of Falconiformes Polyborinae, Ciconiiformes, Phoenicoteriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelagornitidae and Diomedeidae constitute the non-penguin avian assemblages of the Eocene of La Meseta Formation. Fifthteen Antarctic species of penguins have been described including the oldest penguin of West Antarctica, Croswallia unienwillia. The Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Biozone (36.13 and 34.2 Ma, Late Eocene is characterized by bearing one of the highest frequencies of penguin bones and the phospatic brachiopod Lingula., together with remains of Gadiforms, sharks and primitive mysticete whales. Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, Delphinornis gracilis, D. arctowski, Archaeospheniscus lopdelli, and Palaeeudyptes antarcticus are exclusively of the La Meseta Formation. Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi was evidently the largest penguin recorded at the James Ross Basin, whereas Delphinornis arctowski is the smallest, and include one of the worldwide highest morphological and taxonomic penguin diversity living sympatrically. The progressive climate cooling of the Eocene could have affected the penguin populations, because of climatic changes linked with habitat availability and food web processes. However, there is not available evidence about Antarctic penguins' evolution after the end of the Eocene.

  13. High-resolution isotope stratigraphy of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Namur-Dinant Basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmy, Karem; Poty, Edouard; Brand, Uwe

    2009-04-01

    The Devonian-Carboniferous (D-C) boundary sequence of the Namur-Dinant Basin in southern Belgium consists of marine platform carbonates. Global biostratigraphic correlation of the boundary has been a dilemma due to the absence of index conodont zones. Despite the scarcity of brachiopods, we managed to sample twenty-five calcitic shells from boundary beds at the Royseux-Gare section, to reconstruct biochemostratigraphic profiles of oxygen-, carbon- and strontium-isotopes for correlations with established global counterparts. The δ18O and δ13C values of the well-preserved shells range from - 7.8 to - 6.3‰ VPDB (- 7.2 ± 0.4, n = 25) and from + 1.1 to + 2.4‰ VPDB (1.8 ± 0.3, n = 25), respectively. The shells also yielded 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios between 0.708185 and 0.708297. The Royseux isotope signatures are within the ranges documented for the global D-C boundary but their isotope profiles, however, show no significant shifts or excursions. Evaluation of the Royseux isotope profiles and correlation with their global counterparts may suggest a stratigraphic hiatus approximately from the middle Siphonodella praesulcata to the lower Siphonodella sulcata zones on the global D-C boundary conodont biostratigraphic scheme, while corresponding to the Hangenberg Event in Belgium.

  14. An Early Carboniferous seep community and hydrocarbon-derived carbonates from the Harz Mountains, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Jörn; Gischler, Eberhard; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Reitner, Joachim

    2001-03-01

    Early Carboniferous (latest Visean) seep deposits occur on top of the drowned Middle Devonian Late Devonian Iberg atoll reef, Harz Mountains, Germany. These deposits include limestone with a low-diversity but high-abundance fauna of rhynchonellid brachiopods and rare solemyid bivalves, as well as microbial limestone. Rhynchonellids form dense, autochthonous shell accumulations and are generally articulated. They are closely associated with hydrocarbon-derived carbonates. The carbonates exhibit δ13C values as low as -32‰, relative to the Peedee belemnite standard, revealing that they are predominantly hydrocarbon derived. The fauna, carbonate fabrics, and isotope signatures provide unequivocal evidence for a seep origin of the Visean deposit. The occurrence of solemyid bivalves supports this interpretation as members of this family (1) are well known for their relationship with chemoautotrophic bacteria and (2) have been reported from ancient and modern seeps. Possible hydrocarbon sources are thermogenic methane derived from the volcanic base of the Iberg reef or methane from a petroleum reservoir.

  15. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids. PMID:25300304

  16. THE TRIASSIC/JURASSIC BOUNDARY IN THE ANDES OF ARGENTINA

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    ALBERTO C. RICCARDI

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arroyo Malo Formation at Alumbre Creek, on the northern bank of the Atuel River, west central Argentina, comprises a c. 300 m thick continuous marine succession across the Triassic-Jurassic System boundary, consisting of massive and laminated pelites indicative of a slope depositional environment. Late Triassic invertebrates, including ammonoids, nautiloids, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and corals are restricted to the lower 150 m. Beds between 125-135 m from the bottom yield Choristoceras cf. marshi Hauer, a species found in the Marshi/Crickmayi Zone of Europe and North America, together with loose fragments of Psiloceras cf. pressum Hillebrandt, coeval with the lower to middle part of the Hettangian Planorbis Zone. About 80 m higher are beds yielding Psiloceras cf. rectocostatum Hillebrandt, a species that gives name to an Andean biozone partially coeval with the Johnstoni and Plicatulum Subzones, upper Planorbis Zone. Other fossils recorded in the Rhaetian strata of this section are foraminifers, ostracods and plant remains identified as Zuberia cf. zuberi (Szaj. Freng. and Clathropteris sp. The section was also sampled for conodonts and radiolarians, thus far with negative results. A palaeomagnetic study is underway.

  17. The biological consequences of flood basalt volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, M.

    2012-12-01

    Flood basalt eruptions are among the largest environmental perturbations of the Phanerozoic. The rapid release of CO2 from a large igneous province would have triggered a chain of events that can include climate warming, ocean acidification, reduced seawater carbonate saturation, and expanded oceanic anoxia. Those stressors have widely negative impacts on marine organisms, especially on calcified taxa, by affecting their respiratory physiology and reducing energy available for growth and reproduction. Many Phanerozoic extinctions, most notably the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions, coincided with flood basalt eruptions and shared distinctive patterns of taxonomic and ecological selectivity. In these extinctions, highly active organisms were more likely to survive because they possess physiological adaptations for maintaining internal pH during activity, which also proves useful when buffering pH against ocean acidification. In contrast, species that did not move and had low metabolic rates, such as brachiopods and sponges, suffered considerable losses during these extinctions. Heavily-calcified organisms, especially corals, were particularly vulnerable; as a result, ocean acidification and saturation state changes from flood basalt eruptions often triggered crises in reef ecosystems. This characteristic pattern of selectivity during "physiological" extinctions that closely coincided with flood basalts provides a template for assessing the causes of other extinction events. Because these crises also provide deep time analogues for the ongoing anthropogenic crisis of warming, ocean acidification, and expanded anoxia, the selectivity patterns can also help constrain "winners" and "losers" over upcoming decades.

  18. Palaeobiogeographical patterns reveal the origins of a pelagic lifestyle in ostracods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Vincent; Mark, Williams; Siveter David, J.; Robert, Goodall; Elena, Mikhailova; Anna, Tarasenko; Firuza, Salimova

    2016-04-01

    Coupled with evidence from depositional setting, faunal associates and functional morphology, the palaeogeographical distribution patterns of ancient marine organisms can be used as a test of lifestyle. Thus, fossil organisms that are interpreted to have been planktonic throughout their lifecycle (e.g. graptolites), and those with a long-lived planktonic larval stage (e.g. the planula larvae of corals) typically have wide intercontinental distribution, whilst those that have a demersal and short-lived larval stage (e.g. brachiopods), and those that are exclusively benthic (e.g. podocope ostracods) generally have a more restricted biogeographical distribution. Here we develop an independent test of fossil ostracod autoecology using modern distribution patterns to visualize 'geographical domains' for pelagic and benthic lifestyles. These data are statistically filtered in order to match the ranges of geography and bathymetry between Silurian and modern forms. Our analysis decisively identifies Silurian myodocopes with ranges overlapping with modern pelagic ostracods. Though predicated on ostracods, our approach is potentially applicable to analyzing the patterns of any putative arthropod zooplankton in the fossil record where the ecology of modern representatives can be readily determined. Furthermore it may also form a guide to identify fossil zooplanktonic arthropods (like some Ordovician trilobites) that have no modern representatives.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Watersipora subtorquata (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata) with phylogenetic consideration of Bryozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming'an; Wu, Zhigang; Shen, Xin; Ren, Jianfeng; Liu, Xixing; Liu, Huilian; Liu, Bin

    2009-06-15

    The phylogenetic position of the Bryozoa has long been controversial. In this paper, we have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the Watersipora subtorquata (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata). It is a circular molecule of 14,144 bp, relatively small compared with most other metazoan mitochondrial genomes, and bears some unusual features. All genes in the W. subtorquata mtDNA, unlike those in two bryozoan mtDNAs and most other metazoan mtDNAs published previously, are transcribed from the same strand. It has a unique gene order which differs radically from that of other metazoans. Drastic gene rearrangements were also found among bryozoan mtDNAs. To investigate the phylogenetic position of Bryozoa, analyses based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein-coding genes (excluding atp6 and atp8) from 25 metazoan mtDNAs were made utilizing ML and Bayesian methods. Lophotrochozoa was recovered as monophyletic with strong support in our analyses. Lophophorate was undoubted within Lophotrochozoa, but appears as polyphyletic, which indicates that the lophophores of this group may be of different origin. The existence of Phoronozoa was rejected. Our analyses indicated that Phoronida is more closely related to Annelid instead of Brachiopod. Chaetognatha appeared as the sister group of Bryozoa and they formed a clade together with strong support. More evidence is needed to clarify the relationship of these two phyla. PMID:19289161

  20. Fauna and paleoecological setting of the La Meseta Formation (Eocene), Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, R.M.; Wiedman, L.A.; Zinsmeister, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The La Meseta Formation, an Eocene sandstone from Seymour Island, Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica, has yielded a diverse fossil assemblage of body and trace fossils representative of a cool temperate, littoral to shallow sublittoral habitat. Over 61 taxa of macroinvertebrates, excluding gastropod body fossils, and more than 18 ichnogenera collected from the La Meseta represent the largest, most comprehensive and most diverse assemblage of Paleogene fossils from Antarctica. Included in the body fossil assemblage are species representative of at least 26 taxa of bivales, four taxa of echinoids, two of crinoids, two of ophiuroids, two of asteroids, one inarticulate and four articulate brachiopods, two barnacles, six decapod crustaceans, two cyclostome and two cheilostome bryozoans, a scaphopod and one coral. The traces include several burrow forms characteristic of the Skolithos ichnofacies of Seilacher (1967), several halo and rind burrows, gastropod predation borings, and abundant examples of teredid bivalve borings in lithified wood.Autecological analyses of the preserved organisms and environmental interpretations of the ichnogenera indicate a littoral to very shallow sublittoral environment of deposition, generally above wave base, for the la Meseta Sandstone. Modern congeneric descendants of the body fossils are known to inhabit both deep water and shallow water habitats. Of the 20 extant genera of bivalves reported from the La Meseta, 19 generally occur only in cool temperate habitats. Only one genus is known to occur south of 60/sup 0/. Most of the shallow water forms are known from cool temperate, austral regimes.

  1. Gut contents as direct indicators for trophic relationships in the Cambrian marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Present-day ecosystems host a huge variety of organisms that interact and transfer mass and energy via a cascade of trophic levels. When and how this complex machinery was established remains largely unknown. Although exceptionally preserved biotas clearly show that Early Cambrian animals had already acquired functionalities that enabled them to exploit a wide range of food resources, there is scant direct evidence concerning their diet and exact trophic relationships. Here I describe the gut contents of Ottoia prolifica, an abundant priapulid worm from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5) Burgess Shale biota. I identify the undigested exoskeletal remains of a wide range of small invertebrates that lived at or near the water sediment interface such as hyolithids, brachiopods, different types of arthropods, polychaetes and wiwaxiids. This set of direct fossil evidence allows the first detailed reconstruction of the diet of a 505-million-year-old animal. Ottoia was a dietary generalist and had no strict feeding regime. It fed on both living individuals and decaying organic matter present in its habitat. The feeding behavior of Ottoia was remarkably simple, reduced to the transit of food through an eversible pharynx and a tubular gut with limited physical breakdown and no storage. The recognition of generalist feeding strategies, exemplified by Ottoia, reveals key-aspects of modern-style trophic complexity in the immediate aftermath of the Cambrian explosion. It also shows that the middle Cambrian ecosystem was already too complex to be understood in terms of simple linear dynamics and unique pathways. PMID:23300612

  2. Gut contents as direct indicators for trophic relationships in the Cambrian marine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vannier

    Full Text Available Present-day ecosystems host a huge variety of organisms that interact and transfer mass and energy via a cascade of trophic levels. When and how this complex machinery was established remains largely unknown. Although exceptionally preserved biotas clearly show that Early Cambrian animals had already acquired functionalities that enabled them to exploit a wide range of food resources, there is scant direct evidence concerning their diet and exact trophic relationships. Here I describe the gut contents of Ottoia prolifica, an abundant priapulid worm from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5 Burgess Shale biota. I identify the undigested exoskeletal remains of a wide range of small invertebrates that lived at or near the water sediment interface such as hyolithids, brachiopods, different types of arthropods, polychaetes and wiwaxiids. This set of direct fossil evidence allows the first detailed reconstruction of the diet of a 505-million-year-old animal. Ottoia was a dietary generalist and had no strict feeding regime. It fed on both living individuals and decaying organic matter present in its habitat. The feeding behavior of Ottoia was remarkably simple, reduced to the transit of food through an eversible pharynx and a tubular gut with limited physical breakdown and no storage. The recognition of generalist feeding strategies, exemplified by Ottoia, reveals key-aspects of modern-style trophic complexity in the immediate aftermath of the Cambrian explosion. It also shows that the middle Cambrian ecosystem was already too complex to be understood in terms of simple linear dynamics and unique pathways.

  3. Permian bivalves of the Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, and their biostratigraphic significance

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    Marcello Guimarães Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A small and poorly diversified bivalve fauna from Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin (State of Santa Catarina,Mafra Municipality, is described in this paper for the first time, based on new findings. The fauna is recorded in a 30 cmthick interval of fine sandstone locally at the top of Taciba Formation, in the Butiá quarry. The studied fossil-bearing sandstonebed is a marine intercalation recording a brief eustatic rise in sea-level, probably following glacier retreat and climateamelioration at the end of a broad glacial scenario. The fauna is mainly dominated by productid brachiopods, which are notdescribed here, and rare mollusk shells (bivalves and gastropods. Two bivalve species were identified: Myonia argentinensis(Harrington, 1955, and Aviculopecten multiscalptus (Thomas, 1928. The presence of Myonia argentinensis is noteworthysince this species is also present in the Baitaca assemblage found in marine siltstones (Baitaca assemblage of theRio do Sul Formation, cropping out at the Teixeira Soares region, Paraná State. This species is also recorded in the bivalvefauna from the Bonete Formation, Pillahinco Group, Sauce Grande Basin, Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina. Hence, themarine bivalves of the Taciba Formation are associated with the transgressive event that characterizes the Eurydesma fauna,indicating a Late Asselian-Sakmarian age for the bivalve fauna. Presence of the Myonia argentinensis megadesmid speciesreinforces the Gondwanic nature of the studied fauna.

  4. Diagenesis of Viola Limestone (Middle and Upper Ordovician), southeastern Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammer, G.M.

    1983-03-01

    The Viola Limestone in the Arbuckle Mountains was deposited on a carbonate ramp within the southern Oklahoma aulacogen. A complex diagenetic history has occluded virtually all primary porosity within the Viola. Petrographic evidence suggests that the following approximate sequence of diagenetic events has occurred; (1) microboring and subsequent micritization of bioclasts to form micrite envelopes; (2) very early submarine cementation that bound the loosely sorted allochems and partly occluded porosity, characterized by drusy overgrowths on trilobite and brachiopod fragments, bladed, void-filling cement, and turbid, inclusion-rich syntaxial overgrowths on pelmatozoan fragments; (3) initial compaction evidenced by local fracturing of elongate bioclasts; (4) neomorphism, including the inversion of aragonitic allochems to calcite and the recrystallization of micrite to microspar and pseudospar in the presence of low-salinity pore fluids; (5) freshwater cementation that filled virtually all remaining pore space; (6) selective dolomitization; (7) silicification, including the formation of chert nodules and the replacement of bioclasts and calcite cements by microgranular quartz and/or lutecite; (8) compaction and pressure solution, probably due to deep burial, characterized by nonsutured seam stylolites, sutured seam stylolites oriented subparallel to bedding, and sutured grain boundaries; and (9) tectonically imposed pressure solution indicated by sutured seam stylolites oriented at high angles to bedding that developed during the late Paleozoic deformation of the Arbuckle Mountain. The Viola Limestone is known as a reservoir rock and possible source unit for hydrocarbons throughout much of south-central Oklahoma.

  5. Thecamoebians (Testate Amoebae) Straddling the Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Guryul Ravine Section, India: Evolutionary and Palaeoecological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vartika; Pandita, Sundeep K.; Tewari, Rajni; van Hengstum, Peter J; Pillai, Suresh S. K.; Agnihotri, Deepa; Kumar, Kamlesh; Bhat, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved organic remains of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) were preserved in marine sediments that straddle the greatest extinction event in the Phanerozoic: the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Outcrops from the Late Permian Zewan Formation and the Early Triassic Khunamuh Formation are represented by a complete sedimentary sequence at the Guryul Ravine Section in Kashmir, India, which is an archetypal Permian-Triassic boundary sequence [1]. Previous biostratigraphic analysis provides chronological control for the section, and a perspective of faunal turnover in the brachiopods, ammonoids, bivalves, conodonts, gastropods and foraminifera. Thecamoebians were concentrated from bulk sediments using palynological procedures, which isolated the organic constituents of preserved thecamoebian tests. The recovered individuals demonstrate exceptional similarity to the modern thecamoebian families Centropyxidae, Arcellidae, Hyalospheniidae and Trigonopyxidae, however, the vast majority belong to the Centropyxidae. This study further confirms the morphologic stability of the thecamoebian lineages through the Phanerozoic, and most importantly, their apparent little response to an infamous biological crisis in Earth’s history. PMID:26288245

  6. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae

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    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores, os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae, em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base do gineceu e é acumulado em câmara nectarífera. Os grãos de pólen são liberados gradativamente, prolongando-se a fase de doação de pólen. As abelhas Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius e C. tarsata Smith são os polinizadores da espécie. Destaca-se pilhagem primária de néctar, por abelhas, e secundária, por borboletas e beija-flor. A espécie é auto-incompatível, apresentando baixos índices de formação de frutos em condições naturais (Frutos/Flores = 12,2%. Foi registrado padrão de floração "cornucópia", entre os meses de dezembro a março (estação quente/chuvosa, com pico em janeiro. As sementes são anemocóricas e liberadas gradativamente na estação fria e seca.This work deals with the floral biology, the foraging activities of floral visitors (pollinators and robbers, phenology and reproductive system of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae in the "restinga" of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2000. The flowers display daytime anthesis and last only one day. These attractive pink flowers are tubular, hermaphroditic, odoriferous and produce nectar as the floral reward. The nectar is secreted by a nectariferous disk concealed within a chamber. The pollen grains are gradually released throughout anthesis, extending the pollen presentation phase. The bees Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius and C. tarsata Smith are the pollinator species. Primary and secondary

  7. Trap-nesting bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea in areas of dry semideciduous forest and caatinga, Bahia, Brazil Abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea que nidificam em ninhos-armadilha em áreas de floresta semi-decídua e caatinga, Bahia, Brasil

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study were examined the species richness and seasonal abundance of cavity-nesting bees in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest and caatinga in the State of Bahia, Brazil. Sampling was done employing two types of trap-nests: bamboo canes and tubes made of black cardboard with dimensions of either 58 x 6 mm or 105 x 8 mm. The traps were inspected once a month. One hundred and forty-six nests of 11 bee species were collected in the forest, and 121 nests of seven species were collected in the caatinga. Five species of cleptoparasitic bees were also reared from these nests. The highest nesting frequencies occurred in the wet season in both areas. Nests parasitism was important only for Centris tarsata Smith, 1874, and was higher at the caatinga site than in the forest. The mortality of pre-emergent adults was high, especially in C. tarsata,Tetrapedia diversipes Klug, 1810 and Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758. Information on the number of cells per nest, the size, shape, and arrangement of brood cells in the nests, as well as the number of adults produced and the number of generations per year are also presented. Species richness, temporal patterns of nesting, and percentage of parasitism were compared with other habitats.Neste estudo foram investigadas a riqueza de espécies e a abundância sazonal de abelhas que nidificam em cavidades em áreas de Floresta estacional semi-decídua e Caatinga na Bahia. A amostragem foi realizada com dois tipos de ninhos-armadilha (= N.A.: gomos de bambu e tubos de cartolina preta (58 x 6 mm e 105 x 8 mm. Os N.A. foram inspecionados uma vez por mês. Foram coletados 146 ninhos de 11 espécies de abelhas na floresta e 121 ninhos de sete espécies na caatinga. Além disso, cinco espécies de abelhas cleptoparasitas foram criadas a partir destes ninhos. As freqüências de nidificação mais altas ocorreram na estação úmida em ambas as áreas. Parasitismo de ninhos foi importante apenas para Centris tarsata

  8. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses

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    Marco A. S Mayworm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average and oils (21. 6%. Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%, while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average. The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds. The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora, oleic (Qualea and Salvertia or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species. The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid, for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C20 or C22 chains or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids. The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.Teores de proteínas, carboidratos solúveis e óleos de sementes de 57 indivíduos de Vochysiaceae, compreendendo uma espécie de Callisthene, seis de Qualea, uma de Salvertia e oito de Vochysia foram determinados. As principais reservas de sementes de Vochysiaceae são proteínas (20% em média e óleos (21, 6%. A média dos teores de carboidratos foi de 5, 8%. Callisthene apresentou o mais baixo teor de proteínas (16, 9%, enquanto Q. cordata foi a espécie com o mais elevado teor (30% em média. Teores de carboidratos solúveis em etanol foram muito superiores aos solúveis em água. Os teores de

  9. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae Comportamiento alimentario de las larvas del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae que se crían en el aerénquima de Pontederiaceae

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    M. Cristina Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae, digging a mine near the epidermis and forming several holes to the exterior. T. romus Bickel & Hernández develop in E. azurea (Sw. Kunth petioles; the mine is curved and short compared with other Thrypticus species. T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández develops in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, and digs the mine between the epidermis and the big central cell of the petioles. T. taragui Bickel & Hernández breeds in submersed stems of P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, and forms a mine close to the epidermis with branches to the central vascular stele. The mines of T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus and T. azuricola could not be associated with the corresponding species. Neither predators nor parasites were found associated with the group, but some cases of cannibalism were observed when two mines were confluent. The truncatus group species have a very specific feeding habit, live completely enclosed within host plant tissues, and feed on the sap obtained from holes chewed in the vascular bundles of the petioles, possibly using yeast as supplementary nourishment. Extensive field collections and laboratory tests indicate that each species in the truncatus group is associated with a specific host plant in the Pontederiaceae. Such specialization suggests a long association between the members of this group and their respective host plants.Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms

  10. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae Comunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinatorsComunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Abelhas Euglossina são importantes polinizadores nas florestas e em

  11. Intoxicação por plantas que contêm swainsonina no Brasil Poisoning by swainsonine-containing plants in Brazil

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    Carlos Alberto de Oliveira Júnior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as plantas que contêm swainsonina compõem um grupo muito importante de plantas tóxicas, incluindo Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea riedelii, Ipomoea sericophyla, Ipomoea verbascoidea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia, que causam armazenamento de oligossacarídeos em caprinos e, com menor frequência, em bovinos, equinos, ovinos e cervídeos. Uma característica das plantas que contêm swainsonina é que os animais que iniciam a ingerir essas plantas desenvolvem o hábito de ingeri-las compulsivamente e, por facilitação social, induzem a outros animais da mesma espécie a ingeri-las. Os animais intoxicados apresentam pêlos arrepiados, perda de peso e sinais nervosos associados, principalmente, a lesões cerebelares e do tronco encefálico. Infertilidade, abortos, nascimento de animais fracos e maior susceptibilidade aos parasitas gastrintestinais são descritas tanto em casos agudos quanto em animais que deixaram de ingerir a planta e permanecem com sinais, mesmo que discretos. Atrofia cerebelar pode ser observada macroscopicamente em animais cronicamente afetados. As alterações histológicas caracterizam-se por vacuolização de neurônios, células epiteliais do pâncreas e dos túbulos renais, células foliculares da tireoide, hepatócitos e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Para o controle da intoxicação, os animais devem ser retirados imediatamente do local onde ocorre a planta. A única medida profilática consiste em evitar a ingestão da planta, eliminando a mesma das áreas infectadas ou mediante aversão alimentar condicionada.Swainsonine-containing plants comprise a very important group of toxic plants in Brazil, including Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea riedelii, Ipomoea sericophyla, Ipomoea verbascoidea, Turbina cordata and Sida carpinifolia, which cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats, and with less frequency in cattle, horses, sheep, and deer. A characteristic of swainsonine

  12. Comunidades de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no Sudeste do Brasil Euglossine bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae community in Atlantic Forest fragments in southeastern Brazil

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    André Villaça Ramalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comunidade de abelhas Euglossina foi amostrada através de armadilhas com iscas aromáticas, ao longo de 12 meses (novembro de 2004 a outubro de 2005 em cinco fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica submontana com diferentes tamanhos e níveis de degradação, na bacia do Rio São João, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro: Reserva Biológica União (3126 ha, Andorinhas (145 ha, Imbaú (130 ha, Estreito (21 ha e Afetiva (19 ha. Foram registrados 4094 indivíduos pertencentes a 17 espécies de três gêneros (Euglossa, Eulaema e Exaerete nas 5 áreas. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa sapphirina Moure, 1968, sendo maior a importância relativa desta última nos fragmentos menores. Dentre as espécies encontradas, Euglossa analis Westwood, 1840 é sugerida como possível indicadora de florestas mais preservadas. Na comparação entre as cinco áreas foram verificadas correlações positivas e significativas da riqueza de espécies de abelhas com o tamanho da área e da diversidade de abelhas (H´ com a diversidade florística (H´. Estes dados sugerem que perdas de área e qualidade de hábitat influenciam negativamente a comunidade destas abelhas, reduzindo a riqueza e diversidade de espécies. Os maiores valores de similaridade foram observados na comparação entre os fragmentos da região do Imbaú, distantes entre si por até 2 Km, sugerindo que estes não estejam isolados para as populações de Euglossina, ou que venham sofrendo igualmente os efeitos da fragmentação.The Euglossine bee community was sampled with chemical bait traps throughout 12 months (November 2004 to October 2005 in five remnants of submontane Atlantic Forest in São João river basin, in the north of Rio de Janeiro state with different sizes and degradation levels: Reserva Biológica União (3126 ha, Andorinhas (145 ha, Imbaú (130 ha, Estreito

  13. Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita (L. Rusby – properties and application

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    Anna Kasprzyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia mallow (or Virgina fanpetals belongs to the Malvaceae family and it originates from the Southeastern parts of North America. In the 20th century, the plant was brought to Europe, specifically to Ukraine, and then it was introduced in Poland (Kasprzyk et al. 2013. Virginia mallow is mainly used in industry as biomass for energy generation and as a source of fibers or forage. It is a subject of interest to many researchers due to the fact that it is a fast growing plant with a high potential yield and the ability of multiple regrowth even after cutting. Highly adaptable to different climates and soil conditions indicate a potential increase in the area occupied by the species. It can be grown on the slopes of eroded areas, land which is excluded from agricultural use, on chemically degraded areas, also on dumps and landfills of garbage. In the family Malvaceae, there are several species commonly used in medicine, such as Sida acuta Burm.f., S. cordata (Burm.f. Borss.Waalk. or S. cordifolia L. and therefore the interest in the healing properties of Virginia mallow seems natural. Recent studies have shown that there is a possibility of the use of Virginia mallow as herbal material. Studies have shown that the extracts from seeds of S. hermaphrodita (L. Rusby have caused a decrease of viability and deformation of Mycobacterium smegmatis cells (Lewtak et al. 2013. There are also studies about anticancer activity of S. hermaphodita extracts against SiHa (human cervical cancer lines. Two tests (MTT and NR uptake were used and the results showed absence of cytotoxic effect using MTT tests, and a slight cytotoxic effect using NR uptake (Frant et al. 2013.

  14. 二氢苯骈[c]菲啶类生物碱的制备及其抗乙肝病毒的活性%Preparation of dihydrobenzo[c] phenanthridine alkaloids and evaluation of their anti-hepatitis B virus activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴颖瑞; 方宏; 牙始康; 何瑞杰

    2012-01-01

    二氢苯骈[c]菲啶类生物碱是自然界中一类重要的生物活性成分,但含量很低.利用硼氢化还原方法,对博落回粗提物中的血根碱和白屈菜红碱混合物进行还原、分离,得到了二氢血根碱和二氢白屈菜红碱;并初步评价了其抗乙肝病毒活性.结果表明,利用硼氢化还原方法制备二氢苯骈[c]菲啶类生物碱的产率较高,还原产物具有一定的抗乙肝病毒活性.%Dihydro-benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids are a kind of bioactive constituents, but their contents are very low in natural plants. Thus the mixture of sanguinarine and cheleryth-rine primarily extracted from Macleaya cordata (Willd) R B were reduced by sodium boro-hydride and separated into dihydrosanguinarine and dihydrochelerythrine. The anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity of as-obtained dihydrosanguinarine and dihydrochelerythrine was evaluated. It has been found that phenonthridine alkaloids can be obtained in a high yield via the reduction of sanguinarine and chelerythrine by borohydride. As-obtained dihydrosanguinarine and dihydrochelerythrine products have some inhibitory effect against HBV (HBsAg secretions in Hep G2. 2.15 cell line).

  15. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

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    Najihah Musa

    Full Text Available The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  16. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C.; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  17. Prime waterfront real estate: Apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin H. KYLE; Alexis W. KROPF; Romi L. BURKS

    2011-01-01

    While difficult to prevent introductions,scientific research can help guide control efforts of exotic,invasive species.South American island apple snails Pomacea insularum have quickly spread across the United States Gulf Coast and few control measures exist to delay their spread.Usually occupying cryptic benthic habitats,female apple snails crawl out of the water to deposit large,bright pink egg clutches on emergent objects.To help identify the most likely place to find and remove clutches,we conducted four lab experiments to investigate what specific object qualities (i.e.material; shape and height; plant species; natural and artificial) amacted P.insularum females to lay clutches.In our fourth experiment,we specifically examined the relationship between female size and reproductive output.To further understand reproductive output,we quantified experimental clutch characteristics (height above water,dimensions,mass,approximate volume,number of eggs,hatching efficiency).Pomacea insularum females laid more clutches on plant material,chose round over flat surfaces and failed to differentiate between tall and short structures.In comparison to a common native plant in the eastern US,Pontederia cordata,snails clearly preferred to lay clutches on a widely distributed exotic,invasive plant (wild taro,Colocasia esculenta).Unexpectedly,smaller snails showed higher overall total fecundity as well as more eggs per clutch than larger snails.Therefore,hand removal efforts of large females may not be enough to slow down clutch production.Collectively,our results indicate that conservationists and managers should search emergent plants for P.insularum clutches carefully to guard against established populations [Current Zoology 57 (5):630-641,2011].

  18. Leaves of higher plants as biomonitors of radionuclides (137Cs, 40K, 210Pb and 7Be) in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Dragana; Popović, Dragana; Ajtić, Jelena; Nikolić, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Leaves of linden (Tilia tomentosa L. and Tilia cordata Mill.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) were analysed as biomonitors of radionuclides in urban air. Samples of soils, leaves and aerosols were collected in Belgrade, Serbia. Activities of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Pb and (7)Be in the samples were measured on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. "Soil-to-leaves" transfer factors were calculated. Student's t test and linear Pearson correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis. Differences in local conditions at the sampling sites were not significant, and the mechanisms of the radionuclides' accumulation in both plant species are similar. Ceasium-137 was detected in some of the leaf samples only. Transfer factors for (137)Cs and (40)K were (0.03-0.08) and 1.3, respectively. The concentrations of (210)Pb and (7)Be in leaves were higher in autumn than in spring, and there were some similarities in their seasonal patterns in leaves and in air. Weak to medium correlation was obtained for the (210)Pb and (7)Be activities in leaves and aerosols. Large positive correlation was obtained for the (210)Pb activities in linden leaves and the mean activity in aerosols for the preceding months. Different primary modes of radionuclides accumulation in leaves were observed. Since large positive correlation was obtained for the (210)Pb activity in linden leaves and the mean in aerosols for the preceding months, mature linden leaves could be used as biomonitors of recent (210)Pb activity in air. PMID:22562351

  19. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  20. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Poznań, 2003-2004

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    Alicja Stach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the Łukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Poznań, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

  1. Virucidal agents in the eve of manorapid synergy

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    Galabov, Angel S.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Virucidal agents are chemical substances that attack and inactivate viral particles outside the cell (virions. In general this is accomplished by damaging their protein shells (capsid or the substance penetrates the core itself, where it destroys the genetic material. Damage to the virion structure is also possible. These agents are used not only for traditional surface disinfection or sterilization of blood, blood products, and other medicinal products as well as in antiviral chemotherapy. They have also been used in recent times for inactivation of viruses in foodstuffs, detergents or cosmetics. Below is given an overview of the data currently available on the performance of these substances when used for the latter applications (cleaning and cosmetics. These include: * hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, cupric and ferric ions, per-acids * ethanol, parachlorometaxylenol in a sodium C14-16 olefin sulfonate, glutaraldehyde, quaternary ammonium salts, chlorhexidine and chlorhexidine gluconate, curdline sulphate, glycerol, lipids, azodicarbonamide, cicloxolone sodium, dichlorisocyanuric acid (sodium salt, benzalkonium salts, disulfate benzamides and benzisothiazolones, congo red, ascorbic acid, nonoxynol-9, para-aminobenzoic acid, bis(monosuccinamide derivative of p,p’-bis(2-aminoethyl diphenlyi-C60 (fullerene. * merocyanine, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A, rose bengal, hypericin, hypocrellin A, anthraquinones extracted from plants, sulfonated anthraquinones and other anthraquinone derivatives * gramicidine, gossypol, garlic (Allium sativum extract and its components: ajoene, diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin, allyl methyl thioulfinate, methyl allyl thiosulfinate, extracts of ledium, motherworth, celandine, black currant, coaberry and bilberry, extract of Cordia salicifolia, steam distillate from Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae and its component, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone from Calicarpa japonica, isoscullarein (5,7,8,4

  2. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

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    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  3. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  4. QUALITY EVALUATION OF UNIFLORAL AND MULTIFLORAL HONEYS FROM SLOVAKIA AND OTHER COUNTRIES

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    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the blossom honey samples divided into the three groups: acacia (Robinia psedoacacia honeys (n=14, other unifloral honeys (clover Trifolium pratense, lime Tilia cordata, rape Brassica napus, buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum, chestnut Castanea sativa; n=8 and multifloral honeys (n=16. We tested the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of honeys. Followed physico-chemical parameters were tested: water, water content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, pH, free acidity and diastase. From microbiological parameters, we found total plate count (TPC, TPC of anaerobic microorganisms, counts of coliform bacteria, sporulating bacteria and microscopic fungi in the honey samples using dilution plating method. Water content ranged from 13.60 to 21.90 g 100g-1 and two samples of multifloral honeys exceeded the limit value for water content (max 20.00 g 100g-1. HMF ranged from 0.77 to 10.93 mg kg-1 that is typical for fresh and heat-untreated honeys. Average values of pH were 5.02 ± 0.25 for acacia honey, 4.98 ± 0.31 for other unifloral honeys and 4.66 ± 0.45 for multifloral honeys. One sample of multifloral honeys exceeded the limit value for free acidity (max 50 meq kg-1. Higher TPC (above 2.00 log CFU g-1 was detected in 2 out of 14 acacia honeys (14.29%, in 2 out of 8 other unifloral honeys (25.00% and in 5 out of 16 multifloral honeys (31.25%. Microscopic fungi were not found in 3 acacia honeys (21.43%, 2 other unifloral honeys (25.00% and 2 multifloral honeys (12.50%. Overall, the obtained results showed good quality of evaluated honeys.

  5. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica) - A Synthesis and Final Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Roksana; Convey, Peter; De Stefano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum) and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium) supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea). Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2–5 m) was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments. PMID:27078637

  6. Effect of controlled inoculation with specific mycorrhizal fungi from the urban environment on growth and physiology of containerized shade tree species growing under different water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Alessio; Frangi, Piero; Amoroso, Gabriele; Piatti, Riccardo; Faoro, Marco; Bellasio, Chandra; Ferrini, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of selected mycorrhiza obtained in the urban environment on growth, leaf gas exchange, and drought tolerance of containerized plants growing in the nursery. Two-year-old uniform Acer campestre L., Tilia cordata Mill., and Quercus robur L. were inoculated with a mixture of infected roots and mycelium of selected arbuscular (maple, linden) and/or ectomycorrhiza (linden, oak) fungi and grown in well-watered or water shortage conditions. Plant biomass and leaf area were measured 1 and 2 years after inoculation. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and water relations were measured during the first and second growing seasons after inoculation. Our data suggest that the mycelium-based inoculum used in this experiment was able to colonize the roots of the tree species growing in the nursery. Plant biomass was affected by water shortage, but not by inoculation. Leaf area was affected by water regime and, in oak and linden, by inoculation. Leaf gas exchange was affected by inoculation and water stress. V(cmax) and J(max) were increased by inoculation and decreased by water shortage in all species. F(v)/F(m) was also generally higher in inoculated plants than in control. Changes in PSII photochemistry and photosynthesis may be related to the capacity of inoculated plants to maintain less negative leaf water potential under drought conditions. The overall data suggest that inoculated plants were better able to maintain physiological activity during water stress in comparison to non-inoculated plants. PMID:21472449

  7. Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J; Bell, Cameron

    2014-11-15

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) consist of emergent macrophytes that are placed on a floating mat in a pond for water treatment and aesthetic purposes. FTWs may have unique advantages with respect to treating urban runoff within existing retention ponds for excess nutrients. However, research is lacking in providing guidance on performance of specific species for treating urban runoff, and on timing of harvest. Harvesting is needed to remove nutrients permanently from the retention pond. We investigated vegetation effects on FTWs on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal performance and storage in above-ground FTW macrophyte tissues. The study evaluated pickerelweed (PW, Pontederia cordata L.) and softstem bulrush (SB, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) over time in microcosms flushed with water obtained from a nearby urban retention pond in northern Virginia near Washington, DC. While the literature exhibits a wide range of experimental sizes, using the term mesocosm, we have chosen the term microcosm to reflect the small size of our vessel; and do not include effects of sediment. The experiment demonstrated PW outperformed SB for P and N removal. Based upon analysis of the accumulated nutrient removal over time, a harvest of the whole PW and SB plants in September or October is recommended. However, when harvesting only the aerial parts, we recommend harvesting above-ground PW tissues in July or August to maximize nutrient removal. This is because PW translocates most of its nutrients to below-ground storage organs in the fall, resulting in less nutrient mass in the above-ground tissue compared to the case in the summer (vegetative stage). Further research is suggested to investigate whether vegetation can be overly damaged from multiple harvests on an annual basis in temperate regions. PMID:25214393

  8. Spatio-temporal modelling and assessment of within-species phenological variability using thermal time methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.; Clark, R. M.

    2006-05-01

    Phenological observations of flowering date, budding date or senescence provide very valuable time series. They hold out the prospect for relating plant growth to environmental and climatic factors and hence for engendering a better understanding of plant physiology under natural conditions. The statistical establishment of associations between time series of phenological data and climatic factors provides a means of aiding forecasts of the biological impacts of future climatic change. However, it must be kept in mind that plant growth and behaviour vary spatially as well as temporally. Environmental, climatic and genetic diversity can give rise to spatially structured variation on a range of scales. The variations extend from large-scale geographical (clinal) trends, through medium-scale population and sub-population fluctuations, to micro-scale differentiation among neighbouring plants, where spatially close individuals are found to be genetically more alike than those some distance apart. We developed spatio-temporal phenological models that allow observations from multiple locations to be analysed simultaneously. We applied the models to the first-flowering dates of Prunus padus and Tilia cordata from localities as far apart as Norway and the Caucasus. Our growing-degree-day approach yielded a good fit to the available phenological data and yet involved only a small number of model parameters. It indicated that plants should display different sensitivities to temperature change according to their geographical location and the time of year at which they flower. For spring-flowering plants, we found strong temperature sensitivities for islands and archipelagos with oceanic climates, and low sensitivities in the interiors of continents.

  9. 罂粟科植物防御素的预测及生物信息学分析%Prediction and Bioinformatic Analysis of Plant Defensins in Papaveraceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骞; 许琪瑶; 宋南; 龙可人; 张学文; 陈金军

    2014-01-01

    Many researches focus on the medicinal value of alkaloids of Papaveraceae plants.However,the host non -spe-cific defense system,defensin,which contributes the broad -spectrum antimicrobial activity to the plants,are the same pre-cious for study.Based on the analysis of the cDNA clones of defensins we identified from Macleaya cordata,a species of Papaveraceae,31 novel defensins in Papaveraceae are identified by searching on the all registered Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)from the whole family Papaveraceae in the NCBI database.The molecular weight,pI value,net charge,the av-erage hydrophobicity,protein -binding Potential (Boman index),signal peptide,subcellular localization and tertiary struc-ture of the novel identified defensins are predicted and analyzed.The properties of the defensins from Papaveraceae are summarized,and the genetic evolution are analyzed.This study provides a new perspective to study the antibacterial sub-stances in Papaveraceae.%在对博落回防御素研究的基础上,于 NCBI 数据库中系统搜索罂粟科所有已登录的 EST 序列文库,推测出31条新颖的罂粟科植物防御素。分析了这些防御素的相对分子质量、pI 值、净电荷、疏水性平均值、蛋白结合能力、信号肽、亚细胞定位及其三级结构。

  10. Extended alternating-temperature cold acclimation and culture duration improve pear shoot cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y; Reed, B M

    2000-06-01

    Meristems of many pear genotypes can be successfully cryopreserved following 1 week of cold acclimation, but an equal number do not survive the process or have very little regrowth. This study compared commonly used cold acclimation protocols to determine whether the cold acclimation technique used affected the cold hardiness of shoots or the regrowth of cryopreserved meristems. In vitro-grown pear (Pyrus L.) shoots were cold acclimated for up to 16 weeks, then either the shoot tips were tested for cold hardiness or the meristems were cryopreserved by controlled freezing. Cold acclimation consisted of alternating temperatures (22 degrees C with light/-1 degrees C darkness with various photo- and thermoperiods) or a constant temperature (4 degrees C with an 8-h photoperiod or darkness). Compared with nonacclimated controls, both alternating- and constant-temperature acclimation significantly improved postcryopreservation regrowth of P. cordata Desv. and P. pashia Buch. -Ham. ex D. Don meristems. Alternating-temperature acclimation combined with either an 8-h photoperiod or darkness was significantly better than constant-temperature acclimation. Alternating-temperature shoot acclimation for 2 to 5 weeks significantly increased postcryopreservation meristem regrowth, and recovery remained high for up to 15 weeks acclimation. Postcryopreservation meristem regrowth increased with 1 to 5 weeks of constant-temperature acclimation and then declined with longer acclimation. Shoot cold hardiness varied with the acclimation procedure. The LT(50) of shoots acclimated for 10 weeks with alternating temperatures was -25 degrees C; that with constant temperature was -14.7 degrees C; and that of the nonacclimated control was -10 degrees C. Less frequent transfer of cultures also improved acclimation of shoots. Shoots grown without transfer to fresh medium for 6-12 weeks had higher postcryopreservation recovery with shorter periods of acclimation than shoots with a 3-week transfer

  11. Establishment and Evaluation of the Vegetative Community in A Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Industrial Park Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Galbrand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface flow constructed wetland, designed to curve in a kidney shape in order to increase the length to width ratio to 5:1 was used to treat runoff from an industrial park. A natural wetland system located approximately 200 m downstream of the constructed wetland was selected to act as the vegetative community model for the constructed wetland. The selected model was a riparian, open water marsh dominated by emergent macrophytes. Baseline plant species surveying was conducted. In total, 21 emergent wetland plant species, 40 upland vascular plant species, 17 upland shrub species and 13 upland tree species were identified in the model site. The species from the model site were screened for suitability in the constructed wetland based on the following criteria: (a phytoremediation potential (especially metal uptake, (b sedimentation and erosion control, (c habitat function, (d public deterrent potential and (e rate of plant establishment, tolerances and maintenance requirements. Transplantation was chosen as the main vegetation establishment methodology in the constructed wetland. The species woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus and soft rush (Juncus effusus were chosen to dominate the interior berms and littoral edges of the constructed wetland cells. The buffer areas were dominated by meadowsweet (Spiraea alba var. latifolia and the open water areas were dominated by cowlily (Nuphar variegate and pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata species. A diverse, self-sustaining vegetative community was successfully established in the constructed wetland. The transplant success was gauged by mortality census in the spring of 2003. Over all, 138 dead transplants were observed, many of which had died as a direct result of washout. These computes to an overall site establish success rate of about 87.3%. The species, which suffered the highest mortality rates, were the pickerelweed, with approximately 50 dead plants, the meadowsweet with 32 observed dead plants and

  12. Impacts of Type of Fallow and Invasion by Chromolaena odorata on Weed Communities in Crop Fields in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag McDonald

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the humid forest regions of southern Cameroon in central Africa, sectoral and macroeconomic policy reforms introduced in the late 1980s have led to intensified land use, which in turn has resulted in, among other environmental consequences, shortened fallow systems dominated by the Asteraceae shrub, Chromolaena odorata (L. King and Robinson, rather than by secondary forest species. A trial was established to determine the effect of shortened fallow duration and invasion by C. odorata on the weed flora in subsequent mixed food cropping systems. Plots were established in cleared 5- to 7-year-old fallow fields in which the vegetation was either dominated by C. odorata or not, and in which the dominant fallow vegetation in the previous crop–fallow rotation had been either C. odorata, forest, or herbaceous (not dominated by C. odorata. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, maize (Zea mays L., and groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L. were intercropped and weed species were assessed 6, 14, and 30 weeks after crop planting. Soil analyses were conducted to assess the influence of edaphic traits on the distribution and abundance of dominant weed species. The results clearly indicated an enrichment of the weed flora with time after planting, but little difference between fallow histories. Two groups of weed species corresponded with soil characteristics: C. odorata, Cyathula prostrata, Mariscus alternifolius, Mikania cordata, Musanga cecropioides, and Trema orientalis were preponderant on soils with high clay, N, and C contents, and Ageratum conyzoides, Cyperus sp., Haumania danckelmaniana, Paspalum conjugatum, Pouzolzia guineensis, Richardia brasiliensis, Sida rhombifolia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis, Talinum triangulare, and Triumfetta cordifolia were preponderant on sandier soils with high pH, P, and Mg contents.

  13. Environmental and biotic changes across the Permian Triassic boundary in western Tethys: The Bulla parastratotype, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabegoli, Enzo; Perri, M. Cristina; Posenato, Renato

    2007-01-01

    The sedimentary and biotic evolution of a 190 m interval of shallow marine and lagoonal facies in the Bellerophon and Werfen formations in the Southern Alps has allowed comparison of western with eastern Tethys: Meishan D section (southern China), Salt Range (Pakistan) and Abadeh (Iran). Results are as follows: The upper part of the Bellerophon Fm. (Changhsingian changxingensis-deflecta Zone) shows only modest biotic variation connected with tectonically driven local variation and perhaps to more general climatic variation. The δ13C decrease starting in the uppermost 30 m of the Bellerophon Fm. is correlated with decrease in global organic productivity starting about 1 m below the PTB in Chinese sequences and 20 m below in the Abadeh section. This interval culminated in a regression truncated by an unconformity-paraconformity (Unconformity 1). The uppermost Bellerophon Fm. is a ca. 1 m transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycle, the informally named Bulla Mbr (Changhsingian: Early praeparvus Zone). The maximum flooding interval of this unit possibly had a slight increase in biodiversity, mainly in foraminifers, algae and brachiopods. The high increase in biodiversity previously reported may, in part, reflect abundance of biota and organic matter reworked into transgressive and regressive intervals. We suggest partial correlation of the basal unconformity of the Bulla Mbr (Unconformity 1) with the regressive uppermost Bed 24e of the Meishan D section marking the disappearance of foraminifers and algae in the eastern Tethys. We also suggest diachronous disappearance of benthic taxa in Tethys, with the Southern Alps acting like a refugium. The main extinction (first extinction phase, mainly regarding foraminifers) in the Southern Alps occurred in a thin ca. 25 cm interval including the uppermost regressive Bulla Mbr, Unconformity 2, and possibly, the basal transgressive bed of the Tesero Mbr of the Werfen Fm. This interval is correlated in part with regressive Bed 26

  14. Earth’s Rotational Deceleration: Determination of Tidal Friction Independent of Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper determines Earth's rotational deceleration without relying on atomic or ephemeris timescales. Earth's rotation defines the civil time standard called Universal Time (UT). Our previous paper did not examine tidal friction in depth when analyzing the timescale divergence between UT and International Atomic Time (TAI). We examine all available paleontological fossils and deposits for the direct measurements of Earth's past rotation rates, because that record includes all contributing effects. We examine paleontological reports that date Earth's rotation rate using corals, bivalves, brachiopods, rhythmites, and stromatolites. Contributions that vary Earth's moment of inertia, such as continental plate drifts, coastline changes, ice age formations, and viscous glacial rebounds, are superimposed with the secular deceleration. The average deceleration of Earth's rotation rate from all available fossil data is found to be (5.969 ± 1.762) × 10-7 rad yr-2. Our value is 99.8% of the total rotational deceleration determined by Christodoulidis et al., who used artificial satellite data, and our value is 96.6% of the expected tidal friction value obtained by Stephenson and Morrison. Taking the derivative of conserved angular momentum, the predicted lunar orbital deceleration caused by the average rotational deceleration corresponds closely to lunar models. When evaluating the significant time gaps between UT and TAI, Earth's rotational deceleration is a minor contributing factor. Also, the secular deceleration rate is necessary to correctly date ancient astronomical events. We strongly encourage that more ocean paleontological evidence be found to supplement the record to separate the many periodic variations embedded in these data.

  15. Biological response to geochemical and hydrological processes in a shallow submarine cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RADOLOVIĆ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian coastal karst abounds in submerged caves that host a variety of environmental conditions depending on the geomorphology, depth and submarine groundwater discharge. One example is the Y-Cave, a shallow, mostly submerged, horizontal cave on Dugi Otok Island, on the eastern Adriatic coast. This study was aimed at examining the temporal and spatial variability of the marine cave environment, including temperature, salinity, light intensity, cave morphology and hydrodynamism, along with the dissolutional effect caused by the mixing of sea and freshwater. The general distribution of organisms in the Y-Cave was positively correlated to the light gradient and reduced water circulation, thus the highest species diversity and abundance were recorded in the front part of the cave. The phylum Porifera was the most dominant group, and the poriferan species diversity in the cave ranks among the ten highest in the Mediterranean. The middle part of the cave, although completely dark, hosts an abundant population of the gastropod Homalopoma sanguineum and clusters of the gregarious brachiopod Novocrania anomala, whose presence could be connected to tidal hydrodynamics. The absence/scarcity of sessile marine organisms and pronounced corrosion marks at shallow depths inside the cave suggest a freshwater impact in the upper layers of the water column. A year long experiment with carbonate tablets revealed three different, independent ongoing processes affected by the position in the cave: bioaccumulation, dissolution and mechanical erosion. The results of long-term temperature readings also revealed water column stratification within the cave, which was not disturbed by either tidal or wave action. The shallow, partly submerged and relatively small Y-Cave is characterised by a suite of complex environmental conditions, which, together with the resulting distribution of organisms, are unique to this cave.

  16. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky with an atlas of some common fossils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence of eastern North America is a distinctive stratigraphic interval generally characterized by low clastic influx, high organic production in the water column, anaerobic bottom conditions, and the relative absence of fossil evidence for biologic activity. The laminated black shales which constitute most of the black-shale sequence are broken by two major sequences of interbedded greenish-gray, clayey shales which contain bioturbation and pyritized micromorph invertebrates. The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence of benthic life. The rare brachiopods, crinoids, and molluscs that occur in the black shales were probably epiplanktic. A significant physical distinction between the environment in which the black sediments were deposited and that in which the greenish-gray sediments were deposited was the level of dissolved oxygen. The laminated black shales point to anaerobic conditions and the bioturbated greenish-gray shales suggest dysaerobic to marginally aerobic-dysaerobic conditions. A paleoenvironmental model in which quasi-estuarine circulation compliments and enhances the effect of a stratified water column can account for both depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom environments and the absence of oxygen replenishment during black-shale deposition. Periods of abundant clastic influx from fluvial environments to the east probably account for the abundance of clays in the greenish-gray shale as well as the small amounts of oxygen necessary to support the depauparate, opportunistic, benthic faunas found there. These pulses of greenish-gray clastics were short-lived and eventually were replaced by anaerobic conditions and low rates of clastic sedimentation which characterized most of black-shale deposition.

  17. Low functional evenness in a post-extinction Anisian (Middle Triassic) paleocommunity: A case study of the Leidapo Member (Qingyan Formation), south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, Ashley A.; Fraiser, Margaret L.; Tong, Jinnan

    2015-10-01

    Functional diversity, defined as the abundance and distribution of traits present in a community, has important implications for the functioning of ecosystems in the wake of events of major disturbance. Here, we examine the functional diversity of a Middle Triassic paleocommunity in the wake of the largest mass extinction in Earth's history, the Permo-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). Field data was collected and analyzed for a highly diverse invertebrate marine fossil assemblage, the Middle Triassic (Anisian) Leidapo Member (Qingyan Formation) of Qingyan, south China. Previously interpreted to represent a fully restructured paleocommunity in the aftermath of the PTME, our results indicate that the fauna of Leidapo Member had high taxonomic diversity and high functional richness, however was functionally uneven. Despite the presence of 24 different functional groups, the paleocommunity was numerically and ecologically dominated by one functional group consisting of mostly attached epifaunal suspension feeding brachiopods. The overwhelming dominance of this Anisian paleocommunity by one functional group implies that either, 1) resource availability in the community was uneven, and/or 2) strong environmental or niche filtering was in effect. As such, while the Anisian Leidapo Member paleocommunity was deposited in a fairly stable shallow water paleoenvironment, this biotic assemblage would have been very vulnerable to biotic and environmental perturbations. While it is uncertain whether or not this pattern is typical of paleocommunities in the aftermath of the PTME, these results imply that some Anisian paleocommunities may not have been as fully restructured as previously thought, and may have been inherently unstable due to the numerous biotic and environmental changes present in the Triassic.

  18. Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early Permian sequence in the Salt Range, Pakistan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shahid Ghazi; Nigel P Mountney; Aftab Ahmad Butt; Sadaf Sharif

    2012-10-01

    The Early Permian Gondwana regime succession of the Nilawahan Group is exposed only in the Salt Range of Pakistan. After a prolonged episode of non-deposition that spanned much of the Palaeozoic, the 350 m thick predominantly clastic sequence of the Nilawahan Group records a late glacial and post-glacial episode in which a range of glacio-fluvial, marine and fluvial environments evolved and accumulated. The Early Permian succession of the Salt Range has been classified into four formations, which together indicates a changing climatic regime during the Early Permian in the Salt Range region. The lower-most, Tobra Formation unconformably overlies a Cambrian sequence and is composed of tillite, diamictite and fresh water facies, which contain a floral assemblage (Gangamopteris and Glossopteris) that confirms an Asselian age. The Tobra Formation is overlain by marginal marine deposits of the Dandot Formation (Sakmarian), which contain an abundant brachiopods assemblage (Eurydesma and Conularia). Accumulation of the Dandot Formation was terminated by a regional sea-level fall and a change to the deposition of the fluvial deposits of the Warchha Sandstone (Artinskian). The Warchha Sandstone was deposited by high sinuosity meandering, avulsion prone river with well developed floodplains. This episode of fluvial sedimentation was terminated by a widespread marine transgression, as represented by the abrupt upward transition to the overlying shallow marine Sardhai Formation (Kungurian). The Early Permian Gondwana sequence represented by the Nilawahan Group is capped by predominantly shallow shelf carbonate deposits of the Tethyan realm. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic relationship of these four lithostratigraphic units in the Salt Range reveals a complex stratigraphic history for the Early Permian, which is mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level change due to climatic variation associated with climatic amelioration at the end of the major Gondwana glacial episode

  19. Towards a better understanding of magnesium-isotope ratios from marine skeletal carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Dorothee; Buhl, Dieter; Witbaard, Rob; Richter, Detlev K.; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2009-10-01

    This study presents magnesium stable-isotope compositions of various biogenic carbonates of several marine calcifying organisms and an algae species, seawater samples collected from the western Dutch Wadden Sea, and reference materials. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of mineralogy, taxonomy and environmental factors (e.g., seawater isotopic composition, temperature, salinity) on magnesium-isotopic (δ 26Mg) ratios of skeletal carbonates. Using high-precision multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we observed that the magnesium-isotopic composition of seawater from the semi-enclosed Dutch Wadden Sea is identical to that of open marine seawater. We further found that a considerable component of the observed variability in δ 26Mg values of marine skeletal carbonates can be attributed to differences in mineralogy. Furthermore, magnesium-isotope fractionation is species-dependent, with all skeletal carbonates being isotopically lighter than seawater. While δ 26Mg values of skeletal aragonite and high-magnesium calcite of coralline red algae indicate the absence or negligibility of metabolic influences, the δ 26Mg values of echinoids, brachiopods and bivalves likely result from a taxon-specific level of control on Mg-isotope incorporation during biocalcification. Moreover, no resolvable salinity and temperature effect were observed for coralline red algae and echinoids. In contrast, Mg-isotope data of bivalves yield ambiguous results, which require further validation. The data presented here, point to a limited use of Mg isotopes as temperature proxy, but highlight the method's potential as tracer of seawater chemistry through Earth's history.

  20. Faunal associations, paleoecology and paleoenvironment of marine Jurassic rocks in the Mae Sot, Phop Phra, and Umphang areas, western Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEESOOK; Assanee; YAMEE; Chotima; SAENGSRICHAN; Wirote

    2009-01-01

    We here report a paleoecological analysis and depositional history of the marine Jurassic (Toarcian–early Bajocian) strata cropping out in the western part of Thailand, based on bivalve assemblages with additional data from ammonites, brachiopods, and microfossils. Generally, the benthic bivalve facies in most outcrops is rich in infaunal, semi-infaunal and epifaunal suspension-feeders. Of these, infaunal forms dominate. The diversity of this benthic assemblage was influenced by energy level, substrate, sedimentation rate, and salinity. Low to intermediate energy levels and rather soft fine-grained siliciclastic substrate are proposed as factors governing faunal distribution and explaining the greater abundance and diversity of infaunal than epifaunal suspension-feeders. There were paleoenvironmental changes both in space and time, i.e., from south to north (Umphang to Mae Sot) and from Early Bajocian to Toarcian. In the Toarcian, most outcrops in Umphang are dominated by benthic bivalve facies (infaunal, semi-infaunal, and epifaunal associations). This implies warm, shallow water (inner neritic, 50―100 m) and oxygenated conditions except for the Mae Sot area where a deeper setting (outer neritic to possibly upper continental slope, 50―200 m) with restricted basinal anoxic conditions is favored as indicated by the presence of Bositra. After higher energy conditions in the Toarcian, lower energy conditions with low sediment supplies prevail in the Alenian, and the Mae Sot area was still a restricted basin. As a result of higher sea levels, the oxygen content in the basin is increased, resulting in the presence of the ammonites. By the end of the Alenian-early Bajocian, an ammonite-bivalve association (mixed facies A) and the presence of corals and microfauna (mixed facies B) are dominant but pass upwards to near-shore higher energy conditions in most areas except for restricted basin in Mae Sot. By the middle Bajocian the environment in all areas had changed

  1. Microconchids from microbialite ecosystem immediately after end-Permian mass extinction: ecologic selectivity and implications for microbialite ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Chen, Z.; Wang, Y. B.; Ou, W.; Liao, W.; Mei, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) carbonate successions are often characterized by the presence of microbialite buildups worldwide. The widespread microbialites are believed as indication of microbial proliferation immediately after the P-Tr mass extinction. The death of animals representing the primary consumer trophic structure of marine ecosystem in the P-Tr crisis allows the bloom of microbes as an important primary producer in marine trophic food web structure. Thus, the PTB microbialite builders have been regarded as disaster taxa of the P-Tr ecologic crisis. Microbialite ecosystems were suitable for most organisms to inhabit. However, increasing evidence show that microbialite dwellers are also considerably abundant and diverse, including mainly foraminifers Earlandia sp. and Rectocornuspira sp., lingulid brachiopods, ostrocods, gastropods, and microconchids. In particular, ostracods are extremely abundant in this special ecosystem. Microconchid-like calcareous tubes are also considerably abundant. Here, we have sampled systematically a PTB microbialite deposit from the Dajiang section, southern Guizhou Province, southwest China and have extracted abundant isolated specimens of calcareous worm tubes. Quantitative analysis enables to investigate stratigraphic and facies preferences of microconchids in the PTB microbialites. Our preliminary result indicates that three microconchid species Microconchus sp., Helicoconchus elongates and Microconchus aberrans inhabited in microbialite ecosystem. Most microconchilds occurred in the upper part of the microbialite buildup and the grainstone-packstone microfacies. Very few microconchilds were found in the rocks bearing well-developed microbialite structures. Their stratigraphic and environmental preferences indicate proliferation of those metazoan organisms is coupled with ebb of the microbialite development. They also proliferated in some local niches in which microbial activities were not very active even if those

  2. Progress and review of the studies on the end-Triassic mass extinction event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Shenghui; LU; Yuanzheng; XU; Daoyi

    2005-01-01

    The mass extinction at the end-Triassic is one of the five biggest in the Phanerozoic. However,it is the least well understood among these five events, and only till last decade it became a great academic interesting subject to geologists. The evidences for this event come obviously from bivalves, brachiopods, ammonites, corals, radiolaria, ostracods and foraminifera of marine habitats, and plants and tetrapods of terrestrial realm. By contrast, for some of other groups, such as marine gastropods and marine vertebrates, no mass extinction has been recognized yet. The extinction event is strongly marked at specific level but shown a complicated situation at generic and family levels. Dramatic changing of the environment, such as the temperature raise due to the greenhouse effect, the marine anoxic habitats caused by a sudden transgression after the regression at the end of Triassic, has been claimed to be the main cause of the extinction. Many hypotheses have been suggested to demonstrate the mechanisms of the environment changing, among which two popular ones are the bolide impact and volcanic eruption. The Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J) boundary mass extinction event is still poorly understood because no enough data have been obtained from the Tr-J boundary successional sections of both marine and terrestrial sediments, and most of these studies were regionally restricted. The basic aspects of the event and its associated environmental conditions remain poorly characterized and the causal mechanism or mechanisms are equivocal. Some authors even doubt its occurrence. China has many successionally developed terrestrial and marine Tr-J sections. Detailed studies of these sections may be important and significant for well understanding of the event.

  3. The middle Toarcian cold snap: Trigger of mass extinction and carbonate factory demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krencker, F. N.; Bodin, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Suan, G.; Mattioli, E.; Kabiri, L.; Föllmi, K. B.; Immenhauser, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Pliensbachian and Toarcian (Early Jurassic) ages are characterised by several, relatively short-lived carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and faunal turnover. The cause(s) of biotic and abiotic disturbances remain unclear but most probably involved increased magmatic activity in the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province. The Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE) might represent the most extreme of these events, and as such, is becoming increasingly well documented worldwide. So far, other critical time intervals of the Pliensbachian-Toarcian have received considerably less attention. Here, the effects of the Middle Toarcian Variabilis event on the neritic-epeiric realm are explored making use of three well-exposed and extended stratigraphic sections in the Central High Atlas, Morocco. The carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of 112 bulk micrite samples were analysed and placed against 39 data points from carefully screened brachiopod valves in order to differentiate between palaeo-environmental and diagenetic patterns. Additionally, the phosphorus concentrations of 109 micrite samples were determined to evaluate the P-cycling. In all studied sections, an upper middle Toarcian major change from carbonate- to clastics-dominated sedimentation is recorded, pointing to a first-order carbonate production crisis. Our results reveal that these major sedimentological patterns coincide with an increase of oxygen-isotope ratios as well as a decrease of phosphorous accumulation rates. This suggests that the late middle Toarcian carbonate ramp crisis was related to a transient cooling event, potentially triggered by pulsed massive SO4 exhalation events in the context of the Karoo large igneous province. Short-term cooling was likely amplified by the drawdown of atmospheric CO2 levels related to the coeval decline of neritic carbonate precipitation and the warm water mass circulation disruption between the Tethys and the continental shelf. The data shown here provide

  4. Low global sensitivity of metabolic rate to temperature in calcified marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Morley, Simon A; Bates, Amanda E; Clark, Melody S; Day, Robert W; Lamare, Miles; Martin, Stephanie M; Southgate, Paul C; Tan, Koh Siang; Tyler, Paul A; Peck, Lloyd S

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic rate is a key component of energy budgets that scales with body size and varies with large-scale environmental geographical patterns. Here we conduct an analysis of standard metabolic rates (SMR) of marine ectotherms across a 70° latitudinal gradient in both hemispheres that spanned collection temperatures of 0-30 °C. To account for latitudinal differences in the size and skeletal composition between species, SMR was mass normalized to that of a standard-sized (223 mg) ash-free dry mass individual. SMR was measured for 17 species of calcified invertebrates (bivalves, gastropods, urchins and brachiopods), using a single consistent methodology, including 11 species whose SMR was described for the first time. SMR of 15 out of 17 species had a mass-scaling exponent between 2/3 and 1, with no greater support for a 3/4 rather than a 2/3 scaling exponent. After accounting for taxonomy and variability in parameter estimates among species using variance-weighted linear mixed effects modelling, temperature sensitivity of SMR had an activation energy (Ea) of 0.16 for both Northern and Southern Hemisphere species which was lower than predicted under the metabolic theory of ecology (Ea 0.2-1.2 eV). Northern Hemisphere species, however, had a higher SMR at each habitat temperature, but a lower mass-scaling exponent relative to SMR. Evolutionary trade-offs that may be driving differences in metabolic rate (such as metabolic cold adaptation of Northern Hemisphere species) will have important impacts on species abilities to respond to changing environments. PMID:24036933

  5. Stable Isotope Group 1981 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal studies were reported on the Tauhara, Wairakei, Orakeikorako and Mokai areas. We assisted the two N.Z. geothermal consultant companies with isotope analyses and the Geothermal Institute with lectures on stable isotope aspects of the diploma course. Sample collections were made at Ngawha and Wairakei. Oxygen isotope studies of central North Island volcanics have shown a negative correlation of delta 18O with SiO2 content of dacites and rhyolites; contamination of subcrustal rhyolite differentiates by greywacke appears the best explanation. A series of four papers on 'Environmental Isotopes in New Zealand Hydrology' was published during the year. Parts 1 and 2 described the principles and measurement techniques and Parts 3 and 4 described isotope studies of the Pupu Springs, Takaka and the groundwater resources of the Waimea Plains respectively. Carbon isotopes have proved useful in elucidating the food sources of freshwater insects in forest streams on the West Coast and brachiopods from Fiordland. Potassium-argon dating studies were completed on volcanics of the Auckland Islands, North Canterbury and East Otago, basement granites and meta-sediments of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica and slates in Western Tasmania. Rubidium-strontium computer programs were developed to control the solid-source mass spectrometer, chemical methods for preparation of strontium and rubidium samples were substantially improved and the first analyses of USGS rock standards were completed. Fission-track dating on minerals from granites from Buller and Westland have shown ages of 100-150Ma on the West Coast decreasing to about 5Ma at the Alpine Fault, reflecting recent uplift there

  6. Muscle Articulations: Flexible Jaw Joints Made of Soft Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeno, T A; Clark, A J

    2015-08-01

    This study surveys animals that use soft tissues rather than rigid links to build jaw joints. Hard biting elements are useful; they are used in piercing or shearing during feeding and interactive behaviors and can directly impact survival and reproduction. The best understood biting systems include biting elements that are mounted on rigid jaw links that form a joint capable of transmitting the bite reaction forces. As such, jaws must incorporate joints that resist compression. Many jaw joints are "sliding joints", in which jaw links come into direct contact and the shape of the sliding contact surfaces dictates possible motions. There are, however, organisms that have biting elements on jaws that are made of flexible muscle and connective tissues. If arranged as a muscular hydrostat, in which multiple orientations of the muscle fibers may co-contract to provide turgid skeletal support, the multifunctional joint not only (a) provides the force to move the biting elements, but also (b) creates repositionable pivots and (c) transmits bite reaction forces. Such flexible joints, termed "muscle articulations", may be important to a number of soft-bodied animals. In this survey, we review the function of previously described muscle articulations: the joints found between inarticulate brachiopods' valves, cephalopods' beaks, the hooks of kalyptorhynch flatworms, and errant polychaetes' jaws. We also review the morphology, physiology, and feeding behaviors of the hagfish as a putative muscle articulation in an effort to understand how this jawless craniate is capable of biting with surprising force, seemingly without the benefit of any obvious method of opposing the force of the dental plate that is used to remove portions of food. Initial analysis suggests that a muscle articulation may be a key feature in coordinating head and body movements to provide the leverage needed for strong "bites". PMID:25912361

  7. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  8. Correlation of carbon isotope events in the Danish Upper Cretaceous chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schovsbo, N.H.; Rasmussen, Susanne L.; Sheldon, E. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Stemmerik, L. (Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Geography and Geology, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    A high resolution carbon isotope (delta13C) profile through the upper Campanian to Maastrichtian chalk was recently completed based on material from the Stevns-1 core from the Stevns peninsula, eastern Denmark. The delta13C variation of marine carbonates essentially reflects global perturbations in the carbon cycle, i.e. the burial fluxes of carbonate carbon versus organic carbon. It is widely observed that the delta13C variation broadly tracks the eustatic sea-level curve, and that delta13C curves can be used for stratigraphic correlation. In the Stevns-1 core, a total of 29 notable isotope changes have been identified in the upper Campanian to Maastrichtian succession. In order to evaluate the stratigraphic significance of the isotope changes, the variation in delta13C values of the mid-Maastrichtian chalk from cores in eastern Denmark and the Danish North Sea, and from outcrops at Roerdal, northern Jylland has been examined. The selected interval is characterised by distinct chalk and marl cycles in the Stevns-1 and Karlslunde-1 cores and in the Roerdal quarry, where as a non-cyclic clean chalk is found in the M-10X well from the North Sea. In the Roerdal quarry, the chalk-marl unit spans the upper-lower Maastrichtian boundary in the Boreal brachiopod and belemnite stratigraphies. In Stevns-1 and Karlslunde-1 the chalk-marl unit was deposited during the younger part of nannofossil subzone UC20b. This paper presents preliminary results of a high-resolution study of carbon isotopes, carried out by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) in co-operation with partners from the Department of Geography and Geology at the University of Copenhagen. This paper is a product of the Cretaceous Research Centre (CRC) at Geocenter Denmark. (au)

  9. Temperate carbonate debrites and short-lived earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.

    2012-03-01

    This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium isotope dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto

  10. Preliminary report on the Oldenburg “butter shale” in the Upper Ordovician (Katian; Richmondian Waynesville Formation, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Aucoin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician; upper Katian of the Cincinnati Arch region, Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky contains several bed packages informally referred to as “butter shales” or “trilobite shales”. These packages are typically 1–2 m of relatively pure, homogeneous claystone with isolated, lenticular limestone beds. These claystones are most widely known for their excellent preservation of abundant trilobites, especially Isotelus and Flexicalymene, as well as diverse and commonly articulated bivalves, and nautiloids. A newly recognized butter shale interval in the Clarksville Member of the Waynesville Formation contains a typical butter-shale fossil assemblage, dominated by bivalves, orthoconic cephalopods and trilobites. To better study the fabric of this claystone, a large, epoxy-coated block of the claystone was dry-cut. Polished surfaces show a variety of otherwise cryptic features, including pervasive bioturbation and the presence of probable lingulid escape burrows (Lingulichnus, as well as abundant fodinichnia (Chondrites, Planolites, Teichichnus. Preservation of articulated trilobites and closed bivalves in approximate living position, as well as escape burrows, indicates deposition as a series of mud burial events or obrution deposits. We suggest that the butter shales resulted from net accumulation of multiple episodes of re-suspended mud deposition, which rapidly smothered organisms and resulted in exceptional preservation. Between events the seafloor was colonized by abundant deposit-feeding infaunal organisms, which destabilized the substrate and generated turbidity near the sediment–water interface, thus inhibiting sessile suspension feeders. Rapid net deposition was also interrupted by more prolonged periods (tens to hundreds of years of low sedimentation that permitted colonization by epifaunal brachiopod-dominated communities. While most butter shale units are regionally extensive, the Oldenburg is

  11. The Ordovician Quebrada Grande Formation, Cordón de Lila (Antofagasta Region, northern Chile: stratigraphicand paleogeographic significance La Formación QuebradaGrande, del Ordovícico, Cordón de Lila (Región de Antofagasta, norte de Chile: significado estratigráfico y paleogeográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cordón de Lila is located immediately to the south of the Salar de Atacama, in northern Chile. The geology of the Cordón de Lila is characterized by extensive outcrops of Early Paleozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks (Cordón de Lila Igneous and Sedimentary Complex; CISL that form the 'Arco magmático occidental' (AMO which is intruded by a multiple suite of Middle Ordovician to Lower Silurian granitoids. In this contribution we report the results of a sedimentological and paleontological study of a recently discovered 1,600 m thick marine Ordovician sedimentary sequence (Quebrada Grande Formation which unconformably overlies the CISL. The Quebrada Grande Formation comprises three mayor facies associations. In stratigrafic order, these facies associations are: matrix-supported conglomerates (1, interbedded sandstones and siltstones (2 and clast-supported conglomerates (3. Facies association (1 is interpreted as debris flow deposits accumulated in a proximal marine fan-delta setting while the overlying sandstones and siltstones facies (2 represent open-marine platform deposits. Clast-supported conglomerates (3 are the record of high-energy sedimentary episodes during which coarse sediments reached the distal part of the fan-delta. The detrital fraction of the Quebrada Grande Formation is derived from the erosion of the Cambrian?-Lower Ordovician? CISL volcanic arc, the plutonio roots of the arc and its continental basement. The age of this formation is well constrained by the occurrence of brachiopods (Paralenorthis sp., Monorthis transversa Benedetto, and Mollesella? sp. near the base and graptolites (Tetragraptus sp. and Cryptograptus? sp. towards the middle of the succession. Both brachiopods and graptolites indicate an Arenigian to early Llanvirnian (Darriwilian age. The brachiopod assemblage from Cordón de Lila displays affinities with the Famatina basin fauna of western Argentina. The absence of taxa in common between the AMO and

  12. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

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    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-02-01

    (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Białowieża National Park.

  13. An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2012-01-01

    cochinchinensis, Trichosanthes anguina, Trichosanthes cordata, Trichosanthes dioica, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. The review of the available scientific literature showed that the use of a number of the above-mentioned plants in folk medicine can be validated based on their reported pharmacological activity studies. Conclusion: Taken together, the plants present excellent potential for further scientific studies, which may result in discovery of novel compounds of therapeutic interest.

  14. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment

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    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  15. Екологічна роль омолоджувального обрізування дерев роду Tilia L. у вуличних насадженнях Житомира

    OpenAIRE

    Олексійченко, Н. О.; Матковська, С. І.; Oleksiuchenko, N.; Matkovska, S.; Алексейченко, Н. А.; Матковская, С. И.

    2015-01-01

    Наведено результати вивчення впливу омолоджувального обрізування на дерева роду Tilia L., визначено фітосанітарний стан представників видів липи серцелистої (Тilia cordata Mill.) та липи крупнолистої (Тilia platiphyllos Scop.) на центральних вулицях Житомира. Встановлено, що глибоке обрізування крони дерев липи з роками негативно впливає на життєвий стан дерев, позначається на їхній декоративності, прискорює про- цеси старіння та скорочує середню тривалість життя. Виявлено, що ...

  16. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  17. Influence of age and composition of shelterbelts plants on enzyme activity and auxine - phytophormone IAA concentrations in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciech Szajdak, Lech; Gaca, Wioletta; Meysner, Teresa; Styła, Katarzyna; Maryganova, Victoria

    2010-05-01

    The investigations were carried out in Dezydery Chlapowski Agroecological Landscape Park in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowlands, 16° 45 E and 52° 01 N). The soil samples were taken from two shelterbelts differing the age and the composition of trees. First 200-years-old shelterbelt is consisting mainly by Robinia pseudacacia and small admixture of Quercus robur and Larix deciduas. It has 2 kilometers of length and 36 meters of width. The second one new shelterbelt (many species) was created in 1993 and consists of several species of plants such as: Quercus pertraea and Quercus robur, Larix decidua, Pinus silvestris, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus intermedia and Tilia cordata. Its length is 340 meters and its width is 17.5 meters. All shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were introduced on Hapludalfs soils (according to FAO classification). In soil under two shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields the activity of the following enzymes nitrate reductase, urease, xanthine oxidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase activity were measured. In addition, the concentrations of iron ions, indole-3-acetic acids, total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium and nitrates were determined. In soils under shelterbelts compared to adjoining cultivated fields higher content of organic matter was observed, because the accumulation of soil organic matter under shelterbelts is suggested to be the main mechanism of long-term withdrawal of various chemical elements from cycling in the agroecosystems. However, many chemical, biochemical, physical and biological processes control conversions of organic compounds in soils and finally these processes depend on the organic matter content and particularly on humic substances. Due to a very good developed root system of trees in shelterbelts than cultivated plants, they transpire more than 34% water than cultivated fields and intensively take up nutrients and finally improve quality of ground

  18. Importância econômica, epidemiologia e controle das intoxicações por plantas no Brasil

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    Clarice R.M. Pessoa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A importância econômica, epidemiologia e controle das intoxicações por plantas em animais domésticos no Brasil são revisadas. Com os dados dos laboratórios de diagnóstico de diferentes regiões do país, as perdas anuais por mortes de animais foram estimadas em 820.761 a 1.755.763 bovinos, 399.800 a 445.309 ovinos, 52.675 a 63.292 caprinos e 38.559 equinos. No Brasil, atualmente, o número de plantas tóxicas é de 131 espécies e 79 gêneros e aumenta permanentemente. No entanto, a maioria das perdas são causadas por poucas plantas, incluindo Palicourea marcgravii, Amorimia spp., Senecio spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Ateleia glazioviana e Cestrum laevigatum em bovinos, Brachiaria spp em bovinos e ovinos, Nierembergia veitchii, Mimosa tenuiflora e Ipomoea asarifolia em ovinos, plantas que contêm swainsonina (Ipomoea carnea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia em caprinos e Brachiaria humidicola e Crotalaria retusa em equinos. Os principais fatores epidemiológicos relacionados às intoxicações por plantas incluem palatabilidade, fome, sede, facilitação social, desconhecimento da planta, acesso a plantas tóxicas, dose tóxica, período de ingestão, variações de toxicidade e resistência/susceptibilidade dos animais às intoxicações. Quanto aos métodos de controle e profilaxia descrevem-se os resultados obtidos no Brasil com métodos recentemente desenvolvidos, incluindo controle biológico, aversão alimentar condicionada, utilização de variedades não tóxicas de forrageiras, utilização de animais resistentes às intoxicações e técnicas de indução de resistência.

  19. Isolation, identification and drug sensitivity tests of Proteus mirabilis from rotten-skin disease of Rana spinosa%棘胸蛙烂皮病奇异变形杆菌的分离、鉴定及对药物敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君; 熊筱娟

    2012-01-01

    从患烂皮病的棘胸蛙(Rana spinosa)中分离到一株致病菌,通过形态学、生理生化试验等方法鉴定该致病菌株为奇异变形杆菌(Proteus mirabilis).同时,通过抑菌圈法研究了该菌株对11种抗生素、11种中草药、4种消毒剂的敏感性.结果显示:该菌株对头孢曲松、阿莫西林、链霉素、诺氟沙星、庆大霉素、卡那霉素、氯霉素等抗生素敏感,对四环素、红霉素不敏感;未观察到黄芪、茵陈对该菌的抑制作用,忍冬藤抑菌效果最好,其次依次为紫花地丁、金银花与甘草、鱼腥草、大青叶与柴胡、陈皮、黄连;致病菌株对消毒剂的敏感性依次为:高锰酸钾>三氯异氰脲酸>硫酸铜>氧化钙.%Pathogenic strain originated from the rotten-skin disease of Rana spinosa was isolated. The isolated strain was I-dentified as Proteus mirabilis by its morphological and biochemical properties. At the same time, the susceptibility of isolated strain to antibiotics, Chinese herbal medicine and disinfectant was studied by zone of inhibition testing. Results showed: it was sensitive to ceftriaxone sodium, amoxicillin, streptomyclin, norfloxacin, gentamycin sulfate, kanamycin and chloroamphenicol; it was not sensitive to tetracycline and erythromyclin. Astragalus membranaceus and Artemisiac apil-laris Thunb had less inhibition to this strain. The bigger inhibition zone is Lonicera japonica, Viola philippica Car, Honeysuckle and Radix glycyrrhiza, Houttuynia cordata Thunb, halts indigotica Fortune and Radix Bupleuri, Pericarpium citri, Coptis chinensis Franch sorted by size. Inhibitory effect of these disinfectors.was: Potassium permanganate >Trichloro iso-cyanuric acid > Copper sulfate > Calcium oxide.

  20. Accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 by herbs of Chechersk region of the Gomel area in the postchernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 2005 the authors performed the studying of the herbs growing in territories with various density of radioactive soil contamination by Cs 137 to define the opportunities of their using by local population. There were analyzed 52 kinds of herbs including 7 kinds of trees, 3 kinds of bushes, by one kind of subshrubs and small subshrubs and 39 kinds of herbs. The results of the research proved the proportional dependence of plants contamination by Cs 137 from soil contamination density. The herbs have shown specificity of contamination by radionuclide Cs 137 and transition coefficient. The territories with soil contamination density higher than 5 Ci/rm2 are unsuitable for collecting herbs. The list of the herbs adequate to the requirements of the Republican Permissible Levels /Medicinal-Technical Raw Materials TC-2004 on specific activity, equal to 370 Bq/kg is resulted below: Leucanthemum vulgare - 340,5; Nettle diclinous (Urtica dioica) - 283,5; Lime-tree (Tilia cordata) - 253; Perforated St.John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) - 247; Cornflower (Centaurea jacea) - 233,7; Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) - 223; Oenothera biennis - 176,9; Sagebrush (Artemisia vulgaris) - 144; March woundwort (Stachys palustris) - 138,8; Bishop's weed (Aegopodium podagraria) - 138,1; Narrow-leaved willow-herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium) - 132,3. The kinds of the herbs are listed on decrease of accumulation of Cs 137 radionuclide in their overground part. They can be prepared and used. The results of studying of Sr 90 accumulation by herbs have shown that the wild strawberry wood (Fragaria vesca) possessed the greatest specific activity and transition coefficient - 995.2 Bq/kg, the least sizes belong to a dandelion medicinal (Taraxacum officinale) - 92.5 Bq/kg . The kinds including a burdock big (Arctium lappa), Solomon's seal fragrant (Poligonatum odoratum), a blackberry grey (Rubus caesius), May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), and meadow-sweet (Filipendula ulmaria

  1. Assessment of the nutrient removal effectiveness of floating treatment wetlands applied to urban retention ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J

    2014-05-01

    The application of floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) in point and non-point source pollution control has received much attention recently. Although the potential of this emerging technology is supported by various studies, quantifying FTW performance in urban retention ponds remains elusive due to significant research gaps. Actual urban retention pond water was utilized in this mesocosm study to evaluate phosphorus and nitrogen removal efficiency of FTWs. Multiple treatments were used to investigate the contribution of each component in the FTW system with a seven-day retention time. The four treatments included a control, floating mat, pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.), and softstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani). The water samples collected on Day 0 (initial) and 7 were analyzed for total phosphorus (TP), total particulate phosphorus, orthophosphate, total nitrogen (TN), organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate-nitrite nitrogen, and chlorophyll-a. Statistical tests were used to evaluate the differences between the four treatments. The effects of temperature on TP and TN removal rates of the FTWs were described by the modified Arrhenius equation. Our results indicated that all three FTW designs, planted and unplanted floating mats, could significantly improve phosphorus and nitrogen removal efficiency (%, E-TP and E-TN) compared to the control treatment during the growing season, i.e., May through August. The E-TP and E-TN was enhanced by 8.2% and 18.2% in the FTW treatments planted with the pickerelweed and softstem bulrush, respectively. Organic matter decomposition was likely to be the primary contributor of nutrient removal by FTWs in urban retention ponds. Such a mechanism is fostered by microbes within the attached biofilms on the floating mats and plant root surfaces. Among the results of the four treatments, the FTWs planted with pickerelweed had the highest E-TP, and behaved similarly with the other two FTW treatments for nitrogen removal

  2. Reducing and correcting for contamination of ecosystem water stable isotopes measured by isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Markus; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Lett, Céline; Biron, Philippe; Richard, Patricia; Bariac, Thierry; Seibt, Ulli

    2012-01-30

    Concern exists about the suitability of laser spectroscopic instruments for the measurement of the (18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H values of liquid samples other than pure water. It is possible to derive erroneous isotope values due to optical interference by certain organic compounds, including some commonly present in ecosystem-derived samples such as leaf or soil waters. Here we investigated the reliability of wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) (18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H measurements from a range of ecosystem-derived waters, through comparison with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We tested the residual of the spectral fit S(r) calculated by the CRDS instrument as a means to quantify the difference between the CRDS and IRMS δ-values. There was very good overall agreement between the CRDS and IRMS values for both isotopes, but differences of up to 2.3‰ (δ(18)O values) and 23‰ (δ(2)H values) were observed in leaf water extracts from Citrus limon and Alnus cordata. The S(r) statistic successfully detected contaminated samples. Treatment of Citrus leaf water with activated charcoal reduced, but did not eliminate, δ(2)H(CRDS) - δ(2)H(IRMS) linearly for the tested range of 0-20% charcoal. The effect of distillation temperature on the degree of contamination was large, particularly for δ(2)H values but variable, resulting in positive, negative or no correlation with distillation temperature. S(r) and δ(CRDS) - δ(IRMS) were highly correlated, in particular for δ(2)H values, across the range of samples that we tested, indicating the potential to use this relationship to correct the δ-values of contaminated plant water extracts. We also examined the sensitivity of the CRDS system to changes in the temperature of its operating environment. We found that temperature changes ≥4 °C for δ(18)O values and ≥10 °C for δ(2)H values resulted in errors larger than the CRDS precision for the respective isotopes and advise the use of such

  3. The denitrification properties of soils under three different shelterbelts and in adjoining cultivated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajdak, L.; Augustin, J.; Gaca, W.; Meysner, T.; Styla, K.

    2009-04-01

    The investigations were carried out in Agroecological Landscape Park in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań). Intensively agricultural is observed in this region. Characteristic features of this landscape are shelterbelts created in the XIX century by general Dezydery Chlapowski. All shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were introduced on Hapludalfs soils. Three shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were selected for this experiment. Two of them were created approximately 200 years ago. The first shelterbelt consists mainly of Robinia pseudoacacia and small admixture Quercus robur and Quercus petraea. The second one consists of Crataegus monogyna. The third one - a young shelterbelt was created in 1993 and consists of several species of plants such as: Quercus petraea and Quercus robur, Larix deciduas, Pinus sylvestris, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus intermedia, Tilia cordata and some other tree species. On soils were determinated: activity of nitrate reductase, activity of peroxidase, activity of urease and activity of xantine oxidase, total iron, Fe+3, Fe+2, total nitrogen, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), current N2O, N2 and CH4 flux rates, and pH (in 1M KCl). The contents of total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, N-NO3- and N-NH4+ were higher in the soil under old shelterbelts (Robinia pseudoacacia and Crataegus monogyna) than under young one. It points out the highest accumulation of organic matter in soils under two old shelterbelts. The same also applied to the current N2O and N2 fluxes. Unlike this CH4exchange was just low everywhere. Nitrate reductase, urease, xantine oxidase and peroxidase activities participates in the cycle of nitrogen and are sensitive on redox potential in soil. The highest activity of nitrate reductase and xantine oxidase activity were observed in young shelterbelt. Activity of urease and activity of peroxidase were higher under two old shelterbelts Robinia

  4. Structural study of photodegraded acrylic-coated lime wood using Fourier transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Simionescu, Bogdan C

    2013-06-01

    The weathering of acrylic films and acrylic-coated lime wood (Tillia cordata Mill.) were examined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results showed chemical changes induced by exposure to weathering conditions, in both films and coated wood. The observed spectral changes of the acrylic films refer to the absorption band assigned to the C-O stretching, which progressively decreases with increasing exposure time. In the spectra of treated wood samples the main signal indicating the advance of oxidation during the photodegradation exposure is the gradual increase and broadening of the band in the carbonyl region. This is due to the formation of the non-hydrogen bonded aliphatic carboxylic acids and γ-lactone structures in the acrylic resin and of the nonconjugated ketones, carboxyl groups, and lactones in wood. As a consequence, the increase of the 1734 cm(-1) band is due to the degradation of lignin from wood surface. These observations are also supported by the decreased intensities of the bands at 1598 and 1505 cm(-1), assigned to C=C of aromatic skeletal (lignin). The relative intensity of the characteristic aromatic lignin band at 1505 cm(-1) decreases up to 25% of its original value after weathering, being less than half of the value obtained for uncoated wood. Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) correlation spectroscopy was used to identify the sequence of the modifications of the different stretching vibrations bands under the weathering conditions, the method allowing the prediction of the order of degradation reactions. The acrylic resin degradation starts with the formation of radicals by abstraction of the tertiary hydrogen atoms of the methyl acrylate units and the α-CH3 groups from the ethyl methacrylate units. The subsequent decomposition and oxidation led to the formation of alcohol groups, hydroperoxides, ketones, and/or carboxylic acid groups. The 2D IR correlation spectra of

  5. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  6. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  7. Characteristics of seedlings regeneration in Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata secondary forests in Qinling Mountains%秦岭山地锐齿栎次生林幼苗更新特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康冰; 王得祥; 李刚; 高妍夏; 张莹; 杜焰玲

    2012-01-01

    Quercus aliena Blume var. acuteserrata Maxim, ex Wenz. is an important dominant species in temperate mid-elevation mountainous areas of China with significant functions in water resource conservation and ecological stabilization in forested ecosystems. Forty-two plots, including 210 subplots, were used to document the occurrence of trees, saplings, woody seedlings and habitat characteristics for this tree and associated woody species in a second growth forest in the Qinling Mountains in 2010. We analyzed the important values of trees, saplings and woody seedlings, regeneration niche breath, and tree regeneration dynamics under different conditions, including stand density, aspect, and altitude in Q. aliena var. acuteserrata secondary forests. The results show Q. aliena var. acuteserrata had an important value of 149. 18% with none of the other 24 woody tree species in the tree layer approaching that level of importance. The subdominant species in the tree layer were Pinus armandii Franch. and Carpinus cordata Blume. 25 tree species of the 41 woody species in the regeneration layer. The woody plants in the regeneration layer were abundant with trees seedlings dominating. This appears to be beneficial to the optimization of the community structure and function. The dominant seedling species were Acer grosseri Pax, litsea pungens Hemsl. , and others. Seedlings of these two species were abundant in the regeneration layer with their height and age class lower than the dominant species. The height class of seedlings and saplings in the understory of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata secondary forest shows that woody plants regenerated vigorously. The biological chain of seedling to sapling was complete. Most regeneration was from seedlings rather than stump sprouts. We analyzed ten kinds of dominant regeneration tree populations. The regeneration niche breath of the sapling population was higher than that of seedling population for the same tree species which indicated the

  8. Body Size Preference of Marine Animals in Relation to Extinction Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, A.; Idgunji, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our project encompasses an extremely specific aspect in relation to the five mass extinctions in geologic history. We asked ourselves whether larger or smaller body sizes would be better suited for surviving a mass extinction. To conduct research for our project, we used the body sizes of 17,172 marine animal genera as our primary data. These animals include echinoderms, arthropods, chordates, mollusks, and brachiopods. These creatures are perfect model organisms in terms of finding data on them because they have an excellent fossil record, and are well documented. We focused on the mean body size of these animals before and after each of the five mass extinctions (end-Ordovician, Late Devonian, end-Permian, end-Triassic, and end-Cretaceous). Our hypothesis was that the average biovolume of animals increased after each of the extinctions, with the mean size being greater after than it was before. Our size data is from the Ellis & Messina Catalogue of Ostracoda and the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. We obtained stratigraphic range data The Treatise and Sepkoski (2002). In our analyses, we compared the mean size of the different animal genera before and after each extinction event. We further partitioned size change across mass extinction boundaries into three categories: the surviving genera, the extinct genera, and the newly originating genera that came about after the extinction. According to our analyses, the mean sizes did not change significantly from the genera living during the stages before the extinctions and after the extinctions. From our results, we can assume that there were not enough major increases in the overall volume of the organisms to warrant a definite conclusion that extinctions lead to larger body sizes. Further support for our findings came from the T-tests in our R code. Only the Cretaceous period showed true evidence for size changing because of the extinction; in this case, the mean size decreased. T-tests for the Cretaceous

  9. JURASSIC PALAEOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TRANSDANUBIAN CENTRAL RANGE (HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATTILA VÖRÖS

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Transdanubian Central Range (TCR is a flattened range of hills in northern Transdanubia (Hungary, formed mainly by Mesozoic carbonate rocks showing strong facies similarities with the Southern Alps and the Austroalpine domain. The Jurassic system is divided into several formations of predominantly pelagic limestones. Ammonoids are frequent and were collected bed-by-bed in numerous sections, providing an excellent biostratigraphic resolution. The thickness of the Jurassic system is usually small but changes along the strike of the TCR. It reaches a maximum thickness of 500 m in the western part; is very variable (10-400 m in the central segment (Bakony Mts. and rather low (less than 100 m in the east (Gerecse. In the Bakony segment, the thickness variation reflects the strongly dissected topography of the Jurassic sea-floor. Synsedimentary tectonics is dominated by normal faults; tilted blocks and listric faults may be inferred only in the east.Five main steps were identified in the palaeogeographic evolution: 1 Late Hettangian: carbonate oolitic shoals prevail, except for a few sites where non-deposition or neritic sediments occur. 2 Sinemurian and Pliensbachian: tectonic disintegration resulted in an intricate pattern of submarine horsts and intervening basins, with condensed sedimentation or non-deposition on the horsts and thicker, continuous sedimentary sequences in the basins. The submarine topographic highs are surrounded by aprons of redeposited material (scarp breccias, brachiopod coquinas, crinoidal calcarenites, spiculitic cherty limestones, while pure or argillaceous limestones (Rosso Ammonitico prevail in the distal areas. 3 Early Toarcian: the Tethys-wide anoxic event is superimposed on the previous submarine bottom topography; the resulting black shales and sedimentary Mn-ores are concentrated on the western sides of some horsts. 4 Dogger to Early Malm: radiolarites with heterochronous lower and upper boundaries (Aalenian to

  10. An in situ shelly fauna from the lower Paleozoic Zapla diamictite of northwestern Argentina: Implications for the age of glacial events across Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Juan L.; Halpern, Karen; de la Puente, G. Susana; Monaldi, César R.

    2015-12-01

    A shelly fauna from the upper part of the Zapla glacial diamictite includes the lingulate brachiopod Orbiculoidea radiata Troedsson, the rhynchonelliforms Dalmanella cf. testudinaria (Dalman) and Paromalomena sp., the bivalve Modiolopsis? sp., and the trilobite Dalmanitina subandina Monaldi and Boso. Both taphonomic and paleoecologic data indicate a lack of transport reflecting the original community. The assemblage is closely comparable to the widespread latest Ordovician Hirnantia-Dalmanitina fauna. The Hirnantian age of the Zapla diamictite is further corroborated by the record of the northern Gondwana chitinozoans Spinachitina cf. oulebsiri Paris and Desmochitina minor typica Eisenack. The graptolites and chitinozoans from the overlying Lipeón Formation indicate that the postglacial transgression took place in the earliest Llandovery (Parakidograptus acuminatus Biozone). According to the tectonosedimentary evidence, the Early Silurian age of the Cancañiri and San Gabán diamictites of north-central Bolivia and south Peru based on their palynological record is more likely the age of posglacial gravity flows and not that of the glaciation. We support the hypothesis that the weakly lithified glacigenic deposits of Hirnantian age were reworked and redistributed by high-energy marine processes during the postglacial transgression and then transported to the adjacent deep-marine trough. Iron-rich horizons have been recognized in many basins of southern South America reflecting eustatic and paleoclimatic fluctuations. Most of them formed during the early stages of the postglacial transgression at the Ordovician/Silurian transition and are associated with low sedimentation rates and condensed intervals. The mild maritime postglacial climate, the increasing atmospheric CO2, and possibly the presence of incipient vegetated areas led to extensive weathering of glacigenic sediments supplying iron into the marine system to form ferruginous deposits. The sea level fall

  11. Constraining silica diagenesis in methane-seep deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrzka, Daniel; Kraemer, Stephan; Zwicker, Jennifer; Birgel, Daniel; Fischer, David; Kasten, Sabine; Goedert, James; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Silicified fossils and silicified early diagenetic carbonate minerals as well as authigenic silica phases are common in ancient seep limestones. Silicification of calcareous fossils facilitates the preservation of even fine details and is therefore of great interest to paleontologists, permitting a reliable taxonomic identification of the chemosynthesis-based taxa that lived at ancient hydrocarbon seeps. Four methane-seep limestones of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age with abundant silica phases are compared in this study; one, an Eocene seep deposit on the north shore of the Columbia River at Knappton, western Washington State, USA, is described for the first time. Its lithology and fabrics, negative δ13Ccarbonate values as low as -27.6‰, and 13C-depleted biomarkers of archaea involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) reveal that the carbonate rock formed at a methane seep. The background sediments of the studied Phanerozoic seep limestones contain abundant siliceous microfossils, radiolarian tests in case of the Late Carboniferous Dwyka Group deposits from Namibia and the Late Triassic Graylock Butte deposits from eastern Oregon (USA), diatom frustules in case of the Eocene Knappton limestone and an Oligocene seep deposit from the Lincoln Creek Formation (western Washington State, USA). These microfossils are regarded as the source of dissolved silica, causing silicification and silica precipitation. All seep limestones used in this study are characterized by very similar paragenetic sequences. Silicified fossils include brachiopods and worm tubes, silica cements include microquartz, fibrous microcrystalline silica, and megaquartz. The silica cements formed after the AOM-derived cements ceased to precipitate but before equant calcite spar formed. Numerical experiments using the computer code PHREEQC were conducted to test the hypothesis that (1) AOM increases the pH of pore waters and that (2) this pH increase subsequently mobilizes biogenic

  12. The sediment composition and predictive mapping of facies on the Propeller Mound—A cold-water coral mound (Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Katrin; Titschack, Jürgen; Dorschel, Boris; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Freiwald, André

    2010-10-01

    Here we provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative insight on recent sediment composition and facies distribution of a cold-water coral (CWC) mound using the example of the Propeller Mound on the Irish continental margin (Hovland Mound Province, Porcupine Seabight). Five facies types on Propeller Mound are defined: (1) living coral framework, (2) coral rubble, (3) dropstone, (4) hardground, representing the on-mound facies, and (5) hemipelagic sediment facies, which describes the off-mound area. This facies definition is based on already published video-data recorded by Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV), photo-data of gravity cores, box cores, and dredges from sediment surfaces as well as on the composition of the sediment fraction coarser than 125 μm, which has been analyzed on five selected box cores. Sediment compositions of the living coral framework and coral rubble facies are rather similar. Both sediment types are mainly produced by corals (34 and 35 wt%, respectively), planktonic foraminifers (22 and 29 wt%, respectively), benthic foraminifers (both 7 wt%), and molluscs (21 and 10 wt%, respectively), whereas the living coral framework characteristically features additional brachiopods (6 wt%). Hardgrounds are well-lithified coral rudstones rich in coral fragments (>30 surf%), foraminifers, echinoderms, and bivalves. The dropstone facies and the hemipelagic sediment typically carry high amounts of lithoclasts (36 and 53 wt%, respectively) and planktonic foraminifers (35 and 32 wt%, respectively); however, their faunal diversity is low compared with the coral-dominated facies (12 and <2 wt% coral fragments, 7 and 6 wt% benthic foraminifers, and 4 and 0 wt% balanids). Using the maximum likelihood algorithm within ArcGIS 9.2, spatial prediction maps of the previously described mound facies are calculated over Propeller Mound and are based on mound morphology parameters, ground-truthed with the sedimentary and faunal information from box cores, photographs

  13. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    burrows belonging to Thalassinoides, which were interconnected galleries likely made by arthropods after the sediment became somewhat consolidated. Slabs bearing fossils are typically avoided in construction for esthetic reasons and because some impart weaknesses. Such slabs have, however, become increasingly popular for decorative surfaces not exposed to the elements, since the macrofossil content is so striking. Most common are receptaculitids, followed by solitary rugose corals, stromatoporoid sponges, colonial rugose and tabulate corals, brachiopods, bryozoans, gastropods, cephalopods, and trilobites; echinoderm ossicles are common in the muddy matrix. Fossil relative abundances vary stratigraphically, suggesting that subtle environmental changes took place over time.

  14. The Modern Marine Ca-isotope Budget and its Application to the Phanerozoic Ca-isotope Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattler, C. L.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Henderson, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Variations in the calcium-isotope ratio (δ44/40Ca) of ancient seawater have been recorded in several studies using marine carbonate, barite, or apatite, but the causes of these variations have not been explored quantitatively. Seawater Ca-isotope ratios are affected by the average fractionation factor between seawater and the carbonate that precipitates from it, which is defined by the composition of the marine carbonate sink. To investigate possible changes in the fractionation factor of marine carbonate over the Phanerozoic, a Ca-isotope budget has been constructed for the modern oceans. Over 250 Ca-isotope measurements have been compiled from a wide variety of carbonate sources to describe the modern marine Ca-isotope budget. This dataset includes over 50 new measurements to characterize several components of the carbonate system, such as coral reefs, which are quantitatively important but have been undersampled, for example, relative to planktic foraminifera. δ44/40Ca values have been temperature-normalized using the relationship of +0.02% per °C, which permits observations and comparisons based on mineralogy, taxonomy, and locus of carbonate precipitation. A general offset of ~0.25%, increasing up to ~0.8% for certain taxa, is observed between subsets of aragonite and calcite samples; no statistical difference is observed between high-Mg calcite and low-Mg calcite. Additionally, within the data for calcite skeletons, two broad groups appear based on taxonomic patterns. Taxa with generally weak control over their biomineralization, such as sclerosponges, brachiopods, and calcareous red algae, are 0.4-0.5% heavier than organisms with more controlled calcification mechanisms, such as coccolithophores and planktic foraminifera. The patterns that emerge from this dataset for different clades demonstrate the usefulness of fossil carbonate for reconstructing the Ca-isotope ratio of ancient seawater. The composition of the modern Ca-isotope budget provides a basis

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata: phylogenetic position of Bryozoa and phylogeny of lophophorates within the Lophotrochozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Kuem

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic position of Bryozoa is one of the most controversial issues in metazoan phylogeny. In an attempt to address this issue, the first bryozoan mitochondrial genome from Flustrellidra hispida (Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata was recently sequenced and characterized. Unfortunately, it has extensive gene translocation and extremely reduced size. In addition, the phylogenies obtained from the result were conflicting, so they failed to assign a reliable phylogenetic position to Bryozoa or to clarify lophophorate phylogeny. Thus, it is necessary to characterize further mitochondrial genomes from slowly-evolving bryozoans to obtain a more credible lophophorate phylogeny. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (15,433 bp of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata, one of the most widely distributed cheliostome bryozoans, is sequenced. This second bryozoan mitochondrial genome contains the set of 37 components generally observed in other metazoans, differing from that of F. hispida (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata, which has only 36 components with loss of tRNAser(ucn genes. The B. neritina mitochondrial genome possesses 27 multiple noncoding regions. The gene order is more similar to those of the two remaining lophophorate phyla (Brachiopoda and Phoronida and a chiton Katharina tunicate than to that of F. hispida. Phylogenetic analyses based on the nucleotide sequences or amino acid residues of 12 protein-coding genes showed consistently that, within the Lophotrochozoa, the monophyly of the bryozoan class Gymnolaemata (B. neritina and F. hispida was strongly supported and the bryozoan clade was grouped with brachiopods. Echiura appeared as a subtaxon of Annelida, and Entoprocta as a sister taxon of Phoronida. The clade of Bryozoa + Brachiopoda was clustered with either the clade of Annelida-Echiura or that of Phoronida + Entoprocta. Conclusion This study presents the complete mitochondrial genome of a

  16. Combined marine δ88/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr record supports global anoxia as a cause for P/T mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstaedt, H.; Eisenhauer, A.; Boehm, F.; Fietzke, J.; Krabbenhöft, A.; Liebetrau, V.; Wallmann, K. J.; Farkas, J.

    2011-12-01

    The biggest mass extinction within the Phanerozoic Eon occurred at the Permian/Triassic (P/T) boundary and is characterized by up to 96% loss in species accompanied with the demise of the Paleozoic faunal community. Recently, five major mechanisms are consulted to explain the mass extinction in terrestrial and marine environment. However, a geochemical quantification of carbonate burial rates during this biotic turnover is still remaining. By extending the conventional radiogenic isotope system by a simultaneous measurement of radiogenic and stable strontium (Sr) isotopes (δ88/86Sr) we are able to add new constraints to the seawater chemistry including quantitative information about the Sr output flux of the ocean, mainly represented by marine carbonates. Consequently, variations in δ88/86Sr becoming a suitable tool to investigate in the global carbonate budget in earth's history including the biotic turnover of calcifying organisms at stratigraphic boundaries which are expected to have a large influence on Sr geochemistry and isotope composition of seawater. In order to examine variations in the marine Sr isotope composition through Earth's history paired 88Sr/86Sr-87Sr/86Sr-ratios of 104 Phanerozoic brachiopods, belemnites and carbonate matrix samples are determined. Applying the fractionation factor of our carbonate recording phase we constructed a δ88/86Srseawater record. The most noteworthy observation is the occurrence of the two global extrema in δ88/86Sr values of the whole Phanerozoic within the last 20Ma years of the Paleozoic prior to the P/T boundary. This corresponds to an increase of δ88/86Srseawater of 0.000249 Ma-1 in the latest Permian indicating a strong disturbance in the Sr budget of the ocean. To interpret our observations and to compare them to existing scenarios for the P/T boundary we applied a one-box, isotope mass balance model of the oceanic Sr cycle connected to a mass balance model of Ca. Our results show a high strontium output

  17. Microtaphofacies of Lower Jurassic Limestones from the Rotzo Formation, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Luise; Nebelsick, James; Bassi, Davide; Posenato, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Microtaphofacies investigations allow for the study of taphonomic features of cemented limestones as found in thin sections. It allows for changes in environmental parameters to be assessed especially with respect to abrasion, fragmentation, encrustation and bioerosion of biotic components. Variations of taphonomic features along environmental gradients can thus be examined and can be compared to other facies determining features such as the distribution of specific biotic components as well as carbonate fabrics. The Lower Jurassic Rotzo Formation, occurring in the palaeogeographic unit Trento Platform (Southern Alps, Italy), is characterized by very well preserved components in a shallow water lagoonal setting. Components are dominated by dasycladalean algae, small and large benthic foraminifera, various bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and echinoderms. Oncoids and trace fossils can also be prevalent. Although bioclastic components are commonly preserved in very fine micritic limestones, various types of mass occurrences are also present especially with respect to the bivalves including the well known Lithiotis fauna. Microfacies are dominated by mudstones. Bioclastic rich microfacies are also present with packstones and rudstones mainly containing foraminifera and bivalves, but also including, and in part dominated by other components. Microtaphofacies were studied along the Monte Toraro section to the east of Tonezza del Cimone (Vicenza Province). Abrasion, fragmentation, bioerosion and encrustation were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed with features being scored into three categories equivalent to good, fair, and poor preservation. This allowed for changes along the section to be analyzed. Abrasion and fragmentation are common in all facies and affect most components. Encrustation and bioerosion rates, however, are highly variably are only dominate in oncoids rich facies. Components in mass shell accumulations are often very well preserved

  18. Products of micritization: evidences of microbial activity at and below the seafloor of the Upper Moscovian epicontinental basin of central European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Thin sections of the Upper Moscovian shallow-marine limestones of central European Russia exhibit various products of synsedimentary and earliest diagenetic degradation of carbonate allochems. Micritized grains and related features (microcrystalline overgrowths, oncoids, and endolithic borings) are very similar to modern micritized grains forming on the shallow protected seafloors of warm-water carbonate basins. Surface-sediment micritization in the late Moscovian epicontinental basin of central European Russia is expressed in microendolithic destruction, micrite-minimicrite precipitation in intraskeletal voids, and non-selective replacements of the original skeletal structures. Most conspicuous products of surface-sediment micritization are peloidized large foraminifers (fusulinoids and palaeotextulariids), micritic-minimicritic envelopes on brachiopod and echinoderm bioclasts, and internal micritization in echinoderm stereomal pores. The last feature is structurally controlled and where not related to other surface-sediment alterations, may be attributed to intrasedimentary degradation. Surface-sediment micritization was produced by a syntrophic microbial community that must have included phototrophic cyanobacteria and/or chlorophytes and heterotrophic bacteria and fungae responsible for the intragranular microcrystalline recrystallization and internal cementation. Microborings are diverse, include microbial and metazoan varieties. Microendolithic destruction and subsequent microcrystalline occlusion of borings was locally important in micritizing processes, although cinder-like peripheral replacements in massive bioclasts and persistence of test walls in deeply peloidized foraminifers suggest that recrystallization and internal cementation was equally or more important. Many skeletal packstones, wackestones, mudstones, and tempestites irrespectible of their inferred paleobathymetric position exhibit the signs of selective intrasedimentary degradation: peripheral

  19. 2010 Dry and 2009 - 2010 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, W

    2011-03-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) requested that Condor Country Consulting, Inc. (CCCI) perform wet season surveys and manage the dry season sampling for listed branchiopods in two ponded locations within the Site 300 Experimental Test Site. Site 300 is located in Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, located between the Cities of Livermore and Tracy. The two pool locations have been identified for possible amphibian enhancement activities in support of the Compensation Plan for impacts tied to the Building 850 soil clean-up project. The Building 850 project design resulted in formal consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as an amendment (File 81420-2009-F-0235) to the site-wide Biological Opinion (BO) (File 1-1-02-F-0062) in the spring of 2009 and requires mitigation for the California tiger salamander (AMCA, Ambystoma californiense) and California red-legged frog (CRLF, Rana draytonii) habitat loss. Both pools contain breeding AMCA, but do not produce metamorphs due to limited hydroperiod. The pool to the southeast (Pool BC-FS-2) is the preferred site for amphibian enhancement activities, and the wetland to northwest (Pool OA-FS-1) is the alternate location for enhancement. However, prior to enhancement, LLNL has been directed by USFWS (BO Conservation Measure 17 iii) to 'conduct USFWS protocol-level branchiopod surveys to determine whether listed brachiopod species are present within the compensation area.' CCCI conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2009-2010 wet season to determine the presence of federally-listed branchiopods at the two pools (previous surveys with negative findings were performed by CCCI in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 onsite). Surveys were conducted to partially satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS 'Interim Survey Guidelines to Permittees for Recovery Permits under Section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Endangered Species Act for the Listed Vernal Pool Branchiopods' ('Guidelines, USFWS

  20. Macrobenthos of Kakinada Bay in the Godavari delta, East coast of India: comparing decadal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Dipti; Ganesh, T.; Murty, N. V. S. S.; Raman, A. V.

    2005-03-01

    A one-year study (1995-1996) on the macrobenthos over a spread of (37) hydrographically differing GPS-fixed sites in Kakinada Bay (mean salinity 27.16±0.4) and adjacent mangrove channels (14.78±0.55) in the Godavari delta, one of India's largest estuarine systems, revealed a great preponderance of benthic life. There were 11 diverse taxa represented by 95 species collected through several (303) grab and dredge hauls. Based on Bray-Curtis similarity through hierarchical clustering implemented in PRIMER, it was possible to distinguish the benthos into four assemblages each of which represented sites in the Central and North bay ( Paphia textrix - Typhlocarcinus sp. Assemblage), South-East bay ( Protankyra similis - Paphia malabarica Assemblage), Mangrove Outlets ( Cerithidea cingulata Assemblage) and Mangrove channels ( Diopatra neapolitana Assemblage). Benthos densities (mean nos. dredge haul -1) were highest (299 individuals) at sites close to mangrove outlets. Species diversity (Margalef, d; Shannon-Wiener, H') was low in general ( d 1.244 to 2.251 and H' 0.038 to 1.502). Sediments were mostly clayey-silt in nature except in southeast bay where they are silt-sand. Organic matter (mean) was at or near 1.3%. The observations have revealed marked changes in benthic community structure relative to an earlier investigation held in 1958-1963 in this area. Over the years, species such as Turritella duplicata, Tonna dolium and Placuna placenta found in considerable numbers previously have dwindled. Anomia, Bursa and Atrina and echinoderms, Astropecten indica, Echinodiscus auritus and Temnopleurus toreumaticus and the brachiopod, Lingula sp. of common occurrence in early 60s are absent altogether attributable to long-term natural trends during the intervening years and/or events accompanying human impingement (e.g. industrial and urban growth, port expansion measures, aquaculture, mangrove denudation etc.). Despite such large-scale alterations in benthos community

  1. Hydrocarbon seep-carbonates of a Miocene forearc (East Coast Basin), North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kathleen A.; Francis, David A.; Collins, Mike; Gregory, Murray R.; Nelson, Campbell S.; Greinert, Jens; Aharon, Paul

    2008-02-01

    and terebratulid brachiopods. Firmgrounds and hardgrounds were common, as evidenced by trace fossil associations or caryophyllid coral thickets atop some seep-carbonate deposits. Thus, the New Zealand examples show strong evidence of formation in sediments at or just beneath the seafloor, but some were clearly exhumed by erosion to sustain later non-seep, epifaunal and boring paleocommunities.

  2. Ladinian skonca beds of the Idrija Ore Deposit (W Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Čar

    2013-12-01

    part of sequence C has a carbonate structure (subsequence C1 and the top part has a siliceous structure (subsequence C2, the rocks cannot be distinguished from one another by their appearance. All are strongly bituminous and shaly. Sequence C is comprised of grey to black bituminous dolomite and quartz sandstone rich in pyrite and marcasite, dolomite or quartz siltstone, and shaly claystone with coal inclusions. The sequence of C rocks ends with clayey-lythic quartz sandstone containing remains of the brachiopod Discina. These are followed by various pyroclastic rocks of sequence D. The Skonca beds and the rich bedded cinnabar ores have various sedimentary structures which accurately define the events and environments of their origin. Except for the erosion channels, which are filled with dolomite gravel, there are no other presedimentary structures in the Skonca beds (subsequence C1. However, the beds are rich in synsedimentary physical forms, particularly various stratifications, laminations and various forms of graded bedding. Among the postsedimentary structures, mention should be made of the abundant sinking and slump structures. In some places, bioturbation and the replacement of organic particles with pyrite can be observed. The Skonca beds were deposited in a spatially complex, marsh-lacustrine-lagoonal environment. The rocks of sequence A and partly also of sequence B were formed in an alkaline, oxygen-rich environment, and the lithological units of subsequence C1 in a reductive environment. The rapid transitions among rocks indicate strictly limited and slow lateral inflows of fresh water into the marshy environment overgrown with low vegetation. The rocks in subsequence C2 prove that the freshwater marsh was flooded with sea water. Deposited in the shallow, closed lagoon overgrown with low vegetation were various bituminous shales, mudstones and sandstones filled with numerous radiolarians and needles of siliceous sponges and coal intercalations. The

  3. АНАЛИЗ СОСТОЯНИЯ ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫХ МЕДОНОСНЫХ РЕСУРСОВ В РАЙОНЕ ШИРОКОЛИСТВЕННЫХ ЛЕСОВ УФИМСКОГО ПЛАТО

    OpenAIRE

    Фархутдинов, Рашит; Хисамов, Раиль; Онучин, Михаил

    2014-01-01

    В статье рассматриваются результаты исследований медоносных ресурсов на территории Уфимского плато, в частности в ГБУ РБ «Нуримановское лесничество». Определен средний состав древесных насаждений и установлено, что липа сердцелистная ( Tilia cordata Mill.) является доминирующей медоносной древесной породой в изучаемом регионе 56,2%. Общий медовый запас формируется за счет нектара липняков (91,47%), выявлены медоносные растения которые образуют различные сообщества и их нектароносная доля разл...

  4. Intra-and inter-specific competition of rare and endangered plant Ulmus lamellosa in Shanxi Province of China%山西稀有濒危植物脱皮榆种内和种间竞争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓霞; 张钦弟; 毕润成; 白玉芳

    2013-01-01

    Based on the field investigation data of 128 Ulmus lamellosa target trees and 1093 competing species individuals in a 100 m× 100 m sampling plot in Taiyue Mountain of Shanxi,this paper analyzed the intra-and inter-specific competition intensities of U.lamellosa by using Hegyi' s competition index (CI).The intraspecific competition intensity of U.lamellosa decreased gradually with its increasing DBH.In the plot,there were many other species,but their individual number was fewer than that of U.lamellose,and thus,the interspecific competition intensity of U.lamellosa was relatively weaker than its intraspecific competition.The order of the intra-and inter-specific competition intensities was U.lamellosa-U.lamellosa > Carpinus cordata-U.lamellosa > Acer elegantulum-U.lamellosa > other species-U.lamellosa.The relationships between the competition intensity and the DBH of U.lamellosa followed the equation CI=AD-B.When the DBH of U.lamellosa reached 25 cm,the competition intensity had less change,and the model could well simulate and predict the intra-and inter-specific competition intensities of U.lamellosa.%通过对山西太岳山一块100 m×100 m样地中128株脱皮榆对象木及1093株竞争木的调查,运用Hegyi的单木竞争指数计算分析了脱皮榆的种内和种间竞争强度.结果表明:(1)脱皮榆种群所受到的竞争强度随着对象木胸径的增大而逐渐减小;(2)调查样地内尽管其他物种种类较多,但数量较少,与脱皮榆种间竞争相对较弱,脱皮榆种内与种间竞争关系的顺序为:脱皮榆-脱皮榆>千金榆-脱皮榆>五角枫-脱皮榆>茶条槭-脱皮榆>其他树种-脱皮榆;(3)竞争强度和对象木胸径的关系服从幂函数关系,当脱皮榆胸径在25 cm以上时,竞争强度变化不大,所得的预测模型能很好地预测脱皮榆种内种间竞争强度.

  5. 昆明地区奶牛临床型乳房炎病原菌分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation,identification and drug sensitivity of pathogen causingbovine clinical mastitis in Kunming area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 荀来武; 杨玉艾; 王桂瑛

    2012-01-01

    对昆明地区多个奶牛场的奶牛临床型乳房炎病原菌进行分离、鉴定,从114份乳样中共分离出细菌13种305株,经培养特性、染色镜检、生化鉴定等,鉴定出金黄色葡萄球菌63株,占20.66%;表皮葡萄球菌26株,占8.52%;无乳链球菌53株,占17.38%;停乳链球菌23株,占7.54%;乳房链球菌19株,占6.23%;乳链球菌14株,占4.59%;粪链球菌15株,占4.92%;化脓链球菌14株,占4.59%;大肠杆菌48株,占15.74%;真菌12株,占3.93%。分别对分离菌株进行17种药物的敏感性试验,除真菌外,所有菌株对庆大霉素、新霉素、环丙沙星、诺氟沙星、林可霉素、乳肿康均高度敏感,对临床常用的青霉素、链霉素、鱼腥草等具有较强的耐药性。%305 strains of pathogen causing bovine clinical mastitis in Kunming area was isolated from 114 milk samples and belonged to 13 species after cultivation,staining identification and biochemical test.Among these pathogen,Staphylococcus aureus was 63 strains(20.66%),Staphylococcus epidermidis was 26 strains(8.52%),Streptococcus agalactiae was 53 strains(17.38%),Streptococcus dysgalactiae was 23 strains(7.54%),Streptococcus uberis was 19 strains(6.23%),Streptococcus lactis was 14 strains(4.59%),Streptococcus faecium was 15 strains(4.92%),Streptococcus pyogenes was 14 strains(4.59%),Escherichia coli was 48 strains(15.74%)and the fungus was 12 strains(3.93%).Drug sensitive test showed that all bacteria except the fungus were sensitive to Gentamicin,Neomycin,Ciprofloxacin,Norfloxacin,Lincomycin etc.,and resistant to Penicilin,Streptomycin and Houttuynia cordata.

  6. Schizophyllum commune: The main cause of dying trees of the Banja Luka arbored walks and parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of investigation of the main cause of dying trees of the main arbored walks (Mladena Stojanovića Aley and Park, the investigation of the presence and diversity of macrofungi in Banja Luka City were undertaken in the period 2006-2011. Relatively poor generic diversity of lignicolous (pathogenic or potentially pathogenic and saprotrophic macrofungi with only 16 species representing this group (13 basidiomycets: Schizophyllum commune, Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Pseudotrametes gibbosa, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, G. adspersum, Polyporus squamosus, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Auricu­laria auricula-judae, and 3 ascomycets: Nectria cinnabarina, Xylaria hypoxylon, X. poly­morpha were recorded. Such a poor qualitative composition of this very important fungal group could be explained by the reduction in the number of plant species in arbored walks and alleys, as well as the reduction in the number of fungi resistant to heavy air pollution caused by nearby (1-5m fuel combustion in engines. Although only preliminary, our results pointed to the necessity of conservation and protection of the most beautiful features of Banja Luka and its alleys and arbored walks, by undertaking the measures of curing damaged trees and treating them with fungicides in order to wipe out the epiphytia caused in more than 95% of cases (dated May 2011 by Split-gill (Schizophyllum commune, present on dead wood but also on damaged trees of Aesculus hyppocastaneum (127 trees, Tilia cordata (124 trees, Tilia platyphyllos (36 trees, Tilia argentea (40 trees, Acer negundo (20 trees, Platanus acerifolia (2 trees, Robinia pseudoacacia (3 trees, Fraxinus ornus (1 tree, Betula pendula (1 tree, Catalpa sp. (2 trees, etc. Altogether, during the last decade, around 200 trees collapsed or were sanitary cut in Banja Luka arbored walk from the Malta site to the Green bridge, a total length around 5 km. The

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF PLANT FUNCTIONAL TYPES BASED ON DOMINANT TREE SPECIES IN THE FOREST ECOSYSTEM AT FUNIU MOUNTAIN NATIONAL RESERVE, EAST CHINA%伏牛山自然保护区森林生态系统乔木植物功能型分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡楠; 范玉龙; 丁圣彦; 卢训令

    2008-01-01

    乔木层优势种左右着森林生态系统的结构与功能,以乔木层优势种为主体划分森林生态系统功能型,可以对森林生态系统的功能、框架结构及类群分布有一个明确的认识.伏牛山国家级自然保护区是中国东部森林样带中的亚热带和暖温带的结合点,具有南北气候过渡带的典型特征,群落的优势种突出,随着环境梯度(海拔)的变化,乔木层优势种变化明显,能较好地反映出植被与环境的动态关系.采用群落生态学的调查方法,在伏牛山南北坡设置66个样地.根据调查结果,通过计算重要值,选取37个优势度相对较大的乔木树种进行种间联结及相关性分析,以÷2检验为基础,结合联结系数AC和共同出现百分率PC来测定乔木优势种间的联结性,根据优势种间的联结性及其在海拔梯度上的变化异同来划分植物功能群.结果表明,栓皮栎(Quercus variabilis)、短柄袍(Q.glandulifera)、锐齿栎(Q.acutidentata)、华山松(Pinus armandi)依海拔升高分别具有最大的优势势性.以这4个优势种为主体将伏牛山自然保护区乔木层划分为4个植物功能型,第一组功能型为:栓皮栎、槲栎(Q.aliena)、山槐(Albizia kalkora)、茅栗(Castanea seguinii)(1 100 m以下);第二组功能型为:短柄袍、化香(Platycarya strobilacea)、黄连木(Pistacia chinensis)(1 100~1 400 m);第三组功能型为:锐齿栎、千金榆(Carpings cordata)、漆树(Toxicodendron verniciflum)(1 400~1 800m);第四组功能型为:华山松、油松(Pinus tabulaeformis)、六道木(Abelia biflora)、白桦(Betula platyphytta)、红桦(B.albo-sinensis)(1 800 m以上).功能群间的形态特征有明显的区别,如叶片的大小、形状等,这些区别需要生理生态学的进一步研究.

  8. 福建九阜山野生芳香植物资源及其开发利用%Wild Aromatic Plant Resources and Their Exploitation and Utilization in Jiufu Mountain, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏开炬; 陈锡桓; 詹祖仁; 陈登云

    2012-01-01

      The wild aromatic plants resources were investigated in Jiufu Mountain Nature Reserve in Youxi, Fujian province. The results show that there are 132 species of wild aromatic plants, belonging to 91 genera in 47 families in this area, which accounted for 52.8%, 29.7% and 17.4% in families, genera, and species of the wild aromatic plants in Fujian province respectively. Among these aromatic plants, Lauraceae is the biggest population, including 22 species. Other advantage families, both Rosaceae and Orchidaceae include 10 species. Lamiaceae includes 9 species and Asteraceae includes 7 species. Magnoliaceae and Oleaceae include 5 species, 4 species respectively. The smaller population were Rutaceae, Primulaceae, Moraceae, Hamamelidaceae, including 3 species. The dominant genera are Lindera (6), Cinnamomum(4), Machilus(4), Rosa(4), Artemisia(4), Litsea(4), Photinia(3), Lysimachia(3). The wild aromatic plants with greater value of development and utilization are Pinus massoniana, Sarcandra gladra, Houttuyia Cordata, Litsea cubeba, Cinnamomum camphora, Machilus grijsii, Machilus pauhoi, Litsea aggregata, Litsea elongat, Elaeagnus pungens, Mosla punctulata, Liquidamber formosana, Rosa laevigata, Gardenia jasminoides, Lonicera nitida, Artemisia argyi and so on. The species composition, aromatic position, live form, distribution and the suggestions are put forward on their development and utilization.%  对福建省尤溪县九阜山省级自然保护区野生芳香植物资源进行调查,结果表明,该区共有野生芳香植物47科91属132种,占福建省芳香植物89科306属758种的52.8%、29.7%和17.4%.优势科有樟科(22种)、蔷薇科(10种)、兰科(10种)、唇形科(9种)、菊科(7种)、木兰科(5种)、木犀科(4种)、芸香科(3种)、报春花科(3种)、桑科(3种)、金镂梅科(3种);优势属有山胡椒属(6种)、樟属(4种)、润楠属(4种)、蔷薇属(4种)、蒿属(4种)、木姜子属(3种)、石楠属(3

  9. 急性力竭运动模型大鼠鱼腥草素干预后的肾滤过屏障变化%Changes in glomerular filtration barrier in rat models of acute exhaustive exercise after intervention with sodium houttuyfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林喜秀; 邱继旺; 罗自强; 瞿树林; 赵用强

    2014-01-01

    运动诱导大鼠肾组织损伤起保护作用。%BACKGROUND:In high-intensity exhaustive exercise process, the body must bear the exercise intensity decreasing splanchnic blood flow“ischemia”, at the same time, along with the movement of energy and material consumption, metabolite accumulation and oxidative stress in the body cause pathological damage, leading to a decline in exercise capacity. Thus, what is the impact on kidney filtration barrier? How to adapt to the change of renal tissue? Houttuynia cordata has the functions of heat clearing and detoxifying, dieresis for treating strangurtia, hemostatic, expel ing phlegm to arrest coughing and analgesia, if it has a protective effect on the renal injury caused by acute exhaustive exercise and its mechanism has not been reported in the literature. OBJECTIVE:To explore the effect of acute exhaustive exercise on kidney filtration barrier in rats and the intervention effect of Houttuynia cordata.METHODS:After resting and watching for 3 days, Sprague-Dawley rats received adaptive running for 15 minutes at a speed of 10 m/min on a 0° treadmil . A total of 24 rats, which can finish the running, were selected. They were divided into normal control group, exhaustive exercise group and dosed exhaustive exercise group according to the weight of layer (n=8). Rats in the exhaustive exercise group and dosed exhaustive exercise group on the 10° treadmil received once exhaustive exercise. Dosed exhaustive exercise group received intraperitoneal injection of sodium houttuyfonate 10 mL/kg at 30 minutes before exercises. The normal control group did not do any exercise. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with the normal control group, serum urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urine protein content, malondialdehyde concentration, renal cellapoptosis and apoptosis index were significantly increased, but nitric oxide content and nitric oxide synthase activity in the renal tissue were significantly deceased in the exhaustive

  10. Analysis of a intra-Carixian clay horizon into carbonate platform of the Ouarsenis (Algeria): composition, dynamic and paleo-climatic implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Late Sinemurian a carbonate platform has developed on the Ouarsenis area (external Tell o f the Algerian Alpine belt) with setting deposits of the Kef Sidi Amar Carbonate Formation. A first maximum flooding materialized by a brachiopods (Zeilleriids) layer, is occurring during the Late Carixian. The Late Carixian deepening has been followed by a sea-level fall documented by several meters incisions filled by transgressive breccia and conglomerates. After this episode, this material was sealed by a pedogenic bed (0,05 to 0,20 m) which corresponds to a yellow clay deposit containing well rounded particles interpreted as pedo-genetic globules. These corpuscles are composed of reddish and hardened clay, corroded quartz grains, rhombic and zoned dolomite crystals and ankerite, monocrystalline and xeno-morphous detrital quartz grains (1-2 mm). The observed characteristics allow to recognize a typical calcrete. They are the result of pedo-genetic diagenesis developed inside the phreatic water-table near the surface: this is an alteration profile. The mineralogic fraction has been analyzed by X-Ray which show results of association clay mineral as a predominance of illite (85%) and mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite (I-M, 10%) associated with a low ration of chlorite (5%) and kaolinite trace (1%). This mineralogic clay association indicates a shallow water (hydro-morphic zone). Among these clay minerals, the illite reveals the precious indications in a source area. In this case, it comes from the decomposition of the schist paleo-relief located in the internal domain. This rock was transformed by acid leaching (action of the sour humus) into kaolinite with the presence of the quartzification. The origin of the mixed-layer clay I-M (10%) is the result of the active pedogenesis. The simultaneous presence of the illite, chlorite, kaolinite and the mixed-layer clay I-M seems to be result from the erosion exercised on the alteration product or arenitisation of the

  11. Brackish to hypersaline lake dolostones of the Mississippian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carys; Kearsey, Timothy; Davies, Sarah; Millward, David; Marshall, John

    2016-04-01

    Flat-lying ferroan dolomite beds are common in the Mississippian and occur along the southern margin of Laurassia, from Kentucky USA to Poland. These rocks are important as they record shallow marine to coastal plain environments that may have acted as a pathway or refugia for animals that were radiating into freshwaters such as tetrapods, fish, molluscs and arthropods. This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), that examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland, which contains rare fish and tetrapod fossils. The formation is characterised by an overbank facies association of siltstone, sandstone and palaeosols, interbedded with dolostone and evaporite units, and cut by fluvial sandstone facies associations of fining-upwards conglomerate lags, cross-bedded sandstone and rippled siltstone. Two sites are used as a case study to describe the sedimentological, faunal and ichnofaunal diversity of these dolostones. More than 270 dolostone beds are recorded in each of the 500 metre depth Norham Core (near Berwick-upon-Tweed) and from a 520 metre thick field section at Burnmouth. The beds are laterally extensive, over ˜1 km, although individual units do not appear to correlate between the core and the field site. In the Norham Core dolostones comprise up to 14% of the succession. 17% of the beds contain marginal marine fossils: Spirorbis, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common fauna include ostracods, bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and sarcopterygian fish, which are interpreted as brackish to freshwater tolerant. Bioturbation is fairly common with Serpula colonies within dolostone beds and Chondrites burrowing down from the base of dolostone beds. Some rare units in the field section have a bulbous bed surface and preserve tree root traces

  12. Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, James, P.

    2010-05-26

    effects of high CO2 waters on marine animals (Barry et al. 2008). This system is capable of controlling oxygen, pH, and temperature of seawater for use in studies of the physiological responses of animals under acidified conditions. We have investigated the tolerance of deep- and shallow-living crabs to high CO2 levels (Pane and Barry 2007; Pane et al. 2008), and are now working on brachiopods (Barry et al. in prep.) and a comparison of deep and shallow living sea urchins. This research program, supported in part by DoE has contributed to a number of other publications authored or co-authored by Barry (Caldeira et al. 2005; Brewer and Barry 2008; Barry et al. 2006, 2010a,b,c; National Research Council, in press; Hoffman et al. in press) as well as over 40 invited talks since 2004, including Congressional briefings and testimony at U.S. Senate Hearings on Ocean Acidification. Through the grant period, the research emphasis shifted from studies of the effects of direct deep-sea carbon dioxide sequestration on deep-sea animals, to a broader conceptual framework of the effects of ocean acidification (whether purposeful or passive) on the physiology and survival of deep and shallow living marine animals. We feel that this has been a very productive program and are grateful to DoE for its support.

  13. Sedimentology, conodonts and ostracods of the Devonian - Carboniferous strata of the Anseremme railway bridge section, Dinant Basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casier, J.-G.; Mamet, B.; Preat, A.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Seven major carbonate microfacies are defined in the Devonian - Carboniferous (D/C) strata (50 m) of the Anseremme railway bridge section, south of Dinant. They permit recognition of several levels encompassing the Etroeungt and Hastie??re formations. "Bathymetric" sequences range from open marine, below the storm wave base, to semi-restricted lagoon. This sequence records a shallowing-upward trend of the relative sea level, from environments below the storm wave base to strongly eroded supraticial pre-evaporitic environments. Faunal components (echinoderms, brachiopods...) indicate open-marine domain for the first six microfacies located within the dysphoticeuphotic zone in relatively shallow waters. The textures of the rocks (mudstones to rudstones) associated with lamination characteristics indicate the position of the storm (SWB) and the fair-weather (FWWB) wave bases. Microfacies seven suggests a semi-restricted platform with salinity fluctuations from hypersaline brines to brackish waters. Thus, the boundary of the Etroeungt/Hastie??re formations is marked by an abrupt drop in sea level. Carbonate micro-conglomerates recording an important erosive phase and a sedimentary hiatus. The environment is again open marine in the upper part of the Hastie??re Formation. Our conclusion is that the Anseremme section is not a reliable continuous succession for the study of the D/C boundary. This confirms the VAN STEENWINKEL (1988, 1993 hypothesis based on other arguments. Conodont faunas demonstrate that the Devonian sequence spans the five youngest conodont zones, but that two of these zones are not represented. The Epinette Formation is dated as the youngest part of the Middle expansa Zone. Thus, the boundary with the Late praesulcata Zone probably coincides with the sharp sedimentological change at the base of the Etroeungt Formation, which is interpreted to belong entirely to this zone. The disconformably overlying basal bed 159 of the Hastie??re Formation is dated

  14. Restoration of marine ecosystems following the end-Permian mass extinction: pattern and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Life came closest to complete annihilation during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME). Pattern and cause of this great dying have long been disputed. Similarly, there is also some debate on the recovery rate and pattern of marine organisms in the aftermath of the EPME. Some clades recovered rapidly, within the first 1-3 Myr of the Triassic. For instance, foraminiferal recovery began 1 Myr into the Triassic and was not much affected by Early Triassic crises. Further, some earliest Triassic body and trace fossil assemblages are also more diverse than predicted. Others, ie. Brachiopods, corals etc., however, did not rebound until the Middle Triassic. In addition, although ammonoids recovered fast, reaching a higher diversity by the Smithian than in the Late Permian, much of this Early Triassic radiation was within a single group, the Ceratitina, and their morphological disparity did not expand until the end-Spathian. Here, I like to broaden the modern ecologic network model to explore the complete trophic structure of fossilized ecosystems during the Permian-Triassic transition as a means of assessing the recovery. During the Late Permian and Early Triassic, primary producers, forming the lowest trophic level, were microbes. The middle part of the food web comprises primary and meso-consumer trophic levels, the former dominated by microorganisms such as foraminifers, the latter by opportunistic communities (i.e. disaster taxa), benthic shelly communities, and reef-builders. They were often consumed by invertebrate and vertebrate predators, the top trophic level. Fossil record from South China shows that the post-extinction ecosystems were degraded to a low level and typified by primary producers or opportunistic consumers, which are represented by widespread microbialites or high-abundance, low-diversity communities. Except for some opportunists, primary consumers, namely foraminifers, rebounded in Smithian. Trace-makers recovered in Spathian, which also saw

  15. Grainstones and cementstone mounds: The Trogkofel summit section (Lower Permian, Carnic Alps, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, M.; Sanders, D.; Krainer, K.

    2009-04-01

    are overgrown by abundant, thick fringes and botryoids of fibrous cement that is interpreted as calcitized aragonite cement. In addition, brachiopods, crustose red algae, and a few solitary and colonial rugose corals are typical. By volume, the former aragonite cement comprises the majority of the mounds. Intrinsic pores within the cementstone fabrics typically are filled by micropeloidal grainstone and/or by lime mudstone. The Trogkofel Limestone is locally dolomitized. Replacement dolomites show a wide range of crystal shapes and textures, but overall comprise (a) finely-crystalline, limpid dolostone of xenotopic or hypidiotopic fabrics that broadly mimick the texture of replaced sediment and cements, (b) coarse-crystalline fabrics of hypidiotopic to idiotopic, limpid or optically zoned dolomite, and (c) replacement saddle dolomite. The Trogkofel Limestone is riddled by karstic dykes and caverns that are mainly filled by, both or either of, geopetally-laminated red lime mudstone, terrigenous red sandstones, or thick fringes of fibrous cement. In the karstic cavity fills, packages of convolute geopetal lamination and brecciated internal sediments (internal seismites) overlain by infills with non-convolute lamination, fracture of fibrous cements, and dykes filled by multi-phase fracture breccias record tectonism during or after deposition of the Trogkofel Limestone. The Trogkofel Limestone is capped by a truncation surface which, in turn, is overlain by an interval of extremely poorly sorted, thick-bedded breccias with a former matrix of lime mudstone ("Trogkofel Breccia"). Both the components and the matrix of the Trogkofel Breccia are dolomitized. We interpret the facies and facies architecture of the eastern cliff section of Trogkofel as succession from the seaward side of a "grainstone-dominated" platform margin with cementstone mounds. The lack of clear-cut vertical trends in prevalent facies suggests that the platform margin developed mainly by aggradation. The

  16. Multiple palaeokarst horizons in the Lower Palaeozoic of Baltoscandia challenging the dogma of a deep epicontinental sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, O.; Calner, M.; Ahlberg, P.; Harper, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Several prominent palaeokarst surfaces have recently been detected in the Cambro-Ordovician sedimentary succession of Sweden. The oldest palaeokarst was found in autumn 2011 in Västergötland. An irregular palaeokarst cave with a breccia fill yielding large, angular Orsten clasts in a dark mud- to wackestone matrix is exposed beneath a karstic surface in the Cambrian Alum Shale Formation at Kakeled Quarry, Kinnekulle. The karstic surface occurs near the top of the Kakeled Limestone Bed that ranges from the upper Agnostus pisiformis into the Ctenopyge tumida Zone. The base of the cave is more than 1.4 m below this unconformity. A mass occurrence of Orusia lenticularis, a shallow-water brachiopod originally settling on hard substrates, in the karst pockets reflects deposition of the conglomeratic cover in extremely shallow marine environments. We interpret the widespread Orusia occurrences together with a brecciated or conglomeratic interval above an irregular surface in various Swedish locations as evidence for transgression after a major regression, regionally exposing the sea-floors of the Alum Shale Basin. A slightly younger karst surface is exposed in Tomten Quarry at Torbjörntorp, Västergötland. This resembles "Schrattenkalk" in the quarry wall but rock slabs cut vertical and parallel to bedding display a karren system, which reconstructed in 3D resembles "Napfkarren" or cockling features. Trilobites of the Ctenopyge bisulcata and C. linnarssoni zones have been recovered from the orsten bed just below the base of a 1-2 cm thick and irregular glauconitic packstone layer of the Bjørkåsholmen Formation (upper P. deltifer conodont Zone). The huge stratigraphic gap comprises the six uppermost trilobite zones of the Furongian plus most of the Tremadocian. Darriwilian conodonts with reworked older material within a limestone bed slightly above the glauconitic packstone point to yet another substantial gap in the succession. In the new Tingskullen core from

  17. The Late Ordovician Extinction: How it became the best understood of the five major extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, P.

    2003-04-01

    epicontinental seas were drained in many places. An extensive record of changes of all the major faunal groups has been established and work continues. Compilations by Sepkoski and Benton established the Ordovician extinction as one of the five major Phanerozoic extinctions, ranking second only to the end Permian extinction in terms of taxonomic loss. However, as the ecologic changes caused by the extinction became better understood it was realized that of the five extinction events the Ordovician extinction caused the least ecologic perturbation. Given the interest and extensive study extinction events have generated in the last 20 years it is surprising the oldest of the five extinctions has the most well understood cause and the best global record of the faunal changes. In fact only one other extinction event (K/T event) has a widely accepted cause, darkness associated with an impact event. The general faunal changes allow at least a preliminary comparison of two events with differing causes. The most important factor promoting survival in both events is wide geographic distribution. Other ecologic factors differ considerably between the events. Extinction was very high in epicontinental seas during the Ordovician but not in the Cretaceous. Cretaceous organisms that could survive several months without food (such as animals with low metabolic rates, or larval stages that included dormancy) preferentially survived, while this was not a factor in the Ordovician when low metabolic rates of animals like brachiopods and echinoderms provided little advantage. Animals capable of feeding on detritus during the loss of sunlight preferentially survived the Cretaceous extinction, but this was not a buffer to extinction in the Ordovician.

  18. 泥质对志留系礁滩生长的抑制作用:黔北桐梓韩家店组的例证%EMBRYONIC PATCHY REEFS FROM THE SILURIAN OF GUIZHOU——AN EXAMPLE OF MUDDY SEDIMENTS CONSTRAINING REEF-BANK GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启剑; 王媛媛; 李越; 马俊业; 张园园; 邓小杰; 蔡习尧

    2012-01-01

    黔北桐梓的戴家沟剖面和狮溪剖面志留系兰多维列统特列奇阶下部的韩家店组出露完好,该组泥岩、粉砂岩中夹有厚度1-3 m、直径4-7 m的小型点礁.礁核相多具典型的障积格架岩特征,但生长时限短暂,群落分异度低,仅见床板珊瑚、单体四射珊瑚、苔藓虫和海百合茎,礁间为珊瑚、苔藓虫和海百合茎碎片堆积的滩相,伴生丰富的遗迹化石.在陆源碎屑快速沉积的背景下,浑浊海水频繁的富营养化过程限制了礁体纵横向生长和朝高分异度群落发展的可能性.%During the Early Silurian the Yangtze Platform of the South China Block was mainly covered by terrigenous sediments derived from the surrounding land, which was then being uplifted. The palaeogeographic setting of the Hanchiatien Formation (lower Telychian, Llandovery, Lower Silurian) indicates a seaward ramp oriented northwards, with a nearby shoal belt spanning northern Guizhou and southern Sichuan. The unit was dominated lithologically by muddy and silty sediments. A sporadic supply of siliciclastic debris enhanced turbidity, resulting in an environment unsuitable for development of a large scale carbonate platform. However, a benthic assemblage of the bra-chiopods Nalivkinia and Striispirifer indicates a palaeodepth (BA2) which was above the fair weather base and was favourable for reef and bank formation; and the shallow marine red beds of the lower member of the formation further indicate a suitably warm palaeoclimate for reef development. Constrained mainly only by the high clastic input, small scale embryonic patch reefs therefore formedand are known from the Hanchiatien Formation at Daijiagou and Shixi, in Tongzi County of northern Guizhou. Generally they are one to three metres thick, four to seven metres in diameter, and are knoll-shaped in morphology. The reef bases and tops have sharp lithological boundaries with the underlying and overlying mudstones, so the growth margins

  19. Facies y microfacies de la rampa tithoniana-berriasiana de la cuenca neuquina (Formación Vaca Muerta en la sección del arroyo Loncoche - Malargüe, provincia de Mendoza Facies and microfacies of the Tithonian-Berriasian ramp from the Neuquén basin (Vaca Muerta Formation in the Loncoche creek section - Malargüe, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Kietzmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Vaca Muerta (Tithoniano-Berriasiano consiste en una alternancia rítmica de lutitas negras, lutitas grises, margas y limolitas, con mudstones, wackestones, packstones, floatstones y rudstones bioclásticos. La asociación de facies en la sección del arroyo Loncoche, permitió definir 12 litofacies y 8 microfacies, dominadas por moluscos, equinodermos, foraminíferos, braquiópodos, serpúlidos y radiolarios. Se distinguieron cuatro asociaciones de facies correspondientes a los subambientes de cuenca, rampa externa (distal y proximal y rampa media. La utilización de la relación Nassellaria/Spumellaria permitió estimar un rango de profundidades menores a 200 metros. El patrón de apilamiento y la distribución vertical de facies permitió la distinción de tres secuencias depositacionales, y el reconocimiento de un sistema tithoniano de rampa homoclinal y un sistema berriasiano de rampa homoclinal de mayor gradiente. La secuencia depositacional 1 consiste en facies de cuenca y rampa externa distal y se caracteriza por un patrón retrogradacional. Presenta un espesor de 124 m, y se extiende desde la Zona de Virgatosphinctes mendozanus hasta la base de la Zona de Corongoceras alternans. Las secuencias depositacionales 2 y 3 consisten en facies de rampa externa y rampa media. Están caracterizadas por un patrón agradacional y progradacional. El espesor de la secuencia 2 es de 66 m y se asigna a la Zona de Corongoceras alternans, mientras que la secuencia 3 alcanza 78 m y corresponde a las zonas de Substeueroceras koeneni y Spiticeras damesi.Facies association of the Tithonian-Berriasian Vaca Muerta Formation from the Loncoche creek section, Neuquén Basin, west central Argentina, allow the distinction and definition of 12 lithofacies and 8 microfacies, which are dominated by molluscs, echinoderms, foraminifera, brachiopods, serpulids and radiolarians. The Vaca Muerta Formation consists of a rhythmical alternation of black shales

  20. 黔南晚石炭世生物礁群落中的生态关系研究%Ecological Interactions among the Late Carboniferous Reef Communities in Southern Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常洪伦; 巩恩普; 陈晓红; 杨大勇; 关长庆; 张永利; 韩炜忠

    2011-01-01

    equilibrium, whereas phylloid algae surpass corals with their sheer number of countless individuals. The phylloid algae and the brachiopods have special ecological interactions, i. e. , maintaining symbiosis while still competing for living space. In the reef-building process of Bianping village coral reef, the replacement of Forrnitchevella community and its lower communities resulted in the formation of Late Carboniferous large-scale coral reef.

  1. 鄂西地区长阳组的时代问题%ON AGE OF THE CHANGYANG FORMATION OF WESTERN HUBEI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈力; 李鑫; 孙元林

    2011-01-01

    对长阳组命名剖面的重新观察和研究表明,原认定的长阳组层位不存在误认的问题.来自长阳组命名剖面和相邻剖面长阳组的两件牙形石样品的分析结果显示:长阳组的牙形石化石组合以Siphonodella levis大量发育为特征,兼有少量的Polygnathus inormatus、P.cf.symmetricus、Bispathodus aculeatus和Pseudopolygnath us originalis等,未见Iriodus等典型的泥盆纪分子.此结果不支持长阳组属于泥盆系的论点.长阳组中的牙形石和腕足类等化石组合支持长阳组的层位与黔南地区的汤耙沟组下部、湘中地区的马栏边组大部(或刘家塘组下部)、桂北地区的尧云岭组,以及下扬子苏皖地区五通组擂鼓台段顶部(或老坎组或陈家边组)的层位相当,属于杜内阶的下部的论点.上覆金陵组可与黔南地区的汤耙沟组上部、湘中地区的马栏边组顶部至陡岭坳组(或刘家塘组上部)和桂北地区的英塘组等地层对比,属于杜内阶的上部.%Reinvestigation on the original section of the Changyang Formation reveals that the faults in the top of the section do not seriously affect the sequence of the Changyang Formation and there is no mis-fecognition problem on the original recognized sequence of the Changyang Formation. The conodont analysis on the two samples from the original section and nearby area reveals that the Changyang Formation yields a typical Lower Carboniferous conodont assemblage characterised with abundant Siphonodella levis, some Polygnathus inornatus , P. cf. symmetricus, Bispathodus aculeatus , Pseudopolygnathus originalis , and absence of typical Devonian elements, such as Icriodus, strongly supporting that the Changyang Formation belongs to the Lower Carboniferous rather than the Upper Devonian. The conodonts and brachiopods support that the Changyang Formation can be correlated to the lower Tournaisian (or Yanguanian) formations of the neritic facies in South China, such as the

  2. Analysis of a intra-Carixian clay horizon into carbonate platform of the Ouarsenis (Algeria): composition, dynamic and paleo-climatic implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, M.; Salhi, A. [Oran Univ., Faculte des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Amenagement du Territoire, Dpt. de Geologie (Algeria)

    2005-07-01

    During the Late Sinemurian a carbonate platform has developed on the Ouarsenis area (external Tell o f the Algerian Alpine belt) with setting deposits of the Kef Sidi Amar Carbonate Formation. A first maximum flooding materialized by a brachiopods (Zeilleriids) layer, is occurring during the Late Carixian. The Late Carixian deepening has been followed by a sea-level fall documented by several meters incisions filled by transgressive breccia and conglomerates. After this episode, this material was sealed by a pedogenic bed (0,05 to 0,20 m) which corresponds to a yellow clay deposit containing well rounded particles interpreted as pedo-genetic globules. These corpuscles are composed of reddish and hardened clay, corroded quartz grains, rhombic and zoned dolomite crystals and ankerite, monocrystalline and xeno-morphous detrital quartz grains (1-2 mm). The observed characteristics allow to recognize a typical calcrete. They are the result of pedo-genetic diagenesis developed inside the phreatic water-table near the surface: this is an alteration profile. The mineralogic fraction has been analyzed by X-Ray which show results of association clay mineral as a predominance of illite (85%) and mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite (I-M, 10%) associated with a low ration of chlorite (5%) and kaolinite trace (1%). This mineralogic clay association indicates a shallow water (hydro-morphic zone). Among these clay minerals, the illite reveals the precious indications in a source area. In this case, it comes from the decomposition of the schist paleo-relief located in the internal domain. This rock was transformed by acid leaching (action of the sour humus) into kaolinite with the presence of the quartzification. The origin of the mixed-layer clay I-M (10%) is the result of the active pedogenesis. The simultaneous presence of the illite, chlorite, kaolinite and the mixed-layer clay I-M seems to be result from the erosion exercised on the alteration product or arenitisation of the

  3. Carbon and strontium isotope variations and responses tosea-level fluctuations in the Ordovician of the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Maosheng

    2001-01-01

    [1]Arthur, M. A., The carbon cycle-controls of atmospheric CO2 and climate in the geologic past, in Climate in Earth History (eds., Berger, W. M., Crowell, J. C), Washington D C: U. S. National Academy Press, 1982, 55-67.[2]Kroopnick, P. M., Margolis, M. V., Wong, C. S., δ18C variations in marine carbonate sediments as indicators of the CO2 balance between atmosphere and ocean, in The Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2 in the Ocean (eds., Anderson, N. R., Malahoff. A.),New York: Plenum Press, 1977, 295-321.[3]Veizer, J., Fritz, P., Jones, B., Geochemistry of brachiopods: Oxygen and carbon isotopic records of Paleozoic oceans,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1986, 50: 1679- 1696.[4]Wadleigh, M. A., Veizer, J., 18O/16O and 13C/12C in Lower Paleozoic articulate brachiopods: Implications for the isotopic composition seawater, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1992, 56:431-443.[5]Goldberg, E. D., Minor elements in sea water, in Chemical Oceanography (eds., Riley, J. P., Skirrow, G.), Vol. l, New York: Academic Press, 1986.[6]Fanre, G., Principles ofIsotope Geology, New York: Wiley, 1986, 1 -589.[7]Ebneth, S., Diener, A., Buhl, D. et al., Strontium isotope systematics of conodonts: Middle Devonian, Eifel Mts. Germany,Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol, 1996, 119:201 - 214.[8]Martin, E. E., Macdougall, J. D., Sr and Nd isotopes at Permian / Triassic boundary: A record of climate change, Chem.Geol.. 1995. 125: 73-79.[9]Jones. C. E.. Jenkyns, H. C., Hesselbo, S. P., Strotium isotopic variations in Jurassic and Cretaceous seawater, Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta. 1994, 58:3061 - 3074.[10]McArthur. J. M., Kennedy, W. J., Chen, M. et al., Staontium isotope stratigraphy for Late Cretaceous time: Drect numerical clibration of the Sr curve based on the U.S. western interior, Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol., 1994, 108:95-119.[11]McArthur, J. M., Thirlwall, M. F., Gale, A. S. et al., Strotium isotope stratigraphy for the Late Cretaceous: A new curve

  4. A 4500-year ostracod record from Lake Shkodra (Albania): palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstruction using a multi proxy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Koci, Rexhep; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Baneschi, Ilaria; Sadori, Laura; Giardini, Marco; Van Welden, Aurelien; Bushati, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    During September 2003 several cores were retrieved from the Albanian side of Lake Shkodra. Among them, a 7,8 m long composite core (SK13) has been selected for multidisciplinary analysis: ostracods, characeae, pollen, CaCO3 content and stable isotopes. The chronological framework of SK13 was established through the recognition of four well-dated tephra layers and four 14C accelerator mass spectrometry measurements; the sedimentation rate has been calculated as an average of 0.2 cm a -1(Sulpizio et al 2010, Van Welden et al. 2008). Ostracods have been recovered from 337 samples of 2cm3 in volume, collected almost continuously along the cores. Each sample corresponds to ca. 10 years. Ostracods are abundant and well preserved in all samples, represented by adults and juveniles. On the whole, 13 species have been recovered with different frequencies. Among them, some are endemic of the lake (Candona montenigrina, and Limnocythere scutariense), others are known from other Balcanic lakes and are recorded for the first time in Shkodra (Paralimnocythere georgevitschi in Lake Ohrid, Candona paionica and Candona "angulata" meridionalis in Lake Dorjan). The remaining taxa (Darwinula stevensoni, Pseudocandona marchica, Cypria ophtalmica, Ilyocypris gibba, Cypridopsis vidua, and Metacypris cordata, Cyclocypris sp. and Zonocypris sp.) are widely distributed in central and southern Europe, but signalled for the first time in Albania. The faunal composition is quite homogeneous, with the percentages of the different species varying along the sediment core. The main change occurs at about 1200 cal a BP, where 8 ostracod species disappear and the frequency of the remaining 5 species dramatically increases. This major change reflects the CaCO3 trend with its major peak around 1200 cal a BP. On the contrary, the Characeae display an opposite behaviour, occurring continuously from the base of the core until about 1200 cal a BP, when they as well disappear. The δ18Oc record shows

  5. Revision of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of Vietnam, with the description of forty-two new species and three new genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang

    2010-01-01

    (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus tonghuaensis (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus tongmuensis (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus transcasperatus (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Troticus latiabdominalis (Bhat, 1978),comb. n., Zelodia absoluta (Chen & Yang, 1998), comb. n., Zelodia achterbergi (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Zelodia albopilosella (Cameron, 1908), comb. n., Zelodia chromoptera (Roman, 1913), comb. n., Zelodia nihonensis (Sharkey, 1996), comb. n., Zelodia cordata (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia diluta (Turner, 1918), comb. n., Zelodia dravida (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia exornata (Turner, 1918), comb. n., Zelodia longidorsata (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia longiptera (Yang & Chen, 2006), comb. n., Zelodia maculipes (Cameron, 1911), comb. n., Zelodia nigra (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia philippinensis (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia reticulosa (Yang & Chen, 2006), comb. n., Zelodia quadrifossulata (Enderlein, 1920), comb. n., Zelodia ruida (Sharkey, 1996), comb. n., Zelodia similis (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia penetrans (Smith, 1860), comb. n. and Zelodia varipes (van Achterberg & Maetô, 1990), comb. n. PMID:21594134

  6. 20味中药提取物对无乳链球菌的体外抑菌活性研究%Effects of twenty traditional Chinese medicine extracts against Streptococcus agalactiae in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭练慈; 殷中琼; 贾仁勇; 李莉; 代如意; 曲径; 刘明辉; 陈萍

    2014-01-01

    extracts of tradi-tional Chinese medicines on St.agalactiae were detected by macrodilution broth method , and combined antibacterial effects in vitro of them were also observed .[Result and conclusion] The MICs of the ex-tracts obtained from Prunus mume, Coptis chinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis , Polygonum cuspidatum and Sanguisorba officinalis against St.agalactiae ranged from 7.80 to 31.25 mg/mL.The MICs of the ex-tracts obtained from Taraxacum mongolicum, Artemisia scoparia, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Artemisia arg-yi, Phellodendron chinense, Houttuynia cordata, Violae yedoensis and Pulsatilla chinensis ranged from 62.50 to 125.00 mg/mL.The MICs of the extracts obtained from Po.multiflorum, Sophora flavescens, Andrographis paniculata, Eucommia ulmoides, Forsythia suspensa, Lonicera japonica and Prunella vul-garis ranged from 250.00 to 500.00 mg/mL.The results of joint bacteriostatic test showed that the frac-tional inhibitory concentration index ( FICI) of the extracts obtained from Sc.baicalensis, Po.cuspida-tum, Sa.officinalis and C.chinensis was less than or equal to 1.The FICI of Po.cuspidatum, Sc.ba-icalensis and Sa.officinalis was more than 2.C.chinensis, Sc.baicalensis, Po.cuspidatum and Sa.offi-cinalis showed a good antibacterial effect against St.agalactiae in vitro.The combination of Sa.officina-lis and C.chinensis was characterized by a additive effect , whereas the combination of C.chinensis, Sc. baicalensis and Po.cuspidatum was characterized by a synergism effect .The combination of Sa.officina-lis and Sc.baicalensis, Po.cuspidatum showed antagonism effect .

  7. 中三叠世安尼期罗平生物群海生爬行类研究新进展%New Progress in the Study of Marine Reptiles from the Luoping Biota of Middle Triassic Anisian Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文芠; 张启跃; 刘俊; 胡世学; 周长勇; 黄金元; 谢韬

    2015-01-01

    The Luoping Biota was discovered in 2007 by the Chengdu Center of China Geological Survey during 1:50000 regional mapping works at Dawazi Village, Luoxiong Town, 15 km southeast of Luoping City, Yunnan Province. The interval containing the Luoping biota is the middle to upper part of Member II of the Guanling Formation. The fossil assemblage of the Luoping biota is a mixture of marine animals, terrestrial plants and a few terrestrial animals. To date, more than ten fossil groups have been recovered, which include marine reptiles, fishes, arthropods, echinoderms, ammonites, bivalves, gastropods, lingulid brachiopods, foraminifers, and plants. The Luoping Biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagerstätten records in the world. The age of the Luoping biota is assigned to the Pelsonian Substage of the Middle Triassic Anisian Stage based on the index conodontNicoraella Kockeli. Well-preserved, diverse marine reptiles are one of the highlights of the Luoping biota, including ichthyosaurs, sauropterygians, protorosaurs and archosauromorphs. Mesozoic is remarkable for marine reptiles, whose swimming modes, however, remain a topic of much controversy because of the absence of their tracks. Hundreds of seabed tracks found in Luoping Biota, which were assigned toDikoposichnus luopingensis, provide new materials for the study of their locomotive mode. Besides, the macropredator Nothosaurus zhangireported from Luoping Biota also supports the existence of the makers ofDikoposichnus luopingensis. The skull ofNothosaurus zhangi is the largest sauropterygian ever reported in Triassic. The occurrence of a different assemblage of marine reptiles as top predators in the food web indicates a well developed marine ecosystem, showing full rebuilding of the marine ecosystem after the mass extinction that happened about 250 million years ago.%2007年,中国地质调查局成都地质调查中心云南1∶5万区域地质调查项目组在距罗平县城东南15 km的罗

  8. Petrography, Geochemistry and Proposed Genesis of Ordovician Oolitic Iron Formation Members of the Lashkarak Formation, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoore Maghsoudloo Mahalli

    2016-07-01

    , Iran. Logistical and financial support was provided by the Research Grant to senior author. We are grateful to SarCheshmeh Copper Complex for XRF analyses and IMPERC for XRD measurements. We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Ghobadipour for SEM analysis in National Museum of Wales, Great Britain. References Ghobadi Pour, M., Popov, L.E., Kebriaee-Zadeh, M.R. and Baars C.H., 2011. Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian Brachiopods associated with the Neseuretus bio-facies, Eastern Alborz Mountains, Iran. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 42(3: 263-283. Maynard, J.B., 1983. Geochemistry of sedimentary ore deposits. Springer-Verlag, NewYork, 382 pp. Maynard, J.B., 1986. Geochemistry of oolitic iron ores, an electron microprobe study. Economic Geology, 81(8: 1473-1483. Mucke, A.T. and Farshad, F., 2005. Whole-rock and mineralogical composition of Phanerozoic ooidal ironstones: Comparison and differentiation of types and subtypes. Ore Geology Reviews, 26(2: 227-262. Petranek, J. and Van Houton, F.B., 1997. Phanerozoic ooidal ironstone. Czech Geological Survey, Special Papers 7: 70 pp. Young, T.P., 1989. Eustatically controlled ooidal ironstone deposition: facies relationships of the Ordovician open-shelf ironstones of Western Europe. In: T.P. Young and W.E.G. Taylor (Editors, Phanerozoic Ironstones. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, 46(1: 51–64.

  9. 苏北盆地金湖凹陷碳酸盐岩沉积特征及演化模式%Sedimentary characteristics and evolutionary patterns of carbonates in Jinhu depression, Subei Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵先杰; 王彩凤; 黄伟; 钟思瑛; 刘金华; 廖光明; 陈军

    2013-01-01

    根据对大量薄片和岩心的观察,金湖凹陷西斜坡碳酸盐岩的颗粒类型主要有生物碎屑、鲕粒、球粒、藻叠层石和陆源砂.生物碎屑含量丰富,以蠕虫动物中的环节动物门龙介虫科(Serpulidae)含量最高,占生物碎屑颗粒的70%以上,其他也见藻类、介形虫腕足、腹足、硅藻、有孔虫、苔藓等化石.生物数量虽然比较多,但种属单调,耐盐度比较窄,为半咸水海洋生物组合.微量元素硼的质量分数平均为77.6×10-6,硼与镓的比值(B/Ga)平均为3.6,也显示为半咸水环境.结合沉积物特征、生物组合和特殊矿物分析,认为金湖凹陷在古新统阜宁组二段第Ⅱ油组(E1f22)沉积时期,发生了海侵或与海洋有通道沟通、具有半咸水溺湖环境特征.水体清澈,构造活动相对平静,湖盆沉降和沉积速率缓慢且补偿适中,因此在西斜坡沉积了一套厚度为10~20 m、分布广阔的碳酸盐岩.根据颗粒类型和沉积特征,划分出4种沉积相带,包括陆源碎屑-碳酸盐混合相、鲕粒滩相、生物碎屑滩相、泥晶灰岩相,各相带在纵向和横向出现有规律的交替分布.生物碎屑灰岩溶孔发育,含油气丰富,已作为产能接替区投入了开发,并取得了一定效果.%Based on observations of a large number of cast thin sections and rock cores,grain types of carbonates in the west slope of the Jinhu depression were identified to be mainly composed of bioclast,oolite,spherulite,algal stromatolite and arenite.Of which bioclast is abundant and predominated by Annelida Serpulidae of vermes,which account for over 70 percent of the bioclast.And the other bioclast consists of algal,ostracod,brachiopod,gastropod,diatom,foraminifera and moss fossils.Although the amount of organisms is large,their species,composed mainly of brackish halobios,are relatively monotonous with narrower salt tolerance.The mass fraction of boron in microelements averages 77.6 × 10-6 and the ratio

  10. Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, L. Robin M.; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2007-05-01

    The old terrane of Siberia occupied a very substantial area in the centre of today's political Siberia and also adjacent areas of Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, and northwestern China. Siberia's location within the Early Neoproterozoic Rodinia Superterrane is contentious (since few if any reliable palaeomagnetic data exist between about 1.0 Ga and 540 Ma), but Siberia probably became independent during the breakup of Rodinia soon after 800 Ma and continued to be so until very near the end of the Palaeozoic, when it became an integral part of the Pangea Supercontinent. The boundaries of the cratonic core of the Siberian Terrane (including the Patom area) are briefly described, together with summaries of some of the geologically complex surrounding areas, and it is concluded that all of the Palaeozoic underlying the West Siberian Basin (including the Ob-Saisan Surgut area), Tomsk Terrane, Altai-Sayan Terranes (including Salair, Kuznetsk Alatau, Batenov, Kobdin and West Sayan), Ertix Terrane, Barguzin Terrane, Tuva-Mongol Terrane, Central Mongolia Terrane Assemblage, Gobi Altai and Mandalovoo Terranes, Okhotsk Terrane and much of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma region all formed parts of peri-Siberia, and thus rotated with the main Siberian Craton as those areas were progressively accreted to the main Siberian Terrane at various times during the latest Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic. The Ertix Terrane is a new term combining what has been termed the "Altay Terrane" or "NE Xinjiang" area of China, and the Baytag, Baaran and Bidz terranes of Mongolia. The Silurian Tuvaella brachiopod fauna is restricted only to today's southern parts of peri-Siberia. Thus, allowing for subsequent rotation, the fauna occurs only in the N of the Siberian Terrane, and, as well as being a helpful indicator of what marginal terranes made up peri-Siberia, is distinctive as being the only Silurian fauna known from northern higher latitudes globally. In contrast, the other terranes adjacent to peri