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Sample records for brachionus plicatilis representing

  1. Effect of enriched Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth, developmental stages and survival rates of Sparus aurata larvae fed with Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii enriched by microalga Tetraselmis chuii were studied. Two experiments were carried out; the first concerning with culturing the microalga (T. chuii) in four different media, then using these ...

  2. Effect of enriched Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The growth, developmental stages and survival rates of Sparus aurata larvae fed with Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii enriched by microalga Tetraselmis chuii were studied. Two experiments were carried out; the first concerning with culturing the microalga (T. chuii) in four different media ...

  3. Ecological differentiation in cryptic rotifer species: what we can learn from the Brachionus plicatilis complex.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabaldón, Carmen; Fontaneto, D.; Carmona, M.J.; Montero-Pau, J.; Serra, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 796, č. 1 (2017), s. 7-18 ISSN 0018-8158 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Brachionus plicatilis * coexistence * ecological differentiation * molecular taxonomy Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  4. Trade-off between reproduction and lifespan of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis under different food conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yunfei; Hou, Xinying; Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lu; Zhu, Xuexia; Huang, Yuan; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Phaeocystis globosa, one of the most typical red tide-forming species, is usually mixed in the food composition of rotifers. To explore how rotifers respond by adjusting life history strategy when feeding on different quality foods, we exposed the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis to cultures with 100% Chlorella, a mixture of 50% P. globosa and 50% Chlorella, or 100% P. globosa. Results showed that rotifers exposed to 100% Chlorella or to mixed diets produced more total offspring and had higher a...

  5. Toxic effects of combined effects of anthracene and UV radiation on Brachionus plicatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ceng; Zhang, Xinxin; Xu, Ningning; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-05-01

    Anthracene is a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, with photo activity, can absorb ultraviolet light a series of chemical reactions, aquatic organisms in the ecosystem has a potential light induced toxicity. In this paper, the effects of anthracene and UV radiation on the light-induced toxicity of Brachionus plicatilis were studied. The main methods and experimental results were as follows: (1) The semi-lethal concentration of anthracene in UV light was much lower than that in normal light, The rotifers have significant light-induced acute toxicity. (2) Under UV irradiation, anthracene could induce the increase of ROS and MDA content in B. plicatilis, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in B. plicatilis significantly changed, Where SOD, GPx activity was induced within 24 hours of the beginning of the experiment. And the content of GPX and CAT was inhibited after 48 hours. Therefore, the anthracite stress induced by UV radiation could more strongly interfere with the ant oxidative metabolism of B. plicatilis, and more seriously cause oxidative damage, significant light-induced toxicity.

  6. Germ cell specification and ovary structure in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith James M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The segregation of the germline from somatic tissues is an essential process in the development of all animals. Specification of the primordial germ cells (PGCs takes place via different strategies across animal phyla; either specified early in embryogenesis by the inheritance of maternal determinants in the cytoplasm of the oocyte ('preformation' or selected later in embryonic development from undifferentiated precursors by a localized inductive signal ('epigenesis'. Here we investigate the specification and development of the germ cells in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a member of the poorly-characterized superphyla Lophotrochozoa, by isolating the Brachionus homologues of the conserved germ cell markers vasa and nanos, and examining their expression using in situ hybridization. Results Bpvasa and Bpnos RNA expression have very similar distributions in the Brachionus ovary, showing ubiquitous expression in the vitellarium, with higher levels in the putative germ cell cluster. Bpvas RNA expression is present in freshly laid eggs, remaining ubiquitous in embryos until at least the 96 cell stage after which expression narrows to a small cluster of cells at the putative posterior of the embryo, consistent with the developing ovary. Bpnos RNA expression is also present in just-laid eggs but expression is much reduced by the four-cell stage and absent by the 16-cell stage. Shortly before hatching of the juvenile rotifer from the egg, Bpnos RNA expression is re-activated, located in a subset of posterior cells similar to those expressing Bpvas at the same stage. Conclusions The observed expression of vasa and nanos in the developing B. plicatilis embryo implies an epigenetic origin of primordial germ cells in Rotifer.

  7. The mate recognition protein gene mediates reproductive isolation and speciation in the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribble Kristin E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemically mediated prezygotic barriers to reproduction likely play an important role in speciation. In facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers from the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex, mate recognition of females by males is mediated by the Mate Recognition Protein (MRP, a globular glycoprotein on the surface of females, encoded by the mmr-b gene family. In this study, we sequenced mmr-b copies from 27 isolates representing 11 phylotypes of the B. plicatilis species complex, examined the mode of evolution and selection of mmr-b, and determined the relationship between mmr-b genetic distance and mate recognition among isolates. Results Isolates of the B. plicatilis species complex have 1–4 copies of mmr-b, each composed of 2–9 nearly identical tandem repeats. The repeats within a gene copy are generally more similar than are gene copies among phylotypes, suggesting concerted evolution. Compared to housekeeping genes from the same isolates, mmr-b has accumulated only half as many synonymous differences but twice as many non-synonymous differences. Most of the amino acid differences between repeats appear to occur on the outer face of the protein, and these often result in changes in predicted patterns of phosphorylation. However, we found no evidence of positive selection driving these differences. Isolates with the most divergent copies were unable to mate with other isolates and rarely self-crossed. Overall the degree of mate recognition was significantly correlated with the genetic distance of mmr-b. Conclusions Discrimination of compatible mates in the B. plicatilis species complex is determined by proteins encoded by closely related copies of a single gene, mmr-b. While concerted evolution of the tandem repeats in mmr-b may function to maintain identity, it can also lead to the rapid spread of a mutation through all copies in the genome and thus to reproductive isolation. The mmr-b gene is evolving

  8. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.

  9. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera. Rotifers are an important live feed for first feeding larvae of many fish species. The use of concentrated algae cells in the mass culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Brachionidae has opened new horizons for research on this organism. Pastes of Rhodomonas salina (Pyrenomonadaceae obtained either by centrifugation or flocculation with chitosan were preserved, with or without vitamin C, at -20°C for four weeks and were evaluated

  10. Trade-off between reproduction and lifespan of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis under different food conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunfei; Hou, Xinying; Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lu; Zhu, Xuexia; Huang, Yuan; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2017-11-13

    Phaeocystis globosa, one of the most typical red tide-forming species, is usually mixed in the food composition of rotifers. To explore how rotifers respond by adjusting life history strategy when feeding on different quality foods, we exposed the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis to cultures with 100% Chlorella, a mixture of 50% P. globosa and 50% Chlorella, or 100% P. globosa. Results showed that rotifers exposed to 100% Chlorella or to mixed diets produced more total offspring and had higher age-specific fecundity than those exposed to 100% P. globosa. Food combination significantly affected the net reproduction rates of rotifers. By contrast, rotifers that fed on 100% P. globosa or on mixed diets had a longer lifespan than those fed on 100% Chlorella. The overall performances (combining reproduction and lifespan together) of rotifers cultured in 100% Chlorella or mixed diets were significantly higher than those cultured in 100% P. globosa. In general, Chlorella favors rotifers reproduction at the cost of shorter lifespan, whereas P. globosa tends to extend the lifespan of rotifers with lower fecundity, indicating that trade-off exists between reproduction and lifespan under different food conditions. The present study also suggests that rotifers may have the potential to control harmful P. globosa.

  11. Discovering genes associated with dormancy in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kube Michael

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microscopic monogonont rotifers, including the euryhaline species Brachionus plicatilis, are typically found in water bodies where environmental factors restrict population growth to short periods lasting days or months. The survival of the population is ensured via the production of resting eggs that show a remarkable tolerance to unfavorable conditions and remain viable for decades. The aim of this study was to generate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs for molecular characterisation of processes associated with the formation of resting eggs, their survival during dormancy and hatching. Results Four normalized and four subtractive libraries were constructed to provide a resource for rotifer transcriptomics associated with resting-egg formation, storage and hatching. A total of 47,926 sequences were assembled into 18,000 putative transcripts and analyzed using both Blast and GO annotation. About 28–55% (depending on the library of the clones produced significant matches against the Swissprot and Trembl databases. Genes known to be associated with desiccation tolerance during dormancy in other organisms were identified in the EST libraries. These included genes associated with antioxidant activity, low molecular weight heat shock proteins and Late Embryonic Abundant (LEA proteins. Real-time PCR confirmed that LEA transcripts, small heat-shock proteins and some antioxidant genes were upregulated in resting eggs, therefore suggesting that desiccation tolerance is a characteristic feature of resting eggs even though they do not necessarily fully desiccate during dormancy. The role of trehalose in resting-egg formation and survival remains unclear since there was no significant difference between resting-egg producing females and amictic females in the expression of the tps-1 gene. In view of the absence of vitellogenin transcripts, matches to lipoprotein lipase proteins suggest that, similar to the situation in dipterans, these

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of copper to the euryhaline rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W R; Diamond, R L; Smith, D S

    2011-02-01

    This article presents data from original research, intended for the use in the development of copper (Cu) criteria for the protection of estuarine and marine organisms and their uses in the United States. Two 48-h static-acute toxicity tests-one with and one without added food-and a 96-h static multigeneration life-cycle test (P1-F2 generations) were performed concurrently using the euryhaline rotifer Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain) to develop a Cu acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) for this species. Tests were performed at 15 g/L salinity, at 25°C, and the exposure concentrations of dissolved Cu were verified. Supplemental chemical analyses were performed and reported for the development of a Cu-saltwater biotic ligand model (BLM). Supplemental analyses included alkalinity, calcium, chloride, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), hardness, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and temperature. The acute toxicity test measurement end points were the dissolved Cu median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values based on rotifer survival. The chronic measurement end points were the dissolved Cu no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC), lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC), EC₂₅, EC₂₀, and EC₁₀ based on the intrinsic rate of rotifer population increase (r). The 48-h LC₅₀(Fed), 48-h LC₅₀(Unfed), 96-h NOEC, 96-h LOEC, EC₂₅, EC₂₀, and EC₁₀ were 20.8, 13.4, 6.1, 10.3, 11.7, 10.9, and 8.8 μg Cu/L, respectively. The ACRs were calculated as ratios of each 48-h LC₅₀ value [fed and unfed) and each of the 96-h chronic values (ChV; geometric mean of NOEC and LOEC)], EC₁₀, EC₂₀, and EC₂₅. The ACRs ranged from 1.15 to 2.63.

  13. Impact of several harmful algal bloom (HAB) causing species, on life history characteristics of rotifer Brachionus plicatilis Müller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianing; Yan, Tian; Zhang, Qingchun; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have occurred frequently along the coast of China, and have been exhibiting succession from diatom- to dinoflagellate-dominated blooms. To examine the effects of different diatom and dinoflagellate HABs, the life history parameters of rotifers ( Brachionus plicatilis Müller) were measured after exposure to different concentrations of HAB species. The HAB species examined included a diatom ( Skeletonema costatum) and four dinoflagellates ( Prorocentrum donghaiense, Alexandrium catenella, Prorocentrum lima and Karlodinium veneficum). Compared with the control treatment (CT), the diatom S. costatum showed no adverse impacts on rotifers. Exposure to dinoflagellates at densities equivalent to those measured in the field resulted in a reduction in all the life history parameters measured. This included a reduction in: lifetime egg production (CT: 20.34 eggs/ind.) reduced to 10.11, 3.22, 4.17, 7.16 eggs/ind., life span (CT: 394.53 h) reduced to 261.11, 162.90, 203.67, 196 h, net reproductive rate (CT: 19.51/ind.) reduced to 3.01, 1.26, 3.53, 5.96/ind., finite rate of increase (CT: 1.47/d) reduced to 1.16, 1.03, 1.33, 1.38/d, and intrinsic rate of population increase (CT: 0.39/d) reduced to 0.15, 0.03, 0.28, 0.32/d, for the dinoflagellates P. donghaiense, A. catenella, P. lima and K. veneficum, respectively. The results showed that the diatom S. costatum had no detrimental consequences on the reproduction and growth of B. plicatilis, however, the four dinoflagellates tested did show adverse effects. This suggests that dinoflagellate HABs may suppress microzooplankton, resulting in an increase in algal numbers.

  14. Improvement of the nutritional value and growth of rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis by different enrichment period with Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutia Budi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachionus plicatilis is a widely used as natural feed in hatchery. Characteristics of rotifers as biocapsule can improve the quality of rotifers in a practical way. Bacillus sp. is capable of improving the nutrition rotifers to produce vitamins, food detoxication or through enzymatic activity such as protease, lipase, and amylase. This research aimed at observing the influence of the enrichment length of Bacillus sp. on the quality of nutrition and growth of rotifers. The research container was a polyearbonate vessel of one ton volume which contained Nannochloropsis sp. with the density of 105 cell/mL, it was then scattered with rotifer with the density of 1,000 ind./mL. The types of bacteria used were Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheformis with the density of 2x1010 cfu/g. The experiments tried with different enrichment length were A = 0 hour, B = 5 hours, C = 10 hours and D = 10 hours with triplicate. As the comparing data, rotifer culture experiment was carried out with Nannochlorophsis sp.as the control. The number of containers were 24 which consists of 12 for threatment and 12 pieces as control. Variables measured were proximate to each treatment and the growth of rotifers. The result of the research revealed the enrichment length of rotifers with Bacillus sp. has significantly (P Key words: rotifers, Bacillus, enrichment period, proximate   ABSTRAK Brachionus plicatilis merupakan pakan alami yang banyak digunakan dalam pembenihan. Karakteristik rotifer sebagai biokapsul secara praktis dapat meningkatkan kualitas rotifer. Bacillus sp. mampu memperbaiki nutrisi rotifer dengan memproduksi vitamin, detoksikasi pangan maupun melalui aktivitas enzimatis seperti protease, lipase, dan amilase. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pengkayaan Bacillus sp. terhadap kualitas nutrisi dan pertumbuhan rotifer. Wadah penelitian menggunakan bak fiber volume 1 ton yang berisikan Nannochloropsis sp. dengan kepadatan 105 cell

  15. Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifer'in Farklı Besin Ortamlarında Büyümesi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bircan Özbaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Farklı besin diyetlerinin rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis kültürlerinin büyümesi üzerindeki etkilerinin araştırıldığı bu çalışmada, rotiferler Nannochloropsis sp., ekmek mayası (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ve kurutulmuş Spirulina tozu ile beslendi. İlk denemede, optimum Spirulina konsantrasyonu günde 0.01 g / 106 rotifer olarak bulundu. Deneme gruplarında alg, alg+maya, alg+Spirulina, maya+Spirulina ve maya/2+Spirulina olmak üzere 5 deneme grubu oluşturuldu. Mikroskobik gözlemlerde, Spirulina partikülleri havanda ezilmiş olmasına rağmen rotiferler tarafından tüketilemeyecek boyutta idi. Sonuç olarak, alg içeren grupların en iyi büyümeyi gösterdiği tespit edildi. Spirulina ise partikül büyüklüğünden dolayı rotiferler tarafından alınamadı. Maya hücreleri ise rotifer hücreleri için optimum büyüklükte olmasına rağmen, ortam kirliliğine neden olması bakımından alg ile beslenen gruplara göre daha düşük bir büyüme gösterdi

  16. Effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming velocity of the copepod Acartia tonsa, brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Madsen, C.V.; Riisgard, H.U.

    2008-01-01

    that the temperature-dependent viscosity of seawater is the key physical/mechanical factor that controls the beat frequency of water-pumping cilia in mussels and the swimming velocity in a ciliate. The present study on the swimming velocity of 3 zooplankton organisms, however, shows that the response of swimming...... velocity to a change in viscosity is different when due to a change in temperature or, at constant temperature, due to a manipulation of viscosity by addition of a high-molecular-weight polymer (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP) to the ambient seawater. There is a biological effect (fraction of total reduction...... of swimming velocity for a 10 degrees C temperature reduction) that is found to be largest for the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplius (37 %) and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (26%), but negligible for the copepod Acartia tonsa (4%). We suggest that experimental data on change in swimming velocity (V...

  17. Substituição de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis na larvicultura do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 Replacement of the Artemia sp. for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the hatchering of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero enriquecido e congelado (Brachionus plicatilis, O.F. Müller, 1786 sobre a sobrevivência e peso seco das larvas. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, sendo testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura do camarão M. rosenbergii, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Nos regimes alimentares, realizaram-se substituições progressivas de náuplios de Artemia sp. (nas pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis (rots e testaram-se os seguintes tratamentos: 100% B. plicatilis (30 rots/mL (T1; 100% Artemia sp. (5 nas/mL (T2, 60% Artemia sp. (3 nas/mL + 40% B. plicatilis (12 rots/mL (T3 e 40% Artemia sp. (2 nas/mL + 60% B. plicatilis (18 rots/mL (T4, adicionando-se a estes tratamentos ração úmida. Os resultados da sobrevivência final em pós-larvas foram analisados pelo teste do X² e demonstraram não haver diferenças significativas do tratamento T2 (68,36% sobre os tratamentos T3 (68,76% e T4 (64,60%. O tratamento T1 (100% B. plicatilis apresentou mortalidade total no 14º dia do experimento. O peso seco médio das pós-larvas foi analisado estatisticamente pela ANOVA, não apresentando diferenças significativas entre os valores de 3,29 mg (T2, 3,08 mg (T3 e 3,38 mg (T4. A taxa de mortalidade baseada no número de larvas encontradas mortas diariamente, em relação ao número de larvas estocadas inicialmente, foi maior para todos os tratamentos nos primeiros 15 dias do experimento. Portanto, os resultados demonstraram que a substituição total de rotíferos enriquecidos e congelados acarretou a mortalidade total das larvas, mas a substituição parcial de 40% e 60% dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo B. plicatilis foi viável, não apresentando prejuízos significativos em termos de sobrevivência e peso seco das pós-larvas.This work was carried out to identify the replacement of the nauplii Artemia

  18. Is it photosensitization or photodegradation when UV-B irradiation is combined with BDE-47? Evidence from the growth and reproduction changes of rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunchen; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Yongshun; Lv, Mengchen; Zang, Yu; Wang, You

    2018-07-01

    Ecotoxicological methods were applied in the present study, and the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis was used as the toxic endpoint to depict what occurred when 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was combined with solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). B. plicatilis was exposed to three different combination methods of BDE-47 and UV-B at an equal toxicity ratio, including normal rotifer co-cultured with UV-B-irradiated BDE-47 (known as Method I), UV-B-irradiated rotifer co-cultured with BDE-47 exposure (known as Method II) and normal rotifer co-cultured with the simultaneous addition of BDE-47 and UV-B irradiation (known as Method III). Acute and chronic experiments were preformed to determine the toxicity differentiation according to the growth and reproduction changes in the rotifer. Twenty-four-hour acute experiments showed that the modes of three combined methods changed from antagonism to additive, to synergistic with the concentration/dose increment, and the contribution rates of Method I and Method II to Method III were calculated by approximately 40.4% and 59.6%, respectively. Chronic exposure to either the single stressor or the combination of stressors inhibited the growth and reproduction of the rotifer, demonstrating the inhibition of the population growth rate and the decrease in the larvae production. Three combined groups presented more serious damages compared to groups with single stress exposure, and the ascending sequence of toxicity was Method IB was mainly due to photosensitization and photodegradation, and the photosensitization might be more noxious to the growth and reproduction of the rotifer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The effects of salinity, pH, and dissolved organic matter on acute copper toxicity to the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W R; Diamond, R L; Smith, D S

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents data from original research for use in the development of a marine biotic ligand model and, ultimately, copper criteria for the protection of estuarine and marine organisms and their uses. Ten 48-h static acute (unfed) copper toxicity tests using the euryhaline rotifer Brachionus plicatilis ("L" strain) were performed to assess the effects of salinity, pH, and dissolved organic matter (measured as dissolved organic carbon; DOC) on median lethal dissolved copper concentrations (LC50). Reconstituted and natural saltwater samples were tested at seven salinities (6, 11, 13, 15, 20, 24, and 29 g/L), over a pH range of 6.8-8.6 and a range of dissolved organic carbon of copper toxicity was significantly related only to the dissolved organic matter content (pH and salinity not statistically retained; alpha=0.05). The relationship of the 48-h dissolved copper LC50 values and dissolved organic carbon concentrations was LC50 (microg Cu/L)=27.1xDOC (mg C/L)1.25; r2=0.94.

  20. Use of Probiotic Bacillus spp. in Rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia (Artemia urmiana) Enrichment: Effects on Growth and Survival of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hadi; Imani, Ahmad; Abdollahi, Daruosh; Roozbehfar, Reza; Isari, Amin

    2015-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of Bacillus probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis, 1:1) on growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. The larvae were fed on Artemia urmiana nauplii and Brachionus plicatilis enriched with the probiotic preparation at 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1) rate. The experimental setup was completely randomized design comprised of six treatments, namely solo Artemia nauplii (A) or rotifer (R), Artemia nauplii and rotifer without any enrichment (A + R), Artemia nauplii enrichment with probiotic bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis) (A + B), rotifer enrichment with probiotic bacilli (R + B) and enriched Artemia nauplii and rotifer (A + R + B). All treatments were performed in triplicate. Chemical parameters of rearing water viz. pH, salinity and temperature were 7.5-8, 30-31 ppt and 31-32 °C, respectively. Photoperiod was 16L:8D. Shrimp larvae were fed Artemia nauplii and rotifers at 5-20 and 10-40 individuals per shrimp larvae four times a day, respectively. Growth and survival rate of larvae were determined at MII, MIII, PL1, PL4, PL7 and PL10 stages. Larvae in A + R + B treatment showed the highest total length (10.89 ± 0.51 mm), weight (674 ± 73 μg) and survival rate (65% ± 3.5). Lowest total length, weight and survival rate (7.96 ± 0.63 mm, 493 ± 52 μg and 24.5 ± 2.4%, respectively) were recorded in treatment B larvae. We concluded that Bacillus probiotic can improve growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp larvae without conceivably undesirable effects.

  1. Use of flubendazole as a therapeutic agent against rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) in intensive cultures of the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Nielsen, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Copepods are well known to be the optimal live feed for most species of marine fish larvae. Still copepods are rarely used in marine hatcheries worldwide. Lack of efficient production techniques are among the reasons for this. Consequently, Artemia and rotifers are utilized in commercial settings....... One problem in intensive production of copepods is contamination with rotifers. Rotifers have higher growth rates than copepods and consequently will compete out the copepods when accidentally introduced to the copepod production systems. Once contamination has occurred, the only cure has been to shut...

  2. Kweekopzet van de Brachionus plicatilis op basis van kunstmatige voeders: Algenconcentraten en Rotimac als fast-food voor voedseldiertjes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vin, de C.M.

    2003-01-01

    De aquacultuursector is de snelst groeiende voedselproducerende sector ter wereld. De grootste producent is China, gevolgd door India en Japan. Binnen de Europese Unie is Spanje koploper, gevolgd door Frankrijk en Italië. Nederland komt op de vijfde plaats. Nederland heeft een aquacultuur productie

  3. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubanek Julia

    2009-09-01

    , even at synonymous positions, suggests that the repeats are kept nearly identical through a process of concerted evolution. Information-rich molecules like surface glycoproteins are well adapted for chemical communication and aquatic animals may have evolved signaling systems based on these compounds, whereas insects use cuticular hydrocarbons. Conclusion Owing to its critical role in mating, the mate recognition pheromone gene will be a useful molecular marker for exploring the mechanisms and rates of selection and the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation using rotifers as a model system. The phylogenetic variation in the mate recognition pheromone gene can now be studied in conjunction with the large amount of ecological and population genetic data being gathered for the Brachionus plicatilis species complex to understand better the evolutionary drivers of cryptic speciation.

  4. Lagenidium callinectes INFECTION ON ROTIFERS Brachionus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Roza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Milkfish, Chanos chanos and humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis hatcheries have developed at Gondol, Bali since 1995 and until now still rely on rotifers, the main natural food, supply. Recent problem on mass culture of rotifer, Brachionus sp. is harvest failure caused by fungus infection. Under light microscope, infected eggs and bodies of the rotifers was filled with numerous aseptate hyphae. Two isolates of fungi were isolated from rotifer eggs and carcass on June 21st, 2004 and on June 25th, 2004 obtained from milkfish and humpback grouper hatcheries at Gondol. Based on its morphological characteristics, the pathogenic fungus was identified as Lagenidium callinectes which grows optimally at 25°C and survives in 1.0%, 2.5%, and 5.0% NaCl as well as in 1.0% and 2.5% KCl. Both of the present isolates utilize only 8 out of 26 carbohydrates and derivatives tested as carbon, nutrition and energy sources. This finding is the first report on rotifer, Brachionus sp. infected with L. callinectes causing up to 100% mortality.

  5. Culture of the freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus , and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to review the principles and procedures involved in the culture of the freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus as starter food for most freshwater fish fry. There are several strains of different sizes of this rotifer, thus making them suitable for fry of a variety of sizes. This rotifer can be isolated, continuously ...

  6. The genome of the freshwater monogonont rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Bo-Young; Han, Jeonghoon; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Min-Chul; Kang, Hye-Min; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Papakostas, S.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Choi, Ik-Young; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2018-01-01

    Monogononta is the most speciose class of rotifers, with more than 2,000 species. The monogonont genus Brachionus is widely distributed at a global scale, and a few of its species are commonly used as ecological and evolutionary models to address questions related to aquatic ecology, cryptic

  7. Effect of food quantity and quality on population growth rate and digestive activity in the euryhaline rotifer .i.Brachionus plicatilis./i. Müller

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrojsová, M.; Suga, K.; Hagiwara, A.; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2009), s. 706-719 ISSN 1434-2944 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : reproduction * nitrogen limitation * phosphorus limitation * phosphatase activity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2009

  8. Diet quality impact on growth, reproduction, and digestive activity in .i.Brachionus calyciflorus./i

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrojsová, Martina; Nedoma, Jiří; Seďa, Jaromír; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 10 (2008), s. 1123-1131 ISSN 0142-7873 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600170602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Brachionus * phosphorus limitation * growth * reproduction * phosphatase Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.707, year: 2008

  9. Optofluidic technology for monitoring rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus responses to regular light pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Rhys; Campana, Olivia; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Behavioural alterations can occur as a result of a toxicant exposure at concentrations significantly lower than lethal effects that are commonly measured in acute toxicity testing. The use of alternating light and dark photoperiods to test phototactic responses of aquatic invertebrates in the presence of environmental contaminants provides an attractive analytical avenue. Quantification of phototactic responses represents a sublethal endpoint that can be employed as an early warning signal. Despite the benefits associated with the assessment of these endpoints, there is currently a lack of automated and miniaturized bioanalytical technologies to implement the development of toxicity testing with small aquatic species. In this study we present a proof-of-concept microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for the assessment of rotifer swimming behavior in the presence of the toxicant copper sulfate. The device was designed to assess impact of toxicants at sub-lethal concentrations on freshwater crustacean Brachionus calyciflorus, testing behavioral endpoints such as animal swimming distance, speed and acceleration. The LOC device presented in this work enabled straightforward caging of microscopic crustaceans as well as non-invasive analysis of rapidly swimming animals in a focal plane of a video-microscopy system. The chip-based technology was fabricated using a new photolithography method that enabled formation of thick photoresist layers with minimal distortion. Photoresist molds were then employed for replica molding of LOC devices with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer. The complete bioanalytical system consisted of: (i) microfluidic PDMS chip-based device; (ii) peristaltic microperfusion pumping manifold; (iii) miniaturized CMOS camera for video data acquisition; and (iv) video analysis software algorithms for quantification of changes in swimming behaviour of B. calyciflorus in response to reference toxicants.

  10. Aislamiento, caracterización, y puesta en cultivo de una cepa de pequeño tamaño de Brachionus plicatilis. O.F. Muller (1786).

    OpenAIRE

    Yúfera Ginés, Manuel

    1982-01-01

    Falta palabras clave Las investigaciones sobre el cultivo de organismos planctónicos se han emprendido generalmente con alguno de los siguientes objetivos:- Estudios de investigación b&aacut ... - Estudios de organismos de test. Principalmente de organismos indicadores de la calidad de las aguas, o de procesos bioquímicos.- Estudios de organismos utilizados como alimento, principalmente de forma juveniles de diversas especies marinas. Es a este último aspecto al que nos vamos a referir más...

  11. Population density, sexual reproduction and diapause in monogonont rotifers: new data for Brachionus and a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. GILBERT

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Diapausing, fertilized eggs in monogonont rotifers typically are formed after an environmental signal induces amictic females to produce mictic daughters. Mictic females lay haploid eggs that may develop parthenogenetically into males, or that may be fertilized and develop into diapausing, female embryos called resting eggs. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that crowding is the signal for production of mictic females in strains of Brachionus calyciflorus from Texas, Spain and Germany, and in a strain of Brachionus variabilis from Spain. In these experiments, newborn amictic females were cultured singly in large and small volumes to give lowand high-density treatments. Therefore, the induction of mictic females is due exclusively to population density and cannot be attributed to a grouping effect involving some interaction among individuals. B. variabilis is very sensitive to population density; females had to be cultured in 30 ml to prevent appreciable production of mictic daughters. Crowding is now known to be the signal for initiation of sexuality and diapause in four species of Brachionus, two species of Epiphanes, and Rhinoglena frontalis. The chemical that mediates this response somehow influences oocytes in the maternal body cavity to differentiate into mictic females. Aggregation of individuals in natural systems may facilitate the production of mictic females. In some of these rotifers, the response to crowding is suppressed in early generations from the resting egg, assuring that clonal populations will attain higher population densities before committing to sexual reproduction. Fitness benefits of the mictic-female response to crowding, and to other environmental signals in other rotifers (dietary tocopherol, long photoperiod, are discussed.

  12. Effect of different densities of live and dead Chlorella vulgaris on the population growth of rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lucía-Pavón

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain rotifer populations during periods of low algal production, it is necessary to offer alternate diets, some of which include forms of preserved algae. The present work is based on the effect of live and dead Chlorella vulgaris on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus. The experimental design consisted of 3 algal levels (0.5x10(6, 1.5x10(6 and 4.5x10(6 cells ml-1 offered in 3 forms (living, frozen and heat-killed. The maximal population density values for B. calyciflorus ranged from 55±1 ind. ml-1 (at 0.5x10(6 cells ml-1 to 471±72 ind. ml-1 (at 4.5x10(6 cells ml-1 with live Chlorella, but was much lower (6±1 to 26±6 ind. ml-1 with frozen or heat-killed alga under comparable food levels. However, the maximum population density of B. patulus under live or or heat-killed Chlorella was similar at comparable algal levels but when offered frozen algae it was four times less. The highest mean peak population density was 1227±83 ind. ml-1 under 4.5x10(6 cells ml-1. The rate of population increase for B. calyciflorus varied from 0.50 to 0.79 using live Chlorella, but under comparable conditions, this range was lower (0.21 to 0.31 for B. patulus. Results have been discussed in light of possible application for aquaculturePara mantener poblaciones de rotíferos durante periodos con escasez de microalgas, es necesario ofrecer dietas alternativas, incluyendo algunas formas de microalgas preservadas. El presente trabajo analiza el efecto de Chlorella vulgaris viva y muerta sobre el crecimiento poblacional de Brachionus calyciflorus y Brachonus patulus. El diseño experimental consistió en tres niveles de algas (0.5x10(6, 1.5x10(6 y 4.5x10(6 células ml-1 ofrecidas en tres formas (viva, congelada y muerta con agua caliente. Las abundancias máximas de población de B. calyciflorus variaron desde 55±1 ind. ml-1 (en 0.5x10(6 células ml-1 a 471±72 ind. ml-1 (en 4.5x10(6 células ml-1 con Chlorella viva

  13. Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesús; Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Silva-Briano, Marcelo; Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro

    2012-01-01

    We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green ® analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus.

  14. Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesus, E-mail: jalvaflo@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Rico-Martinez, Roberto, E-mail: rrico@correo.uaa.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Ventura-Juarez, Javier, E-mail: jventur@correo.uaa.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Morfologia, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Silva-Briano, Marcelo, E-mail: msilva@correo.uaa.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Biologia, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro, E-mail: rubio_reyes@hotmail.com [Instituto de Servicios de Salud del Estado de Aguascalientes, Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Av. Siglo XXI 105, Ciudad Satelite Morelos, C.P. 20270, Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico)

    2012-03-15

    We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green{sup Registered-Sign} analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus.

  15. Multigenerational effects of triclosan on the demography of Plationus patulus and Brachionus havanaensis (ROTIFERA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Brenda Karen; Sarma, S S S; Castellanos-Páez, M E; Nandini, S

    2018-01-01

    Triclosan is a personal care product widely used in North America, Europe and Asia as antimicrobial ingredient in many consumer chemical products. In Mexico concentrations of triclosan have been reported in aquatic systems. However, there is no law regulating the presence of chemicals such as triclosan, in aquatic systems. The scarce data about this chemical has increased concern among ecotoxicologists regarding possible effects on aquatic organisms. Moreover, multigenerational studies are rarely studied and the results vary depending on the contaminant. Rotifers, are a dominant group of zooplankton, and have been used in aquatic risk assessments of personal care products due to their sensitivity and high reproductive rates. Plationus patulus and Brachionus havanaensis are common rotifers distributed in aquatic ecosystems of Mexico and have been used in ecotoxicological bioassays. In this study, the median lethal concentration (LC50, 24h) of P. patulus and B. havanaensis exposed to triclosan was determined. Based on the LC50, we tested three sublethal concentrations of triclosan to quantify the demographic responses of both rotifers for two successive generations (F0, and F1). The 24h LC50 of triclosan for P. patulus and B. havanaensis were 300 and 500µgL -1 respectively. Despite the concentration, triclosan had an adverse effect on both Plationus patulus and Brachionus havanaensis in both generations exposed. Experiments show that P. patulus was more sensitive than B. havanaensis when exposed to triclosan. When exposed to triclosan the parental generation (F0) of P. patulus was far more affected than F1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic toxicity of lead to three freshwater invertebrates--Brachionus calyciflorus, Chironomus tentans, and Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosell, Martin; Gerdes, Robert M; Brix, Kevin V

    2006-01-01

    Chronic lead (Pb) toxicity tests with Brachionus calyciflorus, Chironomus tentans, and Lymnaea stagnalis were performed in artificial freshwaters. The no-observable-effect concentration (NOEC), lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC), and calculated 20% effect concentration (EC20) for the rotifer B. calyciflorus were 194, 284, and 125 microg dissolved Pb/L, respectively. The midge C. tentans was less sensitive, with NOEC and LOEC of 109 and 497 microg dissolved Pb/L, respectively, and the snail L. stagnalis exhibited extreme sensitivity, evident by NOEC, LOEC, and EC20 of 12, 16, and freshwater organisms. The L. stagnalis results are in agreement with a previous report on pulmonate snails and should be viewed in the context of current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) hardness adjusted water quality criteria of 8 microg Pb/L. The present findings and earlier reports indicate that freshwater pulmonate snails may not be protected by current regulatory standards. Measurements of whole-snail Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations following chronic Pb exposure revealed that Na+ homeostasis is disturbed by Pb exposure in juvenile snails in a complicated pattern, suggesting two physiological modes of action depending on the Pb exposure concentration. Substantially reduced growth in the snails that exhibit very high Ca2+ requirements may be related to reduced Ca2+ uptake and thereby reduced shell formation.

  17. Spermatozoon of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera, Monogononta): Advances in morphological and ultrastructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuyu; Li, Lian; Liang, Luxiaoxue; Liu, Xuezhou; Ouyang, Kai; Li, Jing; Yang, Jiaxin

    2015-09-01

    The morphological and ultrastructural features of the spermatozoon in Brachionus calyciflorus are described using light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mature spermatozoon, which appears to be thread-like, is composed of a slightly expanded anterior of cell body region and a flagellum region without acrosome. The cell body region and flagellum region are respectively 16-27μm and 20-33μm in length (n=60). The spermatozoon is characterized by a mass of dense tubular materials, which occupy most of the cell. Some mitochondria are distributed around the nuclear region in the anterior of the cell body region, while in the posterior portion of cell body, the chromatin often contains a single lobated nucleus arranged at the center of cell. The flagellum contains the classic axoneme (9×2+2) and possesses lateral undulating membrane. Mature B. calyciflorus males have no germ cell stages earlier than the spermatids in the testis. TEM examination reveals rigid rods as well as predominant typical spermatozoon in the testis. Observations, based on successive photographs and videos, enabled a first-time recording of the unique inverted movement of the spermatozoon, which indicated that the movement of the spermatozoon is driven by the flagellum. Our study also provides further supplementary insights into the phylogenetic systematics of the Rotifera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Suitability of Chlorella ellipsoidea as food for production of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers are valuable live food for larval fish and crustacean in aquaculture. In the present study, we conducted an experiment to evaluate the suitability of Chlorella ellipsoidea as food for production of the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus. The experiment was carried out in three treatments using dried powder Chlorella ellipsoidea (T1, fresh live Chlorella ellipsoidea (T2 and Baker’s yeast (T3 as food with three replications. For supplying food to rotifers, C. ellipsoidea was cultured sufficiently in different inexpensive culture media before rotifer culture and it was continued up to the end of the rotifer culture experiment. The ranges of environmental factors analyzed were suitable for both C. ellipsoidea and rotifers culture during the experimental period. Maximum cell densities of C. ellipsoidea were recorded in inexpensive pulse bran extract medium during the culture period. The mean population densities (means ± SEM of B. calyciflorus were significantly (p<0.01 highest in T2 (28.6 ± 4.64 (x103 individuals L-1 compared to T1 (11.6 ± 1.24 (x103 individuals L-1 and T3 (11.4 ± 1.82 (x103 individuals L-1. The findings of present study revealed that fresh cultured C. ellipsoidea was the best food for production of the rotifer, B. calyciflorus.

  19. Reduced expression of exocytotic proteins caused by anti-cholinesterase pesticides in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Pérez-Legaspi

    Full Text Available AbstractThe organophosphate and carbamate pesticides methyl-parathion and carbaryl have a common action mechanism: they inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses. However, they can alter the expression of exocytotic membrane proteins (SNARE, by modifying release of neurotransmitters and other substances. This study evaluated the adverse effects of the pesticides methyl-parathion and carbaryl on expression of SNARE proteins: Syntaxin-1, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 in freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Protein expression of these three proteins was analyzed before and after exposure to these two pesticides by Western Blot. The expression of Syntaxin-1, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 proteins in B. calyciflorussignificantly decreases with increasing concentration of either pesticides. This suggests that organophosphates and carbamates have adverse effects on expression of membrane proteins of exocytosis by altering the recognition, docking and fusion of presynaptic and vesicular membranes involved in exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Our results demonstrate that the neurotoxic effect of anticholinesterase pesticides influences the interaction of syntaxins and SNAP-25 and the proper assembly of the SNARE complex.

  20. Morphology and ultrastructure of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus bidentatus (Monogononta: Brachionidae) using scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Jiménez, Gerardo; Zavala-Padilla, Guadalupe; Silva-Briano, Marcelo; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    The study of sexual reproductive behavior supported by ultrastructural evidence is important in rotifers to describe differences among potential cryptic species. In this research, the morphology of the rotifer Brachionus bidentatus is described at the ultrastructural level, using electronic microscopy, together with a brief description and discussion of its sexual reproductive behavior. The characteristics of the (a) male, (b) the female, (c) the sexual egg or cyst, (d) the partenogenic egg, (e) the no-fecundated sexual egg (male egg), and (f) the trophi, were described. Another part of this research is dedicated to the ultrastructure of the sex cells of the male rotifer B. bidentatus. Samples were obtained from La Punta pond in Cosio, Aguascalientes, Mexico (22 degrees 08' N - 102 degrees 24' W), and a culture was maintained in the laboratory. Fifty organisms, from different stages of the rotifer Brachionus bidentatus, were fixed in Formol at 4% and then prepared; besides, for the trophi, 25 female rotifer Brachionus bidentatus were prepared for observation in a JEOL 5900 LV scanning electronic microscope. In addition, for the observation of male sex cells, 500 males of Brachionus bidentatus were isolated, fixed and observed in a JEOL 1010 transmission microscope. Females of B. bidentatus in laboratory cultures had a lifespan of five days (mean+one SD = 4.69 +/- 0.48; N=13), and produced 4.5 +/- 3.67 (N=6) parthenogenetic eggs during such lifespan. In the case of non-fertilized sexual eggs, they produced up to 18 eggs (mean+one SD = 13 +/- 4.93; N=7). Sexual females produced a single cyst on average (mean +/- one SD = I +/- 0; N=20). For the sexual cycle, the time of copulation between male and female ranged from 10 to 40 seconds (mean +/- one SD = 17.33 +/- 10.55, N=7). The spermatozoa are composed of a celular body and a flagellum, the size of the body is of 300 nm while the flagellum measures 1 700nm. The rods have a double membrane. Their mean length is almost

  1. Impact of three phthalate esters on the sexual reproduction of the Monogonont rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, V; Iovine, C; Thomé, J-P; Joaquim-Justo, C

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widespread contaminants that can cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. Studies showed that molecules with hormonal activities in vertebrates and invertebrates can affect asexual and sexual reproduction in rotifers. We investigated the impact of di-hexylethyl phthalate (DEHP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), on the asexual and sexual reproduction of the freshwater monogonont rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus in order to determine a potential environmental risk for sexual reproduction. We observed that DEHP has no significant impact on both asexual and sexual reproduction up to 2 mg/L. DBP has a positive effect on asexual reproduction at concentrations from 0.05 to 1 mg/L, but depresses it at 2 mg/L. Sexual reproduction is only affected at 2 mg/L and the impact observed is negative. BBP displayed a negative impact on both asexual and sexual reproduction at 1 and 2 mg/L. However we showed that the impacts of BBP on mixis and fertilization rates observed are due to the decrease in population growth rates at these concentrations and not to a direct impact of BBP on the mixis and the fertilization processes. Our results show that sexual reproduction in B. calyciflorus is not more sensitive than asexual reproduction to any of the substances tested which indicates the mode of action of these molecules is related to general toxicity and not to an interference with potential endocrine regulation of sexual reproduction. Comparison of effect concentrations and surface water contamination by phthalate esters suggests these compounds do not constitute a risk for primary consumers in these environments.

  2. Genomic organization of selected genes in the small monogonont rotifer, Brachionus koreanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Kim, Bo-Mi; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2012-08-15

    Information of genome structure with its size variation may provide important clues for evolutionary processes at lower taxon level in eukaryotes. Here, we analyzed the compact genome structure of the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus koreanus in the light of transphyletic genome comparison and economic genome usage. To confirm the genome compactness of B. koreanus, we compared the genomic structure of several selected genes with those of human and pufferfish. For example, one of the large genes, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) with dimeric protein Ku70 and Ku80, showed high similarity, even though genomic DNA lengths were quite different. The replication protein As (RPAs) as a heterotrimeric protein also showed a compact genomic structure including all the essential domains and motifs in B. koreanus. Regarding transmembrane protein-containing genes, the B. koreanus P-glycoprotein (P-gp) showed exactly the same topology of the TM domain compared to those of human and pufferfish, even though it had a compact genome structure. In addition, the gene structure of an inducible repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (O(6)-MGMT) of B. koreanus showed the highest compactness among the genes tested. The objective of this report is to evaluate the potential for whole genome sequencing and functional genomic research using the monogonont rotifer B. koreanus as a non-model organism that plays important roles in aquatic food-webs. Subsequently, we discussed possible reasons for compact genome structures as well as small and fewer introns from several perspectives. We conclude that the small size genome of B. koreanus would make this species potentially useful for comparative genome structure analysis of non-model species through whole genome sequencing and genetic mapping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Joint inhibition of TOR and JNK pathways interacts to extend the lifespan of Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Terry W; Johnston, Rachel K; Rabeneck, Brett; Zipperer, Cody; Teat, Stephanie

    2014-04-01

    The TOR kinase pathway is central in modulating aging in a variety of animal models. The target of rapamycin (TOR) integrates a complex network of signals from growth conditions, nutrient availability, energy status, and physiological stresses and matches an organism's growth rate to the resource environment. Important remaining problems are the identification of the pathways that interact with TOR and their characterization as additive or synergistic. One of the most versatile stress sensors in metazoans is the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. JNK is an evolutionarily conserved stress-activated protein kinase that is induced by a range of stressors, including UV irradiation, reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, heat, and bacterial antigens. JNK is thought to interact with the TOR pathway, but its effects on TOR are poorly understood. We used the rotifer Brachionus manjavacas as a model animal to probe the regulation of TOR and JNK pathways and explore their interaction. The effect of various chemical inhibitors was examined in life table and stressor challenge experiments. A survey of 12 inhibitors revealed two, rapamycin and JNK inhibitor, that significantly extended lifespan of B. manjavacas. At 1 μM concentration, exposure to rapamycin or JNK inhibitor extended mean rotifer lifespan by 35% and maximum lifespan by 37%. Exposure to both rapamycin and JNK inhibitor simultaneously extended mean rotifer lifespan by 65% more than either alone. Exposure to a combination of rapamycin and JNK inhibitors conveyed greater protection to starvation, UV and osmotic stress than either inhibitor alone. RNAi knockdown of TOR and JNK gene expression was investigated for its ability to extend rotifer lifespan. RNAi knockdown of the TOR gene resulted in 29% extension of the mean lifespan compared to control and knockdown of the JNK gene resulted in 51% mean lifespan extension. In addition to the lifespan, we quantified mitochondria activity using the fluorescent

  4. Population dynamics of Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Brachionidae in waste water from food-processing industry in Mexico

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    Raymundo Alfredo Arévalo Stevenson

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Waste water from Mexico's largest food processing industrial sector (based on maize, nejayote water was used for growing Brachionus calyciflorus isolated from Lake Chapultepec in the Federal District of Mexico (D.F.. Nejayote water was collected from Colonia Providencia, D.F. Experiments were conducted at 25°C in 25 ml capacity vials with 20 ml of medium into which we introduced B. calyciflorus at an initial density of 1 ind ml-1. The experimental design consisted a total of 33 test vessels (2 food combinations X 5 densities X 3 replicates = 30 plus 3 replicates as controls that contained only algae. Experiments were terminated after day 16. Waste water in original concentration did nt rotifes. However, when diluted to 5 oncentrations (ranging from 2% to 32% and pH adjusted to 7.0, rotifer density increased with increasing concentration of waste water. Green algae (at constant density of 2 X 10 6 cells-1 of Chlorella in combination with waste water resulted in a higher abundance of rotifers only at higher concentration (above 8 % of waste water. The maximum peak density of rotifers (238-50 ind ml -1 was obtained at 16% dilution of waste water nd with addition of Chlorella. The rate of population increase per day ® (mean-SD varied from 0.355-0.059 to 0.457-0.048 depending on food combination and concetration.Se usó aguas de desecho de la industria de la masa y la tortilla (aguas de nixtamal o nejayote para crecer rotíferos de agua dulce, Brachionus calyciflorus. El nejayote sin dilución no permitió el desarrollo del rotífero. Sin embargo, cuando se diluyó, B. calyciflorus aprovechó la materia orgánica. El agua de desecho por sí misma (sin alimento algal adicional fue comparable al agua con densidades del alga Chlorella de 2 X 10(6 células ml-1. Concentraciones de nejayote por encima del 8% no permitieron el crecimiento poblacional. Sin embargo, la presencia de alga permitió el desarrollo del rotífero a concentraciones de 8% y 16

  5. Combined effects of microcystin and nitrite on the growth, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant responses of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ye; Chen, Xinglan; Lu, Xuxin; Jin, Sichen; Min, Yuanqi; Yang, Jiaxin

    2017-11-01

    Toxicants released during the degradation of cyanobacterial blooms, such as microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and nitrite (NO 2 -N), affect the growth of aquatic organisms. The freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus was exposed to solutions with different combined concentrations of MC-LR (0, 10, 50, 100, and 200μgL -1 ) and NO 2 -N (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8mgL -1 ) to assess the combined effects of MC-LR and NO 2 -N on life cycle parameters and oxidative stress. Single solutions of MC-LR 200μgL -1 and NO 2 -N 8mgL -1 were toxic to rotifers. MC-LR combined with NO 2 -N decreased population growth rate (r), survival, and reproduction, but increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) contents (p0.05). Results showed that cyanobacterial metabolites act synergistically and antagonistically to cause toxicity to B. calyciflorus. ROS-mediated toxicity was considered the mechanism by which MC-LR and NO 2 -N induce damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MORFOMETRI ROTIFER Brachionus rotundiformis STRAIN SS ASAL TAMBAK MINANGA DAN TAMBAK WATULINEY SULAWESI UTARA YANG DIKULTUR PADA SALINITAS YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inneke Fenny Melke Rumengan

    2016-11-01

    The rotifers Brachionus rotundiformis were found predominantly in Minanga and Watuliney brackishwater ponds in North Sulawesi. The two ponds are located 7 km apart at south-eastern coast of North Sulawesi facing to Maluku Sea. Morphometry of the two groups may associate with the original salinities of the ponds, 25—33 and 0—3 ppt in Minanga and Watuliney ponds, respectively. The rotifers were cultured at different salinities in laboratory in order to observe the plasticity of their size. Rotifers from Minanga ponds were gradually adapted by lowering salinities from 30 ppt to 25, 20 until 5 ppt. In contrast, Rotifers from Watuliney ponds were adapted gradually by increasing salinities from 5 ppt to 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ppt. In each treatment, 5 first laid eggs were put into each test tube containing Nannochloropsi oculata (3x106 cells/mL at 25°C, and after 7 days, the rotifer population remarkably increased due to parthenogenetic reproduction, and then body size of 30 egg-carrying rotifers of each treatment were measured under microscope. Body size of rotifers from Minanga ponds in all treatment was lower than that of rotifers from Watuliney ponds. Statistically, morphometry of the two groups was significantly different. However, there was a tendency for that lorica length of rotifers from Watuliney ponds to increase as the salinity increase, while rotifers from Minanga  ponds did not significantly changed in their sizes as the salinity changed.

  7. Brachionidae (Rotifera: Monogononta de la albufera El Paraíso y el reporte de Brachionus ibericusen el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Toscano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se reportan las especies de Brachionidae reconocidos en las muestras recogidas en octubre de 2010 en la albufera Laguna El Paraiso, Huacho (11°13' −11° 10'S, 77° 35' −77°40'W. Cinco especies fueron determinadas: Keratella tropica, Brachionus quadridentatus, B. urceolaris, B. angularis y B. ibericusCiros-Pérez 2001. Este último es un nuevo reporte para el Perú y amplía su distribución a nivel mundial.

  8. Demography of zooplankton (Anuraeopsis fissa, Brachionus rubens and Moina macrocopa fed Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acutus cultured on different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Morales-Ventura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally zooplankton growth is often limited by the quality of their algal diet. A cheaper common practice in aquaculture, is to culture algae with fertilizers; however, the demography of zooplankton when fed these algae has not yet been evaluated. We studied the population growth and life table demography of the rotifers Anuraeopsis fissa and Brachionus rubens, and the cladoceran Moina macrocopa. For this, the algae Scenedesmus acutus or Chlorella vulgaris were cultured on defined (Bold’s basal medium or the commercial liquid fertilizer (Bayfolan. Experiments were conducted at one algal concentration 1.0x10(6cells/mL of C. vulgaris or its equivalent dry weight of 0.5x10(6cells/mL of S. acutus. The population dynamics were tested at 23±1ºC in 100mL transparent jars, each with 50mL of the test medium, with an initial density of 0.5indiv/mL, for a total of 48 test jars (3 zooplankton 2 algal species x 2 culture media x 4 replicates. For the life table experiments with M. macrocopa, we introduced 10 neonates (Generalmente el crecimiento del zooplancton está a menudo limitado por la calidad de su dieta de algas. La demografía del zooplancton durante la alimentación con algas no ha sido estudiada, a pesar de que el cultivo de algas con fertilizantes es una práctica económica común en acuacultura. Se analizó la demografía de Anuraeopsis fissa y Brachionus rubens (rotíferos y Moina macrocopa (cladóceros, alimentados con las algas verdes Scenedesmus acutus o Chlorella vulgaris cultivadas en medio Bold o fertilizante líquido comercial (Bayfolan, de Bayer. En los rotíferos no se observaron diferencias significativas en el promedio de vida, sin embargo, este parámetro en M. macrocopa con S. acutus cultivada en Medio Bold, fue significativamente menor que en otras dietas. Las tasas de reproducción bruta y neta de A. fissa fueron significativamente mayores con C. vulgaris cultivada en medio Bold, que con el fertilizante; estas tasas en B

  9. Representing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Handbooks denote representative authority, which gives their content normative value and through which editors and authors can emphasize certain views and orientations within a field. The representative authority of a handbook is reinforced in various ways, both obvious and subtle. The "SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" is no exception…

  10. Demography of zooplankton (Anuraeopsis fissa, Brachionus rubens and Moina macrocopa) fed Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acutus cultured on different media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ventura, Jesús; Nandini, S; Sarma, S S S; Castellanos-Páez, Maria Elena

    2012-09-01

    Generally zooplankton growth is often limited by the quality of their algal diet. A cheaper common practice in aquaculture, is to culture algae with fertilizers; however, the demography of zooplankton when fed these algae has not yet been evaluated. We studied the population growth and life table demography of the rotifers Anuraeopsis fissa and Brachionus rubens, and the cladoceran Moina macrocopa. For this, the algae Scenedesmus acutus or Chlorella vulgaris were cultured on defined (Bold's basal) medium or the commercial liquid fertilizer (Bayfolan). Experiments were conducted at one algal concentration 1.0 x 10(6) cells/mL of C. vulgaris or its equivalent dry weight of 0.5 x 10(6) cells/mL of S. acutus. The population dynamics were tested at 23 +/- 1 degrees C in 100 mL transparent jars, each with 50mL of the test medium, with an initial density of 0.5indiv/mL, for a total of 48 test jars (3 zooplankton 2 algal species x 2 culture media x 4 replicates). For the life table experiments with M. macrocopa, we introduced 10 neonates (rubens than S. acutus diets. The reproductive rates of M. macrocopa were significantly higher in all the tested diets except when fed with S. acutus in Bold medium. The population increase rate, derived from growth experiments of A. fissa and B. rubens, ranged from 0.1-0.25/d and were significantly higher on C vulgaris cultured in liquid fertilizer as compared to the other diets. The growth rates of M. macrocopa ranged from 0.1 to 0.38/d, and were highest with diets of C. vulgaris cultured in Bold medium and S. acutus cultured in fertilizer. Thus, regardless of the culture medium used, the growth rates of the evaluated zooplankton species were higher with Chlorella than with Scenedesmus. The peak population density was highest (2 800ind/mL) for A. fissa fed Chlorella that was cultured on liquid fertilizers, while B. rubens and M. macrocopa had peak abundances of 480 and 12ind/mL, respectively under similar conditions.

  11. Representing time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Poncellini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of natural phenomena applied to architectural planning and design is facing the most fascinating and elusive of the four dimensions through which man attempts to define life within the universe: time. We all know what time is, said St. Augustine, but nobody knows how to describe it. Within architectural projects and representations, time rarely appears in explicit form. This paper presents the results of a research conducted by students of NABA and of the Polytechnic of Milan with the purpose of representing time considered as a key element within architectural projects. Student investigated new approaches and methodologies to represent time using the two-dimensional support of a sheet of paper.

  12. Representing Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Representing Development presents the different social representations that have formed the idea of development in Western thinking over the past three centuries. Offering an acute perspective on the current state of developmental science and providing constructive insights into future pathways...... and development, addressing their contemporary enactments and reflecting on future theoretical and empirical directions. The first section of the book provides an historical account of early representations of development that, having come from life science, has shaped the way in which developmental science has...... approached development. Section two focuses upon the contemporary issues of developmental psychology, neuroscience and developmental science at large. The final section offers a series of commentaries pointing to the questions opened by the previous chapters, looking to outline the future lines...

  13. Life strategy and grazing intensity responses of Brachionus calyciflorus fed on different concentrations of microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ye; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Xinglan; Su, Yuqi; Yang, Jiaxin

    2017-02-23

    The occurrence of Microcystis blooms is a worldwide concern due to the numerous adverse effects on zooplankton. We therefore hypothesized that the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa is harmful to rotifer growth. Population and individual experiments were conducted with the same proportional volumes of Chlorella and Microcystis for given food densities. Life-table parameters, life-history traits, and the grazing intensity of Brachionus calyciflorus were evaluated after they had fed on microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis, both alone and combined with an edible alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), at concentrations of 1 × 10 5 , 1 × 10 6 , and 1 × 10 7 cells mL -1 . The results showed that the interactive effects of food density and type appeared to be synergistic on generation time (T), net reproduction rate (R 0 ), body length, swimming speed, and reproduction time. In contrast, these effects appeared to be antagonistic on intrinsic growth rate (r), finite rate of increase (λ), time to first brood, post-reproductive time and total offspring per female. The grazing rate of rotifers decreased with grazing time. Although the toxins released after grazing on M. aeruginosa had negative effects on rotifer growth and reproduction, B. calyciflorus changed its life strategy and grazing intensity in response to eutrophic conditions.

  14. Triclosan (TCS) and Triclocarban (TCC) cause lifespan reduction and reproductive impairment through oxidative stress-mediated expression of the defensome in the monogonont rotifer (Brachionus koreanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Hwang, Un-Ki; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and Triclocarban (TCC) are used as antimicrobial agents and have been widely dispersed and detected in the marine environment. However, the toxicities of TCS and TCC have been poorly investigated in marine invertebrates. In this study, the effects of TCS and TCC on mortality, population growth, lifespan, and fecundity were examined in the monogonont rotifer (Brachionus koreanus) using cellular ROS levels, GST enzymatic activity, and gene expression of defensomes. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of TCS (393.1μg/L) and TCC (388.1μg/L) was also determined in the same species. In TCS- and TCC-exposed B. koreanus, growth retardation and reduced fecundity were observed and were shown to have a potentially deleterious effect on the life cycle of B. koreanus. In addition, time-dependent increases in ROS content (%) and GST enzymatic activity were shown in response to TCS and TCC exposure. Additionally, transcript levels of detoxification proteins (e.g., CYPs), antioxidant proteins (e.g., GST-sigma, Cu/ZnSOD, CAT), and heat shock proteins (Hsps) were modulated in response to TCS and TCC exposure over a 24h period. Our results indicate that TCS and TCC induce oxidative stress and transcriptional regulation of detoxification, antioxidant, and heat shock proteins, resulting in changes in lifespan and fecundity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of microcystin-producing and microcystin-freeMicrocystis aeruginosa on enzyme activity and nutrient content in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ye; Su, Yuqi; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Xinglan; Yang, Jiaxin

    2017-04-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms disrupt freshwater recreation and adversely affect zooplankton. The freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa produces microcystins, which are compounds toxic to rotifers. This study evaluated the effects of M. aeruginosa on enzyme activity and nutrient content in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas. The rotifers were fed on Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus obliquus, microcystin-producing and microcystin-free M. aeruginosa alone, and mixtures of green algae combined with toxic and nontoxic cyanobacteria, respectively. Activities of amylase, pepsase, trypsin, cellulase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were assessed after rotifer exposure to an environmental stressor. Nutrients analyzed were glycogen, protein, and triglyceride (TG). Single cyanobacteria and mixtures combined with toxic M. aeruginosa inhibited SOD activity. CAT and GPx activities significantly increased in rotifers fed with the mixture of Chlorella and toxic cyanobacteria. The activity of digestive enzymes increased compared with the Chlorella group in single and mixed diets. Glycogen and protein decreased in Microcystis mixtures, whereas TG content increased. The grazing rate (G) of the rotifers decreased with grazing time. High G value was observed with green algae in every treatment group. Although the toxins released after grazing on Microcystis affected rotifer enzyme activity and nutrient content, B. calyciflorus changed its physiological performance and grazing intensity with food type in response to eutrophic conditions.

  16. Bioaccumulation and elimination of bisphenol a (BPA) in the alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa and the potential for trophic transfer to the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruixin; Du, Yingxiang; Zheng, Fengzhu; Wang, Jing; Wang, Zhiliang; Ji, Rong; Chen, Jianqiu

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation and elimination of 14 C-labeled BPA by the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa and the subsequent transfer of 14 C-BPA residues from the contaminated alga to the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. After 10 days of BPA exposure, the algal cells accumulated 15% of the initial radioactivity from the medium, with 71% of the accumulated radioactivity occurring in the form of non-extractable bound residues. An approximate steady state of the accumulation of the 14 C-BPA residues in the algae was reached after about 4 days of exposure. The bioconcentration factor of total radioactivity in the algae was 106 mL (g dry weight) -1  at steady state. During the elimination phase, only the extractable residues were released from the algae into the water whereas the bound residues, following their ingestion by the rotifers, were converted to extractable forms and then also released. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the biomagnification of BPA-related residues in the food chain between algae and rotifers. The trophic transfer of these BPA-derived residues from the algae to rotifers and thus the environmental hazard may posed by this pathway, because of subsequent effects on the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global isolation by distance despite strong regional phylogeography in a small metazoan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Scott

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small vagile eukaryotic organisms, which comprise a large proportion of the Earth's biodiversity, have traditionally been thought to lack the extent of population structuring and geographic speciation observed in larger taxa. Here we investigate the patterns of genetic diversity, amongst populations of the salt lake microscopic metazoan Brachionus plicatilis s. s. (sensu stricto (Rotifera: Monogononta on a global scale. We examine the phylogenetic relationships of geographic isolates from four continents using a 603 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene to investigate patterns of phylogeographic subdivision in this species. In addition we investigate the relationship between genetic and geographic distances on a global scale to try and reconcile the paradox between the high vagility of this species and the previously reported patterns of restricted gene flow, even over local spatial scales. Results Analysis of global sequence diversity of B. plicatilis s. s. reveals the presence of four allopatric genetic lineages: North American-Far East Asian, Western Mediterranean, Australian, and an Eastern Mediterranean lineage represented by a single isolate. Geographically orientated substructure is also apparent within the three best sampled lineages. Surprisingly, given this strong phylogeographic structure, B. plicatilis s. s. shows a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance on a global scale ('isolation by distance' – IBD. Conclusion Despite its cosmopolitan distribution and potential for high gene flow, B. plicatilis s. s. is strongly structured at a global scale. IBD patterns have traditionally been interpreted to indicate migration-drift equilibrium, although in this system equilibrium conditions are incompatible with the observed genetic structure. Instead, we suggest the pattern may have arisen through persistent founder effects, acting in a similar fashion to geographic barriers for larger

  18. Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alvarado-Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron

  19. Dinámica poblacional del rotífero Brachionus ibericus aislado de estanques para camarón, alimentado con diferentes dietas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cristóbal Román-Reyes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La producción de microalgas vivas para cultivar rotíferos constituye uno de los mayores costos de operación en la larvicultura de peces, por lo que se están desarrollando sustitutos comerciales de microalgas para la alimentación y producción de rotíferos. Se desconoce el efecto que tienen las formulaciones comerciales sobre la dinámica poblacional de rotíferos nativos del noroeste de México y en este estudio se evaluó el efecto de cuatro dietas comerciales (Espirulina, RotiMac®, Nanno 3600®, RotiGrow-Plus® y la microalga viva Nannochloropsis sp., sobre el crecimiento poblacional y fecundidad del rotífero Brachionus ibericus (GenBank KJ949043, aislado de una granja de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. Se realizaron cinco réplicas por tratamiento alimenticio utilizando recipientes con volumen de 12 L de agua, con temperatura de 29 ± 1°C y salinidad de 35 ± 1, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que durante los periodos experimentales, las dietas probadas resultaron adecuadas para alimentar a B. ibericus, con tasas de crecimiento, tiempos de duplicación, densidades máximas y fecundidades que fluctuaron entre 0.20 a 0.27 rotíferos día-1, 2.60 a 3.42 días, 215 a 344 rotíferos mL-1 y de 0.16 a 0.39 huevos hembra-1, respectivamente. Las diferencias entre tratamientos fueron significativas (P 0.05 a las obtenidas con Nanno 3600®.

  20. Performances zootechniques comparées de Rotifères d'eau douce Brachionus calyciflorus et de nauplii d'Artemia salina chez les larves de la perche fluviatile Perca fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiogbé, ED.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Zootechnic Performences Compared between Freshwater Rotifer (Brachionus calyciflorus and Nauplii Artemia salina in River Perch Perca fluviatilis L. In able to improve survival rate and growth in perch Perca fluviatilis larvae which are very small at hatching stage, larvae are submitted two days after hatching to different live food: fresh water Rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and nauplii of Artemia salina.Thus, to avoid the big mortality which occure because of manipulation of larvae, eggs in eye stage were shared in two duplicated groups and feeding of larvae started two days after hatching. Mortality was significant in the two groups from the day 7. However, at the end of the experiment, the group fed Rotifer at the begining of feeding, exhibited the best homogeneity, the best survival and the best food convertion ratio. So, this experiment has shown clearly that at hatching time, all perch larvae are not able to ingest nauplii Artemia. It is necessary to mix their starter food with Rotifer.

  1. An experimental study on food and salinity preferences of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feeding on four algal species (Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oculata, Isochrysis galbana and Scenedesmus obliques) at salinities of 5, 15 and 25 on the population growth parameters of two Iranian strains of the widespread rotifer species Brachionus plicatilis were examined. Maximum specific growth rate of ...

  2. Isolation and characterisation of photoactive haemolytic toxin from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found that cell-free methanol extract from H. circularisquama caused haemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes and showed cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells and on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, the haemolytic activity and cytotoxic effects of the extract were completely ...

  3. Effects of commercial enrichment products on fatty acid components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red pepper paste (ZA), AlgaMac 3050 (ZB) and Spresso (ZC) on fatty acid compositions in rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were intensively cultured on a mixture of ω3 algae and ω3 yeast. Enriched rotifers were seen to have higher level of unsaturated fatty acids of linoleic acid (LOA) and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acid ...

  4. Assessment of the toxicity of the solid coating PV1 in a marine invironment, using biotests with algae, a rotifer and a bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The toxic potential of substances that may leach from the solid coating PV1 was tested using • the marine bacteria Vibrio fisheri in the Microtox® Basic test • the marine algae Skeletonema costatum in a 72h algal growth inhibition test • the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the 24 h ROTOX®

  5. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis Reduces Vibrio anguillarum in Cultures of Microalgae and Rotifers, and Prevents Vibriosis in Cod Larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Lillebø, Siril; Prol García, María Jesús

    2012-01-01

    -antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 10(7) cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio...

  6. Inclusion of copepod Acartia tonsa nauplii in the feeding of Centropomus undecimalis larvae increases stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo-Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research represents the first result of studies of the common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae from broodstock matured in captivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii improves stress resistance of common snook larvae. The larvae were fed with: rotifers Brachionus plicatilis (10 to 15 mL-1; A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5 mL-1 and rotifers (5 to 7.5 mL-1, and A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25 mL-1. The average percentage of survival of the treatments was 11.9%. At 20 days of age, larvae were subjected to thermal stress. Subsequently, the stress resistance was evaluated. Common snook larvae fed B. plicatilis+A. tonsa reached a higher weight and length (7.5 ± 0.00 mg and 9.1 ± 0.23 mm, respectively and resisted more heat stress (87.4% than larvae fed other foods, indicating that the feed mixture is satisfactory as a starter diet for larvae of common snook. However, more research is needed to confirm these results.

  7. EQA School Representative's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Planning and Evaluation.

    Step-by-step instructions for the school representative responsible for Educational Quality Assessment in Pennsylvania are provided. The representative, who is expected to attend Quality Assessment Workshops, is given information about how to schedule the administration of the questionnaire, how to collect district and school data, and how to…

  8. List of Accredited Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VA accreditation is for the sole purpose of providing representation services to claimants before VA and does not imply that a representative is qualified to provide...

  9. Representing fractals by superoscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M V; Morley-Short, S

    2017-01-01

    Fractals provide an extreme test of representing fine detail in terms of band-limited functions, i.e. by superoscillations. We show that this is possible, using the example of the Weierstrass nondifferentiable fractal. If this is truncated at an arbitrarily fine scale, it can be expressed to any desired accuracy with a simple superoscillatory function. In illustrative simulations, fractals truncated with fastest frequency 2 16 are easily represented by superoscillations with fastest Fourier frequency 1. (letter)

  10. Optimization of molecular representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosipof, Abraham; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2014-06-23

    Representative subsets selected from within larger data sets are useful in many chemoinformatics applications including the design of information-rich compound libraries, the selection of compounds for biological evaluation, and the development of reliable quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Such subsets can overcome many of the problems typical of diverse subsets, most notably the tendency of the latter to focus on outliers. Yet only a few algorithms for the selection of representative subsets have been reported in the literature. Here we report on the development of two algorithms for the selection of representative subsets from within parent data sets based on the optimization of a newly devised representativeness function either alone or simultaneously with the MaxMin function. The performances of the new algorithms were evaluated using several measures representing their ability to produce (1) subsets which are, on average, close to data set compounds; (2) subsets which, on average, span the same space as spanned by the entire data set; (3) subsets mirroring the distribution of biological indications in a parent data set; and (4) test sets which are well predicted by qualitative QSAR models built on data set compounds. We demonstrate that for three data sets (containing biological indication data, logBBB permeation data, and Plasmodium falciparum inhibition data), subsets obtained using the new algorithms are more representative than subsets obtained by hierarchical clustering, k-means clustering, or the MaxMin optimization at least in three of these measures.

  11. Acute Toxicity of Thallium and Indium toward Brackish-Water and Marine Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Onikura, Norio; Nakamura, Akiko; Kishi, Katsuyuki; 鬼倉, 徳雄; 中村, 亜希子; 岸, 克行

    2008-01-01

    We examined the toxic effects of thallium and indium on brackish-water and marine species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted on Americamysis bahia, Brachionus plicatilis, Artemia salina, and Sillago japonica. The LC50 values of thallium ranged from 3.48 to 100 mg/L, and this metal exhibited the strongest toxic effects on A. bahia. With regard to indium toxicity, the LC50 values ranged from 24 to 51 mg/L, and the strongest toxic effects were noted in B. plicatilis. The toxicity of thallium i...

  12. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  13. Mentoring: A Representative Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cheryl S.

    This annotated bibliography provides a representative sample of the available literature on mentoring. It reviews both qualitative and quantitative research, and covers specific mentoring programs, program implementation, and testimonials to the benefits of mentoring. Materials covered include 40 journal articles, conference papers, books, and…

  14. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming......Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...

  15. Representing AIDS in Comics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiec, M K

    2018-02-01

    Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" [1]. With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Representative of the municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellnou Barcelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The decommissioning of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant was a big challenge for the host community of Vandellos i l'Hospitalet de l'Infant and the close-by region. Closing down of the facility resulted in a rise of unemployment and a decrease of municipal income. The public was concerned with three issues: safety, transparency and information about the decommissioning, and economic future. Therefore, from the very beginning, municipal governments entered into negotiations with ENRESA on socio-economic benefits, including local employment in dismantling activities, and other types of financial and non-financial compensation. The ADE business association, i.e. a network of business organisations was created that guided the allotment of work to local firms. To satisfy public demand, local municipalities focused on the triad of safety, dialogue and local development, considered the three 'pillars of trust'. A Municipal Monitoring Commission was created, made up of representatives of affected municipalities, the regional government, the ADE business association, trade unions, the local university, the NPP management and ENRESA to monitor the dismantling process and regularly inform the local public. Items that were handled by this Commission included: - Work process monitoring. - Workers. - Materials Control. - Conventional and radioactive or contaminated waste management. - Emanation waste management (liquid and gas) - Safety (training and accidents). - Surveillance (radiological and environmental: dust, noise). - Effects. - Fulfillment of agreed conditions. A number of communication tools and channels were used, e.g., public information meetings, an information centre, the municipal magazine, the municipal radio station, and meetings with representatives of the local press. Particularly innovative was the idea to ask academics from the University of Tarragona to help with 'translating' technical information into language that could

  17. Marine microalgae flocculation using plant: the case of Nannochloropsis oculata and Moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, N.; Aziz, N. S.; Sohif, H. N.; Basiran, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been commercially used as live feed for aquaculture and nutritional supplements. However, harvesting of marine microalgae is a major obstacle for industrial scale and one of the promising harvesting techniques is bio-flocculation. Nannochloropsis oculata from the culture broth was investigated. The potential of Moringa oleifera as a flocculant has been evaluated using jar test experiments. Moringa oleifera after oil extraction (MOAE) and with non-extracted Moringa oleifera (MOWE) have been studied and compared to chemical flocculant, aluminium sulphate. Three parameters involved: pH, settling time and flocculant dosage. When MOAE and MOWE were used as flocculants, the highest flocculation efficiency of Nannochloropsis oculata was observed at 93.77 percent (pH 7, 150 minutes, 5000 mg/L) and 70.56 percent (pH 7, 90 minutes, 4000 mg/L) respectively. Harvesting efficiency of 99.98 percent with short settling time, 30 minutes and 2000 mg/L of flocculant dosage at pH 6 was achieved using aluminium sulphate. The concentrated of Nannochloropsis oculata was then fed to the Brachionus plicatilis (rotifers) to observe the growth characteristics in 12 days period. Concentrates of MOWE gave better growth of Brachionus plicatilis than growth in concentrates of MOAE and live Nannochloropsis oculata. In contrast, growth of Brachionus plicatilis in aluminium sulphate was tremendously decline. In Conclusion, bio-flocculation using Moringa oleifera was rapid, inexpensive and eco-friendly technology as no addition of chemical flocculants was required. (author)

  18. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...... always be representative in the full Theory of Sampling (TOS) sense. This survey also allows empirical verification of the merits of the famous ??Gy?s formula?? for order-of-magnitude estimation of the Fundamental Sampling Error (FSE)....

  19. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...... left by the wayside. The 14 often both fitting and well crafted contributions of this publication offer an approach to how landscape architecture has been and is currently represented; in the design study, in presentation, in criticism, and in the creation of landscape architecture....

  20. Does representative wind information exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.

    1996-01-01

    Representativity requirements are discussed for various wind data users. It is shown that most applications can be dealt with by using data from wind stations when these are made to conform with WMO specifications. Methods to achieve this WMO normalization are reviewed, giving minimum specifications

  1. Burnout in Customer Service Representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jalees

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and aim of this research was to (1 identify the factors that contributes towards job burnout in sales service representative (2 What are the relationships of these factors (3 To empirically test the relationships of the determinants relating to burnout in customer service representatives. Based on literature survey six different variables related to burnout were identified. The variables were (1 Emotional exhaustion.(2 Reduced personal accomplishment.(3 Job induced tension.(4 Job satisfaction.(5 Workload (6 Job satisfaction.Each of the variables contained 3 sub-variables. Five different hypotheses were developed and tested through techniques such as Z-test, F-test and regression analysis. The questionnaire administered for the study contained 15 questions including personal data. The subject was Moblink company customers sales service representative in Karachi.The valid sample size was 98 drawn through multi-cluster technique. Techniques such as measure of dispersion and measure of central tendencies were used for analyzing the data. Regression, Z-test, and F-test were used for testing the developed hypothesis.According to the respondents’ opinions, the reduced personal accomplishment had a high rating with a mean of 3.75 and job induced tension has the lowest mean of 3.58. The standard deviation of respondents’ opinions was highest for dimension depersonalization and least for dimension work load. This indicates that there is a high polarization of the respondents’ opinions on the dimension depersonalization moral and least on the dimension work load.The Skew nesses for all the dimensions were in negative except the determinants emotional exhaustion and workload. This indicates that the majority of respondents’ opinions on all the dimensions were below the mean except in the case of emotional exhaustion and workload.Five hypotheses were developed and tested:a The hypothesis relating to low level of burnout in customers

  2. Lipid metabolism-related gene expression pattern of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) larvae fed on live prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Ortega, Aurelio; de la Gándara, Fernando; Tocher, Douglas R; Mourente, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    The present study is the first to evaluate lipid metabolism in first-feeding Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT; Thunnus thynnus L.) larvae fed different live prey including enriched rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Acartia sp. copepod nauplii from 2 days after hatch. Understanding the molecular basis of lipid metabolism and regulation in ABT will provide insights to optimize diet formulations for this high-value species new to aquaculture. To this end, we investigated the effect of dietary lipid on whole larvae lipid class and fatty acid compositions and the expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in first feeding ABT larvae fed different live prey. Additionally, the expression of lipid metabolism genes in tissues of adult broodstock ABT was evaluated. Growth and survival data indicated that copepods were the best live prey for first feeding ABT and that differences in growth performance and lipid metabolism observed between larvae from different year classes could be a consequence of broodstock nutrition. In addition, expression patterns of lipid metabolic genes observed in ABT larvae in the trials could reflect differences in lipid class and fatty acid compositions of the live prey. The lipid nutritional requirements, including essential fatty acid requirements of larval ABT during the early feeding stages, are unknown, and the present study represents a first step in addressing these highly relevant issues. However, further studies are required to determine nutritional requirements and understand lipid metabolism during development of ABT larvae and to apply the knowledge to the commercial culture of this iconic species.

  3. Desempenho larval do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 submetido a diferentes regimes alimentares Larval performance of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 submitted to different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho das larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii submetidas a quatro diferentes regimes alimentares foi verificado utilizando a observação diária dos subestádios larvais e as primeiras metamorfoses. As larvas foram estocadas em densidade de aproximadamente 100 larvas.l-1, em 16 tanques retangulares, com capacidade de 33 litros. O experimento foi dividido em quatro unidades experimentais (blocos, nos quais foram testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura em circuito aberto, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os regimes alimentares substituindo progressivamente náuplio de Artemia sp. (nas pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis (rots foram os seguintes tratamentos: 100% Brachionus plicatilis (30 rots/mL (T1; 100% Artemia (5 nas/ mL (T2, 60% Artemia (3 nas/mL + 40% Brachionus plicatilis (12 rots/ mL (T3 e 40% Artemia (2 nas/mL + 60% Brachionus plicatilis (18 rots/ mL (T4, sendo adicionada a estes tratamentos ração úmida. Os resultados da mudança dos subestádios larvais demonstraram que não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos T2, T3 e T4. No tratamento T1 (100% Brachionus plicatilis houve mortalidade total no 14º dia do experimento. O efeito da ocorrência das primeiras metamorfoses para pós-larvas, ocorreu ao 27º dia nos tratamentos T2, T3 e T4. Conseqüentemente, o ciclo de larvicultura até a metamorfose de 90% para pós-larva (PL1 foi o mesmo nos tratamentos (35 dias. Portanto, a utilização do rotífero enriquecido e congelado no regime alimentar das larvas permitiu desempenho satisfatório em termos de desenvolvimento larval de M. rosenbergii até a passagem para o estádio de pós-larva.The feeding is one of the most important factors to larval development and the sucess of the commercial cultivation of decapod crustacean larvae depends on the efficient and economic utilization of the available food. The performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larva submitted to four different feeding systems was

  4. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  5. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  6. Conspicuous Waste and Representativeness Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Shishkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the similarities between conspicuous waste and representativeness heuristic. The conspicuous waste is analyzed according to the classic Veblen’ interpretation as a strategy to increase social status through conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure. In “The Theory of the Leisure Class” Veblen introduced two different types of utility – conspicuous and functional. The article focuses on the possible benefits of the analysis of conspicuous utility not only in terms of institutional economic theory, but also in terms of behavioral economics. To this end, the representativeness heuristics is considered, on the one hand, as a way to optimize the decision-making process, which allows to examine it in comparison with procedural rationality by Simon. On the other hand, it is also analyzed as cognitive bias within the Kahneman and Twersky’ approach. The article provides the analysis of the patterns in the deviations from the rational behavior strategy that could be observed in case of conspicuous waste both in modern market economies in the form of conspicuous consumption and in archaic economies in the form of gift-exchange. The article also focuses on the marketing strategies for luxury consumption’ advertisement. It highlights the impact of the symbolic capital (in Bourdieu’ interpretation on the social and symbolic payments that actors get from the act of conspicuous waste. This allows to perform a analysis of conspicuous consumption both as a rational way to get the particular kind of payments, and, at the same time, as a form of institutionalized cognitive bias.

  7. Representing Performance in Ethnomusicological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lutzu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Back in the 1970s a number of ethnomusicologists started to elaborate a theoretical reflection on performance as a central issue in the study of music making. This forced them to develop other ways of visualizing music for their analytical purposes. This article deals with how performance has been represented in ethnomusicological studies. I shall discuss how the graphic rendition of a sound recording is simply the mirror of what a scholar perceives, or the consequence of his/her will to emphasise a specific aspect, mediated through the possibilities offered by (and the limits of the Western semiographic system. After presenting a series of examples on how various scholars chose to graphically visualize musical performance, this paper shows how the contemplation of the strategies used to visualize performance in ethnomusicological studies can be a fruitful way of reflecting upon various topics, namely 1 the impassable limits of score transcription for understanding music as a performative phenomenon; 2 the analysis of the graphic solutions adopted by the ethnomusicologist as a way to better understand their idea of what the performance is; 3 the role played by technology in promoting new analytical approaches and methodologies; 4 analysis in ethnomusicology as an "artisanal process".

  8. Want change? Call your representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2011-07-01

    During my tenure as an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, which began in September 2010 and continues until November 2011, my time has been shared between working with the U.S. House of Representatives Natural Resource Committee Democratic staff and in the office of Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass., ranking Democrat on the committee). I appreciate getting to work with staff, fellows, and interns who inspire me, make me laugh, and know their issues cold. Much of my work on the committee is related to fish, wildlife, oceans, lands, and water issues and is directly related to my background in ecology and evolutionary biology (I studied zebra ecology and behavior in Kenya). My assignments have included asking the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) about why it has not changed the allowed usage of certain pesticides that the National Marine Fisheries Service has found to jeopardize the recovery of endangered Pacific salmon; helping to identify research needs and management options to combat the swiftly spreading and catastrophic white nose syndrome in North American bats; and inquiring as to whether a captive-ape welfare bill, if passed without amendment, could thwart development of a vaccine to stop the Ebola virus from continuing to cause mass mortality in endangered wild apes.

  9. The Limits of Representative Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Alexandru

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The public administration is closely linked to political power of the state, for which it implies the fact that the relationship of subordination is not against political parties or governmentcoalitions, but more of political power, democratically and constitutionally formed at the level of state’s representative bodies. The subordination and the separation are not dichotomous, they are not incompatible, but they form what it is known as, according to philosophy, inseparable and complementary opposed. Basically adopting an etymological definition (demos = people and kratos = power, status, the democracy is the people’s government. The personalization of the political life increases with the proliferation of monocratic institutions - as part of the state. Under these conditions, the elections, rather after having renounced at the party list, tend to transform into a ritual, a procedure for identifying people, which breaks down into an almost unconditional delegation of authority. So, beware of politicians who wish, under the reasoning of the elective investment, to be players in the democracy game, ignoring the rules established in the constitution.

  10. Man-induced hydrological changes, metazooplankton communities and invasive species in the Berre Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpy, Floriane; Pagano, Marc; Blanchot, Jean; Carlotti, François; Thibault-Botha, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    The Berre Lagoon has been under strong anthropogenic pressure since the early 1950s. The opening of the hydroelectric EDF power plant in 1966 led to large salinity drops. The zooplankton community was mainly composed of two common brackish species: Acartia tonsa and Brachionus plicatilis. Since 2006, European litigation has strongly constrained the input of freshwater, maintaining the salinity above 15. A study was performed between 2008 and 2010 to evaluate how these modifications have impacted the zooplankton community. Our results show that the community is more diverse and contains several coastal marine species (i.e., Centropages typicus, Paracalanus parvus and Acartia clausi). A. tonsa is still present but is less abundant, whereas B. plicatilis has completely disappeared. Strong predatory marine species, such as chaetognaths, the large conspicuous autochtonous jellyfish Aurelia aurita and the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, are now very common as either seasonal or permanent features of the lagoon.

  11. First feeding of Eugerres brasilianus (Carapeva larvae with Acartia tonsa (Copepod nauplii increases survival and resistance to acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotifer Brachionus sp. is commonly used for larval feeding in marine fish hatcheries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii in the initial diet of carapeva larvae improves their survival, growth and resistance to stress when compared to the regimen containing only rotifers. Adult copepods were collected in the wild and cultured with the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis oculata to obtain nauplii. Carapeva larvae were grown for 15 days using four treatments and three replicates: 1 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (10 to 15/mL; 2 A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5/mL; 3 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (5 to 7.5/mL + A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25/mL, and 4 no supply of live feed. After 15 days, the carapeva larvae were subjected to stress by exposure to air for 10 seconds and then returned to the source tank to evaluate survival after 24 h. Survival and stress resistance were higher in carapeva larvae fed B. plicatilis + A. tonsa nauplii (P<0.05, 20.9 ± 11.2% and 88.9%, respectively. These results confirm the positive effect of the inclusion of copepod nauplii in the diet of fish larvae. However, more research is needed to validate these results.

  12. New Rotifer Bioassays for Aquatic Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    AD-A258 002 AD NEW ROTIFER BIOASSAYS FOR AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY FINAL REPORT TERRY W. SNELL JULY 15, 1991 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND...Incluce Securiy Cawhca•r• on) New Rotifer Bioassays for Aquatic Toxicology 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Terry W. Snell 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. riME COVERED...rotifers. I. A test for brackish and marine environments with Brachionus plicatilis. Aquatic Toxicology . 14: 65-80. Snell, T. W. and G. Persoone. 1989

  13. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  14. 28 CFR 104.4 - Personal Representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., determine that the Personal Representative for purposes of compensation by the Fund is the first person in... under this provision. The claim forms shall require that the purported Personal Representative certify... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal Representative. 104.4 Section...

  15. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  16. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...... of uncertain parameters. Monte Carlo simulation is readily used for practical calculations. However, an alternative approach is offered by possibility theory making use of possibility distributions such as intervals and fuzzy intervals. This approach is well suited to represent lack of knowledge or imprecision...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.20 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1205.20 Section 1205.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... period means the 2006 calendar year. ...

  18. Services Subcontract Technical Representative (STR) handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, D.H.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide guidance to Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Subcontract Representatives in their assignments. It is the intention of this handbook to ensure that subcontract work is performed in accordance with the subcontract documents

  19. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  20. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Policy innovation is a key aspect of public innovation, which has been largely overlooked. Political leadership, competition and collaboration are key drivers of policy innovation. It is a barrier in traditional models of representative democracy that they provide weak conditions for collaboration....... Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition...

  1. Caspar Wessel on representing complex numbers (1799)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Bodil

    1999-01-01

    In celebration of the bicentenary of the publication of Wessel's paper on the geometric interpretation of complex numbers it is decsribed how Wessel used complex numbers to represent directions in surveying, at least as early as 1787.......In celebration of the bicentenary of the publication of Wessel's paper on the geometric interpretation of complex numbers it is decsribed how Wessel used complex numbers to represent directions in surveying, at least as early as 1787....

  2. Video Summarization Via Multiview Representative Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingjing; Wang, Suchen; Wang, Hongxing; Yuan, Junsong; Tan, Yap-Peng

    2018-05-01

    Video contents are inherently heterogeneous. To exploit different feature modalities in a diverse video collection for video summarization, we propose to formulate the task as a multiview representative selection problem. The goal is to select visual elements that are representative of a video consistently across different views (i.e., feature modalities). We present in this paper the multiview sparse dictionary selection with centroid co-regularization method, which optimizes the representative selection in each view, and enforces that the view-specific selections to be similar by regularizing them towards a consensus selection. We also introduce a diversity regularizer to favor a selection of diverse representatives. The problem can be efficiently solved by an alternating minimizing optimization with the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm. Experiments on synthetic data and benchmark video datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for video summarization, in comparison with other video summarization methods and representative selection methods such as K-medoids, sparse dictionary selection, and multiview clustering.

  3. 40 CFR 60.4112 - Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in owners and operators. 60.4112 Section 60.4112... Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4112 Changing Hg designated...

  4. Agrotourism-Representative Issues And Pro Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many governments from European Union recognize the fact that agrotourism and rural tourism represents one way that can save the agriculture in that in the coming year’s rural tourism and agrotourism will become representative elements for rural area, the arguments of this representativity being the purpose of this paper. The rural area offers great opportunities for development of agrotourism, practicing of its being necessary in the current period. At the majority of rural settlements, the defining emblematic is multiple: the quality of landscape and warmth of the inhabitants, works of art and popular technique, traditional occupations, costumes, customs, traditions, cuisine, resources, etc. To these is added also the awareness, by small farmers, of the need to diversify agricultural activity, both in and outside the farm, by engaging in other activities, with non-agricultural character, from which agrotourism is one of the most circulated.

  5. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao’s original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  6. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  7. Representing Context in Hypermedia Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    As computers and software systems move beyond the desktopand into the physical environments we live and workin, the systems are required to adapt to these environmentsand the activities taking place within them. Making applicationscontext-aware and representing context informationalong side...... application data can be a challenging task. Thispaper describes how digital context traditionally has beenrepresented in hypermedia data models and how this representationcan scale to also represent physical context. TheHyCon framework and data model, designed for the developmentof mobile context...

  8. On the Inception of Financial Representative Bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferrara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we aim to formalize the inception of representative bubbles giving the condition under which they may arise. We will find that representative bubbles may start at any time, depending on the definition of a behavioral component. This result is at odds with the theory of classic rational bubbles, which are those models that rely on the fulfillment of the transversality condition by which a bubble in a financial asset can arise just at its first trade. This means that a classic rational bubble (differently from our model cannot follow a cycle since if a bubble exists, it will burst by definition and never arise again.

  9. Representativeness elements of an hybrid reactor demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdraon, D.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; David, S.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.

    2000-11-01

    This document deals with the quantification of the minimum thermal power level for a demonstrator and the definition of the physical criteria which define the representative character of a demonstrator towards a power reactor. Solutions allowing to keep an acceptable flow in an industrial core, have also been studied. The document is divided in three parts: the representativeness elements, the considered solutions and the characterization of the neutrons flows at the interfaces and the dose rates at the outer surface of the vessel. (A.L.B.)

  10. Representing Uncertainty on Model Analysis Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-01-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model.…

  11. Representing a public that does not exist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    . This paper will attempt to outline a third way that does not retreat into nostalgia nor caves in to policy pressure. Through the metaphor of teaching as standing as a representative of the world, and a pedagogy of exemplification an alternative form of legitimisation of teaching is formulated. This way deals...

  12. A Framework for Representing Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ludger; Blunck, Henrik; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for representing the trajectories of moving objects and the time-varying results of operations on moving objects. This framework supports the realization of discrete data models of moving objects databases, which incorporate representations of moving objects based on non...

  13. Adjustment Following Disability: Representative Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    1984-01-01

    Examined adjustment following physical disability using the representative case method with two persons with quadriplegia. Results highlighted the importance of previously established coping styles as well as the role of the environment in adjustment. Willingness to mourn aided in later growth. (JAC)

  14. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  15. A Symbolic Logic for Representing Linear Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charles E.

    A set of symbols is presented along with logical operators which represent the possible manipulations of the linear model. The use of these symbols and operators is to simplify the representation of analysis of variance models, correlation models and factor analysis models. (Author)

  16. Potential use of an ultrasound antifouling technology as a ballast water treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Gambardella, Chiara; Miraglia, Francesco; Pavanello, Giovanni; Greco, Giuliano; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, at a laboratory scale, the potentialities of an ultrasound-based treatment initially designed to eliminate fouling, as a ballast water treatment system. Therefore, early life stages of three different zooplanktonic species (Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina) were exposed to ultrasound waves (20-22 kHz). The experimental set up included static assays with variations of time exposure (30 s, 60 s and 30 s on/60 s off/30 s on), material of tanks (stainless steel, galvanized steel and plastic) and position of the ultrasound source. Results showed that the treatment efficacy increased from 30 to 60 s and no differences were registered between 60 s-continuous exposure and pulse exposure. The highest efficacy was observed in Experiment I (metal-to-metal contact assay) with a mortality value of 93-95% for B. plicatilis and A. salina. It consisted of organisms located inside stainless steel tubes that were located in direct contact with the ultrasound source and treated for 60 s. Further, we found that, generally, A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis were the most resistant species to the ultrasound treatment whereas A. salina was the most sensitive. We further discuss that US may unlikely be used for commercial vessels, but may be used to treat ballast water in smaller ballast tanks as on board of mega yachts.

  17. Climate Change and the Representative Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B. [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The artifice of an infinitely-lived representative agent is commonly invoked to balance the present costs and future benefits of climate stabilization policies. Since actual economies are populated by overlapping generations of finite-lived persons, this approach begs important questions of welfare aggregation. This paper compares the results of representative agent and overlapping generations models that are numerically calibrated based on standard assumptions regarding climate economy interactions. Under two social choice rules - Pareto efficiency and classical utilitarianism - the models generate closely similar simulation results. In the absence of policies to redistribute income between present and future generations, efficient rates of carbon dioxide emissions abatement rise from 15 to 20% between the years 2000 and 2105. Under classical utilitarianism, in contrast, optimal control rates rise from 48 to 79% this same period. 23 refs.

  18. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  19. Representing exact number visually using mental abacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael C; Barner, David

    2012-02-01

    Mental abacus (MA) is a system for performing rapid and precise arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, a physical calculation device. Previous work has speculated that MA is based on visual imagery, suggesting that it might be a method of representing exact number nonlinguistically, but given the limitations on visual working memory, it is unknown how MA structures could be stored. We investigated the structure of the representations underlying MA in a group of children in India. Our results suggest that MA is represented in visual working memory by splitting the abacus into a series of columns, each of which is independently stored as a unit with its own detailed substructure. In addition, we show that the computations of practiced MA users (but not those of control participants) are relatively insensitive to verbal interference, consistent with the hypothesis that MA is a nonlinguistic format for exact numerical computation.

  20. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    The Theory of Sampling (TOS) provides a description of all errors involved in sampling of heterogeneous materials as well as all necessary tools for their evaluation, elimination and/or minimization. This tutorial elaborates on—and illustrates—selected central aspects of TOS. The theoretical...... aspects are illustrated with many practical examples of TOS at work in typical scenarios, presented to yield a general overview. TOS provides a full scientific definition of the concept of sampling correctness, an attribute of the sampling process that must never be compromised. For this purpose...... the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP) also receives special attention. TOS provides the first complete scientific definition of sampling representativeness. Only correct (unbiased) mass reduction will ensure representative sampling. It is essential to induct scientific and technological professions in the TOS...

  1. Meeting staff representatives of the European Agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      The AASC (Assembly of Agency Staff Committee) held its 27th Meeting of the specialized European Agencies on 26 and 27 May on the premises of the OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market) in Alicante, Spain. Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association, in charge of External Relations, attended as observers. This participation is a useful complement to regular contacts we have with FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants' Associations), which groups staff associations of the UN Agencies, and the annual CSAIO conferences (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations), where each Autumn representatives of international organizations based in Europe meet to discuss themes of common interest to better promote and defend the rights of the international civil servants. All these meetings allow us to remain informed on items that are directly or indirectly related to employment and social conditions of our colleagues in other international and Europ...

  2. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  3. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  4. Citizen's initiatives and the representative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberger, B.; Kempf, U.

    1978-01-01

    This anthology containing contributions of 19 sociologists is a systematic investigation of the locality, the possibilities and the effective radius of citizen's initiatives under the functional conditions of the parliamentary - representative system. The intellectual and political surroundings, the sociologic context, the institutional, political and judical overall conditions as well as the consequences of this movement for the whole political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  5. Representative operation of Paris region: Montgeron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, J.

    1984-06-01

    Montgeron geothermal plant was realized between 1980 and 1983. It belongs to the Seimaroise, a low-cost housing agency and provides floor-panels heating to three building units totalizing 3042 dwelling-equivalents. This plant is one of the most representative of Paris region and may also be a model from the point of view of its realization by a private society and its economic aspect.

  6. Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Saxon E

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of Project Activity ORD-FY04-012, 'Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative', was to provide the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with expertise on past, present, and future climate scenarios and to support the technical elements of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) climate program. The Climate Technical Support Representative was to explain, defend, and interpret the YMP climate program to the various audiences during Site Recommendation and License Application. This technical support representative was to support DOE management in the preparation and review of documents, and to participate in comment response for the Final Environmental Impact Statement, the Site Recommendation Hearings, the NRC Sufficiency Comments, and other forums as designated by DOE management. Because the activity was terminated 12 months early and experience a 27% reduction in budget, it was not possible to complete all components of the tasks as originally envisioned. Activities not completed include the qualification of climate datasets and the production of a qualified technical report. The following final report is an unqualified summary of the activities that were completed given the reduced time and funding

  7. Diversity and representativeness: two key factors

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    In the past few weeks many of you have filled out the questionnaire for preparing the upcoming Five-yearly review. Similarly, Staff Association members have elected their delegates to the Staff Council for the coming two years. Once again we would like to thank all those who have taken the time and effort to make their voice heard on these two occasions. Elections to the Staff Council Below we publish the new Staff Council with its forty delegates who will represent in 2014 and 2015 all CERN staff in the discussions with Management and Member States in the various bodies and committees. Therefore it is important that the Staff Council represents as far as possible the diversity of the CERN population. By construction, the election process with its electoral colleges and two-step voting procedure guarantees that all Departments, even the small ones, and the various staff categories are correctly represented. Figure 1 shows the participation rate in the elections. The average rate is just above 52 %, with ...

  8. An integrated fish-plankton aquaculture system in brackish water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, S; Fargier, L; Lazzaro, X; Baras, E; De Wilde, N; Drakidès, C; Amiel, C; Rispal, B; Blancheton, J-P

    2013-02-01

    Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture takes advantage of the mutualism between some detritivorous fish and phytoplankton. The fish recycle nutrients by consuming live (and dead) algae and provide the inorganic carbon to fuel the growth of live algae. In the meanwhile, algae purify the water and generate the oxygen required by fishes. Such mechanism stabilizes the functioning of an artificially recycling ecosystem, as exemplified by combining the euryhaline tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii and the unicellular alga Chlorella sp. Feed addition in this ecosystem results in faster fish growth but also in an increase in phytoplankton biomass, which must be limited. In the prototype described here, the algal population control is exerted by herbivorous zooplankton growing in a separate pond connected in parallel to the fish-algae ecosystem. The zooplankton production is then consumed by tilapia, particularly by the fry and juveniles, when water is returned to the main circuit. Chlorella sp. and Brachionus plicatilis are two planktonic species that have spontaneously colonized the brackish water of the prototype, which was set-up in Senegal along the Atlantic Ocean shoreline. In our system, water was entirely recycled and only evaporation was compensated (1.5% volume/day). Sediment, which accumulated in the zooplankton pond, was the only trophic cul-de-sac. The system was temporarily destabilized following an accidental rotifer invasion in the main circuit. This caused Chlorella disappearance and replacement by opportunist algae, not consumed by Brachionus. Following the entire consumption of the Brachionus population by tilapias, Chlorella predominated again. Our artificial ecosystem combining S. m. heudelotii, Chlorella and B. plicatilis thus appeared to be resilient. This farming system was operated over one year with a fish productivity of 1.85 kg/m2 per year during the cold season (January to April).

  9. Anthropomorphic Networks as Representatives of Global Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Yahodzinskyi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been analyzed a phenomenon of global consciousness, and its cultural and historical, civilizational dimensions have been substantiated. There has been demonstrated that the concept of planetary consciousness, global thinking, noosphere was described for the first time in the philosophy of cosmism. However, in modern conditions ideas of representatives of the naturalistic philosophical direction of cosmism have not lost their heuristic potential. They can be reconsidered in a new fashion within the context of emerging anthropomorphic (human dimension networks. There has been proved that global consciousness is a component of the social and cultural potential of global information networks defining vectors to prospects of humanity progress in the 21st century. Relying on methodology of the structural and functional analysis, the author arrives at a conclusion about global networks obtaining the status of representatives of global consciousness. This is the area of networks where all relevant information is concentrated – from statistical data to scientific and technical information. Access to these data is limited by human abilities and is realized in the form of discrete requests with using heuristic algorithms of information procession. A suggestion is introduced considering the fact that modern society being a self-organized system seeks to gain stable condition. Anthropomorphic networks are means of decreasing social entropy, which is growing as a result of any kind of human intervention into social processes. Thus, for the first time a human is challenged by their intellect, ability to create, discover and control.

  10. Exploring Representativeness and Informativeness for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bo; Wang, Zengmao; Zhang, Lefei; Zhang, Liangpei; Liu, Wei; Shen, Jialie; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-01-01

    How can we find a general way to choose the most suitable samples for training a classifier? Even with very limited prior information? Active learning, which can be regarded as an iterative optimization procedure, plays a key role to construct a refined training set to improve the classification performance in a variety of applications, such as text analysis, image recognition, social network modeling, etc. Although combining representativeness and informativeness of samples has been proven promising for active sampling, state-of-the-art methods perform well under certain data structures. Then can we find a way to fuse the two active sampling criteria without any assumption on data? This paper proposes a general active learning framework that effectively fuses the two criteria. Inspired by a two-sample discrepancy problem, triple measures are elaborately designed to guarantee that the query samples not only possess the representativeness of the unlabeled data but also reveal the diversity of the labeled data. Any appropriate similarity measure can be employed to construct the triple measures. Meanwhile, an uncertain measure is leveraged to generate the informativeness criterion, which can be carried out in different ways. Rooted in this framework, a practical active learning algorithm is proposed, which exploits a radial basis function together with the estimated probabilities to construct the triple measures and a modified best-versus-second-best strategy to construct the uncertain measure, respectively. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm consistently achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art active learning algorithms.

  11. [Sensitivity of four representative angular cephalometric measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xü, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    2000-05-01

    Examined the sensitivity of four representative cephalometric angles to the detection of different vectors of craniofacial growth. Landmark coordinate data from a stratified random sample of 48 adolescent subjects were used to calculate conventional values for changes between the pretreatment and end-of-treatment lateral cephalograms. By modifying the end-of-treatment coordinate values appropriately, the angular changes could be recalculated reflecting three hypothetical situations: Case 1. What if there were no downward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 2. What if there were no forward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 3. What if there were no Nasion change? These questions were asked for four representative cephalometric angles: SNA, ANB, NAPg and UI-SN. For Case 1, the associations (r) between the baseline and the modified measure for the three angles were very highly significant (P < 0.001) with r2 values no lower than 0.94! For Case 2, however, the associations were much weaker and no r value reached significance. These angular measurements are less sensitive for measuring downward landmark displacement than they are for measuring forward landmark displacement.

  12. Effect of three food types on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera: Brachionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.S. Sarma

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared the population growth of B. calyciflorus and B. patulus using the green alga Chlorella vulgaris, baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or their mixture in equal proportions as food. Food was offered once every 24 h in two concentrations (low: 1x10(6 and high: 3x10(6 ind. ml-1 separately for each species. The experiments were terminated after 15 days. In general, at any food type or concentration, B. patulus reached a higher population density. A diet of Chlorella alone supported a higher population growth of both rotifer species than yeast alone. B. calyciflorus and B. patulus achieved highest population densities (103+8 ind. ml-1 and 296+20 ind. ml-1, respectively on a diet of Chlorella at 3x10(6 ind. ml-1. When cultured using the mixture of Chlorella and yeast, the maximal population densities of B. calyciflorus were lower than those grown on Chlorella. Under similar conditions, the maximal abundance values of B. patulus were comparable in both food types. Regardless of food type and density the rate of population increase per day (r for B. calyciflorus varied from 0.13+0.03 to 0.63+0.04. These values for B. patulus ranged from 0.19+0.01 to 0.37+0.01. The results indicated that even though Chlorella was a superior foof for the tested rotifers, yeast can be effectively used at low concentrations to supplement algal requirements in rotifer culture systems.Se comparó el crecimiento poblacional de dos especies planctónicas (B. calyciflorus y B. patulus desarrolladas con el alga verde Chlorella vulgaris, la levadura de cerveza Saccharomyces cerevisiae y la mezcla de ambas dietas en proporciones iguales. B. patulus alcanzó las mayores densidades con cualquier tipo de alimento utilizado en comparación con B. calyciflorus. La dieta a base de Chlorella vulgaris sola promovió el mayor crecimiento poblacional en relación con la dieta de levadura sola. B. calyciflorus y B. patulus alcanzaron las mayores densidades de 103+8 ind. ml-1 y 296+20 ind. ml-1, respectivamente, con la dieta de Chlorella en 3x10(6 células ml-1. En condiciones similares, los valores máximos de abundancia de B. patulus fueron semejantes para ambos tipos de alimento. La tasa de incremento poblacional por día (r para B. calyciflorus vario de 0.13+0.03 a 0.63+0.04, sin importar el tipo y densidad de alimento. Los resultados indican que la dieta a base de Chlorella fue mejor para los rotíferos considerados, y que la levadura puede usarse de manera efectiva a concentraciones bajas para complementar los requerimientos algales del sistema de cultivo de rotíferos.

  13. Combined effects of temperature and lead concentration on the competition between the rotifers Brachionus havanaensis and Brachionus rubens (Rotifera: Brachionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montúfar-Meléndez, Aramen Iván; Sánchez-Ortíz, Jonathan Raúl; Sarma, S S S; Nandini, S

    2007-02-15

    The combined effects of temperature (22 and 32 degrees C) and the concentration of Pb (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg L- 1) on the competition between B. havanaensis and B. rubens using population growth was evaluated. At 22 degrees C, increase in Pb concentration had little effect on the population growth of B. havanaensis, while it had adverse effect on B. rubens. At this temperature, the presence of B. rubens had adversely affected the growth of B. havananensis. However, under similar conditions, B. rubens was not influenced by B. havanaensis. Increase in Pb concentration decreased the population growth of B. havanaensis at 32 degrees C regardless whether the population was alone or together with B. rubens. When grown alone, B. havanaensis was numerically more abundant than B. rubens. B. havanaensis grown at 32 degrees C had population growth rates of 0.32 to 0.56 day- 1, depending on Pb level and the presence of competitor. At this temperature, B. rubens had mostly negative growth rates. Further, our study showed that Pb at a concentration as low as 0.05 mg L- 1 had adverse effect on B. rubens at both the temperatures. Though B. rubens is known to occur naturally at wide temperature range, in our study this species appeared to have adapted to low temperature.

  14. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  15. Representing the vacuum polarization on de Sitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Katie E.; Woodard, Richard P. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute of Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    Previous studies of the vacuum polarization on de Sitter have demonstrated that there is a simple, noncovariant representation of it in which the physics is transparent. There is also a cumbersome, covariant representation in which the physics is obscure. Despite being unwieldy, the latter form has a powerful appeal for those who are concerned about de Sitter invariance. We show that nothing is lost by employing the simple, noncovariant representation because there is a closed form procedure for converting its structure functions to those of the covariant representation. We also present a vastly improved technique for reading off the noncovariant structure functions from the primitive diagrams. And we discuss the issue of representing the vacuum polarization for a general metric background.

  16. Towards a representative periphytic diatom sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to acquire a representative periphytic diatom sample for river water quality monitoring has been recognised in the development of existing diatom indices, important in the development and employment of diatom monitoring tools for the Water Framework Directive. In this study, a nested design with replication is employed to investigate the magnitude of variation in diatom biomass, composition and Trophic Diatom Index at varying scales within a small chalk river. The study shows that the use of artificial substrates may not result in diatom communities that are typical of the surrounding natural substrates. Periphytic diatom biomass and composition varies between artificial and natural substrates, riffles and glides and between two stretches of the river channel. The study also highlights the existence of high variation in diatom frustule frequency and biovolume at the individual replicate scale which may have implications for the use of diatoms in routine monitoring.

  17. STATISTICAL MODELS OF REPRESENTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.

  18. Long-term competitive dynamics of two cryptic rotifer species: diapause and fluctuating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gabaldón

    Full Text Available Life-history traits may have an important role in promoting species coexistence. However, the complexity of certain life cycles makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the conditions for coexistence or exclusion based on the study of short-term competitive dynamics. Brachionus plicatilis and B. manjavacasare two cryptic rotifer species co-occurring in many lakes on the Iberian Peninsula. They have a complex life cycle in which cyclical parthenogenesis occurs with diapausing stages being the result of sexual reproduction. B. plicatilis and B. manjavacasare identical in morphology and size, their biotic niches are broadly overlapping, and they have similar competitive abilities. However, the species differ in life-history traits involving sexual reproduction and diapause, and respond differently to salinity and temperature. As in the case of certain other species that are extremely similar in morphology, a fluctuating environment are considered to be important for their coexistence. We studied the long-term competitive dynamics of B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas under different salinity regimes (constant and fluctuating. Moreover, we focused on the dynamics of the diapausing egg bank to explore how the outcome of the entire life cycle of these rotifers can work to mediate stable coexistence. We demonstrated that these species do not coexist under constant-salinity environment, as the outcome of competition is affected by the level of salinity-at low salinity, B. plicatilis excluded B. manjavacas, and the opposite outcome occurred at high salinity. Competitive dynamics under fluctuating salinity showed that the dominance of one species over the other also tended to fluctuate. The duration of co-occurrence of these species was favoured by salinity fluctuation and perhaps by the existence of a diapausing egg bank. Stable coexistence was not found in our system, which suggests that other factors or other salinity fluctuation patterns might act as

  19. Zooplankton responses to sandbar opening in a tropical eutrophic coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Jayme M.; de M. Rocha, Adriana; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Carneiro, Luciana S.; de A. Esteves, Francisco

    2007-02-01

    The effects of a disturbance by sandbar opening on the zooplankton community were evaluated through a long-term study in an eutrophic and oligohaline system, Imboassica Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Zooplankton samples and limnological data were collected monthly from March 2000 to February 2003. Before the sandbar was opened in February 2001, the lagoon showed eutrophic conditions, with high mean nutrient concentrations and low salinity (total nitrogen - TN = 190.28 μM, chlorophyll a content - Chl. a = 104.60 μg/L and salinity = 0.87'). During this period, the zooplankton species present, such as the rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus havanaensis, were typical of freshwater to oligohaline and eutrophic environments. After the sandbar opening, the lagoon changed to a lower trophic status and increased salinity (TN = 55.11 μM, Chl. a = 27.56 μg/L and salinity = 19.64'). As a result, the zooplankton community came to consist largely of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, marine copepods and meroplanktonic larvae, mainly Gastropoda. Salinity was the main force structuring the zooplankton community after the sandbar opening. Two years after this episode, the prior zooplankton community had not reestablished itself, indicating a low resilience to this disturbance. The conditions developed prior to a sandbar opening can be crucial to the community responses in the face of this disturbance and for the capacity of the original zooplankton community to re-establish itself.

  20. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyzer, Jan; van den Hout, Dick; Zandveld, Peter; van Ratingen, Sjoerd

    2015-03-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in four large cities. The concentrations calculated at the location of the monitoring stations, compared well with the concentrations measured at the stations indicating that the models worked well. Therefore the calculated concentration distributions were used as a proxy for the actual concentration distributions across the cities. The distributions of these proxy concentrations across the city populations was determined and cumulative population distribution curves were estimated. The calculated annual mean values at the monitoring network stations were located on the population distribution curves to estimate the fractions of the populations that the monitoring network stations represent. This macro scale procedure is used to evaluate which subgroups of the monitoring stations can be reliably used to decide on compliance or to estimate the concentration the population is exposed to. In addition, the CAR model and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are used to investigate the effect of micro scale siting of the monitoring stations within the streets. The following observations were made: - Berlin and London networks cover the distribution of concentrations to which the population is exposed rather well, while Stuttgart and Barcelona have stations at sites with mainly the higher concentrations and the exposure is covered less well. - The networks in London and Berlin, with a substantial number of urban background stations, seem fit to monitor the average population exposure, contrary to those in Stuttgart and Barcelona with only a limited number of these stations. - The concentrations measured at street stations hardly reflect the calculated differences in street

  1. Recent activities of the Seismology Division Early Career Representative(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Matthew; Van Noten, Koen; Ermert, Laura; Mai, P. Martin; Krawczyk, CharLotte

    2016-04-01

    The European Geosciences Union is a bottom-up-organisation, in which its members are represented by their respective scientific divisions, committees and council. In recent years, EGU has embarked on a mission to reach out for its numerous 'younger' members by giving awards to outstanding young scientists and the setting up of Early Career Scientists (ECS) representatives. The division representative's role is to engage in discussions that concern students and early career scientists. Several meetings between all the division representatives are held throughout the year to discuss ideas and Union-wide issues. One important impact ECS representatives have had on EGU is the increased number of short courses and workshops run by ECS during the annual General Assembly. Another important contribution of ECS representatives was redefining 'Young Scientist' to 'Early Career Scientist', which avoids discrimination due to age. Since 2014, the Seismology Division has its own ECS representative. In an effort to more effectively reach out for young seismologists, a blog and a social media page dedicated to seismology have been set up online. With this dedicated blog, we'd like to give more depth to the average browsing experience by enabling young researchers to explore various seismology topics in one place while making the field more exciting and accessible to the broader community. These pages are used to promote the latest research especially of young seismologists and to share interesting seismo-news. Over the months the pages proved to be popular, with hundreds of views every week and an increased number of followers. An online survey was conducted to learn more about the activities and needs of early career seismologists. We present the results from this survey, and the work that has been carried out over the last two years, including detail of what has been achieved so far, and what we would like the ECS representation for Seismology to achieve. Young seismologists are

  2. EEG microstates during resting represent personality differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Felix; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L; Milz, Patricia; Gianotti, Lorena R R

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the spontaneous brain electric activity of 13 skeptics and 16 believers in paranormal phenomena; they were university students assessed with a self-report scale about paranormal beliefs. 33-channel EEG recordings during no-task resting were processed as sequences of momentary potential distribution maps. Based on the maps at peak times of Global Field Power, the sequences were parsed into segments of quasi-stable potential distribution, the 'microstates'. The microstates were clustered into four classes of map topographies (A-D). Analysis of the microstate parameters time coverage, occurrence frequency and duration as well as the temporal sequence (syntax) of the microstate classes revealed significant differences: Believers had a higher coverage and occurrence of class B, tended to decreased coverage and occurrence of class C, and showed a predominant sequence of microstate concatenations from A to C to B to A that was reversed in skeptics (A to B to C to A). Microstates of different topographies, putative "atoms of thought", are hypothesized to represent different types of information processing.The study demonstrates that personality differences can be detected in resting EEG microstate parameters and microstate syntax. Microstate analysis yielded no conclusive evidence for the hypothesized relation between paranormal belief and schizophrenia.

  3. The Two Sides of the Representative Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sutherland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Federalist 10 James Madison drew a functional distinction between “parties” (advocates for factional interests and “judgment” (decision-making for the public good and warned of the corrupting effect of combining both functions in a “single body of men.” This paper argues that one way of overcoming “Madisonian corruption” would be by restricting political parties to an advocacy role, reserving the judgment function to an allotted (randomly-selected microcosm of the whole citizenry, who would determine the outcome of parliamentary debates by secret ballot—a division of labour suggested by James Fishkin’s experiments in deliberative polling. The paper then defends this radical constitutional proposal against Bernard Manin’s (1997 claim that an allotted microcosm could not possibly fulfil the “consent” requirement of Natural Right theory. Not only does the proposal challenge Manin’s thesis, but a 28th Amendment implementing it would finally reconcile the competing visions that have bedevilled representative democracy since the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

  4. [Representativeness of general practice university lecturers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Céline; Leroy, Olivier; Huez, Jean-François; Bellanger, William; Ramond-Roquin, Aline

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop primary care research by general practice university lecturers, it was necessary to evaluate the representativeness of this group of lecturers at the Angers Faculty of Medicine. Declarative study based on self-administered questionnaires filled in by 216 university lecturers. The questionnaire was derived from that of the regional panel of the Research, studies, evaluation and statistics directorate of 2007, investigating the sociodemographic characteristics, professional organization, activities and certain professional practices of general practitioners. University lecturers were compared to the population of the panel by means of a Chi-square test of conformity. A total of 181 university lecturers participated in the survey, comprising 65% of men. The proportion of women was higher among university lecturers and the 45-54years age-group was underrepresented. The university lecturers group was significantly different from the panel in terms of predominantly group practice and shorter weekly working hours. No significant difference was observed for the type of town of practice ahd the continuing medical education participation rate. University lecturers present certain specificities, partly related to the reference population used. The development of research based on such a network appears to be feasible in terms ofrepresentativeness, provided these specificities are clearly described.

  5. Multicriteria analysis of ontologically represented information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2014-11-01

    Our current work concerns the development of a decision support system for the software selection problem. The main idea is to utilize expert knowledge to help the user in selecting the best software / method / computational resource to solve a computational problem. Obviously, this involves multicriterial decision making and the key open question is: which method to choose. The context of the work is provided by the Agents in Grid (AiG) project, where the software selection (and thus multicriterial analysis) is to be realized when all information concerning the problem, the hardware and the software is ontologically represented. Initially, we have considered the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is well suited for the hierarchical data structures (e.g., such that have been formulated in terms of ontologies). However, due to its well-known shortcomings, we have decided to extend our search for the multicriterial analysis method best suited for the problem in question. In this paper we report results of our search, which involved: (i) TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), (ii) PROMETHEE, and (iii) GRIP (Generalized Regression with Intensities of Preference). We also briefly argue why other methods have not been considered as valuable candidates.

  6. Musculoskeletal symptoms in pharmaceutical sales representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Katherine; Gyi, Diane; Haslam, Cheryl

    2010-03-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a leading cause of work-related ill health. Existing literature indicates that pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) report a high prevalence of MSDs, possibly exacerbated by the nature of work (prolonged driving and manual handling). In addition, they experience difficulty in accessing occupational health services. To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors among PSRs in order to assist their occupational health management through raising risk awareness. A self-completed questionnaire distributed to 205 PSRs within a UK pharmaceutical company was used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosocial factors, work tasks undertaken and company car use. To assist understanding of work tasks and organizational factors, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a sample of 12 key personnel. The questionnaire response rate was 68%. PSRs reported high mileage and 100% reported working from the car in a typical day. Forty-seven per cent reported both manual handling for > or = 4 h/day and 'often' or 'sometimes' working from the car. Fifty-seven per cent reported low back symptoms in the last 12 months. Interview data revealed issues relating to car choice, storage in the boot and working from the car, which should be considered when developing priorities for preventive management of MSDs. Musculoskeletal symptoms appear to be a problem for PSRs, with risk factors reported as prolonged driving, sitting in the car, working from the car and manual handling. Interventions to facilitate their occupational health management should focus on raising awareness of the risks of prolonged driving and working from the car.

  7. HOW TO REPRESENT THE GENETIC CODE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Santos-Magalhães

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of molecular genetic comprises a true revolution of far-reaching consequences for human-kind, which evolved into a specialized branch of the modern-day Biochemistry. The analysis of specicgenomic information are gaining wide-ranging interest because of their signicance to the early diag-nosis of disease, and the discovery of modern drugs. In order to take advantage of a wide assortmentof signal processing (SP algorithms, the primary step of modern genomic SP involves convertingsymbolic-DNA sequences into complex-valued signals. How to represent the genetic code? Despitebeing extensively known, the DNA mapping into proteins is one of the relevant discoveries of genetics.The genetic code (GC is revisited in this work, addressing other descriptions for it, which can beworthy for genomic SP. Three original representations are discussed. The inner-to-outer map buildson the unbalanced role of nucleotides of a codon. A two-dimensional-Gray genetic representationis oered as a structured map that can help interpreting DNA spectrograms or scalograms. Theseare among the powerful visual tools for genome analysis, which depends on the choice of the geneticmapping. Finally, the world-chart for the GC is investigated. Evoking the cyclic structure of thegenetic mapping, it can be folded joining the left-right borders, and the top-bottom frontiers. As aresult, the GC can be drawn on the surface of a sphere resembling a world-map. Eight parallels oflatitude are required (four in each hemisphere as well as four meridians of longitude associated tofour corresponding anti-meridians. The tropic circles have 11.25o, 33.75o, 56.25o, and 78.5o (Northand South. Starting from an arbitrary Greenwich meridian, the meridians of longitude can be plottedat 22.5o, 67.5o, 112.5o, and 157.5o (East and West. Each triplet is assigned to a single point on thesurface that we named Nirenberg-Kohamas Earth. Despite being valuable, usual representations forthe GC can be

  8. 29 CFR 1960.27 - Representatives of officials in charge and representatives of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attention of the Safety and Health Inspector any unsafe or unhealthful working condition which the employee... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.27... knowledge of any existing or potential unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. The representative of...

  9. Application to Representative Structures. Other Representative Structures: Mutsu-Ogawara, Niigata East and West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1999-01-01

    Reliability analyses are performed for three Japanese vertical wall breakwaters in this chapter. Only the geotechnical failure modes described in chapter 3 are investigated. For none of the breakwaters detailed data are available for the wave climate and for the soil conditions. Therefore represe...

  10. Registration Appointment and Services for Representatives Management Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A new internet/intranet application that collects all representative information and establishes the relationship between the claimant and the representative. Allow...

  11. 20 CFR 266.7 - Accountability of a representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability of a representative payee. 266.7 Section 266.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT REPRESENTATIVE PAYMENT § 266.7 Accountability of a representative payee. (a) A representative...

  12. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes in Vermont polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  13. COMPARISON OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of ecological communities to make taxon richness (TR) or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Sample representativeness literally means the similarity in species composition and relative abundance between a ...

  14. Statistics On Title II Direct Payments To Claimant Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Every person has the right to be represented by an attorney or other representative while pursuing a claim or other rights. This dataset contains data around Title...

  15. 48 CFR 652.242-70 - Contracting Officer's Representative (COR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Representative (COR). 652.242-70 Section 652.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Contracting Officer's Representative (COR). As prescribed in 642.272(a), insert a clause substantially the same as follows: Contracting Officer's Representative (COR) (AUG 1999) (a) The Contracting Officer may...

  16. 22 CFR 23.4 - Representative value in exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representative value in exchange. 23.4 Section... Representative value in exchange. Representative value in exchange for the collection of a fee means foreign currency equivalent to the prescribed United States dollar fee at the current rate of exchange at the time...

  17. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative is selected shall include a procedure for the owners and operators of the source and affected units at the source to authorize the alternate designated representative to act in lieu...) In the event of a conflict, any action taken by the designated representative shall take precedence...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4111 - Alternate Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate Hg designated representative... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4111 Alternate Hg designated representative. (a) A certificate of representation under § 60.4113...

  19. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    ’ potential identities. It shows that the students preferred STEM representatives resembled themselves in some aspects (primarily social and health aspects) and fit their perceptions of a typical person working in STEM in other aspects (knowledge seeking, hard-working etc.). At least two different...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...

  20. Free ammonia offers algal crop protection from predators in dairy wastewater and ammonium-rich media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patrick K; Dunn, Gary P; Passero, Maxine; Feris, Kevin P

    2017-11-01

    Cost-effective methods for protecting crops from grazing organisms like rotifers are needed to reduce the risk of pond crashes in mass algal cultures. We present a novel strategy to optimize the exposure time to free ammonia, via control of media pH, in both defined media and dairy anaerobic digester effluent to suppress rotifers and maintain algal productivity. We tested five different free ammonia exposure times (0, 1, 2, 6, and 12h) and found a significant nonlinear effect of exposure time (p0.9) on rotifer survival. In both media types, 6-12h of elevated free ammonia significantly reduced Brachionus plicatilis rotifer survival with no negative effects on Nannochloropsis oculata, while shorter exposure times were insufficient to inhibit rotifers, leading to severe algal culture crashes. These results suggest that algal crops can be protected from rotifers, without productivity loss, by elevating free ammonia for 6 or more hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05205-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rom clone SA0AA... 42 3e-09 4 ( GD178798 ) EST05007 Watermelon fruit normalizatio...javanica egg pAMP1 v6 Chia... 46 4e-09 3 ( GD179575 ) EST05784 Watermelon fruit normali...F281064_1( AF281064 |pid:none) Homo sapiens CHMP1.5 mRNA, complet... 62 3e-14 (Q99LU0) RecName: Full=Charged...s NHIL mRNA, clone: BpA0642, ... 44 4e-06 3 ( ES467260 ) AH04F09.G Brachionus plicatilis NHIL unnormalized...lone 305958 unknown mRNA. 182 2e-54 D84478( D84478 )hypothetical protein At2g06530 [imported] - Arabid... 17

  2. DFS Associates: Simple ways to become a good manufacturer's representative

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra K. Pharre

    2018-01-01

    Being one of the trusted manufacturer’s representative firms for RF and microwave products and services, DFS Associates wanted to impart a few insights to consider in becoming a good manufacturer’s representative with this article. Firstly, you need to understand what it does if you’re interested on becoming one where it could be an individual or a small business that can represent a manufacturer’s products and services effectively to the marketplace. You can choose between representing one m...

  3. Representativeness Uncertainty in Chemical Data Assimilation Highlight Mixing Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, David John

    2003-01-01

    When performing chemical data assimilation the observational, representativeness, and theoretical uncertainties have very different characteristics. In this study we have accurately characterized the representativeness uncertainty by studying the probability distribution function (PDF) of the observations. The average deviation has been used as a measure of the width of the PDF and of the variability (representativeness uncertainty) for the grid cell. It turns out that for long-lived tracers such as N2O and CH4 the representativeness uncertainty is markedly different from the observational uncertainty and clearly delineates mixing barriers such as the polar vortex edge, the tropical pipe and the tropopause.

  4. On the Representativeness of Behavior Observation Samples in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred…

  5. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  6. 40 CFR 97.82 - NOX authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX authorized account representative... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.82 NOX authorized account representative. A unit for which an application for a NOX...

  7. 40 CFR 96.82 - NOX authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX authorized account representative... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.82 NOX authorized account representative. A unit for which an...

  8. 19 CFR 146.2 - Port director as Board representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.2 Port director as Board representative. The appropriate port director shall be in charge of the zone as the representative of the Board. [T.D. 86-16, 51 FR 5049, Feb. 11, 1986, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999] ...

  9. 48 CFR 642.270 - Contracting Officer's Representative (COR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Representative (COR). 642.270 Section 642.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACT... Officer's Representative (COR). (a) Scope. Contracting officers may designate technically qualified... training and have the necessary experience and judgment shall be appointed as CORs. This policy shall be...

  10. 40 CFR 97.11 - Alternate NOX authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representative. 97.11 Section 97.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 97.11 Alternate NOX authorized account... representation under § 97.13, any representation, action, inaction, or submission by the alternate NOX authorized...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4114 - Objections concerning Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections concerning Hg designated... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4114 Objections concerning Hg designated representative. (a) Once a complete certificate of...

  12. An active learning approach with uncertainty, representativeness, and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianxu; Zhang, Shukui; Xin, Jie; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Xian, Xuefeng; Li, Chunhua; Cui, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    Big data from the Internet of Things may create big challenge for data classification. Most active learning approaches select either uncertain or representative unlabeled instances to query their labels. Although several active learning algorithms have been proposed to combine the two criteria for query selection, they are usually ad hoc in finding unlabeled instances that are both informative and representative and fail to take the diversity of instances into account. We address this challenge by presenting a new active learning framework which considers uncertainty, representativeness, and diversity creation. The proposed approach provides a systematic way for measuring and combining the uncertainty, representativeness, and diversity of an instance. Firstly, use instances' uncertainty and representativeness to constitute the most informative set. Then, use the kernel k-means clustering algorithm to filter the redundant samples and the resulting samples are queried for labels. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms several state-of-the-art active learning approaches.

  13. Establishing and maintaining a facility representative program at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this standard is to help ensure that DOE Facility Representatives are selected based on consistently high standards and from the best qualified candidates, that they receive the necessary training, and that their duties are well understood and documented. The standard defines the duties, responsibilities, and qualifications for Facility Representatives, based on facility hazard classification; risks to workers, the public, and the environment; and the operational activity level. Guidance provided includes: (1) an approach for determining the required facility coverage; (2) the duties, responsibilities, and authorities of a Facility Representative; (3) training and qualifications expected of a Facility Representative; and (4) elements necessary for successful Facility Representative Programs at DOE Field Offices. This guidance was written primarily to address nuclear facilities. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Antecedents and Consequences of Sales Representatives' Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    's customer portfolio, managers must not only provide a clear definition of the types of customers the organization does not want to serve, but must also implement termination routines within the organization. Managers also need to establish incentives for sales representatives to terminate relationships......Purpose: Most firms have a number of unprofitable customer relationships that drain the firms' resources. However, firms in general and sales representatives in particular hesitate to address this problem and, ultimately, to terminate business relationships. This paper therefore aims to investigate...... the antecedents and consequences of sales representatives' relationship termination competence. Design/methodology/approach: A model of antecedents of sales representatives' relationship termination competence is developed and tested using a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives...

  15. Adverse effects of the SSRI antidepressant sertraline on early life stages of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Canesi, Laura; Montagna, Michele; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Garaventa, Francesca

    2017-07-01

    Widespread contamination of coastal environments by emerging compounds includes low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. These pollutants are not currently incorporated in monitoring programs despite their effects on non-target organisms are very little documented. Among the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, sertraline (SRT) is one of the most prescribed globally. In this work, earlier life stages of Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to environmental concentrations of SRT in order to study both sub-lethal and lethal responses in 24/48 h-tests. Low concentrations of SRT altered significantly swimming behavior in A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis giving 48 h-EC 50 (μg/L) of 113.88 and 282.23, respectively whereas higher values were observed for mortality and immobilization. EC 50 embryotoxicity with M. galloprovincialis was 206.80 μg/L. This work add new data about SRT ecotoxicity on marine invertebrates and confirms the applicability of behavioral endpoints to evaluate the environmental impact of antidepressants in marine organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis using confectionary wastes for aquaculture feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Y. El-Kassas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microalga biomass production from confectionary effluent is a possible solution for the urgent need for a live food in aquaculture. Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was the dominant alga in effluent of “Biscomisr a confectionary factory”, in Alexandria–Egypt. Therefore, it was isolated from the effluent samples and used throughout the study. The cyanobacterium, A. platensis was grown on the effluent using 22 Central Composite Design (22 CCD. This work addresses the best effluent dilution (WC, % as well as sodium bicarbonate concentration (SBC on the alga growth and biochemical composition. Total protein, carbohydrate, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of the produced algal biomass were highly improved. The statistical analyses suggested that the main effect of (WC, % is significant negative influences on the algal contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (p > 0.01. Although it had a significant positive influence on chlorophyll (p > 0.01, no significant effect on algal β carotenes (p > 0.05 had been reported. The inter action effect of SBC together with WC, % exerted a significant negative influence on the algal proteins (p > 0.01 and no significant effect on the other responses (p > 0.05. The produced alga biomass was used for feeding the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis for further application in aquaculture. Growth rate, reproductive rate and fecundity attributes, fatty acid content of B. plicatilis were amended. The Pearson correlation test indicated that β carotenes displayed a highly positive significant correlation with the growth rate of B. plicatilis (r = 0.733, p < 0.01 and the carbohydrates showed significant positive correlations with Egg % (r = 0.657, p < 0.05.

  17. High School Students' perception of University Students as STEM representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    2012-01-01

    The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM educations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM st......’ potential identities. It shows that the students preferred STEM representatives resembled themselves in some aspects (primarily social and health aspects) and fit their perceptions of a typical person working in STEM in other aspects (knowledge seeking, hard-working etc.)....... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relationship to the subject area or the person representing it....... Some representatives transmit information and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...

  18. Representative breast size of reference female; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Kramer, R.; Williams, G.; Drexler, G.

    1982-01-01

    Cristy disagrees with Kramer and Drexler on the representative breast size of a reference adult female - and after reviewing the literature suggests a representative size of 190-200 ml for one breast in a young adult female. Kramer and Drexler reply that after carrying out a series of Monte Carlo calculations on a mathematical MIRD-5 phantom, exposed to external photon irradiation, to discover the influence of breast-size on dose equivalents to the breast a representative size of (260-270)cm 3 and weight of (250-265)gm per breast is more appropriate, taking all data into account. (U.K.)

  19. Assessing the population representativeness of colorectal cancer treatment clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe He; Zhiwei Chen; George, Thomas J; Lipori, Gloria; Bian

    2016-08-01

    The generalizability (external validity) of clinical trials has long been a concern for both clinical research community as well as the general public. Results of trials that do not represent the target population may not be applicable to the broader patient population. In this study, we used a previously published metric Generalizability Index for Study Traits (GIST) to assess the population representativeness of colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment trials. Our analysis showed that the quantitative eligibility criteria of CRC trials are in general not restrictive. However, the qualitative eligibility criteria in these trials are with moderate or strict restrictions, which may impact their population representativeness of the real-world patient population.

  20. Searches over graphs representing geospatial-temporal remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brost, Randolph; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying objects of interest in remote sensing images by searching over geospatial-temporal graph representations are described herein. Graphs are constructed by representing objects in remote sensing images as nodes, and connecting nodes with undirected edges representing either distance or adjacency relationships between objects and directed edges representing changes in time. Geospatial-temporal graph searches are made computationally efficient by taking advantage of characteristics of geospatial-temporal data in remote sensing images through the application of various graph search techniques.

  1. Allegheny County Pennsylvania House of Representatives District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the Pennsylvania House of Representatives district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western...

  2. Sample representativeness verification of the FADN CZ farm business sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample representativeness verification is one of the key stages of statistical work. After having joined the European Union the Czech Republic joined also the Farm Accountancy Data Network system of the Union. This is a sample of bodies and companies doing business in agriculture. Detailed production and economic data on the results of farming business are collected from that sample annually and results for the entire population of the country´s farms are then estimated and assessed. It is important hence, that the sample be representative. Representativeness is to be assessed as to the number of farms included in the survey and also as to the degree of accordance of the measures and indices as related to the population. The paper deals with the special statistical techniques and methods of the FADN CZ sample representativeness verification including the necessary sample size statement procedure. The Czech farm population data have been obtained from the Czech Statistical Office data bank.

  3. Microalbuminuria represents a feature of advanced renal disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The systematic screening for microalbuminuria represents the touchstone to prevent CRF in patients with diabetes mellitus. Microalbuminuria has also been demonstrated in patients with sickle cell disease. Whether this has the same ...

  4. A representative individual from Arrovian aggregation of parametric individual utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the representative-agent hypothesis for an infinite population which has to make a social choice from a given finite-dimensional space of alternatives. It is assumed that some class of admissible strictly concave utility functions is exogenously given and that each individual's preference ordering can be represented cardinally through some admissible utility function. In addition, we assume that (i) the class of admissible utility functions allows for a smooth parame...

  5. Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodecki, Pawel; Augusiak, Remigiusz

    2006-01-01

    It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on a distillable cryptographic key in a bipartite scenario

  6. Direct and Representative Democracy - Supplementing, not Excluding Each Other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

      This paper presents and discuses four main arguments for and against direct democracy, popular initiatives and referendums: (1) higher responsiveness versus lesser quality; (2) higher popular responsibility versus weaker representatives; (3) higher popular participation versus deeper conflicts......: and (4) more transparency and enlightened understanding versus less confidentiality. The arguments are discussed in relation to general political goals of good government such as legitimacy, efficiency and stability. The basic thesis of the paper is that direct and representative forms of democracy...

  7. Elections for staff representatives – Join, commit and vote!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Council is a statutory body representing collectively in the area of employment conditions all CERN staff members (MPE and MPA), as well as the pensioners, former Cernois. The Staff Council is the supreme representative body of the CERN staff and pensioners, which defines the main lines of the policy of the Staff Association. The Staff Council is composed of staff representatives (45 seats to represent staff members, and 5 for representing fellows and associate members), as well as delegates for pensioners (seven positions), designated by GAC-EPA. Every two years, the Council is renewed through elections. Concerning the 45 delegates representing staff members, all departments have a least two seats allocated, one in career paths AA to D and one in career paths E to H. This guarantees a fair distribution of seats among the various organizational units and career paths. The table below, shows the exact number of delegates per department and career paths. Staff members or fellows who want to participa...

  8. Representative oxygen dissociation curve and equation for the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R L; McDaniel, G R; Clark, C H

    1981-01-01

    Because of the considerable variability in the oxygen dissociation curves for chickens reported in the literature, the respiratory physiologist studying avian gas exchange is faced with the dilemma of which curve is representative for the chicken. In order to arrive at a representative curve, data from eight reported curves were compiled and adjusted to the same set of standard conditions of temperature (T), pH, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2): T = 42 C, pH = 7.5 PCO2 = 40 torr. The mean PO2 STD (mean +/- SD) versus percent saturation of hemoglobin curve was then determined. The mean data were fitted to an equation representing the oxygen dissociation curve so that for any selected partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) the percent saturation (%SAT) of oxyhemoglobin may be computed. The P50 values for the mean literature and equation curves, respectively, were 47.4 +/- 9.8 and 45.3 Torr. The mean curve with its standard deviations provides a chicken oxygen dissociation curve representative of the literature data to which experimental data may be compared. The equation for the curve enables rapid referral to the representative curve to compute the %SAT, given the PO2 adjusted to the standard conditions.

  9. Selection of Representative Models for Decision Analysis Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Luis A. A.; Coelho, Guilherme P.; Santos, Antonio Alberto S.; Schiozer, Denis J.

    2016-03-01

    The decision-making process in oil fields includes a step of risk analysis associated with the uncertainties present in the variables of the problem. Such uncertainties lead to hundreds, even thousands, of possible scenarios that are supposed to be analyzed so an effective production strategy can be selected. Given this high number of scenarios, a technique to reduce this set to a smaller, feasible subset of representative scenarios is imperative. The selected scenarios must be representative of the original set and also free of optimistic and pessimistic bias. This paper is devoted to propose an assisted methodology to identify representative models in oil fields. To do so, first a mathematical function was developed to model the representativeness of a subset of models with respect to the full set that characterizes the problem. Then, an optimization tool was implemented to identify the representative models of any problem, considering not only the cross-plots of the main output variables, but also the risk curves and the probability distribution of the attribute-levels of the problem. The proposed technique was applied to two benchmark cases and the results, evaluated by experts in the field, indicate that the obtained solutions are richer than those identified by previously adopted manual approaches. The program bytecode is available under request.

  10. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The diversity of Indian Brachionidae (Rotifera: Eurotatoria: Monogononta and their distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Sharma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate diversity status of the Brachionidae of India and present an annotated checklist of 46 species excluding dubious and unconfirmed reports. These merit biodiversity value as ~27% of the global diversity of the taxon and ~81% of its Oriental species. We observed two Australasian elements, two Oriental endemics, one Indian endemic, one paleotropical and one cosmo (sub tropical species. The cold-water Keratella serrulata and Notholca squamula are new records from eastern Himalayas. Maximum brachionid diversity (32 species from Assam state of northeast India (NEI is followed by the reports of 27 and 26 species from Tamil Nadu and West Bengal, respectively; 25 species each from Tripura and Maharashtra; and 24 species from Jammu & Kashmir. Brachionus, the most diverse brachionid genus, is widely distributed in India with low richness in hill states of NEI and coastal waters in particular. The Indian brachionid taxonomy is confounded with unconfirmed reports, misidentifications, invalid taxa, and inconsistent treatment of morphological variants, while analysis of cryptic diversity in Brachionus calyciflorus, B. caudatus, B. forficula, B. plicatilis, B. quadridentatus, B. urceolaris, Keratella cochlearis and K. quadrata species-groups awaits attention.

  12. Aphasia diagrams: a new notational scheme for representing neurolinguistic deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, C; Bub, D

    1998-01-01

    Models of language processing are becoming extremely complex. As a result, it has become very difficult to develop a thorough understanding of even a single patient's deficits, let alone to represent those deficits in a way which renders their significance apparent to others. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the use of a notational system which has been developed specifically for representing the complexities of neurolinguistic deficits. The notational system is simple to learn and to use and may easily be extended and adapted to different models of language processing. It may also be used to represent the results from other nonlinguistic neuropsychological batteries which are composed of tightly interdependent subtests with many related factors included in each subtest. Despite its simplicity, the notational system has proven itself in the field as a useful tool for rendering complex deficits more easily interpretable.

  13. Assessing Use of Cognitive Heuristic Representativeness in Clinical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as causal beliefs. Results show that subjects apply both aspects of the heuristic during reasoning, and make errors related to misapplication of these heuristics. Subjects in this study rarely used base rates, showed significant variability in their recall of base rates, demonstrated limited ability to use provided base rates, and favored causal data in diagnosis. We conclude that the tasks and assessments we have developed provide a suitable test-bed to study the cognitive processes underlying heuristic errors. PMID:18999140

  14. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."

  15. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  16. Multivariate analysis of the population representativeness of related clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Ryan, Patrick; Hoxha, Julia; Wang, Shuang; Carini, Simona; Sim, Ida; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    To develop a multivariate method for quantifying the population representativeness across related clinical studies and a computational method for identifying and characterizing underrepresented subgroups in clinical studies. We extended a published metric named Generalizability Index for Study Traits (GIST) to include multiple study traits for quantifying the population representativeness of a set of related studies by assuming the independence and equal importance among all study traits. On this basis, we compared the effectiveness of GIST and multivariate GIST (mGIST) qualitatively. We further developed an algorithm called "Multivariate Underrepresented Subgroup Identification" (MAGIC) for constructing optimal combinations of distinct value intervals of multiple traits to define underrepresented subgroups in a set of related studies. Using Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as an example, we identified and extracted frequently used quantitative eligibility criteria variables in a set of clinical studies. We profiled the T2DM target population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. According to the mGIST scores for four example variables, i.e., age, HbA1c, BMI, and gender, the included observational T2DM studies had superior population representativeness than the interventional T2DM studies. For the interventional T2DM studies, Phase I trials had better population representativeness than Phase III trials. People at least 65years old with HbA1c value between 5.7% and 7.2% were particularly underrepresented in the included T2DM trials. These results confirmed well-known knowledge and demonstrated the effectiveness of our methods in population representativeness assessment. mGIST is effective at quantifying population representativeness of related clinical studies using multiple numeric study traits. MAGIC identifies underrepresented subgroups in clinical studies. Both data-driven methods can be used to improve the transparency of

  17. Representing User Navigation in XML Retrieval with Structural Summaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, M. S.; Consens, Mariano P.; Larsen, Birger

    This poster presents a novel way to represent user navigation in XML retrieval using collection statistics from XML summaries. Currently, developing user navigation models in XML retrieval is costly and the models are specific to collected user assessments. We address this problem by proposing...... summary navigation models which describe user navigation in terms of XML summaries. We develop our proposal using assessments collected in the interactive track at INEX 2006. Our preliminary results suggest that summary navigation models can represent user navigation in a way that is e ective...

  18. Medical marijuana: time to contact your U.S. representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-04-03

    Advocates for legalizing marijuana for medicinal use are encouraged to contact their U.S. representatives. The first congressional vote on medicinal use of marijuana, House Resolution 372 (the anti-medicinal-marijuana resolution), takes place on April 21. H. Res. 372 states that marijuana is a dangerous and addictive drug. Nine Democrats on the House Judiciary Committee strongly disagreed with the statement and supported State initiatives to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. The Marijuana Policy Project offers a script to use when contacting representatives. Contact information is provided.

  19. A geometric language for representing structure in polyphonic music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, Deutsch and Feroe proposed a formal language for representing melodic pitch structure that employed the powerful concept of hierarchically-related pitch alphabets. However, neither rhythmic structure nor pitch structure in polyphonic music can be adequately represented using this language....... A new language is proposed here that incorporates certain features of Deutsch and Feroe’s model but extends and generalises it to allow for the representation of both rhythm and pitch structure in polyphonic music. The new language adopts a geometric approach in which a passage of polyphonic music...

  20. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...... members? The substantive point of the paper is to assess whether the representativeness of party membership changes over time. The methodological point of the paper is to show whether party member surveys are of added value when compared to citizen surveys when assessing the character of party membership...

  1. Identifying and Representing Elements of Local Contexts in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Løvborg Jensen, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    disconnection of community members with both abstract and absolute representations of points, paths and areas. From this we discuss how the local concepts of space and time as frames of reference can not be represented adequately with our current selection of contextual data, and how we are engaging...

  2. 'To Think Representatively': Arendt on Judgment and the Imagination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the standpoint of the spectator, I go on to examine their most distinctive features, in particular, the link between judgment, the imagination, and the ability to think 'representatively'. I also examine the philosophical sources of Arendt's theory of judgment, namely, Kant's theory of aesthetic judgment and its criteria of validity.

  3. Do sawfish Pristis spp. represent South Africa's first local extirpation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do sawfish Pristis spp. represent South Africa's first local extirpation of marine elasmobranchs in the modern era? ... African Journal of Marine Science ... This paper traces the decline in sawfish catches from 1951 and assesses the current population status and local extinction risk, based on historical and current records up ...

  4. 29 CFR 1904.40 - Providing records to government representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under part 1904, you must provide copies of the records within four (4) business hours. (b) Implementation—(1) What government representatives have the right to get copies of my part 1904 records? The... responsible for administering a State plan approved under section 18 of the Act. (2) Do I have to produce the...

  5. Church representatives' perspectives on masculinities in the context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite a growing body of literature related to church leaders challenging dominant norms of masculinities that may enable the spread of HIV, research on masculinity issues among African church representatives who are policy makers is scarce. The objectives of this study were to explore the perspectives on masculinities ...

  6. Reaching a Representative Sample of College Students: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of a random-digit dial (RDD) cellular phone survey in order to reach a national and representative sample of college students. Methods: Demographic distributions from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS) were benchmarked against enrollment numbers from the Integrated Postsecondary Education…

  7. Comparing German and Danish employee representatives on European Works Councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bicknell, Helen; Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the links and possible‘fit’ between German and Danish representation structures and trade union policies on the one hand, and the views and activities of European Works Council (EWC) representatives from the two countries on the other. Which similarities or difference...

  8. Representing nature : Late twentieth century green infrastructures in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, J.R.T.; De Wit, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    The appreciation of green infrastructures as ‘nature’ by urban communities presents a critical challenge for the green infrastructure concept. While many green infrastructures focus on functional considerations, their refinement as places where concepts of nature are represented and where nature can

  9. 26 CFR 31.3211-3 - Employee representative supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative supplemental tax. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employee...

  10. Crime’s face: Imagining and representing kleptomania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, W.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Marlene Dumas is regarded as one of the most important international painters of this time. In this article, an analysis is made of what her painting The Kleptomaniac (2005) and, in particular, what its title represents. Drawing upon art history, I begin by looking at the original Portrait of a

  11. A Balanced and Representative Corpus: The Effects of Strict Corpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theoretically the Northern Sotho language is made up of almost 30 dialects while practically it is not so, because the standard language was formed from very few of its dialects. As a result, even today the language has no corpus which is balanced or representative owing to the fact that almost all of the available corpora ...

  12. Professional Human Service Occupation Biases Represented in General Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Johnson, Erica J.; Wikler, Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    We examined the coverage given by General Psychology textbooks, representing 8 major commercial publishers, regarding the professions of psychology, counseling, marriage & family therapy, and social workers. Of the 24 textbooks assessed, we found substantial bias favoring the coverage of psychology. While 25% of the texts mentioned social workers,…

  13. Education and support for representative, direct and stealth democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde; Michels, Ank

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected within the scope of a Dutch internet panel survey (LISS) in 2011, this study tracks public support for direct, stealth and representative democracy according to educational level. Our findings indicate that, in terms of overall support for each specific type of democracy, lower

  14. Depression and Suicidality among Bisexual Youth: A Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Gloppen, Kari M.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2018-01-01

    To address gaps in the literature on bisexual youth, we used the first nationally representative sample of high school students from the United States to determine profiles of behaviors related to depressive symptoms, a suicide attempt, and a medically-serious attempt. We examined the data from 922 bisexual students in grades 9-12 who completed…

  15. Learning, Labour and Union Learning Representatives: Promoting Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The initiative by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and affiliated trade unions in the UK to appoint trade union learning representatives (ULRs), to promote learning among their members, is a significant development in adult learning. Understandably, the initiative has attracted the attention of academic researchers, but primarily from the…

  16. Cephalopods represented by beaks in the stomach of a sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 3 000 cephalopod beaks taken from the stomach of a sperm whale stranded at Paekakariki, North Island, New Zealand, were identified to species and measured; estimates were made of the masses and standard lengths of the cephalopods represented. In all, 24 species of cephalopod in 13 families were ...

  17. Wabbes and the Milan Triennales: Representing the Belgian Nation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floré, F.M.W.; Ferran-Wabbes, Marie; Strauven, Iwan

    2012-01-01

    The work of the Brussels based furniture designer and interior architect Jules Wabbes played a significant role in the Belgian section of two successive Milan Triennials, that of 1957 and 1960. His sophisticated modern furniture and lightning designs were well qualified to represent the nation.

  18. Quantitative radiomic profiling of glioblastoma represents transcriptomic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Doo-Sik; Kim, Junhyung; Ryu, Gyuha; You, Hye-Jin; Sung, Joon Kyung; Han, Yong Hee; Shin, Hye-Mi; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Sung-Tae; Park, Chul-Kee; Choi, Seung Hong; Choi, Jeong Won; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2018-01-19

    Quantitative imaging biomarkers have increasingly emerged in the field of research utilizing available imaging modalities. We aimed to identify good surrogate radiomic features that can represent genetic changes of tumors, thereby establishing noninvasive means for predicting treatment outcome. From May 2012 to June 2014, we retrospectively identified 65 patients with treatment-naïve glioblastoma with available clinical information from the Samsung Medical Center data registry. Preoperative MR imaging data were obtained for all 65 patients with primary glioblastoma. A total of 82 imaging features including first-order statistics, volume, and size features, were semi-automatically extracted from structural and physiologic images such as apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion images. Using commercially available software, NordicICE, we performed quantitative imaging analysis and collected the dataset composed of radiophenotypic parameters. Unsupervised clustering methods revealed that the radiophenotypic dataset was composed of three clusters. Each cluster represented a distinct molecular classification of glioblastoma; classical type, proneural and neural types, and mesenchymal type. These clusters also reflected differential clinical outcomes. We found that extracted imaging signatures does not represent copy number variation and somatic mutation. Quantitative radiomic features provide a potential evidence to predict molecular phenotype and treatment outcome. Radiomic profiles represents transcriptomic phenotypes more well.

  19. Representing Mental Spaces and Dynamics of Natural Language Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Golshaie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Building systems with the robustness of human reasoning capabilities requires inspirations from cognitive science.  The primary objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of representing some basic principles of cognitive semantics’ Mental Spaces Theory such as domain construction, reality status of domains and their elements, and mental attitudes in a knowledge representation framework for the purpose of developing cognitively plausible knowledge representation systems. The model used as the basis of representation is the extended version of conventional semantic networks, namely Multi-Layered Extended Semantic Networks (MultiNet. The data used in this study have been selected from English expressions and have been represented in MWR, MultiNet’s knowledge representation software. Results obtained from analysis of represented data and their comparison to principles of mental spaces theory shows that theoretical constructs of mental spaces theory such as domain construction, reality status of domains and their elements, and mental attitudes can be formally represented in the MultiNet framework.

  20. total mercury distribution in different fish species representing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of total mercury (Hg) were measured in the edible muscle tissues of different fish species representing different trophic levels from the Atlantic Coast of Ghana using Cold. Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CVAAS). Mercury concentrations were gener- ally found to increase with ...

  1. Communication received from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the communication received by the Director General from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil to the Agency to inform him about the official inauguration on 9 December 1992 of the headquarters of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) in Rio de Janeiro

  2. Using fuzzy cognitive maps in modelling and representing weather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterization of visual sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars, rainbow, etc) in forecasting weather is a significant subject of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to represent and scientifically substantiate weather lore.

  3. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...

  4. 78 FR 66973 - Submission for Review: Representative Payee Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... information collection to the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Retirement Services, Union Square Room 370... Personnel Management. Elaine Kaplan, Acting Director. BILLING CODE 6325-38-P ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Representative Payee Survey AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management...

  5. Under-Representation in Nationally Representative Secondary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Karen; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the use of secondary data sets. Many such data sets purport to be nationally representative. Secondary data sets include research commissioned by the National Center for Education Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control, and other public entities. Research increasingly utilizes these secondary data in…

  6. Changes in faunal assemblages over time represented in rock art ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changes in faunal assemblages over time represented in rock art, can be distinguished by relative dating techniques. For example in Sahara Tassili region earliest paintings portray wild animals not found in the region today. Later art features domestic cattle reflecting the arrival of pastoralists in the area around 6000 B.P. ...

  7. The Mediation of Representative Council of Learners Policy in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Western Cape schools, from 1997 to 2003, using the structure, symbolic, human resource and political frames of Bolman and Deal (1997) as the basis of the investigation. The investigation produced diverse research findings. At the one end there were a majority of representative councils of learners that received the full ...

  8. Union Learning Representatives: Facilitating Professional Development for Scottish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Alex; O'Brien, Jim

    2007-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, teachers' professional associations and labor organizations, notably in the form of trade unions have historically been involved in education and training in the workplace. Recently, in the United Kingdom this activity has gained greater credence and importance due to the emergence of trade union learning representatives who…

  9. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  10. In search of more representative cervical cytology | Brink | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an effort to secure more representative smears a preliminary prospective study was conducted to ascertain the value of a variety of devices (Ayre wooden spatula, saline-soaked cotton-wool swab, Cytobrush). Initially these devices were employed by one specific clinician and subsequently by a variety of medical ...

  11. 40 CFR 197.31 - What is a representative volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supply a given water demand. The DOE must project the concentration of radionuclides released from the... Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Ground Water Protection Standards § 197.31 What is a representative volume? (a) It is the volume of ground water that would be withdrawn annually from...

  12. 28 CFR 32.7 - Fees for representative services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE BENEFIT CLAIMS General Provisions § 32.7 Fees for representative services. (a) A person... with the filing of the petition, with— (i) A copy of the petition; and (ii) A letter advising the... days of the date of that letter; and (7) A copy of the letter described in paragraph (a)(6)(ii) of this...

  13. Understanding and Representing Changing Work Structures and Practices through Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Organizational Communication, Advanced Organizational Communication, Organizing Work, Management/Organizational History. Objectives: This activity will help students to understand major shifts in the organization of work and creatively represent changing work structures and practices. An optional follow-up assignment is included. A…

  14. Challenges to issues of balance and representativeness in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These issues include a lack of texts of different genres, the unavailability of balanced and representative written texts, a complete absence of spoken texts as well as literacy problems in African societies. This article therefore explores the different challenges to the construction of reliable corpora in African languages.

  15. Re-Presenting Self: Reading Some Van Kalker Studio Photographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It eroded the dignity of blacks by presenting them in public media as being inferior, poor and violent. Nonetheless, photography has equally been appropriated by the people to project their dignity in contrast to the images widely represented. These photographs of how the indigenes saw themselves were often kept in ...

  16. Global representatives flock to Stellenbosch for 3rd student affairs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global representatives flock to Stellenbosch for 3rd student affairs global summit. Thierry M. Luescher. Abstract. Media release, Division of Corporate Communication, Stellenbosch University, 28 October 2016. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. The role of a representative reinsurer in optimal reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, T.J.; Tan, K.S.; Zhuang, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a one-period optimal reinsurance design model with nn reinsurers and an insurer. For very general preferences of the insurer and that all reinsurers use a distortion premium principle, we establish the existence of a representative reinsurer and this in turn facilitates

  18. An affordable proxy of representative national survey on radon concentration in dwellings: Design, organisation and preliminary evaluation of representativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antignani, Sara; Carelli, Vinicio; Cordedda, Carlo; Zonno, Fedele; Ampollini, Marco; Carpentieri, Carmela; Venoso, Gennaro; Bochicchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Representative national surveys in dwellings are important to unbiasedly evaluate the exposure of the general population to radon. In Italy, a representative national survey was conducted from 1989 to 1996, which involved about 5600 dwellings in 232 towns. Later on, some Regions carried out more detailed surveys, but a new national survey in dwellings is necessary in order to obtain a more thorough estimate of radon concentration distribution over the Italian territory. The need to make this survey in an affordable way led to implement a new approach based on the collaboration between the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and a national company with workplaces and employees' homes throughout the country. The intent is to carry out a proxy of a population representative survey by measuring radon concentration in the homes of a random sample of the company employees. The realisation of this survey was affordable, thanks to the availability of corporate e-mail for each employee, intranet service, and company internal mail service. A dedicated web procedure and e-questionnaires allowed to automatically manage the contact with employees and to collect their data, which were both cost- and time-saving. Using this e-mail contact approach, 53% of contacted employees consented to participate in the survey. Radon concentration passive measuring devices were distributed to about 7000 dwellings, using about 14000 CR-39 detectors (two measured rooms per dwelling). In order to reduce costs, the devices were exposed for 12 months instead of two consecutive 6-month periods (as with the former national survey). A first checking of the actual representativeness of the sample was done by comparing characteristics of dwellings and occupants in the sample with corresponding data from the latest National Census. This was accomplished thanks to the fact that the questions in the survey questionnaire were tailored to the categories adopted for the Census questionnaire. A preliminary

  19. Sexual desire in a nationally representative Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene; Giraldi, Annamaria; Davidsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are only a few studies on the frequency of sexual desire in the general population, whereas studies investigating the frequency of disordered sexual desire are more common. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of sexual desire in a representative sample...... of the adult Danish population and to analyze the relationships between a number of relevant variables and sexual desire. METHODS: The study population (N = 10,458, response rate 84.8%) answered a questionnaire with questions on sexual matters. The representativity of the population was examined. The frequency...... of self-reported sexual desire and decrease in sexual desire over a 5-year period was calculated for the two genders across age cohorts. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between potential determinants and sexual desire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequency of self...

  20. Moral Severity is Represented as a Domain-General Magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Derek; Horne, Zachary

    2017-03-01

    The severity of moral violations can vary by degree. For instance, although both are immoral, murder is a more severe violation than lying. Though this point is well established in Ethics and the law, relatively little research has been directed at examining how moral severity is represented psychologically. Most prominent moral psychological theories are aimed at explaining first-order moral judgments and are silent on second-order metaethical judgments, such as comparisons of severity. Here, the relative severity of 20 moral violations was established in a preliminary study. Then, a second group of participants were asked to decide which of two moral violations was more severe for all possible combinations of these 20 violations. Participant's response times exhibited two signatures of domain-general magnitude comparisons: we observed both a distance effect and a semantic congruity effect. These findings suggest that moral severity is represented in a similar fashion as other continuous magnitudes.

  1. Representing cognitive activities and errors in HRA trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    A graphic representation method is presented herein for adapting an existing technology--human reliability analysis (HRA) event trees, used to support event sequence logic structures and calculations--to include a representation of the underlying cognitive activity and corresponding errors associated with human performance. The analyst is presented with three potential means of representing human activity: the NUREG/CR-1278 HRA event tree approach; the skill-, rule- and knowledge-based paradigm; and the slips, lapses, and mistakes paradigm. The above approaches for representing human activity are integrated in order to produce an enriched HRA event tree -- the cognitive event tree system (COGENT)-- which, in turn, can be used to increase the analyst's understanding of the basic behavioral mechanisms underlying human error and the representation of that error in probabilistic risk assessment. Issues pertaining to the implementation of COGENT are also discussed

  2. Representing cognitive activities and errors in HRA trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    A graphic representation method is presented herein for adapting an existing technology--human reliability analysis (HRA) event trees, used to support event sequence logic structures and calculations--to include a representation of the underlying cognitive activity and corresponding errors associated with human performance. The analyst is presented with three potential means of representing human activity: the NUREG/CR-1278 HRA event tree approach; the skill-, rule- and knowledge-based paradigm; and the slips, lapses, and mistakes paradigm. The above approaches for representing human activity are integrated in order to produce an enriched HRA event tree -- the cognitive event tree system (COGENT)-- which, in turn, can be used to increase the analyst's understanding of the basic behavioral mechanisms underlying human error and the representation of that error in probabilistic risk assessment. Issues pertaining to the implementation of COGENT are also discussed.

  3. Representing cognitive activities and errors in HRA trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1992-05-01

    A graphic representation method is presented herein for adapting an existing technology--human reliability analysis (HRA) event trees, used to support event sequence logic structures and calculations--to include a representation of the underlying cognitive activity and corresponding errors associated with human performance. The analyst is presented with three potential means of representing human activity: the NUREG/CR-1278 HRA event tree approach; the skill-, rule- and knowledge-based paradigm; and the slips, lapses, and mistakes paradigm. The above approaches for representing human activity are integrated in order to produce an enriched HRA event tree -- the cognitive event tree system (COGENT)-- which, in turn, can be used to increase the analyst`s understanding of the basic behavioral mechanisms underlying human error and the representation of that error in probabilistic risk assessment. Issues pertaining to the implementation of COGENT are also discussed.

  4. Representing the environment 3.0. Maps, models, networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bollini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Web 3.0 is changing the world we live and perceive the environment anthropomorphized, making a stratifation of levels of experience and mediated by the devices. If the urban landscape is designed, shaped and planned space, there is a social landscape that overwrite the territory of values, representations shared images, narratives of personal and collective history. Mobile technology introduces an additional parameter, a kind of non-place, which allows the coexistence of the here and elsewhere in an sort of digital landscape. The maps, mental models, the system of social networks become, then, the way to present, represented and represent themselves in a kind of ideal coring of the co-presence of levels of physical, cognitive and collective space.

  5. Effective Presentation Speech Support System for Representing Emphasis-Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kojiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A research presentation integrates slides and speech. If these two aspects do not represent the same intention, the presentation will probably fail to effectively explain the presenter’s intention. This paper focuses on the representation of the critical contents in a presentation. In an effective speech, the speaker adds more intonation and stress to emphasize the importance of the slide contents. Audiences recognize that important contents are those that are explained in a stronger voice or that are said after a short pause. However, in ineffective speeches, such voice effects do not always correspond to the important contents that are indicated by slides. On slides, the important contents are represented by levels of text indentation and size, color, and animation. This research develops a presentation speech support system that estimates important contents from slides and voices that might be recognized by audiences and extracts numerical differences. In addition, the system provides comments and feedback to improve speeches.

  6. Are there martial art styles that represent natural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim T. Haug

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For didactics, systematically structured teaching contents are desirable, and natural systems would be most comprehensible. We tested whether serrada-escrima styles (SES, a type of Filipino martial arts, represent a natural system. Natural systems are considered to have an inner coherence. This means that based on some elements of the system the other elements can be predicted, based on knowledge of the characteristics of the elements of the system. SES is a good candidate to test this hypothesis, as it embraces only a relatively small set of techniques. It appears that SES indeed represents a natural, coherent system with 12 elements that can be grouped into three also coherent sets, each with four techniques. One basic pre-assumption is necessary to make SES a natural system; this pre-assumption is derived from knowledge of medieval European sword fighting, more precisely Messerfechten. We furthermore discuss indications for the historic background of SES.

  7. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  8. Patient representatives' views on patient information in clinical cancer trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina

    2016-01-01

    responses. Subthemes related to the former included individual preferences and perceptions of effect, while subthemes related to the latter were comprehensibility and layout. Based on these observations the patient representatives provided suggestions for improvement, which largely included development......BACKGROUND: Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed...... consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives' views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. METHODS: Written patient information leaflets used in four clinical trials for colorectal cancer were used for the study. The trials included phase I...

  9. Processes, data structures, and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA; Thomson, Judi R [Guelph, CA; Harvey, William J [Richland, WA; Paulson, Patrick R [Pasco, WA; Whiting, Mark A [Richland, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Chappell, Alan R [Seattle, WA; Butner, R Scott [Richland, WA

    2011-09-20

    Processes, data structures, and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  10. Representing climate change on public service television: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrett, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Publicly funded broadcasters with a track record in science programming would appear ideally placed to represent climate change to the lay public. Free from the constraints of vested interests and the economic imperative, public service providers are better equipped to represent the scientific, social and economic aspects of climate change than commercial media, where ownership conglomeration, corporate lobbyists and online competition have driven increasingly tabloid coverage with an emphasis on controversy. This prime-time snapshot of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's main television channel explores how the structural/rhetorical conventions of three established public service genres - a science programme, a documentary and a live public affairs talk show - impact on the representation of anthropogenic climate change. The study findings note implications for public trust, and discuss possibilities for innovation in the interests of better public understanding of climate change.

  11. Representing Scientific Communities by Data Visualization (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    These lectures present a research that investigates the representation of communities, and the way to foster their understanding by different audiences. Communities are complex multidimensional entities intrinsically difficult to represent synthetically. The way to represent them is likely to differ depending on the audience considered: governing entities trying to make decision for the future of the community, general public trying to understand the nature of the community and the members of the community themselves. This work considers two types of communities as example: a scientific organization and an arising domain: the EPFL institutional community composed of faculty members and researchers and, at a world wide level, the emerging community of Digital Humanities researchers. For both cases, the research is organised as a process going from graphical research to actual materialization as physical artefacts (posters, maps, etc.), possibly extended using digital devices (augmented reality applications). T...

  12. Representing electrons a biographical approach to theoretical entities

    CERN Document Server

    Arabatzis, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Both a history and a metahistory, Representing Electrons focuses on the development of various theoretical representations of electrons from the late 1890s to 1925 and the methodological problems associated with writing about unobservable scientific entities. Using the electron-or rather its representation-as a historical actor, Theodore Arabatzis illustrates the emergence and gradual consolidation of its representation in physics, its career throughout old quantum theory, and its appropriation and reinterpretation by chemists. As Arabatzis develops this novel biographical

  13. Representative landscapes in the forested area of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardille, Jeffrey A; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Mike A; Holland, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Canada is a large nation with forested ecosystems that occupy over 60% of the national land base, and knowledge of the patterns of Canada's land cover is important to proper environmental management of this vast resource. To this end, a circa 2000 Landsat-derived land cover map of the forested ecosystems of Canada has created a new window into understanding the composition and configuration of land cover patterns in forested Canada. Strategies for summarizing such large expanses of land cover are increasingly important, as land managers work to study and preserve distinctive areas, as well as to identify representative examples of current land-cover and land-use assemblages. Meanwhile, the development of extremely efficient clustering algorithms has become increasingly important in the world of computer science, in which billions of pieces of information on the internet are continually sifted for meaning for a vast variety of applications. One recently developed clustering algorithm quickly groups large numbers of items of any type in a given data set while simultaneously selecting a representative-or "exemplar"-from each cluster. In this context, the availability of both advanced data processing methods and a nationally available set of landscape metrics presents an opportunity to identify sets of representative landscapes to better understand landscape pattern, variation, and distribution across the forested area of Canada. In this research, we first identify and provide context for a small, interpretable set of exemplar landscapes that objectively represent land cover in each of Canada's ten forested ecozones. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be used to identify flagship and satellite long-term study areas inside and outside protected areas in the province of Ontario. These applications aid our understanding of Canada's forest while augmenting its management toolbox, and may signal a broad range of applications for this versatile approach.

  14. Recovering a Representative Conformational Ensemble from Underdetermined Macromolecular Structural Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Konstantin; Castañeda, Carlos A.; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Sali, Andrej; Nava-Tudela, Alfredo; Fushman, David

    2013-01-01

    Structural analysis of proteins and nucleic acids is complicated by their inherent flexibility, conferred, for example, by linkers between their contiguous domains. Therefore, the macromolecule needs to be represented by an ensemble of conformations instead of a single conformation. Determining this ensemble is challenging because the experimental data are a convoluted average of contributions from multiple conformations. As the number of the ensemble degrees of freedom generally greatly exceeds the number of independent observables, directly deconvolving experimental data into a representative ensemble is an ill-posed problem. Recent developments in sparse approximations and compressive sensing have demonstrated that useful information can be recovered from underdetermined (ill-posed) systems of linear equations by using sparsity regularization. Inspired by these advances, we designed Sparse Ensemble Selection (SES) method for recovering multiple conformations from a limited number of observations. SES is more general and accurate than previously published minimum-ensemble methods, and we use it to obtain representative conformational ensembles of Lys48-linked di-ubiquitin, characterized by the residual dipolar coupling data measured at several pH conditions. These representative ensembles are validated against NMR chemical shift perturbation data and compared to maximum-entropy results. The SES method reproduced and quantified the previously observed pH dependence of the major conformation of Lys48-linked di-ubiquitin, and revealed lesser-populated conformations that are pre-organized for binding known di-ubiquitin receptors, thus providing insights into possible mechanisms of receptor recognition by polyubiquitin. SES is applicable to any experimental observables that can be expressed as a weighted linear combination of data for individual states. PMID:24093873

  15. Effective Presentation Speech Support System for Representing Emphasis-Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoko Kojiri; Takaya Kaji

    2015-01-01

    A research presentation integrates slides and speech. If these two aspects do not represent the same intention, the presentation will probably fail to effectively explain the presenter’s intention. This paper focuses on the representation of the critical contents in a presentation. In an effective speech, the speaker adds more intonation and stress to emphasize the importance of the slide contents. Audiences recognize that important contents are those that are explained in a stronger voice or...

  16. Representing value judgements in the evaluation options for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.

    1985-08-01

    In this report we show how the concept of Best Practical Environmental Option for nuclear waste management may be articulated using the methods of Multi-attribute Value Analysis. The concept of characteristic weights is introduced to represent differences of opinion on the relative importance of different factors that may reasonably be held, and show how these may be used to summarise information for decision-makers in a concise way. (author)

  17. Representativeness of enrollment into a perinatal research repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorehead, Pamela A; Klebanoff, Mark; Nelin, Leif D; Oza-Frank, Reena

    2015-07-01

    To describe enrollment and compare demographic and clinical characteristics of neonates enrolled in the perinatal research repository (PRR) with eligible, but non-enrolled neonates. Characteristics from enrolled infants were compared with eligible, but non-enrolled infants using t-tests, Wilcoxon rank tests and χ(2) tests. Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2011, 622 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), born repository can enroll a sufficiently representative sample of eligible patients.

  18. Photo-geomorphologic study of representative islands of Lakshadweep

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Kunte, P.D.

    -1 Photo-Geomorphologic Study of Representative Islands of Lakshadweep B. G. Wagle and Pravin D. Kunte National Institute of Oceanography. Dona Paula. Goa - 403 004. ABSTRACT The Lakshadweep group of islands is scattered in the Arabian Sea about 200... of Lakshadweep is 32 km2. Though several researchers have con- centrated on corals and other kinds of bio- logical studies, very limited work has been reported on the geomorphological aspects of these islands. A few studies carried out are topographic...

  19. Representing Simple Geometry Types in NetCDF-CF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Koziol, B. W.; Whiteaker, T. L.; Simons, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention is well-suited for representing gridded and point-based observational datasets. However, CF currently has no accepted mechanism for representing simple geometry types such as lines and polygons. Lack of support for simple geometries within CF has unintentionally excluded a broad set of geoscientific data types from NetCDF-CF data encodings. For example, hydrologic datasets often contain polygon watershed catchments and polyline stream reaches in addition to point sampling stations and water management infrastructure. The latter has an associated CF specification. In the interest of supporting all simple geometry types within CF, a working group was formed following an EarthCube workshop on Advancing NetCDF-CF [1] to draft a CF specification for simple geometries: points, lines, polygons, and their associated multi-geometry representations [2]. The draft also includes parametric geometry types such as circles and ellipses. This presentation will provide an overview of the scope and content of the proposed specification focusing on mechanisms for representing coordinate arrays using variable length or continuous ragged arrays, capturing multi-geometries, and accounting for type-specific geometry artifacts such as polygon holes/interiors, node ordering, etc. The concepts contained in the specification proposal will be described with a use case representing streamflow in rivers and evapotranspiration from HUC12 watersheds. We will also introduce Python and R reference implementations developed alongside the technical specification. These in-development, open source Python and R libraries convert between commonly used GIS software objects (i.e. GEOS-based primitives) and their associated simple geometry CF representation. [1] http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/events/2016CFWorkshop/[2] https://github.com/bekozi/netCDF-CF-simple-geometry

  20. Representing thoughts, words, and things in the UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K E; Oliver, D E; Spackman, K A; Shortliffe, E H

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe a framework, based on the Ogden-Richards semiotic triangle, for understanding the relationship between the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and the source terminologies from which the UMLS derives its content. They pay particular attention to UMLS's Concept Unique Identifier (CUI) and the sense of "meaning" it represents as contrasted with the sense of "meaning" represented by the source terminologies. The CUI takes on emergent meaning through linkage to terms in different terminology systems. In some cases, a CUI's emergent meaning can differ significantly from the original sources' intended meanings of terms linked by that CUI. Identification of these different senses of meaning within the UMLS is consistent with historical themes of semantic interpretation of language. Examination of the UMLS within such a historical framework makes it possible to better understand the strengths and limitations of the UMLS approach for integrating disparate terminologic systems and to provide a model, or theoretic foundation, for evaluating the UMLS as a Possible World--that is, as a mathematical formalism that represents propositions about some perspective or interpretation of the physical world.

  1. Representativeness of wind measurements in moderately complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bossche, Michael; De Wekker, Stephan F. J.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the representativeness of 10-m wind measurements in a 4 km × 2 km area of modest relief by comparing observations at a central site with those at four satellite sites located in the same area. Using a combination of established and new methods to quantify and visualize representativeness, we found significant differences in wind speed and direction between the four satellite sites and the central site. The representativeness of the central site wind measurements depended strongly on surface wind speed and direction, and atmospheric stability. Through closer inspection of the observations at one of the satellite sites, we concluded that terrain-forced flows combined with thermally driven downslope winds caused large biases in wind direction and speed. We used these biases to generate a basic model, showing that terrain-related differences in wind observations can to a large extent be predicted. Such a model is a cost-effective way to enhance an area's wind field determination and to improve the outcome of pollutant dispersion and weather forecasting models.

  2. Reference materials and representative test materials: the nanotechnology case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebben, G., E-mail: gert.roebben@ec.europa.eu [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium); Rasmussen, K. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Italy); Kestens, V.; Linsinger, T. P. J. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium); Rauscher, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Italy); Emons, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium); Stamm, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    An increasing number of chemical, physical and biological tests are performed on manufactured nanomaterials for scientific and regulatory purposes. Existing test guidelines and measurement methods are not always directly applicable to or relevant for nanomaterials. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the use of the existing methods with nanomaterials, thereby identifying where modifications are needed, and where new methods need to be developed and validated. Efforts for verification, development and validation of methods as well as quality assurance of (routine) test results significantly benefit from the availability of suitable test and reference materials. This paper provides an overview of the existing types of reference materials and introduces a new class of test materials for which the term 'representative test material' is proposed. The three generic concepts of certified reference material, reference material(non-certified) and representative test material constitute a comprehensive system of benchmarks that can be used by all measurement and testing communities, regardless of their specific discipline. This paper illustrates this system with examples from the field of nanomaterials, including reference materials and representative test materials developed at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, in particular at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), and at the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP).

  3. Representing Spatial Layout According to Intrinsic Frames of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Shiyi; Tao, Weidong; Wei, Yiping; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mou and McNamara have suggested that object locations are represented according to intrinsic reference frames. In three experiments, we investigated the limitations of intrinsic reference frames as a mean to represent object locations in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of seven or eight common objects in a rectangular room and then made judgments of relative direction based on their memory of the layout. The results of all experiments showed that when all objects were positioned regularly, judgments of relative direction were faster or more accurate for novel headings that were aligned with the primary intrinsic structure than for other novel headings; however, when one irregularly positioned object was added to the layout, this advantage was eliminated. The experiments further indicated that with a single view at study, participants could represent the layout from either an egocentric orientation or a different orientation, according to experimental instructions. Together, these results suggest that environmental reference frames and intrinsic axes can influence performance for novel headings, but their role in spatial memory depends on egocentric experience, layout regularity, and instructions.

  4. Using SNOMED CT to represent two interface terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Brown, Steven H; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Gregg, William M; Elkin, Peter L

    2009-01-01

    Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms.

  5. Using SNOMED CT to Represent Two Interface Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Brown, Steven H.; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A.; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Gregg, William M.; Elkin, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Design Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Measurements Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. Results The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms. PMID:18952944

  6. Patch-based visual tracking with online representative sample selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Weihua; Yuan, Di; Li, Donghao; Liu, Bin; Xia, Daoxun; Zeng, Wu

    2017-05-01

    Occlusion is one of the most challenging problems in visual object tracking. Recently, a lot of discriminative methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. For the discriminative methods, it is difficult to select the representative samples for the target template updating. In general, the holistic bounding boxes that contain tracked results are selected as the positive samples. However, when the objects are occluded, this simple strategy easily introduces the noises into the training data set and the target template and then leads the tracker to drift away from the target seriously. To address this problem, we propose a robust patch-based visual tracker with online representative sample selection. Different from previous works, we divide the object and the candidates into several patches uniformly and propose a score function to calculate the score of each patch independently. Then, the average score is adopted to determine the optimal candidate. Finally, we utilize the non-negative least square method to find the representative samples, which are used to update the target template. The experimental results on the object tracking benchmark 2013 and on the 13 challenging sequences show that the proposed method is robust to the occlusion and achieves promising results.

  7. Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Wennberg, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.

  8. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris and salt (sodium chloride on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Peredo-Álvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on noneuryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 ± 0.04 g l-1 than B. patulus (2.14 ± 0.09 g l-1 . The maximal population density (mean±standard error for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 X10 6 cells ml-1 (algal level was 80 ±5 ind. ml-1 , which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 ± 7 ind. ml-1 under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 ± 0.5 days for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 ±1 day. The highest rates of population increase (r values for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 ± 0.012 and 0.367 ± 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 X10(6 cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.La salinidad es una variable importante que tiene influencia sobre la densidad y la diversidad de los rotíferos. Los estudios de rotíferos sobre tolerancia a la sal que se tienen hasta ahora se han concentrado en especies eurihalinas, sin embargo, hay muy poca información sobre taxas no eurihalinos. En el presente trabajo, se evaluaron los efectos combinados de las concentraciones de Chlorella vulgaris y cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento poblacional de dos rotíferos de agua dulce, B. calyciflorus y B. patulus. Una prueba de toxicidad aguda de 24 h utilizando cloruro de sodio reveló que B. calyciflorus fue más resistente (CL50 = 3.75 ± 0.04 g l -1 que B. patulus (2.14 ± 0.09 g l-1 . La máxima densidad de población (media ± error estándar de B. calyciflorus en el lote control, utilizando una concentración 4.5 X10(6 células ml-1 de alga fue de 80 ± 5 ind. ml-1 , casi una quinta parte de B. patulus (397 ±7 ind. ml-1 sobre condiciones comparables. Datos sobre el crecimiento poblacional revelaron que cualquier concentración de sal carece de efecto, la densidad de B. calyciflorus se incrementa cuando aumentan los niveles de alimento. Sin embargo para B. patulus esta tendencia fue evidente únicamente en los controles. Independientemente de las concentraciones de sal y los niveles de alimento, el día de abundancia máxima fue menor para B. calyciflorus (4 ± 0.5 días que para B. patulus (11 ±1 días. Los valores de la máxima tasa de crecimiento poblacional (r fueron para B. calyciflorus y B. patulus de 0.429 ± 0.012 y 0.367 ± 0.004, respectivamente en lotes control con 4.5 X10(6 células ml-1 de Chlorella. El papel de protección de alga para reducir el efecto del estrés de la sal fue más evidente en B. calyciflorus que en B. patulus.

  9. 76 FR 38679 - Notice of Call for Nominations for Appointment of Primary and Alternate Representatives, Santa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Committee. Primary Representatives Representative of the City of Palm Desert. Representative of the City of Rancho Mirage. Representative of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians. Representative of the Pinyon... college or university. Alternate Representatives Alternate representative of the City of Palm Desert...

  10. Solar Heliospheric and INterplanetary Environment (SHINE) Students - Student Representatives' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahud, D. M.; Niembro, T.

    2014-12-01

    The SHINE workshop is an annual meeting of solar and heliospheric scientists which, in addition to aiming to improve understanding of solar disturbances and their propagation to, and effect, on the Earth (shinecon.org), is dedicated to actively supporting students. This dedication is substantiated in part through the National Science Foundation (NSF) providing funding for student attendance to the workshop, which enables student participation. Another example of SHINE's commitment to its student members is the incorporation of a Student Day prior to the workshop since 2003, entirely organized and run by two student representatives. While there are variations in format from year to year, Student Day consists of tutorials and research talks exclusively by student volunteers to an audience of only students. The day is intended to provide a low-stress environment for students to learn about the various topics addressed during the workshop, to ask questions freely, and to engage in scientific discussion with other students which hopefully is a catalyst for collaboration. As a result of positive experiences, over the past decade student attendance and participation in the workshop have increased. At the SHINE 2014 workshop, nearly a third of attendees were students. SHINE student visibility has increased over the years, with student posters being advertised at breakfast, inclusion of a student day summary by the student representatives during a plenary session, and continued support from the steering committee. Students are also promoting a broader impact of SHINE sciences via increased social media presence. From a student representative's perspective, SHINE has built and fostered a healthy student community and encourages students to engage in shaping the future of the field.

  11. Representativeness of the LifeLines Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klijs, Bart; Scholtens, Salome; Mandemakers, Jornt J; Snieder, Harold; Stolk, Ronald P; Smidt, Nynke

    2015-01-01

    LifeLines is a large prospective population-based three generation cohort study in the north of the Netherlands. Different recruitment strategies were adopted: recruitment of an index population via general practitioners, subsequent inclusion of their family members, and online self-registration. Our aim was to investigate the representativeness of the adult study population at baseline and to evaluate differences in the study population according to recruitment strategy. Demographic characteristics of the LifeLines study population, recruited between 2006-2013, were compared with the total adult population in the north of the Netherlands as registered in the Dutch population register. Socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, chronic diseases, and general health were further compared with participants of the Permanent Survey of Living Conditions within the region (2005-2011, N = 6,093). Differences according to recruitment strategy were assessed. Compared with the population of the north of the Netherlands, LifeLines participants were more often female, middle aged, married, living in a semi-urban place and Dutch native. Adjusted for differences in demographic composition, in LifeLines a smaller proportion had a low educational attainment (5% versus 14%) or had ever smoked (54% versus 66%). Differences in the prevalence of various chronic diseases and low general health scores were mostly smaller than 3%. The age profiles of the three recruitment groups differed due to age related inclusion criteria of the recruitment groups. Other differences according to recruitment strategy were small. Our results suggest that, adjusted for differences in demographic composition, the LifeLines adult study population is broadly representative for the adult population of the north of the Netherlands. The recruitment strategy had a minor effect on the level of representativeness. These findings indicate that the risk of selection bias is low and that risk estimates in Life

  12. Representative Vector Machines: A Unified Framework for Classical Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2016-08-01

    Classifier design is a fundamental problem in pattern recognition. A variety of pattern classification methods such as the nearest neighbor (NN) classifier, support vector machine (SVM), and sparse representation-based classification (SRC) have been proposed in the literature. These typical and widely used classifiers were originally developed from different theory or application motivations and they are conventionally treated as independent and specific solutions for pattern classification. This paper proposes a novel pattern classification framework, namely, representative vector machines (or RVMs for short). The basic idea of RVMs is to assign the class label of a test example according to its nearest representative vector. The contributions of RVMs are twofold. On one hand, the proposed RVMs establish a unified framework of classical classifiers because NN, SVM, and SRC can be interpreted as the special cases of RVMs with different definitions of representative vectors. Thus, the underlying relationship among a number of classical classifiers is revealed for better understanding of pattern classification. On the other hand, novel and advanced classifiers are inspired in the framework of RVMs. For example, a robust pattern classification method called discriminant vector machine (DVM) is motivated from RVMs. Given a test example, DVM first finds its k -NNs and then performs classification based on the robust M-estimator and manifold regularization. Extensive experimental evaluations on a variety of visual recognition tasks such as face recognition (Yale and face recognition grand challenge databases), object categorization (Caltech-101 dataset), and action recognition (Action Similarity LAbeliNg) demonstrate the advantages of DVM over other classifiers.

  13. Sugary beverages represent a threat to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M

    2012-12-01

    Sugary beverages represent a major global threat to the health of all populations. The shifts in distribution, marketing, and sales have made them the plague of the globe in terms of obesity, diabetes, and a host of other chronic health problems. The fructose-laden beverages have unique properties that lead to lack of dietary compensation and direct adverse effects on our health. Global efforts to limit marketing and sales are necessary to protect the health of the planet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Mental Processes Represented in Models of Artificial Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Folchini da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Artificial Consciousness concept has been used in the engineering area as being an evolution of the Artificial Intelligence. However, consciousness is a complex subject and often used without formalism. As a main contribution, in this work one proposes an analysis of four recent models of artificial consciousness published in the engineering area. The mental processes represented by these models are highlighted and correlations with the theoretical perspective of cognitive psychology are made. Finally, considerations about consciousness in such models are discussed.

  15. Enterprise Systems Implementations: Organizational Influence Processes for Corporate User Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Nordheim, Stig

    2008-01-01

    -depth, interpretive study from the oil industry, where we analyze a case of innovative integration of an ECM system with collaboration technologies. The data collection has been longitudinal. The data analysis has been performed through the perspective of organizational influence processes. The main finding concerns...... the responsibilities associated with the role. A corporate user representative in a high formal position and with lateral and downward influence processes to the steering committee and the project group was more influential. Challenging upward influence processes was thus avoided. Typical influence tactics include...

  16. The live album or many ways of representing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzanti Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of live albums can clarify the dialectic between studio recordings and live performances. After discussing key concepts such as authenticity, space, time and place, and documentation, the author gives a preliminary definition of live albums, combining available descriptions and comparing them with different typologies and functions of these recordings. The article aims to give a new definition of the concept of live albums, gathering their primary elements: “A live album is an officially released extended recording of popular music representing one or more actually occurred public performances”.

  17. Representing Mental Spaces and Dynamics of Natural Language Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Golshaie

    2011-01-01

    Building systems with the robustness of human reasoning capabilities requires inspirations from cognitive science.  The primary objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of representing some basic principles of cognitive semantics&rs...

  18. Representing vegetation processes in hydrometeorological simulations using the WRF model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund

    For accurate predictions of weather and climate, it is important that the land surface and its processes are well represented. In a mesoscale model the land surface processes are calculated in a land surface model (LSM). These pro-cesses include exchanges of energy, water and momentum between...... data and the default vegetation data in WRF were further used in high-resolution simulations over Denmark down to cloud-resolving scale (3 km). Results from two spatial resolutions were compared to investigate the inuence of parametrized and resolved convec-tion. The simulations using the parametrized...

  19. Retention performance of green roofs in representative climates worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, F.; Hellies, M.; Deidda, R.

    2017-10-01

    The ongoing process of global urbanization contributes to an increase in stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces, threatening also water quality. Green roofs have been proved to be innovative stormwater management measures to partially restore natural states, enhancing interception, infiltration and evapotranspiration fluxes. The amount of water that is retained within green roofs depends not only on their depth, but also on the climate, which drives the stochastic soil moisture dynamic. In this context, a simple tool for assessing performance of green roofs worldwide in terms of retained water is still missing and highly desirable for practical assessments. The aim of this work is to explore retention performance of green roofs as a function of their depth and in different climate regimes. Two soil depths are investigated, one representing the intensive configuration and another representing the extensive one. The role of the climate in driving water retention has been represented by rainfall and potential evapotranspiration dynamics. A simple conceptual weather generator has been implemented and used for stochastic simulation of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Stochastic forcing is used as an input of a simple conceptual hydrological model for estimating long-term water partitioning between rainfall, runoff and actual evapotranspiration. Coupling the stochastic weather generator with the conceptual hydrological model, we assessed the amount of rainfall diverted into evapotranspiration for different combinations of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in five representative climatic regimes. Results quantified the capabilities of green roofs in retaining rainfall and consequently in reducing discharges into sewer systems at an annual time scale. The role of substrate depth has been recognized to be crucial in determining green roofs retention performance, which in general increase from extensive to intensive settings. Looking at the

  20. Representing the Algerian Civil War: Literature, History, and the State

    OpenAIRE

    Landers, Neil Grant

    2013-01-01

    "Representing the Algerian Civil War: Literature, History, and the State" addresses the way the Algerian civil war has been portrayed in 1990s novelistic literature. In the words of one literary critic, "The Algerian war has been, in a sense, one big murder mystery." This may be true, but literary accounts portray the "mystery" of the civil war--and propose to solve it--in sharply divergent ways. The primary aim of this study is to examine how three of the most celebrated 1990s novels depict...

  1. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyeog Jin; Shim, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector.

  2. Scanning electron microscopy image representativeness: morphological data on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odziomek, Katarzyna; Ushizima, Daniela; Oberbek, Przemyslaw; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof Jan; Puzyn, Tomasz; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    A sample of a nanomaterial contains a distribution of nanoparticles of various shapes and/or sizes. A scanning electron microscopy image of such a sample often captures only a fragment of the morphological variety present in the sample. In order to quantitatively analyse the sample using scanning electron microscope digital images, and, in particular, to derive numerical representations of the sample morphology, image content has to be assessed. In this work, we present a framework for extracting morphological information contained in scanning electron microscopy images using computer vision algorithms, and for converting them into numerical particle descriptors. We explore the concept of image representativeness and provide a set of protocols for selecting optimal scanning electron microscopy images as well as determining the smallest representative image set for each of the morphological features. We demonstrate the practical aspects of our methodology by investigating tricalcium phosphate, Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , and calcium hydroxyphosphate, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH), both naturally occurring minerals with a wide range of biomedical applications. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Human visual system automatically represents large-scale sequential regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich

    2010-03-04

    Our brain recordings reveal that large-scale sequential regularities defined across non-adjacent stimuli can be automatically represented in visual sensory memory. To show that, we adopted an auditory paradigm developed by Sussman, E., Ritter, W., and Vaughan, H. G. Jr. (1998). Predictability of stimulus deviance and the mismatch negativity. NeuroReport, 9, 4167-4170, Sussman, E., and Gumenyuk, V. (2005). Organization of sequential sounds in auditory memory. NeuroReport, 16, 1519-1523 to the visual domain by presenting task-irrelevant infrequent luminance-deviant stimuli (D, 20%) inserted among task-irrelevant frequent stimuli being of standard luminance (S, 80%) in randomized (randomized condition, SSSDSSSSSDSSSSD...) and fixed manners (fixed condition, SSSSDSSSSDSSSSD...). Comparing the visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) index of memory-mismatch processes in human visual sensory system, revealed that visual MMN elicited by deviant stimuli was reduced in the fixed compared to the randomized condition. Thus, the large-scale sequential regularity being present in the fixed condition (SSSSD) must have been represented in visual sensory memory. Interestingly, this effect did not occur in conditions with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 480 and 800 ms but was confined to the 160-ms SOA condition supporting the hypothesis that large-scale regularity extraction was based on perceptual grouping of the five successive stimuli defining the regularity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lifestyle choices and mental health: a representative population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Julia; Lavallee, Kristen L; Scholten, Saskia; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Zhang, Xiao-Chi; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Identifying healthy lifestyle behaviours that promote psychological wellbeing is crucial to preventing mental disorders. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the individual and combined associations between different aspects of everyday life and mental health within a representative community sample in Germany. The study was conducted in 2012/2013 and included 7,937 participants representative of the German population. Lifestyle factors were assessed via self-report and included frequency of physical and mental activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index as well as circadian and social regularity. Outcome variables were depression, anxiety, stress and satisfaction with life. All lifestyle factors were associated with the mental health outcomes. Better mental health was linked to higher frequency of physical and mental activity, moderate alcohol consumption (i.e. not increased or no alcohol consumption), non-smoking, a body mass index within the range of normal to overweight (i.e. not underweight or obese) and a regular life rhythm. The more healthy lifestyle choices an individual makes, the higher life satisfaction and lower psychological distress he or she tends to have. The current study underlines the importance of healthy lifestyle choices in respect to psychological wellbeing.

  5. Representing flow patterns by using streamlines with glyphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, David H F; Ware, Colin

    2013-08-01

    Most professional wind visualizations show wind speed and direction using a glyph called a wind barb in a grid pattern. Research into flow visualization has suggested that streamlines better represent flow patterns but these methods lack a key property-unlike the wind barb, they do not accurately convey the wind speed. With the goal of improving the perception of wind patterns, and at least equaling the quantitative quality of wind barbs, we designed two variations on the wind barb and designed a new quantitative glyph. All of our new designs space glyph elements along equally spaced streamlines. To evaluate these designs, we used a North American mesoscale forecast model. We tested the ability of subjects to determine direction and speed using two different densities each of three new designs as well as the classic wind barb. A second experiment evaluated how effectively each of the designs represented wind patterns. The results showed that the new design is superior to the classic, but they also showed that the classic barb can be redesigned and substantially improved. We suggest that flow patterns with integrated glyphs may have widespread application in flow visualization.

  6. Development of a Representative Mouse Model with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jef; Jacobs, Ans; Spincemaille, Pieter; Cassiman, David

    2016-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the Western world. It represents a disease spectrum ranging from isolated steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In particular, NASH can evolve to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. The development of novel treatment strategies is hampered by the lack of representative NASH mouse models. Here, we describe a NASH mouse model, which is based on feeding non-genetically manipulated C57BL6/J mice a 'Western style' high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF-HSD). HF-HSD leads to early obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. After 12 weeks of HF-HSD, all mice exhibit the complete spectrum of features of NASH, including steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and lobular inflammation, together with fibrosis in the majority of mice. Hence, this model closely mimics the human disease. Implementation of this mouse model will lead to a standardized setup for the evaluation of (i) underlying mechanisms that contribute to the progression of NAFLD to NASH, and (ii) therapeutic interventions for NASH. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stewart C; Garner, David Kirkland; Somoroff, Matthew; Gramling, David J; Norton, Sally A; Gramling, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Being able to identify expressions of emotion is crucial to effective clinical communication research. However, traditional linguistic coding systems often cannot represent emotions that are expressed nonlexically or phonologically (i.e., not through words themselves but through vocal pitch, speed/rhythm/tempo, and volume). Using audio recording of a palliative care consultation in the natural hospital setting, two experienced music scholars employed Western musical notation, as well as the graphic realization of a digital audio program (Piano roll visualization), to visually represent the sonic features of conversation where a patient has an emotional "choke" moment. Western musical notation showed the ways that changes in pitch and rate correspond to the patient's emotion: rising sharply in intensity before slowly fading away. Piano roll visualization is a helpful supplement. Using musical notation to illustrate palliative care conversations in the hospital setting can render visible for analysis several aspects of emotional expression that researchers otherwise experience as intuitive or subjective. Various forms and formats of musical notation techniques and sonic visualization technologies should be considered as fruitful and complementary alternatives to traditional coding tools in clinical communications research. Musical notation offers opportunity for both researchers and learners to "see" how communication evolves in clinical encounters, particularly where the lexical and phonological features of interpersonal communication are concordant and discordant with one another. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen

    2018-05-01

    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius ( r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  9. The Representatives of Amelanchier Medik. Genus in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalko Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information on fruit and decorative value, honey and medicinal properties of the genus Amelanchier Medik. is generalized. Their biological characteristics, chemical composition and palatability traits of the fruit, the ways of consumption and processing, including drying, preparing juices, syrups, jams, candied fruit jellies, confiture, and fruit wine are specified. The environmental adaptability and effectiveness of using juneberry for phytomelioration are mentioned. Several versions of the origin of the genus Amelanchier name and interpretation of its specific epithets are described. The controversial issues of the genus Amelanchier system were discussed from the classical and molecular genetic approaches. The attention is focused on two main aspects of views on the place of the genus Amelanchier representatives of the family Rosaceae Juss. within the particular subfamily, namely the subfamily Pyroideae Burnett (Maloideae S. Weber or the subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., which indicates the necessity for further comparative morphological and molecular genetic studies of the family Rosaceae. The directions of evolution, habitat and invasive ability of some species of the genus Amelanchier are characterised. The list of the genus Amelanchier representatives cultivated in Ukraine is given.

  10. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  11. Quantifying Representative Hydraulic Conductivity for Three-Dimensional Fractured Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.; Ni, C.

    2013-12-01

    The fractures and pores in rock formations are the fundamental units for flow and contaminant transport simulations. Due to technical and logical limitations it is difficult in reality to account for such small units to model flow and transport in large-scale problems. The concept of continuum representations of fractured rocks is then used as an alternative to solve for flow and transport in complex fractured formations. For these types of approaches the determinations of the representative parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and dispersion coefficient play important roles in controlling the accuracy of simulation results for large-scale problems. The objective of this study is to develop a discrete fracture network (DFN) model and the associated unstructured mesh generation system to characterize the continuum hydraulic conductivity for fractured rocks on different scales. In this study a coupled three-dimensional model of water flow, thermal transport, solute transport, and geochemical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated/unsaturated porous media (HYDROGEOCHEM) is employed to be the flow simulator to analyze the flow behaviors in fracture formations. The fracture network model and the corresponding continuum model are simulated for same scale problems. Based on the concept of mass conservation in flow, the correlations between statistics of fracture structure and the representative continuum parameters are quantified for a variety of fracture distribution scenarios and scales. The results of this study are expected to provide general insight into the procedures and the associated techniques for analyzing flow in complex large-scale fractured rock systems.

  12. An audience with … the public, the representative, the sovereign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanese Niccolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The right of audience, in common law, is the right of a lawyer to represent a client in a court. Royalty, the Pope and some Presidents grant audiences. What does the power to grant an audience consist in? And what does it mean to demand an audience (with? Through a reading of the way in which the vocabulary of theatre, acting and audience is involved in the generation of a theory of state by Hobbes and Rousseau, this paper looks to reopen these questions as a political resource for us to re-imagine and refigure our ways of being together. Through readings of Hobbes and Rousseau, it looks at the ways in which the performance of politics creates the public, the representative and the sovereign and the ways these figures interact. It proposes an alternative role for theatre as places of affective learning and a civic ethics of playfulness, in which the auto-institution of the state as an imagined collectivity is fully assumed.

  13. Flexible Clustered Multi-Task Learning by Learning Representative Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) methods have shown promising performance by learning multiple relevant tasks simultaneously, which exploits to share useful information across relevant tasks. Among various MTL methods, clustered multi-task learning (CMTL) assumes that all tasks can be clustered into groups and attempts to learn the underlying cluster structure from the training data. In this paper, we present a new approach for CMTL, called flexible clustered multi-task (FCMTL), in which the cluster structure is learned by identifying representative tasks. The new approach allows an arbitrary task to be described by multiple representative tasks, effectively soft-assigning a task to multiple clusters with different weights. Unlike existing counterpart, the proposed approach is more flexible in that (a) it does not require clusters to be disjoint, (b) tasks within one particular cluster do not have to share information to the same extent, and (c) the number of clusters is automatically inferred from data. Computationally, the proposed approach is formulated as a row-sparsity pursuit problem. We validate the proposed FCMTL on both synthetic and real-world data sets, and empirical results demonstrate that it outperforms many existing MTL methods.

  14. Representativeness of the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems National Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, Jessica M; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Deutsch, Anne; Chen, Yuying; Charlifue, Susan; Chen, David; Dijkers, Marcel P; Graham, James E; Heinemann, Allen W; Lammertse, Daniel P; Whiteneck, Gale G

    2018-02-01

    Secondary analysis of prospectively collected observational data. To assess the representativeness of the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems National Database (SCIMS-NDB) of all adults aged 18 years or older receiving inpatient rehabilitation in the United States (US) for new onset traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Inpatient rehabilitation centers in the US. We compared demographic, functional status, and injury characteristics (nine categorical variables comprising of 46 categories and two continuous variables) between the SCIMS-NDB (N = 5969) and UDS-PRO/eRehabData (N = 99,142) cases discharged from inpatient rehabilitation in 2000-2010. There are negligible differences (exist for age categories, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, FIM Motor score, and time from injury to rehabilitation admission. Important differences (>10%) exist in mean age and preinjury occupational status; the SCIMS-NDB sample was younger and included a higher percentage of individuals who were employed (62.7 vs. 41.7%) and fewer who were retired (10.2 vs. 36.1%). Adults in the SCIMS-NDB are largely representative of the population of adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation for new onset TSCI in the US. However, users of the SCIMS-NDB may need to adjust statistically for differences in age and preinjury occupational status to improve generalizability of findings.

  15. Challenges to Issues of Balance and Representativeness in African Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapelo Joseph Otlogetswe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Modern dictionaries depend on corpora of different sizes and types for frequency listings, concordances and collocations, illustrative sentences and grammatical information. With the help of computer software, retrieving such information has increasingly become relatively easy. However, the quality of retrieved information for lexicographic purposes depends on the information input at the stage of corpus construction. If corpora are not representative of the different language usages of a speech community, they may prove to be unreliable sources of lexicographic information. There are, however, issues in African languages which make many African corpora questionable. These issues include a lack of texts of different genres, the unavailability of balanced and representative written texts, a complete absence of spoken texts as well as literacy problems in African societies. This article therefore explores the different challenges to the construction of reliable corpora in African languages. It argues that African languages face peculiar challenges and corpus research may require a different treatment compared to European and American corpus research. It finally concludes that issues of balance and representativeness appear theoretically impossible when looking at the results of sociolinguistic research on the different existing language varieties which are difficult to represent accurately in a corpus.

    Keywords: AFRICAN LANGUAGES, BALANCE, BANK OF ENGLISH, BORROWING,BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS, COBUILD, CODE-SWITCHING, COMPUTERS, CORPORA,DIALECT, DICTIONARIES, FREQUENCY, LANGUAGE VARIETY, REPRESENTATIVENESS,SETSWANA, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, SPEECH, TEXT

    Opsomming: Uitdagings betreffende kwessies van balans en verteenwoordigendheidin Afrikaleksikografie. Moderne woordeboeke steun op korpusse vanverskillende groottes en soorte vir frekwensielyste, konkordansies en kollokasies, voorbeeldsinneen taalkundige inligting. Met die hulp van

  16. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  17. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  18. Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers' representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Martin; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore; Nübling, Matthias

    2012-10-26

    Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role) and a national reference value. For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database). Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, pworks councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work), 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties). Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810) and non-leadership roles (N=2970)) and for employees in general (N=35.000) showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative demands and commitment to the workplace. Compared to the reference

  19. Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers’ representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role) and a national reference value. Methods For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database). Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, pworks councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work), 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties). Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810) and non-leadership roles (N=2970)) and for employees in general (N=35.000) showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative demands and commitment to the workplace

  20. Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers’ representative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role and a national reference value. Methods For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database. Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, p Results All in all, 309 works councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work, 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties. Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810 and non-leadership roles (N=2970 and for employees in general (N=35.000 showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative

  1. Use of S-α diagram for representing tokamak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Chance, M.; Kessel, C.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.

    1991-05-01

    A use of the S-α diagram is proposed as a tool for representing the plasma equilibrium with a qualitative characterization of its stability through pattern recognition. The diagram is an effective tool for visually presenting the relationship between the shear and dimensionless pressure gradient of an equilibrium. In the PBX-M tokamak, an H-mode operating regime with high poloidal β and L-mode regime with high toroidal β, obtained using different profile modification techniques, are found to have distinct S-α trajectory patterns. Pellet injection into a plasma in the H-mode regime with high toroidal β, obtained using different profile modification techniques, are found to have distinct S-α trajectory patterns. Pellet injection into a plasma in the H-mode regime results in favorable qualities of both regimes. The β collapse process and ELM event also manifest themselves as characteristic changes in the S-α pattern

  2. On the Alignment of Shapes Represented by Fourier Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Ericsson, Anders; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    The representation of shapes by Fourier descriptors is a time-honored technique that has received relatively little attention lately. Nevertheless, it has many benefits and is applicable for describing a range of medical structures in two dimensions. Delineations in medical applications often...... consist of continuous outlines of structures, where no information of correspondence between samples exist. In this article, we discuss an alignment method that works directly with the functional representation of Fourier descriptors, and that is optimal in a least-squares sense. With corresponding...... represented by common landmarks can be constructed in an automatic fashion. If the aligned Fourier descriptors are inverse transformed from the frequency domain to the spatial domain, a set of roughly aligned landmarks are obtained. The positions of these are then adjusted along the contour of the objects...

  3. Linear elastic properties derivation from microstructures representative of transport parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh Tan; Bonnet, Guy; Tuan Luu, Hoang; Perrot, Camille

    2014-06-01

    It is shown that three-dimensional periodic unit cells (3D PUC) representative of transport parameters involved in the description of long wavelength acoustic wave propagation and dissipation through real foam samples may also be used as a standpoint to estimate their macroscopic linear elastic properties. Application of the model yields quantitative agreement between numerical homogenization results, available literature data, and experiments. Key contributions of this work include recognizing the importance of membranes and properties of the base material for the physics of elasticity. The results of this paper demonstrate that a 3D PUC may be used to understand and predict not only the sound absorbing properties of porous materials but also their transmission loss, which is critical for sound insulation problems.

  4. Frequency of lucid dreaming in a representative German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Lucid dreams occur when a person is aware that he is dreaming while he is dreaming. In a representative sample of German adults (N = 919), 51% of the participants reported that they had experienced a lucid dream at least once. Lucid dream recall was significantly higher in women and negatively correlated with age. However, these effects might be explained by the frequency of dream recall, as there was a correlation of .57 between frequency of dream recall and frequency of lucid dreams. Other sociodemographic variables like education, marital status, or monthly income were not related to lucid dream frequency. Given the relatively high prevalence of lucid dreaming reported in the present study, research on lucid dreams might be pursued in the sleep laboratory to expand the knowledge about sleep, dreaming, and consciousness processes in general.

  5. Representative Bureaucracy and the Role of Expertise in Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarle Trondal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of existing studies on bureaucratic representation focus on bureaucracies’ permanent and internal staff. Yet, the rising sophistication of modern democracies and the technocratization of political life are gradually inducing an increased reliance on external experts to assist in the development and implementation of policy decisions. This trend, we argue, raises the need to extend studies of bureaucratic representation to such external and non-permanent experts in governmental affairs. In this article, we take a first step in this direction using seconded national experts (SNEs in the European Commission as our empirical laboratory. Our results highlight that Commission SNEs do not appear representative of their constituent population (i.e., the EU-27 population along a number of socio-demographic dimensions. Moreover, we find that the role perception of “experts” is primarily explained by organizational affiliation, and only secondarily by demographic characteristics (except, of course, education.

  6. Representing Something Out of Nothing: The Dawning of Zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Zero stands for emptiness, for nothing, and yet it is considered to be one of the greatest achievements of humankind. This review first recapitulates the discovery of the number zero in human history, then follows its progression in human development, traces its evolution in the animal kingdom, and finally elucidates how the brain transforms 'nothing' into an abstract zero category. It is argued that the emergence of zero passes through four corresponding representations in all of these interrelated realms: first, sensory 'nothing'; then categorical 'something'; then quantitative empty sets; and finally the number zero. The concept of zero shows how the brain, originally evolved to represent stimuli ('something'), detaches from empirical properties to achieve ultimate abstract thinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Lay of the Land: Sensing and Representing Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora S. Newcombe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Navigating, and studying spatial navigation, is difficult enough in two dimensions when maps and terrains are flat. Here we consider the capacity for human spatial navigation on sloped terrains, and how sloping terrain is depicted in 2D map representations, called topographic maps. First, we discuss research on how simple slopes are encoded and used for reorientation, and to learn spatial configurations. Next, we describe how slope is represented in topographic maps, and present an assessment (the Topographic Map Assessment, which can be administered to measure topographic map comprehension. Finally, we describe several approaches our lab has taken with the aim of improving topographic map comprehension, including gesture and analogy. The current research reveals a rich and complex picture of topographic map understanding, which likely involves perceptual expertise, strong spatial skills, and inferential logic.

  8. THE STRUCTURE OF HAPPINESS REPRESENTATION FOR RUSSIAN AND AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Zhdanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotional state of students exerts direct impact on their ability and readiness to cope with challenges when studying, gives rise to the success of educational process and its effectiveness. In this regard, the search of methods and determination of the tasks of psychological diagnostics is brought into focus. Above all, the teacher should consider mentality and valuable attitudes of representatives of various cultures, including their understanding of happiness and personal well-being in the activity against the background of the increasing scales of the international and interethnic mobility.The development of Russian psychology has recently acquired the direction of positive psychology, the focus of which is happiness and positive functioning of the individual. Modern research reveals significant differences in the indicators of happiness and satisfaction with life between representatives of different cultures. However, the diagnostic tools used in such studies are based primarily on the model of happiness image that has been developed in American psychology. In this connection, the question arises as to what extent the image of happiness in American culture correlates with the image of happiness in Russian culture.The aim of this work is to study the representation of happiness between representatives of American and Russian culture, the definition of invariable and variable components in the structure of representation.Methodology and research methods. The study included several stages. At the first stage, the theoretical analysis and development of the ontology of the subject area “Psychology of Happiness” was carried out. At the second stage, an empirical study of the representations of American and Russian respondents was carried out. The main method of data collection was a narrative interview; a method of early personal memories was used to obtain the narrative of happiness. Subsequent processing of verbal

  9. Excretory system of representatives from family Diplozoidae (Monogenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstanzová, V; Koubková, B; Kašný, M; Ilgová, J; Dzika, E; Gelnar, M

    2016-04-01

    Diplozoons are representatives of blood-feeding ectoparasites from the family Diplozoidae (Polyopisthocotylea, Monogenea). Although these worms have been the subject of numerous taxonomical, phylogenetic, and ecological studies, the detailed study of their excretory system has remained relatively neglected. Our observations focused on the morphological and ultrastructural features of the excretory apparatus of four diplozoid species: Diplozoon paradoxum, Eudiplozoon nipponicum, Paradiplozoon bliccae, and Paradiplozoon homoion. Observations were obtained using two microscope methods: light microscopy, equipped with differential interference contrast (Nomarski DIC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ultrastructure of two basic compartments which forms the excretory apparatus, flame cells with filtration apparatus, and canal cells forming the protonephridial ducts is revealed in this study. A unique consecutive sequence of longitudinal semi-thin sections of the excretory pore of E. nipponicum is visualized there for the first time.

  10. Impact of pharmaceutical representative visits on GPs' drug preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Vach, Kirstin; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    preferences and prevalence of steroid prescribing. METHODS: Observational cohort study in Funen County, Denmark, including 165 general practices visited 832 times by pharmaceutical representatives and 54 080 patients treated with asthma drugs. Visits were conducted from 2001 to 2003. Our main outcome measures...... were (i) company-specific drug preferences measured as the proportion of dispensings of the promoted drug among all dispensings of fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonists and (ii) the proportion of patients receiving repeated beta2-agonist dispensings who were...... treated with inhaled steroids. RESULTS: The first visit had a statistically significant effect on the GPs' drug preference in favour of the marketed drug [odds ratio (OR), 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-3.32]. The effect on drug preference increased further after the second visit (OR, 1.51; 95...

  11. Discriminatively learning for representing local image features with quadruplet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-long; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Duan-qing; Lu, Dong-ming

    2017-11-01

    Traditional hand-crafted features for representing local image patches are evolving into current data-driven and learning-based image feature, but learning a robust and discriminative descriptor which is capable of controlling various patch-level computer vision tasks is still an open problem. In this work, we propose a novel deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn local feature descriptors. We utilize the quadruplets with positive and negative training samples, together with a constraint to restrict the intra-class variance, to learn good discriminative CNN representations. Compared with previous works, our model reduces the overlap in feature space between corresponding and non-corresponding patch pairs, and mitigates margin varying problem caused by commonly used triplet loss. We demonstrate that our method achieves better embedding result than some latest works, like PN-Net and TN-TG, on benchmark dataset.

  12. Coping with traumatic brain injury: representative case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnica, C M; Heinemann, A

    1994-04-01

    This case report compares the use of social supports and vulnerability to substance abuse for two rehabilitation clients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using a psychosocial assessment, the Motivational Structure Questionnaire, Adaptive Skills Battery, and Ways of Coping Checklist within a representative case method, we studied two individuals in depth to understand differences in postinjury drinking behaviors. We also examined differences in availability and use of social supports and how support was related to coping efforts. Finally, we illustrated goal-setting and the relationship between long-term planning and follow-through on goals. Social supports, adaptive problem-solving behaviors, and positive reappraisal of situations seem to be important elements in postinjury abstinence. Clinically, this research supports the need for fostering use of both social supports and substance use prevention and treatment services when working with both inpatient and outpatient TBI clients.

  13. Priorities Without Priorities: Representing Preemption in Psi-Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Åman Pohjola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Psi-calculi is a parametric framework for extensions of the pi-calculus with data terms and arbitrary logics. In this framework there is no direct way to represent action priorities, where an action can execute only if all other enabled actions have lower priority. We here demonstrate that the psi-calculi parameters can be chosen such that the effect of action priorities can be encoded. To accomplish this we define an extension of psi-calculi with action priorities, and show that for every calculus in the extended framework there is a corresponding ordinary psi-calculus, without priorities, and a translation between them that satisfies strong operational correspondence. This is a significantly stronger result than for most encodings between process calculi in the literature. We also formally prove in Nominal Isabelle that the standard congruence and structural laws about strong bisimulation hold in psi-calculi extended with priorities.

  14. Ambiguities in representing the concept of energy: a semiotic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMIEN GIVRY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many researches in science education have shown the importance of the concept of energy and the learning difficulties that students face. Based on a semiotic approach, the current study focuses on the different ways in representing the concept of energy. It examines the ambiguities appear in written text, diagram, photo, graph, corporal acts etc. as vehicles of conveying some aspects of the energy concept. Video of a regular Greek lesson about energy and an usual Greek physics school textbook composed our database. The first results show a conceptual blending between the concepts 'transfer' and 'transformation' due to the lack of specification of which are exactly the physical systems studied in these modes of representation.

  15. [Dangerous liaisons--physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Mónica

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between physicians and detailers (even when legitimate ones) raise scientific and ethical questions. In Portugal little thinking and discussion has been done on the subject and the blames for bribery have monopolized the media. This work intended to review what has been said in medical literature about these interactions. How do physicians see themselves when interacting with pharmaceutical companies and their representatives? Do these companies in fact change their prescriptive behaviour, and, if so, how do they change it? How can physicians interact with detailers and still keep their best practice? A Medline research, from 1966 till 2002, was performed using the key-words as follows. A database similar to Medline but concerning medical journals published in Portugal, Index das Revistas Médicas Portuguesas, was also researched from 1992 to 2002. Pharmaceutical companies are profit bound and they allot promoting activities, and detailing in particular, huge amounts of money. Most physicians hold firmly to the belief that they are able to resist and not be influenced by drug companies promotion activities. Nevertheless, all previous works on literature tell us the opposite. Market research also indicates that detailers effectively promote drug sales. Various works also suggest that the information detailers provide to physicians may be largely incorrect, even comparing it to the written information provided by the pharmaceutical companies they work for. The frequency at which portuguese physicians (especially family physicians) contact with pharmaceutical sales representatives is higher than the frequency reported in countries where the available studies come from (namely, Canada and the United States of America). This may put portuguese physicians at a higher risk, making it imperative that work and wide debate are initiated among the class.

  16. Representativeness of the IAGOS airborne measurements in the lower troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Petetin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the In Service Aircraft for Global Observing System (IAGOS program, airborne in-situ O3 and CO measurements are performed routinely using in-service aircraft, providing vertical profiles from the surface to about 10–12 km. Due to the specificity of IAGOS measurements (measurements around busy international airports, uncertainties exist on their representativeness in the lower troposphere as they may be impacted by emissions related to airport activities and/or other aircraft. In this study, we thus investigate how the IAGOS measurements in the lower troposphere compare with nearby surface stations (from the local Air Quality monitoring network (AQN and more distant regional surface stations (from the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW network. The study focuses on Frankfurt but some results at other European airports (Vienna, Paris are also discussed. Results indicate that the IAGOS observations close to the surface do not appear to be strongly impacted by local emissions related to airport activities. In terms of mixing ratio distribution, seasonal variations and trends, the CO and O3 mixing ratios measured by IAGOS in the first few hundred metres above the surface have similar characteristics to the mixing ratios measured at surrounding urban background stations. Higher in altitude, both the difference with data from the local AQN and the consistency with the GAW regional stations are higher, which indicates a larger representativeness of the IAGOS data. Despite few quantitative differences with Frankfurt, consistent results are obtained in the two other cities Vienna and Paris. Based on 11 years of data (2002–2012, this study thus demonstrates that IAGOS observations in the lowest troposphere can be used as a complement to surface stations to study the air quality in/around the agglomeration, providing important information on the vertical distribution of pollution.

  17. Invite your representative to work. Change the world. Here's how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montell, Denise J

    2018-02-15

    Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory. Salud Carbajal peered through a microscope and met real scientists. Before his visit, he did not know what a postdoctoral fellow was, much less what stem cells look like. When he left he knew our names, how much money we bring into his district, and how important National Institutes of Health funding and international mobility are to our enterprise. Although I live in the United States, this approach should also apply to other democratic countries. If each of us converts one representative into a science champion, we can change the world. © 2018 Montell. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. The Korarchaeota: Archaeal orphans representing an ancestral lineage of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, James G.; Kunin, Victor; Anderson, Iain; Barry, Kerrie; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Hedlund, Brian; Hugenholtz, Phil; Kyrpides, Nikos; Graham, David; Keller, Martin; Wanner, Gerhard; Richardson, Paul; Stetter, Karl O.

    2007-05-01

    Based on conserved cellular properties, all life on Earth can be grouped into different phyla which belong to the primary domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. However, tracing back their evolutionary relationships has been impeded by horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. Within the Archaea, the kingdoms Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota exhibit a profound divergence. In order to elucidate the evolution of these two major kingdoms, representatives of more deeply diverged lineages would be required. Based on their environmental small subunit ribosomal (ss RNA) sequences, the Korarchaeota had been originally suggested to have an ancestral relationship to all known Archaea although this assessment has been refuted. Here we describe the cultivation and initial characterization of the first member of the Korarchaeota, highly unusual, ultrathin filamentous cells about 0.16 {micro}m in diameter. A complete genome sequence obtained from enrichment cultures revealed an unprecedented combination of signature genes which were thought to be characteristic of either the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, or Eukarya. Cell division appears to be mediated through a FtsZ-dependent mechanism which is highly conserved throughout the Bacteria and Euryarchaeota. An rpb8 subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified which is absent from other Archaea and has been described as a eukaryotic signature gene. In addition, the representative organism possesses a ribosome structure typical for members of the Crenarchaeota. Based on its gene complement, this lineage likely diverged near the separation of the two major kingdoms of Archaea. Further investigations of these unique organisms may shed additional light onto the evolution of extant life.

  19. Representing the dosimetric impact of deformable image registration errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickress, Jason; Battista, Jerry; Barnett, Rob; Yartsev, Slav

    2017-09-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is emerging as a tool in radiation therapy for calculating the cumulative dose distribution across multiple fractions of treatment. Unfortunately, due to the variable nature of DIR algorithms and dependence of performance on image quality, registration errors can result in dose accumulation errors. In this study, landmarked images were used to characterize the DIR error throughout an image space and determine its impact on dosimetric analysis. Ten thoracic 4DCT images with 300 landmarks per image study matching the end-inspiration and end-expiration phases were obtained from ‘dir-labs’. DIR was performed using commercial software MIM Maestro. The range of dose uncertainty (RDU) was calculated at each landmark pair as the maximum and minimum of the doses within a sphere around the landmark in the end-expiration phase. The radius of the sphere was defined by a measure of DIR error which included either the actual DIR error, mean DIR error per study, constant errors of 2 or 5 mm, inverse consistency error, transitivity error or the distance discordance metric (DDM). The RDUs were evaluated using the magnitude of dose uncertainty (MDU) and inclusion rate (IR) of actual error lying within the predicted RDU. The RDU was calculated for 300 landmark pairs on each 4DCT study for all measures of DIR error. The most representative RDU was determined using the actual DIR error with a MDU of 2.5 Gy and IR of 97%. Across all other measures of DIR error, the DDM was most predictive with a MDU of 2.5 Gy and IR of 86%, closest to the actual DIR error. The proposed method represents the range of dosimetric uncertainty of DIR error using either landmarks at specific voxels or measures of registration accuracy throughout the volume.

  20. Sleepiness and Motor Vehicle Crashes in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Drivers: The Importance of Epidemiological Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M; Peralta, A R; Monteiro Ferreira, J; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleepiness is considered to be a leading cause of crashes. Despite the huge amount of information collected in questionnaire studies, only some are based on representative samples of the population. Specifics of the populations studied hinder the generalization of these previous findings. For the Portuguese population, data from sleep-related car crashes/near misses and sleepiness while driving are missing. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of near-miss and nonfatal motor vehicle crashes related to sleepiness in a representative sample of Portuguese drivers. Structured phone interviews regarding sleepiness and sleep-related crashes and near misses, driving habits, demographic data, and sleep quality were conducted using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep apnea risk using the Berlin questionnaire. A multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the associations with sleepy driving (feeling sleepy or falling asleep while driving) and sleep-related near misses and crashes. Nine hundred subjects, representing the Portuguese population of drivers, were included; 3.1% acknowledged falling asleep while driving during the previous year and 0.67% recalled sleepiness-related crashes. Higher education, driving more than 15,000 km/year, driving more frequently between 12:00 a.m. and 6 a.m., fewer years of having a driver's license, less total sleep time per night, and higher scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were all independently associated with sleepy driving. Sleepiness-related crashes and near misses were associated only with falling asleep at the wheel in the previous year. Sleep-related crashes occurred more frequently in drivers who had also had sleep-related near misses. Portugal has lower self-reported sleepiness at the wheel and sleep-related near misses than most other countries where epidemiological data are available. Different population characteristics and cultural, social, and road safety specificities may

  1. Simulating a Nationally Representative Housing Sample Using EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Asa S.; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, James; Rosenquist, Gregory; Gu, Lixing

    2011-03-04

    This report presents a new simulation tool under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This tool uses EnergyPlus to simulate each single-family home in the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), and generates a calibrated, nationally representative set of simulated homes whose energy use is statistically indistinguishable from the energy use of the single-family homes in the RECS sample. This research builds upon earlier work by Ritchard et al. for the Gas Research Institute and Huang et al. for LBNL. A representative national sample allows us to evaluate the variance in energy use between individual homes, regions, or other subsamples; using this tool, we can also evaluate how that variance affects the impacts of potential policies. The RECS contains information regarding the construction and location of each sampled home, as well as its appliances and other energy-using equipment. We combined this data with the home simulation prototypes developed by Huang et al. to simulate homes that match the RECS sample wherever possible. Where data was not available, we used distributions, calibrated using the RECS energy use data. Each home was assigned a best-fit location for the purposes of weather and some construction characteristics. RECS provides some detail on the type and age of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in each home; we developed EnergyPlus models capable of reproducing the variety of technologies and efficiencies represented in the national sample. This includes electric, gas, and oil furnaces, central and window air conditioners, central heat pumps, and baseboard heaters. We also developed a model of duct system performance, based on in-home measurements, and integrated this with fan performance to capture the energy use of single- and variable-speed furnace fans, as well as the interaction of duct and fan performance with the efficiency of heating and cooling equipment. Comparison with RECS revealed

  2. Permeability tensor and representative elementary volume of fractured rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Guan; Peng, Jun; Wang, Xiaojiang; Liu, Guang; Hou, Di

    2013-11-01

    Based on a simulation of three-dimensional fracture networks and a superposition principle of liquid dissipation energy for fractured rock masses, a model of the fracture permeability tensor is proposed. An elastic constitutive model of rock fractures, considering fracture closure and dilation during shearing, is also proposed, based on the dilation angle of the fracture. Algorithms of flow-path searching and calculation of the effective flow coefficients for fracture networks are presented, together with a discussion on the influence of geometric parameters of the fractures (trace length, spacing, aperture, orientation and the number of fracture sets) on magnitude, anisotropy of hydraulic permeability and the size of a representative elementary volume (REV). The anisotropy of hydraulic permeability of fractured rock masses is mainly affected by orientation and the number of fracture sets, and the REV size is mainly influenced by trace length, spacing and the number of fracture sets. The results of studies on REV size and the influence of in-situ stress on hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass on the slope of Jinping-I hydropower station, China, are presented using the developed models and methods. The simulation results agreed well with the results obtained from field water-pressure measurements, with an error of less than 10 %.

  3. Social tagging: a model for representing information in the blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pérez Sanchidrián

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study addresses the theoretical and conceptual aspects related to social labeling. Has the advantages of labels on different platforms of Web 2.0. Exposes some of the major sites of social labeling system including Flickr, Delicious, Technorati is destcan, among others. Terminologically analyzed using the tags in the blogosphere as a model for representing information. Methods: The research took as methods of qualitative content analysis to identify the behavior of the international literature on this subject and the metric analysis to characterize the use of social labeling in the blogosphere. Results: The study led to qualitatively describe the use of labels on blogs and their terminological particularities associated with the following aspects: creating labels in these spaces is related to a number of social issues among which we can highlight: Politics, Culture, economy, Gender, History, Sexuality, Discrimination, Health, Environment, Technology. The labels on these platforms are defined from the general to the particular and there is no limit concurrency for its creation, usually the authors cite for each post 4-7 labels in order to spread their content as possible in the community. Conclusions: This study enables reflect the social impact of using labels on platforms like blogs.

  4. SOILS AS REPRESENTATIVE COMPONENT OF URBAN SYSTEM ECOLOGICAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorkina N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Some classifications of city soils together with possibilities of operative tracking of the ecological state of urban system soil cover were considered. Data analysis of complex ecological monitoring of the soil cover was performed towards structural-functional organization of urban system and soils of city principal basic industrial enterprises and territories adjacent to artillery base complex near Novobogdanovka.The use of modern classifications of urban soils allows us to monitor the ecological state of soil of urban system and take proper measures for its optimization. The most representative indicators of the ecological status of soils for urban system are pH and heavy metals. All components of urban system must be considered as integrated structural and functional formation, where the main structural components are the administrative and territorial units - regions, and functional - industrial, residential and recreational areas of the city.Environmental monitoring of the spatial distribution of heavy metals and pH in Melitopol proved their uneven distribution. Most disadvantaged areas were located near highways. The main role in the pollution of the urban Melitopol environment has shifted to the road transport industry due to its significant increase.

  5. Testing a groundwater sampling tool: Are the samples representative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Bergren, C.L.; Carlson, C.A.; Carlson, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    A ground water sampling tool, the HydroPunch trademark, was tested at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to determine if representative ground water samples could be obtained without installing monitoring wells. Chemical analyses of ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark from various depths within a borehole were compared with chemical analyses of ground water from nearby monitoring wells. The site selected for the test was in the vicinity of a large coal storage pile and a coal pile runoff basin that was constructed to collect the runoff from the coal storage pile. Existing monitoring wells in the area indicate the presence of a ground water contaminant plume that: (1) contains elevated concentrations of trace metals; (2) has an extremely low pH; and (3) contains elevated concentrations of major cations and anions. Ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark provide in excellent estimate of ground water quality at discrete depths. Groundwater chemical data collected from various depths using the HydroPunch trademark can be averaged to simulate what a screen zone in a monitoring well would sample. The averaged depth-discrete data compared favorably with the data obtained from the nearby monitoring wells

  6. Modeling of Cementitious Representative Volume Element with Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzamanian, M. M.; Basirun, W. J.

    CEMHYD3D has been employed to simulate the representative volume element (RVE) of cementitious systems (Type I cement) containing fly ash (Class F) through a voxel-based finite element analysis (FEA) approach. Three-dimensional microstructures composed of voxels are generated for a heterogeneous cementitious material consisting of various constituent phases. The primary focus is to simulate a cementitious RVE containing fly ash and to present the homogenized macromechanical properties obtained from its analysis. Simple kinematic uniform boundary conditions as well as periodic boundary conditions were imposed on the RVE to obtain the principal and shear moduli. Our current work considers the effect of fly ash percentage on the elastic properties based on the mass and volume replacements. RVEs with lengths of 50, 100 and 200μm at different degrees of hydration are generated, and the elastic properties are modeled and simulated. In general, the elastic properties of a cementitious RVE with fly ash replacement for cement based on mass and volume differ from each other. Moreover, the finite element (FE) mesh density effect is studied. Results indicate that mechanical properties decrease with increasing mesh density.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum dolichol phosphate mannose synthase represents a novel clade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Santos de Macedo, Cristiana; Niehus, Sebastian; Dorn, Caroline; Kimmel, Juergen; Azzouz, Nahid; Schwarz, Ralph T.

    2008-01-01

    Dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPM) catalyzes the reaction between dolichol phosphate (Dol-P) and guanosine diphosphate mannose (GDP-Man) to form dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man). This molecule acts as mannose donor for N-glycosylation and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. The Plasmodium falciparum DPM1 (Pfdpm1) possesses a single predicted transmembrane region near the N-, but not the C-terminus. Here we show that the cloned Pfdpm1 gene failed to complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant indicating that the parasite gene does not belong to the baker's yeast group, as was previously assumed. Furthermore, Pfdpm1 was unable to complement a mouse mutant deficient in DPM but efficiently complements the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast mutant, indicating a difference between fission yeast and mammalian DPM genes. Therefore, we reanalyzed the hydrophobicity scales of all known DPMs and consequently reclassify the DPM clade into six major novel subgroups. Furthermore, we show that Pfdpm1 represents a unique enzyme among these subgroups

  8. Implicit Theories and Offender Representativeness in Judgments About Sexual Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Craig A; Bartels, Ross M

    2018-04-01

    Implicit theories structure the way people understand and respond to various human actions. Typically, people believe attributes are either fixed (entitists) or malleable (incrementalists). The present study aimed to examine (a) whether attitudes toward sexual offenders differ depending upon one's implicit theory about human nature and sexual offenders, and (b) whether implicit theories are associated with judgments made about different types of child abusers. A sample of 252 community participants was recruited. Their attitudes, implicit theories, and political orientation were assessed via self-report. One of three vignettes describing an incidence of child sexual abuse was then presented. The cases were identical except the perpetrator was either an adult male, an adult female, or a male juvenile. Participants then made judgments about the offender's deserved sentence and moral character. Entitists (across both domains) held more negative attitudes than incrementalists, although the magnitude of the difference was greatest when examining implicit theories about sexual offenders. Compared with those with an incremental theory of sexual offenders, entity theorists judged sexual offending to be more (a) indicative of the perpetrator's moral character and (b) deserving of punishment. However, scores were greater toward the adult male relative to the adult female and juvenile. The findings suggest that implicit theories about sexual offenders are domain specific. They also indicate that judgments made by those with an entity theory (about sexual offenders) are affected by whether a case is representative of a stereotypical sexual offender. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and future research.

  9. Sampling and Representativeness for a Spaceborne Wind Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieutaud, F.; Dabas, A.; Flamant, P. H.; Seze, G.; Courtier, PH.

    1992-01-01

    The capability of an Earth-orbiting lidar to produce a reliable windfield sampling with an error of 1-3 ms(exp -1) and that is relevant to numerical forecasting and climate studies is discussed. The spatial and temporal resolutions range from 100 km to 1000 km and 3 hr to 1 month respectively. In this respect cloud obstruction is of great concern, as it can prevent the lidar probing whole parts of the atmosphere, for both short and long periods of time. A worldwide analysis of cloudiness from either visual observations made from the ground or else from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) instrument, has shown that the average cloud cover is 60 percent. This analysis is only valid at large scales (time and space) compatible with the currently operating satellites. However, a lidar footprint is only about a hundred meters or less, and it was observed from ground based lidars that, even when the cloudiness is 100 percent, some lidar shots get through. A complete analysis of the probability of probing through clouds by a spaceborne lidar is presently beyond our capacities. Hence, no small scale cloudiness data set is yet available representing all kinds of meteorological situations at all latitudes.

  10. Assessing the Geographic Representativity of Farm Accountancy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Green

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The environment affects agriculture, via soils, weather, etc. and agriculture affects the environment locally at farm level and via its impact on climate change. Locating agriculture within its spatial environment is thus important for farmers and policy makers. Within the EU countries collect detailed farm data to understand the technical and financial performance of farms; the Farm Accountancy Data Network. However, knowledge of the spatial-environmental context of these farms is reported at gross scale. In this paper, Irish farm accounting data is geo-referenced using address matching to a national address database. An analysis of the geographic distribution of the survey farms, illustrated through a novel 2D ranked pair plot of the coordinates, compared to the national distribution of farms shows a trend in the location of survey farms that leads to a statistical difference in the climatic variables associated with the farm. The farms in the survey have significantly higher accumulated solar radiation values than the national average. As a result, the survey may not be representative spatially of the pattern of environment x farm system. This could have important considerations when using FADN data in modelling climate change impacts on agri-economic performance.

  11. Interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Alkaabba, Abdulaziz; Qadi, Mahdi; Albahlal, Abdullah; Alabdulkarim, Yasir; Alabduljabbar, Mohammad; Alqahtani, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representative (PR) is a major component of the promotional activities by pharmaceutical companies. The lack of studies examining the magnitude of this interaction in Saudi Arabia is evident. The objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude and associated characteristics of physician-PR interaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted among physicians working in the different regions of Saudi Arabia between March and July of 2012. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between March and July of 2012 in the different regions of Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and handed to all participants, both in paper and electronic formats. A total of 663 participants completed the questionnaire. The participation rate was 66.3% (663/1000). The majority of the participants (72.9%) reported interaction with PRs. This was lower among residents/interns compared to higher ranking employees (55.6% vs 83.6%, P strategy to reduce negative impact.

  12. [News media's surveillance and gatekeeping in representing health risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myoungsoon; Ju, Youngkee

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates whether Korean news media pay more attention to emerging diseases than chronic ones, and whether they closely follow the changes in the magnitude of health risks of chronic or well-known diseases. These two features are expected to appear as the result of surveillance function served by health journalism that should be the main source of the public's risk perception. The number of stories published in 10 newspapers containing the words, 'SARS,' 'Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy,' 'Avian Influenza,' and 'Influenza A virus' was compared with the number of stories on chronic or well-known diseases. We also counted the annual number of stories, published in a 12-year period, containing following terms: 'cancer,' 'diabetes,' 'hypertension,' 'pneumonia,' and 'tuberculosis.' The number was compared with the actual mortality of each disease. Although cancer represented the primary cause of mortality, the newspapers covered key emerging diseases more than cancer or other well-known diseases. Also, media coverage of 'pneumonia' and 'tuberculosis' did not vary in accordance with changes in the mortality of each disease. However, the news media coverage did vary in accordance with the mortality of 'cancer,' 'diabetes,' and 'hypertension.' Korean health journalism was found to have both strong and weak points. The news media reduced the relative level of attention given to pneumonia and tuberculosis. Bearing in mind the major influence of news coverage on risk perception, health professionals need to be more proactive about helping to improve Korean health journalism.

  13. Representative Delay Measurements (RDM: Facing the Challenge of Modern Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Fabini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Network access technologies have evolved significantly in the last years. They deploy novel mechanisms like reactive capacity allocation and time-slotted operation to optimize overall network capacity. From a single node's perspective, such optimizations decrease network determinism and measurement repeatability. Evolving application fields like machine to machine (M2M communications or real-time gaming often have strict real-time requirements to operate correctly. Highly accurate delay measurements are necessary to monitor network compliance with application demands or to detect deviations of normal network behavior, which may be caused by network failures, misconfigurations or attacks. This paper analyzes factors that challenge active delay measurements in modern networks. It introduces the Representative Delay Measurement tool (RDM that addresses these factors and proposes solutions that conform to requirements of the recently published RFC7312. Delay measurement results acquired using RDM in live networks confirm that advanced measurement methods can significantly improve the quality of measurement samples by isolating systematic network behavior. The resulting high-quality samples are one prerequisite for accurate statistics that support proper operation of subsequent algorithms and applications.

  14. Targeting Nucleophosmin 1 Represents a Rational Strategy for Radiation Sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhar, Konjeti R.; Benamar, Mouadh; Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Sasi, Soumya; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Hann, Stephen R.; Geng, Ling; Balusu, Ramesh; Abbas, Tarek; Freeman, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that small molecule targeting of nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) represents a rational approach for radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: Wilde-type and NPM1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were used to determine whether radiosensitization produced by the small molecule YTR107 was NPM1 dependent. The stress response to ionizing radiation was assessed by quantifying pNPM1, γH2AX, and Rad51 foci, neutral comet tail moment, and colony formation. NPM1 levels in a human-derived non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue microarray (TMA) were determined by immunohistochemistry. YTR107-mediated radiosensitization was assessed in NSCLC cell lines and xenografts. Results: Use of NPM1-null MEFs demonstrated that NPM1 is critical for DNA double- strand break (DSB) repair, that loss of NPM1 increases radiation sensitivity, and that YTR107-mediated radiosensitization is NPM1 dependent. YTR107 was shown to inhibit NPM1 oligomerization and impair formation of pNPM1 irradiation-induced foci that colocalized with γH2AX foci. Analysis of the TMA demonstrated that NPM1 is overexpressed in subsets of NSCLC. YTR107 inhibited DNA DSB repair and radiosensitized NSCLC lines and xenografts. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that YTR107-mediated targeting of NPM1 impairs DNA DSB repair, an event that increases radiation sensitivity

  15. Medical Representatives' Intention to Use Information Technology in Pharmaceutical Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Eun-Seon; Chang, Hyejung

    2016-10-01

    Electronic detailing (e-detailing), the use of electronic devices to facilitate sales presentations to physicians, has been adopted and expanded in the pharmaceutical industry. To maximize the potential outcome of e-detailing, it is important to understand medical representatives (MRs)' behavior and attitude to e-detailing. This study investigates how information technology devices such as laptop computers and tablet PCs are utilized in pharmaceutical marketing, and it analyzes the factors influencing MRs' intention to use devices. This study has adopted and modified the theory of Roger's diffusion of innovation model and the technology acceptance model. To test the model empirically, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 221 MRs who were working in three multinational or eleven domestic pharmaceutical companies in Korea. Overall, 28% and 35% of MRs experienced using laptop computers and tablet PCs in pharmaceutical marketing, respectively. However, the rates were different across different groups of MRs, categorized by age, education level, position, and career. The results showed that MRs' intention to use information technology devices was significantly influenced by perceived usefulness in general. Perceived ease of use, organizational and individual innovativeness, and several MR characteristics were also found to have significant impacts. This study provides timely information about e-detailing devices to marketing managers and policy makers in the pharmaceutical industry for successful marketing strategy development by understanding the needs of MRs' intention to use information technology. Further in-depth study should be conducted to understand obstacles and limitations and to improve the strategies for better marketing tools.

  16. Representing knowledge, data and concepts for EHRS using DCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William

    2011-01-01

    With the move towards next generations of Electronic Health Record Systems (EHRS), the focus changes from administrative and data retrieval and data entry system capabilities towards clinical functions. The representation of the clinical knowledge and evidence base into EHRS becomes an important asset for health care, with its own challenges. Clinician's do want EHRS support but do not want to standardize care, they do want unified terminology and structured data entry but also free text. In addition, information modelers challenge each other for the best solution, and care pathways and other workflows seem to differ for each situation. Such diverging approaches add complexity to the already difficult situation around Information Technology in health care, the EHRS in particular. This paper argues that a change is necessary to adopt Detailed Clinical Modeling as a method to organize clinical knowledge, represent concepts and define data in such a manner that it allows for semantics to be exchanged without being trapped in a specific technology. DCM help to fulfill the requirements for the enter data once, reuse multiple times paradigm for EHRS.

  17. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  18. Representative concentration pathways and mitigation scenarios for nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.

    2012-06-01

    The challenges of mitigating nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are substantially different from those for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), because nitrogen (N) is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. Here I use a model of emission factors of N2O to demonstrate the magnitude of improvements in agriculture and industrial sectors and changes in dietary habits that would be necessary to match the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) now being considered in the fifth assessment report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Stabilizing atmospheric N2O by 2050, consistent with the most aggressive of the RCP mitigation scenarios, would require about 50% reductions in emission factors in all sectors and about a 50% reduction in mean per capita meat consumption in the developed world. Technologies exist to achieve such improved efficiencies, but overcoming social, economic, and political impediments for their adoption and for changes in dietary habits will present large challenges.

  19. Performing, Representing, and Archiving Belief: Religious Expressions among Jazz Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn A. Booker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The archives of African American jazz musicians demonstrate rich sites for studying expressions of religious belief and daily religious practice in public and private arenas, in professional and personal capacities. Highlighting print material from the archives of Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (1899–1974 and Mary Lou Williams (1910–1981, this article examines the ways that these musicians worked to articulate their beliefs in print and to make meaning of their routine practices. Ellington and Williams produced written records of their aspirations for non-clerical religious authority and leadership, novel notions of religious community, and conceptions of quotidian writing tasks as practices with devotional value in the middle decades of the twentieth century. In preparation for his Sacred Concert tours of American and Western European religious congregations, Ellington theologized about the nature of God and the proper language to address God through private hotel stationery. Following her conversion to Roman Catholicism, Williams managed a Harlem thrift shop and worked to create the Bel Canto Foundation for musicians struggling with substance abuse and unemployment. This study of the religious subjectivity of African Americans with status as race representatives employs archival historical methods in the effort to vividly approximate complex religious interiority.

  20. Representative volume element of asphalt pavement for electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Pellinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to investigate the representative volume element (RVE needed to correlate the nondestructive electromagnetic (EM measurements with the conventional destructive asphalt pavement quality control measurements. A large pavement rehabilitation contract was used as the test site for the experiment. Pavement cores were drilled from the same locations where the stationary and continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR measurements were obtained. Laboratory measurements included testing the bulk density of cores using two methods, the surface-saturated dry method and determining bulk density by dimensions. Also, Vector Network Analyzer (VNA and the through specimen transmission configuration were employed at microwave frequencies to measure the reference dielectric constant of cores using two different footprint areas and therefore volume elements. The RVE for EM measurements turns out to be frequency dependent; therefore in addition to being dependent on asphalt mixture type and method of obtaining bulk density, it is dependent on the resolution of the EM method used. Then, although the average bulk property results agreed with theoretical formulations of higher core air void content giving a lower dielectric constant, for the individual cores there was no correlation for the VNA measurements because the volume element seizes deviated. Similarly, GPR technique was unable to capture the spatial variation of pavement air voids measured from the 150-mm drill cores. More research is needed to determine the usable RVE for asphalt.

  1. Representative seroprevalences of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Dürr, Salome; Toktobaev, Nurjan; Doherr, Marcus G; Schueth, Tobias; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2012-06-01

    Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,774 human sera were tested in Naryn, Chuy, and Osh Oblasts. The overall apparent seroprevalences of brucellosis were 8.8% in humans (95% CI 4.5-16.5), 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.9%) in cattle, 3.3% (95% CI 1.5-6.9%) in sheep, and 2.5% (95% CI 1.4-4.5%) in goats. Naryn Oblast had the highest seroprevalences in humans and sheep. More men than women were seropositive (OR = 1.96; P Kyrgyzstan and warrants rapid effective intervention, among others, by mass vaccination of sheep and goats but also of cattle.

  2. Examination of representative drum from 618-9 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The work described in this report was conducted in pursuance of Task E of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Solid Waste Technology Support Program for Westinghouse Hanford Company. Task E calls for a determination of the corrosion rate of low-carbon steels under typical Hanford Site conditions. To meet this objective, Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined one intact drum that was judged to be representative of the largely intact drums excavated at the 618-9 Burial Ground located west of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. Six samples were examined to characterize the drum, its composition, and its corrosion and corrosion products. The drum, which was found empty, was constructed of low-carbon steel. Its surface appeared relatively sound. The drum metal varied in thickness, but the minimum thickness in the samples was near 0.020 in. The corrosion corresponds to approximately 25 to 35 mils of metal loss, roughly a 1 mil/yr corrosion rate. Corrosion products were goethite and maghymite, expected products of iron buried in soil. Apparently, the drum leaked some time ago, but the cause of the leakage is unknown because records of the drums and their burial are limited. The drum was empty when found, and it is possible that it could have failed by pitting rather than by general corrosion. A pitting rate of about 3.5 mils/yr would have caused loss of drum integrity in the time since burial

  3. Higher Level Visual Cortex Represents Retinotopic, Not Spatiotopic, Object Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The crux of vision is to identify objects and determine their locations in the environment. Although initial visual representations are necessarily retinotopic (eye centered), interaction with the real world requires spatiotopic (absolute) location information. We asked whether higher level human visual cortex—important for stable object recognition and action—contains information about retinotopic and/or spatiotopic object position. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging multivariate pattern analysis techniques, we found information about both object category and object location in each of the ventral, dorsal, and early visual regions tested, replicating previous reports. By manipulating fixation position and stimulus position, we then tested whether these location representations were retinotopic or spatiotopic. Crucially, all location information was purely retinotopic. This pattern persisted when location information was irrelevant to the task, and even when spatiotopic (not retinotopic) stimulus position was explicitly emphasized. We also conducted a “searchlight” analysis across our entire scanned volume to explore additional cortex but again found predominantly retinotopic representations. The lack of explicit spatiotopic representations suggests that spatiotopic object position may instead be computed indirectly and continually reconstructed with each eye movement. Thus, despite our subjective impression that visual information is spatiotopic, even in higher level visual cortex, object location continues to be represented in retinotopic coordinates. PMID:22190434

  4. The uniform as a representative object in health care area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliecília de Fátima Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It inserts in the scope of the studies of thematerial culture, setting the uniform in Health Carearea as an object of study. It is aimed to analyze thesignifi cance of this clothing as an element which ispresent in the formation of the image of the companiesin human relations professionals and corporateidentity. It is based in bibliographical research,costume analysis and interview. It is discussed howthese artefacts are noticed and interpreted in theinternal and external relations to the professionalsand the use of the uniform as a contradictoryform of homogenization and of a distinction of socialclasses. It concludes that for the company, thiscostume represents a group of concepts, statementsand explanations; it is interpreted as derived of theidentity of the area. For the professionals of the area,it attributes characteristics and traits of individualityof this group and at the same time becomes asymbol of status and social diff erentiation and segregationinside of the own group according to thefunction or position that the individual occupies.

  5. Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA: computerization and representativeness of its collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo F. Treviño

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific collections and herbaria are essential sources of information and education for researchers and practitioners in biological sciences. The Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA, registered at Index Herbariorum since 2004, holds one of the most important collections in Peru. In this paper we provide information about the collection, and its representativeness for the Peruvian flora. HUSA has more than 11000 specimens recorded to date, with more than 2300 determined species, consisting mostly of Magnoliophyta and Pteridophyta (ca. 98%, and a smaller proportion of Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes (fungi and lichens and Bryophyta (mosses. The collection includes specimens from 23 departments of Peru, where the samples belonging to Arequipa have the largest number of individuals collected (3375 accounting for 31% of the collection. Asteraceae and Solanaceae are the most collected with 1571 and 964 specimens, respectively. The majority of geo-referenced specimens came from the tropical wet forest with 15%, followed by the tropical pre-montane wet forest with 8%. We also provide a list of the nomenclatural types and a brief summary of the history and development of HUSA since its creation.

  6. Representing IT Projects Risk Management Best Practices as a Metamodel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Yamami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although still relatively new, the field of IT Governance has its own bodies of knowledge that include various methodologies, frameworks and techniques supported by an increasing growing base of research. IT Project Risk Management has since emerged as its own field. Many frameworks and methodologies were proposed by both practitioners and researchers. A review of the literature about the subject shows that there is a divergence between the two. The practitioners propose a set of good practices from professional environment but the heaviness of the proposed guides does not allow its application and adoption by managers or it’s improvement by researchers. Thus it calls for specific focus on IT governance frameworks best practices modelling in order to reach fusion between practitioners and researchers contributions. In this paper, special attention is dedicated to Project Management Institute’s guides. The main objective is representing IT Project Risk Management best practices as a Metamodel in order to complement different areas of knowledge.

  7. Reliable radiogenic heat production of representative lithological groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Fernández, Manel

    2010-05-01

    Determining the temperature distribution within the lithosphere requires the knowledge of the radiogenic heat production (RHP) distribution within the crust and the lithospheric mantle. RHP of crustal rocks varies considerably at different scales as a result of the petrogenetic processes responsible for their formation and therefore RHP depends on the considered lithologies. In this work we address RHP variability of some common lithological groups from a compilation of a total of 2188 representative U, Th and K concentrations of different worldwide rock types derived from 102 geochemical and geophysical datasets previously published. To optimize the use of the generated RHP database we have classified and renamed the rock-type denominations of the original works following a petrologic classification scheme with a hierarchical structure. To compute RHP a reasonable average density was assigned for each lithologic group. The RHP data of each lithological group is presented in cumulative distribution plots, and we report a table with the mean, the standard deviation, the minimum and maximum values, and the significant percentiles (10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th) of these lithological groups. In general, for each lithological group exists a wide zone around the median value with a constant slope indicating RHP values with the same probability of occurrence. This zone usually includes the RHP range defined by the 25th and the 75th percentile. When compare previuos RHP estimates of representative lithological groups with our results it is observed that most of them fall between the 25th and 75th percentiles obtained. We integrate our results in a schematic model of the differentiation processes undergone by lithospheric rocks. This model allows us to discuss the RHP variability for the different igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic lithological groups from a petrogenetic viewpoint. Finally we give some useful guidelines to assign RHP values to lithospheric thermal

  8. Human Amygdala Represents the Complete Spectrum of Subjective Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Zelano, Christina; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is a major locus for hedonic processing, how it encodes valence information is poorly understood. Given the hedonic potency of odor stimuli and the amygdala's anatomical proximity to the peripheral olfactory system, we combined high-resolution fMRI with pattern-based multivariate techniques to examine how valence information is encoded in the amygdala. Ten human subjects underwent fMRI scanning while smelling 9 odorants that systematically varied in perceived valence. Representational similarity analyses showed that amygdala codes the entire dimension of valence, ranging from pleasantness to unpleasantness. This unidimensional representation significantly correlated with self-reported valence ratings but not with intensity ratings. Furthermore, within-trial valence representations evolved over time, prioritizing earlier differentiation of unpleasant stimuli. Together, these findings underscore the idea that both spatial and temporal features uniquely encode pleasant and unpleasant odor valence in the amygdala. The availability of a unidimensional valence code in the amygdala, distributed in both space and time, would create greater flexibility in determining the pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli, providing a mechanism by which expectation, context, attention, and learning could influence affective boundaries for guiding behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our findings elucidate the mechanisms of affective processing in the amygdala by demonstrating that this brain region represents the entire valence dimension from pleasant to unpleasant. An important implication of this unidimensional valence code is that pleasant and unpleasant valence cannot coexist in the amygdale because overlap of fMRI ensemble patterns for these two valence extremes obscures their unique content. This functional architecture, whereby subjective valence maps onto a pattern continuum between pleasant and unpleasant poles, offers a robust mechanism by which context

  9. Future changes in global warming potentials under representative concentration pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisinger, Andy [New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre, PO Box 10002, Wellington 6143 (New Zealand); Meinshausen, Malte [Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Germany); Manning, Martin, E-mail: andy.reisinger@nzagrc.org.nz [Climate Change Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

    2011-04-15

    Global warming potentials (GWPs) are the metrics currently used to compare emissions of different greenhouse gases under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations will alter GWPs because the radiative efficiencies of marginal changes in CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O depend on their background concentrations, the removal of CO{sub 2} is influenced by climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, and atmospheric residence times of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O also depend on ambient temperature and other environmental changes. We calculated the currently foreseeable future changes in the absolute GWP of CO{sub 2}, which acts as the denominator for the calculation of all GWPs, and specifically the GWPs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, along four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) up to the year 2100. We find that the absolute GWP of CO{sub 2} decreases under all RCPs, although for longer time horizons this decrease is smaller than for short time horizons due to increased climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. The 100-year GWP of CH{sub 4} would increase up to 20% under the lowest RCP by 2100 but would decrease by up to 10% by mid-century under the highest RCP. The 100-year GWP of N{sub 2}O would increase by more than 30% by 2100 under the highest RCP but would vary by less than 10% under other scenarios. These changes are not negligible but are mostly smaller than the changes that would result from choosing a different time horizon for GWPs, or from choosing altogether different metrics for comparing greenhouse gas emissions, such as global temperature change potentials.

  10. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Schwen

    Full Text Available The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale.

  11. Representative recharge rates in a complex unsaturated hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.; Newman, B.; Birdsell, K.

    1997-01-01

    This study summarizes analyses used for the determination of representative recharge rates in a semi-arid terrain of complex topography for the purpose of modeling the performance assessment of a mesa top disposal facility. Four recharge rates are identified based on different terrains. The terrain is first broadly grouped into canyon bottoms and mesa tops, with each covering about half the topography. The canyon bottoms are considered wet or dry depending on the local infiltration conditions and the influence of mans' activities. The mesa tops are separated into locations which are undisturbed and disturbed by laboratory operations. Disturbed locations at the disposal facility include the disposal pits utilized for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste, covering approximately half the mesa top area. Several sources of data and analyses have been synthesized to estimate the resulting recharge rates. Data and analyses include: (1) detailed surface water balance calculations with site-specific parameter values as input; (2) chloride ion profiles and analysis of implied flux at several borehole locations; (3) analyses of liquid and vapor phase vertical flux from moisture profiles with stratigraphic unit averaged unsaturated hydrologic properties; (4) comparison of moisture content field data with values implied from Darcy flux calculations for assumed unit gradient conditions and for stratigraphic unit averaged unsaturated hydrologic properties; (5) liquid flux calculated under self-consistent gradients from field observed moisture profiles and analytic determinations of in-situ moisture potential and conductivity at limited locations; (6) distributions in near surface soil moisture contents expressed as an equivalent vertical flux under unit gradient assumptions; and (7) limited comparisons to tracers available from past disposal operations

  12. Physicians-Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives Interactions and Conflict of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash R. Patwardhan MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Physician-industry relationships have come a long way since serious debates began after a 1990 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources report on the topic. On one side, the Sun Shine Act of 2007, now a part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandates disclosure of payments and gifts to the physicians, has injected more transparency into the relationships, and on the other side, numerous voluntary self-regulation guidelines have been instituted to protect patients. However, despite these commendable efforts, problem persists. Taking the specific case of physician-pharmaceutical sales representative (PSR interactions, also called as detailing, where the PSRs lobby physicians to prescribe their brand drugs while bringing them gifts on the side, an August 2016 article concluded that gifts as small as $20 are associated with higher prescribing rates. A close examination reveals the intricacies of the relationships. Though PSRs ultimately want to push their drugs, more than gifts, they also bring the ready-made synthesized knowledge about the drugs, something the busy physicians, starving for time to read the literature themselves, find hard to let go. Conscientious physicians are not unaware of the marketing tactics. And yet, physicians too are humans. It is also the nature of their job that requires an innate cognitive dissonance to be functional in medical practice, a trait that sometimes works against them in case of PSR interactions. Besides, PSRs too follow the dictates of the shareholders of their companies. Therefore, if they try to influence physicians using social psychology, it is a job they are asked to do. The complexity of relationships creates conundrums that are hard to tackle. This commentary examines various dimensions of these relationships. In the end, a few suggestions are offered as a way forward.

  13. How do auditory cortex neurons represent communication sounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Quentin; Huetz, Chloé; Gourévitch, Boris; Laudanski, Jonathan; Occelli, Florian; Edeline, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    A major goal in auditory neuroscience is to characterize how communication sounds are represented at the cortical level. The present review aims at investigating the role of auditory cortex in the processing of speech, bird songs and other vocalizations, which all are spectrally and temporally highly structured sounds. Whereas earlier studies have simply looked for neurons exhibiting higher firing rates to particular conspecific vocalizations over their modified, artificially synthesized versions, more recent studies determined the coding capacity of temporal spike patterns, which are prominent in primary and non-primary areas (and also in non-auditory cortical areas). In several cases, this information seems to be correlated with the behavioral performance of human or animal subjects, suggesting that spike-timing based coding strategies might set the foundations of our perceptive abilities. Also, it is now clear that the responses of auditory cortex neurons are highly nonlinear and that their responses to natural stimuli cannot be predicted from their responses to artificial stimuli such as moving ripples and broadband noises. Since auditory cortex neurons cannot follow rapid fluctuations of the vocalizations envelope, they only respond at specific time points during communication sounds, which can serve as temporal markers for integrating the temporal and spectral processing taking place at subcortical relays. Thus, the temporal sparse code of auditory cortex neurons can be considered as a first step for generating high level representations of communication sounds independent of the acoustic characteristic of these sounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Representativeness of Honeypot Trial Participants to Australasian PD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Badve, Sunil V; Pascoe, Elaine M; Beller, Elaine; Cass, Alan; Clark, Carolyn; de Zoysa, Janak; Isbel, Nicole M; Liu, Xusheng; McTaggart, Steven; Morrish, Alicia T; Playford, Geoffrey; Scaria, Anish; Snelling, Paul; Vergara, Liza A; Hawley, Carmel M; Johnson, David W

    2017-01-01

    The HONEYPOT trial failed to establish the superiority of exit-site application of Medihoney compared with nasal mupirocin prophylaxis for the prevention of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study aimed to assess the representativeness of the patients in the HONEYPOT trial to the Australian and New Zealand PD population. This study compared baseline characteristics of the 371 PD patients in the HONEYPOT trial with those of 6,085 PD patients recorded on the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) Registry. Compared with the PD population, the HONEYPOT sample was older (standardized difference [ d ] = 0.19, p = 0.003), more likely to be treated with automated PD ( d = 0.58, p < 0.001), had higher residual renal function ( d = 0.26, p < 0.001) and a higher proportion of participants with end-stage kidney disease due to polycystic kidney disease ( d = 0.17) and lower proportion due to diabetes ( d = -0.17) and glomerulonephritis ( d = -0.18) ( p < 0.001), and lower proportions of indigenous people ( d = -0.17, p < 0.001), current smokers ( d = -0.10, p < 0.001), and people with prior histories of hemodialysis ( d = -0.16, p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus ( d = -0.18, p < 0.001), and coronary artery disease ( d = -0.15, p < 0.001). HONEYPOT trial participants tended to be healthier than the Australian and New Zealand PD patient population. Although the differences between the groups were generally modest, it is possible that their cumulative effect may have had some impact on external generalizability, which is not an uncommon occurrence in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  15. Prescribers and pharmaceutical representatives: why are we still meeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melissa A; Keough, Mary Ellen; Baril, Joann L; Saccoccio, Laura; Mazor, Kathleen M; Ladd, Elissa; Von Worley, Ann; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that pharmaceutical marketing influences prescribing and may cause cognitive dissonance for prescribers. This work has primarily been with physicians and physician-trainees. Questions remain regarding why prescribers continue to meet with pharmaceutical representatives (PRs). To describe the reasons that prescribers from various health professions continue to interact with PRs despite growing evidence of the influence of these interactions. Multi-disciplinary focus groups with 61 participants held in practice settings and at society meetings. Most prescribers participating in our focus groups believe that overall PR interactions are beneficial to patient care and practice health. They either trust the information from PRs or feel that they are equipped to evaluate it independently. Despite acknowledgement of study findings to the contrary, prescribers state that they are able to effectively manage PR interactions such that their own prescribing is not adversely impacted. Prescribers describe few specific strategies or policies for these interactions, and report that policies are not consistently implemented with all members of a clinic or institution. Some prescribers perceive an inherent contradiction between academic centers and national societies receiving money from pharmaceutical companies, and then recommending restriction at the level of the individual prescriber. Prescribers with different training backgrounds present a few novel reasons for these meetings. Despite evidence that PR detailing influences prescribing, providers from several health professions continue to believe that PR interactions improve patient care, and that they can adequately evaluate and filter information presented to them by PRs. Focus group comments suggest that cultural change is necessary to break the norms that exist in many settings. Applying policies consistently, considering non-physician members of the healthcare team, working with trainees, restructuring

  16. Thyroglobulin Represents a Novel Molecular Architecture of Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Guillaume; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Lorin, Thibault; Gillet, Benjamin; Hughes, Sandrine; Tohmé, Marie; Deléage, Gilbert; Demeneix, Barbara; Arvan, Peter; Laudet, Vincent

    2016-08-05

    Thyroid hormones modulate not only multiple functions in vertebrates (energy metabolism, central nervous system function, seasonal changes in physiology, and behavior) but also in some non-vertebrates where they control critical post-embryonic developmental transitions such as metamorphosis. Despite their obvious biological importance, the thyroid hormone precursor protein, thyroglobulin (Tg), has been experimentally investigated only in mammals. This may bias our view of how thyroid hormones are produced in other organisms. In this study we searched genomic databases and found Tg orthologs in all vertebrates including the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We cloned a full-size Tg coding sequence from western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comparisons between the representative mammal, amphibian, teleost fish, and basal vertebrate indicate that all of the different domains of Tg, as well as Tg regional structure, are conserved throughout the vertebrates. Indeed, in Xenopus, zebrafish, and lamprey Tgs, key residues, including the hormonogenic tyrosines and the disulfide bond-forming cysteines critical for Tg function, are well conserved despite overall divergence of amino acid sequences. We uncovered upstream sequences that include start codons of zebrafish and Xenopus Tgs and experimentally proved that these are full-length secreted proteins, which are specifically recognized by antibodies against rat Tg. By contrast, we have not been able to find any orthologs of Tg among non-vertebrate species. Thus, Tg appears to be a novel protein elaborated as a single event at the base of vertebrates and virtually unchanged thereafter. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  18. Japanese practicing physicians' relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%, received drug samples (85% and stationery (96%, and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME events at the workplace (80% and outside the workplace (93%. Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49% and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%. Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to

  19. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289

  20. Engineering activities on the ITER representative diagnostic equatorial port plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, L.; Doceul, L.; Salasca, S.; Martins, J.-P.; Jullien, F.; Dechelle, Christian; Bidaud, Pierre; Pilard, Vincent; Terra, Alexis; Ogea, Mathieu; Ciattaglia, Emanuela; Walker, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Most of ITER diagnostic systems are integrated in port plugs, which are water cooled stainless steel structures inserted into the vacuum vessel ports. The port plug must provide basic functions such as neutron and gamma shielding, supporting the first wall armour (BSM), closing the vacuum vessel ports, while supporting the diagnostic equipments. ITER diagnostic port plug must resist a severe environment like high temperature due to neutron interaction with the structures and high electromechanical loading during disruptions events. CEA has contributed to the design and integration tasks in the frame of the representative equatorial port plug EQ no. 01, in particular on the engineering, structural and thermal finite element analysis. These detailed analyses have highlighted some design issues which were worked out through different solutions. This paper contains a description of the engineering activities performed such as: -The static mechanical calculations of the top plate closure system under disruption load. -The static mechanical calculations of the BSM attachment to the port plug. These two first studies led to design changes proposals which significantly improved the behaviour of the structures but also showed that the safety margin with respect to design limits is quite low. -The design of a Diagnostic Shield Module (DSM) integrated inside the port plug and a proposition of attachment scheme, with respect to disruption loads. The manufacturing of the DSM has been taken into account, as well as diagnostic integration inside the structure and maintenance aspects. -The thermal assessment of the port plug under neutronic load during normal operation, with the optimization of the cooling system. The maximum temperature calculated in normal operation has been reduced from 900 deg. C to less than 400 deg. C in the front plate; and the cooling arrangement at the back of the port plug has been simplified without important temperature increase.

  1. Engineering activities on the ITER representative diagnostic equatorial port plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, L. [Association Euratom CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM (France)], E-mail: lmeunier@cea.fr; Doceul, L.; Salasca, S.; Martins, J.-P.; Jullien, F.; Dechelle, Christian; Bidaud, Pierre; Pilard, Vincent; Terra, Alexis; Ogea, Mathieu [Association Euratom CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM (France); Ciattaglia, Emanuela [EFDA CSU, Garching (Germany); Walker, Christopher [ITER International Organisation (France)

    2009-06-15

    Most of ITER diagnostic systems are integrated in port plugs, which are water cooled stainless steel structures inserted into the vacuum vessel ports. The port plug must provide basic functions such as neutron and gamma shielding, supporting the first wall armour (BSM), closing the vacuum vessel ports, while supporting the diagnostic equipments. ITER diagnostic port plug must resist a severe environment like high temperature due to neutron interaction with the structures and high electromechanical loading during disruptions events. CEA has contributed to the design and integration tasks in the frame of the representative equatorial port plug EQ no. 01, in particular on the engineering, structural and thermal finite element analysis. These detailed analyses have highlighted some design issues which were worked out through different solutions. This paper contains a description of the engineering activities performed such as: -The static mechanical calculations of the top plate closure system under disruption load. -The static mechanical calculations of the BSM attachment to the port plug. These two first studies led to design changes proposals which significantly improved the behaviour of the structures but also showed that the safety margin with respect to design limits is quite low. -The design of a Diagnostic Shield Module (DSM) integrated inside the port plug and a proposition of attachment scheme, with respect to disruption loads. The manufacturing of the DSM has been taken into account, as well as diagnostic integration inside the structure and maintenance aspects. -The thermal assessment of the port plug under neutronic load during normal operation, with the optimization of the cooling system. The maximum temperature calculated in normal operation has been reduced from 900 deg. C to less than 400 deg. C in the front plate; and the cooling arrangement at the back of the port plug has been simplified without important temperature increase.

  2. How preschoolers and adults represent their joint action partner's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Meyer, M; Hartstra, E; Bekkering, H; Hunnius, S

    2017-10-24

    We investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying turn-taking joint action in 42-month-old children (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) using a behavioral task of dressing a virtual bear together. We aimed to investigate how participants represent a partners' behavior, i.e., in terms of specific action kinematics or of action effects. The bear was dressed by pressing a smaller and a bigger button. In the Action-response task, instructions asked participants to respond to the partner by pressing the same or opposite button; in the Action-effect task they had to respond to the partner's action effect by dressing the bear with the lacking part of the clothing, which in some cases implied pressing the same button and in other cases implied pressing the opposite button. In 50% of the trials, the partner's association between each button and the ensuing effect (dressing the bear with t-shirt or pants) was reversed, while it never changed for participants. Both children and adults showed no effect of physical congruency of actions, but showed impaired performance in the Action-effect task if their partner achieved her effect through a different action-effect association than their own. These results suggest that, when encoding their partner's actions, agents are influenced by action-effect associations that they learnt through their own experience. While interference led to overt errors in children, it caused longer reaction times in adults, suggesting that a flexible cognitive control (that is still in development in young children) is required to take on the partner's perspective.

  3. Representatives of religious education in the structure of Novorossiysk university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. П. Бахчиванжи

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available History of the Departments of Theology, Ecclesiastical History and Ecclesiastical Law of Novorossiysk University as well as clarification of activities of professors who were the Heads of these Departments is the subject of the article. The objective of the research was to reveal the contribution to science these professors had made on basis of such material as “Records of Proceedings of the Board Meeting of Novorossiysk University”, “Teaching of Sciences at the Imperial Novorossiysk University Review” as well as the particular studies of the professors themselves. As a result of the research using the analytical approach generic aspects of existence of theological departments in educational structure of the University including the period of teaching the theological disciplines at the Richelieu Lycée were described. The basic legislative acts regulating the activity of such Departments were stated and the activity of such professors as Pavlovskiy M.K., Kudryavtsev A.N., Voytovskiy V.M., Klitin A.N., Krasnoseltsev N.F., Dobroklonskiy A.P., Almazov A.I., Pavlov F.S. who not only became the significant persons in the history of the University but also played the leading role in social and spiritual life of Odessa in general was elucidated. Such analysis of the activity of the representatives of religious education at Novorossiysk University provided an opportunity to conclude of the importance of the theological disciplines in educational structure of the University as it is them that are of great importance to the spiritual development of personality and society on the whole.

  4. Officers, Boards, Committees, and Representatives of the American Psychological Association, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Council of Representatives is composed of the Board of Directors, the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) representative, division representatives, and state, provincial, and territorial association representatives. Then representatives for the current year, with terms of office, are listed in this article.

  5. Heterogeneous researchers in a two-sector representative consumer economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Research activities have uncertain outcomes. The question asked in this paper is whether or not this uncertainty can be a central piece on the explanation of long run consumption growth paths. More specifically, we inquire how the existence of different research projects, with different degrees of uncertainty, contributes to unpredictable consumption growth paths. The proposed scenario is a two-sector representative consumer model with researchers that invest in different innovation projects. There is heterogeneity in terms of risk associated to research programs (researchers invest in projects with the same expected outcome but different volatility. This difference in volatility, combined with an adaptive learning - bounded rationality rule, implies an aggregate index of technology and a consumption growth rate that do not present a predictable pattern over time.As actividades de investigação produzem resultados incertos. A questão colocada neste artigo é se esta incerteza pode ser uma peça central na explicação das trajectórias de crescimento do consumo no longo prazo. Mais especificamente, pergunta-se como a existência de diferentes projectos de investigação, com diferentes graus de incerteza associados, contribui para trajectórias de crescimento do consumo que não são passíveis de previsão. O cenário proposto é um modelo de consumidor representativo de dois sectores com investigadores que investem em diferentes projectos de inovação. Existe heterogeneidade ao nível do risco associado aos programas de investigação (os investigadores investem em projectos com o mesmo resultado esperado mas diferente volatilidade. A diferença na volatilidade, combinada com uma regra de aprendizagem adaptativa - racionalidade limitada, implica um índice agregado de tecnologia e uma taxa de crescimento do consumo que não apresentam um padrão previsível ao longo do tempo.

  6. A Multi-Agent Framework Manages a Representative Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, D.; Schmidt, D.; Biswas, G.; Kinnebrew, J.; Otte, W.; Shankaran, N.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's vision of a Sensor Web (which includes a distributed global observation system) consists of a large number of elements, such as remote spacecraft hosting multiple instruments, in situ terrestrial and oceanic sensor networks, and airborne assets. Researchers and developers of a Sensor web face a number of challenges that arise from (1) the inherent heterogeneous and geographical distributed nature of the Sensor web; (2) the myriad mission goals and objectives that must be satisfied by the Sensor web, ranging from an improved understanding of earth science, weather forecasting, and disaster management to an alleviation of societal problems; and (3) the need to support myriad operational modes, such as long and short-term monitoring and targeted observations. Resolving these challenges requires some form of autonomy - typically embodied in software. Agent technology has emerged both as a salient purveyor of entities that exhibit autonomous behavior and also as a paradigm for constructing complex software systems with a large number of interacting heterogeneous components. This paper describes our experiences integrating the Multi-agent Architecture for Coordinated Responsive Observations (MACRO) into the SouthEast Alaska MOnitoring Network for Science, Telecommunications, Education, and Research (SEAMONSTER). MACRO provides agents at (1) the mission level, where agents interact with users to define science goals and then translate these goals into a set of prioritized tasks that have to be executed to achieve these goals, and (2) the resource level, where agents translate tasks into activities related to data collection, data analysis, and data communication. As a representative small-scale sensor web situated in multiple locations on the Juneau Icefield, SEAMONSTER affords an unparalleled opportunity to develop, mature, and showcase MACRO's multi-level agent capabilities. MACRO is developed by the Lockheed Martin Space System Company's Advanced Technology

  7. The use of multivariate analysis to link sediment contamination and toxicity data to establish sediment quality guidelines: an example in the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain); El uso del analisis multivariante en la union de datos de toxicidad y contaminacion para establecer guias de calidad de sedimento: Un ejemplo en la Bahia de Cadiz (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valls, T. Angel; Forja, Jesus M [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz, (Spain); Gomez-Parra, Abelardo [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, CSIC, Puerto Real, Cadiz, (Spain)

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate marine sediment quality in the Gulf of Cadiz, chemical concentration and toxicity test endpoints from sediments were linked using multivariate analysis. Sediment samples were collected synoptically at seven stations in two littoral ecosystems of the Gulf of Cadiz (five in the Bay of Cadiz and two in the salt marsh of the Barbate River), and subjected to six separate, replicated sediment toxicity tests and comprehensive sediment chemistry analyses. The toxic effects of sediments were tested using three operational sediment phases: whole sediment, using the estuarine amphipod Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (10 d static: survival) and the estuarine clam Ruditapes philippinaru (48 h static: survival) and of the marine fish Sparus aurata (48 h static. Survival); and interstitial water, using populations of the estuarine rotifer Brachionus Plicatilis (7 d static: Population decline) and of the marine bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox ). To evaluate the levels of contamination, the concentrations in the sediments of organic carbon, 14 trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ag, Hg, As, Sn, V, Ni, Co and Cr) and the surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) were measured. The results of the toxicity tests were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites, demonstrating a general agreement between the toxicity values determined by all the tests, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity (principally due to toxic mixtures of trace metals). Data derived from sediment chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (PCA and factor analysis), showing that the two data types could be represented by only five factors corresponding to five overlapping chemical-biological effect relations. Positive prevalence of these factors in the cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The sediment quality guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below

  8. Examination of Hydrate Formation Methods: Trying to Create Representative Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.; Nakagawa, S.; Kwon, T.-H.

    2011-04-01

    Forming representative gas hydrate-bearing laboratory samples is important so that the properties of these materials may be measured, while controlling the composition and other variables. Natural samples are rare, and have often experienced pressure and temperature changes that may affect the property to be measured [Waite et al., 2008]. Forming methane hydrate samples in the laboratory has been done a number of ways, each having advantages and disadvantages. The ice-to-hydrate method [Stern et al., 1996], contacts melting ice with methane at the appropriate pressure to form hydrate. The hydrate can then be crushed and mixed with mineral grains under controlled conditions, and then compacted to create laboratory samples of methane hydrate in a mineral medium. The hydrate in these samples will be part of the load-bearing frame of the medium. In the excess gas method [Handa and Stupin, 1992], water is distributed throughout a mineral medium (e.g. packed moist sand, drained sand, moistened silica gel, other porous media) and the mixture is brought to hydrate-stable conditions (chilled and pressurized with gas), allowing hydrate to form. This method typically produces grain-cementing hydrate from pendular water in sand [Waite et al., 2004]. In the dissolved gas method [Tohidi et al., 2002], water with sufficient dissolved guest molecules is brought to hydrate-stable conditions where hydrate forms. In the laboratory, this is can be done by pre-dissolving the gas of interest in water and then introducing it to the sample under the appropriate conditions. With this method, it is easier to form hydrate from more soluble gases such as carbon dioxide. It is thought that this method more closely simulates the way most natural gas hydrate has formed. Laboratory implementation, however, is difficult, and sample formation is prohibitively time consuming [Minagawa et al., 2005; Spangenberg and Kulenkampff, 2005]. In another version of this technique, a specified quantity of gas

  9. Associated factors of obesity in Spanish representative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; López-Solaber, Ana M; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2013-09-01

    Given the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and the serious health and economic consequences, the scientific community, health professionals and health agencies are looking for the best strategies to prevent/ fight this trend. In order to plan the most appropriate intervention measures the first step is to identify the associated factors of obesity. This paper presents the results of research conducted/coordinated by our research team and promoted by the Spanish Food Safety Agency (AESAN), in the last five years. These studies were focussed on representative samples of the Spanish population, paying attention to the condition of overweight/obesity and their associated factors. The first study, FANPE ("Fuentes alimentarias de nutrientes de la población española") (2009), was centered in 418 adults (18-60 years) from 15 provinces (30 sampling points). Its aim was to analyze the dietary sources of nutrients, paying particular attention to sodium. This research showed that the risk of overweight/obesity increa ses with age, in people who have follow weight control diets, in ex-smokers, married people and those who slept less than 8.5 hours per day, while the risk is lower in women, people who make sport and those with a University degree. It was also found that overweight people had higher sodium intake and urine excretion. Therefore, and having in mind that 88.2% of the subjects took more than 2 g/day of sodium (the maximum recommended), it is advised to lower the sodium intake not only from the health point of view but also as a probably strategy against obesity. The study ALADINO (Estudio de Alimentación, Actividad física, Desarrollo Infantil y Obesidad--Study of the Diet, Physical Activity, Child Development and Obesity) (2010-2011) was focused on 7659 children (6-9 years) from 19 autonomous communities. We founded a higher percentage of overweight/obesity in boys than in girls, and a significant increase in the figures from the age of 7. Being

  10. Antioxidants can extend lifespan of Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera), but only in a few combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Allison M.; Johnston, Rachel K.

    2013-01-01

    Animal cells are protected from oxidative damage by an antioxidant network operating as a coordinated system, with strong synergistic interactions. Lifespan studies with whole animals are expensive and laborious, so there has been little investigation of which antioxidant interactions might be useful for life extension. Animals in the phylum Rotifera are particularly promising models for aging studies because they are small (0.1–1 mm), have short, two-week lifespan, display typical patterns of animal aging, and have well characterized, easy to measure phenotypes of aging and senescence. One class of interventions that has consistently produced significant rotifer life extension is antioxidants. Although the mechanism of antioxidant effects on animal aging remains controversial, the ability of some antioxidant supplements to extend rotifer lifespan was unequivocal. We found that exposing rotifers to certain combinations of antioxidant supplements can produce up to about 20% longer lifespan, but that most antioxidants have no effect. We performed life table tests with 20 single antioxidants and none yielded significant rotifer life extension. We tested 60 two-way combinations of selected antioxidants and only seven (12%) produced significant rotifer life extension. None of the 20 three- and four-way antioxidant combinations tested yielded significant rotifer life extension. These observations suggest that dietary exposure of antioxidants can extend rotifer lifespan, but most antioxidants do not. We observed significant rotifer life extension only when antioxidants were paired with trolox, N-acetyl cysteine, l-carnosine, or EUK-8. This illustrates that antioxidant treatments capable of rotifer life extension are patchily distributed in the parameter space, so large regions must be searched to find them. It furthermore underscores the value of the rotifer model to conduct rapid, facile life table experiments with many treatments, which makes such a search feasible. Although some antioxidants extended rotifer lifespan, they likely did so by another mechanism than direct antioxidation. PMID:22270335

  11. Eco-physiology, mass production and larvaebreeding potentialities of the fresh water rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaïss, A.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available In veterinary medicine of african tradition in Kivu and Kibali-lturi (Zaire, we have identified 32 medicinal plants used alone or in association at the time of verminosis, diarrhea, coprostasis and meteorism. The parts of the plant intervene in the following proportions : leaves (59 %, fruits and seeds (12 %, whole plant (12 %, stems barks (9 %, roots, rhizoms and tubers (5 %, roots'barks (3 %. After maceration (51 % of cases, decoction (25 % or without modification (20 %, the way of administration is oral in 90 % of cases and anal in 10 % of cases. Our data led us to suggest that plants previously submitted to a pharmacological screening could be introduced and maintained by management technics of paturages before pharmacotechnical studies or industrial production of medicaments.

  12. Representing strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijf, Hein; Broersen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Quite some work in the ATL-tradition uses the differences between various types of strategies (positional, uniform, perfect recall) to give alternative semantics to the same logical language. This paper contributes to another perspective on strategy types, one where we characterise the differences

  13. Representing Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    . This article discusses Willumsen's etching in the context of evolutionary theory, arguing that Willumsen is a rare example of an artist who not only let the theory of evolution fuel his artistic imagination, but also concerned himself with a core issue of the theory, namely to what extent it could be applied...

  14. Representing Evil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Analyse af billedmateriale, der forholder sig til krig, især krigen mod terror, med afsæt i Alain Badiou, Jürgen Habermas og Susan Sontag.......Analyse af billedmateriale, der forholder sig til krig, især krigen mod terror, med afsæt i Alain Badiou, Jürgen Habermas og Susan Sontag....

  15. Representing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Duijf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quite some work in the ATL-tradition uses the differences between various types of strategies (positional, uniform, perfect recall to give alternative semantics to the same logical language. This paper contributes to another perspective on strategy types, one where we characterise the differences between them on the syntactic (object language level. This is important for a more traditional knowledge representation view on strategic content. Leaving differences between strategy types implicit in the semantics is a sensible idea if the goal is to use the strategic formalism for model checking. But, for traditional knowledge representation in terms of object language level formulas, we need to extent the language. This paper introduces a strategic STIT syntax with explicit operators for knowledge that allows us to charaterise strategy types. This more expressive strategic language is interpreted on standard ATL-type concurrent epistemic game structures. We introduce rule-based strategies in our language and fruitfully apply them to the representation and characterisation of positional and uniform strategies. Our representations highlight crucial conditions to be met for strategy types. We demonstrate the usefulness of our work by showing that it leads to a critical reexamination of coalitional uniform strategies.

  16. 48 CFR 1301.670 - Appointment of contracting officer's representative (COR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... officer's representative (COR). 1301.670 Section 1301.670 Federal Acquisition Regulations System..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1301.670 Appointment of contracting officer's representative (COR..., appointment and cancellation of CORs is described in CAM 1301.670. ...

  17. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  18. 22 CFR 72.9 - Responsibility if legal representative is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility if legal representative is... Nationals § 72.9 Responsibility if legal representative is present. (a) A consular officer should not act as provisional conservator if the consular officer knows that a legal representative is present in the foreign...

  19. 20 CFR 408.624 - How do we investigate a representative payee applicant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do we investigate a representative payee... CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.624 How do we investigate a representative... investigate him or her following the rules in § 404.2024 of this chapter. ...

  20. 40 CFR 97.10 - Authorization and responsibilities of NOX authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NOX authorized account representative. 97.10 Section 97.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 97.10 Authorization and responsibilities of NOX authorized account representative. (a) Except as provided under § 97...

  1. 28 CFR 540.20 - Inmate correspondence with representatives of the news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of the news media. 540.20 Section 540.20 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... correspondence with representatives of the news media. (a) An inmate may write through “special mail” to representatives of the news media specified by name or title (see § 540.2(b)). (b) The inmate may not receive...

  2. Contingent representativity: Rival views of representatve bureaucracy and the challenges for nationbuilders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Groeneveld (Sandra); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we argue that representative bureaucracy is a changing concept, and that in the academic and policy debate on representative bureaucracy in fact three different debates are intermingled. While the debate on representative bureaucracy in Public Administration is generally

  3. 45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vocabulary standards for representing electronic... Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.207 Vocabulary standards for representing electronic... vocabulary standards for the purpose of representing electronic health information: (a) Problems—(1) Standard...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4110 - Authorization and Responsibilities of Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hg designated representative. 60.4110 Section 60.4110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4110 Authorization and Responsibilities of Hg designated representative...

  5. In Search of Prototypes and Feminist Bank-Tellers: Exploring the Representativeness Heuristic

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    According to the heuristics and biases approach, the representativeness heuristic (RH) is one of the heuristics available for assessing subjective probabilities (A. Tversky & D. Kahneman, 1974). A subjective probability assessed by the RH is determined by how representative the target object is of the target category. Several aspects of the RH are argued to cause systematic biases, for example: (i) When the RH is used, the category is represented by one single prototypical exemplar. This ...

  6. 34 CFR 86.403 - May a party be represented by counsel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a party be represented by counsel? 86.403 Section 86.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Appeal Procedures § 86.403 May a party be represented by counsel? A party may be represented by counsel. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1145g...

  7. Regional representativeness assessment and improvement of eddy flux observations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honglin; Zhang, Liyun; Gao, Yangzi; Ren, Xiaoli; Zhang, Li; Yu, Guirui; Wang, Shaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Both the amounts of data describing the site-scale carbon flux at a high temporal and spatial resolution collected in China and the number of eddy covariance flux towers have been increasing during the last decade. To correctly upscale these fluxes to the regional and global level, the representativeness of the current network of flux towers must be known. The present study quantifies the representativeness of the flux network for the regional carbon exchange. This analysis combined the total solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure and the enhanced vegetation index to indicate the environmental characteristics of each 1-km pixel cell and flux tower. Next, the Euclidean distance from each pixel to the tower was calculated to determine the representativeness of the existing flux towers. To improve the regional representativeness, additional tower locations were pinpointed by identifying and clustering the underrepresented areas. The existing network of flux towers performed well in representing the environmental conditions of the middle and the northeastern portions of China. The well-represented areas covered 60.9% of the total areas. The towers in croplands and grasslands represented the vegetation types well, but the wetlands and barelands were poorly represented. The representativeness of the flux network increased with the addition of nine towers located in forests, grasslands, wetlands and barelands. The representativeness of 27.5% of the land areas improved. In addition, the well-represented areas were enlarged by 15.2%. Substantial gains in representation were achieved by adding new towers on the Tibet Plateau. The representativeness of the northwest and southwest was improved less significantly, suggesting that more towers are required to capture certain ecosystem behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel Online Dimensionality Reduction Method with Improved Topology Representing and Radial Basis Function Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shengqiao; Lv, Jiancheng; Cheng, Zhehao; Li, Mao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents improvements to the conventional Topology Representing Network to build more appropriate topology relationships. Based on this improved Topology Representing Network, we propose a novel method for online dimensionality reduction that integrates the improved Topology Representing Network and Radial Basis Function Network. This method can find meaningful low-dimensional feature structures embedded in high-dimensional original data space, process nonlinear embedded manifolds, and map the new data online. Furthermore, this method can deal with large datasets for the benefit of improved Topology Representing Network. Experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26161960

  9. Novel Online Dimensionality Reduction Method with Improved Topology Representing and Radial Basis Function Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengqiao Ni

    Full Text Available This paper presents improvements to the conventional Topology Representing Network to build more appropriate topology relationships. Based on this improved Topology Representing Network, we propose a novel method for online dimensionality reduction that integrates the improved Topology Representing Network and Radial Basis Function Network. This method can find meaningful low-dimensional feature structures embedded in high-dimensional original data space, process nonlinear embedded manifolds, and map the new data online. Furthermore, this method can deal with large datasets for the benefit of improved Topology Representing Network. Experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Novel Online Dimensionality Reduction Method with Improved Topology Representing and Radial Basis Function Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shengqiao; Lv, Jiancheng; Cheng, Zhehao; Li, Mao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents improvements to the conventional Topology Representing Network to build more appropriate topology relationships. Based on this improved Topology Representing Network, we propose a novel method for online dimensionality reduction that integrates the improved Topology Representing Network and Radial Basis Function Network. This method can find meaningful low-dimensional feature structures embedded in high-dimensional original data space, process nonlinear embedded manifolds, and map the new data online. Furthermore, this method can deal with large datasets for the benefit of improved Topology Representing Network. Experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Representing Urban Cultural Geography in Stabilization Operations: Analysis of a Social Network Representation in Pythagoras

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seitz, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Civilian human behavior representation is the most significant gap in representing political, military, economic, social, information and infrastructure aspects of the operational environment in urban operations...

  12. Visual Representativeness in Junior Secondary School English Language Textbooks in Use in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyere Henrietta Maduabuchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from research findings seems to corroborate with the assertion that the students’ constant difficulties in the comprehension of English language texts may have emanated from the limited visual representativeness in most of the recommended textbooks in use in Junior Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Textbooks help to equip teachers and learners with broad and factual information concerning what learners should learn by helping them to perform well in the learning environment and in external examinations. This study investigated the types of visual representativeness in Junior Secondary School English Language Textbooks in Ebonyi State vis-à-vis the curriculum content. An exploratory-interpretive design was used in the study. A total of 9 textbooks were selected out of the 18 English language textbooks used in Ebonyi State. The visual representativeness in the textbooks were analyzed using content and qualitative analysis. Simple Percentage and frequency counts were used in the interpretation of visual representativeness in JSS English Language in Use in Ebonyi State. This was done by taking the frequency of the visual representativeness in the textbooks based on the content specification on visual representativeness of topics in the curriculum. The findings showed that the English language textbooks used in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria adopted decorational, representational, and transformational visuals. It was also found that the visual representativeness in some of the English language textbooks were inadequate. For instance, the Intensive English (books I, II, and III, had 14.2%, 8%, and 19.2% under represented visuals respectively, and 85.7%, 92%, and 80.8%  adequately represented visuals respectively, In New Concept English (books I, II, III , we had 14.3%, 23.8%, and 29.4% under represented visuals respectively, and 85.7%, 77.1%, and 70.5% adequately represented visuals respectively and Junior

  13. 20 CFR 404.2024 - How do we investigate a representative payee applicant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do we investigate a representative payee applicant? 404.2024 Section 404.2024 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment § 404.2024 How do we investigate a...

  14. 20 CFR 416.624 - How do we investigate a representative payee applicant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do we investigate a representative payee applicant? 416.624 Section 416.624 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representative Payment § 416.624 How do we investigate a...

  15. Primary care research - trade-off between representativeness and response rate of GP teachers for undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Stefan; Frese, Thomas; Herrmann, Kristin; Scheller, Kathleen; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2012-03-19

    Low response rates are common in primary care research. Our study examines the representativeness of respondents in a survey among general practitioners (GPs). One special aim was to evaluate the representativeness of the subgroup of GP teachers for undergraduates (GPTUs) and to investigate the option of a panel of GPTUs. The representativeness of the respondents was assessed by the use of pooled public data to compare the respondents and all GPs in the German federal state of Saxony on the basis of socio-demographic and subject-specific characteristics. The representativeness of the GPTUs was examined in the same way. For the analysis, two-sided t-tests and Chi2 tests were used. The total response rate was low (32.87%). The respondents were not a representative sample; in particular, they were more highly qualified than the mean. However, the response rate among the special group of university-associated GP teachers for undergraduates was significantly higher than among other general practitioners. Because of this, the creation of a panel of these GPTUs for further primary care research was investigated. Unfortunately, analysis of this group showed that GPTUs were not a representative sample as they tended to be younger and more highly qualified. In general it is possible to create a panel of GPTUs to obtain higher response rates, but investigation of the panel's representativeness is definitely required. If the panel is not representative another option is the creation of a stratified sample according to the target population.

  16. 75 FR 79031 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information, Collection; Representative of Miners; Legal Identity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Extension of Existing Information, Collection; Representative of Miners; Legal Identity Report; Opening and....2, 40.3, 40.4, and 40.5, Representative of Miners; 30 CFR 41.20, Legal Identity Report; 30 CFR 56... designation. Legal Identity Report Section 109(d) of the Mine Act requires each operator of a coal or other...

  17. 40 CFR 97.12 - Changing NOX authorized account representative and alternate NOX authorized account...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing NOX authorized account representative and alternate NOX authorized account representative; changes in owners and operators. 97.12... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Authorized Account...

  18. Finite element procedure for stress amplification factor recovering in a representative volume of composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Plaisant Junior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Finite element models are proposed to the micromechanical analysis of a representative volume of composite materials. A detailed description of the meshes, boundary conditions, and loadings are presented. An illustrative application is given to evaluate stress amplification factors within a representative volume of the unidirectional carbon fiber composite plate. The results are discussed and compared to the numerical findings.

  19. 20 CFR 205.3 - Factors considered in determining employee representative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., representative of crafts or classes of employees in the railroad industry; (h) The extent to which the purposes... railroad industry as indicated by: (1) The specific employee group(s) represented; and (2) The proportion..., or sleeping car company, directly or indirectly, in its formation, in influencing employees to join...

  20. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  1. 22 CFR 91.3 - Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in the...

  2. 78 FR 65511 - Death of Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of Representatives #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0... Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of Representatives By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As a mark of respect for the memory of Thomas S. Foley, former Speaker of the House...

  3. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  4. Learning Organizations, Employee Development and Learning Representative Schemes in the UK and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bill; Cassell, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Disparities in learning opportunities endure. This paper aims to investigate whether the learning representative schemes in the UK and New Zealand (NZ) may redress disparate opportunities for learning. Design/methodology/approach: An interview study of UK trade unions' educational officers and an interview study of representatives of…

  5. 34 CFR 76.652 - Consultation with representatives of private school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation with representatives of private school students. 76.652 Section 76.652 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE... Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.652 Consultation with representatives of private school students. (a) An...

  6. 29 CFR 779.415 - Computing employee's compensation for the representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computing employee's compensation for the representative... Computing employee's compensation for the representative period. (a) In determining for purposes of section.... (See part 778 of this chapter.) (b) In computing the employee's total compensation for the...

  7. 42 CFR 424.54 - Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or... Ordinarily Made § 424.54 Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee. Medicare may pay amounts due a beneficiary to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee. ...

  8. Representativeness of direct observations selected using a work-sampling equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Rebecca A; Mudford, Oliver C; Elliffe, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Deciding on appropriate sampling to obtain representative samples of behavior is important but not straightforward, because the relative duration of the target behavior may affect its observation in a given sampling interval. Work-sampling methods, which offer a way to adjust the frequency of sampling according to a priori or ongoing estimates of the behavior to achieve a preselected level of representativeness, may provide a solution. Full-week observations of 7 behaviors were conducted for 3 students with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. Work-sampling methods were used to select momentary time samples from the full time-of-interest, which produced representative samples. However, work sampling required impractically high numbers of time samples to obtain representative samples. More practical momentary time samples produced less representative samples, particularly for low-duration behaviors. The utility and limits of work-sampling methods for applied behavior analysis are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Representativeness, legitimacy and power in public involvement in health-service management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham P

    2008-12-01

    Public participation in health-service management is an increasingly prominent policy internationally. Frequently, though, academic studies have found it marginalized by health professionals who, keen to retain control over decision-making, undermine the legitimacy of involved members of the public, in particular by questioning their representativeness. This paper examines this negotiation of representative legitimacy between staff and involved users by drawing on a qualitative study of service-user involvement in pilot cancer-genetics services recently introduced in England, using interviews, participant observation and documentary analysis. In contrast to the findings of much of the literature, health professionals identified some degree of representative legitimacy in the contributions made by users. However, the ways in which staff and users constructed representativeness diverged significantly. Where staff valued the identities of users as biomedical and lay subjects, users themselves described the legitimacy of their contribution in more expansive terms of knowledge and citizenship. My analysis seeks to show how disputes over representativeness relate not just to a struggle for power according to contrasting group interests, but also to a substantive divergence in understanding of the nature of representativeness in the context of state-orchestrated efforts to increase public participation. This divergence might suggest problems with the enactment of such aspirations in practice; alternatively, however, contestation of representative legitimacy might be understood as reflecting ambiguities in policy-level objectives for participation, which secure implementation by accommodating the divergent constructions of those charged with putting initiatives into practice.

  10. A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Desainte-Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.

  11. Brand I Feel Slovenia: Inclusion of the Key Areas’ Representatives in the Branding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Konecnik Ruzzier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the part of the process of I feel Slovenia brand developmentin which we investigated 707 respondents from key stakeholdergroups. Respondents were representatives of all key stakeholdergroups in the country who, along with the other two target groups (opinionleaders and local inhabitants, represented the most importantstakeholders in the process of country brand development. A strongagreement regarding brand identity elements is evident from researchresults, which imply that identity elements shared by representativesfrom different internal stakeholder groups should form the basis of astrong country brand. Such brand foundation represents a strong preconditionfor a country brand, which could through hard and systematicwork become a strong and successful brand.

  12. Communication dated 14 July 2006 received from the Resident Representative of France to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General has received a communication dated 14 July 2006 from the Resident Representative of France, on behalf of the Resident Representatives of China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, and the Secretary-General and High Representative of the European Union attaching the text of the offer which was approved on 1 June 2006 at the ministerial meeting in Vienna and delivered to the Iranian authorities in Tehran on 6 June 2006 by Mr. Javier Solana. The communication and, as requested therein, the attached text, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  13. State vector reduction - 1: Dynamical reduction theories; changing quantum theory so the statevector represents reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Pearle, P.

    1991-02-01

    The propositions, that what we see around us is real and that reality should be represented by the statevector, conflict with quantum theory. In quantum theory, the statevector can readily become a sum of states of comparable norm, each state representing a different reality. In this paper we present the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) theory, in which a modified Schroedinger equation, while scarcely affecting the dynamics of a microscopic system, rapidly ''reduces'' the statevector of a macroscopic system to a state appropriate for representing individual reality. (author). Refs

  14. The use of morphological and histological features as nutritional condition indices of Pagrus pagrus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vera Diaz

    Full Text Available Morphometrical and histological techniques were employed to characterize Pagrus pagrus larvae nutritional condition. Larvae were reared in laboratory under controlled conditions with the main objective of testing whether these methodologies allowed finding differences between larvae from different feeding treatments. Once yolk was consumed (three days after hatching larvae were assigned to a feeding treatment: starved during the whole experiment; delayed feeding, starved during three days; fed during the entire experiment. Algae (Nannochloropsis oculata and rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis were provided to larvae for feed treatments. Larvae were fixed daily; for morphometrical purposes in 5% formaldehyde solution, and in Bouin for histological sections. Results herein obtained showed that both methodologies are sensitive enough to distinguish larvae characterized by different nutritional condition states obtained from the feeding treatments. Consequently, these methodologies could be employed in wild red porgy larvae in order to asses their nutritional condition. These techniques could also be employed to check larval quality obtained with aquaculture purposes to estimate the effects of changes in rearing protocols or kind of food supply and thus, to guaranty a higher survival of early developmental stages of reared larvae.

  15. Does haplodiploidy purge inbreeding depression in rotifer populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Tortajada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding depression is an important evolutionary factor, particularly when new habitats are colonized by few individuals. Then, inbreeding depression by drift could favour the establishment of later immigrants because their hybrid offspring would enjoy higher fitness. Rotifers are the only major zooplanktonic group where information on inbreeding depression is still critically scarce, despite the fact that in cyclical parthenogenetic rotifers males are haploid and could purge deleterious recessive alleles, thereby decreasing inbreeding depression.We studied the effects of inbreeding in two populations of the cyclical parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. For each population, we compared both the parental fertilization proportion and F1 fitness components from intraclonal (selfed and interclonal (outcrossed crosses. The parental fertilization proportion was similar for both types of crosses, suggesting that there is no mechanism to avoid selfing. In the F1 generation of both populations, we found evidence of inbreeding depression for the fitness components associated with asexual reproduction; whereas inbreeding depression was only found for one of the two sexual reproduction fitness components measured.Our results show that rotifers, like other major zooplanktonic groups, can be affected by inbreeding depression in different stages of their life cycle. These results suggest that haplodiploidy does not purge efficiently deleterious recessive alleles. The inbreeding depression detected here has important implications when a rotifer population is founded and intraclonal crossing is likely to occur. Thus, during the foundation of new populations inbreeding depression may provide opportunities for new immigrants, increasing gene flow between populations, and affecting genetic differentiation.

  16. Combined toxicity effects of chlorine, ammonia, and temperature on marine plankton. Progress report, September 16, 1975--September 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J. C.; Ryther, J. H.

    1976-10-01

    Research on the combined effects of chlorine, ammmonia and temperature on marine plankton have been carried out for 20 months. To date continuous-flow bioassays have been conducted on lobster larvae (Homarus americanus), oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica), copepods (Acartia tonsa), rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), three juvenile and larval fish, killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), scup (Stenotomus versicolor), and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), and phytoplankton (the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum). In addition, studies on zooplankton metabolism, filtration rates, and growth were carried out on exposed organisms. In general, the responses of invertebrates were distinctly different than those of fish: increasing mortality with increasing chlorine dose and greater sensitivity to chloramines than free chlorine in the former, and a threshold level of chlorine and greater sensitivity to free chlorine in the latter. Phytoplankton responses indicate that chlorine effects on primary producers are minimal compared to the serious effects on zooplankton, particularly larval forms that spawn intermittently. The overall conclusion of our studies is that chlorine application at power plants must be carried out with extreme caution and that serious consideration should be given to applying dechlorination at all coastal cooling systems.

  17. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade e remocao da cor de um efluente textil tratado com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-07-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  18. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-01-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  19. 2015 annual report of the research project with NIRS electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This paper compiled 27 reports on the results in FY2015 of the shared facilities such as PIXE analysis system and tandem accelerator (PASTA), single particle irradiation system to cell (SPICE), and neutron exposure accelerator system for biological effect experiments (NASBEE), which are under jurisdiction of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology. There are following reports. (1) Study on the quantification of ultra-trace multielement simultaneous analysis based on PIXE method of atmospheric aerosol (characteristics of atmospheric particles adhering to Ginkgo biloba in the symbol area of a large city). (2) Technological development on standard samples for micro PIXE analysis (upgrading of application technology of micro PIXE analysis method). (3) Study on analysis of body element distribution of aquatic organisms using PIXE analysis method (1)-(5). (4) Investigation on the effects of neutron exposure on carcinogenesis and its protective methods. (5) Intracellular oxidative stress change due to neutron irradiation (active oxygen expression due to NASBEE neutron irradiation in SK-N-SH cells). (6) Study on correlation between the distribution of trace metal elements in oral mucosa / jawbone and the disease conditions. In the micro PIXE analysis method of (2), standard substances for bio-related elements had been prepared so far, but this time the abundance of elements in micro-organism (Brachionus plicatilis) and micro-regions of plant lichens was measured. (A.O.)

  20. Seasonal baseline of nutrients and stable isotopes in a saline lake of Argentina: biogeochemical processes and river runoff effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopprio, Germán A; Kattner, Gerhard; Freije, R Hugo; de Paggi, Susana José; Lara, Rubén J

    2014-05-01

    The seasonal variability of inorganic and organic nutrients and stable isotopes and their relations with plankton and environmental conditions were monitored in Lake Chasicó. Principal component analysis evidenced the strong influence of the river runoff on several biogeochemical variables. Silicate concentrations were controlled by diatom biomass and river discharge. Higher values of nitrate and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) indicated agricultural uses in the river basin. Elevated pH values (∼ 9) inhibiting nitrification in the lake explained partially the dominance of ammonium: ∼ 83 % of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The low DIN/SRP ratio inferred nitrogen limitation, although the hypotheses of iron and CO2 limitation are relevant in alkaline lakes. Particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) were mainly of autochthonous origin. The main allochthonous input was imported by the river as POM owning to the arid conditions. Dissolved organic carbon was likely top-down regulated by the bacterioplankton grazer Brachionus plicatilis. The δ(13)C signature was a good indicator of primary production and its values were influenced probably by CO2 limitation. The δ(15)N did not evidence nitrogen fixation and suggested the effects of anthropogenic activities. The preservation of a good water quality in the lake is crucial for resource management.

  1. An ecotoxicological analysis of the sediment quality in a European Atlantic harbor emphasizes the current limitations of the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sandra F; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-07-15

    The "PortoNovo" project was developed to standardize the methodologies for water quality management in the port areas of coastal Atlantic regions to improve the Water Frame Directive (WFD) for these specific water bodies. Under this scope, water and sediment samples were collected from five sites within the Port of Aveiro, Portugal. According to the physical and chemical parameters that were analyzed (i.e., metals, total organic carbon, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), the sediments were not considered at risk based on European sediment quality laws. However, the bioassays that were performed on the sediment samples (Microtox®) and the standardized acute toxicity test using the marine rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, on sediment elutriates revealed higher toxicity levels. The use of bioassays to assess sediment quality clearly complements more conservative approaches and highlights current gaps within the WFD. The approach presented here can be easily transferred to other port areas for more reliable water quality management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-dimensional micro-beam imaging of trace elements in a single plankton measured by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezoe, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Terada, Yasuko; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tukamoto, Katsumi; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional imaging and a quantitative analysis of trace elements in rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, belonging to zooplankton, were carried out by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF). The XRF imaging revealed that female rotifers accumulated Fe and Zn in the digestive organ and Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca in the sexual organs, while the Mn level was high in the head. From a quantitative analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we found that rotifers eat the chlorella and accumulate the above elements in the body. The result of quantitative analyses of Mn, Cu, and Zn by SR-XRF in a single sample is in fair agreement with the average values determined by ICP-MS analyses, which were obtained by measuring a large number of rotifers, digested by nitric acid. The present study has demonstrated that SR-XRF is an effective tool for the trace element analysis of a single individual of rotifer. (author)

  3. Developing a Common Language for Workplace Ethics: Comparing the Opinions of Educators and Business Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth; Chowdhury, Mohammad

    1998-01-01

    Ratings of workplace ethics competencies by 67 educators and 43 industry representatives resulted in 34 competencies needed and used frequently by new workers. Educators rated 11 competencies higher than business reps, who rated 1 competency higher than teachers did. (SK)

  4. Fiscal years 2007 and 2008 : representative examples of completed RD&T projects and activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The tables in this document correspond to major offices and initiatives at the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Research, Development, and Technology (RD&T), located at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center. The tables provide represe...

  5. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are

  6. CARDfile data base representativeness, Phase 1 : general characteristics including populations, vehicles, roads, and fatal accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    This report details the results of an analysis performed to evaluate the : representativeness of the Crash Avoidance Research accident data base : (CARDfile). The accident records for 1983 and 1984 from six states (Indiana, : Maryland, Michigan, Penn...

  7. CARDfile Data Base Representatives - Phase I: General Characteristics including Populations, Vehicles, Roads, and Fatal Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This report details the results of an analysis performed to evaluate the representativeness of the Crash Avoidance Research accident data base (CARDfile). The accident records for 1983 and 1984 from six states (Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Pennsylvan...

  8. Assessing terpene content variability of whitebark pine in order to estimate representative sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of population variability, particular attention has to be paid to the selection of a representative sample. The aim of this study was to assess the size of the new representative sample on the basis of the variability of chemical content of the initial sample on the example of a whitebark pine population. Statistical analysis included the content of 19 characteristics (terpene hydrocarbons and their derivates of the initial sample of 10 elements (trees. It was determined that the new sample should contain 20 trees so that the mean value calculated from it represents a basic set with a probability higher than 95 %. Determination of the lower limit of the representative sample size that guarantees a satisfactory reliability of generalization proved to be very important in order to achieve cost efficiency of the research. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-173011, br. TR-37002 i br. III-43007

  9. Health related quality of life in a nationally representative sample of haematological patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna T; Tholstrup, Dorte; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of health related quality of life of haematological patients is limited. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and predictors of symptoms and problems in a representative sample of haematological patients in Denmark.......Knowledge of health related quality of life of haematological patients is limited. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and predictors of symptoms and problems in a representative sample of haematological patients in Denmark....

  10. Toward a behavioural theory of cooperation between managers and employee representatives in works councils

    OpenAIRE

    Brempt, Van der, Olivier; Boone, Christophe; Witteloostuijn, van, Arjen; Berg, van den, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This article builds a comprehensive behavioural framework of cooperation between management and employee representatives in a works council setting. The authors do so by applying insights from organizational behaviour in the works council setting in the belief that this disciplines long-standing research tradition on (work) group processes and outcomes may provide the necessary theoretical building blocks to unravel cooperation among managers and employee representatives. The author...

  11. Representative bureaucracy:does female police leadership affect gender-based violence arrests?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, K.; Houston, John

    2016-01-01

    Representative bureaucracy theory postulates that passive representation leads to active representation of minority groups. This article investigates the passive representation of female police officers at leadership levels and the active representation of women vis-a-vis gender-based violence arrest rates in the UK. Much of the extant research on representative bureaucracy is located at street level, with evidence showing that discretionary power of minority bureaucrats can lead to active re...

  12. End-of-life decisions for people with intellectual disabilities, an interview study with patient representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Annemieke M A; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; Proot, Ireen M; Metsemakers, Job; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2013-09-01

    Not much is known about the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities. To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of patient representatives. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory procedures. We interviewed 16 patient representatives after the deaths of 10 people with intellectual disabilities in the Netherlands. The core category 'Deciding for someone else' describes the context in which patient representatives took end-of-life decisions. The patient representatives felt highly responsible for the outcomes. They had not involved the patients in the end-of-life decision-making process, nor any professionals other than the doctor. The categories of 'Motives' and 'Support' were connected to the core category of 'Deciding for someone else'. 'Motives' refers to the patient representatives' ideas about quality of life, prevention from suffering, patients who cannot understand the burden of interventions and emotional reasons reported by patient representatives. 'Support' refers to the support that patient representatives wanted the doctors to give to them in the decision-making process. From the perspective of the patient representatives, the process of end-of-life decision-making can be improved by ensuring clear roles and an explicit description of the tasks and responsibilities of all participants. Regular discussion between everyone involved including people with intellectual disabilities themselves can improve knowledge about each other's motives for end-of-decisions and can clarify expectations towards each other.

  13. Medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives: a comparative study in Australia and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Shaiful B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Methods Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS listings and restrictions (in Australia only. Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia. Results Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78% than in Australia (53% (P Conclusions Information on indications and dosages were usually provided by pharmaceutical representatives in Australia and Malaysia. However, risk and harmful effects of medicines were often missing in their presentations. Effective control of medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives is needed.

  14. Investigating why and for whom management ethnic representativeness influences interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Alex P; Avery, Derek R; Dawson, Jeremy F; King, Eden B

    2017-11-01

    Preliminary research suggests that employees use the demographic makeup of their organization to make sense of diversity-related incidents at work. The authors build on this work by examining the impact of management ethnic representativeness-the degree to which the ethnic composition of managers in an organization mirrors or is misaligned with the ethnic composition of employees in that organization. To do so, they integrate signaling theory and a sense-making perspective into a relational demography framework to investigate why and for whom management ethnic representativeness may have an impact on interpersonal mistreatment at work. Specifically, in three complementary studies, the authors examine the relationship between management ethnic representativeness and interpersonal mistreatment. First, they analyze the relationship between management ethnic representativeness and perceptions of harassment, bullying, and abuse the next year, as moderated by individuals' ethnic similarity to others in their organizations in a sample of 60,602 employees of Britain's National Health Service. Second, a constructive replication investigates perceived behavioral integrity as an explanatory mechanism that can account for the effects of representativeness using data from a nationally representative survey of working adults in the United States. Third and finally, online survey data collected at two time points replicated these patterns and further integrated the effects of representativeness and dissimilarity when they are measured using both objective and subjective strategies. Results support the authors' proposed moderated mediation model in which management ethnic representation is negatively related to interpersonal mistreatment through the mediator of perceived behavioral integrity, with effects being stronger for ethnically dissimilar employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The mainstream is not electable: when vision triumphs over representativeness in leader emergence and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Berson, Yair; Galinsky, Adam D

    2011-07-01

    Theories of visionary leadership propose that groups bestow leadership on exceptional group members. In contrast, social identity perspectives claim that leadership arises, in part, from a person's ability to be seen as representative of the group. Integrating these perspectives, the authors propose that effective leaders often share group members' perspectives concerning the present, yet offer a unique and compelling vision for the group's future. In addition, although intergroup contexts may increase the value of representativeness, the authors predict that vision dominates representativeness in single-group situations characterized by high levels of collective stress (e.g., a natural disaster). Five studies demonstrated that visionary leaders (those who offer novel solutions to their group's predicament) attract more followers, promote group identification and intrinsic motivation, mobilize collective action, and effectively regulate group members' emotions and reactions to crises compared to representative leaders. The authors discuss when, why, and how vision triumphs over representativeness in leader emergence and effectiveness. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  16. Online Recruitment: Feasibility, Cost, and Representativeness in a Study of Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Liana S; Butterworth, Peter; Poyser, Carmel; Batterham, Philip J; Farrer, Louise M

    2017-03-08

    Online recruitment is feasible, low-cost, and can provide high-quality epidemiological data. However, little is known about the feasibility of recruiting postpartum women online, or sample representativeness. The current study investigates the feasibility of recruiting a population of postpartum women online for health research and examines sample representativeness. Two samples of postpartum women were compared: those recruited online as participants in a brief survey of new mothers (n=1083) and those recruited face-to-face as part of a nationally representative study (n=579). Sociodemographic, general health, and mental health characteristics were compared between the two samples. Obtaining a sample of postpartum women online for health research was highly efficient and low-cost. The online sample over-represented those who were younger (aged 25-29 years), were in a de facto relationship, had higher levels of education, spoke only English at home, and were first-time mothers. Members of the online sample were significantly more likely to have poor self-rated health and poor mental health than the nationally representative sample. Health differences remained after adjusting for sociodemographic differences. Potential exists for feasible and low-cost e-epidemiological research with postpartum populations; however, researchers should consider the potential influence of sample nonrepresentativeness. ©Liana S Leach, Peter Butterworth, Carmel Poyser, Philip J Batterham, Louise M Farrer. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 08.03.2017.

  17. Representativeness and seasonality of major ion records derived from NEEM firn cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gfeller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal and annual representativeness of ionic aerosol proxies (among others, calcium, sodium, ammonium and nitrate in various firn cores in the vicinity of the NEEM drill site in northwest Greenland have been assessed. Seasonal representativeness is very high as one core explains more than 60% of the variability within the area. The inter-annual representativeness, however, can be substantially lower (depending on the species making replicate coring indispensable to derive the atmospheric variability of aerosol species. A single core at the NEEM site records only 30% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in some species, while five replicate cores are already needed to cover approximately 70% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in all species. The spatial representativeness is very high within 60 cm, rapidly decorrelates within 10 m but does not diminish further within 3 km. We attribute this to wind reworking of the snow pack leading to sastrugi formation. Due to the high resolution and seasonal representativeness of the records we can derive accurate seasonalities of the measured species for modern (AD 1990–2010 times as well as for pre-industrial (AD 1623–1750 times. Sodium and calcium show similar seasonality (peaking in February and March respectively for modern and pre-industrial times, whereas ammonium and nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and ammonium both peak in May during modern times, whereas during pre-industrial times ammonium peaked during July–August and nitrate during June–July.

  18. Sidestepping questions of legitimacy: how community representatives manoeuvre to effect change in a health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sally; Stephenson, Niamh; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies of community participation in health services commonly tie effectiveness to the perceived legitimacy of community representatives among health staff. This article examines the underlying assumption that legitimacy is the major pathway to influence for community representatives. It takes a different vantage point from previous research in its examination of data (primarily through 34 in-depth interviews, observation and recording of 26 meetings and other interactions documented in field notes) from a 3-year study of community representatives' action in a large health region in Australia. The analysis primarily deploys Michel de Certeau's ideas of Strategy and Tactic to understand the action and effects of the generally 'weaker players' in the spaces and places dominated by powerful institutions. Through this lens, we can see the points where community representatives are active participants following their own agenda, tactically capitalising on cracks in the armour of the health service to seize opportunities that present themselves in time to effect change. Being able to see community representatives as active producers of change, not simply passengers following the path of the health service, challenges how we view the success of community participation in health.

  19. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) entitled “Guarantees for representatives of the personnel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to all members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 2) entitled “Guarantees for members of the personnel holding representative office” of November 1992. The circular was revised in order to adapt the time given to the representatives of the personnel to perform their elective mandate and to ensure more transparency in their activities, by indicating, inter alia, the percentage of time worked in the framework of their mandate, as well as the training, activities and ensuing results. Department Head Office HR Department

  20. Sublanguage Corpus Analysis Toolkit: A tool for assessing the representativeness and sublanguage characteristics of corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temnikova, Irina P; Baumgartner, William A; Hailu, Negacy D; Nikolova, Ivelina; McEnery, Tony; Kilgarriff, Adam; Angelova, Galia; Cohen, K Bretonnel

    2014-05-01

    Sublanguages are varieties of language that form "subsets" of the general language, typically exhibiting particular types of lexical, semantic, and other restrictions and deviance. SubCAT, the Sublanguage Corpus Analysis Toolkit, assesses the representativeness and closure properties of corpora to analyze the extent to which they are either sublanguages, or representative samples of the general language. The current version of SubCAT contains scripts and applications for assessing lexical closure, morphological closure, sentence type closure, over-represented words, and syntactic deviance. Its operation is illustrated with three case studies concerning scientific journal articles, patents, and clinical records. Materials from two language families are analyzed-English (Germanic), and Bulgarian (Slavic). The software is available at sublanguage.sourceforge.net under a liberal Open Source license.

  1. A computational fluid dynamic modelling approach to assess the representativeness of urban monitoring stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jose Luis; Martín, Fernando; Martilli, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Air quality measurements of urban monitoring stations have a limited spatial representativeness due to the complexity of urban meteorology and emissions distribution. In this work, a methodology based on a set of computational fluid dynamics simulations based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS-CFD) for different meteorological conditions covering several months is developed in order to analyse the spatial representativeness of urban monitoring stations and to complement their measured concentrations. The methodology has been applied to two urban areas nearby air quality traffic-oriented stations in Pamplona and Madrid (Spain) to analyse nitrogen oxides concentrations. The computed maps of pollutant concentrations around each station show strong spatial variability being very difficult to comply with the European legislation concerning the spatial representativeness of traffic-oriented air quality stations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility of Representing Data from Published Nursing Research Using the OMOP Common Data Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeoneui; Choi, Jeeyae; Jang, Imho; Quach, Jimmy; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2016-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of representing nursing research data with the Observational Medical Outcomes Partners (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM) to understand the challenges and opportunities in representing various types of health data not limited to diseases and drug treatments. We collected 1,431 unique data items from 256 nursing articles and mapped them to the OMOP CDM. A deeper level of mapping was explored by simulating 10 data search use cases. Although the majority of the data could be represented in the OMOP CDM, potential information loss was identified in contents related to patient reported outcomes, socio-economic information, and locally developed nursing intervention protocols. These areas will be further investigated in a follow up study. We will use lessons learned in this study to inform the metadata development efforts for data discovery.

  3. Interest (mis)alignments in representative negotiations: Do pro-social agents fuel or reduce inter-group conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, H.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    In representative negotiations, interests of the representative and the represented constituency are not always aligned. We investigated how interest (mis)alignment and representative’s social value orientation influence representative negotiations. Past theory and research on the principal-agent

  4. Chronological changes in Japanese physicians' attitude and behavior concerning relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent qualitative studies indicated that physicians interact with pharmaceutical representatives depending on the relative weight of the benefits to the risks and are also influenced by a variety of experiences and circumstances. However, these studies do not provide enough information about if, when, how and why their attitudes and behaviors change over time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A qualitative study using semi-structured face-to-face individual interviews was conducted on 9 Japanese physicians who attended a symposium on conflicts of interest held in Tokyo. Interviews were designed to explore chronological changes in individual physicians' attitude and behavior concerning relationships with pharmaceutical representatives and factors affecting such changes. Their early interaction with pharmaceutical representatives was passive as physicians were not explicitly aware of the meaning of such interaction. They began to think on their own about how to interact with pharmaceutical representatives as they progressed in their careers. Their attitude toward pharmaceutical representatives changed over time. Factors affecting attitudinal change included work environment (local regulations and job position, role models, views of patients and the public, acquisition of skills in information seeking and evidence-based medicine, and learning about the concepts of professionalism and conflict of interest. However, the change in attitude was not necessarily followed by behavioral change, apparently due to rationalization and conformity to social norms. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' attitudes toward relationships with pharmaceutical representatives changed over time and factors affecting such changes were various. Paying attention to these factors and creating new social norms may be both necessary to produce change in behavior consistent with change in attitude.

  5. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208527.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel" of January 2014. This document contains a single change to reflect the terminology under the new career structure: the term "career path" is replaced by "grade". This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  6. The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C.A.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

  7. Injury profiles, demography and representativeness of patients with TBI attending a regional emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Seppälä, Henna; Heino, Iiro; Frantzén, Janek; Takala, Riikka S K; Katila, Ari J; Kyllönen, Anna; Maanpää, Henna-Riikka; Posti, Jussi P; Tallus, Jussi; Tenovuo, Olli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the demography and epidemiology of Finnish patients with TBI and to analyse the representativeness of a study sample. This prospective multi-centre study was conducted as part of an international collaboration within the EU-funded TBIcare project. The study group was recruited from patients attending the regional emergency department (ED) of the Turku University Hospital, Finland. Pre-defined exclusion criteria included age representativeness without continuous recruitment and poor information transfer about the ED attendees are major challenges for prospective TBI studies.

  8. Interaction and medical inducement between pharmaceutical representatives and physicians: a meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Shahrzad; Ming, Long Chiau; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    2016-01-01

    It has been proven that the interaction between pharmaceutical representatives and physicians can directly influence the latter's prescribing behaviour. This meta-synthesis aims to explore the available studies regarding the nature of the interaction that takes place between pharmaceutical representatives and physicians. It highlights the different aspects of that interaction by investigating the reasons why these meetings happen in the first place, their benefits and drawbacks and their impact on patients' health and, ultimately, the health of the public. A search for published articles was conducted in April 2015. Three databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, and ProQuest) were searched for articles published between January 2000 and April 2015. Authors worked autonomously and in pairs to select eligible articles. In this case, the meta-synthesis approach was used to develop a fuller understanding and to facilitate new knowledge by bringing together qualitative findings on physician-PR interaction. 'Meta-synthesis' is the process of amalgamation of a group of similar studies with the aim of developing an explanation for their findings (Walsh and Downe, J Advanc Nurs 50: 204-211, 2005). A thematic content analysis was conducted on the 15 included full text articles (qualitative and quantitative studies) whereby the original authors' understanding of key concepts in each study was identified and listed in a summary form in the data extraction sheet under "key findings" column. These findings were then juxtaposed to identify homogeneity and dissonance (Walsh and Downe, J Advanc Nurs 50: 204-211, 2005). Homogenous findings were then coded together on a different data extraction table to form a theme. A total of 15 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-synthesis;six from the United States, two from Libya, and one each from Turkey, Peru, India, Germany, the United Kingdom, Yemen, and Japan. Six main themes were derived from the included articles

  9. Selection of representative embankments based on rough set - fuzzy clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Ou; Lin, Zhi-xiang; Fu, Shu-yan; Gao, Sheng-song

    2018-02-01

    The premise condition of comprehensive evaluation of embankment safety is selection of representative unit embankment, on the basis of dividing the unit levee the influencing factors and classification of the unit embankment are drafted.Based on the rough set-fuzzy clustering, the influence factors of the unit embankment are measured by quantitative and qualitative indexes.Construct to fuzzy similarity matrix of standard embankment then calculate fuzzy equivalent matrix of fuzzy similarity matrix by square method. By setting the threshold of the fuzzy equivalence matrix, the unit embankment is clustered, and the representative unit embankment is selected from the classification of the embankment.

  10. THE ROLE OF THE EMPLOYEES’ REPRESENTATIVES IN THE LIGHT OF THE NEW ROMANIAN SOCIAL DIALOGUE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIA BADOI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the environment of constant social and legislative changes, the field of labor law, as part of the private law domain, is always a subject of debates. The year 2011 is a relevant benchmark for the major modifications brought to the field of labor law in Romania. The amendments of the labor law significant acts had as role to find efficient means of dialogue between the social partners. The legislative provisions represent only a premise for a successful social dialogue. In fact, the key of communication between the social partners is the negotiation. The employees’ representatives, as social partners, may represent the employees’ interests within a unit, in the absence of a union. In the light of the new Social Dialogue Law the employees’ representatives may also participate in negotiations even in the presence of a union organization. There is no doubt that the new Social Dialogue law and Labor Code inserted new concepts meant to facilitate the labor relationships and social dialogue. It’s only to be seen in which way these new regulations will affect the labor relationships.

  11. On the classification of plane graphs representing structurally stable rational Newton flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.

    1991-01-01

    We study certain plane graphs, called Newton graphs, representing a special class of dynamical systems which are closely related to Newton's iteration method for finding zeros of (rational) functions defined on the complex plane. These Newton graphs are defined in terms of nonvanishing angles

  12. New roles for the OHS representatives - from employee representation to problem-solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Seim, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    The changing role of occupational health and safety representatives (OHS reps) is studied in Danish enterprises and the results indicate that representation, and especially negotiation on behalf of colleagues, has diminished. The work environment is mainstreamed in many enterprises and it is rarely...

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist–Civilian Version in a Representative Military Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Andersen, Søren B.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993) and to establish the most accurate cutoff for prevalence estimation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative...

  14. 32 CFR 776.50 - Communication with person represented by counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication with person represented by counsel. 776.50 Section 776.50 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY... attorney shall not communicate about the subject of the representation with a party the covered attorney...

  15. Utilization of critical group and representative person methodologies: differences and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Nelson L.D.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the assessment of the environmental impact due to routine discharges of radionuclides, which is used to the public protection, normally is based on the determination of the so-called 'critical group'. For the same purpose, the ICRP (2007) proposed the adoption of the 'representative person', defined as the individual receiving a dose representative of the members of the population who are subject to the higher exposures. In this work, are discussed, basically, the different characteristics of each one (critical group and representative person), related, mainly, to its methodologies and the necessary data demanded. Some difficulties to obtain site specific data, mainly habit data, as well as the way they are used, are discussed too. The critical group methodology uses, basically, average values, while the representative person methodology performs deterministic or probabilistic analysis using values obtained from distributions. As reference, it was considered the predicted effluents releases from Uranium Hexafluoride Production Plant (USEXA) and the effective doses calculated to the members of the previously defined critical group of Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). (author)

  16. Antennule development during copepodite phase of some representatives of Harpacticoida (Copepoda, Crustacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe

    1989-01-01

    The copepodite antennule development of representatives of 6 harpacticoid families is studied and discussed in detail and that of 8 genera of harpacticoids from 7 families is schematically illustrated. Twenty-seven genera out of 17 harpacticoid families are compared on the basis of own

  17. Issues of sexuality in the elderly as represented in Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Miclos de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze how sexuality in elderly is represented in Brazilian literature, drawing a picture of it at different times. It seeks to identify the silencing of sexuality dramatic effects impacting on old age in the societies the elderly come from, as well as the way such societies use to expose the hypocrisy of human relationships.

  18. 31 CFR 353.60 - Payment to representative of an estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment to representative of an estate. 353.60 Section 353.60 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... appointed by a court, other proof of qualification. Except in the case of corporate fiduciaries, the...

  19. 31 CFR 360.60 - Payment to representative of an estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment to representative of an estate. 360.60 Section 360.60 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... court, other proof of qualification. (2) Except in the case of corporate fiduciaries, the evidence must...

  20. Validation of the IPQ-R in a large, representative dutch sample.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a validation study of the revised version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire ( IPQ-R) in a large representative Dutch sample of 4000 chronic disease patients. All patients took part in a longitudinal study, called Panel of Patients with Chronic Diseases, which is conducted

  1. Constructing Coordinate Graphs: Representing Corresponding Ordered Values with Variation in Two-Dimensional Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Coordinate graphs of time-series data have been significant in the history of statistical graphing and in recent school mathematics curricula. A survey task to construct a graph to represent data about temperature change over time was administered to 133 students in Grades 3, 5, 7, and 9. Four response levels described the degree to which students…

  2. Characterisation of representative building typologies for social housing projects in Brazil and its energy performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana, Maria Andrea; Lamberts, Roberto; Sassi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil the housing deficit is around 5.5 million houses. To address this need, the government created a programme called “My house, My life”. The main subsidies of the programme are for families earning up to three times the minimum wage. In order to formulate strategies for more energy efficiency buildings, it is necessary to understand the thermal and energy performance of what is being built. This article defines representative projects for typologies being built in the Brazilian social housing sector through the analysis of 108 projects considering two groups of income levels and investigates the thermal and energy performance of the representative projects in relation to the Regulation for Energy Efficiency Labelling of Residential Buildings in Brazil for two bioclimatic zones. Five representative building models were defined. Considering the most common features found on the sample, the study suggests the importance of addresing energy efficiency measures on the sector since current building techniques for social housing shows a tendency towards a low performance in relation to the thermal and energy performance criteria of the Energy Labelling especially for lower income projects. This provides a basis for future policy and allows for more in depth studies within the sector. - Highlights: • Characterisation of representative typologies built for social housing in Brazil. • More recurrent building physics characteristics considered. • Energy efficiency and thermal performance of Brazilian social housing analysed. • Regulation for Energy Efficiency Labelling of Residential Buildings in Brazil used for analysis.

  3. Do Perceptions of Hiring Criteria Differ for Sales Managers and Sales Representatives? Implications for Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les; Hopkins, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this study explores whether perceptions of critical hiring criteria for entry-level sales positions differ across sales managers and sales representatives. This research also examines which classroom activities and skills these individuals perceive to be most important for strengthening the desired…

  4. Stuttering Attitudes among Turkish Family Generations and Neighbors from Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Attitudes toward stuttering, measured by the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), are compared among (a) two different representative samples; (b) family generations (children, parents, and either grandparents or uncles and aunts) and neighbors; (c) children, parents, grandparents/adult…

  5. Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; da Silva, B. B.; Antonino, A. C. D.; Lima, J. R. S.; de Souza, E. S.; de Oliveira, L. M. M.; de Moura, A. E. S. S.; Souza, R. M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins are of fundamental importance for water resources management. This paper presents some activities of hydrological research in experimental and representative basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The study areas are located at Tapacurá and Mundaú representative basins and at the Gameleira experimental basin, and in experimental plots in Pajeú basin. In the Tapacurá basin, three studies were performed: (1) different monthly coefficients "k" of the Thornthwaite method were tested to calculate the effective temperature and, consequently, the reference evapotranspiration, giving rise to the method identified as Modified Thornthwaite; (2) the spatial variability of the retention curve and hydraulic conductivity parameters were analysed using the Beerkan method; (3) changes in vegetation cover were evaluated through the NDVI and NDWI indexes using TM-Landsat 5 images. In the Mundaú representative basin, the performance of different evapotranspiration methods was evaluated and compared to the FAO standard method, Penman-Monteith. In the Pajeú basin, the experimental plot is covered by pasture and sensors were installed to monitor the following variables: rainfall, air temperature, the energy balance components (net radiation, latent and sensible heat, and soil heat flux), wind velocity and CO2 flux into atmosphere, soil moisture and runoff.

  6. Glycogen synthesis in human gastrocnemius muscle is not representative of whole-body muscle glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, Mireille J. M.; de Haan, Jacco H.; Tack, Cees J.; Verberne, Hein J.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Heerschap, Arend; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of C-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has enabled noninvasive measurement of muscle glycogen synthesis in humans. Conclusions based on measurements by the MRS technique assume that glucose metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle is representative for all skeletal muscles and thus

  7. Glycogen synthesis in human gastrocnemius muscle is not representative of whole-body muscle glycogen synthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, M.J.; Haan, J.H.A. de; Tack, C.J.J.; Verberne, H.J.; Ackermans, M.T.; Heerschap, A.; Sauerwein, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has enabled noninvasive measurement of muscle glycogen synthesis in humans. Conclusions based on measurements by the MRS technique assume that glucose metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle is representative for all skeletal muscles and thus

  8. In vitro characterization of representative clinical South African Staphylococcus aureus isolates from various clonal lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosthuysen, W F; Orth, H; Lombard, C. J.; Sinha, B; Wasserman, E

    Data concerning the virulence and pathogenesis of South African strains of Staphylococcus aureus are limited. We investigated host-pathogen interactions of randomly selected clinical S. aureus isolates representing various clones. We characterized the ability of isolates to adhere to fibronectin,

  9. 20 CFR 416.1540 - Rules of conduct and standards of responsibility for representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... orderly and fair presentation of evidence and argument. (b) Affirmative duties. A representative shall, in... manner that furthers the efficient, fair and orderly conduct of the administrative decisionmaking process... presentation of, false or misleading oral or written statements, assertions or representations about a material...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1740 - Rules of conduct and standards of responsibility for representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... orderly and fair presentation of evidence and argument. (b) Affirmative duties. A representative shall, in... factors; and (3) Conduct his or her dealings in a manner that furthers the efficient, fair and orderly... make or present, or participate in the making or presentation of, false or misleading oral or written...

  11. Impressions of Humanness for Android Robot May Represent an Endophenotype for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Warren, Zachary; Swanson, Amy; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Minabe, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2018-01-01

    Identification of meaningful endophenotypes may be critical to unraveling the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated whether impressions of "humanness" for android robot might represent a candidate characteristic of an ASD endophenotype. We used a female type of android robot with an appearance…

  12. Are Canadian Adolescents Happy? A Gender-Based Analysis of a Nationally Representative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert D.; Habibov, Nazim N.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed data from a nationally representative survey of youth to study happiness amongst Canadian adolescents aged 12-17. Testing for differences in the level of happiness between female and male adolescents was conducted. Following this, multivariate analysis was employed to determine which factors were associated with…

  13. 20 CFR 416.665 - How does your representative payee account for the use of benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the use of benefits? 416.665 Section 416.665 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... in order to make accounting reports and must make those records available upon our request. If your representative payee fails to provide an annual accounting of benefits or other required reports, we may require...

  14. 20 CFR 404.2065 - How does your representative payee account for the use of benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the use of benefits? 404.2065 Section 404.2065 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... records of how benefits were used in order to make accounting reports and must make those records available upon our request. If your representative payee fails to provide an annual accounting of benefits...

  15. A study on the representative person of critical group for radiological assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab-Bock; Lee, Doo-Ho; Yang, Yang-Hee; Jang, Young-Sik; Moon, Jong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The 'maximum individual' concept based on US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 has been used for the public dose calculation in Korea. However, the 'maximum individual' results in largely overestimating the public dose. In Korea, the adoption of the 'representative person' is under consideration. The 'representative person' was recommended by ICRP Publication No. 101. In this study, individual habits (consumption of foodstuffs, use of local resources) of representative person have been analyzed or investigated. The age-specific food consumption rates of the representative person were derived from the Korean national dietary survey by government in 2005. The foodstuffs are classified into 12 classes - grain, fruits, kimchi, vegetables, milk, beef, pork, poultry, fishes, mollusca, crustacea, and seaweeds. The use of local resources such as the self-sufficiency of foodstuffs was investigated by using the questionnaire survey to the public members within 2 km from four nuclear power plant sites in Korea. The 95th percentile values are used for the top-two pathways such as grain and kimchi, but the average values are used for other foods. The results show that the effective dose from new habit data is about 30% lower than that from the existing data. (author)

  16. How Are African Americans Currently Represented in Various Social Work Venues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold E.; Holosko, Michael J.; Banks, Leon; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Parker, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored how African Americans are currently represented in social work journals, research, and schools. Method: Journal publication content and editorship, research methods and designs, and school mission statements and course titles were examined. Results: Only 14% of publications in the top 5 social work journals targeted…

  17. Academic Training Lectures | Representing Scientific Communities by Data Visualization | 14-15 March

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place from 14 to 15 March 2016 and will be given by Dario Rodighiero (EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland).   Representing Scientific Communities by Data Visualisation (1/2)​ Monday, 14 March 2016 from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. https://indico.cern.ch/event/465533/ Representing Scientific Communities by Data Visualisation (2/2)​ Tuesday, 15 March 2016 from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. https://indico.cern.ch/event/465534/ at CERN, IT Amphitheatre (31-3-004)  Description: These lectures present research that investigates the representation of communities, and the way to foster their understanding by different audiences. Communities are complex multidimensional entities intrinsically difficult to represent synthetically. The way to represent them is likely to differ depending on the audience considered: governi...

  18. Graduate student elected chair of American Planning Association Student Representatives Council, to serve as board advisor

    OpenAIRE

    Micale, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Mary Catherine Barganier of Fort Deposit, Ala., a graduate student in the Master of Urban Planning Program in Virginia Tech's College of Architecture and Urban Studies, was recently elected chair of the Student Representatives Council (SRC) of the American Planning Association (APA).

  19. Leadership Competencies: Do They Differ for Women and Under-Represented Minority Faculty Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Levine, Rachel B.; Yang, Wan Rou; González-Fernández, Marlís; Bodurtha, Joann; Barone, Michael A.; Fivush, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The literature on leadership competencies does not include an understanding of how stakeholders perceive competencies for women and under-represented minority faculty members. We surveyed three groups of leaders (N = 113) to determine their perceptions of the importance of 23 leadership competencies. All three groups endorsed the same five…

  20. Ethnic Variations of Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Preacademic Skills in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Grounded in the investment model and informed by the integrative theory of the study of minority children, this study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, a nationally representative sample of young children, to investigate whether the association between socioeconomic status (family income and…

  1. 40 CFR 96.110 - Authorization and responsibilities of CAIR designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary responsibility for obtaining the information, I certify that the statements and information are to... TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Sources § 96... § 96.111, each CAIR NOX source, including all CAIR NOX units at the source, shall have one and only one...

  2. Representativeness-based sampling network design for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest M. Hoffman; Jitendra Kumar; Richard T. Mills; William W. Hargrove

    2013-01-01

    Resource and logistical constraints limit the frequency and extent of environmental observations, particularly in the Arctic, necessitating the development of a systematic sampling strategy to maximize coverage and objectively represent environmental variability at desired scales. A quantitative methodology for stratifying sampling domains, informing site selection,...

  3. Representativeness assessment of research natural areas on National Forest System lands in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven K. Rust

    2000-01-01

    A representativeness assessment of National Forest System (NFS) Research Natural Areas in Idaho summarizes information on the status of the natural area network and priorities for identification of new Research Natural Areas. Natural distribution and abundance of plant associations is compared to the representation of plant associations within natural areas. Natural...

  4. Visual Representativeness in Junior Secondary School English Language Textbooks in Use in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduabuchi, Chinyere Henrietta; Ekwe, Bernedett

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from research findings seems to corroborate with the assertion that the students' constant difficulties in the comprehension of English language texts may have emanated from the limited visual representativeness in most of the recommended textbooks in use in Junior Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Textbooks help to equip…

  5. Representativeness of shorter measurement sessions in long-term indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, M; Szczurek, A

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) considerably influences health, comfort and the overall performance of people who spend most of their lives in confined spaces. For this reason, there is a strong need to develop methods for IAQ assessment. The fundamental issue in the quantitative determination of IAQ is the duration of measurements. Its inadequate choice may result in providing incorrect information and this potentially leads to wrong conclusions. The most complete information may be acquired through long-term monitoring. However it is typically perceived as impractical due to time and cost load. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term monitoring can be adequately represented by a shorter measurement session. There were considered three measurable quantities: temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. They are commonly recognized as indicatives for IAQ and may be readily monitored. Scaled Kullback-Leibler divergence, also called relative entropy, was applied as a measure of data representativeness. We considered long-term monitoring in a range from 1 to 9 months. Based on our work, the representative data on CO2 concentration may be acquired while performing measurements during 20% of time dedicated to long-term monitoring. In the case of temperature and relative humidity the respective time demand was 50% of long-term monitoring. From our results, in indoor air monitoring strategies, there could be considered shorter measurement sessions, while still collecting data which are representative for long-term monitoring.

  6. Setting up an Online Panel Representative of the General Population: The German Internet Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Annelies G.; Gathmann, Christina; Krieger, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article looks into the processes and outcomes of setting up and maintaining a probability-based longitudinal online survey, which is recruited face-to-face and representative of both the online and the offline population aged 16-75 in Germany. This German Internet Panel studies political and economic attitudes and reform preferences through…

  7. Lower Response Rates on Alumni Surveys Might Not Mean Lower Response Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Amber D.; Miller, Angie L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore some possible issues with response representativeness in alumni surveys. While alumni surveys can provide important information, they often have lower response rates due to bad contact information and other reasons. In this study we investigate potential differences between responses on the National…

  8. A method for finding the station where climatic trends are most representative for a region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huth, Radan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2006), s. 523-530 ISSN 0899-8418 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : climatic trends * station representativeness * principal component analysis * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.332, year: 2006

  9. The Impact of Political Skill on Career Success of Employees' Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickle, Gerhard; Oerder, Katharina; Summers, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Works councillors are elected representatives of employees in German companies. It is their job to protect and bargain the interests of the employees with the company. We investigated the impact of 558 works councillors' individual political skill on their career success, where career ascendancy is based on success in upward elections and not on…

  10. The features of scientist’s lingual identity as representative of Russian cosmism discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita B. Tikhonova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains information about the lingual identity of the representative of the Russian cosmism. The analysis of the three levels of the structure of lingual identity is making: verbal and semantic level, lingual and cognitive level, motivational levels of lingual identity.

  11. Accounting for representativity of ground-level air pollution monitoring stations in data assimilation systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), s. 10015-10015 ISSN 1029-7006. [General Asembly of the European Geophysical Society. 02.04.2006-07.04.2006, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : air pollution * monitoring * representativeness of stations * data assimilation

  12. 10 CFR 706.32 - Security indoctrination of non-employee representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security indoctrination of non-employee representatives. 706.32 Section 706.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.32 Security indoctrination of non-employee...

  13. Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…

  14. The use of indicator taxa as representatives of communities in bioassessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, R.C.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Werf, van der D.C.

    2005-01-01

    1. Sampling and processing of benthic macroinvertebrate samples is time consuming and expensive. Although a number of cost-cutting options exist, a frequently asked question is how representative a subset of data is of the whole community, in particular in areas where habitat diversity is high (like

  15. Choosing non-redundant representative subsets of protein sequence data sets using submodular optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Maxwell W; Bilmes, Jeffrey A; Noble, William Stafford

    2018-04-01

    Selecting a non-redundant representative subset of sequences is a common step in many bioinformatics workflows, such as the creation of non-redundant training sets for sequence and structural models or selection of "operational taxonomic units" from metagenomics data. Previous methods for this task, such as CD-HIT, PISCES, and UCLUST, apply a heuristic threshold-based algorithm that has no theoretical guarantees. We propose a new approach based on submodular optimization. Submodular optimization, a discrete analogue to continuous convex optimization, has been used with great success for other representative set selection problems. We demonstrate that the submodular optimization approach results in representative protein sequence subsets with greater structural diversity than sets chosen by existing methods, using as a gold standard the SCOPe library of protein domain structures. In this setting, submodular optimization consistently yields protein sequence subsets that include more SCOPe domain families than sets of the same size selected by competing approaches. We also show how the optimization framework allows us to design a mixture objective function that performs well for both large and small representative sets. The framework we describe is the best possible in polynomial time (under some assumptions), and it is flexible and intuitive because it applies a suite of generic methods to optimize one of a variety of objective functions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Slowmation: Preservice Elementary Teachers Representing Science Knowledge through Creating Multimodal Digital Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Garry; Loughran, John; Nielsen, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified the value of learners using technology to construct their own representations of science concepts. In this study, we investigate how learners, such as preservice elementary teachers, design and make a narrated animation to represent their science knowledge. The type of animation exemplified is called a "Slowmation"…

  17. 26 CFR 31.3231(c)-1 - Who are employee representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31... is an employee representative, his citizenship or residence is material only insofar as those factors...

  18. 32 CFR 728.78 - American Red Cross representatives and their dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... those requiring domiciliary care. Routine dental care, other than dental prosthesis and orthodontia, is... representatives of the American Red Cross or their dependents, forward medical records, including all clinical... this section the dependent rate. Complete and submit, per subpart J, a DD 7 (Report of Treatment...

  19. 40 CFR 96.52 - NOX Allowance Tracking System responsibilities of NOX authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System responsibilities of NOX authorized account representative. 96.52 Section 96.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND...

  20. 40 CFR 97.52 - NOX Allowance Tracking System responsibilities of NOX authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System responsibilities of NOX authorized account representative. 97.52 Section 97.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR...