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Sample records for brachiocephalic trunk

  1. Diverticulum of the brachiocephalic trunk - angiography and embryological explanation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, J.R.; Lunkenheimer, A.; Loeser, H.; Hilgenberg, F.

    1983-03-01

    A diverticulum of the brachiocephalic trunk is described in 5 children with unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery, in a child with tetralogy of Fallot, and in an other child with Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The diverticulum is a remnant of a contralateral ductus arteriosus, which closed after birth and represents the origin of the distal part of the sixth aortic arch.

  2. Brachiocephalic trunk and left brachiocephalic vein injuries following penetrating right sternoclavicular junction trauma: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Ling-wen; TAN Yuan-kang; DU Ding-yuan; SU Hong-jie; ZHANG Wei-ming; ZHAO Xing-ji

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old male sustained severe penetrating injury by a sharp instrument to his right upper sternoclavicular junction.The wound tract was from suprasternal notch to mediastinum.Exploratory operation via median sternotomy under general anesthesia found a large mediastinal septum hematoncus,as well as brachiocephalic trunk and left brachiocephalic vein injuries.The perforating vascular wounds were repaired with 5-0 prolene suture.He was recovered uneventfully and discharged 9 days after operation.There was no sequel found during 7 years follow-up.

  3. Left common carotid artery arising from brachiocephalic trunk and their aberrant course displacing trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiksha Yadav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine arch commonly refer a group of congenital variations in the branches of arch of aorta, in which there is aberrant origin of left common carotid artery. These are usually detected incidentally, however rarely they can cause dysphagia lusoria. We report a case of bovine arch and aberrant left common carotid artery in a 62 years old female who had come with complaint of mild dyspnea. On radiograph there was superior mediastinal widening and shift of trachea to right side. CT scan was advised for further evaluation. On CECT there was only two main branches arised from arch of aorta, brachiocephalic trunk and right subclavian artery. There was aberrant origin of left common carotid artery seen from brachiocephalic trunk. The brachiocephalic trunk was very tortuous and displacing trachea to right side. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 4220-4222

  4. Arterial reconstruction of the brachiocephalic trunk and the subclavian arteries. 10 years' experience with a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Hansen, Hans Jørgen Buchardt

    1980-01-01

    During a 10-year period, 60 patients were operated on for occlusive lesions in the brachiocephalic trunk and/or the subclavian arteries proximal to the vertebral artery. Angiography showed 68 occlusive lesions, of which 64 were treated surgically. Of these, 47 exhibited subclavian steal. Sixty-th...... three per cent worsened. Twice as many patients could work after the operation as before. The cumulative survival rate was found to be somewhat lower than that of a normal population.......During a 10-year period, 60 patients were operated on for occlusive lesions in the brachiocephalic trunk and/or the subclavian arteries proximal to the vertebral artery. Angiography showed 68 occlusive lesions, of which 64 were treated surgically. Of these, 47 exhibited subclavian steal. Sixty......-three reconstructive procedures were performed together with two arterial ligations (four patients were operated on bilaterally and one patient was operated on twice on the same side). There were 30 transthoracic procedures, essentially endarterectomies, and 35 supraclavicular procedures, mostly carotid...

  5. Symptomatic obstruction of the brachiocephalic and left subclavian arteries obscured by aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Peter W; Assi, Roland; Grecu, Loreta; Dardik, Alan

    2014-04-01

    Stenosis or occlusion of the brachiocephalic artery represents an uncommon cause of cerebrovascular insufficiency. We report a patient with combined brachiocephalic and left subclavian obstruction with clinical manifestations of lightheadedness, syncope, and left-sided weakness who remained misdiagnosed essentially because of symmetrical pressures in the upper extremities. Aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis failed to provide symptomatic relief. Eventual stenting of the brachiocephalic trunk resolved the patient's symptoms. Our report highlights the diagnostic challenges in this case of bilateral supraaortic vessel disease and shows that equal upper extremity pressures do not rule out brachiocephalic artery obstruction.

  6. Cirurgia do arco aórtico com perfusão cerebral bilateral pelo isolamento do tronco braquiocefálico e da artéria carótida esquerda Aortic arch surgery with bilateral cerebral perfusion by isolation of brachiocephalic trunk and left carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdo José Carreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os resultados da técnica descrita por Carreira et al. com utilização de perfusão cerebral seletiva bilateral (PCSAB pelo isolamento do tronco braquiocefálico e artéria carótida esquerda. MÉTODOS: Quinze pacientes foram operados consecutivamente entre de junho de 2005 e setembro de 2007. Os dados foram analisados por programa informatizado Epi Info e significância estatística com p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de PCSAB é reprodutível e apresenta resultados semelhantes aos da literatura mundial. A excelente evolução neurológica e o fácil controle de sangramentos nas linhas de sutura podem ter contribuído com os resultados obtidos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of a technique described by Carreira et al. using bilateral antegrade selective cerebral perfusion by isolating the brachiocephalic trunk and the left carotid artery. METHODS: Fifteen patients were operated between June 2005 and September 2007. Data analysis were performed using Epi Info and statistical significance was set at p0.05. CONCLUSION: The technique of bilateral selective cerebral perfusion described by Carreira et al. can be performed by others and presents similar results to the international literature. The excellent neurological outcome and easy bleeding control on surgical sutures lines are the major advantages of this new procedure.

  7. Surgical treatment of brachiocephalic vessel involvement in Takayasu's arteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xin; DUAN Hong-yong; GU Yong-quan; LI Jian-xin; CHEN Bing; WANG Zhong-gao; ZHANG Jian

    2010-01-01

    Background Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease that affects large and medium size arteries. The brachiocephalic trunk is the most frequently involved site in TA, and multi-vessel lesions are common. Surgical treatment includes vessel reconstruction surgery and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Herein, we report our preliminary experience with surgical treatment of cerebral ischemia caused by cervical arterial lesions due to TA.Methods From January 2000 to December 2007, 38 patients with cerebral ischemia caused by cervical arterial occlusive lesions due to TA were treated surgically. There were three males and 35 females, with an age range of 15-42 years (mean 26.5 years). All patients had operative repairs undertaken. Twenty eight patients received bypass operation and 10 patients received percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. One case with coronary stenosis received coronary artery bypass simultaneously. Patients were followed up for 11 months to eight years.Results There were no peri-operative deaths in cerebrovascular reconstruction patients. Symptoms of cerebral ischemia were improved or cured in 25 of 38 patients. There was a low incidence of cerebral reperfusion syndrome. Two patients died at five and seven years after surgery due to heart failure. Another 8 patients (20%) required further surgery for stenosis (5 patients) or anastomotic aneurysms (3 patients). Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed successfully for treatment of aortic and renal lesions. Repeated angioplasty for revascularization was performed in six PTA cases with restenosis after 5-24 months.Conclusions When cerebral perfusion has potential to be affected by TA, a definitive corrective procedure is advised when the patient is relatively stable. Although the recurrence rate is very high, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is the first choice procedure. Bypass operation is optimal for brachiocephalic-vessel involvement in TA

  8. Extra-intracranial hemodynamic changes of common carotid artery or brachiocephalic trunk lesions detected with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography%经颅多普勒超声检测颈总动脉或头臂干病变的颅内外血流动力学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 华扬; 孙伟景; 程静

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the extra- and intra-cranial hemodynamic changes and collateral circulation after severe stenosis or occlusion of common carotid artery or brachiocephalic trunk (CCA/BT) with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Methods Twenty-four patients with CCA/BT severe stenosis or occlusion confirmed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were selected as a patients group, and 20 healthy individuals were used as a control group. TCD was used to detect the changes of the intra-and extra-cranial artery hemodynamic parameters in both groups. The types of collateral patency were identified. Results ①In the 17 patients with CCA/BT occlusion, 13 were not detected blood flow signals at the Location of CCA/BT, and 4 showed abnormal low velocity and high resistance blood flow signals; in the 8 patients with CCA/BT severe stenosis, 6 showed abnormal high velocity with turbulent flow spectrum at the local lesions and 2 with CCA low velocity and low-pulsatile blood flow spectrum at the sites distal to the stenosis were probed. The external carotid arteries of 24 patients were the reversed blood flow direction and low-pulsatile internal carotid artery blood flow spectrum changes. The origins of internal carotid artery of 21 patients were low velocity and low-pulsatile blood flow spectrum. ?The velocity and pulsatility index of the middle cerebral arteries were significantly lower than those of the conlralateral sides and the control group ( P <0.01). The ophthalmic arteries showed a low-pulsatile forward flow spectrum in 19 patients, no blood flow signals were detected in 3 patients, and the flow spectrum of reversed notches were detected in 2. ③In the 24 patients, the circle of Willis in 19 (79% ) cases showed collateral patency, and 3 had the contralater-al external carotid collateral blood supply. Nine patients showed the blood flow spectrum changes with a steal from the anterior circulation and the anterior cerebral artery in 6 of them (25% ) showed

  9. Endovascular treatment of ectopic bronchial artery aneurysm with brachiocephalic artery stent placement and coil embolization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiao; Ji, Dong-Hua; Chen, Yu; Liu, Chang-Wei; Liu, Bao; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening disease, and multiple BAAs are even rarer. Clinically, the tortuous and short neck of a BAA may present significant challenges for invasive intervention. Methods: This report describes the detailed process of diagnosis and treatment and includes a literature review of the etiology, clinical presentation, and therapeutic management of BAA. Results: A rare case of multiple BAAs, with one having an inflow artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk, was referred to our hospital. The patient was successfully treated with coil embolization and brachiocephalic artery stent placement. In addition, we conducted a literature review involving 63 cases of BAA. BAA was most commonly associated with bronchiectasis and was located predominantly in the mediastinum. There was no significant difference between the diameters of the ruptured aneurysms and those of the nonruptured aneurysms (P = 0.115). Transcatheter arterial embolization was the most commonly adopted technique to treat BAA, while thoracic aortic endovascular repair was selected if the neck between the aneurysm and the aorta was short. Subgroup analysis suggested that patients with > 1 BAA were significantly more likely to be female than male (χ2 test, P = 0.034). Conclusion: Transcatheter coil embolization combined with stent placement could be a reasonable treatment option for BAAs with a tortuous and short neck. According to our literature review, patients with multiple BAAs display distinctive clinical characteristics compared with patients with a single BAA. PMID:27583854

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: DNS.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. Successful therapy of brachiocephalic arteriogastric fistula after esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yohei; Watanabe, Masayuki; Ikeda, Osamu; Nakasone, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Kunitomo, Ryuji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Baba, Hideo

    2011-10-01

    We report the case of an 86-year-old man, who had undergone subtotal esophagectomy and reconstruction with a gastric tube through the retrosternal route 7 years ago, who was referred for treatment of a brachiocephalic arteriogastric fistula. An emergency stent-graft placement was performed to prevent massive bleeding from the fistula. After 2 weeks, a follow-up esophagogastroscopy revealed that the gastric tube ulcer had been penetrated, and the stent graft was exposed. Therefore, surgical treatment was indicated. After a carotid-carotid arterial bypass graft was made, the brachiocephalic artery was resected with the stent graft and the gastric wall. The defect between the cervical esophagus and the remnant gastric tube was replaced by a free jejunal graft. The patient tolerated these procedures well and was transferred to the referral hospital 3 months after surgery. Therefore, both an early diagnosis and the administration of multidisciplinary treatment are essential to save patients presenting with an arterioenteric fistula.

  14. [Antegrade unilateral perfusion of the brain through the brachiocephalic trunk in operations on the aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, B N; Panfilov, D S; Kuznetsov, M S; Ponomarenko, I V; Nasrashvili, G G; Shipulin, V M

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein is a technique of unilateral antegrade perfusion of the brain in operations on the aortic arch. The method makes it possible to perform both systemic artificial circulation and adequate physiological perfusion of the brain, promoting minimization of the number of neurological complications. PMID:27100557

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: InP.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. Endovascular procedures in the treatment of obstructive lesions of brachiocephalic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagić Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To assess the early effects, possible risks, and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA of brachiocephalic trunk (BT and subclavian arteries (SA. Methods. During the period of 11 years, in 92 patients (57 males - 62%, mean age 53,5 ± 7,8 years 93 PTA of SA/BT were performed; 70 (75% lesions were stenosis, while 23 (25% lesions were occlusions with mean diameter stenosis percent of 83,1 ± 6,2%. Clinical indications were: vertebrobasilar insufficiency (n=57, upper limb ischemia (n=40, coronary steal syndrome (n=4 and scheduled aorto-coronary bypass, using internal thoracic artery (ITA (n=4 asymptomatic patients. Mean lesion length was 22 ± 8 mm. Results. Eighty one (87% out of 93 lesions were successfully dilated; all of 12 (13% failures were due to unsuccessful recanalisation of occluded arteries. In 10 patients 10 stents were implanted (2 in BT and 8 in left SA. There were 6 (6.5% procedural complications: 1 dissection, 1 thrombosis of the left SA, transient ischemic attack in 2 patients, and 2 cases of dislocation of atheromatous plaque from the right SA into the right common carotid artery. During the follow-up of 48 ± 3 months, 16 (20% restenoses were treated by PTA (n=7 or operatively (n=9. Primary and secondary patency for all lesions treated during 11 years was 87% and 80%, respectively (stenosis: 97% and 89%; occlusions: 58% and 58%. Conclusion. PTA with or without stenting was relatively simple, efficient and safe procedure. It required short hospitalization with low treatment costs. If any of suboptimal results or chronic occlusions were present, the implantation of endovascular stents should have been considered.

  3. Aberrant left brachiocephalic vein: CT imaging findings and embryologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography was utilized to evaluate aberrant left brachiocephalic vein (ALBCV), an infrequently discussed congenital vascular anomaly among Chinese people. Associated vascular variation and possible embryonic correlation are discussed. Since 1990, a total of 14 cases of ALBCV have been reported in patients receiving CT scan of chest, and was mainly an incidental diagnosis. One case was confirmed angiographically and two others were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Emphasis was placed on the entry of the azygos vein into the superior vena cava (SVC), the length of the SVC, and the presence of other cardiovascular abnormalities. Of the 14 cases of ALBCV, the level of azygos vein entry was higher than the origin of the SVC in 7 cases: 4 were approximately the same level and 3 were lower. The average length of the SVC was approximately 5.6 cm shorter than that of the general population, which is approximately 7.0 cm. Three cases had associated vascular anomaly. Most cases of ALBCV had azygos vein drainage level higher than or equal to the origin of the SVC. Right-sided aorta is one of the causes giving rise to the ALBCV during embryonic development. The CT scan remains a definitive diagnostic modality for ALBCV. (orig.)

  4. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, David; Lopez-Valenciano, Alejandro; Juan-Recio, Casto; Montero-Carretero, Carlos; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas). Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1) sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2) stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants’ ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05) and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05) than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512) significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance. PMID:27232602

  5. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbado

    Full Text Available Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas. Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1 sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2 stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants' ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05 and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05 than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512 significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance.

  6. The Hunter Pulmonary Angiography Catheter for a Brachiocephalic Vein Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to describe our experience in performing pulmonary angiography using the Hunter pulmonary catheter, manufactured by Cook, Inc., which is a modified 6F pigtail catheter with a 'C-shaped' curve, designed for a brachiocephalic vein approach. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent pulmonary angiograms using the Hunter catheter between August 1997 and January 2002. Operator comments were gathered in 86 (70%) of the cases. The operator was, if possible, the most junior resident on the service. Thirty-nine operators participated in the survey. Efficacy, safety, and ease of use of the catheter were determined by operators' comments and ECG observations during the procedure. Corroborating clinical data were gathered from medical records. In 68 (79%) of the procedures that were commented upon, the operator described insertion into the pulmonary artery (PA) as easy; only 2 (2%) indicated difficulty in accessing the PA. In 41 (63%) of the bilateral angiograms that were commented upon, the operator described accessing the left PA from the right PA as easy; only 6 (9%) rated it as difficult and all were with an older technique in which the catheter was withdrawn to the pulmonary bifurcation without a wire or with only the soft tip of the wire in the pigtail and then rotated to the left main pulmonary artery. Thirty-one of the 41 patients who demonstrated premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) had a previous history of heart disease. Nineteen of the 39 patients who did not have PVCs had a history of heart disease (p = 0.018). The maneuverability and shape of the Hunter catheter make pulmonary angiography an easy procedure, even for operators with minimal experience and limited technical proficiency. PVCs demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with a positive patient history for cardiac disease, rather than being a universal risk

  7. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, David; Lopez-Valenciano, Alejandro; Juan-Recio, Casto; Montero-Carretero, Carlos; van Dieën, Jaap H; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas). Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1) sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2) stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants' ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p judo performance. PMID:27232602

  8. Cephalic arch stenosis in autogenous brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistulas: results of cutting balloon angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren Thorup; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis is a known cause of hemodialysis access failure in patients with brachiocephalic fistulas (BCFs). Outcomes of endovascular treatment are affected by resistance of the stenosis to balloon dilation, a high vein rupture rate and the development of early restenosis. The purpose...... of this retrospective study was to report outcomes after cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) of cephalic arch stenosis....

  9. Cephalic arch stenosis in autogenous brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistulas: results of cutting balloon angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren Thorup; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis is a known cause of hemodialysis access failure in patients with brachiocephalic fistulas (BCFs). Outcomes of endovascular treatment are affected by resistance of the stenosis to balloon dilation, a high vein rupture rate and the development of early restenosis. The purpose...

  10. Brachiocephalic Artery Cannulation in Proximal Aortic Surgery that Requires Circulatory Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Akar, Ilker; Ince, Ilker; Aslan, Cemal; Koc, Fatih; Kafali, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    The brachiocephalic artery is an alternative cannulation site in the repair of ascending aortic lesions that require circulatory arrest. We evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this technique. Proximal aortic surgery was performed in 32 patients from 2006 through 2012 via brachiocephalic artery cannulation and circulatory arrest. Twenty-four (75%) of the patients were men. The mean age was 48.69 ± 9.43 years (range, 30–68 yr). Twelve had type I dissection, 2 had type II dissection, and 18 had true aneurysms of the ascending aorta. All operations were performed through a median sternotomy. The arterial cannula was inserted through an 8-mm vascular graft anastomosed to the brachiocephalic artery in an end-to-side fashion. In dissections, the distal anastomosis was performed without clamping the aorta. The patients were cooled to 24 °C, and circulatory arrest was established. The brachiocephalic and left carotid arteries were clamped, and antegrade cerebral perfusion was started at a rate of 10 mL/kg/min. Cardiopulmonary bypass was resumed after completion of the distal anastomosis and the initiation of rewarming. The proximal anastomosis was then performed. None of the patients sustained a major neurologic deficit, but 5 patients experienced transient postoperative agitation (<24 hr). There were 2 early deaths (6.25%), on the 3rd and the 11th postoperative days, both unrelated to the cannulation technique. Brachiocephalic artery cannulation through a graft can be a safe and effective technique in proximal aortic surgical procedures that require circulatory arrest. PMID:25593522

  11. Stenting of the Superior Vena Cava and Left Brachiocephalic Vein with Preserving the Central Venous Catheter in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias; Goerg, Fabian; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen(Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Stenting of the central veins is well established for treating localized venous stenosis. The techniques regarding catheter preservation for central venous catheters in the superior vena cava have been described. We describe here a method for stent implantation in the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein, and principally via a single jugular venous puncture, while saving a left sided jugular central venous catheter in a patient suffering from central venous stenosis of the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein.

  12. [Supra-aortic trunks occlusive disease: three different treatment approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P; Almeida, P; Sampaio, S; Silva, A; Leite-Moreira, A; Pinho, P; Roncon de Albuquerque, R

    2010-01-01

    Unlike carotid bifurcation atherosclerotic stenosis, supra-aortic trunks (SAT) occlusive disease is rare and its revascularization uncommon, accouting for less than 10% of the operations performed on the extracranial brain-irrigating arteries. There are three different treatment approaches: transthoracic, extra-anatomic cervical and endovascular. Endovascular repair is gaining popularity as first-line therapy for proximal lesions with favorable anatomy because of its low morbidity and rare mortality. Extra-anatomic bypass is a safe and durable reconstruction and should be considered in patients with single vessel disease, with cardiopulmonary high-risk or with limited life expectancy. If cardiac surgery is needed, central transthoracic reconstruction is preferable, and the two procedures should be combined. The long-term patency of bypasses with aortic origin, specially when multiple vessels are involved, is superior to other repair techniques. We present three clinical cases that illustrate each of these therapeutic strategies: central brachiocephalic revascularization and synchronous cardiac surgery in a patient with complex SAT atherosclerosis disease; subclavian-carotid transposition for disabling upper limb claudication; and subclavian artery stenting for subclavian-steal syndrome. Surgical approach selection should be based on the individual patient's anatomy and operative risk.

  13. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery following medianoscopy: initial endovascular repair followed by open surgery--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebl, Matthias; Neuhauser, B; Perkmann, R; Tauscher, T; Waldenberger, P; Fraedrich, G

    2003-06-01

    Endovascular stent graft repair of traumatic vessel injuries is gaining worldwide acceptance as a minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. However, effective endovascular repair fails if the aneurysm is not completely excluded. Conversion to open surgery may be unavoidable in such cases. Herein we describe the case of a 45-year-old man who was referred to our hospital with a pseudoaneurysm of the proximal brachiocephalic artery caused by biopsy during diagnostic medianoscopy. The pseudoaneurysm was primarily treated by stent-graft implantation into the proximal brachiocephalic artery. As a result of the unfavorable location of the lesion exclusion of the aneurysm failed and the initial therapy had to be extended to open reconstruction of the brachiocephalic artery. A bypass procedure from the aortic arch to the right common carotid artery was performed with reinsertion of the right subclavian artery to exclude the pseudoaneurysm.

  14. Fístula traumática entre tronco braquiocefálico e veia braquiocefálica por arma de fogo Traumatic fistula between the brachiocephalic trunk and the brachiocephalic vein due to gunshot wound

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Paulo Martins de Oliveira; Orlando Petrucci; Karlos Alexandre de Souza Vilarinho; Lindemberg Mota Silveira; Reinaldo Wilson Vieira; Domingo Marcolino Braile

    2008-01-01

    Descrevemos caso de paciente do sexo masculino, 49 anos, que sofreu ferimento por arma de fogo no tórax, transfixando o mediastino médio. Apresentava-se estável hemodinamicamente, contudo taquicárdico e taquipnéico. Ele foi submetido à propedêutica armada com radiograma de tórax, ecocardiografia transtorácica, tomografia computadorizada de tórax e arteriografia do arco aórtico. Evidenciou-se fístula traumática do tronco braquiocefálico com a veia braquiocefálica. Realizou-se correção cirúrgic...

  15. Importance of atherosclerotic stenotic lesion of the brachiocephalic arteries in the development of cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Khasanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the pattern of atherosclerotic stenotic lesion on the clinical presentation of cognitive impairments (CIs has been inadequately investigated. Objective: to estimate the impact of the degree and site of an atherosclerotic stenotic process on cerebral perfusion and cognitive functions. Patients and methods. A total of 123 patients (65 men and 58 women aged 50 to 75 years with brachiocephalic artery stenosis of at least 40%, without hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other systemic vascular pathology were examined. The structural state of the brain substance and the state of cerebral blood flow were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. The scale described by P. Scheltens et al. was used to determine changes in the white matter. The site and degree of a stenotic process were estimated by extracranial and transcranial duplex scanning. CIs were identified applying a set of neuropsychological assessment scales. The Hamilton hospital depression rating scale was also employed. Results and discussion. Varying degrees of CIs were detected in the majority of the examinees with brachiocephalic artery atherosclerosis. The most severe CIs were associated with the involvement of parietal and frontal lobes. There was significant deterioration in cognitive functions with a higher percentage of stenosis: more severe CIs were seen in the presence of stenosis in the carotid system than in those in the vertebrobasilar bed. In addition, the patients with concomitant stenoses and tandem stenoses were observed to have more pronounced CIs than those with single artery stenosis. Cerebral atherosclerosis is shown to be one of the major risk factors for CIs. Not only the degree of stenoses, but also to a greater extent their site was observed to impact the occurrence of CIs accompanied by the development of a perfusion deficit in the specific vascular beds. The determination of the pattern of a stenotic process will be

  16. ENDOVASCULAR TREATMENT OF SACCULAR CEREBRAL ANEURYSMS IN PATIENTS WITH PATHOLOGICAL KINKING AND LOOPING BRACHIOCEPHALIC ARTERIES IN ARTERIAL SPASM

    OpenAIRE

    Kuharuk, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective — to analyses the results of endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysm in patients with pathological kinking and looping in brachiocephalic arteries against the background of vasospasm. Materials and methods. The analysis of endovascular treatment of patients with saccular cerebral aneurysms was made in the neurosurgical department of Volyn Regional Hospital in 2008-2012. All patients that underwent various types of aneurysms and hemorrhage were operated by endovascular method...

  17. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model

  18. Endovascular recanalization of superior vena cava,brachiocephalic, and subclavian venous occlusions caused by nonmalignant lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Meng; SHI Ya-xue; HUANG Xiao-zhong; ZHAO Yi-ping; ZHANG Hao; ZHANG Ji-wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Endovascular recanalization (EVR) is becoming the primary therapy for patients with central venous (brachiocephalic,subclavian,and superior vena cava) occlusion (CVO) caused by benign etiology.In this study,we retrospectively analyzed our experience in using EVR to treat benign CVO in 10 patients between April 2005 and September 2010.Methods The mean age of the patients was 65.3 years,2/10 cases were female,and the origin of cause of CVO in 7/10 cases was the hemodialysis access in the upper extremity.The patients were treated with primary stent placement and evaluated with immediate technical success rate and post-interventional patency rate after the procedure.Results Eight patients were treated successfully with stent placement and experienced symptomatic relief immediately.No technical complications were observed during EVR treatment.Patients were followed up by ultrasonography and venography.Median follow-up was 13 months,Three patients required secondary procedures to maintain patency.Conclusions EVR is an effective and safe treatment in patients with benign CVO.It provides immediate symptom relief and maintains a continuous access for hemodialysis.

  19. Effect of gait retraining for reducing ambulatory knee load on trunk biomechanics and trunk muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüesch, Corina; Laffer, Dominik; Netzer, Cordula; Pagenstert, Geert; Mündermann, Annegret

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that walking with increased medio-lateral trunk sway is associated with lower external knee adduction moment and lower extremity muscle activation, and higher external ipsilateral trunk moment and trunk muscle activity than walking with normal trunk sway in healthy participants. Fifteen participants performed walking trials with normal and increased medio-lateral trunk sway. Maximum trunk sway, first maximum knee adduction moment, lateral trunk bending moment, and bilateral vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, gluteus medius, rectus abdominis, external oblique and erector spinae muscle activity were computed. Walking with increased trunk sway was associated with lower maximum knee adduction moment (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.62Nm/kg vs. 0.62-0.76Nm/kg; P<.001) and ipsilateral gluteus medius (-17%; P=.014) and erector spinae muscle activity (-24%; P=.004) and greater maximum lateral trunk bending moment (+34%; P<.001) and contralateral external oblique muscle activity (+60%; P=.009). In all participants, maximum knee adduction moment was negatively correlated and maximum trunk moment was positively correlated with maximum trunk sway. The results of this study suggest that walking with increased trunk sway not only reduces the external knee adduction moment but also alters and possibly increases the load on the trunk. Hence, load-altering biomechanical interventions should always be evaluated not only regarding their effects on the index joint but on other load-bearing joints such as the spine. PMID:27264398

  20. Fully Automatic Trunk Packing with Free Placements

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    We present a new algorithm to compute the volume of a trunk according to the SAE J1100 standard. Our new algorithm uses state-of-the-art methods from computational geometry and from combinatorial optimization. It finds better solutions than previous approaches for small trunks.

  1. Celiac trunk coverage in endovascular aneurysm repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delle, Martin; Lönn, Lars; Henrikson, O;

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to examine the risks associated with obstruction of the coeliac trunk in the process of treating aneurysms with endografting.......This retrospective study was undertaken to examine the risks associated with obstruction of the coeliac trunk in the process of treating aneurysms with endografting....

  2. [Comparative assessment of immediate outcomes of surgical treatment of patients with coronary artery disease and lesion of the brachiocephalic arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozhzhin, E V; Ibragimov, O R; Koval'chuk, D N; Efanov, Iu M; Zor'kin, A A; Ibragimova, E A; Urvantseva, I A

    2014-01-01

    From 2000 to 2011, a total of 52 patients with combined atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary and brachiocephalic arteries were subjected to a single-stage operation. Depending on the type of operative intervention, all patients were subdivided into two groups: Group One comprising 13 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a combination with simultaneous stenting of the internal carotid artery, and Group Two consisting of 39 patients subjected to CABG with simultaneous carotid endarterectomy. Assessing the intraoperative parameters revealed that in Group One patients the average duration of operations was significantly lower (179.6±6.4 minutes versus 273.2±5.6 minutes in Group Two, partery with the development of intestinal gangrene and peritonitis. In the structure of hospital complications cardiac insufficiency was prevalent (23.1% and 59.0% for Groups One and Group Two patients, respectively, pcoronary and brachiocephalic arteries makes it possible to increase the overall survival rate in patients suffering this disease and to decrease the incidence rate of ischaemic impairments of the coronary and cerebral circulation. The hybrid method of treatment on arteries of various vascular basins may be an alternative to carotid endarterectomy and CABG, especially in patients running high surgical risk.

  3. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions.

  4. 47 CFR 69.112 - Direct-trunked transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct-trunked transport. 69.112 Section 69.112... Computation of Charges § 69.112 Direct-trunked transport. (a) A flat-rated direct-trunked transport charge... other persons that use telephone company direct-trunked transport facilities. (b)(1) For...

  5. Effort thrombosis in a young triathlete: an unusual presentation of painless neck swelling secondary to right brachiocephalic vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allana, A M B; Teo, L L S; Chuah, B Y S; Liu, T C; Cheah, W K

    2011-03-01

    Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity is secondary to thrombosis of the axillary and/or subclavian veins that develop from heavy arm exertion. This case illustrates venous thrombosis of the right brachiocephalic vein in a 32-year-old man who presented with a cyst-like swelling in the right neck with no associated pain or trauma. Our patient, a trained athlete, was preparing for a triathlon at the time of presentation. He was treated by first-line therapy of subcutaneous and oral anti-coagulation medication. In this study, we highlight the importance of early investigation and treatment of symptomatic athletes so that long-term disability can be prevented. This study also shows the timely use of computed tomography imaging, which can help to identify the syndrome in previously undiagnosed patients. PMID:21451912

  6. Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F

    2014-10-01

    Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases. PMID:24624953

  7. [Variations of the celiac trunk branches in the fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordei, P; Antohe, D S

    2002-09-01

    The study was performed on 60 human foetuses, aged between 4 to 9 months, using as methods dissection and plastic and contrast substances injection. We studied the celiac trunk in what concerns the division into its terminal branches, insisting on the possible morphological variations, some rare collateral branches starting from the common arterial trunk, the dimensional relations between the branches at their origin and the level of the celiac trunk origin from the aorta, in relation with the vertebral column, the diaphragmatic passage of the aorta and with the superior mesenteric artery. We also assessed the dimensional relations (calibers at origin) between the branches of the celiac trunk. Ass possible variations of the division of the celiac trunk, we assessed: gastro-hepatic trunk, with the splenic artery directly from the aorta or from the hepatic artery; gastro-splenic trunk, with the hepatic artery originating from the aorta; hepato-splenic trunk, with origin of the left gastric artery either directly from the aorta or from the hepatic artery. Rare variations: celiaco-mesenteric trunk; two arterial trunks, hepato-splenic and hepato-gastric; separate aortic origin for all three "classic" branches of the celiac trunk; two hepatic arteries, one from the celiac trunk and the other from the aorta or superior mesenteric artery; celiac trunk that divides into several terminal branches; one or two suprarenal arteries originating from the celiac trunk. PMID:12572348

  8. Diagnosis of Brachiocephalic Thrombophlebitis as the Cause of Fever of Unknown Origin by 18F-FDG-PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas Demirev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fever of unknown origin (FUO represents a challenge in diagnosis and treatment. The role of 18Ffluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET / computed tomography (CT in the differential diagnosis of this entity is presently well established. We report the case of a patient with infectious/inflammatory symptoms but no evident localization and subsequent relapse, in which PET/CT showed its ability to not only determine the exact localization of a thrombophlebitic focus as cause of FUO, but also to monitor and determine the success of treatment. After performing a FDG-PET/CT and detecting a thrombophlebitis in the brachiocephalic vein, low molecular heparins were introduced in the course of therapy. Soon (about 24 hours thereafter, clinical symptoms significantly decreased and could no longer be observed. After continuing the antibiotic and anticoagulant therapy for 4 weeks, a follow-up PET/CT scan was performed. That scan no longer showed abnormal uptake in the previous intravascular localization. Consequently, we suggest that PET/CT is a diagnostic modality feasible to identify and monitor therapy response of intravascular thrombophlebitic foci.

  9. Electrical Imaging of Roots and Trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hagrey, S.; Werban, U.; Meissner, R.; Ismaeil, A.; Rabbel, W.

    2005-05-01

    We applied geoelectric and GPR techniques to analyze problems of botanical structures and even processes, e.g., mapping root zones, internal structure of trunks, and water uptake by roots. The dielectric nature of root zones and trunks is generally a consequence of relatively high moisture content. The electric method, applied to root zones, can discriminate between old, thick, isolated roots (high resistivity) and the network of young, active, and hydraulically conductive zones (low resistivity). Both types of roots show low radar velocity and a strong attenuation caused by the dominant effect of moisture (high dielectric constant) on the electromagnetic wave propagation. Single root branches could be observed in radargrams by their reflection and diffraction parabolas. We have perfected the inversion method for perfect and imperfect cylindrical objects, such as trunks, and developed a new multielectrodes (needle or gel) ring array for fast applications on living trees and discs. Using synthetic models we tested the technique successfully and analyzed it as a function of total electrode number and configuration. Measurements at a trunk show a well established inverse relationship between the imaged resistivity and the moisture content determined from cores. The central resistivity maximum of healthy trees strongly decreases toward the rim. This agrees with the moisture decrease to the outside where active sap flow processes take place. Branching, growth anomalies (new or old shoots) and meteorological effects (sunshine and wind direction) lead to deviations of the concentric electric structure. The strongest anomalies are related to infections causing wet, rotting spots or cavities. The heartwood resistivity is highest in olive and oak trunks, intermediate in young fruit trees and lowest in cork oak trunks that are considered to be anomalously wet. Compared to acoustic tomography our electric technique shows a better resolution in imaging internal ring structures

  10. Direct clipping of large basilar trunk aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Toshikazu; Nakagawa, Daichi; Kawai, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    A large basilar trunk aneurysm was incidentally found in a 77-year-old woman in examination for headache. Though it was asymptomatic, high signal intensity was noticed in the brainstem around the aneurysm on FLAIR image of MRI. As she was otherwise healthy, surgical clipping was performed through anterior temporal approach. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/0soWM8meCW8 . PMID:25554839

  11. Trunk and knee performance of rowers

    OpenAIRE

    Grosdent, Stéphanie; Demoulin, Christophe; Gauthier, Stéphanie; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Vanderthommen, Marc; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study showed some difference in trunk and knee extensors strength between rowers and control subjects as well as between rowers and non-rowing athletes. The increased performances of extensor muscles in elite rowers appear to be probably related to the specificity of this sport. In the drive phase of rowing, rowers sequentially push with the legs and then pull with the arms and lower back, requiring both muscular strength and endurance. However, no difference was shown between groups reg...

  12. Successful surgical repair of impending rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery with prior reconstruction of the carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Ken; Maeda, Masanobu; Sakai, Yoshimasa; Sakurai, Hajime; Murayama, Hiroomi; Hasegawa, Hiroki [Social Insurance Chukyo Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    We report the successful repair of impending rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery (BCA) in a 70-year-old man. He had undergone a mediastinal tumor resection through a median sternotomy in 1995. Pathological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Two years later, he underwent radiation therapy of 65 Gray for metastasis to the supraclavicular lymph nodes. On January 18, 2000, plastic surgeons planned to perform a pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap to repair a radiation skin ulcer. During the operation, the BCA was lacerated, possibly in an area of radiation tissue damage. We performed a prosthetic graft (10-mm Gelseal) replacement of the BCA. The right subclavian artery had to be ligated. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed excellent reconstruction of the artery. Magnetic resonance angiography of the brain showed a deficit in the anterior communicating artery and stenosis of the posterior communicating artery, which indicated that the reconstruction procedure was reasonable. Seven months later, on August 18, 2000, the patient was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right neck and oozing from the previous cutaneous wound. CT scan and DSA demonstrated the presence of a pseudoaneurysm of the proximal anastomosis site, which required emergency surgery. Before this third sternotomy, a saphenous vein graft was interposed between both external carotid arteries. Removal of the prosthetic graft and resection of the pseudoaneurysm were performed under mild hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass with left common carotid arterial perfusion. Then, the wound was closed completely using a left pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap. The postoperative course was uneventful and DSA showed good patency of the graft and intracranial arteries. The patient was discharged without neurological complications. We conclude that prior reconstruction of the carotid artery is a safe and effective procedure for patients

  13. Trunk fatigue profile and low back pain in tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, José Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Ciências da Fisioterapia Introduction The trunk plays an important role in tennis strokes. Its asymmetric muscle activation, coupled with the high repeatability of the sport, places tennis players at risk for injuries such as low back pain. Objectives This study aimed to present a trunk fatigue profile in tennis players and verify its association with low back pain (LBP). Material and Methods 35 tennis players completed an isometric trunk endurance protocol co...

  14. Autogenous brachio-cephalic arterio-venousautogenous brachio-cephalic arterio-venous fistulae: effect of age, diabetes,fistulae: effect of age, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and anticoagulation on theatherosclerosis, and anticoagulation on the long-term outcomelong-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalois, Vassilios E; Ndzengue, Albert; Choi, Peter; Hakim, Nadey S

    2008-01-01

    Age, diabetes, and generalized atherosclerosis are thought to be limiting factors forAge, diabetes, and generalized atherosclerosis are thought to be limiting factors for creating an autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF) unlike the use of anticoagulants. Wecreating an autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF) unlike the use of anticoagulants. We retrospectively assessed the effect of these factors on the outcome of 75 autogenousretrospectively assessed the effect of these factors on the outcome of 75 autogenous brachio-cephalic AVFs created between January 1, 2002 and August 31, 2005. Differentbrachio-cephalic AVFs created between January 1, 2002 and August 31, 2005. Different groups of patients were compared and the longevity of the AVFs was calculated. Fifty-twogroups of patients were compared and the longevity of the AVFs was calculated. Fifty-two percent of the patients were >65 years old, 41.3% werepercent of the patients were >65 years old, 41.3% were diabetic, 48% were arteriopaths,diabetic, 48% were arteriopaths, and 41.3% were not using anticoagulants. The maximum follow-up was 35 months (mean,and 41.3% were not using anticoagulants. The maximum follow-up was 35 months (mean, 11.2 +/- 10.3 months; median, 7 months). The success rate of the operation was 93.3% (mean 11.2 +/- 10.3 months; median, 7 months). The success rate of the operation was 93.3% (70 patent AVFs); 79.3% of the AVFs were functioning at 35 months. Age >65 years old,patent AVFs); 79.3% of the AVFs were functioning at 35 months. Age >65 years old, diabetes, generalized atherosclerosis, and the lack of use of anticoagulants were notdiabetes, generalized atherosclerosis, and the lack of use of anticoagulants were not associated with an increased rate of technical failures or a decreased long-term patencyassociated with an increased rate of technical failures or a decreased long-term patency rate of the AVFs.rate of the AVFs. PMID:19731852

  15. Trunk robot rehabilitation training with active stepping reorganizes and enriches trunk motor cortex representations in spinal transected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Chintan S; Giszter, Simon F

    2015-05-01

    Trunk motor control is crucial for postural stability and propulsion after low thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Robotic rehabilitation aimed at trunk shows promise in SCI animal models and patients. However, little is known about the effect of SCI and robot rehabilitation of trunk on cortical motor representations. We previously showed reorganization of trunk motor cortex after adult SCI. Non-stepping training also exacerbated some SCI-driven plastic changes. Here we examine effects of robot rehabilitation that promotes recovery of hindlimb weight support functions on trunk motor cortex representations. Adult rats spinal transected as neonates (NTX rats) at the T9/10 level significantly improve function with our robot rehabilitation paradigm, whereas treadmill-only trained do not. We used intracortical microstimulation to map motor cortex in two NTX groups: (1) treadmill trained (control group); and (2) robot-assisted treadmill trained (improved function group). We found significant robot rehabilitation-driven changes in motor cortex: (1) caudal trunk motor areas expanded; (2) trunk coactivation at cortex sites increased; (3) richness of trunk cortex motor representations, as examined by cumulative entropy and mutual information for different trunk representations, increased; (4) trunk motor representations in the cortex moved toward more normal topography; and (5) trunk and forelimb motor representations that SCI-driven plasticity and compensations had caused to overlap were segregated. We conclude that effective robot rehabilitation training induces significant reorganization of trunk motor cortex and partially reverses some plastic changes that may be adaptive in non-stepping paraplegia after SCI.

  16. The effect of superficial trunk muscle exercise and deep trunk muscle exercise on the foot pressure of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Suzy; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Kim, Hwanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of superficial trunk muscle exercise and deep trunk muscle exercise on the foot pressure of healthy adults. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy females and males who agreed to participate in this study. There were two groups, a superficial trunk muscle exercise group and a deep trunk muscle exercise group, with 15 participants in each. [Methods] The exercises were conducted 5 times a week for 4 weeks for both groups. A gait ana...

  17. Trunk exercises performed on an unstable surface improve trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Cho, Hwi-Young; In, Tae-Sung

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of trunk exercises performed on an unstable surface on trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-four participants with stroke were recruited in this study and randomly distributed into experimental (n = 12) and control groups (n = 12). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group participated in trunk exercises on the balance pad for 30 min, five times a week for 4 weeks; those in the control group performed trunk exercises on a stable surface for 30 min, five times a week for 4 weeks. Trunk muscle activation was measured by using surface electromyography, and trunk control was evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS). Gait speed was measured with the 10-Meter Walk Test. [Results] Activity of the external and internal oblique muscles in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The TIS score of the experimental group showed significantly greater improvement than did that of the control group. The 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) score also significantly improved in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Trunk exercises on an unstable surface improve trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in patients with hemiparetic stroke.

  18. Trunk Flexibility Improvement in Response to Powered Assisted Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bains

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background study: Flexibility in human spine has always plays an important role in dexterity and seamless ambulatory activities. When optimum range is not maintained by the trunk column, due to lack of flexibility, the posture gets affected resulting in reduce trunk rotation flexibility and mobility hence loss of complete trunk rotation. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Shapemaster Power Assisted Exercise Equipment (SPAEE on trunk flexibility. Methodology: Twenty healthy individual ages between 40 to 60 years were randomly divided into control and exercise groups. Shapemaster exercise program performed two times per week for 5 weeks and 45 minutes per session. Before and after 10 sessions of Shapemaster exercise protocol, Seated trunk rotation test was used to measure trunk flexibility. Results: Repeated measurement ANOVA were used to analysis data between groups. The results of this study illustrated that after 10th sessions trunk flexibility significantly improved (F (1.0, 18 = 11.732, p < 0.003. Conclusion: In conclusion results were determined that SPAEE is safe and it did effectively enhance flexibility among individual healthy adults.Keyword: Shapemaster Power Assisted Exercise Equipment (SPAEE, Trunk Flexibility, Healthy individual

  19. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The timber reforestation, mainly by Eucalyptus and Pinus sp., has low power processing, strength, good natural durability and, most importantly, provide reduce pressure on native forests. The concern with native forests and the high price of some of these woods force the market to replace those species by other, more abundant and available at most competitive prices. Anything that involves the handling of animals in its various phases has a direct dependency of husbandry facilities, pastures and actions of the people involved (best practices. With the segment of the production and export of meat increasingly competitive and globalized world, the adoption of best practices and animal welfare criteria are striking and decision makers for the acceptance of Brazilian beef in the world market, especially the European market. The use of appropriate animal husbandry facilities is critical to the proper rational management ("action with knowledge" of animals and increased productivity. The trunk restraint carries important role in the implementation and conduct of good animal welfare as having desirable features strength, durability, ability to contain cattle of various sizes, as well as easy to manipulate when the animal inside. Available on the market in the form of different models and costs, is an installation manufactured in wood and iron or galvanized, and may or may not be coupled with an analytical balance or digital, still and mechanical and other systems or electronics. The concern in this installation is perceived improvement in the number of patents filed and recorded and the constant evolution of their functions, with various companies operating in this segment. However, the development and validation of containment trunks with alternative materials, reflecting mainly the reduction of the final cost are poorly studied. In this first phase of the project will be considered the construction of trunk restraint coupled with analytical balance

  20. ANOMALOUS BRANCHING PATTERN OF COELIAC TRUNK – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Usha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While doing a routine dissection in an 85 years old cadaver, it was observed that the coeliac trunk arised as gastro splenic trunk and the common hepatic artery arised from the superior mesenteric artery instea d of the coeliac trunk. Knowledge of anatomical variants of coeliac trunk, hepatic vascular structures is of great importance in general surgery, especially hepatic surgery. As coeliac trunk supplies the foregut, the anomaly and morphometric variation may lead to abnormalities of the foregut and its derivatives. This leads to anatomical, surgical and clinical complications. This knowledge is also of great importance with regard to liver transplantations, laparoscopic surgeries, radiological procedures, and the treatment of penetrating injuries involving the peri - hepatic area

  1. All joint moments significantly contribute to trunk angular acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Cameron R; Zajac, Felix E; Neptune, Richard R; Kautz, Steven A

    2010-09-17

    Computationally advanced biomechanical analyses of gait demonstrate the often counter-intuitive roles of joint moments on various aspects of gait such as propulsion, swing initiation, and balance. Each joint moment can produce linear and angular acceleration of all body segments (including those on which the moment does not directly act) due to the dynamic coupling inherent in the interconnected musculoskeletal system. This study presents quantitative relationships between individual joint moments and trunk control with respect to balance during gait to show that the ankle, knee, and hip joint moments all affect the angular acceleration of the trunk. We show that trunk angular acceleration is affected by all joints in the leg with varying degrees of dependence during the gait cycle. Furthermore, it is shown that inter-planar coupling exists and a two-dimensional analysis of trunk balance neglects important out-of-plane joint moments that affect trunk angular acceleration.

  2. Guideline of stereotactic radiotherapy of body trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guideline is issued for safe and effective practice of the stereotactic radiotherapy of body trunk by giving appropriate methodologies and their theoretical backgrounds to radiological stuff concerned, such as doctors, technologists, physicists, quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) personnel, and nurses. The issue is motivated by the recent and expected increase of facilities conducting the therapy popularized from its approval by health insurance authorities in 2004, is based on the drafts by the Study Group for improving prognosis of the accurate 3-D radiotherapy organized in the MHLW and by Jap. 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group and, after edition by QA committee of Jap. Soc. Ther. Radiol. Oncol., is herein published by the Society. The guideline is composed mainly from 4 chapters of Introduction, Clinical practice, Physics and technology, and QA/QC of equipments and systems. The second chapter contains, concerning the therapy, its definition, contraindication, application to health insurance (applicable diseases and requirement), target setting, radiation dose and fractionation, risk organs (serial and parallel ones) and dose limits, and progress observation post therapy. The third chapter, its definition and methods, therapeutic planning, and actual performance, and the forth, the principle, essential concept, items particularly needed (dosimetry and mechanical/geometrical accuracy of equipments, equipments for therapy planning, and QA/QC of the system). The guideline is to be revised within 2-3 years hereafter. (R.T.)

  3. EXTENSIVE NECROTIZING FASCIITIS OF TRUNK FOLLOWING APPENDICECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is usually diagnosed and managed easily with a low mortality and morbidity. However, in 20.74% patients, acute appendicitis may occasionally become extraordinarily complicated and life threatening with significant morbidity and mortality . [1] We report a case of 44 year old male, a known case of Diabetes Mellitus since 4 years (on irregular treatment who was brought to our hospital with severe pain in right lower quadrant of abdomen since 4 days. On examination, patient had tachycardia, tender ness and guarding in the right iliac fossa. Laboratory results revealed leucocytosis and raised blood glucose levels. Measures for glycemic control were initiated. At exploratory laparotomy, an inflamed and retrocaecal appendix ruptured at the base with sm all local abscess was found. Abscess was drained and appendectomy done. Initially patient did well but at the end of second post - operative week, the patient started having pain and swelling over posterior chest wall, flank, sacral and occipital regions sug gestive of inflammation. CT abdomen and pelvis showed extensive necrotizing fasciitis of trunk, occiput and sacrum. Repeated multiple fasciotomies were performed over the back. The patient finally recovered fully at the end of 8 th post - operative week

  4. Observing of tree trunks and other cylindrical objects using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Lambot, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Trees are a part of our everyday life, hence it is important to prevent their collapse to protect people and urban infrastructures. It is also important to characterize tree wood properties for usages in construction. In order to investigate internal parts of tree trunks non-invasively, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), or in this case, ultra-wideband microwave radar as a general tool, appears to be a very promising technology. Nevertheless, tree trunk tomography using microwave radar is a complicated task due to the circular shape of the trunk and the very complex (heterogeneous and anisotropic) internal structures of the trunk. Microwave sensing of tree trunks is also complicated due to the electromagnetic properties of living wood, which strongly depend on water content, density and temperature of wood. The objective of this study is to describe tree trunk radar cross sections including specific features originating from the particular circumferential data acquisition geometry. In that respect, three experiments were performed: (1) numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain software, namely, gprMax 2D, (2) measurements on a simplified laboratory trunk model including plastic and cardboard pipes, sand and air, and (3) measurements over a real tree trunk. The analysis was further deepened by considering: (1) common zero-offset reflection imaging, (2) imaging with a planar perfect electrical conductor (PEC) at the opposite side of the trunk, and (3) imaging with a PEC arc at the opposite side of the trunk. Furthermore, the shape of the reflection curve of a cylindrical target was analytically derived based on the straight-ray propagation approximation. Subsequently, the total internal reflection (TIR) phenomenon occurring in cylindrical objects was observed and analytically described. Both the straight-ray reflection curve and TIR were well observed on the simulated and laboratory radar data. A comparison between all experiments and radar

  5. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shin-Yi; Gottardi, Sam E A; Hodges, Paul W; Strutton, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement) and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA)) during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF), static shoulder flexion (SSF), and static trunk extension (STE). The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF) and goal-directed voluntary (STE) activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function.

  6. The Mechanistic Connection Between the Trunk, Knee, and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular control of the trunk and knee predicts anterior cruciate ligament injury risk with high sensitivity and specificity. These predictors are linked, as lateral trunk positioning creates high knee abduction torque (load). The hypotheses explored are that lateral trunk motion increases load and that neuromuscular training that increases trunk control will decrease load.

  7. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karayannis, N.V.; Smeets, R.J.P.; Hoorn, W. van den; Hodges, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological features have been related to trunk muscle activation patterns in low back pain (LBP). We hypothesised higher pain-related fear would relate to changes in trunk mechanical properties, such as higher trunk stiffness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between trunk mec

  8. Lumbopelvic flexibility modulates neuromuscular responses during trunk flexion-extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Artacho-Pérez, Carla; Biviá-Roig, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Various stimuli such as the flexibility of lumbopelvic structures influence the neuromuscular responses of the trunk musculature, leading to different load sharing strategies and reflex muscle responses from the afferents of lumbopelvic mechanoreceptors. This link between flexibility and neuromuscular response has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lumbopelvic flexibility and neuromuscular responses of the erector spinae, hamstring and abdominal muscles during trunk flexion-extension. Lumbopelvic movement patterns were measured in 29 healthy women, who were separated into two groups according to their flexibility during trunk flexion-extension. The electromyographic responses of erector spinae, rectus abdominis and biceps femoris were also recorded. Subjects with greater lumbar flexibility had significantly less pelvic flexibility and vice versa. Subjects with greater pelvic flexibility had a higher rate of relaxation and lower levels of hamstring activation during maximal trunk flexion. The neuromuscular response patterns of the hamstrings seem partially modulated by pelvic flexibility. Not so with the lumbar erector spinae and lumbar flexibility, despite the assertions of some previous studies. The results of this study improve our knowledge of the relationships between trunk joint flexibility and neuromuscular responses, a relationship which may play a role in low back pain. PMID:27155332

  9. Ring-shaped variation of the coeliac trunk branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, A; Pynadath, N; Anguswamy, N; Vallath, S; Kordali, P; Stirling, A

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant arterial variations in the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk are of great interest to surgeons and radiologists. We report on a rare arterial variation found in a 79-year-old cadaver during educational dissection. Specifically, the coeliac axis formed a unique incomplete trunk termed the hepato-hepatic trunk. The splenic artery arose separately from the anterior aspect of the abdominal aorta. On the right side, there was a right hepatic artery giving rise to a gastroduodenal but an absence of the left hepatic. On the left side, there was a branch coursing towards the porta hepatis; the left hepatic artery, dividing into the left gastric, an accessory left gastric, and a branch to the distal oesophagus. The hepato-hepatic trunk formed a ring-shaped vascular structure around the caudate lobe of the liver. Precise mapping and observation of the extrahepatic arteries and bile duct branches is essential in a variety of hepato-biliary laparoscopic procedures of the liver and gallbladder. Other operative procedures requiring, a comprehensive kno-wledge of the varied coeliac trunk patterns are liver transplantation and arterial embolism for hepatic tumour therapy. PMID:26620519

  10. Studi Perencanaan Migrasi Sistem Digital Oleh Penyelenggara Radio Trunking di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awangga Febian Surya Admaja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistem Radio Trunking merupakan sistem radio yang berbasis repeater untuk satu atau lebih menara dengan menggunakan lebih dari satu frekuensi, dimana pengguna secara semi-privat dapat memiliki kanal tersendiri untuk melakukan pembicaraan secara grup. Di Indonesia, alokasi pada pita frekuensi radio trunking analog direncanakan akan digunakan untuk trunking digital, dimana aplikasi sistem radio trunking  yang baru harus menggunakan teknologi trunking digital dan sistem analog yang ada disyaratkan untuk beralih ke teknologi digital. Studi ini bertujuan untuk melihat seberapa besar kesiapan dari penyelenggara radio trunking di Indonesia dalam melakukan migrasi radio trunking digital. Studi ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif melalui wawancara mendalam dan didukung dengan data kuantitatif untuk menunjukkan nilai indeks kesiapan dari penyelenggara radio trunking. Studi ini menghasilkan nilai indeks kesiapan dari sampel penyelenggara radio trunking dengan skema perencanaan migrasi sesuai dengan nilai indeks kesiapan.

  11. Common celiaco-mesenterico-phrenic trunk and renal vascular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Satheesha

    2006-12-01

    The knowledge of vascular variations like other anatomical variations, is important during the operative, diagnostic, and endovascular procedures in abdomen. This report describes multiple variations in the upper abdominal vessels as found during the routine dissection in a 60-year-old male cadaver. The variations found were; presence of a celiaco-mesenterico-phrenic trunk, a common inferior phrenic trunk, 2 right renal arteries originating from abdominal aorta, 2 suprarenal arteries originating from the lower right renal artery, 3 right renal veins opening separately into inferior vena cava, and termination of right testicular vein into the lowest vein among the 3 right renal veins. The existence of a celiaco-mesenterico-phrenic trunk has not been reported yet. Although, other variations reported in this case exist as individual variations, a concomitant variation of them has not been reported yet. The knowledge of such variations is quite useful in planning any upper abdominal surgery. PMID:17143371

  12. Evolution of the head-trunk interface in tetrapod vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Mohaddes, Zahra; Hanken, James

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate neck musculature spans the transition zone between head and trunk. The extent to which the cucullaris muscle is a cranial muscle allied with the gill levators of anamniotes or is instead a trunk muscle is an ongoing debate. Novel computed tomography datasets reveal broad conservation of the cucullaris in gnathostomes, including coelacanth and caecilian, two sarcopterygians previously thought to lack it. In chicken, lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) adjacent to occipital somites is a recently identified embryonic source of cervical musculature. We fate-map this mesoderm in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which retains external gills, and demonstrate its contribution to posterior gill-levator muscles and the cucullaris. Accordingly, LPM adjacent to the occipital somites should be regarded as posterior cranial mesoderm. The axial position of the head-trunk border in axolotl is congruent between LPM and somitic mesoderm, unlike in chicken and possibly other amniotes. PMID:27090084

  13. Postoperative Trunk Shift in Lenke 1C Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody Eric; Wu, Chunsen;

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A risk factor analysis study. OBJECTIVE: To identify the causative factors for postoperative trunk shift in Lenke 1C scoliosis and investigate how to prevent it. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: When selective thoracic fusion is performed, postoperative trunk shift is a significant problem...... in the management of Lenke 1C scoliosis. It is often accompanied by unsatisfactory clinical outcomes and a risk of reoperation. METHODS: We reviewed all the patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgically treated in our institution from 2002 through 2008. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1...... of MT: TL/L Cobb angle) - 3.9 (preoperative LIV-LEV difference). The model R2 = 0.55. CONCLUSION: Both LIV selection and ratio of MT: TL/L curve were found to be highly correlated with the onset of postoperative trunk shift in Lenke 1C scoliosis. Amount of correction obtained by surgery, however, did...

  14. Evolution of the head-trunk interface in tetrapod vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Mohaddes, Zahra; Hanken, James

    2016-04-19

    Vertebrate neck musculature spans the transition zone between head and trunk. The extent to which the cucullaris muscle is a cranial muscle allied with the gill levators of anamniotes or is instead a trunk muscle is an ongoing debate. Novel computed tomography datasets reveal broad conservation of the cucullaris in gnathostomes, including coelacanth and caecilian, two sarcopterygians previously thought to lack it. In chicken, lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) adjacent to occipital somites is a recently identified embryonic source of cervical musculature. We fate-map this mesoderm in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which retains external gills, and demonstrate its contribution to posterior gill-levator muscles and the cucullaris. Accordingly, LPM adjacent to the occipital somites should be regarded as posterior cranial mesoderm. The axial position of the head-trunk border in axolotl is congruent between LPM and somitic mesoderm, unlike in chicken and possibly other amniotes.

  15. Test-retest reliability of trunk accelerometric gait analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Moe-Nilssen, R;

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18-...... a definite potential in clinical gait analysis.......The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18...

  16. Bilateral lingual-facial trunk: anatomic and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, T; Michalinos, A; Kakisis, J; Natsis, K; Sofidis, G; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Common origin of lingual and facial artery is a relatively frequent anatomic varia-tion. Instead, bilateral lingual-facial trunk has been described only sparsely in the literature. In this report authors describe and analyse a case of bilateral common lingual-facial trunk in the context of its anatomical, clinical and embryological implications. We also describe possible consequences in performance of elective and emergent surgical operations and modification in surgical techniques that should be considered. We believe that surgeons should be suspicious for this variation's existence and keep alternative solutions in their armentarium.

  17. The effect of active sitting on trunk motion

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Wang; Kaitlyn J. Weiss; Mason C. Haggerty; Jacqueline E Heath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for low-back pain. The primary purpose of this study is to determine if prolonged active sitting will result in increased trunk motion. Methods: Fifteen healthy female participants volunteered to sit for 30 min on each of three surfaces including an air-cushion, a stability ball, and a hard surface. Trunk motion was monitored using a Vicon motion capture system, and foot center of pressure was collected with two AMTI force plates. Results: ...

  18. Vestibular and proprioceptive influences on trunk movements during quiet standing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, C.G.; Kung, U.M.; Honegger, F.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Alfen, N. van; Bloem, B.R.; Allum, J.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    We characterized upper trunk and pelvis motion in normal subjects and in subjects with vestibular or proprioceptive loss, to document upper body movement modes in the pitch and roll planes during quiet stance. Six bilateral vestibular loss (VL), six bilateral lower-leg proprioceptive loss (PL) and 2

  19. MUSCLE POWER, SITTING UNSUPPORTED AND TRUNK ROTATION IN PRETERM INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGROOT, L; HOPKINS, B; TOUWEN, B

    1995-01-01

    Discrepancies between active and passive muscle power are often seen in pre-term infants over the first year. Generally of a transient nature, they are most obvious in the extensor muscles of the trunk where there is a high active muscle power relative to the passive component. While high active mus

  20. Preventing Trunk Diseases in the Vineyard: Choosing the Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over years of research on control of grapevine trunk diseases, field trials identified cultural and chemical practices that prevent and limit infections of pruning wounds by the spores. These practices include delayed pruning, double pruning, and applications of pruning-wound protectants (e.g., thio...

  1. Trunk recruitment during spoon use in tetraparetic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roon, D.B. van; Steenbergen, B.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the extent to which individuals suffering from spastic tetraparesis as a consequence of cerebral palsy tune their trunk involvement to accuracy demands in a spoon-handling task. Twenty-two participants (ten adolescents with spastic tetraparesis and 12 control par

  2. Comparison of trunk activity during gait initiation and walking in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Ceccato

    Full Text Available To understand the role of trunk muscles in maintenance of dynamic postural equilibrium we investigate trunk movements during gait initiation and walking, performing trunk kinematics analysis, Erector spinae muscle (ES recordings and dynamic analysis. ES muscle expressed a metachronal descending pattern of activity during walking and gait initiation. In the frontal and horizontal planes, lateroflexion and rotation occur before in the upper trunk and after in the lower trunk. Comparison of ES muscle EMGs and trunk kinematics showed that trunk muscle activity precedes corresponding kinematics activity, indicating that the ES drive trunk movement during locomotion and thereby allowing a better pelvis mobilization. EMG data showed that ES activity anticipates propulsive phases in walking with a repetitive pattern, suggesting a programmed control by a central pattern generator. Our findings also suggest that the programs for gait initiation and walking overlap with the latter beginning before the first has ended.

  3. Comparison of Trunk Activity during Gait Initiation and Walking in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Christine; Cazalets, Jean-René

    2009-01-01

    To understand the role of trunk muscles in maintenance of dynamic postural equilibrium we investigate trunk movements during gait initiation and walking, performing trunk kinematics analysis, Erector spinae muscle (ES) recordings and dynamic analysis. ES muscle expressed a metachronal descending pattern of activity during walking and gait initiation. In the frontal and horizontal planes, lateroflexion and rotation occur before in the upper trunk and after in the lower trunk. Comparison of ES muscle EMGs and trunk kinematics showed that trunk muscle activity precedes corresponding kinematics activity, indicating that the ES drive trunk movement during locomotion and thereby allowing a better pelvis mobilization. EMG data showed that ES activity anticipates propulsive phases in walking with a repetitive pattern, suggesting a programmed control by a central pattern generator. Our findings also suggest that the programs for gait initiation and walking overlap with the latter beginning before the first has ended. PMID:19997606

  4. Surgical treatment of celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm-7 case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxi; Cai, Xiangjun; Liang, Faqi; Chu, Futao; Chen, Gang; Duan, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    The celiomesenteric trunk is a rare anomaly characterized by a common origin of the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery from the aorta, which accounts for less than 1% of all celiac artery anomalies, so the aneurysm occurred in such trunk is even rarer. There have been few reports on how to diagnose and deal with such malformed celiomesenteric trunk aneurysms till now. This paper tries to summarize the experience of how to expose and excise such kind of aneurysm according to the seven cases' data. The clinic data were collected retrospectively. There were seven cases with celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm from February 2000 to February 2013, including 5 males and 2 females aged 35~62. The operations were done including aneurysm resection and vascular reconstruction under general anesthesia. The operated patients were followed-up at the sixth month and each year post operation. The vascular stomas were detected or examined by Color Doppler Sonography, spiral Computed Tomography angiography (SCTA). The seven operated patients were cured and discharged from hospital, and they were followed up for 3~10 years (mean time 5 years), with four patients being followed up longer than 5 years. No sign of intestinal ischemia or hepatic ischemia or splenic ischemia was found, and no image of anastomosis stricture or stenosis was found during the follow-up. Five patients are alive now while two patients were dead, with one dying of large area myocardial infarction unexpectedly at 6 years post operation and the other dying of cerebral infarction abruptly at 4 years post operation. It is an effective and safe method to treat the celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm by using by-pass operation with artificial blood vessels, originating from inferior kidney aorta to visceral arteries including hepatic artery, splenic artery and superior mesenteric artery. Its short-term and middle-term effects are relatively better. PMID:25227061

  5. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Karayannis, Nicholas V.; Smeets, Rob J. E. M.; Wolbert van den Hoorn; Paul W Hodges

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological features have been related to trunk muscle activation patterns in low back pain (LBP). We hypothesised higher pain-related fear would relate to changes in trunk mechanical properties, such as higher trunk stiffness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between trunk mechanical properties and psychological features in people with recurrent LBP. METHODS: The relationship between pain-related fear (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, TSK; Photograph Series of Daily Activ...

  6. File list: DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX191030 htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  7. File list: NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX093317,SRX09...3316 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: DNS.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX093317,SRX09...3316 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX170717,...8 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  15. A review on assessment and treatment of the trunk in stroke A need or luxury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suruliraj Karthikbabu; Mahabala Chakrapani; Sailakshmi Ganeshan; Kedambadi C Rakshith; Syed Nafeez; Venkatesan Prem

    2012-01-01

    Trunk function has been identified as an important early predictor of functional outcome after stroke and the same deteriorates on both contralateral and ipsilateral sides of the body following stroke. The primary contribution of the trunk muscles is to allow the body to remain upright, adjust weight shifts, and control movements against constant pull of gravity and is considered central key point of the body. Proximal stability of the trunk is a pre-requisite for distal limb mobility, balance, gait and functional activities and its positive correlation in hemiplegia has been demonstrated in a crosssectional study. Both isokinetic and handheld dynamometer muscle strength testing demonstratedthe weakness of bilateral trunk flexors, extensors and rotator muscles in both acute and chronic hemiplegic patients. This was confirmed by electromyography analysis which identified poor bilateral trunk muscles activity in patients with stroke. Trunk impairment scale is sensitive to evaluate the selective muscle control of upper and lower trunk, and it has been reported that lateral flexion of the trunk is easier than rotation of the trunk and the clinical observation concurs to the difficulty in lower trunk rotation of stroke patients. However, trunk exercises given early after stroke could produce enhanced balance performance post- stroke. This review attempts to report the evidence supporting the involvement of the trunk and its influence on balance and functional performance in post-stroke hemiplegia.

  16. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX191030,...8 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX093318...,SRX170717,SRX170719,SRX170718 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX093317,SRX09...3316 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic trunk ERX40226...7,ERX402264 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX17071...5,SRX170716,SRX170714 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX093318...,SRX170717,SRX170719,SRX170718 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX17071...5,SRX170714,SRX170716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX170717...,SRX093318,SRX170719,SRX170718 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  6. File list: DNS.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX17071...5,SRX170714,SRX170716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX17071...5,SRX170716,SRX170714 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  11. 头臂动脉瘤和动静脉瘘的腔内治疗%Endovascular therapy for brachiocephalic pseudoaneurysm and carotid arteriovenous fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建华; 刘光强; 王宪伟; 欧阳洋; 王伟; 吕新生; 李刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To invesigate the effects of endovascular therapy on brachiocephalic pseudoaneurysm (BCPA) and carotid arteriovanous fistula (CVEF). Methods The clinical data of 7 patients with BCPA and 3 patients with CAVF, admitted to our department from September 2003 to March 2011, were analysed. Durations of the diseases ranged from 2 h to 40 years. The causes of pseudoaneurysm were traumatic and iatrogenic injury, of CAVF were 2 cases of congenital CAVF and 1 case of traumatic CAVF. The main clinical manifestation of both was pulsatile mass in the neck or infraclavicular region. Firstly, all patient underwent femoral artery puncture and angiography to identify the natnre, location and size of the lesion. Then, memberane-covered stents were inserted to seal the arterial perforations and repair the vessels. Results Eight cases of pseudoaneurysm or traumatic arteriovenous fistula and 1 case of congenital arteriovenous fistula achieved satisfactory curative effect; another case of congenital arteriovenous fistula was substantially improved as evidenced by the obviously decreased blood flow through the fistula. Conclusions Endovascular treatment with covered stent is a practically valuable method for brachiocephalic pseudoaneurysm and caroted arteriovenous fistula, this technique is simple, rapid, minimally invasive, safe and effective.%目的 探讨头臂血管假性动脉瘤(BCPA)或颈动脉静脉瘘(CVEF)患者的腔内治疗效果.方法 2003年9月-2011年3月笔者诊治10例假性动脉瘤和动静脉瘘患者并行腔内治疗,其中假性动脉瘤7例,先天性动静脉畸形2例,外伤性动静脉瘘1例.假性动脉瘤的病因为外伤或医源性损伤;临床表现为颈部或锁骨下搏动性肿块,病程2 h至40年不等.10例均经股动脉穿刺造影明确病变性质、部位、大小,然后采用放射介入方法,用带膜支架封堵病变处破口,重朔血管.结果 8例假性动脉或外伤性动脉静脉瘘及1例先天性

  12. Trunk muscle co-activation using functional electrical stimulation modifies center of pressure fluctuations during quiet sitting by increasing trunk stiffness

    OpenAIRE

    Milosevic, Matija; Masani, Kei; Wu, Noel; McConville, Kristiina M. V.; Popovic, Milos R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced co-activation of trunk muscles during quiet sitting. We hypothesized that FES applied to the trunk muscles will increase trunk stiffness. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare the center of pressure (COP) fluctuations during unsupported and FES-assisted quiet sitting - an experimental study and; 2) investigate how FES influences sitting balance - an analytical (simulati...

  13. Thrombosis of celiacomesenteric trunk: Report of a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Lovisetto; Gianbattista Finocchiaro De Lorenzi; Piera Stancampiano; Carmen Corradini; Fabio De Cesare; Orazio Geraci; Mario Manzi

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the case of a 79-year-old woman who complained of acute abdominal pain,vomiting and diarrhoea.Laboratory exams demonstrated a severe metabolic imbalance.Abdominal X-rays showed bowel overdistension and pneumatosis of the stomach wall.Abdominal tomography revealed infarction of the stomach,duodenum and small bowel due to thrombosis of the celiacomesenteric trunk.Exploratory laparotomy revealed ischemia of the liver,spleen infarction and necrosis of the gastro-intestinal tube (from the stomach up to the first third of the transverse colon).No further surgical procedures were performed.The patient died the following day.To our knowledge,this is the first reported case about severe gastro-intestinal ischemia due to thrombosis of the celiacomesenteric trunk,a rare anatomic variation of the gastrointestinal vascularisation.

  14. Quantifying coordination between the head and the trunk during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    This study developed unique measures of coordination between the head and the trunk during the combined tasks of locomotion and gaze fixation of visual targets. These measures will be used to determine the effects of long-duration space flight on sensorimotor function. This will enable evaluation of the efficacy of countermeasures and postflight rehabilitation programs. Indices were proposed as composite measures reflecting the functional aspects of the control system involved in gaze fixation during locomotion. The stiffness index (Nm/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular motion. The viscosity index (Nm-sec/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular velocity. These coordination measures were used to evaluate the normal dynamic pattern of coordination between the head and the trunk with respect to the events occurring in a gait cycle. The indices were evaluated for three discrete speeds of locomotion for the same gaze fixation task and for three discrete gaze fixation tasks at the same speed of locomotion. The indices were found to be repeatable measures reflecting inter-segmental coordination strategies while performing an activity of daily living. These indices showed that the coordination of the head with respect to the trunk was significantly different between the events of heel strike and swing phases during the gait cycle. These indices showed no significant differences between the different gaze fixation tasks. The speed of locomotion had a significant effect on the magnitude of these indices. The results indicate that the CNS dynamically modulates head motion with respect to the trunk dependent on the events occurring during the gait cycle. This modulation is appropriate for stabilizing gaze during locomotion. The results support the hypothesis

  15. Safety and pitfalls in frozen elephant trunk implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Damberg, Anneke; Schälte, Gereon; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Hoffman, Andras

    2013-01-01

    The frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedure, or open stent grafting, is a tool for the combined open and endovascular treatment via a median sternotomy of extensive aortic disease involving both aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. The technique aims to stabilize the maximum extent of the thoracic aorta in one step, with the goal of either rendering a secondary intervention to the downstream aorta unnecessary or producing an easy landing zone for secondary thoracic endovascular aortic rep...

  16. Multiphasic strain differentiation of atypical mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Loke, Mun Fai; Ong, Bee Lee; Wong, Yan Ling; Hong, Kar Wai; Tan, Kian Hin; Kaur, Sargit; Ng, Hien Fuh; Abdul Razak, MFA; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Two non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains, UM_3 and UM_11, were isolated from the trunk wash of captive elephants in Malaysia. As they appeared to be identical phenotypes, they were investigated further by conventional and whole genome sequence-based methods of strain differentiation. Methods. Multiphasic investigations on the isolates included species identification with hsp65 PCR-sequencing, conventional biochemical tests, rapid biochemical profiling using API strips and the Bio...

  17. The measurement of blood speed in the pulmonary artery trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a non invasive methodology for the measurement of blood speed in the pulmonary artery trunk. The methodology has been tested with a moving radioactive tracer (nuclear medicine). An image processing technique is proposed, for detection and analysis of a moving object with variable shape and intensity over time (radioactive bolus). Experiments on the application of the technique in nuclear medicine are critically analysed. (authors)

  18. Geophysical imaging of root-zone, trunk, and moisture heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia Al Hagrey, Said

    2007-01-01

    The most significant biotic and abiotic stress agents of water extremity, salinity, and infection lead to wood decay and modifications of moisture and ion content, and density. This strongly influences the (di-)electrical and mechanical properties and justifies the application of geophysical imaging techniques. These are less invasive and have high resolution in contrast to classical methods of destructive, single-point measurements for inspecting stresses in trees and soils. This review presents some in situ and in vivo applications of electric, radar, and seismic methods for studying water status and movement in soils, roots, and tree trunks. The electrical properties of a root-zone are a consequence of their moisture content. Electrical imaging discriminates resistive, woody roots from conductive, soft roots. Both types are recognized by low radar velocities and high attenuation. Single roots can generate diffraction hyperbolas in radargrams. Pedophysical relationships of water content to electrical resistivity and radar velocity are established by diverse infiltration experiments in the field, laboratory, and in the full-scale 'GeoModel' at Kiel University. Subsurface moisture distributions are derived from geophysical attribute models. The ring electrode technique around trunks images the growth ring structure of concentric resistivity, which is inversely proportional to the fluid content. Healthy trees show a central high resistivity within the dry heartwood that strongly decreases towards the peripheral wet sapwood. Observed structural deviations are caused by infection, decay, shooting, or predominant light and/or wind directions. Seismic trunk tomography also differentiates between decayed and healthy woods. PMID:17229759

  19. Immediate Effects of Different Trunk Exercise Programs on Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, A; Kaneoka, K; Okubo, Y; Shiraki, H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercise (SE) and conventional trunk exercise (CE) programs on jump performance. 13 adolescent male soccer players performed 2 kinds of jump testing before and immediate after 3 experimental conditions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). The SE program consisted of the elbow-toe, hand-knee, and back bridge, and the CE program consisted of the sit-up, sit-up with trunk rotation and back extension. Testing of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) were performed to assess jump performance. Jump height of the CMJ and RJ-index, contact time, and jump height of the RJ were analyzed. The RJ index was improved significantly only after SE (p=0.017). However, contact time and jump height did not improve significantly in the SE condition. Moreover, no significant interaction or main effects of time or group were observed in the CMJ. Consequently, this study showed the different immediate effect on the RJ between the SE and CE, and suggested the possibility that the SE used in this study is useful as a warm-up program to improve the explosive movements.

  20. Evolution of the head-trunk interface in tetrapod vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Mohaddes, Zahra; Hanken, James

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate neck musculature spans the transition zone between head and trunk. The extent to which the cucullaris muscle is a cranial muscle allied with the gill levators of anamniotes or is instead a trunk muscle is an ongoing debate. Novel computed tomography datasets reveal broad conservation of the cucullaris in gnathostomes, including coelacanth and caecilian, two sarcopterygians previously thought to lack it. In chicken, lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) adjacent to occipital somites is a recently identified embryonic source of cervical musculature. We fate-map this mesoderm in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which retains external gills, and demonstrate its contribution to posterior gill-levator muscles and the cucullaris. Accordingly, LPM adjacent to the occipital somites should be regarded as posterior cranial mesoderm. The axial position of the head-trunk border in axolotl is congruent between LPM and somitic mesoderm, unlike in chicken and possibly other amniotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09972.001 PMID:27090084

  1. Sequential control signals determine arm and trunk contributions to hand transport during reaching in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elena; Mitnitski, Arnold; Feldman, Anatol G

    2002-01-15

    When reaching towards objects placed outside the arm workspace, the trunk assumes an active role in transport of the hand by contributing to the extent of movement while simultaneously maintaining the direction of reach. We investigated the spatial-temporal aspects of the integration of the trunk motion into reaching. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the efficiency ('gain') of the arm-trunk co-ordination determining the contribution of the trunk to the extent of hand movement may vary substantially with the phase of reaching. Sitting subjects made fast pointing movements towards ipsi- and a contralateral targets placed beyond the reach of the right arm so that a forward trunk motion was required to assist in transporting the hand to the target. Sight of the arm and target was blocked before the movement onset. In randomly selected trials, the trunk motion was unexpectedly prevented by an electromagnet. Subjects were instructed to make stereotypical movements whether or not the trunk was arrested. In non-perturbed trials, most subjects began to move the hand and trunk simultaneously. In trunk-blocked trials, it was impossible for the hand to cover the whole pointing distance but the hand trajectory and velocity profile initially matched those from the trials in which the trunk motion was free, approximately until the hand reached its peak velocity. The arm inter-joint co-ordination substantially changed in response to the trunk arrest at a minimal latency of 40 ms after the perturbation onset. The results suggest that when the trunk was free, the influence of the trunk motion on the hand trajectory and velocity profile was initially neutralized by appropriate changes in the arm joint angles. Only after the hand had reached its peak velocity did the trunk contribute to the extent of pointing. Previous studies suggested that the central commands underlying the transport component of arm movements are completed when the hand reaches peak velocity. These

  2. Mechanical and neuromuscular changes with lateral trunk lean gait modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Shawn M; Teoli, Anthony; Preuss, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    Lateral trunk lean (LTL) is a proposed intervention for knee osteoarthritis but increased muscular demands have not been considered. The objective was to compare lower extremity and trunk muscle activation and joint mechanics between normal and increased LTL gait in healthy adults. Participants (n=20, mean age 22 years) were examined under two gait conditions: normal and increased LTL. A motion capture system and force plates sampled at 100 and 2000Hz respectively were used to determine joint angles and external moments including LTL angle and external knee adduction moment (KAM). Surface electromyography, sampled at 2000Hz, measured activation of six trunk/hip muscles bilaterally. Peak LTL angle, peak KAM, gait speed, and mean values from electromyography waveforms were compared between normal and LTL conditions using paired t-tests or 2-way analysis of variance. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in peak LTL angle, decrease in first but not second peak KAM, and decrease in gait speed during LTL gait. There were significant (p<0.01) increases in external oblique and iliocostalis muscle activation during LTL gait. There was no change in activation for internal oblique, rectus abdominis, longissimus, and gluteus medius. LTL gait decreased early/mid-stance KAM demonstrating its ability to decrease medial compartment knee loading. Increases in external oblique and iliocostalis activation were present but small to moderate in size and unlikely to lead to short term injury. Longitudinal studies should evaluate the effectiveness of increased LTL for knee osteoarthritis and if the increase in muscular demands leads to negative long term side effects.

  3. Oct4 Is a Key Regulator of Vertebrate Trunk Length Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Rita; Jurberg, Arnon D; Leal, Francisca; Nóvoa, Ana; Cohn, Martin J; Mallo, Moisés

    2016-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit a remarkably broad variation in trunk and tail lengths. However, the evolutionary and developmental origins of this diversity remain largely unknown. Posterior Hox genes were proposed to be major players in trunk length diversification in vertebrates, but functional studies have so far failed to support this view. Here we identify the pluripotency factor Oct4 as a key regulator of trunk length in vertebrate embryos. Maintaining high Oct4 levels in axial progenitors throughout development was sufficient to extend trunk length in mouse embryos. Oct4 also shifted posterior Hox gene-expression boundaries in the extended trunks, thus providing a link between activation of these genes and the transition to tail development. Furthermore, we show that the exceptionally long trunks of snakes are likely to result from heterochronic changes in Oct4 activity during body axis extension, which may have derived from differential genomic rearrangements at the Oct4 locus during vertebrate evolution. PMID:27453501

  4. A tutorial on queuing and trunking with applications to communications

    CERN Document Server

    Tranter, William H

    2012-01-01

    The motivation for developing this synthesis lecture was to provide a tutorial on queuing and trunking, with extensions to networks of queues, suitable for supplementing courses in communications, stochastic processes, and networking. An essential component of this lecture is MATLAB-based demonstrations and exercises, which can be easily modified to enable the student to observe and evaluate the impact of changing parameters, arrival and departure statistics, queuing disciplines, the number of servers, and other important aspects of the underlying system model. Much of the work in this lecture

  5. A CADAVERIC STUDY OF VARIATION IN BRANCHING PATTERN OF COELIAC TRUNK IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayamma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: purpose of present study was to describe the variations in the branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Caeliac trunk is one of the ventral branch of abdominal aorta.it arises from the abdominal aorta opposite to intervertebral disc of T12 & L1 vertebrae.it has short course of 1.5 cm after which it terminates by dividing in to three branches splenic artery , left ga stric artery and common hepatic artery. Here we report unusual branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Knowledge of such variations in branching pattern of caeliac trunk is very important for surgeons , anatomists and anaesthetists. METHODS : The present study is done on 30 cadavers irrespective of sex in department of Anatomy in KURNOOL MEDICAL COLLEGE , Kurnool. According to dissection guidelines of cunnighams practical manual of Anatomy. RESULTS: The present study was an attempt to study the occurrence of the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk. The available literature was reviewed. The coeliac trunk took origin from the ventral surface of the aorta in all the 30 specimens. The various patterns were normal hepatolienogastric trunk in 92% , lienogastric trunk in. In one Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern o f specimen , coeliac trunk divided into common hepati c & splenic arteries , the left gastric artery took origin from the splenic artery. CONCLUSION : In my study out of 30 specimens 92% belonged to Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. This classification is according to LIPSCHUTZ (1917. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk.

  6. Using Program Package NSPCG to Analyze the Trunk Reservation Service Protection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Vincent A.; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    1994-01-01

    Unlike certain service protection methods for mixed traffic streams, such as the class-limitation method, the trunk reservation scheme cannot be based on a product form property of a stationary probability distribution vector. Rather, the analysis of the trunk reservation scheme requires solving,...... Analysis at the University of Texas at Austin. In this paper we report our experience in applying the NSPCG package to a typical system arising from the trunk reservation scheme....

  7. Reliability of trunk shape measurements based on 3-D surface reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Pazos, Valérie; Cheriet, Farida; Danserau, Jean; Ronsky, Janet; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Labelle, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the reliability of 3-D trunk surface measurements for the characterization of external asymmetry associated with scoliosis. Repeated trunk surface acquisitions using the Inspeck system (Inspeck Inc., Montreal, Canada), with two different postures A (anatomical position) and B (‘‘clavicle’’ position), were obtained from patients attending a scoliosis clinic. For each acquisition, a 3-D model of the patient’s trunk was built and a series of measurements was computed...

  8. Variation in susceptibility to wind along the trunk of an isolated Larix kaempferi (Pinaceae) tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-07-16

    • Premise of the study: The force of the wind is a significant hazard to the survival of trees and can affect tree morphology. However, the actual distribution of the stress that wind causes to a tree trunk is not well understood in spite of its expected importance to tree morphology. The uniform stress hypothesis (i.e., tree trunks take a form that equalizes the distribution of stress along the outer surface of the stem) has been tested indirectly as a model, placing high importance on the mechanical safety of a trunk, and rejected theoretically. But stress on a tree's trunk has not yet been measured directly.• Methods: Actual strains at the surface of the trunk of an isolated Larix kaempferi tree due to wind loads were measured at seven heights on the trunk for 1 yr.• Key results: During the measurement period, wind-induced stress was higher in the upper portions of the trunk than in the lower portions, regardless of wind speed, and the difference increased as wind speed increased. The deflection of the trunk recorded at each position was also larger in the upper portions than in the lower portions.• Conclusions: The results indicate that the upper portions of the trunk of an isolated Larix kaempferi tree are more susceptible to wind than are the lower portions. These results do not support the uniform stress hypothesis and suggest that another limitation (either mechanical or nonmechanical) acts on the morphology of the tree.

  9. Trunk orientation induces neglect-like lateral biases in covert attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Jefferson D; Reed, Catherine L

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to resolve a paradox in the literature on the effects of body orientation on spatial attention. Neuropsychological studies have found that real or simulated trunk rotation relieves contralesional inattention in patients with unilateral neglect, suggesting that trunk orientation affects how attention is allocated to space. However in two previous studies, trunk orientation did not affect spatial attention in other populations. In this study we investigated the effects of trunk orientation on the performance of a covert attention task by neurologically intact adults. The covert attention task allowed the evaluation of the effects of trunk orientation on both the allocation of attention to space and the ability to shift that attention to new locations. As in previous research, trunk orientation did not affect participants' response times (RTs) to validly cued targets. However rotating participants' trunks to the left increased their RTs to invalidly cued targets on the right and decreased their RTs to invalidly cued targets on the left. These results indicate that trunk orientation induces directional biases in the ability to shift attention. Thus, for intact participants, trunk rotation created lateral biases in the covert attention task similar to those seen in neglect patients.

  10. Visual afference mediates head and trunk stability in vestibular hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chen, Po-Yin; Chen, Hung-Ju; Kao, Chung-Lan; Schubert, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    Humans must maintain head and trunk stability while walking. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of healthy controls and patients with vestibular hypofunction (VH) when walking and making head rotations of different frequencies in both light and dark conditions. We recruited eight individuals with VH and nine healthy control subjects to perform four tasks at their preferred gait speed, being normal walk, walking and making yaw head rotations at 1.5Hz and 2Hz, and walking in the dark and making yaw head rotations at 1.5Hz. Linear kinematics as well as head, trunk, and pelvis angular velocities were captured using the Vicon motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). We found no difference in walking velocities for any of the four walking conditions across groups. The lateral displacement of the center of mass was increased in VH patients. In the dark, patients had more head instability in pitch (larger amplitudes and velocities) even though they were walking and making active yaw head rotations. Patients also had a smaller relative phase angle (mean 3.50±standard deviation 2.13°) than controls (mean 10.31±standard deviation 2.70°) (plight. PMID:26976344

  11. Muscular condition and trunk stability in judoka of national and international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casto Juan-Recio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is theorized that the development of the ability to stabilize the trunk may improve the performance of a judoka because it improves body balance control and optimizes force transmission from the lower extremities to the upper limbs. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence to establish a clear relationship between trunk stability and performance in judo.Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the quantification of trunk stability and muscular strength and endurance allowed differentiation between national level (n = 7 and international level judoka (n = 6. In addition, the relationship between trunk stability and muscular strength and endurance of the muscles involved in trunk stability control was analyzed.Method: To assess trunk stability, trunk responses to sudden loads applied by a pneumatic mechanism were analyzed, as well as trunk postural control through an unstable sitting paradigm. Muscular strength and endurance were assessed via a flexion and extension trunk test using an isokinetic dynamometer.Results/Conclusions: International level judokas showed lower CoP displacement in the most complex task in unstable seat (7.00 ± 1.19 vs 8.93 ± 1.45 mm, T = .025 and higher absolute and relative peak torque in extensor muscles (7.05 ± 0.87 vs 5.74 ± 0.72 Nm, T = .013 than national level judoka. According to these results, core stability and trunk muscular condition are important qualities in the physical training of elite judoka. Correlational analysis found no relation between the analyzed variables, thus muscular strength and endurance appear to have a non-significant effect on performance in the trunk stability tests.

  12. 49 CFR 571.401 - Standard No. 401; Interior trunk release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.401 Standard No. 401; Interior trunk release. S1. Purpose and scope... compartment. S2. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars that have a trunk compartment. This standard does not apply to passenger cars with a back door. S3. Definitions. Back door means a door or...

  13. Three-dimensional trunk kinematics in golf: between-club differences and relationships to clubhead speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Cochrane, Jodie; Ball, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether significant three-dimensional (3D) trunk kinematic differences existed between a driver and a five-iron during a golf swing; and (ii) to determine the anthropometric, physiological, and trunk kinematic variables associated with clubhead speed. Trunk range of motion and golf swing kinematic data were collected from 15 low-handicap male golfers (handicap = 2.5 +/- 1.9). Data were collected using a 10-camera motion capture system operating at 250 Hz. Data on clubhead speed and ball velocity were collected using a real-time launch monitor. Paired t-tests revealed nine significant (p golf swing kinematics, namely trunk and lower trunk flexion/extension and lower trunk axial rotation. Multiple regression analyses explained 33.7-66.7% of the variance in clubhead speed for the driver and five-iron, respectively, with both trunk and lower trunk variables showing associations with clubhead speed. Future studies should consider the role of the upper limbs and modifiable features of the golf club in developing clubhead speed for the driver in particular. PMID:23898684

  14. Postural control of the trunk during unstable sitting in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J. van der; Wegen, E. van; Rietberg, M.B.; Kwakkel, G.; Dieen, J.H. van

    2006-01-01

    Postural instability and falls, both common in Parkinson's disease (PD), have been related to altered trunk control. In this study, we investigated dynamic trunk control with subjects balancing on a seat mounted on a hemisphere, for up to 15s in five trials. We compared eight PD patients with a fall

  15. Changes in Trunk and Head Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy after Hippotherapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtleff, Tim L.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Hippotherapy (HPOT) is a therapy that uses horse movement. This pilot investigation objectively evaluated the efficacy of HPOT in improving head/trunk stability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The participants were six children with spastic diplegia and six children without disability. Head and trunk stability was challenged by using a…

  16. The Performance Analysis of Traffic Channel Coding in Digital Trunking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The encoding and decoding processes of traffic channel in digital trunking system are studied. On the basis of computer simulation, the BER (bit error ratio) with different RCPC decoding step is analyzed. As a result, the optimal RCPC decoding step is provided, which gives essential theoretical evidences for the implementation of digital trunking system.

  17. Trunk position modulates anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains during a single-leg squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulas, Anthony S.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; DeVita, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the squat exercise and its variations are commonly prescribed for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation, whether trunk position affects these ligament forces and strains during the squat is unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of trunk position on anterior crucia

  18. Effect of short-term application of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk repositioning in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Sara A; Frost, Lydia R; Vallis, Lori Ann; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk position sense when applied for a short period (30 min) to the low back of healthy female participants. Twenty-four participants were assigned to one of two groups: kinesio tape applied in either the recommended stretched or non-stretched (control) manner over the low back. Tests were performed at three time points (pre-tape, with tape, post-tape) to assess low-back muscle flexion-relaxation, position sense during active trunk repositioning and trunk postural control during seated balance. Results demonstrated that wearing kinesio tape did not affect the angle at which the erector spinae muscles became silent during trunk flexion (flexion-relaxation). Trunk repositioning error increased when wearing kinesio tape in both the stretched and non-stretched manner, and this increased error persisted after the tape was removed. Seated balance control improved when wearing kinesio tape in both the stretched and non-stretched manner, and these improvements persisted after the tape was removed. In conclusion, these findings do not support the general suggestions that short-term use of kinesio tape on the low-back region alter low-back muscle activation and enhance tasks related to proprioception, at least under these taping conditions in a group of healthy females.

  19. Safety and pitfalls in frozen elephant trunk implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damberg, Anneke; Schälte, Gereon; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Hoffman, Andras

    2013-09-01

    The frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedure, or open stent grafting, is a tool for the combined open and endovascular treatment via a median sternotomy of extensive aortic disease involving both aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. The technique aims to stabilize the maximum extent of the thoracic aorta in one step, with the goal of either rendering a secondary intervention to the downstream aorta unnecessary or producing an easy landing zone for secondary thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) or open surgery. Even though large case series have reported good results, we still have no conclusive evidence as to which patients and what kind of pathologies benefit from this technique. The surgical sequences described for total arch replacement with the FET procedure are just as varied as the associated devices and indications. This article focuses on important perioperative and surgical aspects, as well as potential complications during FET procedures. PMID:24109583

  20. Structural evolution and diversity of the caterpillar trunk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    The thesis explores some major transformation series in the structure of the lepidopteran larval trunk, focusing partly on the initial events in the evolution of the order, partly on one of the more spectacular cases of subsequent biological diversification within ‘typical’/’higher’ Lepidoptera...... identify possible ground plan characteristics of the Lepidoptera and Amphiesmenoptera (MS1), 2) to describe and understand the evolution of the neolepidopteran caterpillar, and in particularly its crochet-bearing prolegs that are closely linked to walking on silken substrates and an external arboreal...... morphology in an attempt to link form and function (MS2-3). 4) to re-evaluate the previously indicated correlation between the cuticle thickness of lycaenid larvae and the degree of myrmecophily in a selection of species in this family, and through a comparative study to better understand the link between...

  1. Along the Grand Trunk Road: The Photography of Raghubir Singh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Chandrasekhar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For more than two millennia, the historic Grand Trunk Road, the busy thoroughfare that extends some 1500 miles through north India and Pakistan served as the main artery of South Asia. It was also the gateway through which waves of immigrants, travelers, and invaders entered the subcontinent. As a result, a great deal of diversity and tolerance marks the road. Between 1988 and 1991, Raghubir Singh (1942-1999, one of India’s renowned documentary photographers, traveled and photographed the Indian stretch of the Road. Ninety-six photographs from his journeys appear in the publication, 'The Grand Trunk Road: A Passage Through India '(1995. Singh used the pictorial style of street photography that he is known for to capture everyday life along the path. Further, he emphasized the tremendous diversity he witnessed along the road through the selections he made for inclusion in the book and the specific manner in which he arranged many of them. By underscoring the heterogeneity, Singh provided a critical visual commentary of the political climate in India during the 1980s and early nineties. This period coincided with the rise of Hindu nationalism, which aimed to erase the subcontinent’s diverse past and promote instead the idea of a homogenous/Hindu India. By documenting the road in his uniquely pictorial style and arranging the photographs in his book to draw attention to the differences and tolerance witnessed along the path, Singh demonstrated that India was not a monolithic culture as the politics of the time claimed, but a rich interwoven fabric of many varied strands.

  2. The effect of kinesio taping on lower trunk range of motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Kahanov, Leamor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of kinesio taping (KT) on trunk flexion, extension, and lateral flexion. Thirty healthy subjects with no history of lower trunk or back issues participated in the study. Subjects performed two experimental measurements of range of motion (with and without the application of KT) in trunk flexion, extension, and right lateral flexion. A dependent t test was used to compare the range of motion measurements before and after the application of KT. Through evaluation of the sum of all scores, KT in flexion produced a gain of 17.8 cm compared with the non-kinesiotape group (t(29)=2.51, p0.05) or lateral flexion (3 cm; t(29)=-1.25, p>0.05). Based on the findings, we determined that KT applied over the lower trunk may increase active lower trunk flexion range of motion. Further investigation on the effects of KT is warranted. PMID:17578750

  3. Inter-joint coordination between hips and trunk during downswings: Effects on the clubhead speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, In-Kwang; Choi, Mun-Taek; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the inter-joint coordination between rotational movement of each hip and trunk in golf would provide basic knowledge regarding how the neuromuscular system organises the related joints to perform a successful swing motion. In this study, we evaluated the inter-joint coordination characteristics between rotational movement of the hips and trunk during golf downswings. Twenty-one right-handed male professional golfers were recruited for this study. Infrared cameras were installed to capture the swing motion. The axial rotation angle, angular velocity and inter-joint coordination were calculated by the Euler angle, numerical difference method and continuous relative phase, respectively. A more typical inter-joint coordination demonstrated in the leading hip/trunk than trailing hip/trunk. Three coordination characteristics of the leading hip/trunk reported a significant relationship with clubhead speed at impact (r golf swing performance of unskilled golfers. PMID:26911704

  4. The effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yoel; Kim, Kyung Hoon

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] Kinesio taping is a therapeutic method used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular deficits, but there is limited evidence of the effects of trunk kinesio taping in neurologic patients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in persons after a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five post-stroke patients were included in this study. Kinesio tape was applied to four trunk muscles. Before and after the taping, in all subjects, the balance ability was measured using the Wii Balance Board, and gait function was assessed using the GAITRite system. [Results] The difference in gait function before and after trunk taping was not statistically significant. However, a variability of balance ability showed statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] These results suggest that taping may be a helpful method during rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. Its application to the trunk muscles is especially useful for improving balance ability.

  5. The effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yoel; Kim, Kyung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Kinesio taping is a therapeutic method used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular deficits, but there is limited evidence of the effects of trunk kinesio taping in neurologic patients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in persons after a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five post-stroke patients were included in this study. Kinesio tape was applied to four trunk muscles. Before and after the taping, in all subjects, the balance ability was measured using the Wii Balance Board, and gait function was assessed using the GAITRite system. [Results] The difference in gait function before and after trunk taping was not statistically significant. However, a variability of balance ability showed statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] These results suggest that taping may be a helpful method during rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. Its application to the trunk muscles is especially useful for improving balance ability. PMID:27630439

  6. The effects of virtual reality game training on trunk to pelvis coupling in a child with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Barton Gabor J; Hawken Malcolm B; Foster Richard J; Holmes Gill; Butler Penny B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Good control of trunk and pelvic movements is necessary for well controlled leg movements required to perform activities of daily living. The nature of movement coupling between the trunk and pelvis varies and depends on the type of activity. Children with cerebral palsy often have reduced ability to modulate coupling between the trunk and pelvis but movement patterns of the pelvis can be improved by training. The aim of this study was to examine how pelvis to trunk coupli...

  7. The Effect of Trunk Stabilization Exercise Using an Unstable Surface on the Abdominal Muscle Structure and Balance of Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Junsang; Jeong, Juri; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of unstable surface trunk stabilization exercise on the abdominal muscle structure and balance of stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were divided into two groups: an unstable surface trunk stabilization exercise group (n=13), and a stable surface trunk stabilization exercise group (n=11). [Methods] Both groups performed trunk stabilization exercise for 30 minutes, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Abdominal muscle thickness and the Berg Balance Sc...

  8. The Relationship between Performance and Trunk Movement During Change of Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Sakurai, Takakuni; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m) participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as quickly as possible. The shuttle run cutting time, ground contact time during a change-of-direction, and trunk inclination angle were measured. The shuttle run cutting time tends to correlate positively with ground contact time. During the change- of-direction task, the trunk forward inclination angle gradually increased during the first 50% of the stance phase and decreased subsequently whereas the trunk flexed, maintaining a left inclination during the first 40% of the stance phase and changing exponentially in the opposite direction. Forward angular displacement of the trunk between foot-contact and maximum trunk inclination correlated positively with the shuttle run cutting time (r = 0.61, p < 0.05) and ground contact time (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the change-of-direction performance could be related to the small angular displacement of the trunk during a change of direction. Moreover, it was considered that there might be optimal inclination angles related to change-of-direction performance. Therefore, coaches in field sports should check body posture and trunk movements during changes of direction. Key pointsSmall forward angular displacement of the trunk during a direction change is related to the change-of-direction performance.Trunk stability during a change of direction is an important factor in the change-of-direction performance.There might be a range of optimal angles of trunk inclination during a change of direction.Coaches in field

  9. Three-dimensional head and trunk movement characteristics during gait in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, L; Feys, H; Molenaers, G; Jaspers, E; Monari, D; Meyns, P; Desloovere, K

    2013-09-01

    This study uses a recently developed trunk model to determine which head and trunk kinematic parameters differentiate children with spastic diplegia from typically developing (TD) children while walking. Differences in head and trunk parameters in relation to the severity of the motor involvement (GMFCS levels) were additionally examined. The trunk model consisted of five segments (pelvis, thorax, head, shoulder line, spine). Discrete kinematic parameters (ROM, mean position) and angular waveforms were compared between 20 children with spastic diplegia (age 9.8 years±2.9 years; GMFCS I: n=10, GMFCS II: n=10) and 20 individually age-matched TD children (9.7 years±3 years). A new measure for overall trunk pathology, the trunk profile score (TPS), was proposed and included in the comparative analysis. Compared to TD children, children with GMFCS II showed a significantly higher TPS and increased ROM for pelvis tilt, for thorax and head in nearly all planes, and the angle of kyphosis. In children with GMFCS I, only ROM of thorax lateral bending was significantly increased. Sagittal ROM differentiated best between GMFCS levels, with higher ROM found in children with GMFCS II. Current results provide new insights into head and trunk kinematics during gait in children with spastic diplegia.

  10. A morphometric study of the celiac trunk and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venieratos, Dionysios; Panagouli, Eleni; Lolis, Evangelos; Tsaraklis, Athanasios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2013-09-01

    The anatomy of the celiac trunk and its branches was examined in 77 adult human cadavers of Caucasian (Hellenic) origin. The celiac trunk followed the normal pattern, namely trifurcation to the common hepatic, splenic, and left gastric arteries, in 90.9% of the dissections (70/77). Two different types of trifurcation were observed: (a) a true tripod when the celiac trunk ended in a complete trifurcation (74.0%, 57/77) and (b) a false tripod when the three arteries did not have a common origin (16.9%, 13/77). Such a clear predominance of the true tripod is not reported elsewhere. Anatomic variations were found in 9.1% (7/77). Bifurcation of the celiac trunk into splenic and left gastric artery (splenogastric trunk) was observed in one specimen (1.3%), whereas the common hepatic artery emerged directly from the aorta. Absence of the celiac trunk was also found in two individuals (2.6%). The celiac trunk presented additional branches (lumbar and inferior phrenic arteries) in 5.2% (4/77). The median level of origin of the celiac trunk was at the upper third of L1 (22.7% to 17/75). The total length of the celiac trunk ranged from 1.1 to 5.0 cm, whereas the mean length was 2.8 cm (standard deviation = 0.80 cm, standard error of mean = 0.09 cm) irrespective of the existence of variations. The mean length of the celiac arteries which formed a false tripod was found to be larger than those of the arteries which formed a true tripod but only a weak statistically significant difference was established (P = 0.073).

  11. The role of the neck and trunk in facilitating head stability during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Justin; Barrett, Rod; Morrison, Steven

    2006-07-01

    An apparent goal of the human postural system is to maintain head stability during walking. Although much is known about sensory-motor stabilising mechanisms associated with the head and neck, less is known about how the postural system attenuates motion between the trunk and neck segments in order to regulate head motion. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine the role that the neck and the trunk play in stabilising the head at a range of walking speeds. Eight healthy male subjects (age: 23+/-4 years) performed self-selected slow, preferred, and fast walking speed trials along a 30 m walkway. Four custom-designed wireless triaxial accelerometers were attached to the head, upper trunk, lower trunk, and shank of each subject to measure vertical (VT), anterior-posterior (AP), and mediolateral (ML) accelerations. Acceleration data were examined in each direction using RMS, power spectral, harmonic, and regularity measures. Signal regularity was increased from the lower to upper trunk for all walking speeds and directions with the exception of the slow speed in the AP direction. Evidence from analysis of power spectral and amplitude characteristics of acceleration signals was suggestive that accelerations are also attenuated from the lower to upper trunk by dynamics of the intervening trunk segment. Differences in selected power spectral and amplitude characteristics between the accelerations of the upper trunk and head due to the intervening neck segment were only detected in the AP direction at preferred and fast walking speeds. Overall the findings of the present study suggest that the trunk segment plays a critical role in regulating gait-related oscillations in all directions. Only accelerations in the direction of travel at preferred and fast speeds required additional control from the neck segment in order to enhance head stability during walking.

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND TRUNK MOVEMENT DURING CHANGE OF DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Sasaki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as quickly as possible. The shuttle run cutting time, ground contact time during a change-of-direction, and trunk inclination angle were measured. The shuttle run cutting time tends to correlate positively with ground contact time. During the change- of-direction task, the trunk forward inclination angle gradually increased during the first 50% of the stance phase and decreased subsequently whereas the trunk flexed, maintaining a left inclination during the first 40% of the stance phase and changing exponentially in the opposite direction. Forward angular displacement of the trunk between foot-contact and maximum trunk inclination correlated positively with the shuttle run cutting time (r = 0.61, p < 0.05 and ground contact time (r = 0.65, p < 0.05. These findings suggest that the change-of-direction performance could be related to the small angular displacement of the trunk during a change of direction. Moreover, it was considered that there might be optimal inclination angles related to change-of-direction performance. Therefore, coaches in field sports should check body posture and trunk movements during changes of direction.

  13. Dermoscopy of Melanomas on the Trunk and Extremities in Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Je-Ho; Ohn, Jungyoon; Kim, Woo-Il; Park, Sung-Min; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma among the Asian population is lower compared to that among the Western European population. These populations differed in their most common histopathologic subtypes, acral lentiginous melanoma being the most common in the Asian population. Although the dermoscopic features of the melanomas on the acral skin have been thoroughly investigated in the Asian population, studies concerning the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the non-acral skin have been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the trunk and extremities in the Asian population. To achieve this, we evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of 22 primary melanomas diagnosed at two university hospitals in Korea. In addition, 100 benign melanocytic lesions were included as the control group for comparative analysis. A P value less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Melanoma-associated dermoscopic features such as asymmetry (odds ratio [OR], 30.00), multicolor pattern (OR, 30.12), blotches (OR, 13.50), blue white veils (OR, 15.75), atypical pigment networks (OR, 9.71), irregular peripheral streaks (OR, 6.30), atypical vascular patterns (OR, 11.50), ulcers (OR, 15.83), atypical dots/globules (OR, 3.15), shiny white lines (OR, 5.88), and regression structures (OR, 7.06) were more commonly observed in patients with melanomas than in patients of the control group. The mean dermoscopic scores obtained on the 7-point checklist, revised 7-point checklist, 3-point checklist, ABCD rule, and CASH algorithm were 5.36, 3.41, 2.05, 6.89, and 9.68, respectively, in the primary melanomas, and 1.33, 0.93, 0.46, 2.45, and 3.60, respectively, in the control group (all, P < 0.001). The present study showed that melanoma-related dermoscopic patterns were common in Asian patients. Dermoscopy is a reliable diagnostic tool for the melanomas of the trunk and extremities in the Asian populations. PMID:27391775

  14. Dermoscopy of Melanomas on the Trunk and Extremities in Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Ho Mun

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma among the Asian population is lower compared to that among the Western European population. These populations differed in their most common histopathologic subtypes, acral lentiginous melanoma being the most common in the Asian population. Although the dermoscopic features of the melanomas on the acral skin have been thoroughly investigated in the Asian population, studies concerning the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the non-acral skin have been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the trunk and extremities in the Asian population. To achieve this, we evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of 22 primary melanomas diagnosed at two university hospitals in Korea. In addition, 100 benign melanocytic lesions were included as the control group for comparative analysis. A P value less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Melanoma-associated dermoscopic features such as asymmetry (odds ratio [OR], 30.00, multicolor pattern (OR, 30.12, blotches (OR, 13.50, blue white veils (OR, 15.75, atypical pigment networks (OR, 9.71, irregular peripheral streaks (OR, 6.30, atypical vascular patterns (OR, 11.50, ulcers (OR, 15.83, atypical dots/globules (OR, 3.15, shiny white lines (OR, 5.88, and regression structures (OR, 7.06 were more commonly observed in patients with melanomas than in patients of the control group. The mean dermoscopic scores obtained on the 7-point checklist, revised 7-point checklist, 3-point checklist, ABCD rule, and CASH algorithm were 5.36, 3.41, 2.05, 6.89, and 9.68, respectively, in the primary melanomas, and 1.33, 0.93, 0.46, 2.45, and 3.60, respectively, in the control group (all, P < 0.001. The present study showed that melanoma-related dermoscopic patterns were common in Asian patients. Dermoscopy is a reliable diagnostic tool for the melanomas of the trunk and extremities in the Asian populations.

  15. Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Trunk in a Mildly Symptomatic Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fan-Ying Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, also known as Garland-Bland-White syndrome, is an extremely rare but potentially fatal congenital cardiovascular anomaly, and it often exists as an isolated condition. We hereby report an adult female who was admitted for mild chest discomfort and was accidentally diagnosed to have anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. This anomaly was simply repaired by using a bovine pericardial patch to obliterate the anomalous opening in the pulmonary trunk and a single coronary artery bypass graft. This report highlights the characteristic events of the anomaly in an adult with only mild symptoms.

  16. Coil embolization of an aneurysm located at the trunk of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Yutaka; Ohmori, Yuki; Watanabe, Masaki; Morioka, Motohiro; Hirano, Teruyuki; Kawano, Takayuki; Sakurama, Tomotaka; Miura, Akiko; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman presented with an aneurysm at the trunk of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography and three-dimensional computed tomography revealed a wide-necked saccular aneurysm at the trunk of the left PPTA. Coil embolization with the balloon-assist technique was successful and PPTA patency was preserved. Preoperative conventional angiography should be performed to check for cross-filling of the PPTA. This case demonstrates that an aneurysm of the trunk of the PPTA can be successfully treated by coil embolization using the balloon-assist technique. PMID:21613761

  17. Multiphasic strain differentiation of atypical mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Loke, Mun Fai; Ong, Bee Lee; Wong, Yan Ling; Hong, Kar Wai; Tan, Kian Hin; Kaur, Sargit; Ng, Hien Fuh; Abdul Razak, Mfa; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Two non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains, UM_3 and UM_11, were isolated from the trunk wash of captive elephants in Malaysia. As they appeared to be identical phenotypes, they were investigated further by conventional and whole genome sequence-based methods of strain differentiation. Methods. Multiphasic investigations on the isolates included species identification with hsp65 PCR-sequencing, conventional biochemical tests, rapid biochemical profiling using API strips and the Biolog Phenotype Microarray analysis, protein profiling with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, repetitive sequence-based PCR typing and whole genome sequencing followed by phylogenomic analyses. Results. The isolates were shown to be possibly novel slow-growing schotochromogens with highly similar biological and genotypic characteristics. Both strains have a genome size of 5.2 Mbp, G+C content of 68.8%, one rRNA operon and 52 tRNAs each. They qualified for classification into the same species with their average nucleotide identity of 99.98% and tetranucleotide correlation coefficient of 0.99999. At the subspecies level, both strains showed 98.8% band similarity in the Diversilab automated repetitive sequence-based PCR typing system, 96.2% similarity in protein profiles obtained by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and a genomic distance that is close to zero in the phylogenomic tree constructed with conserved orthologs. Detailed epidemiological tracking revealed that the elephants shared a common habitat eight years apart, thus, strengthening the possibility of a clonal relationship between the two strains. PMID:26587340

  18. Gnarled-trunk evolutionary model of influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihito Ito

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses undergo antigenic changes with gradual accumulation of amino acid substitutions on the hemagglutinin (HA molecule. A strong antigenic mismatch between vaccine and epidemic strains often requires the replacement of influenza vaccines worldwide. To establish a practical model enabling us to predict the future direction of the influenza virus evolution, relative distances of amino acid sequences among past epidemic strains were analyzed by multidimensional scaling (MDS. We found that human influenza viruses have evolved along a gnarled evolutionary pathway with an approximately constant curvature in the MDS-constructed 3D space. The gnarled pathway indicated that evolution on the trunk favored multiple substitutions at the same amino acid positions on HA. The constant curvature was reasonably explained by assuming that the rate of amino acid substitutions varied from one position to another according to a gamma distribution. Furthermore, we utilized the estimated parameters of the gamma distribution to predict the amino acid substitutions on HA in subsequent years. Retrospective prediction tests for 12 years from 1997 to 2009 showed that 70% of actual amino acid substitutions were correctly predicted, and that 45% of predicted amino acid substitutions have been actually observed. Although it remains unsolved how to predict the exact timing of antigenic changes, the present results suggest that our model may have the potential to recognize emerging epidemic strains.

  19. Finding the neck-trunk boundary in snakes: anteroposterior dissociation of myological characteristics in snakes and its implications for their neck and trunk body regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuihiji, Takanobu; Kearney, Maureen; Rieppel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    The neck and trunk regionalization of the presacral musculoskeletal system in snakes and other limb-reduced squamates was assessed based on observations on craniovertebral and body wall muscles. It was confirmed that myological features characterizing the neck in quadrupedal squamates (i.e., squamates with well-developed limbs) are retained in all examined snakes, contradicting the complete lack of the neck in snakes hypothesized in previous studies. However, the posterior-most origins of the craniovertebral muscles and the anterior-most bony attachments of the body wall muscles that are located at around the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates were found to be dissociated anteroposteriorly in snakes. Together with results of a recent study that the anterior expression boundaries of Hox genes coinciding with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal amniotes were dissociated anteroposteriorly in a colubrid snake, these observations support the hypothesis that structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates are displaced relative to one another in snakes. Whereas certain craniovertebral muscles are elongated in some snakes, results of optimization on an ophidian cladogram show that the most recent common ancestor of extant snakes would have had the longest craniovertebral muscle, M. rectus capitis anterior, that is elongated only by several segments compared with that of quadrupedal squamates. Therefore, even such a posteriorly displaced "cervical" characteristic plesiomorphically lies fairly anteriorly in the greatly elongated precloacal region of snakes, suggesting that the trunk, not the neck, would have contributed most to the elongation of the snake precloacal region. A similar dissociation of structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates is observed in limb-reduced squamates, suggesting that these forms and snakes may share a developmental mechanism producing modifications in the

  20. Investigating the effects of movement speed on the lumbopelvic coordination during trunk flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Ning, Xiaopeng; Fathallah, Fadi

    2016-08-01

    Movement speed during trunk flexion has long been reported to affect task performance and biomechanical responses. The current study investigated how movement speed changed lumbopelvic coordination, especially lumbopelvic continuous relative phase and phase variability during trunk flexion. Eighteen subjects executed a paced trunk flexion routine over time periods of 3, 7, 11 and 15seconds. The results demonstrated that compared with the 3-s condition, lumbopelvic continuous relative phase was 98.8% greater in the 15-s condition, indicating a more anti-phase coordination pattern. This pattern is suggested to mitigate the increased spinal loading associated with the longer duration of muscle exertion. Additionally, phase variability was 18.8% greater in the 15-s trials than the 3-s trials, such an unstable coordination pattern is likely caused by the more active neuromuscular control. Findings of this study provide important information about the effects of movement speed on lumbopelvic coordination during trunk flexion.

  1. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.;

    2007-01-01

    Study Design. Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. Objective. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Summary of Background Data....... Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement...... of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. Methods...

  2. The Contribution of Trunk Axial Kinematics to Poststrike Ball Velocity During Maximal Instep Soccer Kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullenkamp, Adam M; Campbell, Brian M; Laurent, C Matthew; Lane, Amanda Paige

    2015-10-01

    To date, biomechanical analyses of soccer kicking have focused predominantly on lower-extremity motions, with little emphasis on the trunk and upper body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in trunk axial kinematics between novice (n = 10) and skilled (n = 10) participants, as well as to establish the relationship of trunk axial motion and sagittal plane thigh rotation to poststrike ball velocity. Three-dimensional body segmental motion data were captured using high-resolution motion analysis (120 Hz) while each participant completed 5 maximal instep soccer-style kicks. The results demonstrate that skilled participants use 53% greater axial trunk range of motion compared with novice participants (P soccer athletes. PMID:26099160

  3. Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles during stabilization exercises using a gym ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A

    2004-01-01

    Trunk stabilization is very important for the injured lower back. The use of a gym ball, the surface of which is labile, is becoming more popular for strengthening the trunk muscles and challenging the motor control system in trunk stabilization exercises. However, little is known about the activity of the trunk muscles during such exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trunk muscles during seven stabilization exercises using a gym ball. Eleven healthy men (19.9 +/- 1.8 years old) without low back pain volunteered to participate in the study. Bipolar surface electrodes were attached to the right side of the upper and lower rectus abdominis, the obliquus externus abdominis and the upper and lower back extensor muscles. EMG signals were recorded during seven types of stabilization exercises using a gym ball and normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (% MVC). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on % MVC from each task for each of the five trunk muscle sites (p gym ball and toes on the floor in prone position, resulted in the highest activity of all abdominal muscles, and an exercise of the lifting the gym ball up, holding it actively between both legs with both knees flexed in supine position resulted in the lowest. Lifting up of the pelvis in a bridged position exercise, supporting the head with the gym ball and with the feet on the floor in supine position, resulted in higher muscle activity of the back extensor muscles than another exercise. It is very important for physical therapists to make clear the purpose of the trunk stabilization exercises, because different kinds of exercises with the gym ball demand various levels of muscular activity and use of various parts of the trunk muscles.

  4. Potentialities Of Tendomyoplasty In Rehabilitation Of Patients With Rough Injuries Of Brachial Plexus Trunks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.Korshunova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve functional results after surgical treatment of consequences of brachial plexus trunks rough injuries rehabilitation results of 111 patients with consequences of brachial plexus trunks rough injuries were studied. Thanks to the adequate tendomyoplasty rehabilitation of shoulder abduction, forearm flexion and of hand grasping is obtained in 85% of patients. The suggested method of treatment may be recommended for wide usage in practical health care

  5. A giant left main trunk and left circumflex artery-to-right ventricle fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-hui Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistula including the left trunk and left circumflex is uncommon. We present a 24-year-old male patient with a giant left main trunk and left circumflex artery to right ventricle fistula, which is diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography and coronary computed tomography angiography. In this paper, the case report is to provide a better understanding of clinical characteristics for this disease.

  6. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of pistachio trees in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Mohammadi; Mehdi Sarcheshmehpour; Ebrahim Mafi

    2015-01-01

    Over the growing seasons of 2011–2013, various pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cv. Fandoghi, and wild pistachio (P. atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica) trees were inspected in Iran to determine the aetiology of trunk diseases with specific reference to species of Phaeoacremonium and Botryosphaeriaceae spp. Samples were collected from branches of trees exhibiting yellowing, defoliation, canker and dieback, as well as wood discoloration in cross sections. Fungal trunk pathogens were identified using mo...

  7. Traumatic Neuroma around the Celiac Trunk after Gastrectomy Mimicking a Nodal Metastasis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Ryu, Seung Wan; Kang, Yu Na

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic neuroma is a well-known disorder that occurs after trauma or surgery involving the peripheral nerve and develops from a nonneoplastic proliferation of the proximal end of a severed, partially transected, or injured nerve. We present a case of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk after gastrectomy in a 56-year-old man, which was confirmed by pathology. CT demonstrated the presence of a lobulated, homogeneous, hypoattenuating mass around the celiac trunk, mimicking a nodal metast...

  8. The association between isoinertial trunk muscle performance and low back pain in male adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Balagué, Federico; Bibbo, Evelyne; Mélot, Christian; Szpalski, Marek; Gunzburg, Robert; Keller, Tony S.

    2009-01-01

    The literature reports inconsistent findings regarding the association between low back pain (LBP) and trunk muscle function, in both adults and children. The strength of the relationship appears to be influenced by how LBP is qualified and the means by which muscle function is measured. The aim of this study was to examine the association between isoinertial trunk muscle performance and consequential (non-trivial) low back pain (LBP) in male adolescents. Healthy male adolescents underwent an...

  9. Effect of FTO Gene and Physical Activity Interaction on Trunk Fat Percentage Among the Newfoundland Population

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Anthony; Cahill, Farrell; Sun, Guang; Loredo-Osti, J. Concepción; Abarin, Taraneh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of FTO gene and physical activity interaction on trunk fat percentage. DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects are 3,004 individuals from Newfoundland and Labrador whose trunk fat percentage and physical activity were recorded, and who were genotyped for 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FTO gene. Subjects were stratified by gender. Multiple tests and multiple regressions were used to analyze the effects of physical activity, variants of FTO, age, and their ...

  10. Dark mammoth trunks in the merging galaxy NGC 1316 and a mechanism of cosmic double helices

    CERN Document Server

    Carlqvist, Per

    2010-01-01

    NGC 1316 is a giant, elliptical galaxy containing a complex network of dark, dust features. The morphology of these features has been examined in some detail using a Hubble Space Telescope, Advanced Camera for Surveys image. It is found that most of the features are constituted of long filaments. There also exist a great number of dark structures protruding inwards from the filaments. Many of these structures are strikingly similar to elephant trunks in H II regions in the Milky Way Galaxy, although much larger. The structures, termed mammoth trunks, generally are filamentary and often have shapes resembling the letters V or Y. In some of the mammoth trunks the stem of the Y can be resolved into two or more filaments, many of which showing signs of being intertwined. A model of the mammoth trunks, related to a recent theory of elephant trunks, is proposed. Based on magnetized filaments, the model is capable of giving an account of the various shapes of the mammoth trunks observed, including the twined structu...

  11. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (bathing trunk nevus associated with lipoma and neurofibroma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant congenital melanocytic nevi are rare and occur in about one out of every 2,00,000 to 5,00,000 births. There is a significant association between bathing trunk nevus and neurofibromatosis and lipomatosis. Apart from this, association of bathing trunk nevus with abnormalities like spina bifida occulta, meningocele, club foot and hypertrophy or atrophy of deeper structures of a limb, have been described. We are herewith reporting two cases of bathing trunk nevi. In our first case, an eight-year-old girl presented with a bathing trunk nevus studded with multiple, large nodules. Histopathological examination of the biopsy taken from one nodule revealed features of both neurofibroma and lipoma. To the best of our knowledge, features of both these hamartomas in one nodule of a single patient are probably not reported in the literature. In our second case, a 12-year-old girl presented with bathing trunk nevus and she had spina bifida occulta. She also had lipoma in the lesion of bathing trunk nevus. Both of our patients had satellite melanocytic nevi over the face, forearm, upper back and legs. Our second patient, in addition, had small melanocytic nevi over the medial canthus and sclerocorneal junction of the right eye. By the time this girl presented to us, the melanocytic nevus started fading in color and it had become brownish. We are reporting these cases for their peculiarities and for their rare features.

  12. Trunk orientation causes asymmetries in leg function in small bird terrestrial locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Sutedja, Yefta; Nyakatura, John A; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-12-22

    In contrast to the upright trunk in humans, trunk orientation in most birds is almost horizontal (pronograde). It is conceivable that the orientation of the heavy trunk strongly influences the dynamics of bipedal terrestrial locomotion. Here, we analyse for the first time the effects of a pronograde trunk orientation on leg function and stability during bipedal locomotion. For this, we first inferred the leg function and trunk control strategy applied by a generalized small bird during terrestrial locomotion by analysing synchronously recorded kinematic (three-dimensional X-ray videography) and kinetic (three-dimensional force measurement) quail locomotion data. Then, by simulating quail gaits using a simplistic bioinspired numerical model which made use of parameters obtained in in vivo experiments with real quail, we show that the observed asymmetric leg function (left-skewed ground reaction force and longer leg at touchdown than at lift-off) is necessary for pronograde steady-state locomotion. In addition, steady-state locomotion becomes stable for specific morphological parameters. For quail-like parameters, the most common stable solution is grounded running, a gait preferred by quail and most of the other small birds. We hypothesize that stability of bipedal locomotion is a functional demand that, depending on trunk orientation and centre of mass location, constrains basic hind limb morphology and function, such as leg length, leg stiffness and leg damping.

  13. MDCT angiography of anatomical variations of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanović Neda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect and describe the existence and incidence of anatomical variations of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery. The study was conducted on 150 persons, who underwent abdominal Multi- Detector Computer Tomography (MDCT angiography, from April 2010 until November 2012. CT images were obtained with a 64-row MDCT scanner in order to analyze the vascular anatomy and anatomical variations of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery. In our study, we found that 78% of patients have a classic anatomy of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery. The most frequent variation was the origin of the common hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery (10%. The next variation, according to frequency, was the origin of the left gastric artery direct from the abdominal aorta (4%. The arc of Buhler as an anastomosis between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery, was detected in 3% of cases, as was the presence of a common trunk of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery (in 3% of cases. Separate origin of the splenic artery and the common hepatic artery was present in 2% of patients. The MDCT scanner gives us an insight into normal anatomy and variations of the abdominal blood vessels, which is very important in the planning of surgical interventions, especially transplantation, as well as in the prevention of complications due to ischemia.

  14. Effects of experimentally increased trunk stiffness on thorax and pelvis rotations during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen Hua; Lin, Xiao Cong; Meijer, Onno G; Gao, Jin Tuan; Hu, Hai; Prins, Maarten R; Liang, Bo Wei; Zhang, Li Qun; Van Dieën, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-02-01

    Patients with non-specific low back pain, or a similar disorder, may stiffen their trunk, which probably alters their walking coordination. To study the direct effects of increasing trunk stiffness, we experimentally increased trunk stiffness during walking, and compared the results with what is known from the literature about gait coordination with, e.g., low back pain. Healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 3 speeds (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m/s), in three conditions (normal, while contracting their abdominal muscles, or wearing an orthopedic brace that limits trunk motions). Kinematics of the legs, thorax and pelvis were recorded, and relative Fourier phases and amplitudes of segment motions were calculated. Increasing trunk stiffness led to a lower thorax-pelvis relative phase, with both a decrease in thorax-leg relative phase, and an increase in pelvis-leg relative phase, as well as reduced rotational amplitude of thorax relative to pelvis. While lower thorax-pelvis relative phase was also found in patients with low back pain, higher pelvis-leg relative phase has never been reported in patients with low back pain or related disorders. These results suggest that increasing trunk stiffness in healthy subjects causes short-term gait coordination changes which are different from those seen in patients with back pain.

  15. Radiologic Findings of Epidermal Cysts in the Trunk

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    Kim, Myung Hyun; Chung, Jae Joon; Park, Kyoung Seuk; Park, Su Mi [NHIC Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) or computer tomography (CT) findings of surgically proven epidermal cysts in the trunk, and to compare the echogenicity of cysts with internal contents. Forty-five patients were retrospectively evaluated. US and CT findings of epidermal cysts were assessed in regard to location, size, shape, number, echogenicity, posterior sound enhancement, internal density, septa, mural nodule and calcification, perilesional infiltration, contrast enhancement, and internal contents. All 45 patients (M:F=29:16; US in 26, CT in 19) had only one cyst, and they were located in the buttocks (n=19), back (n=13), inguinal (n=4), posterior neck (n=3), perineum (n=2), abdominal wall (n=2), presternal (n=1), and axilla (n=1). Of 26 patients who underwent US, there were 8 cases of homogeneously hypoechoic mass (30.8%), 8 of inhomogeneously hypoechoic mass (30.8%), 7 of homogeneously hypoechoic mass with internal hypoechoic lines and echogenic spots (26.9%) and 3 of homogeneously hypoechoic mass with internal echogenic spots (11.5%). Posterior sound enhancement was noted in 21 patients (80.8%). Of 19 patients who underwent CT, there were 14 cases of simple cyst (73.7%) and 5 of abscess-like lesion (26.3%). Overlying skin thickening (n=13), contrast enhancement of cystic wall (n=11), perilesional infiltration (n=7), and internal septa (n=6) were demonstrated. The internal contents of the cysts were keratinous (n=27, 60.0%) or greasy (n=15, 33.3%) material. There was no statistical significance between the echogenicity of the cysts and the internal contents (p > 0.2). Epidermal cysts showed homogeneous or inhomogeneous hypoechoic mass with posterior sound enhancement on US. There was no relationship between the echogenicity of the cysts and the internal contents. In the case of ruptured cyst, an abscess-like lesion with wall enhancement and perilesional infiltration was noted on CT scan

  16. Radiologic Findings of Epidermal Cysts in the Trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) or computer tomography (CT) findings of surgically proven epidermal cysts in the trunk, and to compare the echogenicity of cysts with internal contents. Forty-five patients were retrospectively evaluated. US and CT findings of epidermal cysts were assessed in regard to location, size, shape, number, echogenicity, posterior sound enhancement, internal density, septa, mural nodule and calcification, perilesional infiltration, contrast enhancement, and internal contents. All 45 patients (M:F=29:16; US in 26, CT in 19) had only one cyst, and they were located in the buttocks (n=19), back (n=13), inguinal (n=4), posterior neck (n=3), perineum (n=2), abdominal wall (n=2), presternal (n=1), and axilla (n=1). Of 26 patients who underwent US, there were 8 cases of homogeneously hypoechoic mass (30.8%), 8 of inhomogeneously hypoechoic mass (30.8%), 7 of homogeneously hypoechoic mass with internal hypoechoic lines and echogenic spots (26.9%) and 3 of homogeneously hypoechoic mass with internal echogenic spots (11.5%). Posterior sound enhancement was noted in 21 patients (80.8%). Of 19 patients who underwent CT, there were 14 cases of simple cyst (73.7%) and 5 of abscess-like lesion (26.3%). Overlying skin thickening (n=13), contrast enhancement of cystic wall (n=11), perilesional infiltration (n=7), and internal septa (n=6) were demonstrated. The internal contents of the cysts were keratinous (n=27, 60.0%) or greasy (n=15, 33.3%) material. There was no statistical significance between the echogenicity of the cysts and the internal contents (p > 0.2). Epidermal cysts showed homogeneous or inhomogeneous hypoechoic mass with posterior sound enhancement on US. There was no relationship between the echogenicity of the cysts and the internal contents. In the case of ruptured cyst, an abscess-like lesion with wall enhancement and perilesional infiltration was noted on CT scan

  17. Skeletogenic fate of zebrafish cranial and trunk neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kague

    Full Text Available The neural crest (NC is a major contributor to the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton, detailed in model organisms through embryological and genetic approaches, most notably in chick and mouse. Despite many similarities between these rather distant species, there are also distinct differences in the contribution of the NC, particularly to the calvariae of the skull. Lack of information about other vertebrate groups precludes an understanding of the evolutionary significance of these differences. Study of zebrafish craniofacial development has contributed substantially to understanding of cartilage and bone formation in teleosts, but there is currently little information on NC contribution to the zebrafish skeleton. Here, we employ a two-transgene system based on Cre recombinase to genetically label NC in the zebrafish. We demonstrate NC contribution to cells in the cranial ganglia and peripheral nervous system known to be NC-derived, as well as to a subset of myocardial cells. The indelible labeling also enables us to determine NC contribution to late-forming bones, including the calvariae. We confirm suspected NC origin of cartilage and bones of the viscerocranium, including cartilages such as the hyosymplectic and its replacement bones (hymandibula and symplectic and membranous bones such as the opercle. The cleithrum develops at the border of NC and mesoderm, and as an ancestral component of the pectoral girdle was predicted to be a hybrid bone composed of both NC and mesoderm tissues. However, we find no evidence of a NC contribution to the cleithrum. Similarly, in the vault of the skull, the parietal bones and the caudal portion of the frontal bones show no evidence of NC contribution. We also determine a NC origin for caudal fin lepidotrichia; the presumption is that these are derived from trunk NC, demonstrating that these cells have the ability to form bone during normal vertebrate development.

  18. Permanent upper trunk plexopathy after interscalene brachial plexus block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellanet, Merce; Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Rodrigo, Lidia; Gonzalez-Viejo, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) has been widely used in shoulder surgical procedures. The incidence of postoperative neural injury has been estimated to be as high as 3 %. We report a long-term neurologic deficit after a nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. A 55 year-old male, with right shoulder impingement syndrome was scheduled for elective surgery. The patient was given an oral dose of 10 mg of diazepam prior to the nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. The patient immediately complained, as soon as the needle was placed in the interscalene area, of a sharp pain in his right arm and he was sedated further. Twenty-four hours later, the patient complained of severe shoulder and arm pain that required an increased dose of analgesics. Severe peri-scapular atrophy developed over the following days. Electromyography studies revealed an upper trunk plexus injury with severe denervation of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles together with a moderate denervation of the biceps brachii muscle. Chest X-rays showed a diaphragmatic palsy which was not present post operatively. Pulmonary function tests were also affected. Phrenic nerve paralysis was still present 18 months after the block as was dysfunction of the brachial plexus resulting in an inability to perform flexion, abduction and external rotation of the right shoulder. Severe brachial plexopathy was probably due to a local anesthetic having been administrated through the perineurium and into the nerve fascicles. Severe brachial plexopathy is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of IBPB. We propose a clinical algorithm using ultrasound guidance during nerve blocks as a safer technique of regional anesthesia. PMID:25744163

  19. Quantitative Effects of Trunk and Head Position on the Apnea Hypopnea Index in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Ellen R.; van Maanen, J. Peter; Hilgevoord, Anthony A.J.; Laman, D. Martin; de Vries, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that head position, separately from trunk position, is an additionally important factor for the occurrence of apnea in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Patients and Participants: Three hundred patients referred to our department because of clinically suspected OSA. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Patients underwent overnight polysomnography with 2 position sensors: one on the trunk, and one in the mid-forehead. Of the 300 subjects, 241 were diagnosed with OSA, based on an AHI > 5. Of these patients, 199 could be analyzed for position-dependent OSA based on head and trunk position sensors (AHI in supine position twice as high as AHI in non-supine positions): 41.2% of the cases were not position dependent, 52.3% were supine position dependent based on the trunk sensor, 6.5% were supine position dependent based on the head sensor alone. In 46.2% of the trunk supine position-dependent group, head position was of considerable influence on the AHI (AHI was > 5 higher when the head was also in supine position compared to when the head was turned to the side). Conclusions: The results of this study confirm our hypothesis that the occurrence of OSA may also be dependent on the position of the head. Therefore in patients with a suspicion of position-dependent OSA, sleep recording with dual position sensors placed on both trunk and head should be considered. Citation: van Kesteren ER; van Maanen JP; Hilgevoord AAJ; Laman DM; de Vries N. Quantitative effects of trunk and head position on the apnea hypopnea index in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2011;34(8):1075-1081. PMID:21804669

  20. Weight-shift training improves trunk control, proprioception, and balance in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungsim; Kim, Young; Chung, Yijung; Hwang, Sujin

    2014-01-01

    Trunk instability is one of main problems in survivors following stroke. We investigated the effects of weight-shift training (WST) on an unstable surface in sitting position on trunk control, proprioception, and balance in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Eighteen participants with chronic hemiparetic stroke were recruited and were allocated to either WST or control group. The WST group received a weight-shift training program for 30 min and then received a conventional exercise program for 30 min, while the control group received conventional exercise program for 60 min, five times a week for four weeks for both groups. In this randomized control study, we used three outcome measures: trunk reposition error (TRE), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. TRE was measured by each participant's reposition error to the target angle during his/her active trunk movement. TIS and TUG were examined for trunk control abilities and dynamic balance abilities, respectively. After training, TRE showed significantly greater improvement in the WST group (mean change, 1.67 ± 1.45˚) than the control group (mean change, 0.08 ± 1.05˚). The TIS score was significantly higher in the WST group (mean change, 2.33 ± 1.50) than the control group (mean change, 0.13 ± 0.83). The TUG test also showed a significant improvement in the WST group (mean change, 5.03 ± 1.88 sec) than the control group (mean change, 2.59 ± 1.86 sec). Our findings indicate that weight-shift training is beneficial for improving trunk control and proprioception in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke. PMID:24646921

  1. The Effect of Trunk Stabilization Exercises with a Swiss Ball on Core Muscle Activation in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Gil; Yong, Min Sik; Na, Sang Su

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk stabilization exercise on the muscle EMG activations related to core stability. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen elderly people in a geriatric hospital performed trunk stabilization exercises with a Swiss ball for 20 minutes five times per week for 8 weeks. Trunk muscle activations were measured using electromyography before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the muscle activations of the rect...

  2. Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of trunk flexion on the cervical muscle whiplash response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Yogesh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical muscles are considered a potential site of whiplash injury, and there is a need to understand the cervical muscle response under non-conventional whiplash impact scenarios, including variable body position and impact direction. There is no data, however, on the effect of occupant position on the muscle response to frontal impacts. Therefore, the objective of the study was to measure cervical muscle response to graded right anterolateral impacts. Methods Twenty volunteers were subjected to right anterolateral impacts of 4.3, 7.8, 10.6, and 12.8 m/s2 acceleration with their trunk flexed forward 45 degrees and laterally flexed right or left by 45 degrees. Bilateral EMG of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis and acceleration of the sled, torso, and head were measured. Results and discussion With either direction of trunk flexion at impact, the trapezius EMGs increased with increasing acceleration (p Conclusion When the subject sits with trunk flexed out of neutral posture at the time of anterolateral impact, the cervical muscle response is dramatically reduced compared to frontal impacts with the trunk in neutral posture. In the absence of bodily impact, the flexed trunk posture appears to produce a biomechanical response that would decrease the likelihood of cervical muscle injury in low velocity impacts.

  3. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation.

  4. Dynamic trunk stabilization: a conceptual back injury prevention program for volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad E; Nyland, John; Caudill, Paul; Brosky, Joseph; Caborn, David N M

    2008-11-01

    The sport of volleyball creates considerable dynamic trunk stability demands. Back injury occurs all too frequently in volleyball, particularly among female athletes. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review functional anatomy, muscle coactivation strategies, assessment of trunk muscle performance, and the characteristics of effective exercises for the trunk or core. From this information, a conceptual progressive 3-phase volleyball-specific training program is presented to improve dynamic trunk stability and to potentially reduce the incidence of back injury among volleyball athletes. Phase 1 addresses low-velocity motor control, kinesthetic awareness, and endurance, with the clinician providing cues to teach achievement of biomechanically neutral spine alignment. Phase 2 focuses on progressively higher velocity dynamic multiplanar endurance, coordination, and strength-power challenges integrating upper and lower extremity movements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Phase 3 integrates volleyball-specific skill simulations by breaking down composite movement patterns into their component parts, with differing dynamic trunk stability requirements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Prospective research is needed to validate the efficacy of this program. PMID:18978452

  5. Identification of trunk and pelvis movement compensations in patients with transtibial amputation using angular momentum separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Brecca M; Murray, Amanda M; Christiansen, Cory L; Davidson, Bradley S

    2016-03-01

    Patients with unilateral dysvascular transtibial amputation (TTA) have a higher risk of developing low back pain than their healthy counterparts, which may be related to movement compensations used in the absence of ankle function. Assessing components of segmental angular momentum provides a unique framework to identify and interpret these movement compensations alongside traditional observational analyses. Angular momentum separation indicates two components of total angular momentum: (1) transfer momentum and (2) rotational momentum. The objective of this investigation was to assess movement compensations in patients with dysvascular TTA, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and healthy controls (HC) by examining patterns of generating and arresting trunk and pelvis segmental angular momenta during gait. We hypothesized that all groups would demonstrate similar patterns of generating/arresting total momentum and transfer momentum in the trunk and pelvis in reference to the groups (patients with DM and HC). We also hypothesized that patients with amputation would demonstrate different (larger) patterns of generating/arresting rotational angular momentum in the trunk. Patients with amputation demonstrated differences in trunk and pelvis transfer angular momentum in the sagittal and transverse planes in comparison to the reference groups, which indicates postural compensations adopted during walking. However, patients with amputation demonstrated larger patterns of generating and arresting of trunk and pelvis rotational angular momentum in comparison to the reference groups. These segmental rotational angular momentum patterns correspond with high eccentric muscle demands needed to arrest the angular momentum, and may lead to consequential long-term effects such as low back pain.

  6. Altered Gravity Simulated by Parabolic Flight and Water Immersion Leads to Decreased Trunk Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiliang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Dongni; Tian, Yu; Li, Fan; Zhang, Shaoyao; Zhang, Lin; Guo, Yaoyu; Liu, Weibo; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Shanguang; Guo, Jinhu

    2015-01-01

    Gravity is one of the important environmental factors that influence the physiologies and behaviors of animals and humans, and changes in gravity elicit a variety of physiological and behavioral alterations that include impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions. To elucidate the effects of gravity on human physiology and behavior, we examined changes in wrist and trunk activities and heart rate during parabolic flight and the activity of wrist and trunk in water immersion experiments. Data from 195 person-time parabolas performed by eight subjects revealed that the trunk motion counts decreased by approximately half during ascending legs (hypergravity), relative to the data acquired before the parabolic flights. In contrast, the wrist activity remained unchanged. The results from the water immersion experiments demonstrated that in the underwater condition, both the wrist and trunk activities were significantly decreased but the latter decreased to a much lower level. Together, these data suggest that gravitational alterations can result in differential influences on the motions of the wrist and the trunk. These findings might be important for understanding the degeneration of skeleton and muscular system and performance of astronauts in microgravity.

  7. Effects of Pruning to Promote Trunk Extension on Annual Growth Rhythm of Paulownia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGBaoping; LIJiyue; SUNZhiqiang; WENRuijun; QIAOJie; ZHOUHaijiang; LIZongran

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to confirm the optimal pruning intensity to promote paulownia growth. Annual dynamic of 8 growth indicators for pruning of three-year-old Paulownia to promote tnmk extension were simulated under 7 treatments. The results showed that annual growth process could be modeled reliably by Richards' function. Eight growth parameters were developed including fast-growing point (t0), initialp oint of fast-growing period (tl), final point of fast-growing period (t2), fast-growing period (t), growth period (Dg), maximum day increment (AGRmax), maximum annual increment (A). Effects of pruning to promote trunk extension on growth parameters were analyzed. Paulownia remaining 3-6 lower branches after pruning had relatively longer fast-growing period (t), growth period (Dg), higher average day increment (Am), maximum day increment (AGRmax) and maximum annual increment (A). Therefore, lower diameter growth of original trunk did not decrease significantly, and upper diameter growth increased to some extent, Height and diameter growth of grafting trunk, and form ratio of grafting trunk were relatively higher. Total stock volume increment was improved significantly under the condition that stock volume increment of original trunk did not decrease.

  8. Bracing the trunk and neck in young adults leads to a more aged-like gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M; Kelleran, Kyle J; Morrison, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Older individuals typically walk at slower speeds, with shorter step lengths, greater step widths and spend a larger proportion of the gait cycle in double stance. Changes in neck and trunk mobility may underlie some of the changes in walking seen with increasing age. Consequently, this study was designed to assess whether externally increasing trunk/neck stiffness in young adults leads to similar changes in gait pattern observed with aging. Twelve young adults (20-29 years), sixteen old adults (60-69 years) and fifteen older adults (70-79 years) walked across a 20' pressure sensitive GAITRite© instrumented walkway at their preferred speed. The young adults also walked under three bracing conditions: (1) Neck braced, (2) Trunk braced, and (3) Neck and Trunk braced. The results revealed that the old and older age groups walked significantly slower, with a shorter step length and with a narrower base of support (p'syoung adults. In young adults, combined neck and trunk bracing led to reduced walking speed, shorter step length, wider base of support and a larger proportion of the gait cycle spent in double stance (p'sadults remained less than fully braced young adults (p'syoung individuals leads to systematic gait changes similar to aging. Consequently, age-related changes in mobility of the neck and torso may in part contribute to the decrements in walking seen for older adults.

  9. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Ilke; Kirdi, Nuray; Meric, Aydin; Kurne, Asli Tuncer; Karabudak, Rana

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p 0.05). Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs. PMID:23516089

  10. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Keser, PhD, PT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS. Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS, and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p 0.05. Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs.

  11. Does arm swing emphasized deliberately increase the trunk stability during walking in the elderly adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakubo, Sho; Doi, Takehiko; Sawa, Ryuichi; Misu, Shogo; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Ono, Rei

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether trunk stability while walking changes when arm swing is deliberately altered in elderly individuals. Participants included 21 community-dwelling elderly individuals (7 men and 14 women; age, 81.8 ± 5.0 years). We measured trunk acceleration by using a wireless miniature sensor unit containing a tri-axial linear accelerometer under 3 walking conditions: normal walking (normal condition), deliberately walking without any arm swing (no swing condition), and walking with a deliberately emphasized arm swing (over swing condition). To evaluate trunk stability during walking, we calculated harmonic ratios (HRs) based on trunk tri-axial acceleration signals (anteroposterior: AP, vertical: VT, and mediolateral: ML). HR-AP and HR-VT were not significantly different across the 3 conditions, but HR-ML in the over swing condition was significantly higher than that in the other 2 conditions by generalized estimating equations (GEE) adjusted for walking speed (p<0.05). These findings indicate that trunk stability in the ML direction increased when the elderly individuals walked with a deliberately emphasized arm swing.

  12. Inter-joint coordination between hips and trunk during downswings: Effects on the clubhead speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, In-Kwang; Choi, Mun-Taek; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the inter-joint coordination between rotational movement of each hip and trunk in golf would provide basic knowledge regarding how the neuromuscular system organises the related joints to perform a successful swing motion. In this study, we evaluated the inter-joint coordination characteristics between rotational movement of the hips and trunk during golf downswings. Twenty-one right-handed male professional golfers were recruited for this study. Infrared cameras were installed to capture the swing motion. The axial rotation angle, angular velocity and inter-joint coordination were calculated by the Euler angle, numerical difference method and continuous relative phase, respectively. A more typical inter-joint coordination demonstrated in the leading hip/trunk than trailing hip/trunk. Three coordination characteristics of the leading hip/trunk reported a significant relationship with clubhead speed at impact (r coordination strategies have the great potential to use a biomechanical guideline to improve the golf swing performance of unskilled golfers.

  13. Comparison of Two- and Three-Dimensional Methods for Analysis of Trunk Kinematic Variables in the Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aimée C; Roberts, Jonathan R; Wallace, Eric S; Kong, Pui; Forrester, Stephanie E

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional methods have been used to compute trunk kinematic variables (flexion/extension, lateral bend, axial rotation) and X-factor (difference in axial rotation between trunk and pelvis) during the golf swing. Recent X-factor studies advocated three-dimensional (3D) analysis due to the errors associated with two-dimensional (2D) methods, but this has not been investigated for all trunk kinematic variables. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk kinematic variables and X-factor calculated by 2D and 3D methods to examine how different approaches influenced their profiles during the swing. Trunk kinematic variables and X-factor were calculated for golfers from vectors projected onto the global laboratory planes and from 3D segment angles. Trunk kinematic variable profiles were similar in shape; however, there were statistically significant differences in trunk flexion (-6.5 ± 3.6°) at top of backswing and trunk right-side lateral bend (8.7 ± 2.9°) at impact. Differences between 2D and 3D X-factor (approximately 16°) could largely be explained by projection errors introduced to the 2D analysis through flexion and lateral bend of the trunk and pelvis segments. The results support the need to use a 3D method for kinematic data calculation to accurately analyze the golf swing. PMID:26367337

  14. Effect of Planning on Trunk Motion and Knee Moments During a Side Step Cut Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jeff; Gorniak, Stacey; Nicholson, Kristen

    2004-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that alterations in knee biomechanics associated with unanticipated cutting tasks place athletes at higher risk of knee injuries. Besier et al observed alterations in knee moments during unanticipated cutting tasks that were consistent with in-vitro ACL injury mechanisms. During similar tasks, Patla et al observed lateral trunk lean and decreased foot placement, suggesting that full body center of mass control is perturbed during such tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare the trunk and knee frontal plane moments and evaluate a relationship between the two during unanticipated cutting tasks. The results of this study suggest that there is a relationship between the trunk and knee frontal plane moments during the first 200-400ms of the stance phase of gait.

  15. Changes in trunk orientation do not induce asymmetries in covert orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, David A; Jones, Stephanie A H; Cowper-Smith, Christopher D; Klein, Raymond M

    2013-08-01

    We explored the effect of trunk orientation on responses to visual targets in five experiments, following work suggesting a disengage deficit in covert orienting related to changes in the trunk orientation of healthy participants. In two experiments, participants responded to the color of a target appearing in the left or right visual field following a peripheral visual cue that was informative about target location. In three additional experiments, participants responded to the location (left/right) of a target using a spatially compatible motor response. In none of the experiments did trunk orientation interact with spatial-cuing effects, suggesting that orienting behavior is not affected by the rotation of the body relative to the head. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23666630

  16. Traumatic Neuroma around the Celiac Trunk after Gastrectomy Mimicking a Nodal Metastasis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Ryu, Seung Wan; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Traumatic neuroma is a well-known disorder that occurs after trauma or surgery involving the peripheral nerve and develops from a nonneoplastic proliferation of the proximal end of a severed, partially transected, or injured nerve. However, in the abdomen, traumatic neuromas have been sporadically reported to occur in the bile duct. We present here a case of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk after gastrectomy that mimicks a nodal metastasis. In conclusion, the imaging finding of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk was a homogeneous hypovascular mass without narrowing or irregularity of encased arteries and without increased uptake on PET-CT. Although from a clinical standpoint, establishing an accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult to perform, the presence of a traumatic neuroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass around the celiac trunk in a patient that has undergone celiac nodal dissection.

  17. Relationship between trunk and foot accelerations during walking in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jordan J; Bruetsch, Adam; Huisinga, Jessie M

    2016-09-01

    Understanding upper body and lower body segment relationships may be an important step in assessing stability during gait. This study explored the relationship between acceleration patterns at the trunk and at the foot during treadmill walking at self-selected pace in healthy adults. Forty healthy subjects walked on a treadmill for 3 minutes at self-selected speed. Root mean square (RMS) and approximate entropy (ApEn) were derived from the acceleration time series at the trunk and at the foot in the frontal and sagittal plane. RMS of accelerations at the trunk were strongly correlated with RMS values at the foot in the sagittal plane (r=0.883, psegment motion, and assessing relationships between upper and lower body motion may provide a more comprehensive evaluation of overall stability.

  18. Primary cilia function regulates the length of the embryonic trunk axis and urogenital field in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainwright, Elanor N.; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee;

    2014-01-01

    assembly, result in a range of embryo patterning defects, affecting the limbs, skeleton and neural system. Here, we show that embryos of the mouse mutant Ift144twt develop gonads that are larger than wild-type. Investigation of the early patterning of the urogenital ridge revealed that the anterior......–posterior domain of the gonad/mesonephros was extended at 10.5 dpc, with no change in the length of the metanephros. In XY embryos, this extension resulted in an increase in testis cord number. Moreover, we observed a concomitant extension of the trunk axis in both sexes, with no change in the length of the tail...... domain or somite number. Our findings support a model in which: (1) primary cilia regulate embryonic trunk elongation; (2) the length of the trunk axis determines the size of the urogenital ridges; and (3) the gonad domain is partitioned into a number of testis cords that depends on the available space...

  19. A correlational study of scoliosis and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuncheng Zhou

    Full Text Available Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an "S" type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p1°, while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRUNK ENDURANCE PLANK TESTS AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE TESTS IN ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneoka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Background Although it is believed that trunk function is important for athletic performance, few researchers have demonstrated a significant relationship between the trunk function and athletic performance. Recently, the prone plank and side plank tests have been used to assess trunk function. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between trunk endurance plank tests and athletic performance tests, including whether there is a relationship between long distance running and trunk endurance plank tests in adolescent male soccer players. Study design Cross sectional study design. Methods Fifty-five adolescent male soccer players performed prone and side plank tests and seven performance tests: the Cooper test, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the step 50 agility test, a 30-m sprint test, a vertical countermovement jump, a standing five-step jump, and a rebound jump. The relationships between each individual plank test, the combined score of both plank tests, and performance tests were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The combined score of plank tests was highly correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (r = 0.710, p < 0.001), and was moderately correlated with the Cooper test (r = 0.567, p < 0.001). Poor correlation was observed between the prone plank test and step 50 agility test (r = -0.436, p = 0.001) and no significant correlations were observed between plank tests and jump performance tests. Conclusions The results suggest that trunk endurance plank tests are positively correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the Cooper test, and the step 50 agility test. Level of Evidence Level 2 PMID:27757284

  1. Evaluating Primary Dendrite Trunk Diameters in Directionally Solidified Al-Si Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The primary dendrite trunk diameters of Al-Si alloys that were directionally solidified over a range of processing conditions have been measured. These data are analyzed with a model based primarily on an assessment of secondary dendrite arm dissolution in the mushy zone. Good fit with the experimental data is seen and it is suggested that the primary dendrite trunk diameter is a useful metric that correlates well with the actual solidification processing parameters. These results are placed in context with the limited results from the aluminium - 7 wt. % silicon samples directionally solidified aboard the International Space Station as part of the MICAST project.

  2. The Relationship between Performance and Trunk Movement During Change of Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Shogo Sasaki; Yasuharu Nagano; Satoshi Kaneko; Takakuni Sakurai; Toru Fukubayashi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m) participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as q...

  3. Trunk Kinematics and Centre of Pressure Displacement during Lateral Lifting and Lowering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qiangmin; Alf Thorstensson; Andrew Cresswell

    2006-01-01

    Lateral bending of the trunk has been specifically identified as a high risk factor for lower back disorders. However, few studies have presented in vivo kinematic data of the trunk while performing functional lateral bending tasks. Five healthy male subjects performed lateral lifting and lowering tasks under loading condition ranging from light (2kg) to 100% of a maximum (ML) at a controlled velocity. Single lowering tasks were also performed at 125% and 150% of ML. Video based movement analysis was used to determine kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, shoulders and neck in the frontal plane. Centre of pressure (COP) data was also obtained from a force platform on which the subjects stood when performing the lifting and lowering tasks. Kinematics of the trunk revealed a smooth and relatively large change in angular displacement (between 69°to 55°) toward the unloaded side during the lifting phase. Trunk angular displacement significantly decreased with increasing lifting load. The trunk was additionally divided into four segments representing the lower and upper lumbar regions and the lower and upper thoracic regions. The greatest displacement in these segments took place at the upper lumbar and lower thoracic regions (ranging from 29°to 22°and 23°to 17°, respectively) with the least displacement occurring in the lower lumbar and upper thoracic regions (approx. 6° and 5°, respectively). Both the upper lumbar and lower thoracic segments showed significant decreases in angular displacement with increasing load. During the single lowering trials the trunk rotated toward the loaded side with slightly less magnitude to that recorded during the lowering phase of the heaviest lifting and lowering conditions. Angular displacements of the upper lumbar and lower thoracic segments also decreased with increasing load in single lowering. Identified changes in the COP displacement were also correlated to increasing lifting and lowering load. The main findings of this study

  4. Association of trunk control with mobility performance and accelerometry-based gait characteristics in hemiparetic patients with subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isho, Takuya; Usuda, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Trunk control plays an important role in movement control and postural balance during functional activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of trunk control early after stroke with mobility performance and quantitative gait characteristics derived from trunk accelerations. Fifteen patients with hemiparesis following stroke (median age, 61 years [range, 56-78 years]; median time since stroke, 9 days [range, 7-15 days]) participated in this cross-sectional observational study. Subjects were evaluated using the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), the short-form of the Berg Balance Scale (SF-BBS), an isometric knee extension strength test, the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), and a timed walking test. The linear acceleration of the lower trunk was recorded along the 3 axes during walking and quantified using the autocorrelation coefficient and harmonic ratio to assess the variability and smoothness of upper-body movement. The TIS total score had a significant correlation with TUG time. The coordination subscale score of the TIS was significantly correlated with TUG time, walking speed, and accelerometry variables in univariate analysis. The TIS coordination subscale score was significantly related to accelerometry variables in the partial correlation analysis adjusted for SF-BBS score and knee extension strength on the paretic and nonparetic side. These results indicate that trunk motor impairment after stroke is closely associated with poor mobility performance and trunk instability in gait. These findings support intensive rehabilitation treatment targeting trunk control to regain better mobility and stable gait in patients early after stroke.

  5. Low-level activity of the trunk extensor muscles causes electromyographic manifestations of fatigue in absence of decreased oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized

  6. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  7. Does anterior trunk pain predict a different course of recovery in chronic low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagopoulos, John; Hancock, Mark J; Kongsted, Alice;

    2014-01-01

    Patient characteristics associated with the course and severity of low back pain (LBP) and disability have been the focus of extensive research, however, known characteristics do not explain much of the variance in outcomes. The relationship between anterior trunk pain (ATP) and LBP has not been ...

  8. Muscle functional MRI analysis of trunk muscle recruitment during extension exercises in asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, E M D; Van Oosterwijck, J O; Vleeming, A; Vanderstraeten, G G; Danneels, L A

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the activity levels of the thoracic and lumbar extensor muscles during different extension exercise modalities in healthy individuals. Therefore, 14 subjects performed four different types of extension exercises in prone position: dynamic trunk extension, dynamic-static trunk extension, dynamic leg extension, and dynamic-static leg extension. Pre- and post-exercise muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from the latissimus dorsi, the thoracic and lumbar parts of the longissimus, iliocostalis, and multifidus were performed. Differences in water relaxation values (T2-relaxation) before and after exercise were calculated (T2-shift) as a measure of muscle activity and compared between extension modalities. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed higher lumbar extensor activity during trunk extension compared with leg extension (T2-shift of 5.01 ms and 3.55 ms, respectively) and during the dynamic-static exercise performance compared with the dynamic exercise performance (T2-shift of 4.77 ms and 3.55 ms, respectively). No significant differences in the thoracic extensor activity between the exercises could be demonstrated. During all extension exercises, the latissimus dorsi was the least activated compared with the paraspinal muscles. While all extension exercises are equivalent effective to train the thoracic muscles, trunk extension exercises performed in a dynamic-static way are the most appropriate to enhance lumbar muscle strength.

  9. Effectiveness of Natural Antifungal Compounds in Controlling Infection by Grapevine Trunk Disease Pathogens through Pruning Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Rebeca; Mateos, Rosa María; Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; Olego, Miguel Angel; Sevillano, Silvia; González-García, Sandra; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2015-09-01

    Grapevine trunk fungal pathogens, such as Diplodia seriata and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, can infect plants through pruning wounds. They cause grapevine trunk diseases and are involved in grapevine decline. Accordingly, the protection of pruning wounds is crucial for the management of grapevine trunk diseases. The efficacy of different natural antifungals in inhibiting the growth of several fungi causing grapevine trunk diseases was evaluated in vitro. The fungi showing greater in vitro efficacy were tested on autoclaved grape wood assays against D. seriata and P. chlamydospora. Based on results from these assays, chitosan oligosaccharide, vanillin, and garlic extract were selected for further evaluation on pruning wounds inoculated with D. seriata and P. chlamydospora in field trials. A significant decrease in plant mortality was observed after 2 years of growth in the plants treated with the different natural antifungals compared to the mortality rate observed in infected plants that were not treated with antifungals. Also, the infection rate for the inoculated pathogens was significantly reduced in plants treated with the selected natural antifungals. Therefore, natural antifungals represent a promising alternative for disease control and could provide significant economic benefits for the grape-growing industry. PMID:26162882

  10. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP...

  11. Analysis of Trunk Rolling Performances by Mattress Mobility Detection System in Poststroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lin Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of kinematic variables with quality of trunk control in poststroke patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study included stroke subjects with mild to moderate motor deficit corresponding to Brunnstrom stages 3-4. Trunk functional performance was measured using bed mobility monitor system. All tasks were repeated ten times for both directions in each subject. Outcome measurements included the movement time and displacement of center of pressure (CoP from supine to side lying and returning. Results. The results revealed that a significant longer turning time was observed when turning from the paretic side toward the nonparetic side compared to the other direction, with an estimated mean difference of 0.427 sec (P=0.005. We found a significant difference in the time of rolling back to supine position between two directions. The displacement of CoP in rolling back from side lying on the nonparetic side was smaller than that from the paretic side with an estimated mean difference of −0.797 cm (P=0.023. Conclusions. The impaired trunk mobility was associated with increased movement time and decreased displacement of CoP in poststroke patients. Trunk rolling performance has potential in assessment of stroke patients.

  12. Bilateral Stenosis of the Internal carotid artery , associated with aneurysm of the basilar trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. MORSHED

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available I A case of bilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery with aneurysm"nof basilar trunk is reported."n2 Via femoral angiography confirmed the diagnosis which is strongly"nrecommended in diagnosing such cases."n3 No surgica l treatment is considered."n4 No similar case has been reported in literature.

  13. Bridging the gaps between scientific literature and grower perceptions of trunk disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunk diseases significantly limit the productivity of California vineyards. Field trials have shown three practices to minimize infection of pruning wounds: delayed pruning, double pruning, and the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M). For optimal efficacy, such preventative practices must be a...

  14. Mechanical behaviour of the in vivo paediatric and adult trunk during respiratory physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yumin; Bruyère-Garnier, Karine; Mitton, David; Vajda, Emmanuel; Bermond, François

    2014-01-01

    The load-deflection response of the human trunk has been studied using various methods. The different shapes observed may be due to the methodology and the population. The purpose of this study is to quantify and explain the in vivo mechanical response of paediatric and adult trunks during respiratory physiotherapy. Eight children aged 5-15 months and eight healthy adult volunteers aged 30-87 years participated in this study. The force applied by the physiotherapist and the displacement of the targets on his hands were recorded. Parameters were also measured and calculated to compare against other studies. Time lags between force time histories and displacement time histories were observed on both children and adults. Different time lags resulted in different shapes of the force-displacement curves. Factors including respiration, muscle contraction and loading pattern are part of the assumptions used to explain this phenomenon. The maximum displacements of the paediatric and adult trunks were 18 and 44 mm, respectively, with a maximum load of 208 and 250 N, respectively. This study provides a better explanation of the peculiar force-displacement characteristics of both living and active children and adults under a non-injurious, low-rate compression condition. Complementary data (e.g. muscle activity and breathing) should be collected in the future to go towards in vivo human trunk modelling. PMID:24280228

  15. Old oil palm trunk: A promising source of sugars for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H.; Ohara, S. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Tanaka, R.; Yamamoto, K. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Hamid, Z.A.A.; Yahya, M.K.A. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Kosugi, A.; Arai, T.; Murata, Y.; Nirasawa, S. [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nor; Ibrahim, Wan Asma [Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Selangor (Malaysia); Mori, Y. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Oil palm trees are replanted at an interval of approximately 25 years because of decreased oil productivity of old trees. Consequently the felled trunks are the enormous amount of biomass resources in the palm oil producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. In this report, we found that the felled oil palm trunk contains large quantity of sap, which accounts for approximately 70% of the whole trunk weight, and that sugars existing in the sap increased remarkably during storage after logging. Total sugar in the sap increased from 83 mg ml{sup -1} to 153 mg ml{sup -1}, the concentration comparable to that of sugar cane juice, after 30 days of storage, followed by the gradual decrease. The sugars contained in the sap were glucose, sucrose, fructose and galactose, all of which are fermentable by ordinary industrial yeast strains. The results indicate that old oil palm trunk becomes a promising source of sugars by proper aging after logging and, thus, its sap can be a good feedstock for bioethanol. (author)

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of the rare association of common arterial trunk and double aortic arch

    OpenAIRE

    Rock, Andrea; Eltayeb, Osama; Camarda, Joseph; Gotteiner, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Common arterial trunk with associated double aortic arch is a very rare constellation of congenital heart disease. Prenatal diagnosis allows for surgical repair prior to development of respiratory morbidity, which is otherwise described in all cases with this association.

  17. Influences of trunk flexion on mechanical energy flow in the lower extremities during gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takuya; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Ogata, Yuta; Tanimoto, Kenji; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The time-series waveforms of mechanical energy generation, absorption, and transfer through the joints indicate how movements are produced and controlled. Previous studies have used these waveforms to evaluate and describe the efficiency of human movements. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of trunk flexion on mechanical energy flow in the lower extremities during gait. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 healthy young males (mean age, 21.8 ± 1.3 years, mean height, 170.5 ± 6.8 cm, and mean weight, 60.2 ± 6.8 kg). Subjects walked at a self-selected gait speed under 2 conditions: normal gait (condition N), and gait with trunk flexion formed with a brace to simulate spinal curvature (condition TF). The data collected from initial contact to the mid-stance of gait was analyzed. [Results] There were no significant differences between the 2 conditions in the mechanical energy flow in the knee joint and negative mechanical work in the knee joint. However, the positive mechanical work of the knee joint under condition TF was significantly less than that under condition N. [Conclusion] Trunk flexion led to knee flexion in a standing posture. Thus, a strategy of moving of center of mass upward by knee extension using less mechanical energy was selected during gait in the trunk flexed posture. PMID:27313351

  18. The yeast flora of some decaying mushrooms on trunks of living trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Several ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts were isolated from rotten mushrooms on the trunks of beech and tamarisk trees. One strain, identified as the novel species Cryptococcus allantoinivorans, assimilated allantoin as the sole carbon source. Phylogenetically it belongs to the C. laurentii c

  19. Grower perceptions of preventative practices for management of trunk diseases of grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trials on prevention of trunk diseases (e.g., Eutypa dieback) show that three practices [delayed pruning, double pruning, pruning-wound protectants] prevent pruning-wound infections by 25-100%. Nonetheless, they are often not adopted until disease incidence is >20% in mature vineyards. There are no ...

  20. Modelling the economics and efficacy of early adoption of preventative practices for managing trunk diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunk diseases pose one of the most significant threats to vineyard longevity, since the introduction of Phylloxera. Research on resistant germplasm and detection tools will help in the long term. In the short term, we aim to promote preventative practices. Experimental trials show three practices t...

  1. First Report of Lasiodiplodia crassispora as a pathogen of grapevine trunks in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van J.M.; Bester, W.; Halleen, F.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, a survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) trunk pathogens was conducted in 30 vineyards in the Western and Northern Cape and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. In each vineyard, 20 visually healthy plants were sampled randomly by removing the distal part of one cordon arm. Isolatio

  2. Assessment of spatio-temporal gait parameters from trunk accelerations during human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Hof, AL

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of an analysis of spatio-temporal gait parameters based upon accelerometry. To this purpose, acceleration patterns of the trunk and their relationships with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analysed in healthy subjects. Based on model predictions of the body's

  3. Influences of trunk flexion on mechanical energy flow in the lower extremities during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takuya; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Ogata, Yuta; Tanimoto, Kenji; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The time-series waveforms of mechanical energy generation, absorption, and transfer through the joints indicate how movements are produced and controlled. Previous studies have used these waveforms to evaluate and describe the efficiency of human movements. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of trunk flexion on mechanical energy flow in the lower extremities during gait. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 healthy young males (mean age, 21.8 ± 1.3 years, mean height, 170.5 ± 6.8 cm, and mean weight, 60.2 ± 6.8 kg). Subjects walked at a self-selected gait speed under 2 conditions: normal gait (condition N), and gait with trunk flexion formed with a brace to simulate spinal curvature (condition TF). The data collected from initial contact to the mid-stance of gait was analyzed. [Results] There were no significant differences between the 2 conditions in the mechanical energy flow in the knee joint and negative mechanical work in the knee joint. However, the positive mechanical work of the knee joint under condition TF was significantly less than that under condition N. [Conclusion] Trunk flexion led to knee flexion in a standing posture. Thus, a strategy of moving of center of mass upward by knee extension using less mechanical energy was selected during gait in the trunk flexed posture.

  4. Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan AS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alice S Ryan, Aruna Selina Harduarsingh-Permaul Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland; Baltimore Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC, and Research and Development Service, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. Methods: The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX plus WL (AEX+WL, on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA (to measure trunk fat and lean mass and computed tomography (CT (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50-76 years. Results: The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (P<0.05. Both the spinal and abdominal muscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max (P<0.05. Body weight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (P<0.001. The VO2max increased by 11% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 but did not change with WL alone (group effect, P<0.001. The DXA-measured trunk fat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 and by 12% after WL (P<0.001. When both groups were combined, the IMAT decreased in all four muscle groups - by 6% in the erector spinae (P<0.01, by 9% in the psoas (P<0.01, by 11% in the lateral abdominals (P<0.001, and by 6% in the rectus abdominis (P<0.05. The loss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. Conclusions: A lifestyle

  5. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbado David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

  6. Cross-modality assessment and planning for pulmonary trunk treatment using CT and MRI imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanovski, Dime; Tsymbal, Alexey; Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Hubert, Martin; Taylor, Andrew; Schievano, Silvia; Zhou, Shaohua Kevin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-01-01

    Congenital heart defect is the primary cause of death in newborns, due to typically complex malformation of the cardiac system. The pulmonary valve and trunk are often affected and require complex clinical management and in most cases surgical or interventional treatment. While minimal invasive methods are emerging, non-invasive imaging-based assessment tools become crucial components in the clinical setting. For advanced evaluation and therapy planning purposes, cardiac Computed Tomography (CT) and cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (cMRI) are important non-invasive investigation techniques with complementary properties. Although, characterized by high temporal resolution, cMRI does not cover the full motion of the pulmonary trunk. The sparse cMRI data acquired in this context include only one 3D scan of the heart in the end-diastolic phase and two 2D planes (long and short axes) over the whole cardiac cycle. In this paper we present a cross-modality framework for the evaluation of the pulmonary trunk, which combines the advantages of both, cardiac CT and cMRI. A patient-specific model is estimated from both modalities using hierarchical learning-based techniques. The pulmonary trunk model is exploited within a novel dynamic regression-based reconstruction to infer the incomplete cMRI temporal information. Extensive experiments performed on 72 cardiac CT and 74 cMRI sequences demonstrated the average speed of 110 seconds and accuracy of 1.4mm for the proposed approach. To the best of our knowledge this is the first dynamic model of the pulmonary trunk and right ventricle outflow track estimated from sparse 4D cMRI data. PMID:20879263

  7. THE ROLE OF LEG AND TRUNK MUSCLES PROPRIOCEPTION ON STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED Hossein Hosseinimehr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The proprioception information is a prerequisite for balance, body’s navigation system, and the movement coordinator. Due to changes between the angles of ankle, knee, and hip joints the aforementioned information are important in the coordination of the limbs and postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate therole of leg and trunk muscles proprioception on static and dynamic postural control. Thirty males students of physical education and sport sciences (age =21.23 ± 2.95 years, height = 170.4 ± 5.1 cm, and weight = 70.7 ± 5.6 kg participated in this study volunteered. Vibration (100HZ was used to disturb of proprioception. Vibrationoperated on leg muscle (gasterocnemius and trunk muscles (erector spine muscle, at L1 level. Leg stance time and Star Excursion Balance Test were used for evaluation of static and dynamic postural control respectively.Subjects performed pre and post (with operated vibration leg stance time and star excursion balance test. Paired sample test used for investigation the effect of vibration on leg and trunk muscles in static and dynamic postural control. Result of this study showed in static postural control, there is no significant difference between pre and post test (operated vibration in leg and trunk muscles (p≤0.05. In contrast there is significant difference indynamic postural control between pre and post test in leg muscles in 8 directions of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05 while there is only significant difference in trunk muscle in antrolateral and lateral of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05. During physical training such conditions like fatigue and injury can disturbproprioceptions’ information. Thus, due to the importance of this information we recommend that coaches'additionally specific trainings any sport used specific exercises to enhance the proprioception information

  8. Muscle Activation and Performance During Trunk Strength Testing in High-Level Female and Male Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    For performance and injury prevention in sport, core strength and endurance are focused prerequisites. Therefore we evaluated characteristics of trunk muscle activation and performance during strength-endurance related trunk field tests. Strength-endurance ability, as total time to failure, and activation of trunk muscles was measured in 39 football players of the highest German female football league (Bundesliga) (N = 18, age: 20.7 y [SD 4.4]) and the highest national male under-19 league (N = 21, age: 17.9 y [0.7]) in prone plank, side plank, and dorsal position. Maximal isometric force was assessed during trunk extension and flexion, rotation, and lateral flexion to normalize EMG and to compare with the results of strength-endurance tests. For all positions of endurance strength tests, a continuous increase in normalized EMG activation was observed (P females (P = .02). We conclude, that in the applied strength-endurance testing, the activation of trunk muscles was high, especially in females. As high trunk muscle activation can infer fatigue, limb strength can limit performance in prone and side plank position, particularly during high trunk muscle activation. PMID:26671894

  9. An exclusively mesodermal origin of fin mesenchyme demonstrates that zebrafish trunk neural crest does not generate ectomesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond Teck Ho; Knapik, Ela W; Thiery, Jean Paul; Carney, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    The neural crest is a multipotent stem cell population that arises from the dorsal aspect of the neural tube and generates both non-ectomesenchymal (melanocytes, peripheral neurons and glia) and ectomesenchymal (skeletogenic, odontogenic, cartilaginous and connective tissue) derivatives. In amniotes, only cranial neural crest generates both classes, with trunk neural crest restricted to non-ectomesenchyme. By contrast, it has been suggested that anamniotes might generate derivatives of both classes at all axial levels, with trunk neural crest generating fin osteoblasts, scale mineral-forming cells and connective tissue cells; however, this has not been fully tested. The cause and evolutionary significance of this cranial/trunk dichotomy, and its absence in anamniotes, are debated. Recent experiments have disputed the contribution of fish trunk neural crest to fin osteoblasts and scale mineral-forming cells. This prompted us to test the contribution of anamniote trunk neural crest to fin connective tissue cells. Using genetics-based lineage tracing in zebrafish, we find that these fin mesenchyme cells derive entirely from the mesoderm and that neural crest makes no contribution. Furthermore, contrary to previous suggestions, larval fin mesenchyme cells do not generate the skeletogenic cells of the adult fin, but persist to form fibroblasts associated with adult fin rays. Our data demonstrate that zebrafish trunk neural crest does not generate ectomesenchymal derivatives and challenge long-held ideas about trunk neural crest fate. These findings have important implications for the ontogeny and evolution of the neural crest.

  10. Identifying Head-Trunk and Lower Limb Contributions to Gaze Stabilization During Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent full-body sensorimotor subsystems respond to a change in gaze stabilization task constraints during locomotion. Nine subjects performed two gaze stabilization tasks while walking at 6.4 km/hr on a motorized treadmill: 1) focusing on a central point target; 2) reading numeral characters; both presented at 2m in front at the level of their eyes. While subjects performed the tasks we measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. We tested the hypothesis that with the increased demands placed on visual acuity during the number recognition task, subjects would modify full-body segmental kinematics in order to reduce perturbations to the head in order to successfully perform the task. We found that while reading numeral characters as - compared to the central point target: 1) compensatory head pitch movement was on average 22% greater despite the fact that the trunk pitch and trunk vertical translation movement control were not significantly changed; 2) coordination patterns between head and trunk as reflected by the peak cross correlation between the head pitch and trunk pitch motion as well as the peak cross correlation between the head pitch and vertical trunk translation motion were not significantly changed; 3) knee joint total movement was on average 11% greater during the period from the heel strike event to the peak knee flexion event in stance phase of the gait cycle; 4) peak acceleration measured at the head was significantly reduced by an average of 13% in four of the six subjects. This was so even when the peak acceleration at the shank and the transmissibility of the shock wave at heel strike (measured by the peak acceleration ratio of the head/shank) remained unchanged. Taken

  11. Understanding the Effects of Spaceflight on Head-trunk Coordination During Walking and Obstacle Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madansingh, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to spaceflight conditions results in a battery of physiological changes, some of which contribute to sensorimotor and neurovestibular deficits. Upon return to Earth, functional performance changes are tested using the Functional Task Test (FTT), which includes an obstacle course to observe post-flight balance and postural stability, specifically during turning. The goal of this study was to quantify changes in movement strategies during turning events by observing the latency between head-and-trunk coordinated movements. It was hypothesized that subjects experiencing neurovestibular adaptations would exhibit head-to-trunk locking ('en bloc' movement) during turning, exhibited by a decrease in latency between head and trunk movement. FTT data samples were collected from 13 ISS astronauts and 26 male 70-day head down tilt bed rest subjects, including bed rest controls (10 BRC) and bed rest exercisers (16 BRE). Samples were analyzed three times pre-exposure, immediately post-exposure (0 or 1 day post) and 2-to-3 times during recovery from the unloading environment. Two 3D inertial measurements units (XSens MTx) were attached to subjects, one on the head and one on the upper back. This study focused primarily on the yaw movements about the subject's center of rotation. Time differences (latency) between head and trunk movement were averaged across a slalom obstacle portion, consisting of three turns (approximately three 60° turns). All participants were grouped as 'decreaser' or 'increaser,' relating to their change in head-to-trunk movement latency between pre- and post- environmental adaptation measures. Space flight unloading (ISS) showed a bimodal response between the 'increaser' and 'decreaser' group, while both bed rest control (BRC) and bed rest exercise (BRE) populations showed increased preference towards a 'decreaser' categorization, displaying greater head-trunk locking. It is clear that changes in movement strategies are adopted during

  12. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  13. Identifying head-trunk and lower limb contributions to gaze stabilization during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent full-body sensorimotor subsystems respond to a change in gaze stabilization task constraints during locomotion. Nine subjects performed two gaze stabilization tasks while walking at 6.4 km/hr on a motorized treadmill: 1) focusing on a central point target; 2) reading numeral characters; both presented at 2 m in front at the level of their eyes. While subjects performed the tasks we measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, tibia and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the tibia, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. We tested the hypothesis that with the increased demands placed on visual acuity during the number recognition task, subjects would modify full-body segmental kinematics in order to reduce perturbations to the head in order to successfully perform the task. We found that while reading numeral characters as compared to the central point target: 1) compensatory head pitch movement was on average 22% greater despite the fact that the trunk pitch and trunk vertical translation movement control were not significantly changed; 2) coordination patterns between head and trunk as reflected by the peak cross correlation between the head pitch and trunk pitch motion as well as the peak cross correlation between the head pitch and vertical trunk translation motion were not significantly changed; 3) knee joint total movement was on average 11% greater during the period from the heel strike event to the peak knee flexion event in stance phase of the gait cycle; 4) peak acceleration measured at the head was significantly reduced by an average of 13% in four of the six subjects. This was so even when the peak acceleration at the tibia and the transmission of the shock wave at heel strike (measured by the peak acceleration ratio of the head/tibia and the time lag between the tibial

  14. Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Lewis

    Full Text Available The single leg squat and single leg step down are two commonly used functional tasks to assess movement patterns. It is unknown how kinematics compare between these tasks. The purpose of this study was to identify kinematic differences in the lower extremity, pelvis and trunk between the single leg squat and the step down. Fourteen healthy individuals participated in this research and performed the functional tasks while kinematic data were collected for the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremities using a motion capture system. For the single leg squat task, the participant was instructed to squat as low as possible. For the step down task, the participant was instructed to stand on top of a box, slowly lower him/herself until the non-stance heel touched the ground, and return to standing. This was done from two different heights (16 cm and 24 cm. The kinematics were evaluated at peak knee flexion as well as at 60° of knee flexion. Pearson correlation coefficients (r between the angles at those two time points were also calculated to better understand the relationship between each task. The tasks resulted in kinematics differences at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk at both time points. The single leg squat was performed with less hip adduction (p ≤ 0.003, but more hip external rotation and knee abduction (p ≤ 0.030, than the step down tasks at 60° of knee flexion. These differences were maintained at peak knee flexion except hip external rotation was only significant in the 24 cm step down task (p ≤ 0.029. While there were multiple differences between the two step heights at peak knee flexion, the only difference at 60° of knee flexion was in trunk flexion (p < 0.001. Angles at the knee and hip had a moderate to excellent correlation (r = 0.51-0.98, but less consistently so at the pelvis and trunk (r = 0.21-0.96. The differences in movement patterns between the single leg squat and the step down should be considered when selecting a

  15. Carotid-cavernous fistula caused by rupture of persistent primitive trigeminal artery trunk aneurysm--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Ezura, Masayuki; Mino, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old female presented with a carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) manifesting as left abducens nerve palsy. Left internal carotid digital subtraction angiography showed a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) near the CCF. Super-selective angiography showed direct shunt flow between the PPTA trunk aneurysm and the left cavernous sinus. The aneurysm was successfully occluded with detachable coils. The CCF disappeared and the PPTA was preserved. The abducens nerve paralysis had disappeared 6 months later. CCF caused by a PPTA trunk aneurysm is extremely rare. We speculate that the PPTA trunk aneurysm formed and then ruptured due to hemodynamic stress caused by hypoplasia of the basilar artery. PMID:21785245

  16. Study of trunk flexibility and body composition between football and badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANDALAL SINGH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was an attempt to compare the flexibility (trunk flexibility and bodycomposition (percentage of body fat, total body fat and lean body mass between inter-college level malefootball and badminton players. Fifty (50 male inter-college level football players (N=25 and badmintonplayers (N=25 ranging between 17 to 25years were selected randomly from different colleges of PanjabUniversity, Chandigarh for this study. To compare the mean differences between the inter-college level footballand badminton players,t tests were computed using SPSS Software. Flexibility (trunk flexibility, and bodycomposition (percentage of body fat and total body fat were not found to be statistically significant

  17. Dynamical Models for the Formation of Elephant Trunks in H II Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The formation of pillars of dense gas at the boundaries of H II Regions is investigated with hydrodynamical numerical simulations including ionising radiation from a point source. We show that shadowing of ionising radiation by an inhomogeneous density field is capable of forming so-called elephant trunks (pillars of dense gas as in e.g. M16) without the assistance of self-gravity, or of ionisation front and cooling instabilities. A large simulation of a density field containing randomly generated clumps of gas is shown to naturally generate elephant trunks with certain clump configurations. These configurations are simulated in isolation and analysed in detail to show the formation mechanism and determine possible observational signatures. Pillars formed by the shadowing mechanism are shown to have rather different velocity profiles depending on the initial gas configuration, but asymmetries mean that the profiles also vary significantly with perspective, limiting their ability to discriminate between format...

  18. A 3D discrete model of the diaphragm and human trunk

    CERN Document Server

    Promayon, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a 3D discrete model is presented to model the movements of the trunk during breathing. In this model, objects are represented by physical particles on their contours. A simple notion of force generated by a linear actuator allows the model to create forces on each particle by way of a geometrical attractor. Tissue elasticity and contractility are modeled by local shape memory and muscular fibers attractors. A specific dynamic MRI study was used to build a simple trunk model comprised of by three compartments: lungs, diaphragm and abdomen. This model was registered on the real geometry. Simulation results were compared qualitatively as well as quantitatively to the experimental data, in terms of volume and geometry. A good correlation was obtained between the model and the real data. Thanks to this model, pathology such as hemidiaphragm paralysis can also be simulated.

  19. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Skotte, Jørgen H.;

    2009-01-01

    A slower reflex response to sudden trunk loading (SL) has been shown to increase future risk of low back injuries in healthy subjects, and specific readiness training can improve the response to SL among healthy subjects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of recreational soccer...... training on the reaction to SL among untrained healthy women. Thirty-six healthy, untrained, Danish women (age 19-45 years) were randomly assigned to a soccer group (SO, n = 19) and a running group (RU, n = 17). In addition, an untrained control group (CON, n = 10) was recruited. Training was performed for...... 1 hour twice a week (mean heart rate of 165 b.min-1 in SO and 164 b.min-1 in RU) for 16 weeks. Test of reactions to sudden unexpected trunk loading was performed before and after the training period. Furthermore, time-motion analysis of the soccer training was performed for 9 subjects. Group...

  20. Enhanced Algorithms for Estimating Tree Trunk Diameter Using 2D Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Ringdahl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate vehicle localization in forest environments is still an unresolved problem. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS have well known limitations in dense forest, and have to be combined with for instance laser based SLAM algorithms to provide satisfying accuracy. Such algorithms typically require accurate detection of trees, and estimation of tree center locations in laser data. Both these operations depend on accurate estimations of tree trunk diameter. Diameter estimations are important also for several other forestry automation and remote sensing applications. This paper evaluates several existing algorithms for diameter estimation using 2D laser scanner data. Enhanced algorithms, compensating for beam width and using multiple scans, were also developed and evaluated. The best existing algorithms overestimated tree trunk diameter by ca. 40%. Our enhanced algorithms, compensating for laser beam width, reduced this error to less than 12%.

  1. Fracture risk assessment of trunk oil pipeline by corrosion fatigue mechanism of service defects development

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyl Luzhetskyy

    2013-01-01

    Engineering estimations of the corrosion fracture velocity of oil pipelines have been given, which include both mechanical and physical-chemical interaction operation factors of strained material with workspace. Characteristics of cyclic corrosion crack resistance of a pipe metal of the exploited oil-trunk pipeline with the regard for operating production factors have been defined. New data about corrosive and fatigue failure of pipes in dependence on the initial sizes and forms of their dete...

  2. Head stability during quiet sitting in children with cerebral palsy: effect of vision and trunk support

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Sandra; Woollacott, Marjorie; van Donkelaar, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in postural control are one of the hallmarks of disability in children with cerebral palsy. Yet, much remains unknown regarding the etiology of postural deficits in these children. Here we evaluated postural control at a simplified task level by measuring head stability during quiet sitting while systematically manipulating the level of trunk support and vision in 15 children with CP (6–16 years), 26 typically developing (TD) children (4–14 years), and 11 adults. While TD children di...

  3. Re-evaluation of the amplitude-force relationship of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Agnes; Faenger, Bernd; Scholle, Hans-Christoph; Anders, Christoph

    2015-04-13

    Amplitude-force relationships of major trunk muscles are established in terms of curve characteristics, but up to now were not normalized with respect to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force levels. The study therefore aims at a re-evaluation of trunk muscle amplitude-force relationship data according to MVC. Surface EMG of five major trunk muscles was taken from 50 healthy subjects of both sexes (age 20-40 years). All tasks were performed in a device where submaximal loads on the trunk were applied by gradually tilting the subjects in sagittal plane to horizontal position. MVC flexion and extension forces were determined in upright position using an additional harness over the subject's shoulders. Furthermore, the subject's upper body mass (UBM) was obtained during forward tilt to horizontal. MVC to UBM ratio was calculated, corrected by the actual tilt angle, and these linearly estimated values compared with the measured relative values according to MVC. All abdominal muscles confirmed the known non-linear amplitude-force relationship. At low load levels the linearly estimated values overestimated the measured ones and, at higher load levels, underestimated the true stress levels considerably. Back muscles confirmed the known linear curve shape, but for the longissimus muscle at L1 level measured data was always below estimated values. With increasing load, muscular stress of abdominal muscles changes from overestimated towards considerably underestimated values if expected stress levels are based on linear interpolation. Major back muscles' activation levels are nearly linear, but the amplitude-force relationship values seem overestimated for longissimus.

  4. Effect of Spinal Manipulation Thrust Magnitude on Trunk Mechanical Thresholds of Lateral Thalamic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Sozio, Randall S.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives High velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM), as performed by manual therapists (eg, doctors of chiropractic and osteopathy) results in mechanical hypoalgesia in clinical settings. This hypoalgesic effect has previously been attributed to alterations in peripheral and/or central pain processing. The objective of this study was to determine whether thrust magnitude of a simulated HVLA-SM alters mechanical trunk response thresholds in wide dynamic range (WDR) and/or nociceptive specific (NS) lateral thalamic neurons. Methods Extracellular recordings were carried out in the thalamus of 15 anesthetized Wistar rats. Lateral thalamic neurons having receptive fields which included the lumbar dorsal-lateral trunk were characterized as either WDR (n=22) or NS (n=25). Response thresholds to electronic von Frey (rigid tip) mechanical trunk stimuli were determined in three directions (dorsal-ventral, 45°caudalward, and 45°cranialward) prior to and immediately following the dorsal-ventral delivery of a 100ms HVLA-SM at three thrust magnitudes (control, 55%, 85% body weight; (BW)). Results There was a significant difference in mechanical threshold between 85% BW manipulation and control thrust magnitudes in the dorsal-ventral direction in NS neurons (p=.01). No changes were found in WDR neurons at either HVLA-SM thrust magnitude. Conclusions This study is the first to investigate the effect of HVLA-SM thrust magnitude on WDR and NS lateral thalamic mechanical response threshold. Our data suggest that at the single lateral thalamic neuron level, there may be a minimal spinal manipulative thrust magnitude required to elicit an increase in trunk mechanical response thresholds. PMID:24928636

  5. Successful Repair of Type I Endoleak Using the Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Hee; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Sang-Pil; Lee, Chung Won; Son, Joohyung

    2016-08-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has emerged as an effective therapy for a variety of thoracic aortic pathologies. However, various types of endoleak remain a major concern, and its treatment is often challenging. We report a case of type I endoleak occurring 19 months after zone II hybrid TEVAR. The endoleak was successfully repaired by the frozen elephant trunk technique, without removal of a previous stent graft, combined with ascending aorta and total arch replacement. PMID:27525241

  6. Consequences of Laughter Upon Trunk Compression and Cortical Activation: Linear and Polynomial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svebak, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Results from two studies of biological consequences of laughter are reported. A proposed inhibitory brain mechanism was tested in Study 1. It aims to protect against trunk compression that can cause health hazards during vigorous laughter. Compression may be maximal during moderate durations and, for protective reasons, moderate in enduring vigorous laughs. Twenty-five university students volunteered to see a candid camera film. Laughter responses (LR) and the superimposed ha-responses were operationally assessed by mercury-filled strain gauges strapped around the trunk. On average, the thorax compression amplitudes exceeded those of the abdomen, and greater amplitudes were seen in the males than in the females after correction for resting trunk circumference. Regression analyses supported polynomial relations because medium LR durations were associated with particularly high thorax amplitudes. In Study 2, power changes were computed in the beta and alpha EEG frequency bands of the parietal cortex from before to after exposure to the comedy “Dinner for one” in 56 university students. Highly significant linear relations were calculated between the number of laughs and post-exposure cortical activation (increase of beta, decrease of alpha) due to high activation after frequent laughter. The results from Study 1 supported the hypothesis of a protective brain mechanism that is activated during long LRs to reduce the risk of harm to vital organs in the trunk cavity. The results in Study 2 supported a linear cortical activation and, thus, provided evidence for a biological correlate to the subjective experience of mental refreshment after laughter. PMID:27547260

  7. Anomalous Origin of the Left Atrial Branch from the Left Main Trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Gholoobi

    2015-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman was referred for coronary angiography with the chief complaint of exertional angina and dyspnea of a very long duration during routine daily physical activities. She had a history of poorly controlled hypertension and dyslipidemia. Coronary angiography revealed diffuse three-vessel disease. Interestingly, an unusual branch was noted originating from the mid shaft of the left main trunk with a funnel-shaped root and travelling the course of a left atrial (LA) branch (Figure...

  8. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Zhong Fan; Xia Liu; Guo-Xin Ni

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and latissimus dorsi (LD) bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque ...

  9. [Modern aspects of pathogenesis of the trauma of the spinal cord and trunks of peripheral nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'ga, A E; Norkin, I A; Ninel', V G; Puchin'ian, D M; Zaretskov, V V; Korshunova, G A; Ostrovskiĭ, V V; Smol'kin, A A

    2014-02-01

    In pathogenesis of the traumatic disease of the spinal cord, two mechanisms of the injuries of its neuronal apparatus are defined: primary (necrosis) and secondary (apoptosis). In the work a participation of a number of internal causes in the progression of apoptosis in injury of the spinal cord and peripheral nerve trunks, the role of those remains little-studied up to date, is discussed.

  10. Differences in trunk control between early and late pregnancy during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Ryuichi; Doi, Takehiko; Asai, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Kaori; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Ono, Rei

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare gait characteristics, including the functional ability of the trunk, between women before and during the third trimester of pregnancy. Gait measurements were performed on 27 pregnant women, who were divided into two groups using the threshold of 28 gestational weeks. The subjects were instructed to walk at their preferred speed. In addition to stride-time coefficient of variation, root mean square (RMS) and autocorrelation coefficient, coefficient of attenuation (CoA) of acceleration was computed as an index to assess the functional ability of the trunk. Differences of gait characteristics between the groups were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test. Gait characteristics that showed a significant difference between the groups were further analyzed with adjustment by age, height, weight and gait velocity by using multiple regression analysis. Women during the third trimester of pregnancy showed significantly smaller RMS in the anteroposterior direction at the lower trunk than those before the third trimester of pregnancy, even after adjusting for age, height, weight and gait velocity [β=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.25]. CoA in the anteroposterior direction was also significantly lower in women during the third trimester of pregnancy than in those before the third trimester of pregnancy after adjustment by age, height, weight and gait velocity (β=0.44; 95% CI 0.39-18.52). The present cross-sectional study suggests the possibility that the functional ability of the trunk during gait declines in late pregnancy. PMID:26260008

  11. Anomalocaridid trunk limb homology revealed by a giant filter-feeder with paired flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roy, Peter; Daley, Allison C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.

    2015-06-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils from the Palaeozoic era provide crucial insights into arthropod evolution, with recent discoveries bringing phylogeny and character homology into sharp focus. Integral to such studies are anomalocaridids, a clade of stem arthropods whose remarkable morphology illuminates early arthropod relationships and Cambrian ecology. Although recent work has focused on the anomalocaridid head, the nature of their trunk has been debated widely. Here we describe new anomalocaridid specimens from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Biota of Morocco, which not only show well-preserved head appendages providing key ecological data, but also elucidate the nature of anomalocaridid trunk flaps, resolving their homology with arthropod trunk limbs. The new material shows that each trunk segment bears a separate dorsal and ventral pair of flaps, with a series of setal blades attached at the base of the dorsal flaps. Comparisons with other stem lineage arthropods indicate that anomalocaridid ventral flaps are homologous with lobopodous walking limbs and the endopod of the euarthropod biramous limb, whereas the dorsal flaps and associated setal blades are homologous with the flaps of gilled lobopodians (for example, Kerygmachela kierkegaardi, Pambdelurion whittingtoni) and exites of the `Cambrian biramous limb'. This evidence shows that anomalocaridids represent a stage before the fusion of exite and endopod into the `Cambrian biramous limb', confirming their basal placement in the euarthropod stem, rather than in the arthropod crown or with cycloneuralian worms. Unlike other anomalocaridids, the Fezouata taxon combines head appendages convergently adapted for filter-feeding with an unprecedented body length exceeding 2 m, indicating a new direction in the feeding ecology of the clade. The evolution of giant filter-feeding anomalocaridids may reflect the establishment of highly developed planktic ecosystems during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.

  12. Conversion of different part core oil palm trunk into methyl levulinate & hydroxymethylfurfural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosnan, Afifah Aqilah Alias; Jahar, NoorHasmiera Abu; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chin Chia

    2015-09-01

    In this study, sugar was extracted from the of core oil palm trunk (OPT) and undergoes methanolysis process. The objective of this research is to study the production of methyl levulinate (MLA) and hydroxymethyl furfurals (HMF) from four different parts of OPT such as inner, middle, outer and whole. After methanolysis, samples were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  13. Slow Expiration Reduces External Oblique Muscle Activity during Maximum Trunk Flexion

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Tajima, Saya; Masuno, Riyo; Kogame, Yoshiko; Ando, Suguru; Yokohata, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of expiration on abdominal muscle activity during maximum trunk flexion. [Subjects] Twenty-one healthy university students (10 men, 11 women) participated in this study. [Methods] Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activity of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles. The paired t-test was used to examine the significance of differences in the abdominal muscles between maximum tru...

  14. Study of trunk flexibility and body composition between football and badminton players

    OpenAIRE

    NANDALAL SINGH; RANJIT SINGH, R; KUMAR SINGH

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was an attempt to compare the flexibility (trunk flexibility) and bodycomposition (percentage of body fat, total body fat and lean body mass) between inter-college level malefootball and badminton players. Fifty (50) male inter-college level football players (N=25) and badmintonplayers (N=25) ranging between 17 to 25years were selected randomly from different colleges of PanjabUniversity, Chandigarh for this study. To compare the mean differences between the i...

  15. mDurance: A Novel Mobile Health System to Support Trunk Endurance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition. This disorder constitutes one of the most common causes of disability worldwide, and as a result, it has a severe socioeconomic impact. Endurance tests are normally considered in low back pain rehabilitation practice to assess the muscle status. However, traditional procedures to evaluate these tests suffer from practical limitations, which potentially lead to inaccurate diagnoses. The use of digital technologies is considered here to facilitate the task of the expert and to increase the reliability and interpretability of the endurance tests. This work presents mDurance, a novel mobile health system aimed at supporting specialists in the functional assessment of trunk endurance by using wearable and mobile devices. The system employs a wearable inertial sensor to track the patient trunk posture, while portable electromyography sensors are used to seamlessly measure the electrical activity produced by the trunk muscles. The information registered by the sensors is processed and managed by a mobile application that facilitates the expert’s normal routine, while reducing the impact of human errors and expediting the analysis of the test results. In order to show the potential of the mDurance system, a case study has been conducted. The results of this study prove the reliability of mDurance and further demonstrate that practitioners are certainly interested in the regular use of a system of this nature.

  16. TRUNK ROTATION AND WEIGHT TRANSFER PATTERNS BETWEEN SKILLED AND LOW SKILLED GOLFERS

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    Isao Okuda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine trunk rotational patterns and weight transfer patterns that may differentiate swing skill level in golfers. Thirteen skilled golfers (mean handicap = 0.8 ± 2.6 and seventeen low skilled golfers (mean handicap = 30.8 ± 5.5 participated in this study. Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained through high-speed 3-D videography and force plates while the participant performed a full shot golf swing with a driver. Data at six temporal events during the swing were selected for the analysis. The results indicated that significant differences existed between the groups in the multiple events, as the skilled golfers showed the following motion patterns when compared to the low skilled golfers; 1 An earlier trunk horizontal rotation with a rapid weight transfer to the trail foot during the backswing; 2 An earlier pelvic horizontal rotation accompanied with an earlier weight transfer to the lead foot during the downswing motion; and 3 Less upper trunk horizontal rotation and more posterior pelvic rotation at the follow through. Collectively, these finding may be useful for instruction of golfers to improve their swing mechanics on a full shot golf swing

  17. Isolated spontaneous dissection of the celiac trunk in a patient with bicuspid aortic valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rauf Zeina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abdel-Rauf Zeina1, Alicia Nachtigal1, Anton Troitsa2, Gil Admon2, Nina Avshovich31Department of Radiology, 2Department of Surgery A, 3Department of Internal Medicine C, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel. Hillel Yaffe Medical Center is affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: Isolated spontaneous dissection of celiac trunk is a rare entity. The spontaneous dissection of the visceral artery occurs without aortic dissection. The most consistent presenting symptom is acute onset abdominal pain. Complications consist of ischemia, aneurysm formation, and rupture. We report an exceptional case of an isolated spontaneous dissection of the celiac trunk which occurred in a 49 year old male with a previously undiagnosed bicuspid aortic valve (BAV. We also describe the classical appearance in different imaging modalities with a particular emphasis on multidetector computed tomography, and discuss the clinical manifestation and its relationship to BAV.Keywords: celiac trunk dissection, isolated spontaneous dissection, CT angiography, bicuspid aortic valve, MRA

  18. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Diaporthe species associated with grapevine trunk disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Asha J; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Zhen; Udayanga, Dhanushka; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Li, XingHong; Yan, JiYe; Hyde, Kevin D

    2015-05-01

    Trunk diseases in grapevine (Vitis spp.) are major problems in the wine and table-grape industries reducing the productivity, quality and longevity of vineyards. Species of Diaporthe are important fungal pathogens of grapevine trunk disease worldwide. A survey of 14 grape vineyards located in different provinces of China was yielded Diaporthe isolates associated with symptomatic grapevine wood. These isolates were identified based on morphology and a combined data matrix of rDNA ITS, partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-α (EF 1-α), β-tubulin (TUB) and calmodulin (CAL) gene regions. Four species of Diaporthe were identified, which included Diaporthe eres, Diaporthe hongkongensis, Diaporthe phaseolorum and Diaporthe sojae. All isolates of Diaporthe caused disease on detached grape shoots in pathogenicity experiments but differed in virulence. The incidence in local vineyards and the pathogenicity results indicate that D. eres is an important pathogen of grapevine in Chinese vineyards, where it may significantly limit grape production. This is the first detailed report of Diaporthe species associated with grapevine trunk diseases in China with morphology, pathogenicity and molecular data. PMID:25937058

  19. Isolation of table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jimenez-Jimenez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the ‘Manzanilla’ variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of interference 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit-branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations.

  20. Lingual and facial arteries arising from the external carotid artery in a common trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, Theodore G; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Paraschos, Alexandros; Michalinos, Adamantios; Protogerou, Vassilis; Vlasis, Konstantinos; Troupis, George; Skandalakis, Panayiotis

    2011-02-01

    The present study describes analytically a rare case in which lingual and facial arteries arise together from an external carotid artery in a common trunk. Thirty anatomic dissections were performed on 15 cadavers in the macroscopic laboratory in the Department of Anatomy of the Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. One common trunk from which originated lingual and facial arteries was found. The frequency of this morphology is measured at 6 per cent. The length of the common trunk is measured at 7.3 mm between its origin and its diversion at the facial artery and lingual artery, its diameter at 2.8 mm, its distance from carotid bifurcation at 7.9 mm, and from the superior thyroid artery at 3.3 mm. At the left side of the neck region, facial and lingual arteries arose separately. The anatomic variations of the branching pattern of the external carotid artery and the micrometric values of the vessels are especially important as a result of the numerous operations performed in the neck region that implicate various specialties such as general surgery, head and neck surgery, plastic surgery, and maxillofacial surgery.

  1. Isolation of table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Jimenez, F.; Castro-Garcia, S.; Blanco-Roldan, G. L.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, E. J.; Gil-Ribes, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the Manzanilla variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of bruise 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations. (Author) 34 refs.

  2. Scoliosis curve type classification using kernel machine from 3D trunk image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adankon, Mathias M.; Dansereau, Jean; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Cheriet, Farida

    2012-03-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a deformity of the spine manifested by asymmetry and deformities of the external surface of the trunk. Classification of scoliosis deformities according to curve type is used to plan management of scoliosis patients. Currently, scoliosis curve type is determined based on X-ray exam. However, cumulative exposure to X-rays radiation significantly increases the risk for certain cancer. In this paper, we propose a robust system that can classify the scoliosis curve type from non invasive acquisition of 3D trunk surface of the patients. The 3D image of the trunk is divided into patches and local geometric descriptors characterizing the surface of the back are computed from each patch and forming the features. We perform the reduction of the dimensionality by using Principal Component Analysis and 53 components were retained. In this work a multi-class classifier is built with Least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) which is a kernel classifier. For this study, a new kernel was designed in order to achieve a robust classifier in comparison with polynomial and Gaussian kernel. The proposed system was validated using data of 103 patients with different scoliosis curve types diagnosed and classified by an orthopedic surgeon from the X-ray images. The average rate of successful classification was 93.3% with a better rate of prediction for the major thoracic and lumbar/thoracolumbar types.

  3. Vascularized peripheral nerve trunk autografted in the spinal cord: a new experimental model in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of vascularized peripheral nerve trunk autografted in spinal cord. Methods: With modern microsurgical technique,vascularized peripheral median and ulnar nerve trunk autografted in the upper thoracic region of the spinal cord were established in 20 female adult rats. The origin and the termination of axons in the graft were studied by retrograde neuronal labeling with horseradish peroxidase (HRP).Cord, nerve grafts and some normal median and ulnar nerves in the right upper limb were removed and sectioned for Bielschowsky's silver stain and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. Light and electron microscopic examination and electrophysiological examination were applied.Results: The grafts were innervated by many new fibers. Studies with HRP indicated that new axons in graft were originated from intrinsic central nervous system (CNS) neurons with their cell bodies from brain stem to sacral segments of spinal cord. Other axons arose from dorsal root ganglia at the level of graft and at least 19 distal segments to them. Together with electron microscopy, electrophysiological examination, silver and H&E stain, the results demonstrated that vascularized peripheral nerve trunk grafted in spinal cord attracted many neurons to grow into the nerve grafts.Conclusions: The findings implicate that CNS is able to regenerate much better in vascularized nerve autografted in spinal cord.

  4. The Role of Pest Control Advisers in Preventative Management of Grapevine Trunk Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Vicken; Lubell, Mark; Kaplan, Jonathan; Doll, David; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards with trunk diseases (Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback) can have negative returns in the long run. Minimizing economic impacts depends on effective management, but adopting a preventative practice after infection occurs may not improve yields. Pest control advisers may reduce grower uncertainty about the efficacy of and need for prevention, which often entails future and unobservable benefits. Here, we surveyed advisers in California to examine their influence over grower decision-making, in the context of trunk diseases, which significantly limit grape production and for which curative practices are unavailable. Our online survey revealed adviser awareness of high disease incidence, and reduced yields and vineyard lifespan. Advisers rated both preventative and postinfection practices positively. Despite higher cost estimates given to postinfection practices, advisers did not recommend preventative practices at higher rates. High recommendation rates were instead correlated with high disease incidence for both preventative and postinfection practices. Recommendation rates declined with increasing cost for preventative, but not for postinfection, practices. Our findings suggest that even when advisers acknowledge the risks of trunk diseases, they may not recommend preventative practices before infection occurs. This underscores the importance of clear outreach, emphasizing both the need for prevention and its long-term cost efficacy. PMID:26645645

  5. Local dynamic stability of the trunk segments and lower extremity joints during backward walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Xiao, Fei; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Backward walking has become a popular training method in physical exercise and clinical rehabilitation. For the sake of safety, it is important to keep a stable gait during backward walking. However, the gait stability during backward walking was rarely studied. This study investigated the effects of walking direction on local dynamic stability of the trunk segments (neck, torso and pelvis) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The maximum Lyapunov exponents (λ(s)) of 17 young healthy male adults were calculated while they were walking under three conditions: backward walking with preferred walking speed (BW), forward walking (FW) with the same speed determined by BW, and forward walking with normal speed (FWN). We found that compared with FW, BW showed significant higher values of λ(s) in the trunk segments in vertical (VT) direction (psegment also displayed a higher value of λ(s) in anterior-posterior (AP) direction (pwalking speed was found between FW and FWN condition in VT direction (pwalking did impair the local dynamic stability in trunk segments and lower extremity joints. Especially, the negative effect of BW on the poor gait stability in the AP direction of torso segment, and AB/AD and RT motion of knee joint should not be neglected.

  6. The effects of virtual reality game training on trunk to pelvis coupling in a child with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Gabor J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good control of trunk and pelvic movements is necessary for well controlled leg movements required to perform activities of daily living. The nature of movement coupling between the trunk and pelvis varies and depends on the type of activity. Children with cerebral palsy often have reduced ability to modulate coupling between the trunk and pelvis but movement patterns of the pelvis can be improved by training. The aim of this study was to examine how pelvis to trunk coupling changed while playing a computer game driven by pelvic rotations. Methods One boy with cerebral palsy diplegia played the Goblin Post Office game on the CAREN virtual rehabilitation system for six weeks. He navigated a flying dragon in a virtual cave towards randomly appearing targets by rotating the pelvis around a vertical axis. Motion of the pelvis and trunk was captured in real-time by a Vicon 612 optoelectronic system tracking two clusters of three markers attached to the sacrum and thoracic spine. Results Convex hull areas calculated from angle-angle plots of pelvic and trunk rotations showed that coupling increased over game training (F1,11 = 7.482, p = 0.019. Reaching to targets far from the midline required tighter coupling than reaching near targets (F1,12 = 10.619, p = 0.007. Conclusions Increasing coupling appears to be an initial compensation mechanism using the better controlled trunk to drive rotation of the pelvis. Co-contractions causing increased coupling are expected to reduce over longer exposure to training. The control scheme of the training game can be set to facilitate de-coupling of pelvic movements from the trunk. Using large ranges of pelvic rotation required more coupling suggesting that training of selective pelvic movements is likely to be more effective close to a neutral pelvic posture.

  7. Sports-related testing protocols are required to reveal trunk stability adaptations in high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, David; Barbado, Luis C; Elvira, Jose L L; Dieën, Jaap H van; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    Trunk/core stability is considered a key component of training programs, because it could contribute to prevention of low-back and lower-limb injuries and to sports performance. Based on the specificity principle, sports-related trunk stability tests would be required in elite sports performance. However, there may be some generic qualities underlying trunk stability that can be assessed with nonspecific protocols, which are broadly used in sport and rehabilitation. To assess whether specific tests are needed in a high-performance context, we analyzed the influence of specialization in sports with large but qualitatively different balance control demands (judo and kayaking) on trunk stability and compared high-performance athletes with recreational athletes without a specific training history. Twenty-five judokas, sixteen kayakers and thirty-seven recreational athletes performed two trunk stability protocols: sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to external and unexpected perturbations; stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participant's ability to control trunk while sitting. Within-session test-retest reliability analyses were performed to support the between-groups comparison. Judokas showed lower angular displacement (0.199rad) against posterior loading than kayakers (0.221rad) probably because they are frequently challenged by higher sudden loads while they are pushed or pulled. Kayakers showed lower error (7.33mm), probably because they train and compete seated on unstable surfaces. Importantly, judokas and kayakers obtained better results than recreational athletes only in those tests designed according to the specific demands of each sport (psport training induces specific trunk stability adaptations, which are not revealed through nonspecific tests.

  8. TRUNK AND HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN EARLY WALKERS WITH AND WITHOUT CEREBRAL PALSY – A FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Prosser, Laura A.; Lee, Samuel C. K.; Barbe, Mary F.; VanSant, Ann F.; Lauer, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    Poor control of postural muscles is a primary impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), yet core trunk and hip muscle activity has not been thoroughly investigated. Frequency analysis of electromyographic (EMG) signals provides insight about the intensity and pattern of muscle activation, correlates with functional measures in CP, and is sensitive to change after intervention. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in trunk and hip muscle activation frequency in children with CP ...

  9. Wireless Tri-Axial Trunk Accelerometry Detects Deviations in Dynamic Center of Mass Motion Due to Running-Induced Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt H Schütte

    Full Text Available Small wireless trunk accelerometers have become a popular approach to unobtrusively quantify human locomotion and provide insights into both gait rehabilitation and sports performance. However, limited evidence exists as to which trunk accelerometry measures are suitable for the purpose of detecting movement compensations while running, and specifically in response to fatigue. The aim of this study was therefore to detect deviations in the dynamic center of mass (CoM motion due to running-induced fatigue using tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Twenty runners aged 18-25 years completed an indoor treadmill running protocol to volitional exhaustion at speeds equivalent to their 3.2 km time trial performance. The following dependent measures were extracted from tri-axial trunk accelerations of 20 running steps before and after the treadmill fatigue protocol: the tri-axial ratio of acceleration root mean square (RMS to the resultant vector RMS, step and stride regularity (autocorrelation procedure, and sample entropy. Running-induced fatigue increased mediolateral and anteroposterior ratios of acceleration RMS (p < .05, decreased the anteroposterior step regularity (p < .05, and increased the anteroposterior sample entropy (p < .05 of trunk accelerometry patterns. Our findings indicate that treadmill running-induced fatigue might reveal itself in a greater contribution of variability in horizontal plane trunk accelerations, with anteroposterior trunk accelerations that are less regular from step-to-step and are less predictable. It appears that trunk accelerometry parameters can be used to detect deviations in dynamic CoM motion induced by treadmill running fatigue, yet it is unknown how robust or generalizable these parameters are to outdoor running environments.

  10. Sports-related testing protocols are required to reveal trunk stability adaptations in high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, David; Barbado, Luis C; Elvira, Jose L L; Dieën, Jaap H van; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    Trunk/core stability is considered a key component of training programs, because it could contribute to prevention of low-back and lower-limb injuries and to sports performance. Based on the specificity principle, sports-related trunk stability tests would be required in elite sports performance. However, there may be some generic qualities underlying trunk stability that can be assessed with nonspecific protocols, which are broadly used in sport and rehabilitation. To assess whether specific tests are needed in a high-performance context, we analyzed the influence of specialization in sports with large but qualitatively different balance control demands (judo and kayaking) on trunk stability and compared high-performance athletes with recreational athletes without a specific training history. Twenty-five judokas, sixteen kayakers and thirty-seven recreational athletes performed two trunk stability protocols: sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to external and unexpected perturbations; stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participant's ability to control trunk while sitting. Within-session test-retest reliability analyses were performed to support the between-groups comparison. Judokas showed lower angular displacement (0.199rad) against posterior loading than kayakers (0.221rad) probably because they are frequently challenged by higher sudden loads while they are pushed or pulled. Kayakers showed lower error (7.33mm), probably because they train and compete seated on unstable surfaces. Importantly, judokas and kayakers obtained better results than recreational athletes only in those tests designed according to the specific demands of each sport (p<0.050). In conclusion, specific-sport training induces specific trunk stability adaptations, which are not revealed through nonspecific tests. PMID:27395448

  11. Fast gaze reorientations by combined movements of the eye, head, trunk and lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Naushahi, J; Sklavos, Sokratis; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2015-05-01

    Large reorientations of the line of sight, involving combined rotations of the eyes, head, trunk and lower extremities, are executed either as fast single-step or as slow multiple-step gaze transfers. In order to obtain more insight into the mechanisms of gaze and multisegmental movement control, we have investigated time-optimal gaze shifts (i.e. with the instruction to move as fast as possible) during voluntary whole-body rotations to remembered targets up to 180° eccentricity performed by standing healthy humans in darkness. Fast, accurate, single-step movement patterns occurred in approximately 70 % of trials, i.e. considerably more frequently than in previous studies with the instruction to turn at freely chosen speed (30 %). Head-in-space velocity in these cases was significantly higher than during multiple-step transfers and displayed a conspicuously regular bell-shaped profile, increasing smoothly to a peak and then decreasing slowly until realignment with the target. Head-in-space acceleration was on average not different during reorientations to the different target eccentricities. In contrast, head-in-space velocity increased with target eccentricity due to the longer duration of the acceleration phase implemented during trials to more distant targets. Eye saccade amplitude approached the eye-in-orbit mechanical limit and was unrelated to eye/head velocity, duration or target eccentricity. Overall, the combined movement was stereotyped such that the first two principal components accounted for data variance almost up to gaze shift end, suggesting that the three mechanical degrees of freedom under consideration (eye-in-orbit, head-on-trunk and trunk-in-space) are on average reduced to two kinematic degrees of freedom (i.e. eye, head-in-space). Synchronous EMG activity in the anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles preceded the onset of eye rotation. Since the magnitude and timing of peak head-in-space velocity were scaled with target eccentricity and

  12. [Diurnal variation of Quercus variabilis trunk diameter in response to environmental factors at south aspect of Taihang Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-Jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Jia, Chang-Rong; Ren, Ying-Feng

    2012-08-01

    By using Circumference Dendrometer 2 (DC2), this paper studied the diurnal variation of trunk diameter in Quercus variabilis plantation at the south aspect of Taihang Mountains. During seasonal drought, the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter was quite evident. The time of the diameter shrinkage followed the start-up time of sap flow, but the appearance of the minimum trunk diameter lagged behind the maximum sap flow flux about 3-4 h. The maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) value of the trunk diameter presented a trend low-high-low, being significantly correlated with the diurnal differences of cumulative sap flow flux and leaf water potential and having a significant quadratic relationship with soil moisture content. The MDS value was affected by the variations of meteorological factors, being significantly correlated with the diurnal variations of air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and relative humidity, but less correlated with the diurnal variation of solar radiation. After successive precipitation, soil moisture content was no longer the limiting factor of the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter. The MDS value had less correlations with the diurnal differences of cumulative sap flow flux, leaf water potential, soil moisture content, and other meteorological factors. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that the soil moisture content and air temperature in seasonal drought and rain seasons were the key factors affecting the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter. PMID:23189691

  13. Feasibility of a gait retraining strategy for reducing knee joint loading: increased trunk lean guided by real-time biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Michael A; Simic, Milena; Hinman, Rana S; Bennell, Kim L; Wrigley, Tim V

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to examine changes in frontal plane knee and hip walking biomechanics following a gait retraining strategy focused on increasing lateral trunk lean and to quantify reports of difficulty and joint discomfort when performing such a gait modification. After undergoing a baseline analysis of normal walking, 9 young, healthy participants were trained to modify their gait to exhibit small (4°), medium (8°), and large (12°) amounts of lateral trunk lean. Training was guided by the use of real-time biofeedback of the actual trunk lean angle. Peak frontal plane external knee and hip joint moments were compared across conditions. Participants were asked to report the degree of difficulty and the presence of any joint discomfort for each amount of trunk lean modification. Small (4°), medium (8°), and large (12°) amounts of lateral trunk lean reduced the peak external knee adduction moment (KAM) by 7%, 21%, and 25%, respectively, though the peak KAM was only significantly less in the medium and large conditions (pknee, hip, and/or lower spine discomfort. Results from this study indicate that a gait pattern with increased lateral trunk lean can effectively reduce frontal plane joint moments. Though these findings have implications for pathological populations, learning this gait pattern was associated with some difficulty and joint discomfort.

  14. Multi-segment trunk models used to investigate the crunch factor in golf and their relationship with selected swing and launch parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Chivers, Paola; Sato, Kimitake; Burnett, Angus

    2016-10-01

    The use of multi-segment trunk models to investigate the crunch factor in golf may be warranted. The first aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the trunk and lower trunk for crunch factor-related variables (trunk lateral bending and trunk axial rotation velocity). The second aim was to determine the level of association between crunch factor-related variables with swing (clubhead velocity) and launch (launch angle). Thirty-five high-level amateur male golfers (Mean ± SD: age = 23.8 ± 2.1 years, registered golfing handicap = 5 ± 1.9) without low back pain had kinematic data collected from their golf swing using a 10-camera motion analysis system operating at 500 Hz. Clubhead velocity and launch angle were collected using a validated real-time launch monitor. A positive relationship was found between the trunk and lower trunk for axial rotation velocity (r(35) = .47, P < .01). Cross-correlation analysis revealed a strong coupling relationship for the crunch factor (R(2) = 0.98) between the trunk and lower trunk. Using generalised linear model analysis, it was evident that faster clubhead velocities and lower launch angles of the golf ball were related to reduced lateral bending of the lower trunk. PMID:26930121

  15. Stumbling reactions during perturbed walking: Neuromuscular reflex activity and 3-D kinematics of the trunk - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliane; Müller, Steffen; Engel, Tilman; Reschke, Antje; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-04-11

    Reflex activity of the lower leg muscles involved when compensating for falls has already been thoroughly investigated. However, the trunk׳s role in this compensation strategy remains unclear. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyze the kinematics and muscle activity of the trunk during perturbed walking. Ten subjects (29 ± 3 yr;79 ± 11 cm;74 ± 14 kg) walked (1m/s) on a split-belt treadmill, while 5 randomly timed, right-sided perturbations (treadmill belt deceleration: 40 m/s(2)) were applied. Trunk muscle activity was assessed with a 12-lead-EMG. Trunk kinematics were measured with a 3D-motion analysis system (12 markers framing 3 segments: upper thoracic area (UTA), lower thoracic area (LTA), lumbar area (LA)). The EMG-RMS [%] (0-200 ms after perturbation) was analyzed and then normalized to the RMS of normal walking. The total range of motion (ROM;[°]) for the extension/flexion, lateral flexion and rotation of each segment were calculated. Individual kinematic differences between walking and stumbling [%; ROM] were also computed. Data analysis was conducted descriptively, followed by one- and two-way ANOVAs (α=0.05). Stumbling led to an increase in ROM, compared to unperturbed gait, in all segments and planes. These increases ranged between 107 ± 26% (UTA/rotation) and 262 ± 132% (UTS/lateral flexion), significant only in lateral flexion. EMG activity of the trunk was increased during stumbling (abdominal: 665 ± 283%; back: 501 ± 215%), without significant differences between muscles. Provoked stumbling leads to a measurable effect on the trunk, quantifiable by an increase in ROM and EMG activity, compared to normal walking. Greater abdominal muscle activity and ROM of lateral flexion may indicate a specific compensation pattern occurring during stumbling.

  16. Criterion validity of 3D trunk accelerations to assess external work and power in able-bodied gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichtry, André; Romkes, Jacqueline; Gobelet, Charles; Brunner, Reinald; Müller, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Evaluative quantification of gait disorder minimizing time-consuming and cost-intensive laboratory installations remains a challenging task in movement analysis. We examined the criterion validity of global gait mechanics assessed by trunk accelerometry. Eight female and four male volunteer subjects (mean age, 27.5 years; S.D., 5.1 years; weight, 68.7+/-11.3kg; height, 1.74+/-0.08m) without gait dysfunction participated in the study. They walked barefoot over two adjacent force-platforms at self-selected speeds. In addition to ground reaction forces, vertical, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral accelerations of the trunk were simultaneously measured by means of a light tri-axial accelerometer. Mean acceleration cycles of the trunk and the body centre of mass were calculated. Acceleration vectors were integrated twice to obtain velocity and displacement vectors of the trunk and the centre of mass, respectively. Temporal boundaries of right and left functional stance phases were defined by the two intermediate moments between maximum anterior-posterior velocity and minimal vertical displacement. Cross-correlations of the kinematics of the trunk and the centre of mass were determined. External work and corresponding symmetry indicators were computed for both methods. Centre of mass anterior-posterior displacement lagged behind the trunk by 3.5% of the gait cycle. External power correlated highly (r>0.82) between the trunk model and the centre of mass. Work correlated moderately high (r=0.77) between the two methods. Work and power asymmetry indexes correlated moderately high (r>0.64). Our findings suggest that accelerometry has the potential to assess functional kinematics and energy-related outcomes in large cohorts.

  17. Surgical treatment of complex aneurysms and thoracic aortic dissections with the Frozen Elephant Trunk technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ribeiro Dias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:Report initial experience with the Frozen Elephant Trunk technique.Methods:From July 2009 to October 2013, Frozen Elephant Trunk technique was performed in 21 patients (66% male, mean age 56 ±11 years. They had type A aortic dissection (acute 9.6%, chronic 57.3%, type B (14.3%, all chronic and complex aneurysms (19%. It was 9.5% of reoperations and 38% of associated procedures (25.3% miocardial revascularization, 25.3% replacement of aortic valve and 49.4% aortic valved graft. Aortic remodeling was evaluated comparing preoperative and most recent computed tomography scans. One hundred per cent of complete follow-up, mean time of 28 months.Results:In-hospital mortality of 14.2%, being 50% in acute type A aortic dissection, 8.3% in chronic type A aortic dissection, 33.3% in chronic type B aortic dissection and 0% in complex aneurysms. Mean times of cardiopulmonary bypass (152±24min, myocardial ischemia (115±31min and selective cerebral perfusion (60±15min. Main complications were bleeding (14.2%, spinal cord injury (9.5%, stroke (4.7%, prolonged mechanical ventilation (4.7% and acute renal failure (4.7%. The need for second-stage operation was 19%. False-lumen thrombosis was obtained in 80%.Conclusion:Frozen Elephant Trunk is a feasible technique and should be considered. The severity of the underlying disease justifies high mortality rates. The learning curve is a reality. This approach allows treatment of more than two segments at once. Nonetheless, if a second stage is made necessary, it is facilitated.

  18. Effect of Different Growing Systems of Apple on Trunk and Branch Diseases and Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOROVINOVA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented study aimed to determine apples trunk and branch diseases and pests in three growing systems conventional, integrated and biological (organic. The investigations were made on an experimental apple orchard (1 ha of the Institute of Agriculture at Kyustendil, Southwest Bulgaria in four consecutive years from 2007 to 2010. Three scab resistant cultivars Prima, Florina and Erwin Baur grafted on rootstocks MM106 were planted in 1996. The orchard was divided into four plots. One plot was treated conventionally with a normal pesticide programme, two plots were treated integrated according to the general principles, rules and standards of integrated apple production and one plot for biological (organic. The monitoring of pests and diseases and assessment of their density were done every two weeks. It was established that during the experimental period important disease and pests on apple trees in different growing systems were black rot Botryosphaeria obtusa, apple clearwig moth Synanthedon myopaeformis and shorthole borer Scolytus rugulosus. The damages by trunk and branch diseases and pests on apple were considerable higher in biological growing system. The mean rate of attack of cultivar Erwin Baur by Botryosphaeria obtusa in biological and conventional growing systems was 52.35% and 4.65%, respectively. The percentage of damaged by Scolytus rugulosus trunk and branch area per tree reach to 58.74 in biological and 0.23 in conventional system. Reduced vitality of apple trees growing with out pesticides and mineral fertilizers in biological growing system was the reason for strong infection of Botryosphaeria obtusa and attack of Synanthedon myopaeformis and Scolytus rugulosus.

  19. Variations in the anatomy of the celiac trunk: A systematic review and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagouli, Eleni; Venieratos, Dionysios; Lolis, Evangelos; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2013-12-01

    The normal pattern of the celiac trunk (CT) implies its bifurcation to three branches, the common hepatic, the splenic and the left gastric artery. According to the available literature the CT presents several anatomical variations. The purpose of our study is to investigate the different types of these variations, the corresponding incidences and the probable influence of genetic factors, as they are presented in the existing literature. Four databases were searched for eligible articles for the period up to January 2013 and a total of 36 studies were collected. The CT was trifurcated into the three basic branches in the 89.42% (10,906/12,196) of the cases. Bifurcation of the CT occurred in the 7.40% of the pooled samples (903/12,196). Absence of the CT was the rarest variation with a percentage of 0.38% (46/12,196), hepatosplenomesenteric trunk was found in 49 out of the 12,196 cases (0.40%) and the celiacomesenteric trunk presented an incidence of 0.76% (93/12,196). Other variations of the CT were detected in the 1.64% of the pooled cases (199/12,196). The 14.9% of the cases in the cadaveric series (489/3278 specimens), the 10.5% in the imaging series (675/6501 specimens) and the 4.6% (104/2261) in the liver transplantation series presented variations. These differences are statistically significant (p0.05). Using those data, a novel classification of CT variations is proposed.

  20. Neuroanatomy and clinical analysis of the cervical sympathetic trunk and longus colli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaoyang; Yin, Jian; Cai, Jun; Sui, Tao; Cao, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Anterior cervical surgery is commonly used for cervical vertebral body lesions. However, the structure of blood vessels and nerve tissues along the route of anterior cervical surgery is complex. We aimed to measure the data of the longus colli, the sympathetic trunk and the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) ganglia in Chinese cadaver specimens. A total of 32 adult cadavers were studied. We delineated the surgical anatomy of the CST. The superior and inferior/cervicothoracic ganglia of the sympathetic trunk consistently appeared. The middle ganglion was observed in 28.1% of the specimens and there were 2 cases of unilateral double middle cervical ganglia. The inferior ganglion was observed in 25.0% of the specimens and the cervicothoracic ganglion was observed in the remaining specimens. The distance between the CST gradually decreased from the top to the bottom, and the distance between the medial edges of the longus colli gradually broadened from the top down. The average angle between the bilateral CST and the midline of the vertebra was 11.2°±1.8° on the left side and 10.3°±1.4° on the right side. The average angle between the medial margins of longus colli of both sides was 11.1°±1.9°. The CST is at high risk when LC muscle is cut transversely or is dragged heavily, especially at the levels of C6 and C7. Awareness of the regional anatomy of the CST could help surgeons to identify and preserve it during anterior cervical surgeries. PMID:26668584

  1. Effects of support surface stability on feedback control of trunk posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulou, Georgia; Maaswinkel, Erwin; Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the interactions of visual, vestibular, proprioceptive, and tactile sensory manipulations and sitting on either a stable or an unstable surface on mediolateral (ML) trunk sway. Fifteen individuals were measured. In each trial, subjects sat as quiet as possible, on a stable or unstable surface, with or without each of four sensory manipulations: visual (eyes open/closed), vestibular (left and right galvanic vestibular stimulation alternating at 0.25 Hz), proprioceptive (left and right paraspinal muscle vibration alternating at 0.25 Hz), and tactile (minimal finger contact with object moving in the frontal plane at 0.25 Hz). The root mean square (RMS) and the power at 0.25 Hz (P25) of the ML trunk acceleration were the dependent variables. The latter was analyzed only for the rhythmic sensory manipulations and the reference condition. RMS was always significantly larger on the unstable than the stable surface. Closing the eyes caused a significant increase in RMS, more so on the unstable surface. Vestibular stimulation significantly increased RMS and P25 and more so on the unstable surface. Main effects of the proprioceptive manipulation were significant, but the interactions with surface condition were not. Finally, also tactile manipulation increased RMS and P25, but did not interact with surface condition. Sensory information in feedback control of trunk posture appears to be reweighted depending on stability of the environment. The absolute effects of visual and vestibular manipulations increase on an unstable surface, suggesting a relative decrease in the weights of proprioceptive and tactile information. PMID:25537472

  2. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

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    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  3. Repeatability of kinematic and electromyographical measures during standing and trunk motion: how many trials are sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; DiMonte, Stephen; Drake, Janessa D M

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have recommended a minimum of five trials to produce repeatable kinematic and electromyography (EMG) measures during target postures or contraction levels. This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of kinematic and EMG measures that are of primary interest in the investigation of trunk movement, and to determine the number of trials required to achieve repeatability and reliability for these measures. Thirty participants performed ten trials of upright standing and maximum trunk ranges-of-motion. Mean (upright standing) and maximum (movement tasks) kinematic and EMG measures were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement, which were used to identify the minimum number of trials for each measure. The repeatability and reliability of the measures were generally high, with 64%, 77%, 85%, and 92% of measures producing repeatable and reliable values with two, three, four, and five trials, respectively. Ten trials were not sufficient for several upright standing angle measures and maximum twist lumbar angles. Further, several abdominal muscles during maximum flexion, as well as the left lower-thoracic erector spinae during maximum twist, required as many as five trials. These measures were typically those with very small amounts of motion, or muscles that did not act in the role of prime mover. These results suggest that as few as two trials may be sufficient for many of the kinematic and EMG measures of primary interest in the investigation of trunk movement, while the collection of four trials should produce repeatable and reliable values for over 80% of measures. These recommendations are intended to provide an acceptable trade-off between repeatable and reliable values and feasibility of the collection protocol. PMID:25661241

  4. Kinematics of the trunk and the lower extremities during restricted and unrestricted squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Renate; Gülay, Turgut; Stoop, Mirjam; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2013-06-01

    Squatting is a common strength training exercise used for rehabilitation, fitness training, and in preparation for competition. Knowledge about the loading and the motion of the back during the squat exercise is crucial to avoid overuse or injury. The aim of this study was the measurement and comparison of the kinematics of the lower leg, trunk, and spine during unrestricted and restricted (knees are not allowed beyond toes) squats. A total of 30 subjects performed unrestricted and restricted barbell squats with an extra load of 0, 25, and 50% bodyweight. Motion was tracked using a 12-camera Vicon system. A newly developed marker set with 24 trunk and 7 pelvic markers allowed us to measure 3D segmental kinematics between the pelvic and the lumbar regions, between the lumbar and the thoracic segments, and the sagittal curvatures of the lumbar and the thoracic spine. In an unrestricted squat, the angle of the knee is larger and the range of motion (ROM) between the lumbar and the thoracic segments is significantly smaller compared with a restricted squat (p studied subjects showed significantly increased ROM for thoracic curvature during restricted squats. The unrestricted execution of a squat leads to a larger ROM in the knee and smaller changes in the curvature of the thoracic spine and the range of smaller segmental motions within the trunk. This execution in turn leads to lower stresses in the back. To strengthen the muscles of the leg, the unrestricted squat may be the best option for most people. Thus, practitioners should not be overly strict in coaching against anterior knee displacement during performance of the squat.

  5. Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis of Lumbopelvic Rhythm During Trunk Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tojima Michio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hip–spine coordination, known as the lumbopelvic rhythm, can be expressed as the lumbar–hip ratio. The lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar–hip ratio can be used to assess lower limb function. We clarified the lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar–hip ratio during trunk extension. We established a novel set of marker positions for three-dimensional motion analysis to assess the lumbar spinal angle. The original markers were placed on both paravertebral muscle groups at the 11th thoracic spinous process level, the 10th and 12th thoracic spinous processes, and the pelvis. We measured angle data during trunk extension using three-dimensional motion analysis, and the data for eight healthy male subjects were categorized into backward and forward phases. The lumbar–hip ratio increased significantly from 1.2 to 1.9 (mean, 1.6 in the backward phase, indicating considerable movement of the lumbar spine compared with hip movement in the latter phase. In the forward phase, the ratio decreased significantly from 1.9 to 0.5 (mean, 1.5. After completion of 80% of the forward phase, the lumbar–hip ratio decreased to <1.0. The lumbopelvic rhythm for trunk extension was better expressed by a cubic or quadratic function than a linear function. According to a linear function, when the hip extends by 1°, lumbar spine extends by 1.9°. Therefore, lumbar spinal movement was greater than hip movement in the sagittal plane. The implication of the curved line would indicate lumbar extension instead of the limitation of hip extension.

  6. Successful treatment of a giant pediatric fusiform basilar trunk aneurysm with surpass flow diverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Peter; Mokin, Maxim; Puri, Ajit S; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2016-06-01

    Fusiform aneurysms present a unique challenge to traditional microsurgical and endovascular treatment because of the lack of a discernible neck and the involvement of parent vessel. Flow diversion has increasingly become the treatment of choice for fusiform aneurysms in the anterior circulation, but its results in the posterior circulation are variable. We report successful treatment of a giant fusiform upper basilar trunk aneurysm with the Surpass flow diverter in an adolescent, and discuss the potential advantages of this emerging technology in the treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms. PMID:26063795

  7. Late Holocene fluvial activity and correlations with dendrochronology of subfossil trunks: Case studies of northeastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rădoane, Maria; Nechita, Constantin; Chiriloaei, Francisca; Rădoane, Nicolae; Popa, Ionel; Roibu, Cătălin; Robu, Delia

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe the late Holocene behaviour of rivers using an interdisciplinary approach combining fluvial geomorphology and subfossil trunk dendrochronology. The subfossil wood material collected along the rivers was investigated for dendrometric and dendrochronologic parameters. The research methods in these fields helped us to understand the effect of the fluvial environment on riparian trees and their records and helped in reconstructing the riparian palaeoenvironment. The study area consists of two rivers with different typologies but comparable sizes: the Moldova River, which features a braided to wandering channel in its lower reach, and the Siret River, which features a sinuous-meandering channel. Along the 100-km-long floodplain of the former and the 144-km-long floodplain of the latter, we found and sampled 77 subfossil trunks, of which 26 were subjected to 14C dating. The resulting data consist of floodplain facies mapping data, electric resistivity measurements, absolute dates, and dendrometric and dendrochronologic data. The results indicate that during a 100-year period, the two rivers were sensitive to climate change and anthropogenic effects, particularly a narrowing of the active channel by 76% in the braided channel and 38% in the sinuous-meandering channel. During the past 3300-3000 YBP, the Moldova River maintained its braided style, whereas the sinuous-meandering style has been characteristic of the Siret River for the previous 6800-4600 YBP. The two distinct fluvial environments are recorded in the dendrometric structure of the trunks buried in the channel-fill sediments. The braided fluvial environment was more effective in uprooting riparian trees and incorporating them in the floodplain deposits, whereas the sinuous-meandering style of stream effectively buried tree trunks in lateral accretion lobes. Absolute and dendrochronologic dating allowed for the reconstruction of timelines of the felling of the trees

  8. Successful treatment of a giant pediatric fusiform basilar trunk aneurysm with surpass flow diverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Peter; Mokin, Maxim; Puri, Ajit S; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2015-06-03

    Fusiform aneurysms present a unique challenge to traditional microsurgical and endovascular treatment because of the lack of a discernible neck and the involvement of parent vessel. Flow diversion has increasingly become the treatment of choice for fusiform aneurysms in the anterior circulation, but its results in the posterior circulation are variable. We report successful treatment of a giant fusiform upper basilar trunk aneurysm with the Surpass flow diverter in an adolescent, and discuss the potential advantages of this emerging technology in the treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms.

  9. Design and evaluation of a novel triaxial isometric trunk muscle strength measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azghani, M R; Farahmand, F; Meghdari, A; Vossoughi, G; Parnianpour, M

    2009-08-01

    Maximal strength measurements of the trunk have been used to evaluate the maximum functional capacity of muscles and the potential mechanical overload or overuse of the lumbar spine tissues in order to estimate the risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries. A new triaxial isometric trunk strength measurement system was designed and developed in the present study, and its reliability and performance was investigated. The system consisted of three main revolute joints, equipped with torque sensors, which intersect at L5-S1 and adjustment facilities to fit the body anthropometry and to accommodate both symmetric and asymmetric postures in both seated and standing positions. The dynamics of the system was formulated to resolve validly the moment generated by trunk muscles in the three anatomic planes. The optimal gain and offset of the system were obtained using deadweights based on the least-squares linear regression analysis. The R2 results of calibration for all loading courses of all joints were higher than 0.99, which indicated an excellent linear correlation. The results of the validation analysis of the regression model suggested that the mean absolute error and the r.m.s. error were less than 2 per cent of the applied load. The maximum value of the minimum detectable change was found to be 1.63 Nm for the sagittal plane torque measurement, 0.8 per cent of the full-scale load. The trial-to-trial variability analysis of the device using deadweights provided intra-class correlation coefficients of higher than 0.99, suggesting excellent reliability. The cross-talk analysis of the device indicated maximum cross-talks of 1.7 per cent and 3.4 per cent when the system was subjected to flexion-extension and lateral bending torques respectively. The trial-to-trial variability of the system during in-vivo strength measurement tests resulted in good to excellent reliability, with intra-class correlation coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91. The results of the maximum

  10. Steam gasification of oil palm trunk waste for clean syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Initial high values of syngas flow rate are attributed to rapid devolatilization. ► Over 50% of syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. ► Increase in steam flow rate resulted in reduced gasification time. ► Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency. ► Oil palm yielded more energy than that from mangrove wood, paper and food waste. -- Abstract: Waste and agricultural residues offer significant potential for harvesting chemical energy with simultaneous reduction of environmental pollution, providing carbon neutral (or even carbon negative) sustained energy production, energy security and alleviating social concerns associated with the wastes. Steam gasification is now recognized as one of the most efficient approaches for waste to clean energy conversion. Syngas generated during the gasification process can be utilized for electric power generation, heat generation and for other industrial and domestic uses. In this paper results obtained from the steam assisted gasification of oil palm trunk waste are presented. A batch type gasifier has been used to examine the syngas characteristics from gasification of palm trunk waste using steam as the gasifying agent. Reactor temperature was fixed at 800 °C. Results show initial high values of syngas flow rate, which is attributed to rapid devolatilization of the sample. Approximately over 50% of the total syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. An increase in steam flow rate accelerated the gasification reactions and resulted in reduced gasification time. The effect of steam flow rate on the apparent thermal efficiency has also been investigated. Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency and was found to be very high. Properties of the syngas obtained from the gasification of oil palm trunk waste have been compared to other samples under similar operating

  11. Legs and Trunk Muscle Hypertrophy Following Walk Training with Restricted Leg Muscle Blood Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Mikako Sakamaki; Bemben, Michael G.; Takashi Abe

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of walk training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on the size of blood flow-restricted distal muscles, as well as, on the size of non-restricted muscles in the proximal limb and trunk. Nine men performed walk training with BFR and 8 men performed walk training alone. Training was conducted two times a day, 6 days/wk, for 3 wk using five sets of 2-min bouts (treadmill speed at 50 m/min), with a 1-min rest between bouts. After walk training with BFR, MRI-measure...

  12. A feasibility study on the measurement of tree trunks in forests using multi-scale vertical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berveglieri, A.; Oliveira, R. O.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The determination of the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) is an important variable that contributes to several studies on forest, e.g., environmental monitoring, tree growth, volume of wood, and biomass estimation. This paper presents a preliminary technique for the measurement of tree trunks using terrestrial images collected with a panoramic camera in nadir view. A multi-scale model is generated with these images. Homologue points on the trunk surface are measured over the images and their ground coordinates are determined by intersection of rays. The resulting XY coordinates of each trunk, defining an arc shape, can be used as observations in a circle fitting by least squares. Then, the DBH of each trunk is calculated using an estimated radius. Experiments were performed in two urban forest areas to assess the approach. In comparison with direct measurements on the trunks taken with a measuring tape, the discrepancies presented a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 1.8 cm with a standard deviation of 0.7 cm. These results demonstrate compatibility with manual measurements and confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  13. A successful patch angioplasty with auto-pulmonary wall for congenital coronary left main trunk occlusion in a young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Takafumi; Sakurai, Hajime; Nonaka, Toshimichi; Sakurai, Takahisa; Sugiura, Junya; Taneichi, Tetsuyoshi; Ohtsuka, Ryohei

    2015-12-01

    Congenital occlusion of the left main coronary trunk is a life-threatening abnormality, and its optimal management remains controversial. This report describes a case of successful patch angioplasty with auto-pulmonary artery for a 12-year-old boy with congenital left main trunk occlusion. We divided the main pulmonary artery, harvested a pulmonary artery wall strip, and performed patch angioplasty of the occluded left main trunk ostium. We were able to clearly expose the left main trunk behind the pulmonary artery because the obstruction was divided for the patch material. The postoperative course was uneventful, and coronary angiography at 4 months after surgery showed excellent patency of the left main trunk. The auto-pulmonary arterial wall was easy to handle during angioplasty, and its favorable durability has been established both in the Ross procedures and in an arterial switch procedure. Therefore, we conclude that patch angioplasty using a piece of the pulmonary arterial wall represents a good alternative to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting.

  14. An Incidental Finding of the Thyroidea Ima Artery:-A Case Report Study

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    Lalit C. Ratanpara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We are here reporting a case of an incidental finding of the thyroidea ima artery emerging from the brachiocephalic trunk with a typical inferior thyroid vessels on both sides emerging from the thyrocervical trunk. The thyroidea ima artery entered the thyroid gland near to anterior surface of right lobe of thyroid gland. It arose from the brachiocephalic artery proximal to its bifurcation.

  15. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Qi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China. The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  16. Sample size for estimating average trunk diameter and plant height in eucalyptus hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In eucalyptus crops, it is important to determine the number of plants that need to be evaluated for a reliable inference of growth. The aim of this study was to determine the sample size needed to estimate average trunk diameter at breast height and plant height of inter-specific eucalyptus hybrids. In 6,694 plants of twelve inter-specific hybrids it was evaluated trunk diameter at breast height at three (DBH3 and seven years (DBH7 and tree height at seven years (H7 of age. The statistics: minimum, maximum, mean, variance, standard deviation, standard error, and coefficient of variation were calculated. The hypothesis of variance homogeneity was tested. The sample size was determined by re sampling with replacement of 10,000 re samples. There was an increase in the sample size from DBH3 to H7 and DBH7. A sample size of 16, 59 and 31 plants is adequate to estimate DBH3, DBH7 and H7 means, respectively, of inter-specific hybrids of eucalyptus, with amplitude of confidence interval of 95% equal to 20% of the estimated mean.

  17. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of pistachio trees in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohammadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the growing seasons of 2011–2013, various pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Fandoghi, and wild pistachio (P. atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica trees were inspected in Iran to determine the aetiology of trunk diseases with specific reference to species of Phaeoacremonium and Botryosphaeriaceae spp. Samples were collected from branches of trees exhibiting yellowing, defoliation, canker and dieback, as well as wood discoloration in cross sections. Fungal trunk pathogens were identified using morphological and cultural characteristics as well as comparisons of DNA sequence data of the ITS and TEF-1α (for Botryosphaeriaceae species and β-tubulin gene (for Phaeoacremonium species regions. Phaeoacremonium parasiticum was the dominant species followed by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Neofusicoccum parvum, Phaeoacremoniumcinereum, Phaeoacremonium viticola and Dothiorella viticola. Pathogenicity tests were undertaken to determine the role of these species on pistachio under field conditions. Neofusicoccum parvum and Pm. aleophilum caused the longest and smallest lesions respectively. This study represents the first report on the occurrence and pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium species on P. vera cv. Fandoghi. This also represents the first report of Pleurostomophora sp. on pistachio and Pm. parasiticum and D. viticola on wild pistachio.

  18. A preliminary investigation of trunk and wrist kinematics when using drivers with different shaft properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Cochrane, Jodie; Reyes, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether skilled golfers will modify their kinematics when using drivers of different shaft properties. This study aimed to firstly determine if golf swing kinematics and swing parameters and related launch conditions differed when using modified drivers, then secondly, determine which kinematics were associated with clubhead speed. Twenty high level amateur male golfers (M ± SD: handicap = 1.9 ± 1.9 score) had their three-dimensional (3D) trunk and wrist kinematics collected for two driver trials. Swing parameters and related launch conditions were collected using a launch monitor. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant (p ≤ 0.003) between driver differences; specifically, faster trunk axial rotation velocity and an early wrist release for the low kick point driver. Launch angle was shown to be 2° lower for the high kick point driver. Regression models for both drivers explained a significant amount of variance (60-67%) in clubhead speed. Wrist kinematics were most associated with clubhead speed, indicating the importance of the wrists in producing clubhead speed regardless of driver shaft properties. PMID:27075379

  19. Head and trunk stabilization strategies during forward and backward walking in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Sylvie; Amblard, Bernard; Mesure, Serge; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the head and trunk equilibrium strategies while walking forwards and backwards under different conditions (eyes open vs. closed, hard vs. soft surface) in a sample of 11 consenting healthy adult subjects. Nine markers placed on the subject allowed us to record the kinematics of the head, spine and pelvis segments while walking. The data were acquired and analyzed using an optical TV-image processor (ELITE system). For each locomotor trial, the walking speed as well as the absolute angular dispersions and the anchoring indexes (AI) of six segments around the roll and pitch axes were calculated to assess the head and trunk equilibrium strategies. A three-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to depict differences between the walking conditions. The results showed that the walking speed was affected by the locomotion tasks (P 0.05). The AI around the roll axis indicated good stabilization in space of the head and pelvis with high positive values and this stability increased while the subject was walking backwards on a soft surface (foam). By contrast, the spinal segments were predominantly stabilized on the underlying segment (negative AI), and this stabilization even increased when the subjects walked backwards on a soft surface. Increasing the locomotion difficulty thus induced a generally rigid ('en bloc') functioning of the spinal segments and increased effectiveness of the head and pelvis stabilization strategies in space, especially when walking backwards on a soft surface. PMID:14667946

  20. The effects of sling exercise using vibration on trunk muscle activities of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.

  1. EFFECT OF TRUNK ROTATION EXERCISE ON SCOLIOSIS IN POST- POLIO RESIDUAL PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibi Paul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:This study conducted to find out the effectiveness of trunk flexion rotation, extension rotationand combined flexion rotation & extension rotation exercises in reduction of scoliosis. Twenty fivemale scolioticsubjects secondary to post-polio residual paralysis were selected for the study as per the inclusionand exclusioncriteria.Method:Materials used for the study were Rontgenograph, Protractor, Pencil and Scale to evaluate the Cobb’sangle. Purposive random sampling method used to select the subjects in three groups for the study. Each groupA, B and C performed trunk flexion rotation, extension rotation and combined flexion rotation and extensionrotation exercises respectively. Subjects performed exercise regularly twice a day for five months under thesupervision of the researcher. The subjects did exercise for one hour with one minute rest in between eachmovement. Cobb’s angle was measured before and after the treatment program for each subject.Results:The calculated t’ value of group A, B and C were 11.00, 9.00 and 10.95 respectively at 5% level andP < 0.0001 for all groups, there for it was significant in reduction of angle of scoliosis among post- polio residualparalysis. The comparative study found that there was no significant difference in reduction of scoliosis amongthe groups.Conclusion:Based on the statistical analysis performed it could conclude that all the groups undergone trunkrotation exercises have improvement in terms of reduction of scoliosis but there was no much difference betweenthe groups on reduction of scoliosis

  2. Cell-fibronectin interactions propel vertebrate trunk elongation via tissue mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Nicolas; Lawton, Andrew; Nandi, Amitabha; Jülich, Dörthe; Emonet, Thierry; Holley, Scott A

    2013-07-22

    During embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, cells produce and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM maintains tissue integrity and can serve as a substrate for cell migration. Integrin α5 (Itgα5) and αV (ItgαV) are the α subunits of the integrins most responsible for both cell adhesion to the ECM protein fibronectin (FN) and FN matrix fibrillogenesis. We perform a systems-level analysis of cell motion in the zebrafish tail bud during trunk elongation in the presence and absence of normal cell-FN interactions. Itgα5 and ItgαV have well-described roles in cell migration in vitro. However, we find that concomitant loss of itgα5 and itgαV leads to a trunk elongation defect without substantive alteration of cell migration. Tissue-specific transgenic rescue experiments suggest that the FN matrix on the surface of the paraxial mesoderm is required for body elongation via its role in defining tissue mechanics and intertissue adhesion.

  3. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles.

  4. Tree Trunks from MIS3 Revealed in Pacific Northwest Landslide Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, P. K.; Leavitt, S. W.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Jull, A. T.; Testa, N. R.; Squire, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple large tree trunks have been discovered in landslide deposits dating to before the last full-glacial provide a new source for paleo-climatic reconstructions from the northwest coast of North America. Excavation during US Highway 20 realignment through the Oregon Coast Range uncovered organic deposits at depth that included the boles of twelve large trees. Radiocarbon dates on subsurface organic material from multiple landslide deposits range from 17,850 ± 100 to >46,400 (radiocarbon dates B.P.). A single cohort of twelve tree trunks, found emplaced nearly upright, date to >53,000 radiocarbon years B.P. The sedimentary deposits are interpreted as paleo-translational landslides involving the Tyee Formation. The trees are tentatively identified as Thuja plicata, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Abies spp. Preservation of the wood material and associated macrofossils is excellent because of clay sediments that encased the material, halting decomposition. Preliminary analysis shows excellent preservation of late-wood rings but the early wood is composed primarily of ghost tracheids. Ring counts from a portion of the Thuja plicata bole, a four inch block of outer rings, contained between 120 to 130 rings of annual growth with good sensitivity for climate reconstruction. This makes the find particularly important for inferring high-resolution environmental variability, because it is one of only very few deposits of wood of this age worldwide. In addition to paleobotanical and paleoclimatic information, the large amount of wood will be used for radioisotope and stable isotope studies.

  5. Three-dimensional motion analysis of lumbopelvic rhythm during lateral trunk bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojima, Michio; Ogata, Naoshi; Inokuchi, Haruhi; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the variations in the lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar-hip ratio in the frontal plane. [Subjects and Methods] Markers were placed on the T10 and T12 spinous processes, bilateral paravertebral muscles at the T11 level, the pelvis, and the femur. Lumbar spine and hip angles were measured during lateral trunk bending using three-dimensional motion analysis. Data from the trunk lateral bending movement were categorized into descending (start of hip movement to when the hip angle reached its maximum value) and ascending (from the maximum hip angle to the end of movement) phases. The lumbar-hip ratio was calculated as the ratio of the lumbar spine angle to the hip angle. [Results] The lumbar-hip ratio decreased from 5.9 to 3.6 in the descending phase, indicating lumbar spinal movement was less than hip movement. In the ascending phase, the lumbar-hip ratio was reversed. The lumbopelvic rhythm was better expressed by a cubic or quadratic function rather than a linear function. These functions indicate that when the hip inclines by 1° that the lumbar spine bends laterally by 2.4°. [Conclusion] The lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar-hip ratio indicate lumbar lateral bending instead of a limitation of hip inclination. PMID:27630428

  6. Effect of treated particles on the properties of particleboard made from oil palm trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The suitability of particles from oil palm trunk was evaluated. • Influence of pre-treatment particles on particleboard properties. • Hot water treatment improves properties of the boards. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the properties of particleboard made from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trunks treated with hot water and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Experimental panels were manufactured from oil palm particles soaked in hot water for 30 min and soaked in NaOH with 2% concentration for the same time span. Urea formaldehyde adhesive was used for both types of particles as binder. Bending, internal bonding strength, thickness swelling and water absorption of the panels were tested. Scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to analyze the properties of raw materials and manufactured panels. Based on the findings in this study, samples made with raw material treated with hot water resulted in 863.93 MPa modulus of elasticity and 7.09 MPa modulus of rupture which were higher than those of control panels and made from NaOH treated particles. Internal bond strength of the specimens also followed the similar trend. Both treatments improved the dimensional characteristics of the specimens

  7. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhong Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and latissimus dorsi (LD bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Conclusion. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity.

  8. Whole-body MRI in adult inflammatory myopathies: Do we need imaging of the trunk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Manoliu, Andrei; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Maurer, Britta [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Division of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate whether imaging of the trunk could be omitted in patients with inflammatory myopathies without losing diagnostic accuracy using a restricted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (rWB-MRI) protocol. After approval by the institutional review board, this study was performed in 63 patients (male/female, 13/50; median age, 52 years; range, 20-81 years) with new-onset myopathic symptoms (group 1, n = 41) or previously diagnosed inflammatory myopathy (group 2, n = 22). After performing whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) at 3.0 Tesla, myositis and fatty atrophy were evaluated in different muscles by two independent radiologists. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate inter-observer reliability. Acquisition time was 56:01 minutes for WB-MRI and 37:37 minutes (32.8 % shorter) for rWB-MRI. In group 1, 14 patients were diagnosed with inflammatory myopathy based on muscle biopsy. rWB-MRI and WB-MRI showed equal sensitivity (42.9 %) and specificity (100 %) for myositis, and showed equal sensitivity (71.4 %) and similar specificity (63.0 % and 48.1 %, respectively) for fatty atrophy. No myositis was found in the body trunk in any patient. Inter-observer reliability was between substantial and perfect (ICC, 0.77-1.00). rWB-MRI showed diagnostic accuracy similar to WB-MRI for inflammatory myopathy at markedly reduced overall acquisition time. (orig.)

  9. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  10. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles. PMID:26746381

  11. The relationship between pelvis-trunk coordination and low back pain in individuals with transfemoral amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Esposito, Elizabeth; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in individuals with transfemoral amputation and may result from altered gait mechanics associated with prosthetic use. Inter-segmental coordination, assessed through continuous relative phase (CRP), has been used to identify specific patterns as risk factors. The purpose of this study was to explore pelvis and trunk inter-segmental coordination across three walking speeds in individuals with transfemoral amputations with and without LBP. Nine individuals with transfemoral amputations with LBP and seven without pain were compared to twelve able-bodied subjects. Subjects underwent a gait analysis while walking at slow, moderate, and fast speeds. CRP and CRP variability were calculated from three-dimensional pelvis and trunk segment angles. A two-way ANOVA and post hoc tests assessed statistical significance. Individuals with transfemoral amputation demonstrated some coordination patterns that were different from able-bodied individuals, but consistent with previous reports on persons with LBP. The patient groups maintained transverse plane CRP consistent with able-bodied participants (p = 0.966), but not sagittal (p amputations and without LBP exhibited few differences. Only frontal and transverse CRP shifted toward out-of-phase as speed increased in the patient group with LBP. Although a cause and effect relationship between CRP and future development of back pain has yet to be determined, these results add to the literature characterizing biomechanical parameters of back pain in high-risk populations.

  12. Involvement of the head and trunk during gaze reorientation during standing and treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Michael; Patla, Aftab; Stuart, Bethany

    2007-07-01

    As individuals stand or walk in an environment their gaze may be reoriented from one location to another in response to auditory or visual stimuli. In order to reorient gaze, the eyes and/or the head and trunk must rotate. However, what determines the exact degree of rotation of each segment while standing or walking is not fully understood. In the current study we show that when participants were asked to reorient their gaze towards light cues positioned at eccentric locations of up to 90 degrees while standing or walking on a treadmill their eyes and head mainly facilitated the action. Rotations of the head-in-space were similar for both tasks, but the rotation of the shoulders- and hips-in-space were lower for the treadmill walking condition. It is argued that this difference in the level of head-on-trunk rotation during the two tasks is controlled by the vestibular feedback loop. The regulation of this feedback loop is performed by the cerebellum in response to the level of threat to postural stability.

  13. The relationship between pelvis-trunk coordination and low back pain in individuals with transfemoral amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Esposito, Elizabeth; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in individuals with transfemoral amputation and may result from altered gait mechanics associated with prosthetic use. Inter-segmental coordination, assessed through continuous relative phase (CRP), has been used to identify specific patterns as risk factors. The purpose of this study was to explore pelvis and trunk inter-segmental coordination across three walking speeds in individuals with transfemoral amputations with and without LBP. Nine individuals with transfemoral amputations with LBP and seven without pain were compared to twelve able-bodied subjects. Subjects underwent a gait analysis while walking at slow, moderate, and fast speeds. CRP and CRP variability were calculated from three-dimensional pelvis and trunk segment angles. A two-way ANOVA and post hoc tests assessed statistical significance. Individuals with transfemoral amputation demonstrated some coordination patterns that were different from able-bodied individuals, but consistent with previous reports on persons with LBP. The patient groups maintained transverse plane CRP consistent with able-bodied participants (p = 0.966), but not sagittal (p amputations and without LBP exhibited few differences. Only frontal and transverse CRP shifted toward out-of-phase as speed increased in the patient group with LBP. Although a cause and effect relationship between CRP and future development of back pain has yet to be determined, these results add to the literature characterizing biomechanical parameters of back pain in high-risk populations. PMID:25155692

  14. Frequency of hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in Egyptian patients presenting with hypopigmented lesions of the trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Mona; El-Nabarawy, Eman; El Nemr, Reham; Hassan, Abeer M

    2015-11-01

    Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) is an uncommon variant of mycosis fungoides with an unknown exact frequency. We aimed to study the frequency of HMF in a cohort of Egyptian patients presenting to a tertiary care center in Cairo, Egypt, with hypopigmented lesions of the trunk. Hundred patients with hypopigmented lesions involving the trunk (with or without other sites involvement) were subjected to thorough clinical and histopathological examination. Immunohistochemical studies (S100, CD4, and CD8) were performed when indicated. Constellation of findings was used to reach a final diagnosis. Sixteen cases had HMF (16%). Other than HMF, our cohort included hypopigmented parapsoriasis en plaque (42 cases), postinflammatory hypopigmentation (28 cases), progressive macular hypomelanosis (12 cases), and pityriasis alba (2 cases). In comparison with other hypopigmented disorders, HMF was significantly associated with progressive disease course (P = 0.004), affection of distal upper limbs (P = 0.005), proximal lower limbs (P = 0.003), large-sized lesions (>5 cm) (P < 0.0001), well-defined margin (P < 0.0001), scaliness (P = 0.002), erythema (P < 0.0001), atrophy (P = 0.012), and mottled pigmentation (P < 0.0001). Awareness of HMF and its characteristic clinical features is mandatory to avoid underdiagnosis or overdiagnosis with subsequent morbidity or unnecessary aggressive therapy, respectively.

  15. The effects of prone bridge exercise on trunk muscle thickness in chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Lee, Woo-Jin; Park, Seol; Jang, Gwon-Uk

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of prone bridge exercise on trunk muscle thickness. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven chronic low back pain patients participated in this study. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of three exercise groups, namely, a prone bridge exercise group, supine bridge exercise on a Swiss ball group, and supine bridge exercise group. The thicknesses of the transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) were measured using ultrasound. [Results] After eight weeks of training, the three groups showed significant increases in the thicknesses of the TrA, IO, and EO. Among the groups, TrA and IO showed significantly different muscle thicknesses. [Conclusion] The prone bridge exercise significantly affected the thicknesses of the TrA, IO, and EO unlike the supine bridge exercises. Based on the results of this study, the prone bridge exercise is a more effective method to improve trunk stability than conventional supine bridge exercises.

  16. Surprising trunk rotational capabilities in chimpanzees and implications for bipedal walking proficiency in early hominins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathan E.; Demes, Brigitte; O'Neill, Matthew C.; Holowka, Nicholas B.; Larson, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Human walking entails coordinated out-of-phase axial rotations of the thorax and pelvis. A long-held assumption is that this ability relies on adaptations for trunk flexibility present in humans, but not in chimpanzees, other great apes, or australopithecines. Here we use three-dimensional kinematic analyses to show that, contrary to current thinking, chimpanzees walking bipedally rotate their lumbar and thoracic regions in a manner similar to humans. This occurs despite differences in the magnitude of trunk motion, and despite morphological differences in truncal ‘rigidity' between species. These results suggest that, like humans and chimpanzees, early hominins walked with upper body rotations that countered pelvic rotation. We demonstrate that even if early hominins walked with pelvic rotations 50% larger than humans, they may have accrued the energetic and mechanical benefits of out-of-phase thoracic rotations. This would have allowed early hominins to reduce work and locomotor cost, improving walking efficiency early in hominin evolution. PMID:26441046

  17. Three-dimensional motion analysis of lumbopelvic rhythm during lateral trunk bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojima, Michio; Ogata, Naoshi; Inokuchi, Haruhi; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] To examine the variations in the lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar-hip ratio in the frontal plane. [Subjects and Methods] Markers were placed on the T10 and T12 spinous processes, bilateral paravertebral muscles at the T11 level, the pelvis, and the femur. Lumbar spine and hip angles were measured during lateral trunk bending using three-dimensional motion analysis. Data from the trunk lateral bending movement were categorized into descending (start of hip movement to when the hip angle reached its maximum value) and ascending (from the maximum hip angle to the end of movement) phases. The lumbar-hip ratio was calculated as the ratio of the lumbar spine angle to the hip angle. [Results] The lumbar-hip ratio decreased from 5.9 to 3.6 in the descending phase, indicating lumbar spinal movement was less than hip movement. In the ascending phase, the lumbar-hip ratio was reversed. The lumbopelvic rhythm was better expressed by a cubic or quadratic function rather than a linear function. These functions indicate that when the hip inclines by 1° that the lumbar spine bends laterally by 2.4°. [Conclusion] The lumbopelvic rhythm and lumbar-hip ratio indicate lumbar lateral bending instead of a limitation of hip inclination. PMID:27630428

  18. Influence of press temperature on the properties of binderless particleboard made from oil palm trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Influence of press temperature on binderless particleboard of oil palm trunk. → Modulus of rupture increased with increasing press temperature. → The internal bond strength of samples meets JIS standard. → Water absorption and thickness swelling improved. → Increasing pressing temperature improve properties of the boards. -- Abstract: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the properties of binderless particleboard manufactured from oil palm trunk as a function of press temperature. Particleboard samples were manufactured with a target density of 0.80 g/cm3 using press temperatures of 160 oC, 180 oC and 200 oC. The modulus of rupture, internal bond strength, water absorption and thickness swelling of the boards were determined based on Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS). Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis were employed to characterize the properties of the raw materials and the manufactured panels. The moduli of rupture of the samples were observed to increase with increasing press temperature, but they did not meet the standard values. However, the internal bond strength of the samples attained satisfactory values according to the JIS standard for all three temperature levels. Water absorption and thickness swelling of the boards decreased with increasing pressing temperature. Based on the findings in this study, increasing the pressing temperature may be considered a potential way of improving the properties of binderless particleboard.

  19. Induction and patterning of trunk and tail neural ectoderm by the homeobox gene eve1 in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Carlos; Maegawa, Shingo; Weinberg, Eric S; Wilson, Stephen W; Dawid, Igor B; Kudoh, Tetsuhiro

    2010-02-23

    In vertebrates, Evx homeodomain transcription factor-encoding genes are expressed in the posterior region during embryonic development, and overexpression experiments have revealed roles in tail development in fish and frogs. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms of posterior neural development and axis formation regulated by eve1. We show that eve1 is involved in establishing trunk and tail neural ectoderm by two independent mechanisms: First, eve1 posteriorizes neural ectoderm via induction of aldh1a2, which encodes an enzyme that synthesizes retinoic acid; second, eve1 is involved in neural induction in the posterior ectoderm by attenuating BMP expression. Further, eve1 can restore trunk neural tube formation in the organizer-deficient ichabod(-/-) mutant. We conclude that eve1 is crucial for the organization of the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axis in the gastrula ectoderm and also has trunk- and tail-promoting activity.

  20. Epilepsia partialis continua present with shoulder joint-trunk-hip joint rhythmic clonic seizure: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv YD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yudan Lv, Zan Wang, Fengna Chu, Chang Liu, Hongmei Meng Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, ChangChun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC is a particular type of epilepsy which is distinguished from “common epilepsy” by its characteristic semiological features. However, unusual manifestations should be described in order to give awareness at clinical diagnosis. In this case report we describe a rare EPC case not previously reported, in which left shoulder joint-trunk-hip joint jerk was present for 1 week. Abnormal electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid results supported a diagnosis of viral encephalitis. Antiepileptic treatment seemed effective. Our report emphasizes that a detailed functional anatomical analysis and synchronized electroencephalogram discharge should be done to avoid misdiagnosis in patients with synchronic shoulder-trunk-hip jerk symptoms. Keywords: EPC, shoulder-trunk-hip, EEG, clonic seizure, virus encephalitis

  1. Segmentation of the millipede trunk as suggested by a homeotic mutant with six extra pairs of gonopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkari, Nesrine; Enghoff, Henrik; Minelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    of segmentation are similar in both a normal and the studied homeotic specimen. The difference between them would consist in the size of the embryonic trunk region endowed with a positional marker whose presence will later determine the replacement of walking legs by gonopods. Keywords: Segmentation models......: A very likely early determination of the sites of the future metamorphosis of walking legs into gonopods and a segmentation process according to the multiplicative model may provide a detailed explanation for the distribution of the extra gonopods in the homeotic specimen. The hypothesized steps......Background: The mismatch between dorsal and ventral trunk features along the millipede trunk was long a subject of controversy, largely resting on alternative interpretations of segmentation. Most models of arthropod segmentation presuppose a strict sequential antero-posterior specification...

  2. Effects of a low-center-of-gravity backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a backpack with a low center of gravity (LCG) and investigated the effects of the LCG backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males aged 20-32 years were recruited. The subjects ascended and descended a road with an inclination of 30 degrees wearing the standard or LCG backpack, and trunk acceleration was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. [Results] The anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) trunk acceleration while ascending and descending with the LCG backpack were significantly lower than those with the standard backpack. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the LCG backpack could prevent falling injuries during mountaineering and mountain-related activities. PMID:26644687

  3. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Neto, Severino Aires; Mello-Junior, Carlos Fernando de; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Claudia Martina Araujo; Borges, Rafael Farias; Magalhaes, Ana Guardiana Ximenes de, E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. (author)

  4. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Cláudia Martina Araújo; Borges, Rafael Farias; de Magalhães, Ana Guardiana Ximenes

    2016-01-01

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. PMID:26929461

  5. Epilepsia partialis continua present with shoulder joint-trunk-hip joint rhythmic clonic seizure: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yudan; Wang, Zan; Chu, Fengna; Liu, Chang; Meng, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a particular type of epilepsy which is distinguished from “common epilepsy” by its characteristic semiological features. However, unusual manifestations should be described in order to give awareness at clinical diagnosis. In this case report we describe a rare EPC case not previously reported, in which left shoulder joint-trunk-hip joint jerk was present for 1 week. Abnormal electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid results supported a diagnosis of viral encephalitis. Antiepileptic treatment seemed effective. Our report emphasizes that a detailed functional anatomical analysis and synchronized electroencephalogram discharge should be done to avoid misdiagnosis in patients with synchronic shoulder-trunk-hip jerk symptoms.

  6. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Aires Araujo Neto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications.

  7. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. (author)

  8. Effects of a low-center-of-gravity backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a backpack with a low center of gravity (LCG) and investigated the effects of the LCG backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males aged 20–32 years were recruited. The subjects ascended and descended a road with an inclination of 30 degrees wearing the standard or LCG backpack, and trunk acceleration was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. [Results] The anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-l...

  9. How do persons with chronic low back pain speed up and slow down? Trunk-pelvis coordination and lumbar erector spinae activity during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Meijer, Onno G.; Beek, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    In healthy walking, the timing between trunk and pelvic rotations, as well as erector spinae (ES) activity varies systematically with walking velocity, whereas a comparable velocity-dependent adaptation of trunk-pelvis coordination is often reduced or absent in persons with low back pain (LBP). Base

  10. Social support modifies association between forward bending of the trunk and low-back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Morten; Holtermann, Andreas; Samani, Afshin;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the association between forward bending of the trunk and low-back pain intensity (LBPi) among blue-collar workers in Denmark as well as whether the level of social support modifies the association. METHODS: In total, 457 workers were included in the study....... The forward bending of ≥30° was computed from accelerometer recordings for several consecutive days during work, categorized into long (highest tertile) and short-moderate (remaining tertiles) duration. LBPi was measured on a 0-10 scale and categorized into low (≤5) and high (>5) pain. Self-reported social....... Workers with low social support and long duration of forward bending had higher likelihood of high LBPi [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.11-7.95] compared to workers with high social support and long duration of forward bending. Among workers with low social support, workers...

  11. A novel experimental setup with sand trunk for heat extraction of geothermal heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi-qiang; YAO Yang; CHEN Yi-ming; MA Zui-liang

    2008-01-01

    A novel experimental setup was developed to study the heat extraction of geothermal heat exchanger (GHE) in different operational modes under adiabatic and isothermal boundaries. The experimental setup con-sists of a sand trunk, a tailored water chiller, a natural cold source unit, two water boxes containing hot water and cool water, and a data acquisition system. The experimental results indicate that the volume flow rate of the entering water is a main factor affecting the heat extraction; furthermore, the heat extraction value per meter pipe decreases gradually along the heat extraction pipe and increases with the increase of the incoming water volume flow rate. Therefore, this novel experimental setup may be helpful to further study the operation per-formance of GHE in different types of soil.

  12. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Skotte, Jørgen H.;

    2009-01-01

    assignment was blinded to the test personnel. Physical education students organized the training. During 1 hour of soccer training, the total number of sudden moves including sudden loading of the upper body (e.g. turns, stops, throw-ins, headers, and shoulder tackles) was 192 (63). In SO, time elapsed until......A slower reflex response to sudden trunk loading (SL) has been shown to increase future risk of low back injuries in healthy subjects, and specific readiness training can improve the response to SL among healthy subjects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of recreational soccer...... the reflex response to SL. The faster reflex response indicates that soccer training can reduce the risk of low back injuries....

  13. Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique in a Patient with Multiple Previous Cardiac Procedures: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Torsten; Lembcke, Alexander; Laule, Michael; Dohmen, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We present the case of a 69-year-old female patient with giant aortic aneurysm who underwent previously multiple cardiac surgeries or interventions. CASE REPORT Ross procedure was performed in 2006 due to aortic valve regurgitation and aneurysm of the ascending aorta. In 2010 the patient was re-admitted for pulmonary valve insufficiency and a transcatheter pulmonary valve was implanted. Recently, the patient presented with an aortic arch aneurysm, maximum diameter 78 mm, which was treated by a hybrid approach, implanting a frozen elephant trunk and a covered stent graft. CONCLUSIONS The current case report demonstrates a suitable hybrid option for an extremely demanding procedure by multiple previous cardiac procedures. PMID:27357920

  14. Local scour at roundhead and along the trunk of low crested structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Lamberti, Alberto;

    2005-01-01

    not exhibit the pattern experienced in the case of emerged breakwaters where the scour and deposition areas are bcorrelatedQ with the nodal and antinodal points of the standing wave in front of the structure. Furthermore, it was found that scour occurs not only at the offshore side of the breakwater but also....... The breakwater models have a side slope of 1: 1.5. To substantiate scour measurements, velocity measurements also were made. The latter data were used to obtain steady streaming in front of the breakwater. Regarding the trunk-scour study, the experiments indicated that substantial scour may occur at the toe...... at the onshore side. As for the roundheadscour study, it was found that severe scour can be experienced at the roundhead. The scour can occur both at the offshore side of the roundhead and at the back. The one at the offshore side is caused by the combined effect of severe waves and the steady streaming...

  15. Diterpenes from the Trunk of Abies holophylla and Their Potential Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-26

    Eleven new abietane-type diterpenes, holophyllins D-N (1-11), and 17 known analogues (12-28), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the trunk of Abies holophylla. The chemical structures of 1-11 were determined through spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRFABMS methods. All isolated compounds (1-28) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-116), for their potential neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor in C6 glioma cells, and for their effects on nitric oxide levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. PMID:26812172

  16. Finite Element Estimation of Pressure Distribution inside the Trunk on a Mattress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigekazu Ishihara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a bedsore-prevention mattress and wheel chair cushion. Throughout development, we made numerous body pressure measurements on different mattresses and cushions. Such measurements required much time and effort. Simulation of body pressure has the potential to estimate the pressure distribution caused by physical parameters of different mattresses. In this study, we show attempts to model the body and estimate the pressure on its transverse plane. The computation was based on a non-linear finite element method with hyperelastic materials, such as muscle, skin and fat. Because the model simulates different tissues, we can estimate the pressure not only on the surface, but also that inside the trunk. The simulated results agreed well with actual pressure measurement results. Differences in physical properties of the mattresses were also modeled.

  17. Reorganised motor control strategies of trunk muscles due to acute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, R P; Salomoni, S E; Christensen, S W; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed how the low back motor control strategies were affected by experimental pain. In twelve volunteers the right m. longissimus was injected by hypertonic and isotonic (control) saline. The pain intensity was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS). Subjects were seated on a custom-designed chair including a 3-dimensional force sensor adjusted to the segmental height of T1. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from longissimus, multifidus, rectus abdominis, and external oblique muscles. Isometric trunk extensions were performed before, during, and after the saline injections at 5%, 10%, and 20% of maximum voluntary contraction force. Visual feedback of the extension force was provided whereas the tangential force components were recorded. Compared with isotonic saline, VAS scores were higher following hypertonic saline injections (Pquality of the task performance; however the long-term consequence of such adaptation is unknown and may overload other structures. PMID:25879794

  18. Leader Cells Define Directionality of Trunk, but Not Cranial, Neural Crest Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jo; Gauert, Anton; Briones Montecinos, Luis; Fanlo, Lucía; Alhashem, Zainalabdeen Mohmammed; Assar, Rodrigo; Marti, Elisa; Kabla, Alexandre; Härtel, Steffen; Linker, Claudia

    2016-05-31

    Collective cell migration is fundamental for life and a hallmark of cancer. Neural crest (NC) cells migrate collectively, but the mechanisms governing this process remain controversial. Previous analyses in Xenopus indicate that cranial NC (CNC) cells are a homogeneous population relying on cell-cell interactions for directional migration, while chick embryo analyses suggest a heterogeneous population with leader cells instructing directionality. Our data in chick and zebrafish embryos show that CNC cells do not require leader cells for migration and all cells present similar migratory capacities. In contrast, laser ablation of trunk NC (TNC) cells shows that leader cells direct movement and cell-cell contacts are required for migration. Moreover, leader and follower identities are acquired before the initiation of migration and remain fixed thereafter. Thus, two distinct mechanisms establish the directionality of CNC cells and TNC cells. This implies the existence of multiple molecular mechanisms for collective cell migration.

  19. Estimation of temporal parameters during sprint running using a trunk-mounted inertial measurement unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, Elena; Picerno, Pietro; Pillet, Hélène; Natta, Françoise; Thoreux, Patricia; Camomilla, Valentina

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify consistent features in the signals supplied by a single inertial measurement unit (IMU), or thereof derived, for the identification of foot-strike and foot-off instants of time and for the estimation of stance and stride duration during the maintenance phase of sprint running. Maximal sprint runs were performed on tartan tracks by five amateur and six elite athletes, and durations derived from the IMU data were validated using force platforms and a high-speed video camera, respectively, for the two groups. The IMU was positioned on the lower back trunk (L1 level) of each athlete. The magnitudes of the acceleration and angular velocity vectors measured by the IMU, as well as their wavelet-mediated first and second derivatives were computed, and features related to foot-strike and foot-off events sought. No consistent features were found on the acceleration signal or on its first and second derivatives. Conversely, the foot-strike and foot-off events could be identified from features exhibited by the second derivative of the angular velocity magnitude. An average absolute difference of 0.005 s was found between IMU and reference estimates, for both stance and stride duration and for both amateur and elite athletes. The 95% limits of agreement of this difference were less than 0.025 s. The results proved that a single, trunk-mounted IMU is suitable to estimate stance and stride duration during sprint running, providing the opportunity to collect information in the field, without constraining or limiting athletes' and coaches' activities. PMID:22325976

  20. MRI of lumbar trunk muscles in patients with Parkinson's disease and camptocormia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, N G; Rohr, A; Granert, O; Hampel, J; Drews, A; Deuschl, G

    2015-07-01

    Camptocormia in Parkinson's disease (PD) is an axial postural disorder usually accompanied by histopathological changes in the paravertebral muscles of unknown etiology. The diagnostic potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of back muscles in camptocormia has not been systematically assessed. Our objective was to characterize pathological muscle changes with MRI and to develop radiological criteria for camptocormia. The criteria edema, swelling and fatty degeneration in 20 idiopathic PD patients with camptocormia were assessed using MRI (T1w and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences) of the lumbar trunk muscles and compared with 20 group-matched PD patients without camptocormia. Edema and fatty degeneration of the paravertebral muscles were significantly more frequent in camptocormia. Edema correlated negatively and fatty degeneration positively with the duration of camptocormia and not PD. Swelling of the paravertebral muscles, edema and swelling of the quadratus lumborum muscle and rare edema of the psoas muscle were only found in camptocormia patients. In this case-control study the defined MRI criteria distinguish the group of PD patients with camptocormia versus those without. Our findings suggest dynamic changes in the MRI signals over time in the paravertebral muscles: edema and swelling are found initially, followed by fatty atrophic degeneration 2-3 years after the beginning of camptocormia. Muscle MRI qualifies as a tool for categorizing phases of camptocormia as acute or chronic, with potential consequences for therapeutic approaches. The involvement of muscles beyond an isolated impairment of the paravertebral muscles implies a more systemic view with a deregulation of lumbar trunk muscles.

  1. Active faults crossing trunk pipeline routes: some important steps to avoid the disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besstrashnov, Vladimir; Strom, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Trunk pipelines that pass through tectonically active areas connecting oil and gas reservoirs with terminals and refineries cross active faults that can produce large earthquakes. Besides strong motion affecting vast areas, these earthquakes are often associated with surface faulting that provides additional hazard to pipelines. To avoid significant economic losses and environmental pollution, pipelines should be designed to sustain both effects (shaking and direct rupturing) without pipe damage and spill. Special studies aimed to provide necessary input data for the designers should be performed in the course of engineering survey. However, our experience on conducting and review of such studies for several oil and gas trunk pipelines in Russia show urgent need of more strict definition of basic conceptions and approaches used for identification and localization of these potentially hazardous tectonic features. Identification of active faults (fault zones) considered as causative faults - sources of strong motion caused by seismic waves that affect dozens kilometers of pipeline route can be done by use of both direct and indirect evidence of Late Pleistocene - Holocene activity of faults and fault zones. Since strong motion parameters can be considered as constant within the near-field zone, which width in case of large earthquake is up to dozens kilometers, accuracy of active fault location is not so critical and ±1-2 km precision provided by use of indirect evidence is acceptable. In contrast, if one have to identify and characterize zones of potential surface rupturing that require special design of the endangered pipeline section, only direct evidence of such activity can provide reliable input data for crossing design with relevant accuracy of fault location, amount and direction of displacement. Only traces of surface faults displacing Late Pleistocene - Holocene sediments and/or geomorphic features are considered as direct evidence of fault activity. Just

  2. [The influence of proprioceptive insoles (Bourdiol) on the sagittal curvature and inclination of the trunk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Gliemann, C; Drerup, B; Osada, N; Wetz, H H

    2006-11-01

    Proprioceptive insoles rely on the concept of Réné-Jaques Bourdiol, a French neurologist. The aim is to modulate plantar surface sensibility and to influence posture and statics of patients: it is hypothesized that the effect of modified afferent sensory input through proprioceptive stimulation of terminal muscle chains will have either a relaxing or stimulating effect on the whole body, which may be realized by affecting the posture. Small pads with a thickness of typically 1-3 mm are embedded into the insole to provide a specific stimulation. In fitting the insoles selectively to the individual patient the effect of the insoles on the trunk posture is taken as a feedback. This study investigates the influence of proprioceptive insoles on the sagittal curve in 20 selected patients. The protocol used a repeated measures research design. The measures of the sagittal curve were obtained using raster stereography. The four different conditions were: (1) barefoot, (2) convenient shoes without the insoles, (3) the same shoes with a placebo insole, and (4) the same shoes with neurological insoles. Evaluation of raster stereographs provided the kyphotic angle between T4 and T12 and lordotic angle between T12 and S1. Statistical evaluation was performed with the t-test for paired measurements. No significant differences were found in the sagittal profile. Only trunk inclination in normal posture was found to yield a significant difference (0.38 degrees) between placebo and neurological insoles. However, no clear statement on the efficiency of neurological insoles can be made.

  3. Trunk Muscle Activation and Estimating Spinal Compressive Force in Rope and Harness Vertical Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret; Dai, Boyi; Zhu, Qin; Humphrey, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Rope and harness vertical dance takes place off the floor with the dancer suspended from his or her center of mass in a harness attached to a rope from a point overhead. Vertical dance represents a novel environment for training and performing in which expected stresses on the dancer's body are different from those that take place during dance on the floor. Two male and eleven female dancers with training in vertical dance performed six typical vertical dance movements with electromyography (EMG) electrodes placed bilaterally on rectus abdominus, external oblique, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi. EMG data were expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). A simplified musculoskeletal model based on muscle activation for these four muscle groups was used to estimate the compressive force on the spine. The greatest muscle activation for erector spinae and latissimus dorsi and the greatest trunk compressive forces were seen in vertical axis positions where the dancer was moving the trunk into a hyper-extended position. The greatest muscle activation for rectus abdominus and external oblique and the second highest compressive force were seen in a supine position with the arms and legs extended away from the center of mass (COM). The least muscle activation occurred in positions where the limbs were hanging below the torso. These movements also showed relatively low muscle activation compression forces. Post-test survey results revealed that dancers felt comfortable in these positions; however, observation of some positions indicated insufficient muscular control. Computing the relative contribution of muscles, expressed as muscle activation and estimated spinal compression, provided a measure of how much the muscle groups were working to support the spine and the rest of the dancer's body in the different movements tested. Additionally, identifying typical muscle recruitment patterns in each movement will help identify key exercises

  4. Effect of particle geometry on the properties of binderless particleboard manufactured from oil palm trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental binderless composite panels were manufactured using fine particles and strands of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trunks. Modulus of rupture (MOR), internal bond strength (IB), dimensional stability, and surface roughness of the panels made with a target density of 0.80 g/cm3 were evaluated. Strand type samples had MOR and IB values of 24.95 and 0.95 MPa, respectively. Corresponding values for the fine particle type samples were 4.04 and 0.49 MPa. Panels made from strands met MOR requirement stated in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Enhanced bonding between strands observed by micrographs taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also supported the findings. However, the samples having fine particles had lower MOR values than minimum requirement listed in JIS. Strand type panels had 41.6% thickness swelling which is only 4.6% lower than that of the panels made from fine particles. It appears that dimensional stability of both types of panels exhibited insufficient results according to JIS. Surface roughness quality of the samples made from fine particles had average surface roughness values comparable to those of panels made in past studies. Based on initial results of this work, raw material from oil palm trunks can have some potential to be used to manufacture binderless panels without using any adhesives. This study revealed that mechanical and physical properties of such experimental panels were influenced by the particle geometry. It would be important to consider possible addition of chemical or wax in the particles to improve their dimensional stability in further studies.

  5. Head and trunk stabilization strategies during forward and backward walking in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Sylvie; Amblard, Bernard; Mesure, Serge; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the head and trunk equilibrium strategies while walking forwards and backwards under different conditions (eyes open vs. closed, hard vs. soft surface) in a sample of 11 consenting healthy adult subjects. Nine markers placed on the subject allowed us to record the kinematics of the head, spine and pelvis segments while walking. The data were acquired and analyzed using an optical TV-image processor (ELITE system). For each locomotor trial, the walking speed as well as the absolute angular dispersions and the anchoring indexes (AI) of six segments around the roll and pitch axes were calculated to assess the head and trunk equilibrium strategies. A three-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to depict differences between the walking conditions. The results showed that the walking speed was affected by the locomotion tasks (P walking forwards on a hard surface, eyes open) to 0.79 +/- 0.15 m s(-1) for the most unusual conditions (walking backwards on a foam support, eyes closed). In general, walking backwards reduced the angular dispersion of the spine segments while the absolute angular dispersions of the head and pelvis did not vary significantly with any factors (P > 0.05). The AI around the roll axis indicated good stabilization in space of the head and pelvis with high positive values and this stability increased while the subject was walking backwards on a soft surface (foam). By contrast, the spinal segments were predominantly stabilized on the underlying segment (negative AI), and this stabilization even increased when the subjects walked backwards on a soft surface. Increasing the locomotion difficulty thus induced a generally rigid ('en bloc') functioning of the spinal segments and increased effectiveness of the head and pelvis stabilization strategies in space, especially when walking backwards on a soft surface.

  6. Mechanisms of vertebrate embryo segmentation: Common themes in trunk and limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba, Caroline J; Andrade, Raquel P; Palmeirim, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Various ultradian rhythms ensure proper temporal regulations during embryo development. The embryo molecular clock, which was first identified in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) underlying periodic somite formation, is one among them. Somites are the earliest manifestation of the segmented vertebrate body and they are formed with strict temporal precision. The tetrapod limb is also a segmented structure and the formation of limb bone elements have also been associated with a molecular clock, operating in the distal limb mesenchyme. In both the PSM and the distal limb mesenchyme, the molecular clock (MC) is influenced by FGF, SHH and RA, which are also the key regulators of the development of these tissues. While somitogenesis has been continuously scrutinized to understand the mechanisms of the MC, the limb bud has served as an outstanding paradigm to study how a cohort of undifferentiated cells is organized into functional 3D structures. The fact that both the trunk and limb development are shaped by the MC and by common signaling molecules has prompted the exciting possibility of establishing parallelisms between somitogenesis and limb development. Systematically correlating various parameters during trunk and limb development will help us to appreciate the common principles underlying segmented structure formation and allow the rise of new questions in order to fill the gaps in our present understanding. In this review we have established the parallelisms between somitogenesis and limb development at the level of gene expression patterns and their regulation. Finally, we have also discussed the most evident new avenues this exercise could open to the scientific community. PMID:26805722

  7. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation neck pattern exercise on the ability to control the trunk and maintain balance in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwangbo, Pil Neo; Don Kim, Kyoung

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation neck pattern exercise on the ability to control the trunk and balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 30 study subjects were selected and randomly divided into an experimental group of 15 subjects, who received the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation neck pattern exercise, and a control group of 15 subjects, who received a traditional rehabilitation treatment. [Results] Statistically significant changes in all the items of the Trunk Impairment Scale, the Trunk Impairment Scale total score, and the Berg Balance Scale were observed in both the experimental group and the control group. significant between-group differences were found in all items among the subitems of the Trunk Impairment Scale except the static sitting balance. [Conclusion] Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation neck pattern exercise was shown to have a positive effect on increasing the ability to control the trunk and maintain balance in chronic stroke patients.

  8. [Use of laser technologies in treatment of chronic venous insufficiency in patients with a wide ostial segment of the main trunks of subcutaneous veins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk'ianenko, M Iu; Starodubtsev, V B; Karpenko, A A; Sergeevichev, D S

    2014-01-01

    Presented herein is the authors' experience in endovascular laser obliteration of the major trunks of the grate saphenous vein (GSV) with a wide ostial segment (measuring from 15 to 34 mm) in patients presenting with chronic venous insufficiency. Group One patients (n=32) underwent crossectomy followed by endovasal laser obliteration (EVLO) of the GSV's trunk on the femur. Group Two patients (n=46) were not subjected to crossectomy, whereas obliteration of the GSV's trunk was carried out immediately from the ostium. In Group One we managed to achieve obliteration of the GSV's trunk in 32 patients (100%) with no additional interventions, and in Group Two this was achieved in 42 (91.3%) patients. Four patients (8.7%) required performing a secondary procedure of EVLO after which obliteration of the trunk was achieved in all patients of Group Two. There was no evidence of deep-vein thrombosis.

  9. [Immediate and remote results of stenting of left coronary artery trunk in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokeriia, L A; Alekian, B G; Buziashvili, Iu I; Golukhova, E Z; Staferov, A V; Zakarian, N V; Al-Sharjabi, R M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was assessment of efficacy of stenting in patients with ischemic heart disease with lesions of left coronary artery (LCA) trunk. In the A.N. Bakulev Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery between June 1997 and March 2005 stenting of LCA trunk was carried out in 50 patients (33 with stable effort angina and 17 with acute coronary syndrome). Immediate success rate was 100% in patients with stable angina. In a group of patients with acute coronary syndrome angiographic success rate was 100%. Total lethality in this group was (3 cases) 17.7%. In remote period (6 to 60 months) 33 of 39 patients were examined and recurrence of angina was noted in 7 of them (21.1%). Control angiography was carried out in 16 patients and restenosis of LCA was revealed in 18.75% of cases. The authors believe that stenting of LCA trunk is an effective and safe method of treatment of patients with stable angina and sufficiently safe method in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Roentgenoendovascular treatment may serve as an alternative to aortocoronary bypass surgery especially in isolated lesions of LCA trunk. Application of stents with drug coating allows to cardinally improve long term results of stenting. PMID:16710248

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were installed at the height of 1.30 meters (DBH to monitor the diameter growth every 14 days, for 26 months. After measuring growth, the trees were felled and wood discs were removed at the DBH level to determine the radial density profile through x-ray microdensitometry and then re-scale the average values every 14 days. Climatic variables for the monitoring period were obtained and grouped every 14 days. The effect of the climate variables was determined by maximum and minimum growth periods in assessing trunk growth. These growth periods were related with precipitation, average temperature and relative air humidity. The re-scaled wood density values, calculated using the radial growth of the tree trunks measured accurately with steel dendrometers, enabled the determination of the relationship of small changes in wood density and the effect of the climatic variations and growth rate of eucalyptus tree trunks. A high sensitivity of the wood density to variation in precipitation levels was found.

  11. Effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and back muscle activity during walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, C.J.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Meijer, O.G.; Moseley, G.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Beek, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and erector spinae EMG activity during gait. DESIGN: In 12 healthy subjects, hypertonic saline (acute pain) and isotonic saline (fear of pain) were injected into erector spinae muscle, and unpredi

  12. Variation in number of trunk vertebrae and in count of costal grooves in salamanders of the family Hynobiidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvinchuk, S.N.; Borkin, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ten species from five genera of the family Hynobiidae were studied. The number of trunk vertebrae varied between 14 and 21, and the count of costal grooves ranged from 10 to 15. Both the within-species variation and the within-population variation were recorded in some species. In both kinds the val

  13. Anatomical variations of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: an analysis using multidetector computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Mello Junior, Carlos Fernando de; Silva Neto, Eulampio Jose; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; Duarte, Claudia Martina Araujo; Cavalcanti Neto, Bartolomeu Fragoso; Farias, Rebeca Danielly da Fonseca, E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence of anatomical variations of celiac arterial trunk (CAT) branches and hepatic arterial system (HAS), as well as the CAT diameter, length and distance to the superior mesenteric artery. Materials And Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional and predominantly descriptive study based on the analysis of multidetector computed tomography images of 60 patients. Results: The celiac trunk anatomy was normal in 90% of cases. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 8.3% of patients, and hepatogastric trunk in 1.7%. Variation of the HAS was observed in 21.7% of cases, including anomalous location of the right hepatic artery in 8.3% of cases, and of the left hepatic artery, in 5%. Also, cases of joint relocation of right and left hepatic arteries, and trifurcation of the proper hepatic artery were observed, respectively, in 3 (5%) and 2 (3.3%) patients. Mean length and caliber of the CAT were 2.3 cm and 0.8 cm, respectively. Mean distance between CAT and superior mesenteric artery was 1.2 cm (standard deviation = 4.08). A significant correlation was observed between CAT diameter and length, and CAT diameter and distance to superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: The pattern of CAT variations and diameter corroborate the majority of the literature data. However, this does not happen in relation to the HAS. (author)

  14. Effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on muscle response to sudden trunk perturbation among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study investigates the effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on muscle reflex response to sudden trunk perturbation among healthcare workers. Methods. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42 [SD 11], BMI: 24 [SD 4], and pain intensity: 3.1 [SD 2.2...

  15. Wood-decay abilities of grapevine trunk pathogens Diaporthe ampelina, Diplodia seriata, Eutypa lata, and Neofusicoccum parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunk pathogens are fungi that infect grapevine wood through pruning wounds and destroy fruiting positions, thereby impacting grape production. Neofusicoccum parvum (causal fungus of Botryosphaeria dieback) and Eutypa lata (causal fungus of Eutypa dieback) cause chronic infections (cankers) of the t...

  16. 78 FR 9450 - Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company-Acquisition of Operating Easement-CSX Transportation, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    .... 11323-25 for Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company (GTW), an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of... Line), subject to employee protective conditions. The Leewood-Aulon Line is currently owned by CSXT. Illinois Central Railroad Company, a GTW affiliate, operates over it via trackage rights. Along with...

  17. New TETRA Trunked Queue Management Method%一种新的TETRA集群队列管理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游晓黔; 喻后强

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages of additive increase and multiplicative decrease control mechanism and proportional fair schedule on TETRA trunked network, and it finds that the additive increase and multiplicative decrease scheme of TCP can degrade QoS performance of TETRA trunked system. For solving this problem, it puts forward a new TETRA trunked queue management method, and designs a queue management counter based on dynamic starting mechanism to manage queue based on average channel quality. The effectiveness of the method on TETRA trunked network is demonstrated by simulation.%比较陆地集群无线电系统(TETRA)集群网络中加增乘减控制机制和按比公平时序调度的优缺点,指出TCP的加增乘减机制会降低TETRA集群系统的QoS性能.提出一种新的TETRA集群队列管理方法,设计基于动态起点机制的队列管理计数器,基于平均信道质量进行队列管理.仿真实验验证了该方法在TETRA集群网络中的有效性.

  18. Effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and back muscle activity during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Meijer, Onno G.; Lorimer Moseley, G.; Wuisman, Paul I.J.M.; Beek, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and erector spinae EMG activity during gait. Design. In 12 healthy subjects, hypertonic saline (acute pain) and isotonic saline (fear of pain) were injected into erector spinae muscle, and unpredi

  19. Anatomical variations of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: an analysis using multidetector computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence of anatomical variations of celiac arterial trunk (CAT) branches and hepatic arterial system (HAS), as well as the CAT diameter, length and distance to the superior mesenteric artery. Materials And Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional and predominantly descriptive study based on the analysis of multidetector computed tomography images of 60 patients. Results: The celiac trunk anatomy was normal in 90% of cases. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 8.3% of patients, and hepatogastric trunk in 1.7%. Variation of the HAS was observed in 21.7% of cases, including anomalous location of the right hepatic artery in 8.3% of cases, and of the left hepatic artery, in 5%. Also, cases of joint relocation of right and left hepatic arteries, and trifurcation of the proper hepatic artery were observed, respectively, in 3 (5%) and 2 (3.3%) patients. Mean length and caliber of the CAT were 2.3 cm and 0.8 cm, respectively. Mean distance between CAT and superior mesenteric artery was 1.2 cm (standard deviation = 4.08). A significant correlation was observed between CAT diameter and length, and CAT diameter and distance to superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: The pattern of CAT variations and diameter corroborate the majority of the literature data. However, this does not happen in relation to the HAS. (author)

  20. Compensatory Trunk Movements in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis Accuracy and Reproducibility of a Body-Fixed Sensor-Based Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reininga, Inge H. F.; Stevens, Martin; Wagenmakers, Robert; Boerboom, Alexander L.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2011-01-01

    Reininga IHF, Stevens M, Wagenmakers R, Boerboom AL, Groothoff JW, Bulstra SK, Zijlstra W: Compensatory trunk movements in patients with hip osteoarthritis; Accuracy and reproducibility of a body-fixed sensor-based assessment. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:681-687. This study examined the accuracy a

  1. The Influence of X-Factor (Trunk Rotation and Experience on the Quality of the Badminton Forehand Smash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No existing studies of badminton technique have used full-body biomechanical modeling based on three-dimensional (3D motion capture to quantify the kinematics of the sport. The purposes of the current study were to: 1 quantitatively describe kinematic characteristics of the forehand smash using a 15-segment, full-body biomechanical model, 2 examine and compare kinematic differences between novice and skilled players with a focus on trunk rotation (the X-factor, and 3 through this comparison, identify principal parameters that contributed to the quality of the skill. Together, these findings have the potential to assist coaches and players in the teaching and learning of the forehand smash. Twenty-four participants were divided into two groups (novice, n = 10 and skilled, n = 14. A 10-camera VICON MX40 motion capture system (200 frames/s was used to quantify full-body kinematics, racket movement and the flight of the shuttlecock. Results confirmed that skilled players utilized more trunk rotation than novices. In two ways, trunk rotation (the X-factor was shown to be vital for maximizing the release speed of the shuttlecock – an important measure of the quality of the forehand smash. First, more trunk rotation invoked greater lengthening in the pectoralis major (PM during the preparation phase of the stroke which helped generate an explosive muscle contraction. Second, larger range of motion (ROM induced by trunk rotation facilitated a whip-like (proximal to distal control sequence among the body segments responsible for increasing racket speed. These results suggest that training intended to increase the efficacy of this skill needs to focus on how the X-factor is incorporated into the kinematic chain of the arm and the racket.

  2. Restricted Arm Swing Affects Gait Stability and Increased Walking Speed Alters Trunk Movements in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabastita, Tijs; Desloovere, Kaat; Meyns, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Observational research suggests that in children with cerebral palsy, the altered arm swing is linked to instability during walking. Therefore, the current study investigates whether children with cerebral palsy use their arms more than typically developing children, to enhance gait stability. Evidence also suggests an influence of walking speed on gait stability. Moreover, previous research highlighted a link between walking speed and arm swing. Hence, the experiment aimed to explore differences between typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy taking into account the combined influence of restricting arm swing and increasing walking speed on gait stability. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics, trunk movement parameters and margins of stability were obtained using three dimensional gait analysis to assess gait stability of 26 children with cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing children. Four walking conditions were evaluated: (i) free arm swing and preferred walking speed; (ii) restricted arm swing and preferred walking speed; (iii) free arm swing and high walking speed; and (iv) restricted arm swing and high walking speed. Double support time and trunk acceleration variability increased more when arm swing was restricted in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children and children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Trunk sway velocity increased more when walking speed was increased in children with unilateral cerebral palsy compared to children with bilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children and in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. Trunk sway velocity increased more when both arm swing was restricted and walking speed was increased in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. It is proposed that facilitating arm swing during gait rehabilitation can improve gait stability and decrease trunk movements in

  3. Dynamic iso-resistive trunk extension simulation: contributions of the intrinsic and reflexive mechanisms to spinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarani, S Zeinali; Shirazi-Adl, A; Hemami, H; Mousavi, S J; Parnianpour, M

    2007-01-01

    The effects of external resistance on the recruitment of trunk muscles and the role of intrinsic and reflexive mechanisms to ensure the spinal stability are significant issues in spinal biomechanics. A computational model of spine under the control of 48 anatomically oriented muscle actions was used to simulate iso-resistive trunk movements. Neural excitation of muscles was attained based on inverse dynamics approach along with the stability-based optimization. The effect of muscle spindle reflex response on the trunk movement stability was evaluated upon the application of a perturbation moment. In this study, the trunk extension movement at various resistance levels while extending from 60 degrees flexion to the upright posture was investigated. Incorporation of the stability condition as an additional constraint in the optimization algorithm increased antagonistic activities for all resistance levels demonstrating that the co-activation caused an increase in the intrinsic stiffness of the spine and its stability in a feed-forward manner. During the acceleration phase of the movement, extensors activity increased while flexors activity decreased in response to the higher resistance. The co-activation ratio noticed in the braking phase of the movement increased with higher resistance. In presence of a 30 Nm flexion perturbation moment, reflexive feed-back noticeably decreased the induced deviation of the velocity and position profiles from the desired ones at all resistance levels. The stability-generated co-activation decreased the reflexive response of muscle spindles to the perturbation demonstrating that both intrinsic and reflexive mechanisms contribute to the trunk stability. The rise in muscle co-activation can ameliorate the corruption of afferent neural sensory system at the expense of higher loading of the spine.

  4. Interactions of touch feedback with muscle vibration and galvanic vestibular stimulation in the control of trunk posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaswinkel, E; Veeger, H E J; Dieen, J Hv

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of touch on trunk sway in a seated position. Two touch conditions were included: touching an object with the index finger of the right hand (hand-touch) and maintaining contact with an object at the level of the spine of T10 on the mid back (back-touch). In both touch conditions, the exerted force stayed below 2N. Furthermore, the interaction of touch with paraspinal muscle vibration and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was studied. Thirteen healthy subjects with no history of low-back pain participated in this study. Subjects sat on a stool and trunk sway was measured with a motion capture system tracking a cluster marker on the trunk. Subjects performed a total of 12 trials of 60-s duration in a randomized order, combining the experimental conditions of no-touch, hand-touch or back-touch with no sensory perturbation, paraspinal muscle vibration or GVS. The results showed that touch through hand or back decreased trunk sway and decreased the effects of muscle vibration and GVS. GVS led to a large increase in sway whereas the effect of muscle vibration was only observed as an increase of drift and not of sway. In the current experimental set-up, the stabilizing effect of touch was strong enough to mask any effects of perturbations of vestibular and paraspinal muscle spindle afference. In conclusion, tactile information, whenever available, seems to play a dominant role in seated postural sway and therefore has important implications for studying trunk control. PMID:24192277

  5. Magnitude of forward trunk flexion influences upper limb muscular efforts and dynamic postural stability requirements during sitting pivot transfers in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Guillaume; Gagnon, Dany; Nadeau, Sylvie; Popovic, Milos

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of imposing different degrees of forward trunk flexion during sitting pivot transfers on electromyographic activity at the leading and trailing upper limb muscles and on dynamic stability requirements. Thirty-two individuals with a spinal cord injury performed three types of sitting pivot transfers: natural technique, exaggerated forward trunk flexion and upright trunk position. Ground reaction forces, trunk kinematics, and bilateral electromyographic activity of eight upper limb muscles were recorded. Electromyographic data were analyzed using the area under the curve of the muscular utilization ratio. Dynamic stability requirements of sitting pivot transfers were assess using a dynamic equilibrium model. Compared to the natural strategy, significantly greater muscle activities were found for the forward trunk flexion condition at the anterior deltoid and both heads of the pectorialis major, whereas the upright trunk strategy yielded greater muscle activity at the latissimus dorsii and the triceps. The forward flexed condition was found to be more dynamically stable, with a lower stabilizing force, increased area of base of support and greater distance traveled. Thus, transferring with a more forward trunk inclination, even though it increases work of few muscles, may be a beneficial trade-off because increased dynamic stability of this technique and versatility in terms of potential distance of the transfer. PMID:24094473

  6. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)) and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces) on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching. Key pointsHigh-ball-velocity pitchers are characterized by greater momentum of the lower limbs during pitching motion.For high-pitched-ball velocity, stabilizing lower limbs during pitching plays an important role in order to increase the rotation and forward motion of the trunk.Computation of the lower-extremity kinetics and measurement of lower

  7. An anomalous case of the left gastric artery, the splenic artery and hepato-mesenteric trunk independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Tsuyoshi; Hirao, Takeshi; Kitashima, Sadaharu; Watanabe, Koh-Ichi; Nohno, Mariko; Araki, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Seiji; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of an arterial anomaly in the celiaco-mesenteric region, encountered in a Japanese female cadaver for dissection at the gross anatomy laboratory of Kurume University School of Medicine in 2003. The usual celiac trunk was not identified, and the left gastric artery, the splenic artery and the hepato-mesenteric trunk independently arose from the abdominal aorta. Moreover, the hepatic artery arising from the hepato-mesenteric trunk ran behind the portal vein. The classification for this type of arterial anomaly is a Type II' of Morita's classification and Type II of Higashi and Hirai's classification, not belong to the Adachi's. PMID:16119612

  8. Relation between pH in the Trunk and Face: Truncal pH Can Be Easily Predicted from Facial pH

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Ae; Kim, Bo Ri; Chun, Mi Young; Youn, Sang Woong

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical symptoms of facial and truncal acne differ. Skin surface acidity (pH), which is affected by sebum secretions, reflects the different clinical characteristics of the face and trunk. However, no studies have been conducted on truncal sebum production and skin pH. Objective We evaluated the differences and relationship between pH values of the face and trunk. We also evaluated the relationship between pH and the quantity of sebum produced in the trunk. Methods A total of ...

  9. Does anterior trunk pain predict a different course of recovery in chronic low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, John; Hancock, Mark J; Kongsted, Alice; Hush, Julia; Kent, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Patient characteristics associated with the course and severity of low back pain (LBP) and disability have been the focus of extensive research, however, known characteristics do not explain much of the variance in outcomes. The relationship between anterior trunk pain (ATP) and LBP has not been explored, though mechanisms for visceral referred pain have been described. Study objectives were: (1) determine prevalence of ATP in chronic LBP patients, (2) determine whether ATP is associated with increased pain and disability in these patients, and (3) evaluate whether ATP predicts the course of pain and disability in these patients. In this study, spinal outpatient department patients mapped the distribution of their pain and patients describing pain in their chest, abdomen or groin were classified with ATP. Generalized estimating equations were performed to investigate the relationship between ATP and LBP outcomes. A total of 2974 patients were included and 19.6% of patients reported ATP. At all time points, there were significant differences in absolute pain intensity and disability in those with ATP compared with those without. The presence of ATP did not affect the clinical course of LBP outcomes. The results of this study suggest that patients who present with LBP and ATP have higher pain and disability levels than patients with localised LBP. Visceral referred pain mechanisms may help to explain some of this difference.

  10. Simulation of Parkinsonian gait by fusing trunk learned patterns and a lower limb first order model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Luisa; Martínez, Fabio; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that progressively affects the movement. Gait analysis is therefore crucial to determine a disease degree as well as to orient the diagnosis. However, gait examination is completely subjective and therefore prone to errors or misinterpretations, even with a great expertise. In addition, the conventional evaluation follows up general gait variables, which amounts to ignore subtle changes that definitely can modify the history of the treatment. This work presents a functional gait model that simulates the center of gravity trajectory (CoG) for different Parkinson disease stages. This model mimics the gait trajectory by coupling two models: a double pendulum (single stance phase) and a spring-mass model (double stance). Realistic simulations for different Parkinson disease stages are then obtained by integrating to the model a set of trunk bending patterns, learned from real patients. The proposed model was compared with the CoG of real Parkinson gaits in stages 2, 3, 4 achieving a correlation coefficient of 0.88, 0.92 and 0.86, respectively.

  11. Study on bio-ethanol production from oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks sap using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norhazimah, A. H.; Che Ku, M. Faizala [Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)], email: amfaizal@ump.edu.my

    2011-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks (OPT), a waste generated from the re-plantation of oil palm trees for palm oil production, contain useful fermentable sugar for bio-ethanol production, and are a very important biomass material for future energy production. The fermentation usually can be affected along several parameters: temperature, pH, agitation rate, percentage inoculums, time of incubation, nitrogen sources, age of the inoculums and other chemical and physical factors. Since identifying all the effects of a particular factor on the fermentation process is impractical for reasons of time and cost, the approach of this study was based on a two-level five-factor (25) full factorial design (FFD) in order to identify the independent parameters for screening experiment purposes and determine the range of levels of the factor as well as the regions for optimization. The results from this study showed that the most influential principal factors affecting ethanol concentration and productivity were temperature, followed by initial pH and agitation rate.

  12. Anomalous Origin of the Left Atrial Branch from the Left Main Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Gholoobi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old woman was referred for coronary angiography with the chief complaint of exertional angina and dyspnea of a very long duration during routine daily physical activities. She had a history of poorly controlled hypertension and dyslipidemia. Coronary angiography revealed diffuse three-vessel disease. Interestingly, an unusual branch was noted originating from the mid shaft of the left main trunk with a funnel-shaped root and travelling the course of a left atrial (LA branch (Figures 1 and 2.The left main coronary artery (LMCA usually bifurcates into two major branches: the left anterior descending (LAD and left circumflex (LCx arteries. In some patients, the LMCA trifurcates into the LAD, LCx, and a branch artery named ramus intermedius. This third branch arises between the LAD and LCx arteries. The LCx artery gives rise to one or two left atrial circumflex branches which supply the lateral and posterior aspects of the left atrium. According to our extensive search of the literature, this is the first case to be reported with the LA branch originating from the LMCA.

  13. "Snow White" Coating Protects SpaceX Dragon's Trunk Against Rigors of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    He described it as "snow white." But NASA astronaut Don Pettit was not referring to the popular children's fairy tale. Rather, he was talking about the white coating of the Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) Dragon spacecraft that reflected from the International Space Station s light. As it approached the station for the first time in May 2012, the Dragon s trunk might have been described as the "fairest of them all," for its pristine coating, allowing Pettit to clearly see to maneuver the robotic arm to grab the Dragon for a successful nighttime berthing. This protective thermal control coating, developed by Alion Science and Technology Corp., based in McLean, Va., made its bright appearance again with the March 1 launch of SpaceX's second commercial resupply mission. Named Z-93C55, the coating was applied to the cargo portion of the Dragon to protect it from the rigors of space. "For decades, Alion has produced coatings to protect against the rigors of space," said Michael Kenny, senior chemist with Alion. "As space missions evolved, there was a growing need to dissipate electrical charges that build up on the exteriors of spacecraft, or there could be damage to the spacecraft s electronics. Alion's research led us to develop materials that would meet this goal while also providing thermal controls. The outcome of this research was Alion's proprietary Z-93C55 coating."

  14. Bending, twisting and beating trunk robot bioinspired from the ‘3 + 0’ axoneme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The axoneme is the skeleton and motor axis of flagella and cilia in eukaryotic organisms. Basically it consists of a series of longitudinal fibers (outer doublets of microtubules) that design a cylinder and whose sliding, due to the coordinated activities of dedicated molecular motors (the dynein arms), is converted into a bending because outer doublets pairs are stabilized by elastic links (the nexine molecules). In spite of these interesting mechanical properties, mechanical and robotics engineers have never considered this amazing molecular machinery as a model. The aim of this paper is to propose the robotic design and the kinematic modeling of the ‘3 + 0’ axoneme that makes motile the flagellum of Diplauxis hatti, the simplest that exists. The model that we propose bends and twists and combines the two movements. It is able to propagate wave trains that could be involved in the development of biomimetic actuators of various mechanisms such as (sub)aquatic robotic propellers as well as robotic trunks. (paper)

  15. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium cultivars 'Wanhongzhu' and 'Lapins' was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs and the incompatibility (S gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree's development. The high density 'W×L' genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding.

  16. Myoelectric activity and sequencing of selected trunk muscles during isokinetic lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, D A; Mostardi, R A; Jackson, M E; Porterfield, J A; Askew, M J

    1992-02-01

    Trained weight lifters lift heavy loads without a concomitant degree of acute low-back injuries. To study the process by which large loads are lifted with minimal injury, integrated electromyographic signals were recorded from four large muscle groups: gluteus maximus, quadriceps, latissimus dorsi, and erector spinae in 4 weight lifters and 11 asymptomatic control subjects. These signals were recorded during a floor-to-knuckle-height isokinetic lift (dead lift) at 30.5 and 45.7 cm/sec. The signals were normalized for the height of the lift and the maximal isokinetic integrated electromyographic activity. The weight lifters achieved maximal force at 50% of maximal lift height, whereas the control subjects achieved it at 67%. Although not statistically significant, the weight lifters used the gluteus maximus more during the early stages of the lift, perhaps contributing to earlier development of force. This process would stabilize the pelvis and permit the erector spinae to extend the trunk more efficiently. The weight lifter then completed the lift with prolonged and increasing activity in the quadriceps. This technique may minimize the required force in the erector spinae and the forces on the low-back structures. Clinical implications include more effective strength training of lifting muscle groups other than spinal extensors and the teaching of lifting strategies employed by weight lifters in low-back rehabilitation and work-hardening programs. PMID:1532462

  17. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author)

  18. Radiation-MHD models of elephant trunks and globules in H II regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of pillars of dense gas, known as elephant trunks, at the boundaries of H II regions, formed by shadowing of ionising radiation by dense clumps. The effects of magnetic fields on this process are investigated using 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulations. For a simulation in which an initially uniform magnetic field of strength |B|=50 uG is oriented perpendicular to the radiation propagation direction, the field is swept into alignment with the pillar during its dynamical evolution, in agreement with observations of the "Pillars of Creation" in M16, and of some cometary globules. This effect is significantly enhanced when the simulation is re-run with a weaker field of 18 uG. A stronger field with |B|=160 uG is sufficient to prevent this evolution completely, also significantly affecting the photoionisation process. Using a larger simulation domain it is seen that the pillar formation models studied in Mackey & Lim (2010) ultimately evolve to cometary structures ...

  19. Intraoperative evaluation of the spiral nerve cuff electrode on the femoral nerve trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasek, K. H.; Schiefer, M. A.; Pinault, G. C. J.; Triolo, R. J.; Tyler, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Evaluation of the Case Western Reserve University spiral nerve cuff electrode on the femoral nerve trunk was performed intraoperatively in four subjects undergoing femoral-popliteal bypass surgery. The threshold, nerve size and selective activation capabilities of the electrode were examined. The activation thresholds for the first muscle to be recruited were 6.3, 9, 10.6, and 37.4 nC with pulse amplitudes ranging from 0.3 to 1 mA. The femoral nerve was found to have an elliptical cross-section with a major axis average length of 9 mm (8-12 mm) and a minor axis length of 1.5 mm. In all four subjects selective activation of the sartorius was obtained. In two subjects, the rectus femoris could also be selectively activated and in one subject the vastus medialis was selectively activated. Each electrode had four independent contacts that were evaluated separately. Small air bubbles were formed in the space over some contacts, preventing stimulation. This occurred in one contact in each electrode, leaving three effective stimulation channels. This issue has been corrected for future studies.

  20. SEASONAL INCREMENT IN TRUNK DIAMETER OF Eucalyptus grandis TREES APPLYING DENDROMETER BANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987557The present work aimed to evaluate the seasonal increment in diameter of Eucalyptus grandis trees for 24 months and its relationship with the climatic variables and fertilization with nitrogen and with sewer mud. The trees were planted in the spacing of 3x2 m and fertilized with nitrogen (planting, 6, 12, 18 months and sewer mud (planting and 8 months. 20 trees were selected by treatment according witch the distribution of basal area and installed dendrometer bands at a 1.3 meter. The results showed a clear effect of the climatic variables on the seasonal increment in diameter of trees, being observed a delay period (lag of 28 days for the answer of the trees in relation to the climatic variables. Regading to the fertilization effect, it was observed that the increment of trunk diameter was higher in the eucalyptus trees with organic in relation to mineral fertilization with nitrogen.

  1. Relative growth of the limbs and trunk in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, B T

    1981-10-01

    Examination of relative growth and allometry is important for our understanding of the African apes, as they represent a closely related group of species of increasing body size. This study presents a comparison of ontogenetic relative growth patterns of some postcranial dimensions in Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla. Interspecific proportion differences among the three species are also analyzed. It is stressed that reliable ontogenetic information can only be obtained if subadults are examined-growth data cannot be inferred from static adult scaling. Results indicate that some postcranial relative growth patterns are very similar in the three species, suggesting differential extrapolation of a common growth pattern, whereas for other proportion comparisons the growth trends differ markedly among the species, producing distinct shape differences in the adults. Interspecific shape changes among the three species are characterized by positive allometry of chest girth and negative allometry of body height and leg length. It is suggested that relative decrease of leg length with increasing body size among the African pongids might be expected on biomechanical grounds, in quadrupedal terrestrialism. Relative to body weight or trunk length, the limbs of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) are longer than in the common chimpanzee or the gorilla, with a lower intermembral index. This may most closely resemble the primitive condition for the African apes. PMID:7325219

  2. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Laibao; Ni, Yang; Duan, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars 'Wanhongzhu' and 'Lapins' was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs) and the incompatibility (S) gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs) and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD) is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree's development. The high density 'W×L' genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding. PMID:26516760

  3. Trunk, head, and step characteristics during normal and narrow-based walking under deteriorated sensory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Zhang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The ability to maintain stability in the frontal plane (medialateral direction) while walking is commonly included as a component of motor performance assessment. Postural control in the frontal plane may deteriorate faster and earlier with increasing age, compared to that in the sagittal plane (anteroposterior direction). Fifteen young (20-30 years old) and 15 older (>65 years old) healthy participants were recruited to investigate age-related differences in postural control during the normal and narrow-based walking when performed under suboptimal vestibular and lower limb somatosensory conditions achieved by galvanic stimulation and compliant surfaces, respectively. Gait speed decreased in the narrow-based walking condition, with larger decrease in the elderly (by 6%). In the elderly head roll increased with perturbed vestibular information in impaired somatosensory condition (by 40.70%). In both age groups trunk roll increased under impaired somatosensation in the narrow-based walking condition (by 43.62%) but not in normal walking condition. Older participants adopted a more cautious strategy characterized by lower walking speed when walking on a narrow base and exhibited deteriorated integrative ability of the CNS for head control. Accurate lower limb somatosensation may play a critical role in narrow-based walking. PMID:24528161

  4. Does anterior trunk pain predict a different course of recovery in chronic low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, John; Hancock, Mark J; Kongsted, Alice; Hush, Julia; Kent, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Patient characteristics associated with the course and severity of low back pain (LBP) and disability have been the focus of extensive research, however, known characteristics do not explain much of the variance in outcomes. The relationship between anterior trunk pain (ATP) and LBP has not been explored, though mechanisms for visceral referred pain have been described. Study objectives were: (1) determine prevalence of ATP in chronic LBP patients, (2) determine whether ATP is associated with increased pain and disability in these patients, and (3) evaluate whether ATP predicts the course of pain and disability in these patients. In this study, spinal outpatient department patients mapped the distribution of their pain and patients describing pain in their chest, abdomen or groin were classified with ATP. Generalized estimating equations were performed to investigate the relationship between ATP and LBP outcomes. A total of 2974 patients were included and 19.6% of patients reported ATP. At all time points, there were significant differences in absolute pain intensity and disability in those with ATP compared with those without. The presence of ATP did not affect the clinical course of LBP outcomes. The results of this study suggest that patients who present with LBP and ATP have higher pain and disability levels than patients with localised LBP. Visceral referred pain mechanisms may help to explain some of this difference. PMID:24502844

  5. Histological and stereological characterization of brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) trunk kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Albina D; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Malhão, Fernanda; Franquinho, Filipa; Monteiro, Rogério A F; Rocha, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The large variability in kidney morphology among fish makes it difficult to build a "universal" model on its function and structure. Therefore, a morphological study of brown trout trunk kidney was performed, considering potential seasonal and sex effects. Three-year-old specimens of both sexes were collected at four stages of their reproductive cycle. Kidney was processed for light and electron microscopy. The relative volumes of renal components, such as renal corpuscles and different nephron tubules, were estimated by stereological methods. Qualitatively, the general nephron structure of brown trout was similar to that described for other glomerular teleost species. Quantitatively, however, differences in the relative volume of some renal components were detected between sexes and among seasons. Particularly, highest values of vacuolized tubules and new growing tubules were observed after spawning, being more relevant in females. Despite seasonal changes, more linear correlations were found between those parameters and the reno-somatic index than the gonado-somatic index. Thus, we verified that some brown trout renal components undergo sex dependent seasonal variations, suggesting a morphological adaptation of the components to accomplish physiological needs. These findings constitute a baseline for launching studies to know which factors govern the morphological variations and their functional consequences.

  6. Change in trunk muscle activities with prone bridge exercise in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Park, Seol; Kweon, Mi-Gyong; Park, Ji-Won

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different bridge exercises on internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and erector spinae activities. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects with chronic low back pain participated in this study. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: supine bridge exercise, supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and prone bridge exercise. The activities of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] There were significant differences in the internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae according to the three kinds of bridging exercises. The internal oblique, external oblique and transverse abdominis activities were highest in the prone bridge exercise, followed by those in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and supine bridge exercises. The activity of erector spine was highest in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise followed by the supine bridge exercise and prone bridge exercise. [Conclusion] These results suggest that prone bridge exercise is more effective than conventional supine bridge exercise and supine bridge on Swiss ball in increasing trunk muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients.

  7. Two anomalous cases of the hepato-mesenteric and the gastro-splenic trunks independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y; Yamaki, K; Saga, T; Hirata, T; Yoshida, M; Soejima, H; Kanazawa, T; Tanaka, K; Yoshizuka, M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes two arterial anomaly cases in the celiaco-mesenteric region, which were encountered in two Japanese male cadavers in the dissecting room at Kurume University School of Medicine in 1999. In these cases, the usual celiac trunks were not identified, and the hepato-mesenteric and the gastro-splenic trunks were independently arising from the abdominal aorta. Moreover, in the first case, the common hepatic artery passed ventral side of the portal vein and divided into the hepatic proper and the gastroduodenal arteries. This type of arterial anomaly belongs to the Type V of Adachi's classification and the Type IV' of Morita's classification. In the second case, the common hepatic artery passed dorsal side of the portal vein and divided into the hepatic proper and the gastroduodenal arteries. This type of arterial anomaly belongs to the Type VI of Adachi's classification and the Type IV' of Morita's classification. PMID:11059229

  8. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  9. Differential Diagnosis of the pancreatic disease : significance of perivascular changes at celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryang; Kim, Ki Whang; Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Dong Guk; Lee, Sung Il; Ahn, Chang Soo; Oh, Sei Jung [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Kim, Young Hwan [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to classify perivascular change in the celiac trunk and SMA occurring in pancreatic disease and to evaluate its significance in differential diagnosis. In 73 patients with pancreatic disease (42, acute pancreatitis; 14, chronic pancreatitis; 17, pancreatic cancer) abdominal CT findings were retrospectively reviewed. We defined infiltration as linear or irregular density and thickening as presence of a soft tissue mantle surrounding the vessel, and statistically evaluated the usefulness of these factors for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. Thickening of the celiac trunk and SMA is a valuable finding in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic inflammatory disease and pancreatic cancer. When applied to the differential diagnosis of pancreatic disease, perivascular change should be classified as either infiltration or thickening. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. Pseudo aneurysm of the celiac trunk - radiological findings report; Pseudo-aneurisma do tronco celiaco - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes Junior, Mauricio R. de; Henrique, Katia; Teixeira, Sonia Marcelino; Cardenas, Gloria Pamela Galdames; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Acceta, Pietro [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a case of a celiac trunk pseudoneurysm, diagnosed by ultrasonography, computed tomography and arteriography, in a 54-year-old man, alcoholic, with gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal pain and an epigastric pulsatile mass. After the diagnostic, he was operated and it was showed a fistula from the pseudoaneurysm to the choledoch and the gall bladder fill with blood. The patient has a good clinic development. (author) 10 refs., 3 figs.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr; Mario Tomazello F; José Luis Lousada; Domingos Lopes; Jean Paul Laclau

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were instal...

  12. Upper airway collapse during drug induced sleep endoscopy: head rotation in supine position compared with lateral head and trunk position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiruddin, Faiza; Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; de Vries, Nico

    2015-02-01

    Drug induced sedated sleep endoscopy (DISE) is often employed to determine the site, severity and pattern of obstruction in patients with sleep apnea. DISE is usually performed in supine position. We recently showed that the obstruction pattern is different when DISE is performed in lateral position. In this study, we compared the outcomes of DISE performed in supine position with head rotated, with the outcomes of DISE performed with head and trunk in lateral position. The Prospective study design was used in the present study. Sixty patients with OSA (44 male; mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) 20.8 ± 17.5 events/h) underwent DISE under propofol sedation. Patients were placed in lateral position, and the upper airway collapse was evaluated. The patients were then placed in supine position with the head rotated to the right side. DISE outcomes were scored using the VOTE classification system. In lateral position, nine patients (15.0%) had a complete antero-posterior (A-P) collapse at the level of the velum, nine had a partial A-P collapse. During head rotation and trunk in supine position, at the level of the velum, four patients (6.7%) had a complete A-P collapse, while two patients (3.3%) had a partial A-P collapse. For all other sites, the patterns of collapse were not significantly different between head rotation and lateral position. During DISE, rotation of the head in supine position, and lateral head and trunk position present similar sites, severity and patterns of upper airway collapse, with the exception of collapse at the level of the velum. Here the severity of A-P collapse is less severe during head rotation than in lateral head and trunk position.

  13. Unusual Congenital Aortic Anomaly with Rare Common Celiamesenteric Trunk Variation: MR Angiography and Digital Substraction Angiography Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance angiography and digital substraction angiography (DSA) findings in a case with a rare congenital thoracoabdominal aortic hypoplasia and common celiamesenteric trunk variation with occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta are described here. To our knowledge, this aortic anomaly has not been previously described in the English literature. DSA is the optimum imaging modality for determination of aortic hypoplasia, associated vascular malformations, collateral vessels, and direction of flow within vessels

  14. Trunk's natural inclination influences stance limb kinetics, but not body kinematics, during gait initiation in able men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Leteneur

    Full Text Available The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW or backward (BW with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5 moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (P<0.001 for the BW group, before the heel contact. At the hip, although the BW group displays a flexor moment 2.4 times higher (P<0.001 before the swing limb's heel-off, the FW group displays an extensor moment 3.1 times higher (P<0.01 during the swing phase. The three L5 extensor peaks after the toe-off are respectively 1.7 (P<0.001, 1.4 (P<0.001 and 1.7 (P<0.01 times higher for the FW group. The main results support the idea that the patterns described during steady-state gait are already observable during gait initiation. This study also provides reference data to further investigate stance limb kinetics in specific or pathologic populations during gait initiation. It will be of particular interest for elderly people, knowing that this population displays atypical trunk postures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.

  15. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, HPS; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, WO Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and...

  16. Treatment of an aneurysm of the celiac artery arising from a celiomesenteric trunk. Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lipari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our finding of a very rare case of a celiomesenteric anomaly with a concurrent aneurysm is extremely rare (20 cases in word literature in the last 32 years. The feasibility of the endovascular approach for aneurysms originating from the common celiomesenteric trunk depends mainly on aneurysmal location, diameter and neck size. In case of specific unfit anatomy, a careful surgical treatment can ensure the best results.

  17. Pelvis morphology, trunk posture and standing imbalance and their relations to the Cobb angle in moderate and severe untreated AIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Dalleau

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and usually affects young girls. Studies mostly describe the differences between scoliotic and non-scoliotic girls and focus primarily on a single set of parameters derived from spinal and pelvis morphology, posture or standing imbalance. No study addressed all these three biomechanical aspects simultaneously in pre-braced AIS girls of different scoliosis severity but with similar curve type and their interaction with scoliosis progression. The first objective of this study was to test if there are differences in these parameters between pre-braced AIS girls with a right thoracic scoliosis of moderate (less than 27° and severe (more than 27° deformity. The second objective was to identify which of these parameters are related to the Cobb angle progression either individually or in combination of thereof. Forty-five scoliotic girls, randomly selected by an orthopedic surgeon from the hospital scoliosis clinic, participated in this study. Parameters related to pelvis morphology, pelvis orientation, trunk posture and quiet standing balance were measured. Generally moderate pre-brace idiopathic scoliosis patients displayed lower values than the severe group characterized by a Cobb angle greater than 27°. Only pelvis morphology and trunk posture were statistically different between the groups while pelvis orientation and standing imbalance were similar in both groups. Statistically significant Pearson coefficients of correlation between individual parameters and Cobb angle ranged between 0.32 and 0.53. Collectively trunk posture, pelvis morphology and standing balance parameters are correlated with Cobb angle at 0.82. The results suggest that spinal deformity progression is not only a question of trunk morphology distortion by itself but is also related to pelvis asymmetrical bone growth and standing neuromuscular imbalance.

  18. Aneurysmal rupture of the costo-cervical trunk in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1: A case report ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Hoonjan, Bhupinder; Thayur, Nagendra; Abu-Own, Abdusalam

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Rupture of blood vessels associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is a rare but life threatening complication. We report the first case of an aneurysmal rupture from the costocervical trunk in a NF-1 patient treated by endovascular embolisation. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 43 year-old gentleman with a past medical history of NF-1 presented with sudden onset left sided neck swelling. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a large cervical haematoma, which was causing airway comprom...

  19. Positive reinforcement training for a trunk wash in Nepal's working elephants: demonstrating alternatives to traditional elephant training techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Ariel; Acharya, Narayan; Kaufman, Gretchen E

    2014-01-01

    Many trainers of animals in the zoo now rely on positive reinforcement training to teach animals to voluntarily participate in husbandry and veterinary procedures in an effort to improve behavioral reliability, captive management, and welfare. However, captive elephant handlers in Nepal still rely heavily on punishment- and aversion-based methods. The aim of this project was to determine the effectiveness of secondary positive reinforcement (SPR) in training free-contact elephants in Nepal to voluntarily participate in a trunk wash for the purpose of tuberculosis testing. Five female elephants, 4 juveniles and 1 adult, were enrolled in the project. Data were collected in the form of minutes of training, number of offers made for each training task, and success rate for each task in performance tests. Four out of 5 elephants, all juveniles, successfully learned the trunk wash in 35 sessions or fewer, with each session lasting a mean duration of 12 min. The elephants' performance improved from a mean success rate of 39.0% to 89.3% during the course of the training. This study proves that it is feasible to efficiently train juvenile, free-contact, traditionally trained elephants in Nepal to voluntarily and reliably participate in a trunk wash using only SPR techniques. PMID:24410366

  20. The association between back pain and trunk posture of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Raymond YW

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aims to determine the time spent in different static trunk postures during a typical working day of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps. Methods Eighteen workers with low back pain (LBP and fifteen asymptomatic workers were recruited. A cross-sectional design was employed to study the time spent in different static trunk postures which was recorded by a biaxial accelerometer attached to the T12 level of the back of the subjects. Results The results of ANCOVA revealed that subjects with LBP spent significantly longer percentage of time in static trunk posture when compared to normal (p Conclusion An innovative method has been developed for continuous tracking of spinal posture, and this has potential for widespread applications in the workplace. The findings of the present investigation suggest that teachers in special schools are at increased risk of getting LBP. In order to minimise such risk, frequent postural change and awareness of work posture are recommended.

  1. Complete remission of a lymphoma-associated chylothorax by radiotherapy of the celiac trunk and thoracic duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, J.; Fruehauf, J.; Bremer, M. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Kofahl-Krause, D. [Dept. of Hematology, Hemostasis, Stem Cell Transplantation and Oncology, Hannover Medical School (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Background: a chylothorax is a rare complication of mostly advanced malignant lymphomas. A case of a refractory chylothorax unresponsive to chemotherapy and successfully treated with radiotherapy is reported. Case report: a 45-year-old woman with recurrent stage IV low-grade follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and a progressive chylothorax is described. The CT scans showed bulky lymphadenopathy at the thoracic trunk but no detectable enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes. After ineffective pretreatment including chemotherapy and chest drainage, fractionated radiotherapy to the celiac trunk (20.4 Gy) and the thoracic duct (15 Gy) was performed. Result: already after 7.5 Gy a rapid decline of chylothorax was noted and the chest drain could be removed. A complete remission of the chylothorax could be achieved after 20.4 Gy. During a follow-up of 16 months no recurrence of chylothorax occurred. CT scans showed nearly complete remission of the lymphadenopathy of the celiac trunk 12 months after radiotherapy. Conclusion: radiotherapy with limited total doses is an effective treatment option for lymphoma-associated chylothorax and should always be taken into consideration, especially in cases unresponsive to chemotherapy. (orig.)

  2. Conduction between left superior pulmonary vein and left atria and atria fibrillation under cervical vagal trunk stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Yuemei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of cervical vagal trunk stimulation on conduction between left superior pulmonary vein and left atria and atria fibrillation have not been systematically studied. We attempted to investigate the electrical conduction between LA and LSPV in dogs with cervical vagal trunk stimulation and evaluate the possible underline substrates for local reentry and initiation and maintenance of AF. Methods: 12 mongrel dogs (18-25 kg underwent cervical vagal trunk stimulation at high-frequency (60 ms, 1-4V to produce sinus arrest lasting >2 seconds,complete atrioventricular AV blocking or the sinus rate decreasing more than 50%. Left lateral thoracotomy was performed and the heart was exposed in a pericardial cradle. The HRA, LAA, PV-LAJ, LSPVm and LSPVd was locally stimulated (100 ms, 2-8V. ERP of HRA, LAA, PV-LAJ and within LSPV, ERP heterogeneity within LSPV and conduction between left superior pulmonary vein and left atria and atrial fibrillation inducing rate with vagal response was analyzed. Results: 1. During cervical vagal stimulation, the heart rate was reduced significantly from baseline 156±34 bpm to 75±34 bpm (p Conclusion: Our study strongly suggested that fast ectopic beating, abnormal vagal nerve activation as well as remodeling conduction between left superior pulmonary vein and left atria might are the common underline substrates for local reentry and AF initiation and maintenance.

  3. Effect of different hand positions on trunk and shoulder kinematics and reaction forces in sitting pivot transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Shin; Her, Jin Gan; Ko, Tae Sung

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in trunk and shoulder angles, and reaction forces under the two hands elicited by different hand base of support positions during sitting pivot transfer. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen unimpaired subjects performed independent sitting pivot transfer. Subjects performed sitting pivot transfer between an initial seat to a target seat by only using their hands positioned at the same height as and lower than the seat position. Trunk and shoulder kinematics, and reaction forces on the trailing and leading hands were calculated. Mean peak joint angles and forces were compared between the hand positions using the pared t-test for the lift phase of the transfer. [Results] There were significant increases in the trunk angles of forward and lateral flexion, even though rotation decreased while transferring in the lower hand position. Increased shoulder flexion, anterior/posterior forces and reduced lateral forces were also shown. [Conclusion] Placing the hands of the supporting arms lower than the seat position during sitting pivot transfer was identified as having biomechanical advantages. Therefore, the lower hand position can be recommended as an effective and safe method for sitting pivot transfer by patients with spinal cord injury and can be utilized as a reference data for considering the appropriate height of aids for a wheelchair. PMID:26310994

  4. Positive reinforcement training for a trunk wash in Nepal's working elephants: demonstrating alternatives to traditional elephant training techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Ariel; Acharya, Narayan; Kaufman, Gretchen E

    2014-01-01

    Many trainers of animals in the zoo now rely on positive reinforcement training to teach animals to voluntarily participate in husbandry and veterinary procedures in an effort to improve behavioral reliability, captive management, and welfare. However, captive elephant handlers in Nepal still rely heavily on punishment- and aversion-based methods. The aim of this project was to determine the effectiveness of secondary positive reinforcement (SPR) in training free-contact elephants in Nepal to voluntarily participate in a trunk wash for the purpose of tuberculosis testing. Five female elephants, 4 juveniles and 1 adult, were enrolled in the project. Data were collected in the form of minutes of training, number of offers made for each training task, and success rate for each task in performance tests. Four out of 5 elephants, all juveniles, successfully learned the trunk wash in 35 sessions or fewer, with each session lasting a mean duration of 12 min. The elephants' performance improved from a mean success rate of 39.0% to 89.3% during the course of the training. This study proves that it is feasible to efficiently train juvenile, free-contact, traditionally trained elephants in Nepal to voluntarily and reliably participate in a trunk wash using only SPR techniques.

  5. Three-dimensional kinematics of the scapula and trunk, and associated scapular muscle timing in individuals with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baets, Liesbet; Van Deun, Sara; Monari, Davide; Jaspers, Ellen

    2016-08-01

    Poor scapulothoracic control is a risk for developing shoulder pathology, but has received little attention so far in individuals with stroke (IwS). Trunk and scapular kinematics and surface muscle activity were measured in 15 healthy controls and 18 IwS during a low and high forward flexion (FF). Group-differences in trunk and scapular kinematics were assessed during low and high FF using a t-test (independent samples). Differences in muscle onset and offset time relative to movement start (both FF tasks) were determined using a mixed model taking into account the different groups and muscles. Recruitment patterns per group and task were described based on significant differences between muscles. In IwS, earlier lower trapezius and late infraspinatus offset were found during low FF, as well as a later onset and earlier offset of serratus anterior. For low FF, significantly more trunk axial rotation was found in IwS during both elevation and lowering. During high FF, IwS showed significantly less scapular posterior tilt during elevation and more scapular lateral rotation during lowering. IwS demonstrated adaptive muscle timing with earlier initiation and late inactivation of lower trapezius and infraspinatus, possibly to compensate for a late activation and early deactivation of the serratus anterior and to establish as such the correct pattern of scapulothoracic movement. PMID:27155342

  6. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  7. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain.

  8. Three-dimensional kinematics of the scapula and trunk, and associated scapular muscle timing in individuals with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baets, Liesbet; Van Deun, Sara; Monari, Davide; Jaspers, Ellen

    2016-08-01

    Poor scapulothoracic control is a risk for developing shoulder pathology, but has received little attention so far in individuals with stroke (IwS). Trunk and scapular kinematics and surface muscle activity were measured in 15 healthy controls and 18 IwS during a low and high forward flexion (FF). Group-differences in trunk and scapular kinematics were assessed during low and high FF using a t-test (independent samples). Differences in muscle onset and offset time relative to movement start (both FF tasks) were determined using a mixed model taking into account the different groups and muscles. Recruitment patterns per group and task were described based on significant differences between muscles. In IwS, earlier lower trapezius and late infraspinatus offset were found during low FF, as well as a later onset and earlier offset of serratus anterior. For low FF, significantly more trunk axial rotation was found in IwS during both elevation and lowering. During high FF, IwS showed significantly less scapular posterior tilt during elevation and more scapular lateral rotation during lowering. IwS demonstrated adaptive muscle timing with earlier initiation and late inactivation of lower trapezius and infraspinatus, possibly to compensate for a late activation and early deactivation of the serratus anterior and to establish as such the correct pattern of scapulothoracic movement.

  9. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hee Won; Baek, Sora; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm²) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829. PMID:27550488

  10. The effects of trunk stability exercise and a combined exercise program on pain, flexibility, and static balance in chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwangbo, Gak; Lee, Chae-Woo; Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Hyeon-Su

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of trunk stability exercise and combined exercise program on pain, flexibility, and static balance in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty persons diagnosed with chronic low back pain were divided into a trunk stability exercise group and a combined exercise group and then conducted exercise for six weeks. [Results] VAS and sway lengths decreased significantly in both groups. A comparison of sway lengths after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the trunk stability exercise group had a bigger decrease than the combined exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that trunk stability exercise would have bigger effect than combined exercise on the daily activities of chronic low back pain patients as it strengthens deep abdominal muscles and improves flexibility and balancing ability.

  11. Perception of stress level, trunk appearance, body function and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated conservatively: a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Latuszewska, Joanna; Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In the presented study, we aimed to assess changes over time in the perception of trunk deformity, body function, stress level and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were treated conservatively with a Cheneau brace, taking the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS), Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQ) criteria of evaluation into consideration. Methods The study design was comprised of three quest...

  12. A modified total arch replacement combined with a stented elephant trunk implantation for acute type A dissection under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Su-Min; Xu, Ping; Cheng-xiang LI; Huang, Qiang; Gao, Hong-Bo; Li, Zhen-Fu; Chang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Since the optimal management of patients with acute aortic dissection is unclear, this study analyzed total arch replacement combined with stented elephant trunk implantation in the treatment of acute type A aortic dissection. Methods Between February 2008 and February 2013, 86 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital for acute type A dissection underwent total arch replacement combined with stented elephant trunk implantation under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. The Ben...

  13. Quantitative Fraction Evaluation of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibres in the Skin Samples Obtained in Two Orientations from the Trunk Region

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Kumar; Pramod Kumar; Satheesha Nayak Badagabettu; Keerthana Prasad; Ranjini Kudva; Coimbatore Vasudevarao Raghuveer

    2014-01-01

    Background. Histomorphic evaluation of dermal collagen and elastic fibres was analysed by image analysis technique. The quantification of dermal elements was performed in skin tissues, collected in horizontal and vertical directions from trunk region and discussed under the perspective of consequences of scar related complications. Materials and Method. Total number of 200 skin samples collected from 5 areas of trunk region were processed histologically and subjected to tissue-quant image...

  14. Sensory Interactions for Head and Trunk Control in Space in Young and Older Adults During Normal and Narrow-Base Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Deshpande, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen young (20-30 years old) and 15 older (>65 years old) healthy participants were recruited to investigate age-related differences in head and trunk control under suboptimal vestibular conditions (galvanic vestibular stimulation, or GVS) and vision conditions during normal and narrow-based walking. Head-roll velocity decreased in the blurred-vision condition and marginally increased with GVS in older but not in young participants. Head pitch increased, whereas head-roll velocity decreased in narrow-base walking. Trunk pitch, trunk-pitch velocity, and gait speed increased with GVS, whereas trunk-pitch velocity and gait speed decreased in narrow-base walking. Marginally increased head-roll velocity in the older participants possibly suggests decreased integrative ability of the central nervous system in elderly people. The changes in head control during narrow-base walking may be an attempt to simplify the interpretation of the vestibular signal and increase otolith sensitivity. The complexity of controlling the trunk in the mediolateral direction was suggested by different strategies used for trunk control in different conditions. PMID:25675141

  15. Postural responses to anterior and posterior perturbations applied to the upper trunk of standing human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebatch, James G; Govender, Sendhil; Dennis, Danielle L

    2016-02-01

    This study concerned the effects of brisk perturbations applied to the shoulders of standing subjects to displace them either forwards or backwards, our aim being to characterise the responses to these disturbances. Subjects stood on a force platform, and acceleration was measured at the level of C7, the sacrum and both tibial tuberosities. Surface EMG was measured from soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA), the hamstrings (HS), quadriceps (QUAD), rectus abdominis (RA) and lumbar paraspinal (PS) muscles. Trials were recorded for each of four conditions: subjects' eyes open (reference) or closed and on a firm (reference) or compliant surface. Observations were also made of voluntary postural reactions to a tap over the deltoid. Anterior perturbations (mean C7 acceleration 251.7 mg) evoked activity within the dorsal muscles (SOL, HS, PS) with a similar latency to voluntary responses to shoulder tapping. Responses to posterior perturbations (mean C7 acceleration -240.4 mg) were more complex beginning, on average, at shorter latency than voluntary activity (median TA 78.0 ms). There was activation of TA, QUAD and SOL associated with initial forward acceleration of the lower legs. The EMG responses consisted of an initial phasic discharge followed by a more prolonged one. These responses differ from the pattern of automatic postural responses that follow displacements at the level of the ankles, and it is unlikely that proprioceptive afferents excited by ankle movement had a role in the initial responses. Vision and surface properties had only minor effects. Perturbations of the upper trunk evoke stereotyped compensatory postural responses for each direction of perturbation. For posterior perturbations, EMG onset occurs earlier than for voluntary responses. PMID:26487178

  16. Postural control during transient floor translation while standing with the leg and trunk fixed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Naoe; Maekawa, Maki; Prokopenko, Semen V; Vasilyevna, Abroskina M

    2015-05-01

    Postural movement was restricted above the ankle, and contingent negative variation (CNV) and postural muscle activity were investigated during a transient floor translation (S2) 2s after an auditory warning signal (S1). For 13 healthy young adults, the joints of the knee, hip, and trunk were fixed using a cast brace. Under no-fixation and fixation, a set of 10 translations was repeated at least 4 times, and center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPap), posterior postural muscle activity of the body (elector spinae (ES), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius (GcM) and soleus (Sol)), and late CNV at Cz were analyzed in the initial two sets (initial set) and last two sets (late set). In the no-fixation, CoPap forward displacement after S2 gradually decreased. In the first trial of the fixation, it had significantly increased, and then rapidly decreased across subsequent trials. CNV peak amplitude was largest in the late set of the fixation. The activity of postural muscles increased just before S2 and in the late set the start time showed high correlations with CNV peak time in all muscles (ES (r=0.88), BF (0.92), GcM (0.80), and Sol (0.89)) under the no-fixation, but exclusively in the GcM (0.84) and Sol (0.88) under the fixation. When postural control was restricted mainly to the ankle, attention would have been focused mainly on processing sensory information from the triceps surae just before the floor translation.

  17. Evaluation of length of the root trunk in first and second molars in population of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini R.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The root trunk (RT of molar teeth is important diagnostic parameter that has a key roll in"ndiagnosis and treatment planning."nThe purpose of this study is presenting a normal index of RT in mandibular molar teeth in different"nbuccal (B. distal (D, Lingual (Li and mesial (M entrances, and to compare them with each other."nIt is a case series study that 351 extracted molar teeth, after removal of soft tissue and debridement of"ncalculus, evaluated with gauge (with accuracy 0.1 mm"nAccording to our measurement:"nIn maxilla: M-side: 3.88± 0.15 mm, B-side: 4.7± 1.7. D- side: 4.87± 0.13mm. So with P.value <0.05 M"nand D RT are longer than and M RT is shorter than D RT."nIn mandibule: B- side: 2.73± 0.11mm and L side: 4.03±- 0.13mm. So with P.value < 0.01 Li RT is longer"nthan B RT."nAccording to ochsenbine classification our studying teeth have medium to long RT. We prescribe for"neducating the crater therapy in periodontal surgery the emphasize must be focused on craters with"nmedium and long RT."nThe shortness of RT in B-side of lower molars needed the most attention during osteoctomy in resective"nprocedures. Because RT not depended to underlying factors such as age, social and economic situation,"nand for large amount of sample size in our study, the result could be extended in Tehran.

  18. Leiomiossarcoma cutâneo no tronco Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma on the trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Carpinteiro André

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O Leiomiossarcoma cutâneo é um tumor maligno que representa 7% dos sarcomas dos tecidos moles, afetando, mais frequentemente, homens entre os 50-70 anos. A localização, no tronco, é atípica, constituindo 10 a 15% dos casos. A radioterapia e o traumatismo prévio têm sido referidos como fatores de risco. Descrevemos um homem de 57 anos, com tumor eritemato-violáceo, indolor, de consistência dura, localizado na região pré-esternal, com cerca de oito meses de evolução. A histopatologia evidenciou tumor maligno de células fusiformes, com núcleos em forma de "charuto", pleomórficos, com alto índice mitótico, ocupando toda a espessura da derme. Estas células expressaram actina do músculo liso, desmina e vimentina e foram negativas para proteína S-100 e pancitoqueratina. Foi efetuada a exérese cirúrgica radical do tumor.Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma is a relatively uncommon tumor that accounts for 7% of all soft tissue sarcomas. It occurs more frequently in males between 50-70 years and only 10-15% of cases are located on the trunk. Radiotherapy and previous trauma have been implied as risk factors. We report the case of a 57 year-old male with an eight-month history of a hard painless erythematous-violaceous tumor on the presternal region. Histopathology evidenced a malignant spindle cell tumor, "cigar" shaped, with pleomorphic nuclei and a high mitotic index that occupied the entire dermal thickness. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cells was positive for smooth muscle actin, desmin and vimentin and negative for S-100 protein and pan-cytokeratin, which supported the diagnosis of dermal leiomyosarcoma. Radical surgery was performed to remove the tumor.

  19. A review of the trunk surface metrics used as Scoliosis and other deformities evaluation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggouris Costas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although scoliosis is characterized by lateral deviation of the spine, a 3D deformation actually is responsible for geometric and morphologic changes in the trunk and rib cage. In a vast related medical literature, one can find quite a few scoliosis evaluation indices, which are based on back surface data and are generally measured along three planes. Regardless the large number of such indices, the literature is lacking a coherent presentation of the underlying metrics, the involved anatomic surface landmarks, the definition of planes and the definition of the related body axes. In addition, the long list of proposed scoliotic indices is rarely presented in cross-reference to each other. This creates a possibility of misunderstandings and sometimes irrational or even wrong use of these indices by the medical society. Materials and methods It is hoped that the current work contributes in clearing up the issue and gives rise to innovative ideas on how to assess the surface metrics in scoliosis. In particular, this paper presents a thorough study on the scoliosis evaluation indices, proposed by the medical society. Results More specifically, the referred indices are classified, according to the type of asymmetry they measure, according to the plane they refer to, according to the importance, and relevance or the level of scientific consensus they enjoy. Conclusions Surface metrics have very little correlation to Cobb angle measurements. Indices measured on different planes do not correlate to each other. Different indices exhibit quite diverging characteristics in terms of observer-induced errors, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Complicated positioning of the patient and ambiguous anatomical landmarks are the major error sources, which cause observer variations. Principles that should be followed when an index is proposed are presented.

  20. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s-1 and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s-1. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching.

  1. Influence of Combinations of Shoulder, Elbow and Trunk Orientation on Elbow Joint Loads in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Inui, Hiroaki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Muto, Tomoyuki; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers is a well-recognized phenomenon. Common problems in pitching mechanics that can lead to injury begin with stride foot contact. The purpose of this study was to address the relationships between the combinations of shoulder, elbow and trunk orientation at the instant of stride foot contact and elbow joint loads in youth baseball pitchers. Methods: A total of 143 Japanese male youth baseball pitchers participated in this study after providing written informed consents approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. The procedures to be performed were also explained to their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Each participant was not currently injured or recovering from an injury at time of testing. For data collection of baseball pitching, a set of 14-mm spherical reflective markers was placed on the skin overlying 34 anatomical landmarks determined. Subsequently, a motion capture three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 500-Hz from 7 charge-coupled-device synchronized cameras was set up around the regulation pitching mound in an indoor laboratory. After performing a preparation routine of stretching and warm-up pitching, each player pitch to 5 fastball pitches off the pitching mound to a catcher at the regulation distance of 16 m for youth pitchers. The best pitch thrown for a strike was chosen for kinematic and kinetic analysis. The local coordinate systems were used to calculate 3-dimesional rotation at the trunk, shoulder and elbow using the typical Eulerian sequence. Afterward, the standard inverse dynamic equation was used to estimate resultant joint forces and torques at throwing shoulder and elbow. In order to normalize data between subjects, forces and torques were expressed as percent using body weight and height. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to assess the combined effects of shoulder (external rotation, abduction and horizontal adduction), elbow

  2. Influence of Combinations of Shoulder, Elbow and Trunk Orientation on Elbow Joint Loads in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Inui, Hiroaki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Muto, Tomoyuki; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers is a well-recognized phenomenon. Common problems in pitching mechanics that can lead to injury begin with stride foot contact. The purpose of this study was to address the relationships between the combinations of shoulder, elbow and trunk orientation at the instant of stride foot contact and elbow joint loads in youth baseball pitchers. Methods: A total of 143 Japanese male youth baseball pitchers participated in this study after providing written informed consents approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. The procedures to be performed were also explained to their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Each participant was not currently injured or recovering from an injury at time of testing. For data collection of baseball pitching, a set of 14-mm spherical reflective markers was placed on the skin overlying 34 anatomical landmarks determined. Subsequently, a motion capture three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 500-Hz from 7 charge-coupled-device synchronized cameras was set up around the regulation pitching mound in an indoor laboratory. After performing a preparation routine of stretching and warm-up pitching, each player pitch to 5 fastball pitches off the pitching mound to a catcher at the regulation distance of 16 m for youth pitchers. The best pitch thrown for a strike was chosen for kinematic and kinetic analysis. The local coordinate systems were used to calculate 3-dimesional rotation at the trunk, shoulder and elbow using the typical Eulerian sequence. Afterward, the standard inverse dynamic equation was used to estimate resultant joint forces and torques at throwing shoulder and elbow. In order to normalize data between subjects, forces and torques were expressed as percent using body weight and height. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to assess the combined effects of shoulder (external rotation, abduction and horizontal adduction), elbow

  3. The effect of a trunk release maneuver on Peak Pressure Index, trunk displacement and perceived discomfort in older adults seated in a high Fowler’s position: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Krista L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pressure ulcers pose significant negative individual consequences and financial burden on the healthcare system. Prolonged sitting in High Fowler’s position (HF is common clinical practice for older adults who spend extended periods of time in bed. While HF aids in digestion and respiration, being placed in a HF may increase perceived discomfort and risk of pressure ulcers due to increased pressure magnitude at the sacral and gluteal regions. It is likely that shearing forces could also contribute to risk of pressure ulcers in HF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-tech and time-efficient Trunk Release Manuever (TRM on sacral and gluteal pressure, trunk displacement and perceived discomfort in ambulatory older adults. Method A randomized controlled trial was used. We recruited community-living adults who were 60 years of age and older using posters, newspaper advertisements and word-of-mouth. Participants were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group (n = 59 received the TRM, while the control group (n = 58 maintained the standard HF position. Results The TRM group had significantly lower mean (SD PPI values post-intervention compared to the control group, 59.6 (30.7 mmHg and 79.9 (36.5 mmHg respectively (p = 0.002. There was also a significant difference in trunk displacement between the TRM and control groups, +3.2 mm and −5.8 mm respectively (p = 0.005. There were no significant differences in perceived discomfort between the groups. Conclusion The TRM was effective for reducing pressure in the sacral and gluteal regions and for releasing the trunk at the point of contact between the skin and the support surface, but did not have an effect on perceived discomfort. The TRM is a simple method of repositioning which may have important clinical application for the prevention of pressure ulcers that may occur as a result of HF.

  4. Identification of motor and sensory fascicles in peripheral nerve trunk using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wang; Dongxin Liu; Feiyu Ma; Xuedong Li; Shixin Du

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of methods have been used to identify and distinguish motor and sensory nerves. However, their application is limited clinically due to the complex operation, time consumption, and subjectivity. Raman spectroscopy is a minimally invasive method that provides information about molecular structure and constitutions and has been frequently used for tissue identification.OBJECTIVE: To explore a time-efficient method of identifying motor and sensory fascicles in peripheral nerve trunk using laser micro-Raman spectroscopy.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A comparative observation was performed at the Key Laboratory of Excited States Physics in Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun Branch, from October 2004 to October 2005.MATERIALS: JY-HR800 laser confocal micro-Raman spectrometer was purchased from Jobin-Yvon,France; 2060-10 argon ion laser was purchased from Spectra-Physics, USA.METHODS: A total of 32 New Zealand rabbits were selected and sacrificed. The roots of spinal nerves were exposed under an operating microscope, and the anterior and posterior roots,approximately 3-5 ram, were dissociated, and frozen as transverse sections of 30 μm thickness.The sections were examined by micro-Raman spectroscopy.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The specific spectral features of motor and sensory fascicles in the Raman spectra.RESULTS: Sections of the same type of nerve fascicle showed reproducibility with similar spectral features. Significant differences in the spectral properties, such as the intensity and breadth of the peak, were found between motor and sensory fascicles in the frequency regions of 1 088, 1 276,1 439, 1 579, and 1 659 cm-1. With the peak intensity ratio of 1.06 (/1 276/1 439) as a standard, we could identify motor fascicles with a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 94 %, positive predictive value of 93% and negative predictive value of 88%. In the range of 2 700-3 500 cm-1, the half-peak width of the motor fascicles was narrow and sharp, while that of

  5. Physicochemical and structural characterization of alkali soluble lignins from oil palm trunk and empty fruit-bunch fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Fang, J M; Tomkinson, J; Bolton, J

    1999-07-01

    Six alkali soluble lignin fractions were extracted from the cell wall materials of oil palm trunk and empty fruit-bunch (EFB) fibers with 5% NaOH, 10% NaOH, and 24% KOH/2% H(3)BO(3). All of the lignin fractions contained rather low amounts of associated neutral sugars (0.8-1.2%) and uronic acids (1.1-2.0%). The lignin fractions isolated with 5% NaOH from the lignified palm trunk and EFB fibers gave a relatively higher degree of polymerization as shown by weight-average molecular weights ranging between 2620 and 2840, whereas the lignin fractions isolated with 10% NaOH and 24% KOH/2% H(3)BO(3) from the partially delignified palm trunk and EFB fibers showed a relatively lower degree of polymerization, as shown by weight-average molecular weights ranging between 1750 and 1980. The results obtained by alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation showed that all of the lignin preparations contained a high proportion of noncondensed syringyl units with small amounts of noncondensed guaiacyl and fewer p-hydroxyphenyl units. The lignin fraction extracted with 5% NaOH from the lignified EFB fiber was mainly composed of beta-O-4 ether-linked units. Small amounts of 5-5', beta-5, and beta-beta' carbon-carbon linkages were also found to be present between the lignin structural units. Further studies showed that uronic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and ferulic acids in the cell walls of palm fibers were esterified to lignin. PMID:10552589

  6. Medullosalean fusain trunk from the roof rocks of a coal seam: Insight from FTIR and NMR (Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); D' Angelo, Jose A. [Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT-CONICET-Mendoza, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n Parque Gral. San Martin (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Area de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario - M5502JMA - Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-05-01

    Reported for the first time from the Sydney Coalfield, Canada, is a fragmentary fusain (R{sub o} = 2.51%) specimen, 41 cm long, of a medullosalean trunk or massive petiole that originated from the roof rocks of the banded bituminous Hub Seam (R{sub o} {proportional_to} 0.65%). Megascopic characteristics of the flat-preserved specimen include an irregular-cracked fusain surface with secretinite-rodlet structures and sclerenchymatous strands some of which still embedded in the shaly matrix, and locally preserved vitrain (R{sub o} 0.69%). Co-occurrence with a compression flora composed virtually of only the seed-fern taxon Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri (Hoffmann) is noted. The goal of this study is to provide a framework for the phytophysicochemical taphonomic history which includes the perspective on vitrinite/fusinite relationship, formation of fusinite, and on the significance the only fusinized identifiable plant-fossil specimen in the Sydney Coalfield. We use state-of-the-art solid-state FTIR, {sup 13}C, {sup 1}H NMR CP/MAS techniques, and standard reflected-light microscopy and SEM methods as investigative tools. Results indicate that the fusinite is characterized by long and narrow xylem fibers, without fungal signals, and cell structures infilled with pyrite and carbonate. FTIR spectra of the fusinite and secretinite are similar particularly in respect to high absorbance of aromatic and low absorbance of aliphatic compounds, and absorbance of Si-O functionalities relating to kaolinite. {sup 13}C NMR experiments with direct carbon excitation quantify the aromatic to aliphatic ratio as being 20 {+-} 3:1. As part of the taphonomic history, the evidence favors a hot, > 400 C, directional surface-fueled flame palaeofire of local extent that charred trunks of growing arborescent seed ferns on only one side, and that these trunks were transported to comprise part of the roof rocks of the Hub Seam. (author)

  7. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. PMID:25462474

  8. MRI in callosal apraxia and agraphia due to a traumatic lesion in the posterior trunk of the corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumura, Shuichi; Ito, Naoki; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Iwabuchi, Reiko

    1987-08-01

    We discussed functional topography of the corpus callosum in a case with ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand due to a traumatic callosal hematoma confirmed by MRI. The patient was a 35-year-old right-handed woman with head injury in a traffic accident. On admission she was semi-comatose with left oculomotor palsy and her left upper limb showed a decorticate rigidity by noxious stimuli, however, she became alert within 14 days. X-ray CT showed an abnormal high density area in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum on admission. MRI (inversion recovery technique) on the 60th hospital day showed a low intensity area extending for about 2 cm posteriorly from the center of the trunk. Sequential neuropsychological examinations for the callosal disconnection syndrome were performed. The patient showed ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia in her left hand only. Her response to verbal commands were all parapraxic except for correct use of a comb and a tooth brush. Her writings with her left hand were those of scrawls due to apraxia. These apraxia and agraphia of the left hand were transient and recovered completely within 80 days of onset. Transient impairement of bimanual coordination movement was also observed. Ataxie optique, callosal pseudoneglect, left hand tactile anomia, difficulty of somesthetic transfer or diagonistic dyspraxia was not observed. Based on the neuropsychological and the MRI findings we suggest that the lesion in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum is important for causing ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand.

  9. COMPARISON OF TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING BRIDGING EXERCISES USING A SLING IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyungKyu Kang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the activation of global and local muscles of the trunk during bridging with sling exercise (BSE, bridging with ball exercise (BBE, and normal bridging exercise (NBE and to conduct and analyze these exercises in supine and prone positions to prove the effectiveness of sling exercises. Thirty patients with current low back pain (LBP were recruited. In the supine and prone bridging exercise, each subject lifted their pelvis with their legs and feet in contact with the sling, ball, or normal surface. The electrical activities of the inferior oblique (IO, rectus abdominis (RA, multifidus (MF, and erector spinae (ES muscles during the bridging exercises on the 3 surfaces were measured using surface electromyography (sEMG. For normalization, maximum sEMG signals were evaluated during each maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC maneuver. The root mean square during the exercise was normalized as a percentage of the MVIC (%MVIC. In the supine and prone positions, %MVIC of the IO, RA, MF, and ES during BSE was significantly higher than those during BBE and NBE (p < 0.05. In the supine position, %MVIC of the RA and ES during BBE was significantly higher than that during NBE (p < 0.05. In the prone position, all %MVIC during BBE were significantly higher than NBE (p < 0.05. These results verify the theory that the use of an unstable surface increases the activation of global and local trunk muscles during bridging exercises in the supine and prone positions. In conclusion, the use of BSE in a rehabilitation program may have therapeutic effects for patients with LBP by increasing trunk muscle activation

  10. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Lin; Cao, Xuecheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Lifeng; Wang, Pingshan; Cai, Jinfang

    2012-01-01

    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was...

  11. Method for generating a mesh representation of a region characterized by a trunk and a branch thereon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jason; Mitchell, Scott A.; Jankovich, Steven R.; Benzley, Steven E.

    2007-05-15

    The present invention provides a meshing method, called grafting, that lifts the prior art constraint on abutting surfaces, including surfaces that are linking, source/target, or other types of surfaces of the trunk volume. The grafting method locally modifies the structured mesh of the linking surfaces allowing the mesh to conform to additional surface features. Thus, the grafting method can provide a transition between multiple sweep directions extending sweeping algorithms to 23/4-D solids. The method is also suitable for use with non-sweepable volumes; the method provides a transition between meshes generated by methods other than sweeping as well.

  12. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of the trunk bark of Alstonia scholaris (L. R.Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anowar Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alstonia scholaris (L. R.Br. (Apocynaceae, called satiyana in Assamese, is an evergreen tropical tree native to the Indian sub-continent and South East Asia. A. scholaris has a rough grayish bark and a milky sap rich in poisonous alkaloids. The tree is traditionally used by many ethnic groups of North-East India and elsewhere as a remedy for various ailments. Scientific standardization and pharmaco-botanical parameters for the trunk bark is limited; hence this study, which attempts to both analyze the phytochemical composition and establish a physicochemical standard. This information will be helpful in controlling quality parameters for the development of drugs

  13. Real-time screening tests for functional alignment of the trunk and lower extremities in adolescent – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The presence of neuromuscular imbalance (Hewett, 2010) or functional malalignment may be part of the increased rate of adolescent knee injuries, specifically the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Abnormal lateral trunk and knee abduction moment are possibly linked to the biomechanical...... mechanisms resulting in ACL injuries (Hewett, 2010). Prevention may therefore depend on identifying these potentially injury risk factors. Screening tools must thus include patterns of typical movements in sport and leisure time activities, consisting of high-load and multi-directional tests, focusing...

  14. An investigation of leg and trunk strength and reaction times of hard-style martial arts practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Oliver O; Cheung, Jeanette; Catley, Maria; McGregor, Alison H; Strutton, Paul H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk and knee strength in practitioners of hard-style martial arts. An additional objective was to examine reaction times in these participants by measuring simple reaction times (SRT), choice reaction times (CRT) and movement times (MT). Thirteen high-level martial artists and twelve sedentary participants were tested under isokinetic and isometric conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Response and movement times were also measured in response to simple and choice auditory cues. Results indicated that the martial arts group generated a greater body-weight adjusted peak torque with both legs at all speeds during isokinetic extension and flexion, and in isometric extension but not flexion. In isokinetic and isometric trunk flexion and extension, martial artists tended to have higher peak torques than controls, but they were not significantly different (p > 0.05). During the SRT and CRT tasks the martial artists were no quicker in lifting their hand off a button in response to the stimulus [reaction time (RT)] but were significantly faster in moving to press another button [movement time (MT)]. In conclusion, the results reveal that training in a martial art increases the strength of both the flexors and extensors of the leg. Furthermore, they have faster movement times to auditory stimuli. These results are consistent with the physical aspects of the martial arts. Key PointsMartial artists undertaking hard-style martial arts have greater strength in their knee flexor and extensor muscles as tested under isokinetic testing. Under isometric testing conditions they have stronger knee extensors only.The trunk musculature is generally higher under both conditions of testing in the martial artists, although not significantly.The total reaction times of the martial artists to an auditory stimulus were significantly faster than the control participants. When analysed further it was revealed that the decrease in reaction time

  15. Android在数字集群通信终端中的应用%Application of Android in digital trunked radio communication terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢拥军; 鄢楚平; 汪涵

    2012-01-01

    为了使数字集群通信终端智能化并兼容Android平台丰富的应用,对如何将目前流行的智能操作系统Android应用到数字集群通信终端中进行了研究和实现.对于数字集群通信终端的重要组成部分——电话系统,详细地分析了Android自带的Telephony框架,然后根据TETRA数字集群系统的特点对Telephony框架进行了修改,最后对已修改的Android系统在TI的OMAP3530平台上进行了验证,实现了数字集群通信终端特有的功能.%To intelligentize the digital trunked radio communication terminal and make it compatible with the abundant applications of Android platform, the problemon how to apply the current popular smartphone's Android operating system is researched and implemented to digital trunked radio communication terminal. For the important part of digital trunked radio communication terminal, the telephony framework is analyzed in detail. Then, the telephony system is modified according to the characteristics of the TETRA digital trunked system. At last, the modified Android system is verified on the OMAP3530 platform of texas instruments, and achieved the specific features of the digital trunked communication terminal.

  16. Minimizing the cost of locomotion with inclined trunk predicts crouched leg kinematics of small birds at realistic levels of elastic recoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Christian; Sutedja, Yefta; Kilbourne, Brandon M; Blickhan, Reinhard; Andrada, Emanuel

    2016-02-01

    Small birds move with pronograde trunk orientation and crouched legs. Although the pronograde trunk has been suggested to be beneficial for grounded running, the cause(s) of the specific leg kinematics are unknown. Here we show that three charadriiform bird species (northern lapwing, oystercatcher, and avocet; great examples of closely related species that differ remarkably in their hind limb design) move their leg segments during stance in a way that minimizes the cost of locomotion. We imposed measured trunk motions and ground reaction forces on a kinematic model of the birds. The model was used to search for leg configurations that minimize leg work that accounts for two factors: elastic recoil in the intertarsal joint, and cheaper negative muscle work relative to positive muscle work. A physiological level of elasticity (∼ 0.6) yielded segment motions that match the experimental data best, with a root mean square of angular deviations of ∼ 2.1 deg. This finding suggests that the exploitation of elastic recoil shapes the crouched leg kinematics of small birds under the constraint of pronograde trunk motion. Considering that an upright trunk and more extended legs likely decrease the cost of locomotion, our results imply that the cost of locomotion is a secondary movement criterion for small birds. Scaling arguments suggest that our approach may be utilized to provide new insights into the motion of extinct species such as dinosaurs.

  17. Kinetics of throwing arm joints and the trunk motion during an overarm distance throw by skilled Japanese elementary school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasuto; Ae, Michiyoshi; Miyazaki, Akiyo; Fujii, Norihisa; Iiboshi, Akira; Nakatani, Hideki

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate joint kinetics of the throwing arms and role of trunk motion in skilled elementary school boys during an overarm distance throw. Throwing motions of 42 boys from second, fourth, and sixth grade were videotaped with three high-speed cameras operating at 300 fps. Seven skilled boys from each grade were selected on the basis of throwing distance for three-dimensional kinetic analysis. Joint forces, torques, and torque powers of the throwing arm joints were calculated from reconstructed three-dimensional coordinate data smoothed at cut-off frequencies of 10.5-15 Hz and by the inverse dynamics method. Throwing distance and ball velocity significantly increased with school grade. The angular velocity of elbow extension before ball release increased with school grade, although no significant increase between the grades was observed in peak extension torque of elbow joint. The joint torque power of shoulder internal/external rotation tended to increase with school grade. When teaching the overarm throw, elementary school teachers should observe large backward twisting of trunk during the striding phase and should keep in mind that young children, such as second graders (age 8 years), will be unable to effectively utilise shoulder external/internal rotation during the throwing phase.

  18. Rs9939609 variant of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and trunk obesity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Renner, Wilfried; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate

    2011-01-01

    A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609) in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP), homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence. PMID:21318054

  19. Rs9939609 Variant of the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and Trunk Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609 in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP, homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence.

  20. Forensic identification of trunk mat by trace element analysis of single fiber with laser ablation ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) to the chemical characterization of single trunk mat fibers made of PET was investigated in order to establish a forensic analytical method for the discrimination of samples of different origins. The analytical conditions of LA-ICP-MS equipped with a 213 nm Nd : YAG laser were optimized to analyze trace elements, such as Cu, Sb, and Ba at ppm levels. A total of 31 samples produced by 7 car manufactures in Japan were used for analysis. The concentrations of Li, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti, Co, Cu, Ge, Nb, Sb, Ta, and Pb were successfully measured from a single fiber sample with a diameter of ca. 20 μm. It was possible to discriminate all 31 samples based on the analytical results of a single fiber by LA-ICP-MS combined with those of FT-IR and SEM-EDS. LA-ICP-MS has good analytical sensitivity, and requires a much shorter preparation time and a smaller sample size than any other conventional element analysis methods. This paper demonstrates for the first time that this method is practically useful as a powerful tool for the forensic identification of a single trunk mat fiber. (author)

  1. Kinetics of throwing arm joints and the trunk motion during an overarm distance throw by skilled Japanese elementary school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasuto; Ae, Michiyoshi; Miyazaki, Akiyo; Fujii, Norihisa; Iiboshi, Akira; Nakatani, Hideki

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate joint kinetics of the throwing arms and role of trunk motion in skilled elementary school boys during an overarm distance throw. Throwing motions of 42 boys from second, fourth, and sixth grade were videotaped with three high-speed cameras operating at 300 fps. Seven skilled boys from each grade were selected on the basis of throwing distance for three-dimensional kinetic analysis. Joint forces, torques, and torque powers of the throwing arm joints were calculated from reconstructed three-dimensional coordinate data smoothed at cut-off frequencies of 10.5-15 Hz and by the inverse dynamics method. Throwing distance and ball velocity significantly increased with school grade. The angular velocity of elbow extension before ball release increased with school grade, although no significant increase between the grades was observed in peak extension torque of elbow joint. The joint torque power of shoulder internal/external rotation tended to increase with school grade. When teaching the overarm throw, elementary school teachers should observe large backward twisting of trunk during the striding phase and should keep in mind that young children, such as second graders (age 8 years), will be unable to effectively utilise shoulder external/internal rotation during the throwing phase. PMID:27125238

  2. Exposure to perchlorate induces the formation of macrophage aggregates in the trunk kidney of zebrafish and mosquitofish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, T.; Mukhi, S.; Rinchard, J.J.; Theodorakis, C.W.; Blazer, V.S.; Patino, R.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental contamination of ground and surface waters by perchlorate, derived from ammonium perchlorate (AP) and other perchlorate salts, is of increasing concern. Exposure to perchlorate can impair the thyroid endocrine system, which is thought to modulate renal and immune function in vertebrates. This study with zebrafish Danio rerio and eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki examined the histological effects of perchlorate on the trunk kidney, which in teleosts serves excretory and hemopoietic functions and therefore may be a target of perchlorate effects. Adult zebrafish of both sexes were exposed in the laboratory to waterborne, AP-derived perchlorate at measured concentrations of 18 mg/L for 8 weeks. Adult male mosquitofish were exposed to waterborne sodium perchlorate at measured perchlorate concentrations of 1-92 mg/L for 8 weeks. Control fish were kept in untreated water. The region of the body cavity containing the trunk kidney was processed from each fish for histological analysis. Macrophage aggregates (MAs), possible markers of contaminant exposure or immunotoxic effect, were present in the hemopoietic region of the kidney in both species exposed to perchlorate. The estimated percent area of kidney sections occupied by MAs was greater in zebrafish exposed to perchlorate at 18 mg/L (P kidney is affected by exposure to perchlorate. The concentrations of perchlorate at which the effects were noted are relatively high but within the range reported in some contaminated habitats.

  3. AN INVESTIGATION OF LEG AND TRUNK STRENGTH AND REACTION TIMES OF HARD-STYLE MARTIAL ARTS PRACTITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver O'Donovan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk and knee strength in practitioners of hard-style martial arts. An additional objective was to examine reaction times in these participants by measuring simple reaction times (SRT, choice reaction times (CRT and movement times (MT. Thirteen high-level martial artists and twelve sedentary participants were tested under isokinetic and isometric conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Response and movement times were also measured in response to simple and choice auditory cues. Results indicated that the martial arts group generated a greater body-weight adjusted peak torque with both legs at all speeds during isokinetic extension and flexion, and in isometric extension but not flexion. In isokinetic and isometric trunk flexion and extension, martial artists tended to have higher peak torques than controls, but they were not significantly different (p > 0.05. During the SRT and CRT tasks the martial artists were no quicker in lifting their hand off a button in response to the stimulus [reaction time (RT] but were significantly faster in moving to press another button [movement time (MT]. In conclusion, the results reveal that training in a martial art increases the strength of both the flexors and extensors of the leg. Furthermore, they have faster movement times to auditory stimuli. These results are consistent with the physical aspects of the martial arts

  4. Rs9939609 Variant of the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and Trunk Obesity in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Renner, Wilfried; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate

    2011-01-01

    A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609) in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP), homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence. PMID:21318054

  5. Comparison of Trunk Stabilization Exercises Using a Gym Ball and Conventional Back Care Exercises for Patients With Chronic Lower Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The trunk muscles are vital for the maintenance of spinal stability. Training of specific muscles surrounding the lumbar spine, which provide dynamic and segmental stability, is one of the major goals in the management of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP. However, more investigation of lumbar stabilization training using a ball is required before making any strong conclusions about its efficacy. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effect of trunk stabilization exercises and conventional back care exercises for patients with chronic LBP. Patients and Methods Thirty male subjects with chronic LBP were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received trunk stabilization exercise using a gym ball whereas the control group received conventional back care exercises for six weeks. The abdominal muscle endurance, pain intensity, and functional disability were measured using pressure biofeedback, visual analogue scale (VAS, and modified Oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline and during week two, four and six. Results The results of the study demonstrated significant improvements in abdominal muscle endurance and reduction in VAS and MODQ score of both groups (P = 0.001. The trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater gains in abdominal muscle endurance during weeks two to six compared to the conventional back care exercise group (P < 0.05. In addition, the trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater reduction in the VAS score (P = 0.035 and MODQ score (P = 0.001 at week six compared to the conventional back care exercise group. Conclusions The trunk stabilization exercises are more effective than conventional back care exercises in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic LBP.

  6. 数字集群GOTA在长春的应用与发展%Digital Trunking GOTA Application and Development in Changchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大亮

    2011-01-01

    文章介绍了数字集群GOTA在长春的发展情况及所存在的主要问题,数字集群GOTA在长春的基本应用情况,以及数字集群GOTA今后在长春发展的方向。%This paper introduces the digital trunking GOTA in Changchtm and the current development status of the main problems,digital trunking GOTA in Changchun basic application,and digital trtmking GOTA the future direction of development in Changchun.

  7. 电动车后备箱逆向工程建模%Reverse Engineering Modeling of Household Electric Car Trunk and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓梅; 程晓宇

    2011-01-01

    对基于逆向工程的家用电动车后备箱建模技术进行了研究。针对家用电动车后备箱的点云特征,提出了模型重构的方法和流程。%The paper studied the technology of the household electric car trunk based on reverse engineering modeling.According to the point cloud characteristics of the household electric car trunk,the reconstruction methods and processes were proposed.

  8. THE IMPACT OF ERGOMETER DESIGN ON HIP AND TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN ELITE ROWERS: AN ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Horne

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used surface electromyography (sEMG to examine whether there were differences in hip and trunk muscle activation during the rowing cycle on two of the most widely used air braked ergometers: the Concept 2C and the Rowperfect. sEMG methods were used to record the muscle activity patterns from the right: m. Erector spinae (ES, m. Rectus Abdominus (RA, m. Rectus Femoris (RF and m. Biceps Femoris (BF for their contributions as agonist-antagonist pairs underlying hip and trunk extension/flexion. The sEMG activity patterns of these muscles were examined in six young male elite rowers completing a 2 minute set at a moderate training intensity (23 stroke·min-1 and 1:47.500 m-1 split time, 300W. The rowers closely maintained the required target pace through visual inspection of the standard LCD display of each ergometer. The measurements of duration of each rowing cycle and onset of each stroke during the test were recorded simultaneously with the sEMG activity through the additional instrumentation of a foot-pressure switch and handle accelerometry. There were no significant differences between the two ergometer designs in group means for: work rate (i.e., rowing speed and stroke rate, metabolic load as measured by mean heart rate, rowing cycle duration, or timing of the stroke in the cycle. 2-D motion analysis of hip and knee motion for the rowing cycle from the video footage taken during the test also revealed no significant differences in the joint range of motion between the ergometers. Ensemble average sEMG activity profiles based on 30+ strokes were obtained for each participant and normalised per 10% intervals of the cycle duration as well as for peak mean sEMG amplitude for each muscle. A repeated measures ANOVA on the sEMG activity per 10% interval for the four muscles contributing to hip and trunk motion during the rowing cycle revealed no significant differences between the Concept 2C and Rowperfect (F = 0.070, df = 1,5, p = 0

  9. Conduction between left superior pulmonary vein and left atria and atria fibrillation under cervical vagal trunk stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Yuemei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of cervical vagal trunk stimulation on conduction between left superior pulmonary vein and left atria and atria fibrillation have not been systematically studied. We attempted to investigate the electrical conduction between LA and LSPV in dogs with cervical vagal trunk stimulation and evaluate the possible underline substrates for local reentry and initiation and maintenance of AF.Methods: 12 mongrel dogs (18-25 kg underwent cervical vagal trunk stimulation at high-frequency (60 ms, 1-4V to produce sinus arrest lasting >2 seconds,complete atrioventricular AV blocking or the sinus rate decreasing more than 50%. Left lateral thoracotomy was performed and the heart was exposed in a pericardial cradle. The HRA, LAA, PV-LAJ, LSPVm and LSPVd was locally stimulated (100 ms, 2-8V. ERP of HRA, LAA, PV-LAJ and within LSPV, ERP heterogeneity within LSPV and conduction between left superior pulmonary vein and left atria and atrial fibrillation inducing rate with vagal response was analyzed.Results: 1. During cervical vagal stimulation, the heart rate was reduced significantly from baseline 156±34 bpm to 75±34 bpm (p<0.05, n=12, ERP of HRA, LAA, PV-LAJ, LSPVm and LSPVd sites was shortened locally in all animals, ERP hetero-geneity (COV-ERP was increased from baseline 3±3% to 30±13% (on average, p<0.05; n=12 and inducibility of AF was increased from baseline 49.9% to 70.9% with S1S1stimulation (100 ms, 2-8V and from baseline 3.7% to 43.5% with S1S2 (5 ms decremented stepwise S1S2 300/200 ms, 2-8V, n=12; 2. LA and PV potentials at LA, PV-LAJ, LSPVm and LSPVd was overlapped during sinus rate and separated remarkably by stimulating at distal part of LSPV (n=9; 3. Unidirectional and bi-directional conduction(n=9, bi-directional decremented conduction (n=6, delayed conduction from LSPVp to LSPVd (n=12 and slow conduction from stimulating signal to local tissue potential (n=9 before onset of AF were recorded by pacing from both LSPV and

  10. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks. PMID:26035983

  11. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sulaiman, Othman; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nasir, Mohammed

    2015-12-10

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated through acid hydrolysis process from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis). The morphological properties of obtained cellulose nanocrystals were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopy images showed smoother and cleaner surface of parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals when compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The TEM image shows a higher length and diameter for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed changes in functional groups after acid hydrolysis due to removal of lignin, hemicelluloses and other impurities in both type of cellulose nanocrystals. Crystallinity index of cellulose nanocrystals was observed higher for vascular bundle as compared to parenchyma. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals and it was observed higher for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle.

  12. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sulaiman, Othman; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nasir, Mohammed

    2015-12-10

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated through acid hydrolysis process from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis). The morphological properties of obtained cellulose nanocrystals were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopy images showed smoother and cleaner surface of parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals when compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The TEM image shows a higher length and diameter for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed changes in functional groups after acid hydrolysis due to removal of lignin, hemicelluloses and other impurities in both type of cellulose nanocrystals. Crystallinity index of cellulose nanocrystals was observed higher for vascular bundle as compared to parenchyma. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals and it was observed higher for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle. PMID:26428155

  13. A history of low back pain affects pelvis and trunk coordination during a sustained manual materials handling task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph F. Seay; Shane G. Sauer; Tejash Patel; Tanja C. Roy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the coordination between the trunk and the pelvis during a sustained asymmetric repetitive lifting task between a group with a history of low back pain (LBP;HBP) and a group with no history of LBP (NBP). Methods: Volunteers lifted a 11-kg box from ankle height in front to a shelf 45° off-center at waist height, and lowered it to the start position at 12 cycles/min for 10 min. Lifting side was alternated during the trial. Continuous relative phase was used to calculate coordination between the pelvis and trunk rotation at the beginning (Min 1), middle (Min 5), and end of the bout (Min 9). Results: While there were no main effects for group, a significant interaction between time and group indicated that, in the frontal plane, the NBP group coordination was more anti-phase toward the end of the bout, with no such differences for the HBP group. Analysis of sagittal-axial (bend and twist) coordination revealed the HBP group coordination was more in-phase at the end of the bout over the entire cycle and for the lifting phase alone, with no such differences for the NBP group. Conclusion: Differences between groups demonstrate residual consequences of LBP in an occupational scenario, even though the HBP group was pain-free for>6 months prior to data collection. More in-phase coordination in the HBP group may represent a coordination pattern analogous to“guarded gait”which has been observed in other studies, and may lend insight as to why these individuals are at increased risk for re-injury.

  14. The development of Archaeopteris: new evolutionary characters from the structural analysis of an Early Famennian trunk from southeast Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Berthaud, B; Scheckler, S E; Bousquet, J L

    2000-04-01

    A 5 m long trunk of a young Archaeopteris/Callixylon erianum tree from the Late Devonian of Morocco shows new branching patterns for early lignophytes. This progymnosperm tree produces a helical pattern of traces that we infer belonged to reduced, short-lived, primary (apical) branches (type A) as well as two types of adventitious traces (types B and H). We infer that type-B traces supplied branches that initiate close to the site of attachment on the trunk of some, but not all type-A branches in an irregular but nonrandom pattern. Unlike ephemeral type-A branches, those of type B persist and become long-lived, potentially permanent units of the architecture of Archaeopteris trees. Type-H adventitious traces are also short-lived and occur singly or in serial groups, but differ from traces of either type A or B branches by lacking differentiation into a readily identifiable organ category. We interpret type-H traces as supplying latent primordia that could develop into either adventitious roots or shoots depending on extrinsic factors. Our new data suggest that Archaeopteris had a wide range of branch primordium amplitude. Type-B branches compare with axillary lateral branch buds of some Early Carboniferous spermatophytes (Calamopitys) and are a major developmental departure from the strictly apical, pseudomonopodial shoot branching of older aneurophyte progymnosperms. Type-H traces suggest that Archaeopteris trees had some potential for formation of adventitious roots or shoots in response to environmental factors, such as partial burial by overbank sedimentation. Collectively, these novel methods of tree branching may partly explain the extraordinary success and worldwide dominance of Archaeopteris forests on fluvially dominated, Late Devonian floodplains.

  15. Cranial-to-caudal approach for radical lymph node dissection along the surgical trunk in laparoscopic right hemicolectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Mitsutsuji, Masaaki; Hirata, Kenro; Maekawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Tomoko; Shimada, Etsuji; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2015-04-01

    Complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation is considered to contribute to superior oncological outcomes after colon cancer surgery [1]. For advanced right-sided colon cancer, this surgery sometimes requires lymph node (LN) dissection along the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), with division of the middle colic vessels, or their right branches, at origin [2]. Here, we present cranially approached radical LN dissection along the surgical trunk during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. The omental bursa is first opened wide, and the gastrocolic trunk of Henle is exposed, using the right gastroepiploic vessels and the accessory right colic vein (ARCV) as landmarks. After division of ARCV, SMV and middle colic vein (MCV) are identified. After dividing MCV at its root, LN dissection along SMV is conducted in a cranial-to-caudal manner. Concurrently, the middle colic artery, or its right branch, is exposed and divided at origin. The transverse colon is then raised ventrally, and LN dissection along SMV using a cranial-to-caudal approach is again performed. The ileocolic and right colic vessels are divided at origin. The ascending and transverse mesocolon, including the pedicles, are then separated from the retroperitoneal tissues, pancreatic head, and duodenum, using a medial approach. The key characteristics in this procedure consist of easy access to pancreas, early division of ARCV and middle colic vessels at origin, and easy dissection along SMV. We performed a laparoscopic colectomy using this approach for 18 patients with right-sided colon cancer. The mean operative time and blood loss were 288 min and 83 ml, respectively. The mean number of harvested LNs was 24. There were 6 cases with positive LN metastasis. There were no recurrent cases at a median follow-up period of 24 months. We consider this approach to be safe and useful for radical LN dissection along SMV for right-sided colon cancers.

  16. Cryptococcus randhawai sp nov., a novel anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast isolated from tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa (peepal tree) from New Delhi, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Z.U.; Ahmad, S.; Hagen, F.; Fell, J.W.; Kowshik, T.; Chandy, R.; Boekhout, T.

    2010-01-01

    A novel anamorphic Cryptococcus species is described, which was isolated in New Delhi (India) from decaying wood of a tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa. On the basis of sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 region seque

  17. Geochemical insights to the formation of "sedimentary buffers": Considering the role of tributary-trunk stream interactions on catchment-scale sediment flux and drainage network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryirs, Kirstie; Gore, Damian B.

    2014-08-01

    The concept of disconnectivity (or decoupling) of sediment movement in river systems is an important concept in analyses of sediment flux in catchments. At the catchment scale, various blockages-termed buffers, barriers and blankets-form along the sediment cascade, interrupting the conveyance of sediments downstream. Long-lived buffers can control aspects of catchment sediment flux for an extended period. The upper Hunter catchment has a highly disconnected sediment cascade. The most highly disconnected subcatchment (Dart Brook) contains a distinct type of buffer, a trapped tributary fill, in its downstream reaches, reducing the effective catchment area of the upper Hunter catchment by ~ 18%. We test the use of elemental analyses provided by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry of homogenous sediment profiles taken from floodplain bank exposures to determine that the geochemical composition of the sediments that make up this trapped-tributary fill system have been derived from two distinct source areas (the tributary system and the trunk stream). Over at least the Holocene, sedimentation along the axis of the Hunter River valley (the trunk stream) has formed an impediment to sediment conveyance along the lower tributary catchment, essentially "trapping" the tributary. We present an evolutionary model of how this type of "blockage" has formed and discuss implications of tributary-trunk stream (dis)connectivity in analysis of catchment-scale sediment flux and drainage network dynamics. In this case, a relatively large tributary network is having a "geomorphically insignificant" impact on trunk stream dynamics.

  18. Movement patterns of the upper extremity and trunk before and after corrective surgery of impaired forearm rotation in patients with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kreulen; M.J.C. Smeulders; H.E.J. Veeger; J.J. Hage

    2006-01-01

    The effect of surgical correction of impaired forearm rotation on associated body movement patterns was studied prospectively by comparison of preoperative and postoperative three-dimensional video analysis of the upper extremity and trunk in eight male and two female patients with hemiplegic cerebr

  19. Quantitative Fraction Evaluation of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibres in the Skin Samples Obtained in Two Orientations from the Trunk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Histomorphic evaluation of dermal collagen and elastic fibres was analysed by image analysis technique. The quantification of dermal elements was performed in skin tissues, collected in horizontal and vertical directions from trunk region and discussed under the perspective of consequences of scar related complications. Materials and Method. Total number of 200 skin samples collected from 5 areas of trunk region were processed histologically and subjected to tissue-quant image analysis. Statistical analysis involving mean with SEM and paired t test by SPSS were employed to the percentage values obtained from image analysis. Result. Among the chosen 5 areas of trunk region, abdomen showed the statistically significant difference for both collagen and elastic content between horizontal and vertical orientations (P< 0.05, whereas upper back, presternal, and lateral chest areas showed significant difference (P< 0.05 only for collagen and groin only for elastic content. Conclusion. The differences in the distribution of dermal collagen and elastic fibres in 2 directions of the samples from the same areas might be attributed to final outcome of wound healing process by influencing the appearance and behaviour of scar related complications in the region of trunk.

  20. The role of pest control advisors in managing grapevine trunk diseases: a survey of perceptions of practice efficacy and trends in recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunk diseases (Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, Phomopsis dieback) significantly limit vineyard productivity. The causal fungi establish chronic wood infections, which accumulate over time. Symptoms do not become obvious until the vineyard is 6-8 years old. Post-infection practices (vi...

  1. Stars at the Tip of Peculiar Elephant Trunk-Like Clouds in IC 1848E: A Possible Third Mechanism of Triggered Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Neelam; Pandey, Anil K; Samal, Manash R; Bhatt, Bhuwan C

    2011-01-01

    The HII region IC 1848 harbors a lot of intricate elephant trunk-like structures that look morphologically different from usual bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs). Of particular interest is a concentration of thin and long elephant trunk-like structures in the southeastern part of IC 1848E. Some of them have an apparently associated star (or two stars) at their very tip. We conducted $VI_{c}$ photometry of several of these stars. Their positions on the $V/(V-I_{c})$ color-magnitude diagram as well as the physical parameters obtained by SED fittings indicate that they are low-mass pre-main-sequence stars having ages of mostly one Myr or less. This strongly suggests that they formed from elongated, elephant trunk-like clouds. We presume that such elephant trunk-like structures are genetically different from BRCs, on the basis of the differences in morphology, size distributions, and the ages of the associated young stars. We suspect that those clouds have been caused by hydrodynamical instability of the ionization/sho...

  2. Trunk and Shoulder Kinematic and Kinetic and Electromyographic Adaptations to Slope Increase during Motorized Treadmill Propulsion among Manual Wheelchair Users with a Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gagnon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to quantify the effects of five different slopes on trunk and shoulder kinematics as well as shoulder kinetic and muscular demands during manual wheelchair (MWC propulsion on a motorized treadmill. Eighteen participants with spinal cord injury propelled their MWC at a self-selected constant speed on a motorized treadmill set at different slopes (0°, 2.7°, 3.6°, 4.8°, and 7.1°. Trunk and upper limb movements were recorded with a motion analysis system. Net shoulder joint moments were computed with the forces applied to the handrims measured with an instrumented wheel. To quantify muscular demand, the electromyographic activity (EMG of the pectoralis major (clavicular and sternal portions and deltoid (anterior and posterior fibers was recorded during the experimental tasks and normalized against maximum EMG values obtained during static contractions. Overall, forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion increased as the slope became steeper, whereas shoulder flexion, adduction, and internal rotation moments along with the muscular demand also increased as the slope became steeper. The results confirm that forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion movement amplitudes, along with shoulder mechanical and muscular demands, generally increase when the slope of the treadmill increases despite some similarities between the 2.7° to 3.6° and 3.6° to 4.8° slope increments.

  3. Trunk and shoulder kinematic and kinetic and electromyographic adaptations to slope increase during motorized treadmill propulsion among manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dany; Babineau, Annie-Claude; Champagne, Audrey; Desroches, Guillaume; Aissaoui, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to quantify the effects of five different slopes on trunk and shoulder kinematics as well as shoulder kinetic and muscular demands during manual wheelchair (MWC) propulsion on a motorized treadmill. Eighteen participants with spinal cord injury propelled their MWC at a self-selected constant speed on a motorized treadmill set at different slopes (0°, 2.7°, 3.6°, 4.8°, and 7.1°). Trunk and upper limb movements were recorded with a motion analysis system. Net shoulder joint moments were computed with the forces applied to the handrims measured with an instrumented wheel. To quantify muscular demand, the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the pectoralis major (clavicular and sternal portions) and deltoid (anterior and posterior fibers) was recorded during the experimental tasks and normalized against maximum EMG values obtained during static contractions. Overall, forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion increased as the slope became steeper, whereas shoulder flexion, adduction, and internal rotation moments along with the muscular demand also increased as the slope became steeper. The results confirm that forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion movement amplitudes, along with shoulder mechanical and muscular demands, generally increase when the slope of the treadmill increases despite some similarities between the 2.7° to 3.6° and 3.6° to 4.8° slope increments. PMID:25793200

  4. The Characteristics of Celiac Trunk Lymph-node Metastases of Esophageal Cancer in the Thoracic Segment and Clinical Significance for Wide-Excision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjiang Wang; Zuoliang Pang; Sikandaer; Wei Sun; Warasijiang; Zhiqin Fan; Feng Xue

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the characteristics of celiac trunk lymph-node metastases of thoracic esophageal carcinoma and their influence on prognosis of the patients, and to investigate a reasonable range for regional celiac trunk lymph-node clearance.METHODS Clinical specimens of 241 patients receiving resection of a thoracic esophageal carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS The rate of the patient celiac lymph-node metastases was 32.4%(78/241), and of the lymph nodes examined, 9.8% were found to have metastasis. The extent of metastases adjacent to the common hepatic artery and celiac trunk and within the hepatoduodenal ligaments was 6.6%, 6.9% and 6.3%, respectively. The tumor site, extent of invasion and level of cell differentiation were the factors influencing lymph-node metastases, but they were unrelated to the length of the tumor. The overall rate of regional celiac recurrence for the patients 3 years after operation was 5.4%. The 3-year survivals for the patients with metastases of the celiac lymph nodes was 42.3%, which was lower compared to the non-metastatic patients (70.6%) (P<0.01).CONCLUSION Celiac lymph-node metastases are one of key factors affecting the prognosis of the patients receiving resection of esophageal cancer, and extensive clearance of the celiac-trunk lymph nodes can reduce the rate of postoperative regional metastases.

  5. The different effects on cranial and trunk neural crest cell behaviour following exposure to a low concentration of alcohol in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnobaj, Joanna; Bagnall, Keith M; Bamforth, J Steven; Milos, Nadine C

    2014-05-01

    Embryonic neural crest cells give rise to large regions of the face and peripheral nervous system. Exposure of these cells to high alcohol concentrations leads to cell death in the craniofacial region resulting in facial defects. However, the effects of low concentrations of alcohol on neural crest cells are not clear. In this study, cranial neural crest cells from Xenopus laevis were cultured in an ethanol concentration approximately equivalent to one drink. Techniques were developed to study various aspects of neural crest cell behaviour and a number of cellular parameters were quantified. In the presence of alcohol, a significant number of cranial neural crest cells emigrated from the explant on fibronectin but the liberation of individual cells was delayed. The cells also remained close to the explant and their morphology changed. Cranial neural crest cells did not grow on Type 1 collagen. For the purposes of comparison, the behaviour of trunk neural crest cells was also studied. The presence of alcohol correlated with increased retention of single cells on fibronectin but left other parameters unchanged. The behaviour of trunk neural crest cells growing on Type 1 collagen in the presence of alcohol did not differ from controls. Low concentrations of alcohol therefore significantly affected both cranial and trunk neural crest cells, with a wider variety of effects on cells from the cranial as opposed to the trunk region. The results suggest that low concentrations of alcohol may be more detrimental to early events in organ formation than currently suspected.

  6. Quantitative fraction evaluation of dermal collagen and elastic fibres in the skin samples obtained in two orientations from the trunk region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Pramod; Nayak Badagabettu, Satheesha; Prasad, Keerthana; Kudva, Ranjini; Raghuveer, Coimbatore Vasudevarao

    2014-01-01

    Background. Histomorphic evaluation of dermal collagen and elastic fibres was analysed by image analysis technique. The quantification of dermal elements was performed in skin tissues, collected in horizontal and vertical directions from trunk region and discussed under the perspective of consequences of scar related complications. Materials and Method. Total number of 200 skin samples collected from 5 areas of trunk region were processed histologically and subjected to tissue-quant image analysis. Statistical analysis involving mean with SEM and paired t test by SPSS were employed to the percentage values obtained from image analysis. Result. Among the chosen 5 areas of trunk region, abdomen showed the statistically significant difference for both collagen and elastic content between horizontal and vertical orientations (Pcollagen and groin only for elastic content. Conclusion. The differences in the distribution of dermal collagen and elastic fibres in 2 directions of the samples from the same areas might be attributed to final outcome of wound healing process by influencing the appearance and behaviour of scar related complications in the region of trunk. PMID:25328512

  7. The biomechanical effects of variation in the maximum forces exerted by trunk muscles on the joint forces and moments in the lumbar spine: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K; Lee, S K; Kim, Y H

    2010-10-01

    The weakening of trunk muscles is known to be related to a reduction of the stabilization function provided by the muscles to the lumbar spine; therefore, strengthening deep muscles might reduce the possibility of injury and pain in the lumbar spine. In this study, the effect of variation in maximum forces of trunk muscles on the joint forces and moments in the lumbar spine was investigated. Accordingly, a three-dimensional finite element model of the lumbar spine that included the trunk muscles was used in this study. The variation in maximum forces of specific muscle groups was then modelled, and joint compressive and shear forces, as well as resultant joint moments, which were presumed to be related to spinal stabilization from a mechanical viewpoint, were analysed. The increase in resultant joint moments occurred owing to decrease in maximum forces of the multifidus, interspinales, intertransversarii, rotatores, iliocostalis, longissimus, psoas, and quadratus lumborum. In addition, joint shear forces and resultant joint moments were reduced as the maximum forces of deep muscles were increased. These results from finite element analysis indicate that the variation in maximum forces exerted by trunk muscles could affect the joint forces and joint moments in the lumbar spine.

  8. Treatment of a Celiac Trunk Aneurysm Close to the Hepato-splenic Bifurcation by Using Hepatic Stent-graft Implantation and Splenic Artery Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of a 73-year-old man in whom a celiac trunk aneurysm close to the hepato-splenic bifurcation was discovered and treated by using celiac-hepatic stent-grafts implantation and splenic artery embolization

  9. A kinematic analysis for shoulder and pelvis coordination during axial trunk rotation in subjects with and without recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of the shoulder and pelvis based on range of motion (ROM), angular velocity, and relative phase (RP) values during trunk axial rotation. Nineteen subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP) and 19 age-matched control subjects who are all right limb dominant participated in this study. All participants were asked to perform axial trunk rotation activities at a self-selected speed to the end of maximum range in a standing position. The outcome measures included ROM, angular velocity, and RP on the shoulder and pelvis in the transverse plane and were analyzed based on the demographic characteristics between groups. The LBP group demonstrated decreased ROM (p=0.02) and angular velocity (p=0.02) for the pelvis; however, there was no group difference for the shoulder girdle. The ROM difference between the shoulder and pelvic transverse planes had a significant interaction with age (F=14.75, p=0.001). The LBP group demonstrated a higher negative correlation between the shoulder (r=-0.74, p=0.001) and pelvis (r=-0.72, p=0.001) as age increased while no significant correlations were found in the control group. The results of this study indicated that there was a difference in pelvic rotation in the transverse plane between groups during axial trunk rotation. It would be important to coordinate postural stability between the shoulder and pelvic girdles during ambulation; however, the pattern of trunk movement decreased with age due to possible pelvic stiffness in subjects with recurrent LBP. Therefore, improved pelvic flexibility for coordinated trunk movement patterns would help subjects with recurrent LBP.

  10. Postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy provides favorable local control and low toxicities in patients with soft tissue sarcomas in the extremities and trunk wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jianyang Wang, Shulian Wang, Yongwen Song, Xinfan Liu, Jing Jin, Weihu Wang, Zihao Yu, Yueping Liu, Yexiong Li Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and toxicity of postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT for patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STSs in the extremities and trunk wall. Patients and methods: Eighty patients with localized STSs in the extremities and trunk wall treated with function-conserving surgery and postoperative IMRT were analyzed. The primary locations were in the extremities in 51 patients and in the trunk wall in 29 patients. The margins were positive in nine patients and negative in 71 patients. The median dose of IMRT was 64 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 38 months, eight patients developed local recurrences. The 5-year local control (LC rate was 88.1%. The patients with negative margins exhibited much better LC than did those with positive margins (90% vs 64.8%, P=0.023. Multivariate analysis revealed that positive margin was an independent risk factor for LC. The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 75.2%, 72.6%, and 83.6%, respectively. Large tumor size (>5 cm was significantly associated with poor overall survival. Edema and joint stiffness were observed in 17.6% and 9.8% of patients with extremity STSs, respectively. Conclusion: IMRT provides excellent LC and low toxicity for patients with STSs in the extremities and trunk wall. Keywords: soft tissue sarcoma, extremities and trunk wall, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, local control, toxicitiess

  11. Dinamometria isocinética de tronco em nadadores de diferentes estilos Isokinetic trunk dynamometry in diferent swimming strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Luiz Barretti Secchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar a atividade muscular dos músculos flexores e extensores de tronco entre estilos de nado assimétrico e nado simétrico. MÉTODO: Catorze nadadores da elite, velocistas e especialistas em um dos quatro estilos da natação sem história prévia de lesões.. Divididos em dois grupos de sete atletas: 1. Grupo nado assimétrico (GNA: constituído por cinco atletas que nadam o estilo crawl e dois atletas que nadam o estilo costas. 2. Grupo nado simétrico (GNS formado por sete atletas: quatro atletas nadadores no estilo peito e três nadadores no estilo borboleta. Todos foram avaliados no dinamômetro isocinético Cybex 6000. RESULTADOS: O tempo de aceleração na velocidade de 120º/ s do grupo flexor do tronco foi maior no GNS (p=0,054. A potência do grupo extensor nas velocidades de 90 e 120º/ segundo foi maior no GNA que no GNS (p=0,053 e 0,052 respectivamente. Não houve diferença estatística significante nas demais variáveis analisadas. CONCLUSÃO: Os nados assimétricos (crawl e costas proporcionam uma resposta muscular (recrutamento mais eficiente nos grupo dos flexores do tronco, possivelmente pela manutenção constante da contração isométrica dos músculos abdominais.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of asymmetric and symmetric swimming strokes on muscle activity of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles. METHODS: Fourteen elite speed swimmers, specialists in one of four swimming styles, all without any history of spinal cord injury, were divided in two groups: 1 asymmetric group, consisting of five athletes specializing in the freestyle stroke and three in the backstroke; and 2 symmetric group, consisting of four athletes specializing in the butterfly stroke and three in the breaststroke. All the swimmers were assessed using a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The acceleration time for the trunk flexor group at a speed of 120º per second was greater in the symmetric group (p=0.054. The power of the

  12. Batch removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by adsorption on oil palm trunk fibre: equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-06-15

    Oil palm trunk fibre (OPTF)--an agricultural solid waste--was used as low-cost adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The operating variables studied were contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by three isotherms, namely the Freundlich isotherm, the Langmuir isotherm, and the multilayer adsorption isotherm. The best fit to the data was obtained with the multilayer adsorption. The monolayer adsorption capacity of OPTF was found to be 149.35 mg/g at 30 degrees C. Adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ho's pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. It was found that the Lagergren's model could be used for the prediction of the system's kinetics. The overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, then for initial MG concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 150, and 300 mg/L the rate-control changed to intraparticle diffusion at a later stage, but for initial MG concentrations 200 and 250 mg/L no evidence was found of intraparticle diffusion at any period of adsorption. It was found that with increasing the initial concentration of MG, the pore-diffusion coefficient increased while the film-diffusion coefficient decreased. PMID:18022316

  13. Extraction and application of starch-based coagulants from sago trunk for semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sobri, Nur Izzati Mohamad

    2015-11-01

    Malaysia is one of the highest starch producers. In this study, sago starch was utilized as a natural coagulant aid to reduce the dosage of aluminum-based coagulant in leachate treatment. The potential of native sago trunk starch (NSTS) and commercial sago starch (CSS) was evaluated as sole coagulant and coagulant aid in the presence of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) in the removal of color, suspended solids (SS), NH3-N, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, organic UV254, Cd, and Ni. Leachate was sampled from Pulau Burung Landfill Site, one of the semi-aerobic landfills in Malaysia. The optimum dosage for PACl in the presence of NSTS or CSS as coagulant aid was reduced from 3100 to 2000 mg/L. In the presence of 2000 mg/L PACl with 6000 mg/L NSTS and 2000 mg/L PACl with 5000 mg/L CSS, the removal performance for color, SS, and turbidity are 94.7, 99.2, and 98.9%, respectively. Similar results were obtained with the use of 3100 mg/L PACl alone. Therefore, CSS and NSTS can be used as coagulant aid.

  14. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Septic Emboli in the Left Main Trunk as a Complication of Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugi, Keiki; Nakano, Shintaro; Fukasawa, Yusuke; Maruyama, Ryugen; Tanno, Jun; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Nishimura, Shigeyuki

    2015-11-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) complicated by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is frequently fatal and may require emergent interventions. However, the optimal treatment of this rare condition remains controversial as it lacks established guidelines. We successfully treated a patient with IE complicated by AMI during the acute phase using percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) followed by surgery. A 73-year-old man was diagnosed with IE of the mitral and aortic valves caused by Streptococcus oralis. Four weeks after the initiation of antibiotics sensitive to the causative bacteria, he suddenly developed AMI manifested by chest pain and dyspnoea with cardiovascular collapse. Emergent coronary angiography revealed that the myocardial infarction was secondary to septic emboli in the left main trunk. Emergent PCI comprising aspiration and stent deployment, was successfully performed, and his vital signs were immediately stabilised. He subsequently underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement and debridement without major post-operative complications. Although the optimal treatment strategy for haemodynamically unstable AMI secondary to IE requires further discussion, the present case indicates the importance of early diagnosis and the potential effectiveness of aggressive PCI as a bridge to the following surgery.

  15. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, Hps; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, Wo Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and impregnated into the OPTL by vacuum-pressure method. The treated OPTL samples were exposed to natural weathering for the period of 6 and 12 months in West Java, Indonesia according to ASTM D1435-99 standard. Physical and mechanical tests were done for analyzing the changes in phenol formaldehyde-nanoparticles impregnated (PF-NPI) OPTL. FT-IR and SEM studies were done to analyze the morphological changes. The results showed that both exposure time of weathering and concentration of PF-NPI had significant impact on physical and mechanical properties of OPTL. The longer exposure of samples to weathering condition reduced the wave numbers during FT-IR test. However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples. Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions. PMID:25674417

  16. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  17. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. Clinical features and midterm results after surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Fernando

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the authors' experience with the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (AOLCA from the pulmonary trunk, emphasizing preoperative data, surgical aspects and midterm results of the follow-up. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 11 patients operated upon at the Royal Brompton Hospital from October, 84 to April, 97. RESULTS: Nine infants had heart failure (HF and two other children presented with dyspnea and chest pain. All had ECG changes. The echocardiogram identified the anomalous origin of the coronary artery in 7 (64% patients and hemodynamic studies were performed in 7 patients. All infants were operated upon between the 2nd and 10th month of life. Six patients were treated with aortic reimplantation of the left coronary artery, whereas five were operated upon according to the Takeuchi technique. All patients are alive, with clear improvement of the ECG changes and ventricular function, as evaluated by echocardiography. Two patients operated upon according to the Takeuchi technique required additional surgery due to severe supravalvular pulmonary stenosis. CONCLUSION: AOLCA is a rare disease. Most patients show early signs of severe HF associated with ECG findings. Surgical therapy must be instituted early in the disease, preferentially through aortic implantation of the anomalous coronary artery, with a high possibility of success. Shortly after surgery, clinical and ECG improvement, as well as normalization of left ventricular function, should be expected.

  18. Immediate effects of the activation of the affected lower limb on the balance and trunk mobility of hemiplegic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Dong; Lee, Kyoung-Bo; Roh, Hyo-Lyun

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the activation of the affected lower limb on balance and the trunk hemiplegic mobility of stroke patients. [Subjects] The gait group (GG) consisted of 6 subjects with hemiplegia and the non-gait group (NGG) consisted of 6 hemiplegic subjects. [Methods] The subjects in both groups were given foot facilitation training once for 30 min. The Spinal Mouse was used to measure the spinal alignment and the Berg balance scale (BBS) and sensory tests were also performed. [Results] In the GG, the sacral hip in upright to flexion, the lumbar spine in upright to extension, and the sacral hip and lumbar spine in flexion to extension showed significant increases in their angles after the intervention. In addition, there was a significant increase in the angle of the lumbar spine during extension from an upright position in the NGG. The BBS scores of both groups also increased significantly. [Conclusion] The intervention resulted in improvements in the angle of anterior pelvic tilt in the GG, and subjects in the NGG showed more extension of the thorax, which was regarded as compensation to avoid falling forward when flexing from an upright position. However, when extending backward from an upright position, both groups tended to control balance by using more lumbar flexion to keep the center of mass (COM) within the base of support (BOS). Both groups had better BBS scores.

  19. Effect of forest fragmentation on the epiphytic lichen cover of pine trunks on the example taiga town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigysh Irina Sergeevna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of epiphytic lichen cover on pine trunks depending on the area of natural pine forest in Kostomuksha (north Karelia were analysed. The town of Kostomuksha was built so that to provide the conservation of forest sites. 56 fragments with the area of 0.04 - 6.13 ha were studied. The average area of fragment is 0.62 ha, with 49 fragments (88% having the area less than 1 ha. Biodiversity and lichen cover were studied in the each fragment with using framework 10x20 cm. 1792 sample plots were made on 448 trees. The total lichens cover varies from 0 to 85%,averaging 10%. 25 species of lichens were found. The number of species in the sample plots varies from 0 to 9. Dominant species found are Hypogymnia physodes, Parmeliopsis ambigua, P. hyperopta, Imshaugia aleurites, Cladonia. Species Alectoria sarmentosa, Cladonia macilenta, Pseudevernia fufruraceae, Bryoria fremontii were less common. It was shown that the main parameters of lichen cover are closely related to the size of the area left in the city forest fragments. The maximum values of species diversity and cover of lichens were found in the fragments of more 1-2 hectares.

  20. Leg and trunk muscle coordination and postural sway during increasingly difficult standing balance tasks in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Ageing impairs body balance and increases older adults' fall risk. Balance training can improve intrinsic fall risk factors. However, age comparisons of muscle activity responses during balance tasks are lacking. This study investigated relative muscle activity, muscle coordination and postural sway during various recommended static balance training tasks. Muscle activity (%MVC), amplitude ratios (AR) and co-activity (CAI) were determined during standing tasks for 30s (1: double limb stance on a foam surface, eyes open; 2: double limb stance on firm ground, eyes closed; 3: double limb stance, feet in step position on a foam surface, eyes open; 4: double limb stance, feet in step position on firm ground, eyes closed; 5: single limb stance on firm ground, eyes open) in 20 healthy young adults (24±2 y) and 20 older adults (73±6 y). Surface electromyography (SEMG) was applied (SENIAM guidelines) to ankle (tibialis anterior, soleus, medial gastrocnemius, peroneus longus) and thigh (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscles (non-dominant leg). Electrodes over trunk (multifidus and internal oblique) muscles were applied bilaterally. Two- to six-fold higher levels of relative muscle activity were found in older adults for ankle (0.0002balance and strength training programs should take into account age-specific alterations in muscle activity.