WorldWideScience

Sample records for brachiocephalic trunk

  1. A new variant of aberrant left brachiocephalic trunk in mam: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał

    2005-02-01

    Importance is placed on aberrant arteries in the radiological and surgical literature. A normal left brachiocephalic trunk is characteristic for the right aortic arch. However, an aberrant left brachiocephalic trunk arising as the last branch of the aortic arch on the left side has not yet been described in the literature. Described here is a new variant of the retro-oesophageal aberrant left brachiocephalic trunk, occasionally observed in a patient during diagnostic investigation or surgical treatment for steno-obstructive involvement of the carotid district. The triple anomaly of the left aortic arch consisted of: 1. the presence of a hypoplastic left brachiocephalic trunk behind the oesophagus, 2. the absence of a brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and 3. separate origins of the arteries on the right side, with the right common artery preceding the right subclavian artery. In front of the trachea an 8-mm prosthetic PTFE was implanted from the proximal segment of the right subclavian artery to the junction of the left common carotid and left subclavian arteries. The author demonstrates the inadequacy of auxiliary investigations to detect aberrant arteries, which may only be identified precisely intra-operatively.

  2. The Branching Pattern of the Brachiocephalic Trunk in the Donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, G; Asadiahranjani, B; Goodarzi, N; Shokrollahi, S

    2017-08-01

    Donkeys are a member of the horse family (Equidae) and share a common ancestor. However, in morphological terms, donkeys and horses are regarded as two separate subgenus. Given variations in the branching pattern of the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT) in different species of animals and the use of donkeys in anatomy courses at colleges of veterinary medicine, we conducted this study in order to investigate the branching patterns of BCT and to describe detailed morphological information regarding donkeys. Seventeen mature donkeys were examined following euthanasia by exsanguination from the common carotid artery under general anaesthesia. Thirteen donkeys were embalmed and injected with coloured latex from BCT origin for better visualization of vessels. Four other donkeys were freshly studied without the embalming procedure. In all cases, the BCT was the only branch of the aortic arch and branched into the left subclavian (LSb) artery, the right costocervical trunk, the right subclavian (RSb) artery and the bicarotid trunk. The main branching pattern of the RSb was the costocervical trunk, the vertebral artery, the internal thoracic artery and the superficial cervical artery. The deep cervical artery branched from the costocervical trunk. The major branching pattern of the LSb was the vertebral artery, the internal thoracic artery and the superficial cervical artery. In donkeys, the external thoracic artery branches from the internal thoracic artery. Results obtained from this study indicate that BCT branching in donkeys has some similarities and differences as compared to that in horses and in the Caspian miniature horse. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. CLINICALLY IMPORTANT FORMATIONS ON THE INTERIOR SURFACE OF THE BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK. Formaciones clinicamente importantes en la superficie interna del tronco braquiocefálico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana N Biasutto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las características de la división arterial representan un factor de riesgo para la oclusión arterial y causa frecuente de dificultad para la cateterización. Su forma de presentación depende de la unión del 3º y 4º arcos aórticos. Con el objetivo de evidenciar las caracterís-ticas del tronco braquiocefálico (TBC se estudiaron 40 fetos de entre 12 y 23 semanas de gestación. Se disecaron los grandes vasos y el TBC fue seccionado en su origen y resecado conjuntamente con la porción proximal de las arterias carótida común derecha (CCD y subclavia derecha (SD. Se midió la longitud, el ancho y los ángulos interno y geométrico entre las arterias CCD y SD. Abrimos las arterias para observar la luz vascular. Se documentó fotográficamente. La longitud promedio fue de 4,25 mm y el ancho promedio de 1,53 mm. No se evidenció relación directa entre las medidas de los TBC y la edad fetal. La mediana del ángulo interno fue de 62º. Sólo el 50% de los TBC pudieron ser abiertos, permitiendo observar la presencia de tabiques parciales entre ambos vasos en el 20% de los casos y de espolones a nivel de la bifurcación en otro 10%. No hallamos descripciones sobre estos relieves en la literatura. El ángulo interno entre ambas arterias fue significativa-mente mayor en los casos que presentaron relieves. En conclusión, la presencia de relieves en la superficie interna del TBC tiene origen embriológico y representaría un factor importante de riesgo para patología obstructiva vascular y causa de dificultad para la cateterización. Arterial division features constitute risk factors for arterial occlusion and frequently cause difficulties in catheterization. In this case the relevant feature is the junction of the 3rd and 4th aortic arches. With the aim of displaying the features of the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT, we studied 40 fetuses of between 12 and 23 weeks of gestation. Great vessels were dissected and the BCT was cut and resected at its

  4. Cirurgia do arco aórtico com perfusão cerebral bilateral pelo isolamento do tronco braquiocefálico e da artéria carótida esquerda Aortic arch surgery with bilateral cerebral perfusion by isolation of brachiocephalic trunk and left carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdo José Carreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os resultados da técnica descrita por Carreira et al. com utilização de perfusão cerebral seletiva bilateral (PCSAB pelo isolamento do tronco braquiocefálico e artéria carótida esquerda. MÉTODOS: Quinze pacientes foram operados consecutivamente entre de junho de 2005 e setembro de 2007. Os dados foram analisados por programa informatizado Epi Info e significância estatística com p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de PCSAB é reprodutível e apresenta resultados semelhantes aos da literatura mundial. A excelente evolução neurológica e o fácil controle de sangramentos nas linhas de sutura podem ter contribuído com os resultados obtidos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of a technique described by Carreira et al. using bilateral antegrade selective cerebral perfusion by isolating the brachiocephalic trunk and the left carotid artery. METHODS: Fifteen patients were operated between June 2005 and September 2007. Data analysis were performed using Epi Info and statistical significance was set at p0.05. CONCLUSION: The technique of bilateral selective cerebral perfusion described by Carreira et al. can be performed by others and presents similar results to the international literature. The excellent neurological outcome and easy bleeding control on surgical sutures lines are the major advantages of this new procedure.

  5. Anatomy of the bovine ascending aorta and brachiocephalic artery found unfavorable for total artificial heart implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Sunagawa, Gengo; Such, Kimberly A; Sale, Shiva; Golding, Leonard A R; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-12-01

    The biocompatibility assessment of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart is an important part of the device developmental program. Surgical and postoperative management are key factors in achieving optimal outcomes. However, the presence of vascular anatomical abnormalities in experimental animal models is often unpredictable and may worsen the expected outcomes. We report a technical impediment encountered during total artificial heart implantation complicated by unfavorable bovine anatomy of the ascending aorta and brachiocephalic arterial trunk.

  6. Retrotracheal aberrant left brachiocephalic vein: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, Adalet E.; Haliloglu, Mithat; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ariyurek, Macit O. [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    We present a child with double aberrant left brachiocephalic vein (ALBCV) that was an incidental finding on CT. The anterior and thin branch was above the aortic arch and behind the truncus brachiocephalicus and drained into the superior vena cava (SVC). The posterior and thick branch of the ALBCV coursed posterior to the trachea and oesophagus and joined with the azygos vein before draining into the SVC. To our knowledge, retrotracheal ALBCV has not been previously described. (orig.)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. Increased use of brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas improves functional primary patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jerry J; Gifford, Edward; Nguyen, Virginia; Kaji, Amy H; Chisum, Patrick; Zeng, Annie; Dukkipati, Ramanath; de Virgilio, Christian

    2015-08-01

    As vascular surgeons strive to meet the Fistula First Initiative, some authors have observed a decrease in arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation rates in association with an increase in AVF creation. In May 2012, we adopted a practice change in an attempt to maintain the same high level of AVF creation while leading to a decrease in fistula failures. A retrospective study was conducted of all dialysis access procedures performed by a single vascular surgeon before (period 1; before May 1, 2012) and after (period 2; after May 1, 2012) the change in practice pattern. The adopted change included favoring the brachiocephalic location unless the patient was an ideal anatomic candidate for a radiocephalic AVF, creating a larger and standardized arteriotomy, and using a large venous footplate whenever possible. The main outcome measure was primary functional patency at 1 year. Secondary outcome measures included primary patency at 1 year, time to maturation, type of fistula created, steal syndrome, and tunneled hemodialysis catheter infections. Of 213 vascular access procedures performed, 191 (90%) were AVFs. There was no difference in use of AVFs between period 1 (93% AVFs) and period 2 (88% AVFs; P = .2). Use of brachiocephalic AVFs increased from 38% in period 1 to 56% in period 2 (P = .01), with a corresponding trend toward a decrease in radiocephalic AVFs in period 2 (36% in period 1 to 27% in period 2; P = .2). Primary functional patency at 1 year was 47% in period 1 and 63% in period 2 (P = .03). Primary patency at 1 year was 51% in period 1 and 70% in period 2 (P = .001). Time to reach functional maturation was decreased in period 2 (median, 76 vs 82.5 days; P = .046). There was no difference in steal syndrome (P = 1.0), and the incidence of hemodialysis catheter infections was lower in period 2 (0 vs 7 [7%]; P = .006). Increasing brachiocephalic AVF creation and reducing our reliance on radiocephalic AVFs resulted in a significant increase in primary functional

  18. Cephalic arch stenosis in autogenous brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistulas: results of cutting balloon angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren Thorup; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis is a known cause of hemodialysis access failure in patients with brachiocephalic fistulas (BCFs). Outcomes of endovascular treatment are affected by resistance of the stenosis to balloon dilation, a high vein rupture rate and the development of early restenosis. The purpose...

  19. Patient-related factors influencing patency of autogenous brachiocephalic haemodialysis fistulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamprou, Alexander A.; de Bruin, Cor; van Roon, Arie; Loonstra, Jan; van der Laan, Maarten; Tielliu, Ignace; Zeebregts, Clark

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyse the outcome of autogenous brachiocephalic fistula for dialysis purposes and to determine modifiable and non-modifiable patient-related factors of influence on the patency of a newly created fistula. Design of study: A single-centre retrospective

  20. Cephalic arch stenosis in autogenous brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistulas: results of cutting balloon angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren Thorup; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis is a known cause of hemodialysis access failure in patients with brachiocephalic fistulas (BCFs). Outcomes of endovascular treatment are affected by resistance of the stenosis to balloon dilation, a high vein rupture rate and the development of early restenosis. The purpose...... of this retrospective study was to report outcomes after cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) of cephalic arch stenosis....

  1. Arterial reconstruction of the brachiocephalic trunk and the subclavian arteries. 10 years' experience with a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Hansen, Hans Jørgen Buchardt

    1980-01-01

    -three reconstructive procedures were performed together with two arterial ligations (four patients were operated on bilaterally and one patient was operated on twice on the same side). There were 30 transthoracic procedures, essentially endarterectomies, and 35 supraclavicular procedures, mostly carotid......-subclavian bypasses and transpositions of the subclavian artery to the common carotid artery. One patient died (1.5 per cent). Serious complications occurred in additional four cases. In the follow-up study data on all the patients were available. During the follow-up period, ranging from four to 124 months (mean 43...

  2. Stenting of the Superior Vena Cava and Left Brachiocephalic Vein with Preserving the Central Venous Catheter in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias; Goerg, Fabian; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen(Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Stenting of the central veins is well established for treating localized venous stenosis. The techniques regarding catheter preservation for central venous catheters in the superior vena cava have been described. We describe here a method for stent implantation in the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein, and principally via a single jugular venous puncture, while saving a left sided jugular central venous catheter in a patient suffering from central venous stenosis of the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein.

  3. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbado

    Full Text Available Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas. Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1 sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2 stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants' ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05 and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05 than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512 significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance.

  4. Hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro-splenico-phrenic trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak SB

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A thorough knowledge of variation in the branching pattern of celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery is important for surgeons, radiologists and other medical specialties. We observed some variations in the branching pattern of celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery during dissection classes for first year medical students. The celiac trunk (gastro-splenico-phrenic trunk divided into inferior phrenic trunk, left gastric and splenic arteries. The inferior phrenic trunk divided into right and left inferior phrenic arteries. The common hepatic artery took its origin from a hepatomesenteric trunk and passed behind the portal vein and bile duct. It hooked around the bile duct and then divided into three branches; hepatic artery proper, gastroduodenal artery and supraduodenal artery.

  5. Brachiocephalic reconstruction I: operative and long-term results for complex disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takach, Thomas J; Reul, George J; Cooley, Denton A; Duncan, J Michael; Livesay, James J; Gregoric, Igor D; Krajcer, Zvonimir; Cervera, Roberto D; Ott, David A; Frazier, O H

    2005-07-01

    Complex brachiocephalic disease involves multiple vessels and is frequently associated with multisystem atherosclerosis. We reviewed surgical outcome and examined the impact of this problem on decision making regarding operative staging, technique, and choice of conduit. Between 1966 and 2000, 157 consecutive patients (mean age, 54.0 years; 48.4% male) with innominate artery or multivessel brachiocephalic disease underwent operative reconstruction using either a transthoracic approach (group A, n = 113) or a less invasive, extrathoracic approach (group B, n = 44). Reconstruction required multiple distal anastomoses in 70 patients (44.6%), concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 37 patients (23.6%), and concomitant carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in 26 patients (16.6%). No significant differences were found between group A and group B when operative mortality (2.7% vs 2.3%) and stroke rates (2.7% vs 6.8%) were analyzed. However, 10 years after surgery, freedom from graft failure was significantly better in group A (94.4% +/- 4.4%) than in group B (60.3% +/- 13.4%) ( P = .002). Freedom from graft failure was adversely affected by nonaortic inflow ( P = .002) and axillo-axillary cervical grafts ( P = .0001). Mortality and stroke rates for subgroups having multiple distal anastomoses (2.9%, 2/70 and 4.3%, 3/70), concomitant CABG (5.4%, 2/37 and 0, 0/37), and concomitant CEA (3.8%, 1/26 and 3.8%, 1/26) were similar to those of other patients. For the entire patient group, 10-year rates of actuarial freedom from specific events were death, 68.8% +/- 6.0%; myocardial infarction, 86.7% +/- 4.5%; stroke, 87.0% +/- 4.4%; coronary revascularization, 88.0% +/- 3.6%, and other vascular operation, 79.9% +/- 4.4%. Transthoracic arch reconstruction for complex brachiocephalic disease can be done with acceptably low morbidity and mortality similar to those of a less invasive, extrathoracic approach. Furthermore, the transthoracic approach is associated with significantly

  6. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

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    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  7. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  8. Hybrid treatment of a true thyreocervical trunk aneurysm in a patient with Type B aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos G Baikoussis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We would like to describe a case with a complex aortic disease treated in hybrid fashion. We present an interesting case of a 65-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease percutaneously treated. An acute Type B aortic dissection occurred and treated with the implantation of a stent-graft which occluded the left subclavian artery due to its extension to the aortic arch. This event required a carotid-subclavian artery bypass due to ischemia of the left arm. An aneurysm in the innominate artery also detected, was treated with another stent-graft implantation 3 months later. At 5-year follow-up, an aneurysm of the thyreocervical trunk was found while the stent-graft of the aorta was well-tolerated without endoleak and the carotid-subclavian graft was patent. The aneurysm was asymptomatic but considering the risk of spontaneous rupture of an aneurysm of this size, elective surgery was indicated. Because the aneurysm was very close to the brachiocephalic bifurcation, open surgical repair would require a sternotomy. The right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery were exposed. The thyrocervical trunk, right internal mammary artery and right vertebral artery were occluded by ligations to isolate the aneurysm. An 8-mm Dacron graft was anastomosed end-to-end to the distal part of subclavian artery. We would like through this case, discuss the role of the hybrid cardiovascular surgery to minimize the postoperative complications in complex cardiovascular pathology. We also discuss the international bibliography about the thyreocervical trunk aneurysm and the treatment options.

  9. [Comparative assessment of immediate outcomes of surgical treatment of patients with coronary artery disease and lesion of the brachiocephalic arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozhzhin, E V; Ibragimov, O R; Koval'chuk, D N; Efanov, Iu M; Zor'kin, A A; Ibragimova, E A; Urvantseva, I A

    2014-01-01

    From 2000 to 2011, a total of 52 patients with combined atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary and brachiocephalic arteries were subjected to a single-stage operation. Depending on the type of operative intervention, all patients were subdivided into two groups: Group One comprising 13 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a combination with simultaneous stenting of the internal carotid artery, and Group Two consisting of 39 patients subjected to CABG with simultaneous carotid endarterectomy. Assessing the intraoperative parameters revealed that in Group One patients the average duration of operations was significantly lower (179.6±6.4 minutes versus 273.2±5.6 minutes in Group Two, partery with the development of intestinal gangrene and peritonitis. In the structure of hospital complications cardiac insufficiency was prevalent (23.1% and 59.0% for Groups One and Group Two patients, respectively, pcoronary and brachiocephalic arteries makes it possible to increase the overall survival rate in patients suffering this disease and to decrease the incidence rate of ischaemic impairments of the coronary and cerebral circulation. The hybrid method of treatment on arteries of various vascular basins may be an alternative to carotid endarterectomy and CABG, especially in patients running high surgical risk.

  10. Paleovalley fills: Trunk vs. tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    A late Mississippian-early Pennsylvanian eustatic sea level drop resulted in a complex lowstand drainage network being eroded across the Illinois Basin in the eastern United States. This drainage system was filled during the early part of the Pennsylvanian. Distinct differences can be recognized between the trunk and tributary paleovalley fills. Fills preserved within the trunk systems tend to be fluvially dominated and consist of bed-load deposits of coarse- to medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate. Conversely, the incised valleys of tributary systems tend to be filled with dark mudstone, thinly interbedded sandstones, and mudstones and siltstones. These finer grained facies exhibit marine influences manifested by tidal rhythmites, certain traces fossils, and macro- and microfauna. Examples of tributary and trunk systems, separated by no more than 7 km (4.3 mi) along strike, exhibit these styles of highly contrasting fills. Useful analogs for understanding this Pennsylvanian system include the Quaternary glacial sluiceways present in the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash river valleys of Indiana (United States) and the modern Amazon River (Brazil). Both the Amazon River and the Quaternary rivers of Indiana have (or had) trunk rivers that are (were) dominated by large quantities of bed load relative to their tributaries. The trunk valley systems of these analogs aggraded much more rapidly than their tributary valleys, which evolved into lakes because depositional rates along the trunk are (were) so high that the mouths of the tributaries have been dammed by bed-load deposits. These Holocene systems illustrate that sediment yields can significantly influence the nature of fill successions within incised valleys independent of rates of sea level changes or proximity to highstand coastlines. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Trunk proprioception adaptations to creep deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Rousseau, Benjamin; Descarreaux, Martin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the short-term effect of creep deformation on the trunk repositioning sense. Twenty healthy participants performed two different trunk-repositioning tasks (20° and 30° trunk extension) before and after a prolonged static full trunk flexion of 20 min in order to induce spinal tissue creep. Trunk repositioning error variables, trunk movement time and erector spinae muscle activity were computed and compared between the pre- and post-creep conditions. During the pre-creep condition, significant increases in trunk repositioning errors, as well as trunk movement time, were observed in 30° trunk extension in comparison to 20°. During the post-creep condition, trunk repositioning errors variables were significantly increased only when performing a 20° trunk extension. Erector spinae muscle activity increased in the post-creep condition, while it remained unchanged between trunk repositioning tasks. Trunk repositioning sense seems to be altered in the presence of creep deformation, especially in a small range of motion. Reduction of proprioception acuity may increase the risk of spinal instability, which is closely related to the risk of low back pain or injury.

  12. Anesthesia for pulmonary trunk aneurysmorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    João, Benedito Barbosa; Bueno, Ronaldo Machado; Marques, Guilherme D'Addazio; Soares, Felippe Batista

    The aneurysm in the pulmonary trunk is a rare disease. Because of its location, a rupture can lead to right ventricular failure and sudden death. Aneurysmorraphy is the most widely used surgical treatment in these cases. The aim of this study is to report a successful balanced general anesthesia for aneurysmorraphy of pulmonary trunk. Male patient, 28 years, asymptomatic, diagnosed with an aneurysm in the pulmonary trunk. According to the location of the aneurysm and the consequent failure of the pulmonary valve, an aneurysmorraphy was indicated, with implantation of vascular-valvular prosthesis (valved tube). We opted for a balanced general anesthesia, seeking to prevent an increase in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances, thus avoiding to cause stress on the wall of the aneurysmal vessel. A balanced general anesthesia, in combination with adequate ventilation to prevent elevation in pulmonary vascular pressure, was appropriate for surgical repair of an aneurysm in the pulmonary trunk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model

  14. TRUNK FUNCTION IN HEMIPLEGIC PATIENTS KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF TRUNK BENDING AND GAIT PERFORMANCE

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    FumikoKamijo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trunk function is considered important for stroke patients in rehabilitation, but the significance of this factoris unclear. In this study, we examined trunk function, defined as the ability to keep the trunk stable against gravity during movement. In addition, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between gait performance and trunk function. Methods: The subjects were 14 hemiplegic men and 20 healthy elderly men. Movement was assessed by a three-dimensional motion analysis system focusing on the trunk. The trunk was divided into three parts: the pelvis, the middle trunk, and the upper trunk. The parameters assessed were static standing, anterior tilt of the trunk in the standing position, and gait. We examined the relationship of each of these trunk movement factors with gait speed. All data was analyzed using SPSS program version 21 (p < 0.05. Results: Comparing data of hemiplegic patients to that of normal subjects, during trunk bending, a large rotation angle toward the non-affected side was found and that toward the affected side of the middle trunk at the toe off time of the affected limb during gait was found in hemiplegic patients (p < 0.01. The degrees of both rotation angles were related to the gait performance. Conclusion: The movement of the middle trunk during bending in hemiplegic patients affected gait performance. The results indicated that gravity and movements of lower limbs easily affected the middle trunk. This is an important factor to consider in the rehabilitation of hemiplegic patients.

  15. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

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    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  16. Celiac trunk coverage in endovascular aneurysm repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delle, Martin; Lönn, Lars; Henrikson, O

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to examine the risks associated with obstruction of the coeliac trunk in the process of treating aneurysms with endografting.......This retrospective study was undertaken to examine the risks associated with obstruction of the coeliac trunk in the process of treating aneurysms with endografting....

  17. Altered trunk movements during gait in children with spastic diplegia: compensatory or underlying trunk control deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, Lieve; Feys, Hilde; Molenaers, Guy; Jaspers, Ellen; Monari, Davide; Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-09-01

    Altered trunk movements during gait in children with CP are considered compensatory due to lower limb impairments, although scientific evidence for this assumption has not yet been provided. This study aimed to study the functional relation between trunk and lower limb movement deficits during gait in children with spastic diplegia. Therefore, the relationship between trunk control in sitting, and trunk and lower limb movements during gait was explored in 20 children with spastic diplegia (age 9.2 ± 3 yrs; GMFCS level I n=10, level II n=10). Trunk control in sitting was assessed with the Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS), a clinical measure that reflects the presence of an underlying trunk control deficit. Trunk movements during gait were measured with a recently developed trunk model including the pelvis, thorax, head, shoulder line and spine. Lower limb movements were assessed with the Plug-in-Gait model (Vicon(®)). Range of motion (ROM) of the different trunk segments was calculated, as well as the Trunk Profile Score (TPS) and Trunk Variable Scores (TVSs). Similarly, the Gait Profile Score (GPS) and Gait Variable Scores (GVSs) were calculated to describe altered lower limb movements during gait. Correlation analyses were performed between the presence of impaired trunk control in sitting (TCMS) and altered trunk movements during gait (ROM, TPS/TVSs) and between these altered trunk movements and lower limb movements (GPS/GVSs) during gait. A poorer performance on the TCMS correlated with increased ROM and TPS/TVSs, particularly for the thorax, indicating the presence of an underlying trunk control deficit. No significant correlation was found between the TPS and GPS, suggesting that overall trunk and lower limb movement deficits were not strongly associated. Only few correlations between specific lower limb deficits (GVSs for hip ab/adduction, knee flexion/extension and ankle flexion/extension) and TVSs for thorax lateral bending and rotation were found

  18. Wheelchair Neuroprosthesis for Improving Dynamic Trunk Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kramay; Milosevic, Matija; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2017-07-14

    Trunk instability is a major problem for individuals with thoracic and cervical spinal cord injury. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) neuroprosthesis, a technology that uses small electrical currents to artificially contract muscles, has previously been utilized to improve trunk stability during quasistatic and dynamic sitting. The aim of this study was to develop the first powered wheelchair-based neuroprosthesis and to test its feasibility for improving trunk stability. Eleven male, able-bodied individuals participated in the feasibility study. While participants were seated, the wheelchair was moved in the forward or backward directions with slow and fast accelerations. Two different FES protocols were tested: 1) co-contraction; and 2) directionally-dependent contraction of trunk extensors and flexors. Sham stimulations with intensities below the motor threshold were applied as the control conditions. Inertial motion sensors were used to quantify the maximum angular displacement and velocity of the trunk. Results showed that both directional contractions and co-contraction reduced trunk displacement and velocity, compared to the control conditions. However, directionally-dependent muscle contractions were more effective in improving trunk stability, compared to cocontractions. Overall, feasibility of the wheelchair-based neuroprosthesis was demonstrated. Future research will incorporate feedback from wheelchair movements and test the neuroprosthesis with individuals who sustained spinal cord injury.

  19. Trunk imbalance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Carole; Grunstein, Erin; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2016-06-01

    Trunk imbalance (ie, frontal trunk shift measured with a plumb line from C7 to S1) is part of the clinical evaluation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but its prevalence and relationship with scoliosis, back pain, and health-related factors are not well documented. The principal objectives are to document trunk imbalance prevalence and to explore the association between trunk imbalance and the following factors: Cobb angle, type of scoliosis, back pain, function, mental health, and self-image. The secondary objective is to determine back pain prevalence and the relationship between back pain and each of the following: Cobb angle, function, mental health, and self-image. This is a cross-sectional study in a scoliosis clinic of a tertiary university hospital center. The sample includes youth with AIS (N=55). The outcome measures were trunk imbalance prevalence and magnitude, and back pain prevalence and intensity using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) pain score, and the function, self-image, and mental health domains of the SRS-22. Trunk imbalance and back pain were assessed in 55 patients with AIS (Cobb angle: 10-60°). Patients completed the SRS-22 questionnaire and the NPRS. Correlations were done between trunk imbalance and scoliosis (Cobb angle, type of scoliosis), back pain (NPRS and SRS-22 pain score), and health-related factors using Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and logistic regression models. Trunk imbalance prevalence is 85% and back pain prevalence is 73%. We found fair to moderate significant positive correlation between trunk imbalance and Cobb angle (r=0.32-0.66, pscoliosis. Lower self-reported pain significantly correlated with lower Cobb angles (r=0.29, p=.03), higher function (r=0.55, p=.000), higher self-image (r=0.44, p=.001), and better mental health (r=0.48, p=.000). There was a trend for trunk imbalance to be related with lower pain in logistic regression models. The high

  20. Successful surgical repair of impending rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery with prior reconstruction of the carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Ken; Maeda, Masanobu; Sakai, Yoshimasa; Sakurai, Hajime; Murayama, Hiroomi; Hasegawa, Hiroki [Social Insurance Chukyo Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    We report the successful repair of impending rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery (BCA) in a 70-year-old man. He had undergone a mediastinal tumor resection through a median sternotomy in 1995. Pathological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Two years later, he underwent radiation therapy of 65 Gray for metastasis to the supraclavicular lymph nodes. On January 18, 2000, plastic surgeons planned to perform a pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap to repair a radiation skin ulcer. During the operation, the BCA was lacerated, possibly in an area of radiation tissue damage. We performed a prosthetic graft (10-mm Gelseal) replacement of the BCA. The right subclavian artery had to be ligated. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed excellent reconstruction of the artery. Magnetic resonance angiography of the brain showed a deficit in the anterior communicating artery and stenosis of the posterior communicating artery, which indicated that the reconstruction procedure was reasonable. Seven months later, on August 18, 2000, the patient was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right neck and oozing from the previous cutaneous wound. CT scan and DSA demonstrated the presence of a pseudoaneurysm of the proximal anastomosis site, which required emergency surgery. Before this third sternotomy, a saphenous vein graft was interposed between both external carotid arteries. Removal of the prosthetic graft and resection of the pseudoaneurysm were performed under mild hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass with left common carotid arterial perfusion. Then, the wound was closed completely using a left pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap. The postoperative course was uneventful and DSA showed good patency of the graft and intracranial arteries. The patient was discharged without neurological complications. We conclude that prior reconstruction of the carotid artery is a safe and effective procedure for patients

  1. Effectiveness of a flexible coiled sheath for correcting an acute angle between the brachiocephalic vein and the superior vena cava for successful defibrillator implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Pyo Yoo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs that is performed to avoid surgery in patients with atypical vasculature is still problematic. Acute angulations and significant tortuosity of the venous vasculature may influence both procedural success and periprocedural complications. We successfully implanted an ICD in a patient with deformed vasculature caused by tuberculosis-induced lung destruction by using a flexible coiled sheath instead of a friable peel-away sheath. This report highlights an alternative maneuver that may be an option in patients who have an acute angle between the brachiocephalic vein and the superior vena cava.

  2. Central Venous Catheter Placement in the Left Internal Jugular Vein Complicated by Perforation of the Left Brachiocephalic Vein and Massive Hemothorax: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lindsay R; Patel, Priyesh R; Pesa, Nicholas L

    2017-07-01

    An elderly male presented for emergent repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. For anticipated volume resuscitation, vasopressor administration, and hemodynamic monitoring, a large-bore central venous catheter was placed in the left internal jugular vein under ultrasound guidance before surgical incision. Initially, there were no readily apparent signs of venous perforation. However, a massive left hemothorax developed because of perforation of the brachiocephalic vein and violation of the pleural space. This case report discusses both prevention and management of such a complication.

  3. Trunk stabilization during sagittal pelvic tilt: from trunk-on-pelvis to trunk-in-space due to vestibular and visual feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drunen, Paul; van der Helm, Frans C T; van Dieën, Jaap H; Happee, Riender

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the human ability to stabilize the trunk in space during pelvic tilt. Upper body sway was evoked in kneeling-seated healthy subjects by angular platform perturbations with a rotation around a virtual low-back pivot point between the L4 and L5 vertebrae. To investigate motor control modulation, variations in task instruction (balance naturally or minimize trunk sway), vision (eyes open or closed), and perturbation bandwidth (from 0.2 up to 1, 3, or 10 Hz) were applied. Cocontraction and proprioceptive muscle spindle feedback were associated with minimizing low-back flexion/extension (trunk-on-pelvis stabilization), while vestibular and visual feedback were supposed to contribute to trunk-in-space stabilization. Trunk-in-space stabilization was only observed with the minimize trunk sway task instruction, while the task instruction to balance naturally led to trunk-on-pelvis stabilization with trunk rotations even exceeding the perturbations. This indicates that vestibular feedback is used when minimizing trunk sway but has only a minor contribution during natural trunk stabilization in the sagittal plane. The eyes open condition resulted in reduced global trunk rotations and increased global trunk reflexive responses, demonstrating effective visual contributions to trunk-in-space stabilization. On the other hand, increasing perturbation bandwidth caused a decreased feedback contribution leading to deteriorated trunk-in-space stabilization. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Trunk muscle activity during front crawl swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Jonas; Pellegrims, Ward; Einarsson, Ingi Thor; Fernandes, Ricardo; Staes, Filip; Daly, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Core stability training is of increasing interest to both researchers and coaches. Sufficient core stability is needed to balance forces generated by the upper and lower extremities separately (Hibbs et al., 2008). In swimming the development of wireless EMG has created new possibilities to study underwater muscle activity with little hinder. The purpose here was to analyze lower trunk muscle activation during front crawl swimming and examine how trunk muscle activity is relat...

  5. The relevance of trunk evaluation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the segmental assessment of trunk control

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Cristina dos Santos Cardoso de; Fagundes, Iara Kristine; Araújo, Talita Bastos; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Fávero, Francis Meire

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim was to describe trunk control in ambulant and non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 50 DMD patients, (M age = 16.7 years) who underwent the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). A seven-level scale of trunk control was used (1: head control only; 7: control of entire trunk while unsupported). Static, active and reactive posture control were evaluated in ambulant and non-ambulant patients. ...

  6. Quantitative assessment of trunk deformation during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Shoma; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Isaka, Tadao; Nagano, Akinori

    2017-07-05

    The trunk has a multi-segmental structure and is composed of the cervical, thoracic, and lumber spines and surrounding soft tissue elements; this allows flexible deformation during dynamic movements. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess trunk deformation during dynamic movement. Ten male subjects performed running at four different speeds: 8km/h, 10km/h, 12km/h, and 14km/h. Forty reflective markers were placed on the backs of these individuals to define 56 small triangular areas, and three-dimensional kinematic data was recorded with a motion capture system. The coefficients of variation (CV) of the horizontal and vertical lengths between two adjacent markers and the standard deviation (SD) of the normal vectors of triangular areas were calculated as measures for translational and angular trunk deformation, respectively. Up to about 14% of CV and 78° of SD appeared as the measure of translational and angular deformation, respectively. These results imply that the trunk underwent a significant amount of position-specific deformation. These findings would be useful in the construction of an optimal trunk segment model to represent the complex and flexible trunk movement during dynamic movements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 47 CFR 69.112 - Direct-trunked transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct-trunked transport. 69.112 Section 69.112... Computation of Charges § 69.112 Direct-trunked transport. (a) A flat-rated direct-trunked transport charge... other persons that use telephone company direct-trunked transport facilities. (b)(1) For telephone...

  8. Center of pressure trajectories, trunk kinematics and trunk muscle activation during unstable sitting in low back pain patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, N.W.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Trunk motor behavior has been reported to be altered in low-back pain. This may be associated with impaired lumbar proprioception, which could be compensated by trunk stiffening. We assessed trunk control by measuring center-of-pressure, lumbar kinematics and trunk muscle electromyography in 20

  9. Intensive unilateral core training improves trunk stability without preference for trunk left or right rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yushin; Kim, Jungjin; Yoon, BumChul

    2015-01-01

    It is possible to increase multi-directional trunk stability using co-activation. However, it is unclear whether there is a preference for left or right trunk rotation after intensive unilateral stability training. The aim of this study was to examine the directional preference in trunk rotational stability after unilateral core training. This study was conducted on 16 female basketball players. For eight weeks, eight participants performed unilateral core training that focused on one side of the trunk. The remaining eight participants were not provided any additional training. To determine rotational trunk stability, all participants were requested to maintain an upright sitting posture against sudden, external, left or right rotational perturbations of the trunk. Angular displacement of the trunk was measured using a motion analyzer. At the end of the training period, the angular displacement in response to the perturbation was reduced for both rotational directions (left: −26%, right: −24%) in the trained group (p stability improved without particular directional preference in response to unilateral core training. This result adds to our understanding of the nature of trunk stability and multi-directional improvement. Intervention study, Level 1b.

  10. Reliability of mechanical trunk responses during known and unknown trunk perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D.; Brandt, Mikkel; Sundstrup, Emil

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the between-day reliability of a newly developed trunk perturbation test and compares mechanical response during known and unknown conditions. Mechanical trunk response were measured in seventeen female subjects during unloading and loading perturbations of the abdomen (A: pr...

  11. Does kinesiology tape increase trunk forward flexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Heidi; White, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Non specific lower back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder in manual labourers due to the strenuous nature of their job. Fear of pain can cause restrictions in trunk movement leading to reduced flexibility. Kinesiology Tape (KT) may be an option for treating low back stiffness. The present study investigated the immediate effect of KT on trunk flexion active range of motion. 34 male participants (mean age ± SD: 42 ± 11), in physically demanding jobs, asymptomatic of pain, with a history of non specific lower back pain were randomly assigned to: 1) KT Intervention (KTI) or 2) KT Placebo (KTP). Trunk flexion data was collected at baseline and immediately following tape application. ANCOVA was used to examine the differences between groups. The KTI group demonstrated a statistically significant gain in Trunk flexion compared with baseline (2.75 cm, P < 0.05). Changes from pre to post treatment for the KTP were not significant (1.57 cm, P = 0.062). No statistically significant differences existed between groups post-treatment (P = 0.218). KTI demonstrates an immediate positive effect on trunk flexion when compared with baseline measurements. However, results suggest that KTI performs no better than a comparable placebo. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. [Laparoscopic decompression of celiac trunk in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumovsky, A Yu; Mitupov, Z B; Feoktistova, E V; Gurevich, A I; Titova, E A; Yusufov, A A; Svetlov, V V; Nagornaya, Yu V

    2017-01-01

    For the period 2013-2016 four patients were treated at the Filatov Children's City Clinical Hospital #13. There were 2 children aged 14 years and 2 children aged 17 years. All patients have been diagnosed via anamnesis, complaints, pulse-wave doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced MDCT and angiography. After comprehensive examination 3 patients underwent laparoscopic decompression of celiac trunk. In all cases celiac trunk compression was predominantly caused by median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm combined with neurofibrotic tissue of celiac plexus. All patients were discharged after laparoscopic decompression of celiac trunk. Intra- and postoperative complications, as well as cases of conversion were absent. Mean time of surgery was 65 minutes. In all cases postoperative period was smooth (4 days on the average). Two patients underwent follow-up examination in long-term postoperative period: pulse-wave doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced MDCT and angiography. In both cases reduced severity, incidence and duration of pain syndrome were observed. Clinical examples show some problems in diagnosis and treatment of compressive stenosis of celiac trunk due to rarity of pathology especially in childhood. Nevertheless, combination of abdominal ischemia and celiac trunk stenosis confirmed by instrumental diagnosis is indication for surgical treatment.

  13. Interactive Trunk Extraction from Forest Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mizoguchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For forest management or monitoring, it is required to constantly measure several parameters of each tree, such as height, diameter at breast height, and trunk volume. Terrestrial laser scanner has been used for this purpose instead of human workers to reduce time and cost for the measurement. In order to use point cloud captured by terrestrial laser scanner in the above applications, it is an important step to extract all trees or their trunks separately. For this purpose, we propose an interactive system in which a user can intuitively and efficiently extract each trunk by a simple editing on the distance image created from the point cloud. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed system from various experiments.

  14. Information security in digital trunking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan BARCA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, most countries have implemented its digital trunking systems to meet the communication needs of various public safety organizations.The development of these systems will be closely correlated with the evolution of operational requirements and communications services needed by users. For all these digital trunking systems, information security has proven to be an essential aspect. In this paper we present some aspects of the security functions of the Tetra system because this system was imposed as an open standard ETSI and is used as a Schengen cooperation system.

  15. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava Associated with Hemiazygos Vein Draining in It and Absence of Left Brachiocephalic Vein, in a Patient with Congenital Heart Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opincariu Diana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent left superior vena cava is an anomalous vein that derives from a malfunction of obliteration of the left common cardinal vein during intrauterine life. The diagnosis can be suggested by a dilated coronary sinus as seen in echocardiography, or other imagistic methods. Due to the lack of hemodynamic impairment, and consequently with few or no symptoms, this vascular anomaly is frequently discovered incidentally. In this brief report we present the case of a 35-year-old male known with a complex congenital cardiovascular malformation that included atrial septum defect, persistent left superior vena cava and anomalous right pulmonary vein drainage in the PLSVC, diagnosed with sinoatrial block that required pacemaker implantation. Due to the patient’s medical history, investigations to decide the best approach needed for pacemaker implantation were performed, including a thoracic CT that incidentally found additional anomalies — the hemiazygos vein draining in PLSVC and the lack of the left brachiocephalic vein.

  16. Estimation of trunk muscle forces and spinal loads during fatiguing repetitive trunk exertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, P J; Parnianpour, M

    1998-12-01

    The effects of human trunk extensor muscle fatigue on the estimated trunk muscle forces and spinal loading were investigated during the performance of repetitive dynamic trunk extension. To evaluate if alterations in the trunk muscle recruitment patterns resulted in a greater estimated active loading of the spine and, in turn, an increased risk of injury. Epidemiologic studies highlight the increased risk of low back injury during repetitive lifting, implicating fatigue of muscles and/or passive tissues as causes of such injury. Increased trunk muscle activity or altered recruitment patterns resulting from fatigue in the primary trunk extensor muscles may indicate an increase in the active loading of the spine, which could contribute to an increased risk of injury. Sixteen healthy study participants performed repetitive isokinetic trunk extension endurance tests at two load levels and two repetition rates, while their net muscular torque output and trunk muscular activity were measured. During each exertion, trunk torque, position, and velocity were controlled, so that any change in muscle activity could be attributed to fatigue. An electromyography-assisted model, adapted to accommodate the decline in maximum muscular tension generation resulting from fatigue, was used to estimate the 10 trunk muscle forces and spinal loading. Linear regression was used to quantify the rate of change in muscle force and spinal loading resulting from fatigue, while analysis of variance was used to determine if the rate of change was dependent on the task conditions (load and repetition rate). Significant elevations were estimated for the latissimus dorsi and external oblique muscle forces in more than 70% of the endurance tests, whereas significant reductions in the erector spinae muscle force were predicted in 75% of the trials. The magnitude of the range of change of the erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscle forces was dependent on the load level and repetition rate. The

  17. Shoulder pain: a comparison of wheelchair basketball players with trunk control and without trunk control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Necmiye Un; Comert, Esra; Ozengin, Nuriye

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder pain between wheelchair basketball players with trunk control and wheelchair basketball players without trunk control. Players were evaluated according the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) classification system. The study group comprised 60 wheelchair basketball players, who were rated according to the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation classification system. Players were divided into two groups according to their trunk control. Study participants completed an anonymous survey that included demographic data, medical history data, and the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups based on the number of years of wheelchair use, active sport years, weekly working hours, and weekly training hours (p> 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between wheelchair basketball players with trunk control and wheelchair basketball players with trunk control with respect to the duration of their disability, the daily number of transfers made to wheelchair, and Performance Corrected Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (PC-WUSPI) score (pwheelchair basketball players must be analyzed. Trunk stabilization is the key factor affecting the function of the shoulder and is of primary importance for appropriate loading of the shoulder joint's many forms of articulation.

  18. Trunk biomechanics during hemiplegic gait after stroke: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Criekinge, Tamaya; Saeys, Wim; Hallemans, Ann; Velghe, Silke; Viskens, Pieter-Jan; Vereeck, Luc; De Hertogh, Willem; Truijen, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Stroke commonly results in trunk impairments that are associated with decreased trunk coordination and limited trunk muscle strength. These impairments often result in biomechanical changes during walking. Additionally, the so-called pelvic step might be influenced by these impairments. Therefore, the aim of this review was twofold. First, to gain more insight into trunk biomechanics during walking in stroke patients compared to healthy individuals. Second, to investigate the influence of walking speed on trunk biomechanics. The search strategy was performed by the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO database (no. CRD42016035797). Databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and Rehabdata were systematically searched until December 2016. Sixteen of the 1099 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The majority of studies reported on trunk kinematics during walking, data on trunk kinetics and muscle activity is lacking. Following stroke, patients walk with increased mediolateral trunk sway and larger sagittal motion of the lower trunk. Although rotation of the upper trunk is increased, the trunk shows a more in-phase coordination. Acceleration of the trunk diminishes while instability and asymmetry increase as there are less movement towards the paretic side. However, it is of great importance to differentiate between compensatory trunk movements and intrinsic trunk control deficits. Specific exercise programs, assistive devices and orthoses might be of help in controlling these deficits. Importantly, studies suggested that more natural trunk movements were observed when walking speed was increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of trunk muscle strength in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileno da Silva Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trunk muscle strength affects trunk controlling playing an important role in performance and to define the classes of wheelchair basketball players. Trunk control capacity differs among players and quantitative assessments of trunk muscle strength have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and correlate quantitative measures of trunk muscle strength with the wheelchair basketball players' classification. Forty-two male wheelchair basketball players with spinal cord injury, amputation, post-poliomyelitis sequelae, and cerebral palsy had their trunk extension and flexion strength evaluated with isokinetic dynamometer. The classes 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 were considered for statistical analysis. Comparison of trunk muscle strength differed significantly between classes: 1.0 and 3.0; 1.0 and 4.0; 2.0 and 3.0; and 2.0 and 4.0. High correlation was found between the trunk muscle strength and players' classes. The findings of the present study showed a strong correlation of trunk muscle strength and wheelchair basketball classes being able to distinguish players in their classes. However, this quantitative method of evaluation of the trunk muscle strength cannot be solely used to make a decision on the full trunk control.

  20. The Subfossil Trunk of Chiarano (TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Urso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the characterization of a subfossil trunk found buried in the mud of the Piavon canal, at Chiarano (TV, when dredging took place in 2008. The trunk, of imposing dimensions, lacking branches and bark, has a black, deeply cracked and strongly deteriorated outer surface with a carbonized appearance, while internally it has the typical blackish colour of the so-called drowned oak. The studies have demonstrated that it is a tree belonging to the genus Quercus, common oak or sessile oak, that may have been felled between the end of the 12 th and early 14 th century A.D.. Determination of the MWC and residual basic density indicate that the deterioration decreases from the outside inwards; the ash content is high externally and diminishes moving toward the centre. Nowadays, the Piavon is an irrigation canal, but in Venetian times it was navigable and was used for the transport of goods and timber. There were extensive woodlands of common oak and sessile oak all along the Piavon, the size and composition of which is documented in the Venetian cadastres, which also report the distances between the woodlands and the nearest water courses, proof of the importance of river transport for the timber. In particular, an 18 hectare oak woodland is recorded in the Surian cadastre (1569-70 for the villa at Chiarano. The oaks were used by the Republic of Venice mainly for the construction and maintenance of the shipping fleet. The Chiarano trunk, given its age and the area where it was found, may therefore be a trunk felled in Venetian times, perhaps destined for naval use, which was lost during its transport by floating.

  1. Trunk stabilization exercises for healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Vera-Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n2p200   The aim of this study was to analyze the trunk muscular response during different variations of some of the most popular stabilization exercises: front-bridge, back-bridge, side-bridge, and bird-dog. Surface electromyography was bilaterally re-corded from rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique and erector spinae during 25 variations of the aforementioned exercises. Compared to the conventional form of the front- and side-bridge, performing these exercises kneeling on a bench or with elbows extended reduced the muscular challenge. Conversely, performing the back-bridge with elbows extended elicited higher muscular activation than the conventional exercise. While bridge exercises with double leg support produced the highest activation levels in those muscles that counteracted gravity, single leg support while bridging increased the activation of the trunk rotators, especially internal oblique. The highest activation levels were found in three exercises: sagittal walkout in a front-bridge position, rolling from right side-bridge into front-bridge position, and side-bridge with single leg support on a BOSUTMbalance trainer. Although the exercises performed on unstable surfaces usu-ally enhanced the muscle activation, performing the exercises on the BOSUTMbalance trainer did not always increase the trunk muscle activity. Overall, this information may be useful to guide fitness instructors and clinicians when establishing stabilization exercise progressions for the trunk musculature.

  2. Segmental Trunk Control Acquisition and Reaching in Typically Developing Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwani, Jaya; Santamaria, Victor; Saavedra, Sandra L.; Wood, Stacy; Porter, Francine; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the influence of an external support at the thoracic and pelvic level of the trunk on the success of reaching, postural stability and reaching kinematics while infants reached for a toy. Seventeen infants (4–6 months) were clustered into two groups according to their trunk control assessed with the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Major differences were seen between groups with pelvic support, whereas with thoracic support, all infants showed similar quality reaching behaviours. With the external pelvic support, infants who had acquired trunk control in the lumbar region were more accurate in their reaching movements (less movement time, improved straightness of reach, less movement units and path length per movement unit) and were more stable (decreased trunk and head displacement) during a reach than infants that had only acquired trunk control in the thoracic region. These results support the hypothesis that trunk control influences the quality of reaching behaviour. PMID:23681292

  3. The effect of unicycle riding course on trunk strength and trunk stability functions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Andrej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2017-07-24

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of unicycling on trunk strength and timing of automatic stability actions of the selected trunk muscles (multifidus, obliquus externus, erector spine). Twenty healthy 12-year-old children (12 boys, 8 girls; age 12.1 ± 0.2 yrs; body height 1.57 ± 0.05 m; body mass 52.8 ± 10.6 kg) were assigned to experimental and control group. Experimental group performed a supervised 12-session course of unicycling. Trunk strength was measured with a multi-purpose diagnostic machine in frontal and sagittal planes in standing position. Trunk reflex responses and anticipatory actions were assessed through unexpected loading over the hands and rapid shoulder flexion, respectively. After the intervention, strength increased significantly (p muscles (p < 0.001). Anticipatory postural adaptations improved significantly (p < 0.05) in multifidus and obliquus externus of the experimental group only. Unicycling proved to be an effective and funny tool to develop proximal stability and strength, which prevents low back pain and improves the efficiency of energy transfer between body segments. To improve the efficiency of physical education classes, unicycling should be considered a useful tool to increase trunk strength and stability among prepubertal children.

  4. Noninvasive Evaluation of Trunk Muscle Recruitment after Trunk Exercises using Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Matsunaga, Naoto; Okubo, Yu; Kaneoka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated trunk muscle recruitment in abdominal and back exercises with magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging. Twelve men performed bent-knee sit-up, crunch, trunk lateral flexion, and trunk extension exercises. We obtained axial diffusion-weighted images of the trunk before and after each exercise using a 1.5-tesla MR system, calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from the right and left rectus abdominis, lateral abdominal, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, and intrinsic back muscles to evaluate the activity of these muscles during each exercise, and compared ADC values before and after exercise using a paired t-test. The ADCs of the rectus abdominis (right, +19.1%; left, +11.7%), lateral abdominal (right, +15.5%; left, +14.1%), and psoas major (right, +14.8%; left, +15.9%) muscles on both sides increased after the bent-knee sit-up (P muscles on both sides increased after the crunch exercise (P muscles (rectus abdominis, +12.3%; lateral abdominal muscles, +20.3%; quadratus lumborum, +17.1%; intrinsic back muscles, +12.0%; psoas major, +15.4%) (P muscles on both sides were elevated after trunk extension (right lateral abdominal muscles and left quadratus lumborum, P muscles, P muscles in abdominal and back exercises through exercise-induced activation in intramuscular water movement.

  5. The effects of trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue on postural control and trunk proprioception in young, healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Dennis J; Brown, Stephen H M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to induce both trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue, on separate occasions, and compare their effects on standing postural control and trunk proprioception, as well as look at the effects of a recovery period on these outcome measures. A total of 20 individuals participated, with 10 (5 males and 5 females) completing either a standing postural control or lumbar axial repositioning protocol. Participants completed their randomly assigned protocol on two occasions, separated by at least 4  days, with either their trunk extensor or abdominal muscles being fatigued on either day. Postural control centre of pressure variables and trunk proprioception errors were compared pre- and post-fatigue. Results showed that both trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue significantly degraded standing postural control immediately post-fatigue, with recovery occurring within 2 min post-fatigue. In general, these degradative effects on postural control appeared to be greater when the trunk extensor muscles were fatigued compared to the abdominal muscles. No statistically significant changes in trunk proprioception were found after either fatigue protocol. The present findings demonstrate our body's ability to quickly adapt and reweight somatosensory information to maintain postural control and trunk proprioception, as well as illustrate the importance of considering the abdominal muscles, along with the trunk extensor muscles, when considering the impact of fatigue on trunk movement and postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of non-invasive trunk sprays and trunk-injected emamectic benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; D.L. Cappaert; T.M. Poland; A.C. Anulewicz; P. Lewis; J. Molongoski

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, we continued to evaluate two neo-nicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuron, applied as non-invasive trunk sprays to control emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Neo-nicotinoid products are widely used to protect landscape ash trees because they are relatively safe for humans and non-target species. These...

  7. Trunk Function Correlates Positively with Wheelchair Basketball Player Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sileno da Silva; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to identify differences in trunk muscle strength and balance among various classes of wheelchair basketball (WCB) players and (2) to determine if trunk muscle strength and balance correlate with the current observation-based classification of WCB players. Isometric trunk strength and balance (limits of stability) were objectively quantified in 42 male WCB players. Principal component analysis was used to synthesize a battery of strength and balance measures into a single, composite score of trunk function. The K-means clustering algorithm was then used to generate an objective classification system by stratifying players into 4 classes based on their trunk function. Results indicated that there were significant differences in trunk muscle strength and balance between various classes of WCB players (P < 0.05), such that the mean peak trunk extensor and flexor torque and limits of stability indices increased progressively according to the players' classes. There was also a significant correlation between observation-based WCB classification and principal component analysis cluster analysis-based WCB classification (ρ = 0.785, P < 0.05). This study provides novel evidence indicating that trunk strength and balance differ among various classes of WCB players, and objective measures of trunk function correlate positively with the current observation-based WCB classification system.

  8. Trunk Robot Rehabilitation Training with Active Stepping Reorganizes and Enriches Trunk Motor Cortex Representations in Spinal Transected Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Chintan S.

    2015-01-01

    Trunk motor control is crucial for postural stability and propulsion after low thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Robotic rehabilitation aimed at trunk shows promise in SCI animal models and patients. However, little is known about the effect of SCI and robot rehabilitation of trunk on cortical motor representations. We previously showed reorganization of trunk motor cortex after adult SCI. Non-stepping training also exacerbated some SCI-driven plastic changes. Here we examine effects of robot rehabilitation that promotes recovery of hindlimb weight support functions on trunk motor cortex representations. Adult rats spinal transected as neonates (NTX rats) at the T9/10 level significantly improve function with our robot rehabilitation paradigm, whereas treadmill-only trained do not. We used intracortical microstimulation to map motor cortex in two NTX groups: (1) treadmill trained (control group); and (2) robot-assisted treadmill trained (improved function group). We found significant robot rehabilitation-driven changes in motor cortex: (1) caudal trunk motor areas expanded; (2) trunk coactivation at cortex sites increased; (3) richness of trunk cortex motor representations, as examined by cumulative entropy and mutual information for different trunk representations, increased; (4) trunk motor representations in the cortex moved toward more normal topography; and (5) trunk and forelimb motor representations that SCI-driven plasticity and compensations had caused to overlap were segregated. We conclude that effective robot rehabilitation training induces significant reorganization of trunk motor cortex and partially reverses some plastic changes that may be adaptive in non-stepping paraplegia after SCI. PMID:25948267

  9. Trunk robot rehabilitation training with active stepping reorganizes and enriches trunk motor cortex representations in spinal transected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Chintan S; Giszter, Simon F

    2015-05-06

    Trunk motor control is crucial for postural stability and propulsion after low thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Robotic rehabilitation aimed at trunk shows promise in SCI animal models and patients. However, little is known about the effect of SCI and robot rehabilitation of trunk on cortical motor representations. We previously showed reorganization of trunk motor cortex after adult SCI. Non-stepping training also exacerbated some SCI-driven plastic changes. Here we examine effects of robot rehabilitation that promotes recovery of hindlimb weight support functions on trunk motor cortex representations. Adult rats spinal transected as neonates (NTX rats) at the T9/10 level significantly improve function with our robot rehabilitation paradigm, whereas treadmill-only trained do not. We used intracortical microstimulation to map motor cortex in two NTX groups: (1) treadmill trained (control group); and (2) robot-assisted treadmill trained (improved function group). We found significant robot rehabilitation-driven changes in motor cortex: (1) caudal trunk motor areas expanded; (2) trunk coactivation at cortex sites increased; (3) richness of trunk cortex motor representations, as examined by cumulative entropy and mutual information for different trunk representations, increased; (4) trunk motor representations in the cortex moved toward more normal topography; and (5) trunk and forelimb motor representations that SCI-driven plasticity and compensations had caused to overlap were segregated. We conclude that effective robot rehabilitation training induces significant reorganization of trunk motor cortex and partially reverses some plastic changes that may be adaptive in non-stepping paraplegia after SCI. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357174-16$15.00/0.

  10. Trunk exercises performed on an unstable surface improve trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Cho, Hwi-Young; In, Tae-Sung

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of trunk exercises performed on an unstable surface on trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-four participants with stroke were recruited in this study and randomly distributed into experimental (n = 12) and control groups (n = 12). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group participated in trunk exercises on the balance pad for 30 min, five times a week for 4 weeks; those in the control group performed trunk exercises on a stable surface for 30 min, five times a week for 4 weeks. Trunk muscle activation was measured by using surface electromyography, and trunk control was evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS). Gait speed was measured with the 10-Meter Walk Test. [Results] Activity of the external and internal oblique muscles in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The TIS score of the experimental group showed significantly greater improvement than did that of the control group. The 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) score also significantly improved in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Trunk exercises on an unstable surface improve trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in patients with hemiparetic stroke.

  11. Evaluation of trunk injections for control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David L. Cappaert; Phillip Lewis; John Molongowski

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, we evaluated trunk injections of imidacloprid for control of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB). Results were variable and indicated that efficacy could be affected by injection timing and method and by tree size and vigor. In 2004, we continued studies to assess the optimal timing for imidacloprid trunk injections and...

  12. determination of optimum number of trunk lines for corporate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    It is usual in the developed countries, to assume a reliable network while determining the optimum number of trunk lines required to be leased in order to provide standard quality of service to corporate network users. Therefore, the ratio of the rate of failure of the trunk lines to the rate of its restoration parameter is not put into ...

  13. Study on quality improvement of palm trunk by thermoplastic impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, F.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Hussin, K.

    2017-09-01

    Due to abundance of palm trunk waste, palm trunk can be used as alternative raw material of wood composites to replace future timber. However, the morphological of palm trunk is not truly woody material, so the quality improvement was studied by thermoplastic impregnation at different soaking time. The effect of thermoplastic resin impregnation on the morphological, physical and mechanical was investigated in this study. It was found that the amount of resin uptake to the palm trunk ranged from 3.85% to 6.25%. The density, thickness swelling and water absorption of treated palm trunk significantly improved. While, the modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of treated palm trunk was greater than untreated. This findings in this study indicated that thermoplastic resin would be considered alternative to formaldehyde-based resin to improved properties of palm trunk. At the request of all authors and with the approval of the proceedings editor, article 020268 titled, "Study on Quality Improvement of Palm Trunk by Thermoplastic Impregnation," is being retracted from the public record due to the fact that it is a duplication of article 020153 published in the same volume.

  14. Effects of fatigue on trunk stability in elite gymnasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; Luger, T.; van der Eb, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that fatigue due to exercises performed in training leads to a decrement of trunk stability in elite, female gymnasts. Nine female gymnasts participated in the study. To fatigue trunk muscles, four series of five dump handstands on the uneven

  15. Behavioral and cognitive evaluation of FireWorks education trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda R. Thomas; James A. Walsh; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of FireWorks, an educational trunk about wildland fire, in increasing student understanding, enabling students to apply classroom learning in a field setting, and improving the learning environment. Students who were in classrooms using the FireWorks educational trunk demonstrated more knowledge in both classroom and field-based...

  16. Trunk Flexibility Improvement in Response to Powered Assisted Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bains

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background study: Flexibility in human spine has always plays an important role in dexterity and seamless ambulatory activities. When optimum range is not maintained by the trunk column, due to lack of flexibility, the posture gets affected resulting in reduce trunk rotation flexibility and mobility hence loss of complete trunk rotation. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Shapemaster Power Assisted Exercise Equipment (SPAEE on trunk flexibility. Methodology: Twenty healthy individual ages between 40 to 60 years were randomly divided into control and exercise groups. Shapemaster exercise program performed two times per week for 5 weeks and 45 minutes per session. Before and after 10 sessions of Shapemaster exercise protocol, Seated trunk rotation test was used to measure trunk flexibility. Results: Repeated measurement ANOVA were used to analysis data between groups. The results of this study illustrated that after 10th sessions trunk flexibility significantly improved (F (1.0, 18 = 11.732, p < 0.003. Conclusion: In conclusion results were determined that SPAEE is safe and it did effectively enhance flexibility among individual healthy adults. Keyword: Shapemaster Power Assisted Exercise Equipment (SPAEE, Trunk Flexibility, Healthy individual

  17. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  18. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The timber reforestation, mainly by Eucalyptus and Pinus sp., has low power processing, strength, good natural durability and, most importantly, provide reduce pressure on native forests. The concern with native forests and the high price of some of these woods force the market to replace those species by other, more abundant and available at most competitive prices. Anything that involves the handling of animals in its various phases has a direct dependency of husbandry facilities, pastures and actions of the people involved (best practices. With the segment of the production and export of meat increasingly competitive and globalized world, the adoption of best practices and animal welfare criteria are striking and decision makers for the acceptance of Brazilian beef in the world market, especially the European market. The use of appropriate animal husbandry facilities is critical to the proper rational management ("action with knowledge" of animals and increased productivity. The trunk restraint carries important role in the implementation and conduct of good animal welfare as having desirable features strength, durability, ability to contain cattle of various sizes, as well as easy to manipulate when the animal inside. Available on the market in the form of different models and costs, is an installation manufactured in wood and iron or galvanized, and may or may not be coupled with an analytical balance or digital, still and mechanical and other systems or electronics. The concern in this installation is perceived improvement in the number of patents filed and recorded and the constant evolution of their functions, with various companies operating in this segment. However, the development and validation of containment trunks with alternative materials, reflecting mainly the reduction of the final cost are poorly studied. In this first phase of the project will be considered the construction of trunk restraint coupled with analytical balance

  19. ANOMALOUS BRANCHING PATTERN OF COELIAC TRUNK – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Usha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While doing a routine dissection in an 85 years old cadaver, it was observed that the coeliac trunk arised as gastro splenic trunk and the common hepatic artery arised from the superior mesenteric artery instea d of the coeliac trunk. Knowledge of anatomical variants of coeliac trunk, hepatic vascular structures is of great importance in general surgery, especially hepatic surgery. As coeliac trunk supplies the foregut, the anomaly and morphometric variation may lead to abnormalities of the foregut and its derivatives. This leads to anatomical, surgical and clinical complications. This knowledge is also of great importance with regard to liver transplantations, laparoscopic surgeries, radiological procedures, and the treatment of penetrating injuries involving the peri - hepatic area

  20. Reliability of the revised wheelchair rugby trunk impairment classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, V C; Groen, B E; van Limbeek, J; Vanlandewijck, Y C; Keijsers, N L W

    2013-12-01

    Observational, cross-sectional. A new classification system for trunk impairment in wheelchair rugby was introduced in 2010. It consists of 10 tests, arranged in an algorithm, to assign four different trunk scores (0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5) to athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of this classification system. National competition for wheelchair rugby and wheelchair basketball in the Netherlands and Belgium. Three experienced wheelchair rugby classifiers independently assigned trunk scores to wheelchair rugby and wheelchair basketball athletes in two sessions. After each session, test descriptions were adjusted. The inter-rater reliability was evaluated by determining the agreement and Fleiss Kappa. In the first session, all classifiers agreed on the trunk score in 13 out of 16 athletes; the overall Kappa was 0.76 (Pwheelchair rugby showed a adequate inter-rater reliability for the allocation of trunk scores.

  1. TRUNK MOBILITY AFTER MINIMALLY INVASIVE ONE-LEVEL LUMBAR INSTRUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO SIMONI SIMÕES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of a minimally invasive lumbar one-level fixation on trunk mobility and quality of life compared with the preoperative condition in 26 consecutive patients. Methods: The following data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively for the statistical analysis: maximal trunk extension and flexion angles, Visual Analog Scale of pain and Oswestry Disability Index scores. Results: There was improvement in all variables. Statistical significance was observed in trunk extension, pain, and Oswestry Disability Index. Although mobility in trunk flexion was higher in average values after surgery, this difference was not statistically demonstrated. Conclusion: Minimally invasive one-level lumbar fixation does not cause reduction of trunk flexibility in comparison to the mobility before surgery.

  2. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong-mail@126.com; Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com [Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (China)

    2016-04-15

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months.

  3. The Effects of Push-ups with the Trunk Flexed on the Shoulder and Trunk Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Hyun; Jung, So-Young; Nam, Dong-Hun; Shin, Seung-Je; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the shoulder and trunk muscles in two push-up positions: standard push-ups and push-ups with the trunk flexed. [Subjects] Fifteen young adult males participated in the study. [Methods] This study measured the clavicular and sternocostal portions of the pectoralis major, the serratus anterior, and the rectus abdominis during push-ups under the two conditions. [Results] The activity of the sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major and that of the rectus abdominis were significantly greater under Condition 1 than under Condition 2. The activity of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major and that of the serratus anterior were significantly greater under Condition 2 compared with Condition 1. [Conclusion] These results indicate that exercises can selectively activate muscle parts under different clinical situations.

  4. Effects of dynamic office chairs on trunk kinematics, trunk extensor EMG and spinal shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dieën, J H; de Looze, M P; Hermans, V

    2001-06-10

    Seated work has been shown to constitute a risk factor for low-back pain. This is attributed to the prolonged and monotonous low-level mechanical load imposed by a seated posture. To evaluate the potential health effects with respect to the low back of office chairs with a movable seat and back rest, trunk kinematics, erector spinae EMG, spinal shrinkage and local discomfort were assessed in 10 subjects performing simulated office work. On three separate occasions subjects performed a 3 h task consisting of word processing, computer-aided design and reading. Three chairs were used, one with a fixed seat and back rest and two dynamic chairs, one with a seat and back rest movable in a fixed ratio with respect to each other, and one with a freely movable seat and back rest. Spinal shrinkage measurements showed a larger stature gain when working on the two dynamic chairs as compared with working on the chair with fixed seat and back rest. Trunk kinematics and erector spinae EMG were strongly affected by the task performed but not by the chair type. The results imply that dynamic office chairs offer a potential advantage over fixed chairs, but the effects of the task on the indicators of trunk load investigated were more pronounced than the effects of the chair.

  5. Reliability and validity of a scale for measurement of trunk mobility in Parkinson's disease: Trunk Mobility Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Clarissa R C; Leão, Paula; Townsend, Raquel; Rieder, Carlos R M

    2011-08-01

    Axial rigidity is an important motor manifestation in Parkinson's disease (PD). Trunk mobility impairment can cause gait, balance and postural problems. However, only few instruments analyze the trunk mobility in PD patients. The aim of this study is to present a new Trunk Mobility Scale (TMS) and its validation in PD. The TMS constituted of dynamic tests involving trunk movements in sagittal, transversal and coronal planes. Ninety eight PD patients and 31 normal controls were analyzed. A strong correlation was found between the TMS scores and the Hoehn & Yahr staging scale (r: 0.72; pScale (r: 0.84; pscale showed a satisfactory reliability rate (αCronbach: 0.85, ICC: 099). TMS is a simple and reliable instrument to evaluate trunk mobility impairment in patients with PD.

  6. Reliability and validity of a scale for measurement of trunk mobility in Parkinson's disease: Trunk Mobility Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa R.C. Franco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Axial rigidity is an important motor manifestation in Parkinson's disease (PD. Trunk mobility impairment can cause gait, balance and postural problems. However, only few instruments analyze the trunk mobility in PD patients. The aim of this study is to present a new Trunk Mobility Scale (TMS and its validation in PD. The TMS constituted of dynamic tests involving trunk movements in sagittal, transversal and coronal planes. Ninety eight PD patients and 31 normal controls were analyzed. A strong correlation was found between the TMS scores and the Hoehn & Yahr staging scale (r: 0.72; p<0.01, motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r: 0.84; p<0.01 and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (r: -0.72; p<0.01. The scale showed a satisfactory reliability rate (αCronbach: 0.85, ICC: 099. TMS is a simple and reliable instrument to evaluate trunk mobility impairment in patients with PD.

  7. Major involvement of trunk muscles in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbakken, G; Ørstavik, K; Hagen, T; Dietrichs, E; Naerland, T

    2016-12-01

    The motor impairments in Myotonic Dystrophy 1 (DM1) are assumed to progress from distal toward proximal parts of the extremities in the Juvenile and Adult forms of DM1. On occasion and late in progress spine deformity is observed. In this study we have examined whether and to what extent trunk muscles are impaired in DM1, and if this impairment is correlated with the duration of the disorder, walking capacity, mobility, balance, and CTG-repeats. Manual muscle testing (MMT) of skeletal muscle strength in trunk and extremities, reassessment of the mutation size, time since first symptom, the 6 min walk test (6MWT), Rivermead mobility index (RIM) and Timed up & go (TUG) were sampled in 38 adult DM1 outpatients. We found significant impairment in trunk muscles. Trunk muscle strength decreased significantly with increasing mutation size (r = -0.64, P muscle strength. DM1 affects trunk muscle groups. The trunk impairments seem to occur relatively early in disease progression. Awareness of trunk impairments may be of importance for everyday functioning and for understanding the risk of injuries due to falls reported among DM1 patients. It may also help in identification of DM1 patients and considered outcome measure in future clinical trials. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. aTrunk—An ALS-Based Trunk Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lamprecht

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rapid multi-return ALS-based (Airborne Laser Scanning tree trunk detection approach. The multi-core Divide & Conquer algorithm uses a CBH (Crown Base Height estimation and 3D-clustering approach to isolate points associated with single trunks. For each trunk, a principal-component-based linear model is fitted, while a deterministic modification of LO-RANSAC is used to identify an optimal model. The algorithm returns a vector-based model for each identified trunk while parameters like the ground position, zenith orientation, azimuth orientation and length of the trunk are provided. The algorithm performed well for a study area of 109 trees (about 2/3 Norway Spruce and 1/3 European Beech, with a point density of 7.6 points per m2, while a detection rate of about 75% and an overall accuracy of 84% were reached. Compared to crown-based tree detection methods, the aTrunk approach has the advantages of a high reliability (5% commission error and its high tree positioning accuracy (0.59m average difference and 0.78m RMSE. The usage of overlapping segments with parametrizable size allows a seamless detection of the tree trunks.

  9. A trunk ranging system based on binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xixuan; Kan, Jiangming

    2017-07-01

    Trunk ranging is an essential function for autonomous forestry robots. Traditional trunk ranging systems based on personal computers are not convenient in practical application. This paper examines the implementation of a trunk ranging system based on the binocular vision theory via TI's DaVinc DM37x system. The system is smaller and more reliable than that implemented using a personal computer. It calculates the three-dimensional information from the images acquired by binocular cameras, producing the targeting and ranging results. The experimental results show that the measurement error is small and the system design is feasible for autonomous forestry robots.

  10. The effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Sik; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 study subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (a motor imagery training group) and the control group (a neurodevelopmental treatment, NDT) group. The two groups were treated five times (30 minutes each time) per week for 4 weeks. The experimental group underwent imagery training for 10 minutes and trunk control centered NDT for 20 minutes and the control group underwent only trunk control centered NDT for 30 minutes. The trunk muscle activity and the position sense of the subjects were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The two groups showed significant improvements in muscle activity after the intervention. Only the experimental group showed significant improvements in proprioception. The experimental group showed significant improvements in the variations of muscle activity and proprioception compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training for trunk movements can be effectively used to improve trunk muscle activity and proprioception in stroke patients.

  11. Structural evolution and diversity of the caterpillar trunk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    : the myrmecophilous ‘blue butterflies’ (Lycaenidae). The thesis includes four manuscript/chapters (MS 1-4). The four main objectives of the thesis are 1), to describe the larval morphology, including secondary locomotory structures, trunk chaetotaxy, and trunk musculature in the nonneolepidopterans, and in doing so...... feeding and climbing behavior (MS1), 3) describe the micropterigid and agathiphagid trunk morphology, including secondary locomotory structures, chaetotaxy, trunk musculature, and in the case of the former also the unique cuticle. The purpose of these descriptions is to focus on the seemingly aberrant...... morphology in an attempt to link form and function (MS2-3). 4) to re-evaluate the previously indicated correlation between the cuticle thickness of lycaenid larvae and the degree of myrmecophily in a selection of species in this family, and through a comparative study to better understand the link between...

  12. Bathing Trunk Inevus Associated with Neurofibromatosis and Raised Intracranial Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S Arya

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy had bathing trunk nevus with multiple large neurofibromata on the nevus and raised intracranial tension presenting with bilateral papilloedema and pyramidal tract sings. This combination, of features is extremely rare.

  13. Observing of tree trunks and other cylindrical objects using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Lambot, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Trees are a part of our everyday life, hence it is important to prevent their collapse to protect people and urban infrastructures. It is also important to characterize tree wood properties for usages in construction. In order to investigate internal parts of tree trunks non-invasively, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), or in this case, ultra-wideband microwave radar as a general tool, appears to be a very promising technology. Nevertheless, tree trunk tomography using microwave radar is a complicated task due to the circular shape of the trunk and the very complex (heterogeneous and anisotropic) internal structures of the trunk. Microwave sensing of tree trunks is also complicated due to the electromagnetic properties of living wood, which strongly depend on water content, density and temperature of wood. The objective of this study is to describe tree trunk radar cross sections including specific features originating from the particular circumferential data acquisition geometry. In that respect, three experiments were performed: (1) numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain software, namely, gprMax 2D, (2) measurements on a simplified laboratory trunk model including plastic and cardboard pipes, sand and air, and (3) measurements over a real tree trunk. The analysis was further deepened by considering: (1) common zero-offset reflection imaging, (2) imaging with a planar perfect electrical conductor (PEC) at the opposite side of the trunk, and (3) imaging with a PEC arc at the opposite side of the trunk. Furthermore, the shape of the reflection curve of a cylindrical target was analytically derived based on the straight-ray propagation approximation. Subsequently, the total internal reflection (TIR) phenomenon occurring in cylindrical objects was observed and analytically described. Both the straight-ray reflection curve and TIR were well observed on the simulated and laboratory radar data. A comparison between all experiments and radar

  14. A unique case of isolated, spontaneous, symptomatic celiac trunk dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Ferguson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of isolated spontaneous celiac trunk dissections have been appearing in the literature more recently with the increased availability of high-resolution computerized tomography angiograms. We report a unique case of this entity. A 48-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain that radiated to the back and worsened with breathing. This was diagnosed as a celiac trunk dissection by computerized tomography angiogram. She was treated conservatively with antihypertensive medications, anticoagulants, and opioid medication for pain control.

  15. the relationship between canopy width, height and trunk size

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... a = the distance to the highest point on the tree crown (hypotenuse) b = the distance to the tree base and c = the tree height. Trunk Size. Trunk size was considered as the diameter at breast height (d.b.h). To determine the d.b.h., the girth at breast height (g.b.h) or circumference of the tree was measured by ...

  16. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yi Chiou

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1 is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES and rectus abdominis (RA during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF, static shoulder flexion (SSF, and static trunk extension (STE. The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF and goal-directed voluntary (STE activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function.

  17. Training can modify back muscle response to sudden trunk loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jørgensen, Kurt; Fallentin, Nils

    2004-10-01

    Sudden, unexpected loading to the trunk has been reported in the literature as a potential cause of low-back disorders. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of "readiness training" on the response to sudden back loading among untrained healthy individuals. The study included 19 participants and 19 matched controls. All were employees at the National Institute of Occupational Health. The participants received ten 45-min training sessions during a 4-week period. The training focused on reactions to a variety of expected and unexpected sudden trunk loadings, including balance and coordination exercises. Before and after the training, all subjects were tested for reaction to sudden trunk loading (SL). This entailed applying a horizontal force of 58 N to the subject's upper back. Elapsed time--measured between SL and stopping--decreased significantly in the training group (from 337 to 311 ms) compared with the control group. The improved stopping time was associated with a changed EMG signal, characterized by an increase in the early parts of the response (up to 225 ms) and a subsequent decrease. EMG onset latency was unaffected by training. This study is apparently one of the first to demonstrate that the response to sudden trunk loading can be improved in healthy subjects without an increase in pre-activation and associated trunk stiffness. In perspective, the results indicate a possibility for a training-induced reduction of the risk of low-back injuries, e.g., in nurses exposed to sudden trunk perturbations during patient handling.

  18. Effects of abdominal belts on the cross-sectional shape of the trunk during intense contraction of the trunk muscles observed by computer tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kei; Iinuma, Nobuki; Ueki, Shunsuke; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2008-12-01

    Several mechanisms of how abdominal belts affect the trunk have been postulated, but very little is known about how the belts affect the cross-sectional shape of the trunk during trunk muscle exertions. To evaluate the effects of abdominal belts on the cross-sectional shape of the trunk during contraction of the trunk muscles, CT images at the third lumbar vertebra level of 20 healthy males (age: 23-45 years) under 8 different conditions (combinations of performing or not performing the Valsalva maneuver after full inhalation or at neutral respiratory state, while wearing or not wearing a 100-mm-wide abdominal belt) were evaluated. The cross-sectional shapes of the trunk seen on CT images taken at the level of the 3rd lumbar vertebra were compared using three-way ANOVA. Wearing the belt decreased the cross-sectional area of the trunk, and wearing it while performing the Valsalva maneuver and during inhalation compressed the postero-lateral part of the trunk and made the trunk nearly round by increasing the ratio of the anterior-posterior width to the right-left width. A wide belt cinched around the abdomen exerts external hoop tension on the trunk and stiffens the trunk. When the belt is worn during the Valsalva maneuver after deep inhalation, the posterolateral portion of the trunk is compressed and the trunk becomes circular.

  19. Relationship between trunk stability during voluntary limb and trunk movements and clinical measurements of patients with chronic stroke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liao, Chien-Fen; Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Wang, Ray-Yau; Su, Fong-Chin; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate differences between patients with chronic stroke and age matched healthy controls in trunk stability, by assessing the kinematics of the center of mass...

  20. The effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Dong-Sik; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 study subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (a motor imagery training group) and the control group (a neurodevelopmental treatment, NDT) group. The two groups were treated five times (30 minutes each time) per week for 4 weeks. The experimental group underwent image...

  1. Trunk muscle activity during bridging exercises on and off a Swissball

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Steven; Hoda Wajid; Lehman Gregory J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background A Swiss ball is often incorporated into trunk strengthening programs for injury rehabilitation and performance conditioning. It is often assumed that the use of a Swiss ball increases trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to trunk bridging exercises influences trunk muscle activity. Methods Surface electrodes recorded the myoelectric activity of trunk muscles during bridging exercises. Bridging exercises were per...

  2. Spinal flexibility affects range of trunk flexion during performance of a maximum voluntary trunk curl-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidaris, Dimitrios; Hatzitaki, Vassilia; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between spinal flexibility and range of trunk flexion during curl-up performance. Fifty young adult men (age: 18.93 +/- 1.31 years; height: 179.4 +/- 5.7 cm; mass: 73.95 +/- 7.8 kg) performed a spinal flexibility measurement test and a maximum voluntary trunk curl-up from the supine position. The 2 tests were paced to the beat of a metronome and had a constant movement duration set to 5 seconds. Spinal and pelvic motions were recorded with the help of 2 electromagnetic tracking sensors (Flock of Birds, Ascension Technologies, Inc., Burlington, Vt; sampling rate 100 Hz) attached to the seventh cervical (C7) and first sacral (S1) vertebrae, respectively. Correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between spinal flexibility and curl-up performance, with spinal flexibility accounting for 18% of the variance in the range of trunk flexion during performance of the voluntary trunk curl-up. No significant anterior tilt of the pelvis was noted during performance of the trunk curl-up. On the other hand, a minor posterior pelvic rotation depicted during the initial phase of the trunk curl-up was negatively correlated with spinal flexibility. It is concluded that a normal range of spinal flexibility is critical for the optimal performance of abdominal strength training exercises such as trunk curl-ups from the supine position. The results of the present study are relevant to the design and evaluation of training programs for improving strength and function of the abdominal muscles in rehabilitation and sports contexts.

  3. The effect of increasing resistant level on reaction time and electromyographic activity of trunk muscles during combined trunk motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sadeghi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymmetric or combined lifting of objects is considered as the most important biomechanical factor in increasing the prevalence of low back pain (LBP in the working environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing resistance level on reaction time and electromyographic activity of trunk muscles during combined trunk motion.Materials and Method: In this interventional study; after entering cases into the study consecutively, thirty young healthy men aligned with B200 isostation dynamometer in upright standing position randomly performed combined trunk motion against different levels of resistance (minimal resistance, 25, 50 , 75% of MVC. The way of test performance was five combined trunk motion trip in two phases of upward and downward movements. The.Rout Mean Square of trunk muscles and temporal parameters of motor control was recorded by the Data Link device. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to test the effect of levels of resistance. Results: The results of present study showed that in general, increasing resistance level associated significantly with the amount of RMS of trunk muscles (p=0.001 and motor time (p =0.004. Reaction time has also been increased but it had not any significant difference (p=0.058. Premotor time was not changed significantly (p>0.05.Conclusion: With increasing the level of resistance, trunk controllability reduces and the amount of error in motion system and internal loading will increase. Finally greater stress and strain impose into the annulus fibers, facet joints, soft tissue will increase the risk of injury

  4. Trunk muscle response to various protocols of lumbar traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; Lee, Angela S; Reeves, N Peter; Calle, Elizabeth A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activity, spinal decompression force, and trunk flexibility resulting from various protocols of spinal traction. Four experiments explored the effects of (1) sinusoidal, triangular, square, and continuous distraction-force waveforms, (2) 0, 10, 20, and 30 degrees of pull angle, (3) superimposed low, medium and high frequency force oscillations, and (4) sham traction. Nineteen healthy subjects volunteered for this study. Surface EMG was recorded during traction and later used in a biomechanical model to estimate spine decompression force. Trunk flexibility was measured before and after each treatment. There were no differences in muscle activity between any of the experimental conditions except the thoracic erector spinae muscle, which had lower EMG during continuous compared to sinusoidal distraction-force waveform (p=0.02). Thoracic and lumbar erector spinae muscles were significantly less active during sham than real traction (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). The estimated L4-L5 spine compression force was 25N. Trunk flexibility decreased after each experimental session (p=0.01), and there were no differences between sessions. Our results suggest that the trunk muscle activity is minimal and point toward fluid exchange in the disc as one of the key biomechanical effects of spinal traction.

  5. Trunk muscle fatigue during a back extension task in standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, G T; Henry, S M

    2001-11-01

    There is some evidence that the fatiguing characteristics during isometric back extension tasks may assist in identifying differences between individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). During these tasks, especially in standing, other abdominal trunk muscles are also active. The abdominal trunk muscles acting across multiple segments of the lumbar spine function in isolation or in synergy to create flexion torques. It is suggested that co-activation patterns of the trunk muscles are able to control the axis of rotation of the extension torque and also provide multi-segmental stability of the spine. The purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue responses in 4 asymptomatic individuals to a sustained isometric extension task of the trunk muscles evaluating the shifts in the median frequency of the electromyographic (EMG) signal. This study suggests that in asymptomatic subjects, the more superficial abdominal muscles (External Oblique and Rectus Abdominis) increased in activity as the test progressed. There was large inter-individual variation in both amplitude and median frequency changes. Rectus abdominis and the back extensors demonstrated characteristics of fatigue during the task. Studies to test for any characteristic trends in whether specific trunk muscles fatigue in standing is a feature in chronic LBP, invites a formal investigation. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  6. Factor structure of trunk performance data for healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Kuo, C

    2000-05-01

    To examine the factor structure of various measurements of trunk muscle performance for healthy subjects. A total of 22 performance scores were collected and their univariate and multi-variate relationships were examined. Extensive literature exists on the measurement of trunk performance data and the relationships between measurements but what needs to be collected to realize a true performance score remains unclear. Trunk muscle performance scores of 150 subjects (71 males and 79 females) were obtained on an Isostation B-200 Dynamometer. Twenty-two parameters measuring range of motion, isometric strength, velocity, and endurance on all three planes of motion were collected. The factor structures were constructed using Principal Components Analysis. Clear-cut factor patterns (explained 96.3% of the total variance) suggests that the five-factor structure might be valid and appropriate for this population. The major loading on each factor indicated that: Factor 1 could be labeled as a static strength measure; Factor 2 as velocity; Factor 3 as flexibility; and Factors 4 and 5 as fatigue-resistance. No single mode of measurement can provide a good representation of a total trunk muscle performance. RelevanceFor the realization of trunk muscle performance, clinics have to measure all modes of isometric strength, velocity, range of motion, and endurance. Care must be taken in eliminating any parameter.

  7. Postoperative Trunk Shift in Lenke 1C Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody Eric; Wu, Chunsen

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A risk factor analysis study. OBJECTIVE: To identify the causative factors for postoperative trunk shift in Lenke 1C scoliosis and investigate how to prevent it. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: When selective thoracic fusion is performed, postoperative trunk shift is a significant problem...... in the management of Lenke 1C scoliosis. It is often accompanied by unsatisfactory clinical outcomes and a risk of reoperation. METHODS: We reviewed all the patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgically treated in our institution from 2002 through 2008. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1...... of MT: TL/L Cobb angle) - 3.9 (preoperative LIV-LEV difference). The model R2 = 0.55. CONCLUSION: Both LIV selection and ratio of MT: TL/L curve were found to be highly correlated with the onset of postoperative trunk shift in Lenke 1C scoliosis. Amount of correction obtained by surgery, however, did...

  8. Altered trunk muscle coordination during rapid trunk flexion in people in remission of recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hooge, Roseline; Hodges, Paul; Tsao, Henry; Hall, Leanne; Macdonald, David; Danneels, Lieven

    2013-02-01

    People with a history of low back pain (LBP) are at high risk to encounter additional LBP episodes. During LBP remission, altered trunk muscle control has been suggested to negatively impact spinal health. As sudden LBP onset is commonly reported during trunk flexion, the aim of the current study is to investigate whether dynamic trunk muscle recruitment is altered in LBP remission. Eleven people in remission of recurrent LBP and 14 pain free controls performed cued trunk flexion during a loaded and unloaded condition. Electromyographic activity was recorded from paraspinal (lumbar and thoracic erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, deep and superficial multifidus) and abdominal muscles (obliquus internus, externus and rectus abdominis) with surface and fine-wire electrodes. LBP participants exhibited higher levels of co-contraction of flexor/extensor muscles, lower agonistic abdominal and higher antagonistic paraspinal muscle activity than controls, both when data were analyzed in grouped and individual muscle behavior. A sub-analysis in people with unilateral LBP (n = 6) pointed to opposing changes in deep and superficial multifidus in relation to the pain side. These results suggest that dynamic trunk muscle control is modified during LBP remission, and might possibly increase spinal load and result in earlier muscle fatigue due to intensified muscle usage. These negative consequences for spinal health could possibly contribute to recurrence of LBP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chondroid lipoma of the trunk: MRI appearance and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boets, An; Mieghem, Isabelle M.Van; Breuseghem, Iwan Van [Catholic University Leuven Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Sciot, Raf [Catholic University Leuven, Pathology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Chondroid lipoma is a rare tumour of adipose tissue, bearing a strikingly close pathologic resemblance to myxoid liposarcoma and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Unlike these malignant tumours, chondroid lipoma has a non-aggressive behaviour and does not require radical treatment. Although repeatedly reported in the proximal extremities and limb girdles, this rare entity may less frequently be observed in the trunk. We describe the imaging findings of a chondroid lipoma in the trunk and provide a discussion on the radiologic-pathologic correlation and differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Analysis and experiments with an elephant's trunk robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M. W.; Walker, I. D.

    2001-01-01

    The area of tentacle and trunk type biological manipulation is not new, but there has been little progress in the development and application of a physical device to simulate these types of manipulation. Our research in this area is based on using an 'elephant trunk' robot. In this paper, we review the construction of the robot and how it compares to biological manipulators. We then apply our previously designed kinematic model to describe the kinematics of the robot. We finish by providing some examples of motion planning and intelligent manipulation using the robot.

  11. MUSCLE POWER, SITTING UNSUPPORTED AND TRUNK ROTATION IN PRETERM INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGROOT, L; HOPKINS, B; TOUWEN, B

    1995-01-01

    Discrepancies between active and passive muscle power are often seen in pre-term infants over the first year. Generally of a transient nature, they are most obvious in the extensor muscles of the trunk where there is a high active muscle power relative to the passive component. While high active

  12. Trunk recruitment during spoon use in tetraparetic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roon, D.B. van; Steenbergen, B.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the extent to which individuals suffering from spastic tetraparesis as a consequence of cerebral palsy tune their trunk involvement to accuracy demands in a spoon-handling task. Twenty-two participants (ten adolescents with spastic tetraparesis and 12 control

  13. Test-retest reliability of trunk accelerometric gait analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Moe-Nilssen, R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18...... a definite potential in clinical gait analysis....

  14. Determination of Optimum Number of Trunk Lines for Corporate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of determining the optimum number of telecommunication trunk lines subscribers' common equipment) for a given average traffic intensity is contributory, among other things, to the problem encountered in providing cost effective and high quality telecommunication services to corporate network users.

  15. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Eiji; Sasaki, Shizuka; Chiba, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nawata, Atsushi; Tsuda, Eiichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI). We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (ptorque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults.

  16. Comparison of trunk activity during gait initiation and walking in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Ceccato

    Full Text Available To understand the role of trunk muscles in maintenance of dynamic postural equilibrium we investigate trunk movements during gait initiation and walking, performing trunk kinematics analysis, Erector spinae muscle (ES recordings and dynamic analysis. ES muscle expressed a metachronal descending pattern of activity during walking and gait initiation. In the frontal and horizontal planes, lateroflexion and rotation occur before in the upper trunk and after in the lower trunk. Comparison of ES muscle EMGs and trunk kinematics showed that trunk muscle activity precedes corresponding kinematics activity, indicating that the ES drive trunk movement during locomotion and thereby allowing a better pelvis mobilization. EMG data showed that ES activity anticipates propulsive phases in walking with a repetitive pattern, suggesting a programmed control by a central pattern generator. Our findings also suggest that the programs for gait initiation and walking overlap with the latter beginning before the first has ended.

  17. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  18. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. Analisa Teknis Dan Keselamatan Sistem Busbar Trunking Pada Sistem Kelistrikan Kapal Utility 52 Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Satria, Rizki Rizki; Sarwito, Sardono Sardono; Kusuma, Indra Ranu

    2014-01-01

    Inovasi dalam pendistribusian kebutuhan arus listrik menghasilkan suatu media alternatif pengganti kabel yang dikenal sebagai busbar trunking. Busbar trunking adalah suatu komponen yang kompak (compact size) berfungsi sebagai penyalur, konduktor, ataupun sebagai media hantar arus listrik yang menawarkan kesederhanaan dalam desain, instalasi, dan perawatannya. Dalam aplikasinya, busbar trunking telah diinstal pada bangunan darat seperti gedung bertingkat, pabrik, dan lain-lain. Sehingga diperl...

  2. Celiacomesenteric trunk: a variation that must be known before aortic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Cheynel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The celiac trunk and the mesenteric arteries may present variations with different clinical significance. A celiacomesenteric trunk was discovered in a patient with mesenteric ischemia and a history of aortic bypass without inferior mesenteric artery reimplantation. Despite thrombectomies and digestive resections, the patient died. Anatomic variations like celiacomesenteric trunk must be known before aortic surgery.

  3. File list: Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX17071...5,SRX170716,SRX170714 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: DNS.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. Disturbance and recovery of trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours following prolonged trunk flexion: influences of duration and external load on creep-induced effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrgari, Babak; Hendershot, Brad; Muslim, Khoirul; Toosizadeh, Nima; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2011-11-01

    Trunk flexion results in adverse mechanical effects on the spine and is associated with a higher incidence of low back pain. To examine the effects of creep deformation on trunk behaviours, participants were exposed to full trunk flexion in several combinations of exposure duration and external load. Trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours were obtained pre- and post-exposure and during recovery using sudden perturbations. Intrinsic trunk stiffness decreased with increasing flexion duration and in the presence of the external load. Recovery of intrinsic stiffness required more time than the exposure duration and was influenced by exposure duration. Reflexive trunk responses increased immediately following exposure but recovered quickly (∼2.5 min). Alterations in reflexive trunk behaviour following creep deformation exposures may not provide adequate compensation to allow for complete recovery of concurrent reductions in intrinsic stiffness, which may increase the risk of injury due to spinal instability. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: An increased risk of low back injury may result from flexion-induced disturbances to trunk behaviours. Such effects, however, appear to depend on the type of flexion exposure, and have implications for the design of work involving trunk flexion.

  19. Upper Trunk Brachial Plexus Palsy Following Chiropractic Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cunningham

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Upper trunk brachial plexus palsy can result from high energy trauma and has never been reported following spinal manipulation.Background:The case is presented of a patient who developed an acute brachial plexus upper trunk palsy following spinal manipulative therapy. Discussion:Discussion is made on the incidence of complications following manipulation and recommendations to prospectively capture all serious complications.Concluding Remarks:Risks exist with spinal manipulative therapy. Neurological injury can occur. Risk assessment and re-examination should occur at every visit. Large rigorous prospective studies are required to identify the true incidence of serious complications resulting from manipulative therapy and the benefit:risk ratio.

  20. Sport-specific characteristics of trunk muscles in collegiate wrestlers and judokas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Kazunori; Okada, Takashi; Nakazato, Koichi; Fujimoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Nakajima, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    This study evaluated the sport-specific characteristics of the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of trunk muscles and trunk muscle strength in wrestlers and judokas. We also examined whether their trunk muscles and muscle strength depended on athletic performance levels in each sport. The subjects comprised 14 male collegiate wrestlers and 14 judokas. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the trunk muscle CSAs at the L3-4 level parallel to the lumbar disc space. A Biodex System3 was used to measure isokinetic trunk flexor and extensor muscle strength of peak torque, work, average torque, and average power. The absolute and relative CSAs of the trunk muscles in the wrestlers and judokas were significantly different (rectus abdominis: wrestling > judo, P muscles was not consistent with athletic performance levels in each sport. Our findings indicated that the sport-specific characteristics of the CSAs of the trunk muscles and trunk muscle strength obviously differed between the 2 similar sports. Athletes should practice the sport-specific training of trunk muscles and develop sport specificity in their sports. Particularly, wrestlers have to train in trunk flexion and extension motions, and judokas need to strengthen trunk rotation and lateral flexion motions. This information will be available for athletes as well as strength and technical training coaches in wrestling, judo, and the other sports.

  1. Quantifying coordination between the head and the trunk during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    This study developed unique measures of coordination between the head and the trunk during the combined tasks of locomotion and gaze fixation of visual targets. These measures will be used to determine the effects of long-duration space flight on sensorimotor function. This will enable evaluation of the efficacy of countermeasures and postflight rehabilitation programs. Indices were proposed as composite measures reflecting the functional aspects of the control system involved in gaze fixation during locomotion. The stiffness index (Nm/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular motion. The viscosity index (Nm-sec/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular velocity. These coordination measures were used to evaluate the normal dynamic pattern of coordination between the head and the trunk with respect to the events occurring in a gait cycle. The indices were evaluated for three discrete speeds of locomotion for the same gaze fixation task and for three discrete gaze fixation tasks at the same speed of locomotion. The indices were found to be repeatable measures reflecting inter-segmental coordination strategies while performing an activity of daily living. These indices showed that the coordination of the head with respect to the trunk was significantly different between the events of heel strike and swing phases during the gait cycle. These indices showed no significant differences between the different gaze fixation tasks. The speed of locomotion had a significant effect on the magnitude of these indices. The results indicate that the CNS dynamically modulates head motion with respect to the trunk dependent on the events occurring during the gait cycle. This modulation is appropriate for stabilizing gaze during locomotion. The results support the hypothesis

  2. [Muscular trunk stability in professional and amateur volleyball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltner, O; Siebert, C; Tschaepe, R; Maus, U; Kieffer, O

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the efficiency of muscular activity in the trunk stabilisation of professional volleyball players compared to a group of amateur hobby players. The results were compared amongst the groups as well as with a reference group consisting of asymptomatic individuals. The question to be answered was whether or not professional volleyball players possess a characteristic strength profile in their trunk musculature and if differences exist with regard to the individuals' competitive playing level. In this comparative study 12 professional volleyball players (German Bundesliga) and 18 non-professional volleyball players were analysed with regard to their isometric strength profile in all three planes. The reference group was provided by the Proxomed company, which had previously analysed healthy untrained individuals (n = 1045) of various age groups. A sports-specific profile for the musculature of volleyball players revealed a significant reduction in the flexion and rotation strength as well as a well-developed lateral flexion strength (highly significant when compared to the reference group). With reference to the level played, better strength values in flexion and lateral flexion were found among the professional athletes. Professional volleyball players present with a characteristic trunk musculature strength profile. A detailed analysis of the muscle strength of the spine as part of a sports medicine work-up could prove helpful in preventing injuries and overuse problems in professional and hobby volleyball players.

  3. Immediate Effects of Different Trunk Exercise Programs on Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, A; Kaneoka, K; Okubo, Y; Shiraki, H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercise (SE) and conventional trunk exercise (CE) programs on jump performance. 13 adolescent male soccer players performed 2 kinds of jump testing before and immediate after 3 experimental conditions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). The SE program consisted of the elbow-toe, hand-knee, and back bridge, and the CE program consisted of the sit-up, sit-up with trunk rotation and back extension. Testing of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) were performed to assess jump performance. Jump height of the CMJ and RJ-index, contact time, and jump height of the RJ were analyzed. The RJ index was improved significantly only after SE (p=0.017). However, contact time and jump height did not improve significantly in the SE condition. Moreover, no significant interaction or main effects of time or group were observed in the CMJ. Consequently, this study showed the different immediate effect on the RJ between the SE and CE, and suggested the possibility that the SE used in this study is useful as a warm-up program to improve the explosive movements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Bifid Facial Nerve Trunk: Anatomic and Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reija, María Fe García; Palacio, Julia C Blasco

    2016-09-01

    The segment of the facial nerve (FN) between its emergence from the skull through the stylomastoid foramen and its bifurcation at the parotid area is referred to as the FN trunk (FNT). Injury to the facial nerve trunk is among the most undesirable outcomes following different otologic, plastic, maxillofacial, and neurosurgical procedures. These procedures frequently involve manipulation and isolation of this segment, and meticulous dissection should be practiced to avoid iatrogenic damage to the nerve. Identification and exposure of the FN trunk, however, may be difficult because it is surrounded by dense connective tissue. This dissection becomes even more difficult and risky when the normal anatomy is distorted.During a routine left conservative superficial parotidectomy of a Pleomorphic Adenoma in the superficial lobe of the left parotid gland, duplication of the FNT was encountered. The FNT after its exit through the stylomastoid foramen, split into 2 main divisions, which rejoined before its penetration into the parotid gland. To the best of our knowledge, this variation has not been previously reported.

  5. Closed reference metatranscriptomics enables in planta profiling of putative virulence activities in the grapevine trunk-disease complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevines, like other perennial crops, are affected by so-called ‘trunk diseases’, which damage the trunk and other woody tissues. Mature grapevines typically contract more than one trunk disease and often multiple grapevine trunk pathogens (GTPs) are recovered from infected tissues. The co-existen...

  6. The Interaction of Trunk-Load and Trunk-Position Adaptations on Knee Anterior Shear and Hamstrings Muscle Forces During Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulas, Anthony S.; Hortobágyi, Tibor; DeVita, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Because anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can occur during deceleration maneuvers, biomechanics research has been focused on the lower extremity kinetic chain. Trunk mass and changes in trunk position affect lower extremity joint torques and work during gait and landing, but how the trunk affects knee joint and muscle forces is not well understood. Objective: To evaluate the effects of added trunk load and adaptations to trunk position on knee anterior shear and knee muscle forces in landing. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-one participants (10 men: age  =  20.3 ± 1.15 years, height  =  1.82 ± 0.04 m, mass  =  78.2 ± 7.3 kg; 11 women: age  =  20.0 ± 1.10 years, height  =  1.72 ± 0.06 m, mass  =  62.3 ± 6.4 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed 2 sets of 8 double-leg landings under 2 conditions: no load and trunk load (10% body mass). Participants were categorized into one of 2 groups based on the kinematic trunk adaptation to the load: trunk flexor or trunk extensor. Main Outcome Measure(s): We estimated peak and average knee anterior shear, quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius forces with a biomechanical model. Results: We found condition-by-group interactions showing that adding a trunk load increased peak (17%) and average (35%) knee anterior shear forces in the trunk-extensor group but did not increase them in the trunk-flexor group (peak: F1,19  =  10.56, P  =  .004; average: F1,19  =  9.56, P  =  .006). We also found a main effect for condition for quadriceps and gastrocnemius forces. When trunk load was added, peak (6%; F1,19  =  5.52, P  =  .030) and average (8%; F1,19  =  8.83, P  =  .008) quadriceps forces increased and average (4%; F1,19  =  4.94, P  =  .039) gastrocnemius forces increased, regardless of group. We found a condition-by-group interaction for peak (F1,19

  7. Continuous Static Gait with Twisting Trunk of a Metamorphic Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural quadrupeds, such as geckos and lizards, often twist their trunks when moving. Conventional quadruped robots cannot perform the same motion due to equipping with a trunk which is a rigid body or at most consists of two blocks connected by passive joints. This paper proposes a metamorphic quadruped robot with a reconfigurable trunk which can implement active trunk motions, called MetaRobot I. The robot can imitate the natural quadrupeds to execute motion of trunk twisting. Benefiting from the twisting trunk, the stride length of this quadruped is increased comparing to that of conventional quadruped robots.In this paper a continuous static gait benefited from the twisting trunk performing the increased stride length is introduced. After that, the increased stride length relative to the trunk twisting will be analysed mathematically. Other points impacting the implementation of the increased stride length in the gait are investigated such as the upper limit of the stride length and the kinematic margin. The increased stride length in the gait will lead the increase of locomotion speed comparing with conventional quadruped robots, giving the extent that natural quadrupeds twisting their trunks when moving. The simulation and an experiment on the prototype are then carried out to illustrate the benefits on the stride length and locomotion speed brought by the twisting trunk to the quadruped robot.

  8. Evaluating eccentric hip torque and trunk endurance as mediators of changes in lower limb and trunk kinematics in response to functional stabilization training in women with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldon, Rodrigo de Marche; Piva, Sara Regina; Scattone Silva, Rodrigo; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2015-06-01

    Altered movement patterns of the trunk and lower limbs have been associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP). It has been assumed that increasing the strength of the hip and trunk muscles would improve lower limb and trunk kinematics in these patients. However, evidence in support of that assumption is limited. To determine whether increases in the strength of hip muscles and endurance of trunk muscles in response to functional stabilization training will mediate changes in frontal plane lower limb kinematics in patients with PFP. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-one female athletes were randomized to either a functional stabilization training group that emphasized strengthening of the trunk and hip muscles or a standard training group that emphasized stretching and quadriceps strengthening. Patients attended a baseline assessment session, followed by 8 weeks of intervention, and were then reassessed at the end of the intervention period. The potential mediators that were evaluated included eccentric torque of hip muscles and endurance of the trunk muscles. The outcome variables were the lower limb and trunk kinematics in the frontal plane assessed during a single-legged squat task. The eccentric strength of the gluteus muscles showed a mediation effect ranging from 18% to 32% on changes to frontal plane kinematics (decreased ipsilateral trunk inclination, pelvis contralateral depression, and hip adduction excursions) observed in the functional stabilization training group after intervention. Although the mediation effects were small, the results suggest that improvements in the strength of the gluteus muscles can influence the frontal plane movement patterns of the lower limb and trunk in women with PFP. Patients with PFP might benefit from strengthening of the hip muscles to improve frontal plane lower limb and trunk kinematics during functional tasks. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. A tutorial on queuing and trunking with applications to communications

    CERN Document Server

    Tranter, William H

    2012-01-01

    The motivation for developing this synthesis lecture was to provide a tutorial on queuing and trunking, with extensions to networks of queues, suitable for supplementing courses in communications, stochastic processes, and networking. An essential component of this lecture is MATLAB-based demonstrations and exercises, which can be easily modified to enable the student to observe and evaluate the impact of changing parameters, arrival and departure statistics, queuing disciplines, the number of servers, and other important aspects of the underlying system model. Much of the work in this lecture

  10. Graphitization of oil palm trunk chip with controlled heating condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, N. A.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Ramli, M. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Nainggolan, I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize the synthetic graphite from oil palm trunk at lower temperature (various heating temperatures, 500 °C, 800 °C and 1,000 °C) with controlled condition and study the physical properties and characterization of the graphite obtained. After heat treatment process, the samples were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and analyzed using X'Pert Highscore Plus software. The morphological study was carried out by using Field Emission Electro Scanning Microscope (FESEM). Based on the analysis, by heating of the sample at 800 °C, the amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite were observed.

  11. Optimisation of Graft Copolymerisation of Fibres from Banana Trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Mpon; Ndikontar, Maurice K.; Ntede, Hyppolite N.; J. Noah Ngamveng; Alain Dufresne; Ohandja Ayina; Emmanuel Njungap; Abel Tame

    2012-01-01

    Sheets from banana trunks were opened out and dried for several weeks in air. Pulp was obtained by the nitric acid process with a yield of 37.7% while fibres were obtained according to the modified standard Japanese method for cellulose in wood for pulp (JIS 8007) with a yield of 65% with respect to oven dried plant material. Single fibre obtained by the JIS method had an average diameter of 11.0 μm and Young's modulus, tensile strength and strain at break-off 7.05 GPa, 81.7 MPa and 5.2% resp...

  12. The Effect of Pilates Method in Scholar's Trunk Strength and Hamstring Flexibility: Gender Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia González-Gálvez; María Carrasco Poyatos; Pablo Jorge Marcos Pardo; Yuri Feito

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries in school children could be reduced improving trunk strength and hamstring flexibility. Low levels of trunk muscle strength and hamstring flexibility may result in acute and musculoskeletal chronic diseases. The Pilates Method can be appropriate to improve these physical condition attributes and has been rarely employed by this social group. On the other hand, it has been shown that trunk strength and flexibility are different between genders, but...

  13. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V Karayannis

    Full Text Available Psychological features have been related to trunk muscle activation patterns in low back pain (LBP. We hypothesised higher pain-related fear would relate to changes in trunk mechanical properties, such as higher trunk stiffness.To evaluate the relationship between trunk mechanical properties and psychological features in people with recurrent LBP.The relationship between pain-related fear (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, TSK; Photograph Series of Daily Activities, PHODA-SeV; Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, FABQ; Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PCS and trunk mechanical properties (estimated from the response of the trunk to a sudden sagittal plane forwards or backwards perturbation by unpredictable release of a load was explored in a case-controlled study of 14 LBP participants. Regression analysis (r (2 tested the linear relationships between pain-related fear and trunk mechanical properties (trunk stiffness and damping. Mechanical properties were also compared with t-tests between groups based on stratification according to high/low scores based on median values for each psychological measure.Fear of movement (TSK was positively associated with trunk stiffness (but not damping in response to a forward perturbation (r(2 = 0.33, P = 0.03, but not backward perturbation (r(2 = 0.22, P = 0.09. Other pain-related fear constructs (PHODA-SeV, FABQ, PCS were not associated with trunk stiffness or damping. Trunk stiffness was greater for individuals with high kinesiophobia (TSK for forward (P = 0.03 perturbations, and greater with forward perturbation for those with high fear avoidance scores (FABQ-W, P = 0.01.Fear of movement is positively (but weakly associated with trunk stiffness. This provides preliminary support an interaction between biological and psychological features of LBP, suggesting this condition may be best understood if these domains are not considered in isolation.

  14. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, Nicholas V.; Smeets, Rob J. E. M.; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological features have been related to trunk muscle activation patterns in low back pain (LBP). We hypothesised higher pain-related fear would relate to changes in trunk mechanical properties, such as higher trunk stiffness. Objectives To evaluate the relationship between trunk mechanical properties and psychological features in people with recurrent LBP. Methods The relationship between pain-related fear (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, TSK; Photograph Series of Daily Activities, PHODA-SeV; Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, FABQ; Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PCS) and trunk mechanical properties (estimated from the response of the trunk to a sudden sagittal plane forwards or backwards perturbation by unpredictable release of a load) was explored in a case-controlled study of 14 LBP participants. Regression analysis (r2) tested the linear relationships between pain-related fear and trunk mechanical properties (trunk stiffness and damping). Mechanical properties were also compared with t-tests between groups based on stratification according to high/low scores based on median values for each psychological measure. Results Fear of movement (TSK) was positively associated with trunk stiffness (but not damping) in response to a forward perturbation (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.03), but not backward perturbation (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.09). Other pain-related fear constructs (PHODA-SeV, FABQ, PCS) were not associated with trunk stiffness or damping. Trunk stiffness was greater for individuals with high kinesiophobia (TSK) for forward (P = 0.03) perturbations, and greater with forward perturbation for those with high fear avoidance scores (FABQ-W, P = 0.01). Conclusions Fear of movement is positively (but weakly) associated with trunk stiffness. This provides preliminary support an interaction between biological and psychological features of LBP, suggesting this condition may be best understood if these domains are not considered in isolation

  15. Changes in kinematics and trunk electromyography during a 2000 m race simulation in elite female rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C L; Jones, I C; Jenkyn, T R; Ivanova, T D; Garland, S J

    2012-08-01

    Achieving excellence in rowing requires optimization of technique to maximize efficiency and force production. Investigation of the kinematics of the trunk, upper and lower extremity, together with muscle activity of the trunk, provides an insight into the motor control strategies utilized over a typical race. Nine elite female rowers performed a 2000 m race simulation. Kinematic data of the trunk and extremities, together with electromyography (EMG) activity of spinal and pelvic extensor and flexor muscles, were compared at 250 and 1500 m. At 1500 m, there was greater dissociation in the timing of leg extension and arm flexion and delayed trunk extension. Also at 1500 m, the spine demonstrated a delayed peak extension angular velocity of the T4-T7 and L3-S1 spinal segments in the early drive along with delayed and increased peak extension angular velocity of T10-L1 and L1-L3 spinal segments during the late drive. Trunk muscle fatigue was not evident; however, the abdominals demonstrated larger EMG burst areas at 1500 m. Alterations in trunk kinematics suggest that the trunk acts as a less stiff lever on which to transfer the forces of the legs to the arms and handle. Increased abdominal activity may reflect increased demand to control the trunk, given the altered coordination between the legs, trunk and arms. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Responses of the trunk routes of a harvester ant to plant density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, F; Acosta, F J; Serrano, J M

    1993-02-01

    Messor barbarus is a Mediterranean harvester ant that constructs physically defined trunk routes on the ground to connect nest entrances with foraging areas. Some responses of these trunk routes to plant density (and therefore resource abundance) were analyzed by testing the preferential allocation of different parts (trunk route ends, segments and branching points) in a patchy environment. Maps of grass density in four categories and Messor barbarus trunk routes were compiled for a Mediterranean pasture in Central Spain over four consecutive years. The proportions of the density categories in each year were used to calculate random expected frequencies of the trunk route points and the predominance of higher or lower grass densities. Trunk route ends discriminate and selectively reach patches with a greater abundance of resources in all study years. Branching points are also allocated preferentially in areas with higher vegetation density, but only in years with a predominance of the higher categories of grass density. In these years, the colonies of Messor barbarus have a "phalanx" strategy at a colonial level, and branching is more profuse. Finally, trunk route segments do not indicate any preference for crossing determined vegetation densities, but rather connect successive branching points or trunk route ends by the shortest route. These results concur with a model of structural strategy change ("guerilla" - "phalanx") (Hutchings 1988) at the level of trunk routes. They are probably constituted by "transitory" sections with few branches, that expand other more profusely branched sections which are more dedicated to foraging.

  17. Evaluation of Relationship between Trunk Muscle Endurance and Static Balance in Male Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Amirhossein; Safarcherati, Afsaneh; Aghayari, Azar; Azizi, Faeze; Abbasi, Hamed

    2013-12-01

    Fatigue of trunk muscle contributes to spinal instability over strenuous and prolonged physical tasks and therefore may lead to injury, however from a performance perspective, relation between endurance efficient core muscles and optimal balance control has not been well-known. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of trunk muscle endurance and static balance. Fifty male students inhabitant of Tehran university dormitory (age 23.9±2.4, height 173.0±4.5 weight 70.7±6.3) took part in the study. Trunk muscle endurance was assessed using Sørensen test of trunk extensor endurance, trunk flexor endurance test, side bridge endurance test and static balance was measured using single-limb stance test. A multiple linear regression analysis was applied to test if the trunk muscle endurance measures significantly predicted the static balance. There were positive correlations between static balance level and trunk flexor, extensor and lateral endurance measures (Pearson correlation test, r=0.80 and Pstatic balance, the linear combination of trunk muscle endurance measures was significantly related to the static balance (F (3,46) = 66.60, Pstatic balance level. The regression model which included these factors had the sample multiple correlation coefficient of 0.902, indicating that approximately 81% of the variance of the static balance is explained by the model. There is a significant relationship between trunk muscle endurance and static balance.

  18. Relative contribution of trunk muscles to the stability of the lumbar spine during isometric exertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; VanVliet, James J

    2002-02-01

    To compare the relative contribution of various trunk muscles to the stability of the lumbar spine. Quantification of spine stability with a biomechanical model. Modern low back rehabilitation techniques focus on muscles that stabilize the lumbar spine. However, the relative contribution of various trunk muscles to spine stability is currently unknown. Eight male subjects performed isometric exertions in trunk flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, and isometric exertions under vertical trunk loading and in a lifting hold. Each isometric trial was repeated three times at 20%, 40%, and 60% of the maximum trunk flexion force or with a load of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% of body weight for the latter two exertions. Surface EMG data from 12 major trunk muscles were used in the biomechanical model to estimate stability of the lumbar spine. A simulation of each trial was performed repeatedly with one of the 10 major trunk muscle groups removed from the model. Relative contribution of each muscle to spine stability was significantly affected by the combination of loading magnitude and direction (3-way interaction). None of the removed muscles reduced spine stability by more than 30%. A single muscle cannot be identified as the most important for the stability of the lumbar spine. Rather, spine stability depends on the relative activation of all trunk muscles and other loading variables. This study will improve our understanding of individual trunk muscles' contribution to overall stability of the lumbar spine.

  19. Trunk muscle activity during bridging exercises on and off a Swiss ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Gregory J; Hoda, Wajid; Oliver, Steven

    2005-07-30

    A Swiss ball is often incorporated into trunk strengthening programs for injury rehabilitation and performance conditioning. It is often assumed that the use of a Swiss ball increases trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to trunk bridging exercises influences trunk muscle activity. Surface electrodes recorded the myoelectric activity of trunk muscles during bridging exercises. Bridging exercises were performed on the floor as well as on a labile surface (Swiss ball). During the prone bridge the addition of an exercise ball resulted in increased myoelectric activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique. The internal oblique and erector spinae were not influenced. The addition of a swiss ball during supine bridging did not influence trunk muscle activity for any muscles studied. The addition of a Swiss ball is capable of influencing trunk muscle activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique musculature during prone bridge exercises. Modifying common bridging exercises can influence the amount of trunk muscle activity, suggesting that exercise routines can be designed to maximize or minimize trunk muscle exertion depending on the needs of the exercise population.

  20. Trunk muscle activity during bridging exercises on and off a Swissball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Steven

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Swiss ball is often incorporated into trunk strengthening programs for injury rehabilitation and performance conditioning. It is often assumed that the use of a Swiss ball increases trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to trunk bridging exercises influences trunk muscle activity. Methods Surface electrodes recorded the myoelectric activity of trunk muscles during bridging exercises. Bridging exercises were performed on the floor as well as on a labile surface (Swiss ball. Results and Discussion During the prone bridge the addition of an exercise ball resulted in increased myoelectric activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique. The internal oblique and erector spinae were not influenced. The addition of a swiss ball during supine bridging did not influence trunk muscle activity for any muscles studied. Conclusion The addition of a Swiss ball is capable of influencing trunk muscle activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique musculature during prone bridge exercises. Modifying common bridging exercises can influence the amount of trunk muscle activity, suggesting that exercise routines can be designed to maximize or minimize trunk muscle exertion depending on the needs of the exercise population.

  1. Inter-rater reliability of trunk muscle morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Stephanie; Yeates, Tobey DeMott; Licka, Theresia; Elliott, James

    2015-01-01

    Inter-rater reliability of generalised lumbar extensor muscle CSA has been identified, however, more detailed reliability metrics of individual trunk muscles are lacking. To report muscle volume and muscle fatty infiltrate (MFI) inter-rater reliability of individual trunk muscles between two novice assessors. Lumbar axial MRI scans from 10 healthy male participants were analysed. The muscles erector spinae (ES), multifidus (M), rectus abdominis (RA), and psoas (PS) were manually traced, region of interest quantified and muscle volume and MFI determined by both assessors. Agreement between the assessors was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (3,1), Bland-Altman plots and Lin's concordance coefficient. Good to excellent agreement was found for volume (ICC 0.77-0.96) and MFI (0.84-0.96) for all muscles on first evaluation, except for M volume, which required a second evaluation. Best agreement for muscle volume and MFI was found for ES (ICC 0.96). First evaluation of muscle volume and MFI yields high to excellent inter-rater agreement, except for M, where further training and/or experience is required to achieve acceptable reliability outcomes. This may have clinical implications due to the relevance of M atrophy reported in patients with low back pain.

  2. Trunk Accelerometry Reveals Postural Instability in Untreated Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.; Zampieri, Cris; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Nutt, John G.; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    While several studies have shown that subjects with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit abnormalities in sway parameters during quiet standing, abnormalities of postural sway associated with untreated PD have not been reported. Although not clinically apparent, we hypothesized that spontaneous sway in quiet stance is abnormal in people with untreated PD. We examined 13 subjects, recently diagnosed with PD, who were not yet taking any anti-parkinsonian medications and 12 healthy, age-matched control subjects. Postural sway was measured with a linear accelerometer on the posterior trunk (L5 level) and compared with traditional forceplate measures of sway. Subjects stood for two minutes under two conditions: eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). One of the most discriminative measures of postural changes in subjects with untreated PD was the increased ‘JERK’ of lower trunk in the EO condition, measured with the accelerometer. Root mean square and the frequency dispersion of postural sway in the EO condition also discriminated sway in untreated PD subjects compared to controls subjects. We conclude that accelerometer-based sway metrics could be used as objective measures of postural instability in untreated PD. Accelerometer-based analysis of spontaneous sway may provide a powerful tool for early clinical trials and for monitoring the effects of treatment of balance disorders in subjects with PD. PMID:21641263

  3. Trunk and hip biomechanics influence anterior cruciate loading mechanisms in physically active participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Barnett; Bell, David R; Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Goerger, Benjamin M; Padua, Darin A

    2013-11-01

    Excessive trunk motion and deficits in neuromuscular control (NMC) of the lumbopelvic hip complex are risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the relationship between trunk motion, NMC of the lumbopelvic hip complex, and triplanar knee loads during a sidestep cutting task has not been examined. To determine if there is an association between multiplanar trunk motion, NMC of the lumbopelvic hip complex, and triplanar knee loads with ACL injury during a sidestep cutting task. Descriptive laboratory study. The hip and knee biomechanics and trunk motion of 30 participants (15 male, 15 female) were analyzed during a sidestep cutting task using an optoelectric camera system interfaced to a force plate. Trunk and lower extremity biomechanics were calculated from the kinematic and ground-reaction force data during the first 50% of the stance time during the cutting task. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated between trunk and lower extremity biomechanics. Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the amount of variance in triplanar knee loading explained by trunk motion and hip moments. A greater internal knee varus moment (mean, 0.11 ± 0.12 N·m/kg*m) was associated with less transverse-plane trunk rotation away from the stance limb (mean, 20.25° ± 4.42°; r = -0.46, P = .011) and a greater internal hip adduction moment (mean, 0.33 ± 0.25 N·m/kg*m; r = 0.83, P < .05). A greater internal knee external rotation moment (mean, 0.11 ± 0.08 N·m/kg*m) was associated with a greater forward trunk flexion (mean, 7.62° ± 5.28°; r = 0.42, P = .020) and a greater hip internal rotation moment (mean, 0.15 ± 0.16 N·m/kg*m; r = 0.59, P = .001). Trunk rotation and hip adduction moment explained 81% (P < .05) of the variance in knee varus moment. Trunk flexion and hip internal rotation moment explained 48% (P < .05) of the variance in knee external rotation moment. Limited trunk rotation displacement

  4. Muscular condition and trunk stability in judoka of national and international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casto Juan-Recio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is theorized that the development of the ability to stabilize the trunk may improve the performance of a judoka because it improves body balance control and optimizes force transmission from the lower extremities to the upper limbs. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence to establish a clear relationship between trunk stability and performance in judo.Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the quantification of trunk stability and muscular strength and endurance allowed differentiation between national level (n = 7 and international level judoka (n = 6. In addition, the relationship between trunk stability and muscular strength and endurance of the muscles involved in trunk stability control was analyzed.Method: To assess trunk stability, trunk responses to sudden loads applied by a pneumatic mechanism were analyzed, as well as trunk postural control through an unstable sitting paradigm. Muscular strength and endurance were assessed via a flexion and extension trunk test using an isokinetic dynamometer.Results/Conclusions: International level judokas showed lower CoP displacement in the most complex task in unstable seat (7.00 ± 1.19 vs 8.93 ± 1.45 mm, T = .025 and higher absolute and relative peak torque in extensor muscles (7.05 ± 0.87 vs 5.74 ± 0.72 Nm, T = .013 than national level judoka. According to these results, core stability and trunk muscular condition are important qualities in the physical training of elite judoka. Correlational analysis found no relation between the analyzed variables, thus muscular strength and endurance appear to have a non-significant effect on performance in the trunk stability tests.

  5. Steps for arm and trunk actions of overhead forehand stroke used in badminton games across skill levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine arm and trunk actions in overhead forehand strokes used in badminton games across skill levels. The participants were 80 students (40 boys, 40 girls) who were randomly selected from video recordings of 300 students ages 16 to 19 years. The videotaped performances of overhead forehand strokes were coded based on three steps of arm action (elbow flexion, elbow and humeral flexion, and upward backswing) and three steps of trunk action (no trunk action, forward-backward movement, and trunk rotation). Students across the four skill levels exhibited different patterns of arm and trunk actions. Students at advanced levels used more mature arm and trunk actions.

  6. Effect of trunk inclination on isometric extensor and flexor torque of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Cybex 6000, dynamometer Trunk extension / flexion unit was used to measure maximal voluntary isometric strength of the lumbar flexor and extensor muscles at 0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 degrees of trunk flexion. ANOVA with post-hoc testing was applied to the flexion and extension data. Alpha was set at p < 0.05. Significant ...

  7. Electromyographic activity of trunk muscles during exercises with flexible and non-flexible poles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncalves, M.; Marques, N.R.; Hallal, C.Z.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hand-held flexible poles which are brought into oscillation to cause alternating forces on trunk, are advocated as training devices that are supposed to solicit increased levels of stabilizing trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to verify this claim by comparing

  8. Intra- and Inter-Observer Reliability of the Trunk Impairment Scale for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Rannei; Jorgensen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Standardized scales to evaluate qualities of trunk movements in children with dysfunction are sparse. An examination of the reliability of scales that may be useful in the clinic is important. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Standardized scales are…

  9. Females Exhibit Shorter Paraspinal Reflex Latencies than Males in Response to Sudden Trunk Flexion Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily M.; Slota, Gregory P.; Agnew, Michael J.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Females have a higher risk of experiencing low back pain or injury than males. One possible reason for this might be altered reflexes since longer paraspinal reflex latencies exist in injured patients versus healthy controls. Gender differences have been reported in paraspinal reflex latency, yet findings are inconsistent. The goal here was to investigate gender differences in paraspinal reflex latency, avoiding and accounting for potentially gender-confounding experimental factors. Methods Ten males and ten females underwent repeated trunk flexion perturbations. Paraspinal muscle activity and trunk kinematics were recorded to calculate reflex latency and maximum trunk flexion velocity. Two-way mixed model ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of gender on reflex latency and maximum trunk flexion velocity. Findings Reflex latency was 18.7% shorter in females than in males (P=0.02) when exposed to identical trunk perturbations, and did not vary by impulse (P=0.38). However, maximum trunk flexion velocity was 35.3% faster in females than males (P=0.01) when exposed to identical trunk perturbations, and increased with impulse (P<0.01). While controlling for differences in maximum trunk flexion velocity, reflex latency was 16.4% shorter in females than males (P=0.04). Implications The higher prevalence of low back pain and injury among females does not appear to result from slower paraspinal reflexes. PMID:20359800

  10. Researchers and stakeholders shape advances in management of tree and vine trunk-disease complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grapevine trunk-disease complex limits grape production and vineyard longevity worldwide. Every vineyard in California eventually is infected by one or more trunk diseases. The causal fungi, which are taxonomically unrelated Ascomycetes, infect and then degrade the permanent woody structure of t...

  11. Changes in Trunk and Head Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy after Hippotherapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtleff, Tim L.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Hippotherapy (HPOT) is a therapy that uses horse movement. This pilot investigation objectively evaluated the efficacy of HPOT in improving head/trunk stability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The participants were six children with spastic diplegia and six children without disability. Head and trunk stability was challenged by using a…

  12. Trunk position modulates anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains during a single-leg squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulas, Anthony S.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; DeVita, Paul

    Background: Although the squat exercise and its variations are commonly prescribed for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation, whether trunk position affects these ligament forces and strains during the squat is unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of trunk position on anterior

  13. Differential expression of wound fibrotic factors between facial and trunk dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Masakazu; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Kaminishi-Tanikawa, Akiko; Niikura, Mamoru; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    Clinically, wounds on the face tend to heal with less scarring than those on the trunk, but the causes of this difference have not been clarified. Fibroblasts obtained from different parts of the body are known to show different properties. To investigate whether the characteristic properties of facial and trunk wound healing are caused by differences in local fibroblasts, we comparatively analyzed the functional properties of superficial and deep dermal fibroblasts obtained from the facial and trunk skin of seven individuals, with an emphasis on tendency for fibrosis. Proliferation kinetics and mRNA and protein expression of 11 fibrosis-associated factors were investigated. The proliferation kinetics of facial and trunk fibroblasts were identical, but the expression and production levels of profibrotic factors, such as extracellular matrix, transforming growth factor-β1, and connective tissue growth factor mRNA, were lower in facial fibroblasts when compared with trunk fibroblasts, while the expression of antifibrotic factors, such as collagenase, basic fibroblast growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor, showed no clear trends. The differences in functional properties of facial and trunk dermal fibroblasts were consistent with the clinical tendencies of healing of facial and trunk wounds. Thus, the differences between facial and trunk scarring are at least partly related to the intrinsic nature of the local dermal fibroblasts.

  14. Precision control of an upright trunk posture in low back pain patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, N.W.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Low back pain appears to be associated with impaired trunk postural control, which could be caused by proprioceptive deficits. We assessed control of trunk posture in conditions requiring high and low precision, with and without disturbance of proprioception by lumbar muscle vibration.

  15. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in patients with low back pain enhance the stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; Cholewicki, J.; Radebold, A.

    2003-01-01

    Study Design. A comparative study of trunk muscle recruitment patterns in healthy control subjects and patients with chronic low back pain was conducted. Objective. To assess trunk muscle recruitment in patients with low back pain. Summary of Background Data. Conflicting evidence has been reported

  16. Effect of short-term application of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk repositioning in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Sara A; Frost, Lydia R; Vallis, Lori Ann; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk position sense when applied for a short period (30 min) to the low back of healthy female participants. Twenty-four participants were assigned to one of two groups: kinesio tape applied in either the recommended stretched or non-stretched (control) manner over the low back. Tests were performed at three time points (pre-tape, with tape, post-tape) to assess low-back muscle flexion-relaxation, position sense during active trunk repositioning and trunk postural control during seated balance. Results demonstrated that wearing kinesio tape did not affect the angle at which the erector spinae muscles became silent during trunk flexion (flexion-relaxation). Trunk repositioning error increased when wearing kinesio tape in both the stretched and non-stretched manner, and this increased error persisted after the tape was removed. Seated balance control improved when wearing kinesio tape in both the stretched and non-stretched manner, and these improvements persisted after the tape was removed. In conclusion, these findings do not support the general suggestions that short-term use of kinesio tape on the low-back region alter low-back muscle activation and enhance tasks related to proprioception, at least under these taping conditions in a group of healthy females.

  17. Voluntary head stabilization in space during trunk movements in weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, B.; Assaiante, C.; Fabre, J.-C.; Martin, N.; Massion, J.; Mouchnino, L.; Vernazza, S.

    The ability to voluntarily stabilize the head in space during lateral rhythmic oscillations of the trunk has been investigated during parabolic flights. Five healthy young subjects, who gave informed consent, were examined. The movements were performed with eyes open or eyes closed, either during phases of microgravity or phases of normal gravity. The main result to emerge from this study is that the head may be stabilized in space about the roll axis under microgravity conditions with, as well as without vision, despite the reduction of the vestibular afferent and the muscle proprioceptive inputs. Moreover, the absence of head stabilization about the yaw axis confirms that the degrees of freedom of the neck can be independently controlled, as it was previously shown [1]. These results seem to indicate that voluntary head stabilization does not depend crucially upon static vestibular afferents. Head stabilization in space may be in fact organized on the basis of either dynamic vestibular afferents or a postural body scheme.

  18. Non-dynamometric trunk performance tests: reliability and normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaranta, H; Hurri, H; Heliövaara, M; Soukka, A; Harju, R

    1994-12-01

    A sample of 508 male and female white-collar and blue-collar employees aged 35 to 54 years was evaluated clinically to determine the reliability of repetitive sit-ups, repetitive arch-ups, repetitive squatting, and static back endurance tests, to determine the normal values of these tests and to detect determinants for trunk muscle performance. All of the given tests had fairly good or even excellent test-retest reliability. Muscular performance capacity decreased with advancing age, particularly among blue-collar workers. Men showed greater muscle endurance in all the muscle tests, and blue-collar workers lower values in all tests. The repetitive tests, in particular, showed reduced values in those with previous low-back pain. Normative values of back endurance, repetitive squatting, sit-up and arch-up tests for different age, sex and occupational groups are presented.

  19. Along the Grand Trunk Road: The Photography of Raghubir Singh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Chandrasekhar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For more than two millennia, the historic Grand Trunk Road, the busy thoroughfare that extends some 1500 miles through north India and Pakistan served as the main artery of South Asia. It was also the gateway through which waves of immigrants, travelers, and invaders entered the subcontinent. As a result, a great deal of diversity and tolerance marks the road. Between 1988 and 1991, Raghubir Singh (1942-1999, one of India’s renowned documentary photographers, traveled and photographed the Indian stretch of the Road. Ninety-six photographs from his journeys appear in the publication, 'The Grand Trunk Road: A Passage Through India '(1995. Singh used the pictorial style of street photography that he is known for to capture everyday life along the path. Further, he emphasized the tremendous diversity he witnessed along the road through the selections he made for inclusion in the book and the specific manner in which he arranged many of them. By underscoring the heterogeneity, Singh provided a critical visual commentary of the political climate in India during the 1980s and early nineties. This period coincided with the rise of Hindu nationalism, which aimed to erase the subcontinent’s diverse past and promote instead the idea of a homogenous/Hindu India. By documenting the road in his uniquely pictorial style and arranging the photographs in his book to draw attention to the differences and tolerance witnessed along the path, Singh demonstrated that India was not a monolithic culture as the politics of the time claimed, but a rich interwoven fabric of many varied strands.

  20. Axial synergies in parkinsonian patients during voluntary trunk bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov; Aurenty; Massion; Mesure; Viallet

    1998-10-01

    During upper trunk movements, the axial kinematic synergies (opposite movements of upper and lower segments) preserve the balance by minimizing the antero-posterior center of gravity (CG) shift due to the movement. Forward and backward upper trunk movements were analyzed in a population of parkinsonian patients (PD) that were subject to falling, in order to determine whether an impaired control of the kinematic synergies might explain the falling. Ten PD (stage III-IV of the Hoehn and Yahr classification; Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality. Neurology 1967;17;427-432) were compared to seven age-matched control subjects (CS). Kinematic analysis and force platform recordings were carried out. Principal Component (PC) analysis was performed to measure the coupling between hip, knee and ankle joint angles during the movement. (1) In both PD and CS, the first principal component (PC1) was found to account for 98% or more of the joint angles changes, which indicates that there exists a strong coupling between the angles during the movement; however, the part of the movement not accounted for by PC1 was twice as high in PD as in CS. (2) The intertrial variability between the angle ratios was about twice as high in PD as in CS. (3) The absolute value of the antero-posterior CG shift occurring during the movement significantly increased in PD in the case of backward movements, both fast and slow. (4) As a high correlation was found between actual CG shift and its estimation based on the observed interjoint coordination, the increased CG shift in PD was related to unproper set of ratios between joint angles. It was concluded that the control of the kinematic synergy is preserved on the whole in PD, with an increased variability and unproper set of the ratios between joint angular changes. This may lead to CG shifts to beyond the support surface, especially in backward bending. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Segmental specificity in belly dance mimics primal trunk locomotor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Marilee M; Milner, Theodore E

    2017-03-01

    Belly dance was used to investigate control of rhythmic undulating trunk movements in humans. Activation patterns in lumbar erector spinae muscles were recorded using surface electromyography at four segmental levels spanning T10 to L4. Muscle activation patterns for movement tempos of 2 Hz, 3 Hz, and as fast as possible (up to 6 Hz) were compared to test the hypothesis that frequency modulates muscle timing, causing pattern changes analogous to gait transitions. Groups of trained and untrained female subjects were compared to test the hypothesis that experience modifies muscle coordination patterns and the capacity for selective motion of spinal segments. Three distinct coordination patterns were observed. An ipsilateral simultaneous pattern (S) and a diagonal synergy (D) dominated at lower frequencies. The S pattern was selected most often by novices and resembled the standing wave of activation underlying the alternating lateral trunk bending in salamander trotting. At 2 Hz, most trained subjects selected the D pattern, suggesting a greater capacity for segmental specificity compared with untrained subjects. At 3-4 Hz, there emerged an asynchronous pattern (A) analogous to the rostral-caudal traveling wave in salamander and lamprey swimming. The neural networks and mechanisms identified in primitive vertebrates, such as chains of coupled oscillators and segmental crossed inhibitory connections, could explain the patterns observed in this study in humans. Training allows modification of these patterns, possibly through improved capacity for selectively exciting or inhibiting segmental pattern generators. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Belly dance provides a novel approach for studying spinal cord neural circuits. New evidence suggests that primitive locomotor circuits may be conserved in humans. Erector spinae activation patterns during the hip shimmy at different tempos are similar to those observed in salamander walking and swimming. As movement frequency increases, a

  2. Analisa Teknis dan Keselamatan Sistem Busbar Trunking Pada Sistem Kelistrikan Kapal Utility 52 Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Rizki Satria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inovasi dalam pendistribusian kebutuhan arus listrik menghasilkan suatu media alternatif pengganti kabel yang dikenal sebagai busbar trunking. Busbar trunking adalah suatu komponen yang kompak (compact size berfungsi sebagai penyalur, konduktor, ataupun sebagai media hantar arus listrik yang menawarkan kesederhanaan dalam desain, instalasi, dan perawatannya. Dalam aplikasinya, busbar trunking telah diinstal pada bangunan darat seperti gedung bertingkat, pabrik, dan lain-lain. Sehingga diperlukan analisa lebih lanjut terhadap penerapan sistem busbar trunking di laut, seperti kapal. Analisa dilakukan berdasarkan aspek teknis dan keselamatan instalasi pada sistem kelistrikan kapal utility 52 meter mengacu pada standar kelas keselamatan di kapal. Hasil analisa tersebut menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa sistem busbar trunking sangat compatible jika diaplikasikan di kapal karena memiliki tingkat keselamatan yang sesuai dengan persyaratan peraturan kelas

  3. The effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yoel; Kim, Kyung Hoon

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] Kinesio taping is a therapeutic method used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular deficits, but there is limited evidence of the effects of trunk kinesio taping in neurologic patients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in persons after a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five post-stroke patients were included in this study. Kinesio tape was applied to four trunk muscles. Before and after the taping, in all subjects, the balance ability was measured using the Wii Balance Board, and gait function was assessed using the GAITRite system. [Results] The difference in gait function before and after trunk taping was not statistically significant. However, a variability of balance ability showed statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] These results suggest that taping may be a helpful method during rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. Its application to the trunk muscles is especially useful for improving balance ability.

  4. Comparison of motion restriction and trunk stiffness provided by three thoracolumbosacral orthoses (TLSOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; Alvi, Kashif; Silfies, Sheri P; Bartolomei, Juan

    2003-10-01

    The amounts of thoracic and lumbar spine motion restriction and passive trunk stiffness provided by three thoracolumbosacral orthoses (TLSOs) (Aspen TLSO, Boston Body Jacket, and CAMP TLSO) were compared. Ten subjects executed maximum trunk flexion, extension, and lateral bending motions. The spine motion was measured noninvasively with a thin strain gauge device (Flexducer), and passive trunk stiffness around the neutral posture was estimated from an electromyography-assisted biomechanical model. No significant differences in either the restriction of motion or the amount of added passive trunk stiffness were found between the three orthoses. The subjects also did not perceive any difference in the restriction of motion but rated the Aspen TLSO significantly more comfortable than the other two orthoses. The rigid custom orthosis design may not be important for restricting the spine motion and providing passive trunk stiffness, or there may be other measures that reflect better the function of orthoses.

  5. [Influence of sport on isoinertial trunk muscle performance development: a 2 years prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, E Bibbo; Mélot, C; Szpalski, M; Keller, T S; Balagué, F

    2013-07-17

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between either regular sports practice or a non sportive way of life, development of trunk muscle performance and occurrence of lower back pain between male schoolchildren. 93 schoolchildren were recruited, then stratified in 4 groups, according to sport practice or sedentary way of life. Participants were evaluated twice at an interval of 2 years with an interview, a physical examination and an evaluation of trunk muscle performance. We identified that basketball players have significantly better results and perfomance concerning isometric and isoinertial tests of trunk muscles than the other groups. Differences in trunk muscle performance exist following the practice of different types of sport. We can deduce that trunk muscle performance has some sport specificity.

  6. Lower trunk muscle activity-induced alignment and cop position during single-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kenichi; Kanai, Shigeyuki; Tsujita, Junzo; Hirakawa, Kazufumi; Okada, Shuichi

    2017-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify fundamental changes induced by lower trunk muscle contraction during single-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy normal males participated in this study. All subjects could accurately perform lower trunk muscle contraction-type Abdominal Expansion (AE), Abdominal Bracing (AB), and Abdominal Cave-in (AC). The alignment and position of the center of foot pressure (COP) during single-leg standing with SLR and step position after rotating the body from single-leg standing with maximum SLR were measured in each lower trunk muscle contraction type. [Results] When AC was performed during single-leg standing with SLR, the SLR angle increased, COP shifted backward, and the posterior tilt angle of the trunk and cross step distance decreased. [Conclusion] It was assumed that AC during wind-up increases the angle of lower limb elevation and decreases the posterior tilt angle of the trunk and cross step distance.

  7. Capability and recruitment patterns of trunk during isometric uniaxial and biaxial upright exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Ali; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Nordin, Margareta

    2008-06-01

    Work-related risk factors of low back disorders have been identified to be external moments, awkward postures, and asymmetrical dynamic lifting amongst others. The distinct role of asymmetry of load versus posture is hard to discern from the literature. Hence, the aim of this study is to measure isometric trunk exertions at upright standing posture at different exertion level and degree of asymmetry to further delineate the effects of exertion level and asymmetry on neuromuscular capability response. Fifteen healthy volunteers randomly performed trunk exertions at three levels (30%, 60%, and 100% of maximum voluntary exertion and five different angles (0 degrees , 45 degrees , 90 degrees , 135 degrees , and 180 degrees ) of normalized resultant moments. During each trial, the normalized EMG activity of 10 selected trunk muscles was quantified. The EMG activity of the 10 trunk muscles was significantly (Presultant moment, and their interactions. The controllability of the torque generation was reduced in biaxial exertions. The capability to generate and control the required trunk moments is significantly lowered during biaxial trunk exertions, while all muscles present higher EMG activity. These results suggest that the trunk muscles will be taxed higher while performing biaxial exertion tasks, increasing muscle fatigue possibly leading to a higher probability of low back injury. The prediction of biaxial trunk performance based on uniaxial data will result in an overestimation of capability and controllability of the trunk during physically demanding tasks. This study provides a better understanding of the potential mechanisms of injury during asymmetrical and biaxial trunk exertion during work-related tasks.

  8. Effectiveness of additional trunk exercises on gait performance: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Criekinge, Tamaya; Saeys, Wim; Hallemans, Ann; Vereeck, Luc; De Hertogh, Willem; Van de Walle, Patricia; Vaes, Nathalie; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven

    2017-06-02

    Evidence is lacking concerning the effect of additional trunk rehabilitation on gait performance. Investigating gait performance by both clinical and biomechanical outcome measures might lead to new scientific insights into the importance of the trunk during gait rehabilitation in people suffering from stroke. This protocol was written according to the SPIRIT 2013 Statement. An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted in patients with impaired trunk control after stroke. A total of 60 patients will be randomly allocated to the control or the experimental group by means of sealed opaque envelopes. They will receive either 16 h of additional trunk exercises (experimental group) or cognitive exercises (controls) for 1 h a day, 4 days a week for 4 weeks. Patients will also receive 2 h of standard care consisting of physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Gait performance will be assessed clinically by the Tinetti Test and biomechanically by means of a full body gait analysis. In addition, the effect of the exercise protocol on the trunk itself and trunk activities of daily living will be assessed by the Trunk Impairment Scale and the Barthel Index. Despite the evidence demonstrating the importance of trunk control after stroke, studies about the effects of trunk rehabilitation on gait performance are inconsistent. In the current study, a more sophisticated treatment protocol will be used to enlarge therapeutic improvements, the relationship between clinical and biomechanical measures of gait performance can be investigated, and the sustainability of the effects of trunk exercises over time will be examined. Since clinical improvements are of greater importance to patients and physiotherapists, clinical assessment scales will be used as primary outcome measures. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02708888 . Registered on 2 March 2016.

  9. Anticipation of direction and time of perturbation modulates the onset latency of trunk muscle responses during sitting perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Matija; Shinya, Masahiro; Masani, Kei; Patel, Kramay; McConville, Kristiina M V; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Popovic, Milos R

    2016-02-01

    Trunk muscles are responsible for maintaining trunk stability during sitting. However, the effects of anticipation of perturbation on trunk muscle responses are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to identify the responses of trunk muscles to sudden support surface translations and quantify the effects of anticipation of direction and time of perturbation on the trunk neuromuscular responses. Twelve able-bodied individuals participated in the study. Participants were seated on a kneeling chair and support surface translations were applied in the forward and backward directions with and without direction and time of perturbation cues. The trunk started moving on average approximately 40ms after the perturbation. During unanticipated perturbations, average latencies of the trunk muscle contractions were in the range between 103.4 and 117.4ms. When participants anticipated the perturbations, trunk muscle latencies were reduced by 16.8±10.0ms and the time it took the trunk to reach maximum velocity was also reduced, suggesting a biomechanical advantage caused by faster muscle responses. These results suggested that trunk muscles have medium latency responses and use reflexive mechanisms. Moreover, anticipation of perturbation decreased trunk muscles latencies, suggesting that the central nervous system modulated readiness of the trunk based on anticipatory information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TrunkDiseaseID.org: A molecular database for fast and accurate identification of fungi commonly isolated from grapevine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grapevine trunk-disease complex limits vineyard longevity in all major grape-growing regions. Although trunk diseases have been distinguished based on causal agents (aka trunk pathogens) and etiologies (e.g., Botryosphaeria-, Eutypa-, and Phomopsis diebacks, Esca), mixed infections are frequent ...

  11. The impact of trunk impairment on performance-determining activities in wheelchair rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, V C; Groen, B E; Hart, A L; Vanlandewijck, Y C; van Limbeek, J; Keijsers, N L W

    2017-09-01

    In Paralympic sport, classification of impairment is needed to prevent a one-sided and predictable outcome of competition, in which the least impaired athlete has the best chance to win. To develop evidence-based classification in wheelchair rugby, the impact of trunk impairment, measured by the Trunk Impairment Classification (TIC), on performance-determining activities was assessed. Arm impairment was analyzed as a covariant. Fifty-five athletes, 21 with TIC score 0, 13 with TIC score 0.5, 11 with TIC score 1.0, and 10 with TIC score 1.5 performed standardized sport-specific activities. A multiple step forward regression analysis was performed for all activities to assess the relative impact of trunk and arm impairment on performance. Trunk impairment was the most important factor for tilting the chair and acceleration in the first 2 m. The explained variance of the performance by trunk and arm impairment ranged from 23% for acceleration in the first meter, to 37% for sprint momentum, the tilt test left, and the time to cover 3 and 4 m. This study shows that athletes with limited trunk impairment are more proficient in wheelchair rugby than athletes with severe trunk impairment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [THE EFFECTS OF THE PILATES METHOD ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY, PELVIC TILT AND TRUNK FLEXION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Alacid Cárceles, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Pilates includes a high volume of hamstring stretching and maximal trunk flexion with knees extended exercises. to perform a systematic review about Pilates practice effects and a detraining period on hamstring extensibility, pelvic tilt and trunk flexion in maximal trunk flexion with knees extended. it was analysed all the experimental or quasi-experimental designs written in English, Spanish or Portuguese and included in the following databases: Pubmed, Sports Discus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Dialnet and Research Gate. twenty-one papers were analysed. Most of them used a pre-test-post-test design with control group. The intervention programs applied were heterogeneous. Samples were composed mainly of women, both young and old. It was found that the Pilates practice, with different volume, significantly increased hamstring muscle extensibility and pelvic tilt in maximal trunk flexion. At least three training sessions peer week during six weeks were necessary in order to obtain a high trunk inclination. Studies which involved athletes showed contradictory results. By inducing a detraining period it was noticed a decrease in hamstring extensibility and trunk flexion from the second week. there is a moderate evidence that Pilates is an effective method to increase hamstring extensibility, pelvic tilt and the degree of trunk flexion in maximal flexion positions in sedentary and recreational active people and also to increase hamstring extensibility in athletes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-dimensional head and trunk movement characteristics during gait in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, L; Feys, H; Molenaers, G; Jaspers, E; Monari, D; Meyns, P; Desloovere, K

    2013-09-01

    This study uses a recently developed trunk model to determine which head and trunk kinematic parameters differentiate children with spastic diplegia from typically developing (TD) children while walking. Differences in head and trunk parameters in relation to the severity of the motor involvement (GMFCS levels) were additionally examined. The trunk model consisted of five segments (pelvis, thorax, head, shoulder line, spine). Discrete kinematic parameters (ROM, mean position) and angular waveforms were compared between 20 children with spastic diplegia (age 9.8 years±2.9 years; GMFCS I: n=10, GMFCS II: n=10) and 20 individually age-matched TD children (9.7 years±3 years). A new measure for overall trunk pathology, the trunk profile score (TPS), was proposed and included in the comparative analysis. Compared to TD children, children with GMFCS II showed a significantly higher TPS and increased ROM for pelvis tilt, for thorax and head in nearly all planes, and the angle of kyphosis. In children with GMFCS I, only ROM of thorax lateral bending was significantly increased. Sagittal ROM differentiated best between GMFCS levels, with higher ROM found in children with GMFCS II. Current results provide new insights into head and trunk kinematics during gait in children with spastic diplegia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Low back pain affects trunk as well as lower limb movements during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Ertelt, Thomas; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2015-04-13

    Up to now, most gait analyses on low back pain concentrate on changes in trunk coordination during walking on a treadmill. Locomotion on uneven ground as well as lower limb changes receives little attention in association with low back pain. The present study focuses on how chronic non-specific low back pain causes modifications in lower limb and trunk movements, in level and uneven walking and running. We found that trunk as well as lower limb movement was influenced by chronic non-specific low back pain. A consistent finding across all gaits and ground level changes is that patients with chronic non-specific low back pain show less pelvis and unchanged thorax rotation as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, in chronic non-specific low back pain patients the trunk rotation decreased only during level and uneven running whereas the sagittal trunk inclination at touchdown increased only during uneven walking as compared to healthy controls. Besides significant changes in the upper body, in chronic non-specific low back pain patients the knee joint angle at touchdown was more extended during level walking but also during uneven walking and running as compared to healthy controls. We assume that trunk movements interact with lower limb movements or vice versa. Therefore, we recommend that further investigations on low back pain should consider both trunk (primarily pelvis) and lower limb (primarily knee) movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Local Stability of the Trunk in Patients with Degenerative Cerebellar Ataxia During Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Giorgia; Ranavolo, Alberto; Draicchio, Francesco; Casali, Carlo; Conte, Carmela; Martino, Giovanni; Leonardi, Luca; Padua, Luca; Coppola, Gianluca; Pierelli, Francesco; Serrao, Mariano

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate trunk local stability in a group of patients with degenerative primary cerebellar ataxia and to correlate it with spatio-temporal parameters, clinical variables, and history of falls. Sixteen patients affected by degenerative cerebellar ataxia and 16 gender- and age-matched healthy adults were studied by means of an inertial sensor to measure trunk kinematics and spatio-temporal parameters during over-ground walking. Trunk local dynamic stability was quantified by the maximum Lyapunov exponent with short data series of the acceleration data. According to this index, low values indicate more stable trunk dynamics, while high values denote less stable trunk dynamics. Disease severity was assessed by means of International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) according to which higher values correspond to more severe disease, while lower values correspond to less severe disease.Patients displayed a higher short-term maximum Lyapunov exponent than controls in all three spatial planes, which was correlated with the age, onset of the disease, and history of falls. Furthermore, the maximum Lyapunov exponent was negatively correlated with ICARS balance, ICARS posture, and ICARS total scores.These findings indicate that trunk local stability during gait is lower in patients with cerebellar degenerative ataxia than that in healthy controls and that this may increase the risk of falls. Local dynamic stability of the trunk seems to be an important aspect in patients with ataxia and could be a useful tool in the evaluation of rehabilitative and pharmacological treatment outcomes.

  16. Walking with robot assistance: the influence of body weight support on the trunk and pelvis kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Knaepen, Kristel; Michielsen, Marc; Hens, Gerrit; Clijsen, Ron; Goossens, Maggie; Buyl, Ronald; Meeusen, Romain; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The goal was to assess in healthy participants the three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and the trunk during robot-assisted treadmill walking (RATW) at 0%, 30% and 50% body weight support (BWS), compared with treadmill walking (TW). 18 healthy participants walked (2 kmph) on a treadmill with and without robot assistance (Lokomat; 60% guidance force; 0%, 30% and 50% BWS). After an acclimatisation period (four minutes), trunk and pelvis kinematics were registered in each condition (Polhemus Liberty [240 Hz]). The results were analysed using a repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction, with the level of suspension as within-subject factor. During RATW with BWS, there were significantly (1) smaller antero-posterior and lateral translations of the trunk and the pelvis; (2) smaller antero-posterior flexion and axial rotation of the trunk; (3) larger lateral flexion of the trunk; and (4) larger antero-posterior tilting of the pelvis compared with TW. There are significant differences in trunk and pelvis kinematics in healthy persons during TW with and without robot assistance. These data are relevant in gait rehabilitation, relating to normal balance regulation. Additional research is recommended to further assess the influence of robot assistance on human gait. The trunk and pelvis moves in a different way during walking with robot assistance. The data suggest that the change in movement is due to the robot device and the harness of the suspension system more than due to the level of suspension itself.

  17. Intraoperative Assessment of Facial Nerve Trunk Width in Early Childhood With Cervicofacial Lymphatic Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ara; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Lim, So Young

    2017-03-01

    Facial nerve damage during head and neck surgery has long been an important issue. However, few publications on the gross anatomy of the facial nerve are available in the young population. The aim of this study was to provide in vivo measurements of the facial nerve trunk during lymphatic malformation (LM) resection and to determine the association between the trunk width and patient- and disease-related variables. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 11 consecutive pediatric patients (11 facial nerve trunks) who underwent cervicofacial LM resection. The facial nerve of the affected side was dissected, and its trunk width at bifurcation was measured using calipers under a microscope during the operation. Eleven patients younger than 6 years were enrolled. The median width of the facial nerve in patients younger than 1 year was 1.15 mm; it was 2.5 mm in those older than 1 year. Trunk width was significantly greater in patients older than 1 year than those younger than 1 year, whereas no statistical significance was found when comparing other age groups. Patient weight was positively correlated with trunk width, whereas LM grade and diameter showed no significant correlation. The significantly greater width of the facial nerve trunk in LM patients older than 1 year than those younger than 1 year suggests that the age of 1 may be a threshold for facial nerve hypertrophy and growth acceleration. This study provides informative in vivo data to help understand facial nerve characteristics in young patients.

  18. Control of trunk motion following sudden stop perturbations during cart pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2011-01-04

    External perturbations during pushing tasks have been suggested to be a risk factor for low-back symptoms. An experiment was designed to investigate whether self-induced and externally induced sudden stops while pushing a high inertia cart influence trunk motions, and how flexor and extensor muscles counteract these perturbations. Twelve healthy male participants pushed a 200 kg cart at shoulder height and hip height. Pushing while walking was compared to situations in which participants had to stop the cart suddenly (self-induced stop) or in which the wheels of the cart were unexpectedly blocked (externally induced stop). For the perturbed conditions, the peak values and the maximum changes from the reference condition (pushing while walking) of the external moment at L5/S1, trunk inclination and electromyographic amplitudes of trunk muscles were determined. In the self-induced stop, a voluntary trunk extension occurred. Initial responses in both stops consisted of flexor and extensor muscle cocontraction. In self-induced stops this was followed by sustained extensor activity. In the externally induced stops, an external extension moment caused a decrease in trunk inclination. The opposite directions of the internal moment and trunk motion in the externally induced stop while pushing at shoulder height may indicate insufficient active control of trunk posture. Consequently, sudden blocking of the wheels in pushing at shoulder height may put the low back at risk of mechanical injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bicycle saddle pressure: effects of trunk position and saddle design on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpes, Felipe Pivetta; Dagnese, Frederico; Kleinpaul, Julio Francisco; Martins, Elisandro de Assis; Mota, Carlos Bolli

    2009-01-01

    There is a common belief that seat pressure during cycling can compress specific neurovascular tissues over the perineum leading to genital pathologies. This topic has seldom been discussed for women. The present study was conducted to verify the effect of trunk position and saddle design on saddle pressure in both men and women. Recreational cyclists (11 men and 11 women) were evaluated while seated on a bicycle. Saddle pressure was measured with F-scan insoles adapted for two saddle models (with and without a hole), and two trunk positions (upright and forwards). Pressure values were compared between trunk positions and saddles employing ANOVA. There were no statistical differences comparing saddle pressure between the two trunk positions for women. For men a statistical difference between the trunk positions for the saddle with a hole was found. Thus, the trunk forwards shift seems to affect the values of saddle pressure only for men using the 'holed' saddle. Saddle pressure for men was influenced by saddle design and trunk position only. This result indicates that the masculine anatomy may influence saddle pressure during bicycle. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effect of Ankle Mobility and Segment Ratios on Trunk Lean in the Barbell Back Squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglsang, Emil I; Telling, Anders S; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-11-01

    Fuglsang, EI, Telling, AS, and Sørensen, H. Effect of ankle mobility and segment ratios on trunk lean in the barbell back squat. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3024-3033, 2017-The barbell back squat is a popular exercise used for both performance enhancing and rehabilitation purposes. However, injuries are common, and people with a history of lower back pain are especially vulnerable. Past studies have shown that higher trunk angles (less forward lean) generate less stress on the lower back; thus, it seems appropriate to investigate the factors presumed to influence the trunk angle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how ankle mobility and the segment ratios between the thoracic spine, thighs, and shanks influence the trunk angle in the back squat. While recorded with motion capture, 11 male subjects performed 3 repetitions at approximately 75% of 1 repetition maximum in the squat to a parallel position (thighs horizontal) or lower. Furthermore, subjects performed a weight bearing lunge test to determine maximal range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint. Segment angles of the shank, thigh, and trunk segments as well as ankle joint angles were calculated by 2-dimensional kinematic analysis. Simple linear and multiple regressions were used to test the correlation between the lower extremity angles, segment ratios, and the trunk angle. On average, subjects had an 11.4 ± 4.4° deficit in dorsiflexion ROM between maximal ROM and ROM in the parallel squat (PS) which was independent of maximal ROM. Ankle mobility showed to significantly negatively correlate with trunk angle, thereby showing that a subject with greater ankle ROM had a more upright torso in the PS position. This study was unable to find a significant correlation between the segment ratios and trunk angle. Furthermore, when combined, no significant relationship between ankle mobility, segment length ratios, and trunk angle were found, although it was noticed that this more complex model showed

  1. Influence of trunk control and lower extremity impairments on gait capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Julia; Marsico, Petra; Mitteregger, Elena; van der Linden, Marietta L; Mercer, Thomas H; van Hedel, Hubertus J A

    2017-09-24

    We investigated the combined impact of trunk control and lower extremities impairments on predicting gait capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and evaluated relationships between trunk control and lower extremities impairments. Data of 52 children with CP [29 boys, mean age 11 years 9 months (±4 years 6 months)] were included in this observational study. Gait capacity was measured by the "modified Time Up and Go test". Experienced therapists performed the "Modified Ashworth Scale", "Manual Muscle Test", the "Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity", and the "Trunk Control Measurement Scale". We calculated Spearman correlations coefficients (ρ) and performed regression analyses. Trunk control was the strongest predictor (β = -0.624, p Muscle strength and selectivity correlated moderately to strongly with the trunk control and gait capacity (-0.68 ≤ ρ ≤ -0.78), but correlations for the spasticity were low (ρmuscle strength and selectivity for gait capacity in children with CP was shown. It indicates the significance of these impairments in gait assessment and, potentially, rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Trunk control was the strongest predictor for gait capacity in a regression model with lower extremity spasticity, muscle strength and selectivity and age as independent variables. Lower extremity muscle strength, selectivity, and trunk control explained a similar amount of gait capacity variance which is higher than that explained by lower extremity spasticity. Lower extremity muscle strength and selectivity correlated strongly with trunk control. Therefore, we cautiously suggest that a combined trunk control and lower extremity training might be promising for improving gait capacity in children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I-III), which needed to be tested in future intervention-studies.

  2. Dual tasking affects lateral trunk control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Takehiko; Hirata, Soichiro; Ando, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Assessing the effects of attention-demanding tasks on trunk movement provides useful insights into postural control while walking in an attention-split situation, such as occurs in daily life. The coefficient of attenuation of acceleration (CoA) at the trunk is a useful gait index to assess whole trunk movements. We investigated the effect of attention-demanding tasks on CoA to assess the role of attention on trunk control during walking. Thirty healthy, community-dwelling older adults (70.1±5.6 years) and 38 younger adults (22.1±3.4 years) participated in this study. Participants walked 20 m at a self-selected speed (slow, normal, fast) and while performing an attention-demanding cognitive task. Trunk acceleration was measured using triaxial accelerometers attached to the lower (L3 spinous process) and upper (C7 spinous process) trunk and used to compute CoA (the reduction in acceleration from the lower to upper trunk). Results showed that an attention-demanding task significantly decreased CoA in the medio-lateral (ML) direction in both age groups (p<0.001), whereas it did not affect CoA in the vertical (VT) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Our findings suggest that the priority of whole trunk control in the ML direction may be higher than in other directions and be strongly associated with attention, whereas whole trunk control in the VT and AP directions may be passively regulated and require minimal attentional control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND TRUNK MOVEMENT DURING CHANGE OF DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Sasaki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as quickly as possible. The shuttle run cutting time, ground contact time during a change-of-direction, and trunk inclination angle were measured. The shuttle run cutting time tends to correlate positively with ground contact time. During the change- of-direction task, the trunk forward inclination angle gradually increased during the first 50% of the stance phase and decreased subsequently whereas the trunk flexed, maintaining a left inclination during the first 40% of the stance phase and changing exponentially in the opposite direction. Forward angular displacement of the trunk between foot-contact and maximum trunk inclination correlated positively with the shuttle run cutting time (r = 0.61, p < 0.05 and ground contact time (r = 0.65, p < 0.05. These findings suggest that the change-of-direction performance could be related to the small angular displacement of the trunk during a change of direction. Moreover, it was considered that there might be optimal inclination angles related to change-of-direction performance. Therefore, coaches in field sports should check body posture and trunk movements during changes of direction.

  4. Dermoscopy of Melanomas on the Trunk and Extremities in Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Ho Mun

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma among the Asian population is lower compared to that among the Western European population. These populations differed in their most common histopathologic subtypes, acral lentiginous melanoma being the most common in the Asian population. Although the dermoscopic features of the melanomas on the acral skin have been thoroughly investigated in the Asian population, studies concerning the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the non-acral skin have been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the trunk and extremities in the Asian population. To achieve this, we evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of 22 primary melanomas diagnosed at two university hospitals in Korea. In addition, 100 benign melanocytic lesions were included as the control group for comparative analysis. A P value less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Melanoma-associated dermoscopic features such as asymmetry (odds ratio [OR], 30.00, multicolor pattern (OR, 30.12, blotches (OR, 13.50, blue white veils (OR, 15.75, atypical pigment networks (OR, 9.71, irregular peripheral streaks (OR, 6.30, atypical vascular patterns (OR, 11.50, ulcers (OR, 15.83, atypical dots/globules (OR, 3.15, shiny white lines (OR, 5.88, and regression structures (OR, 7.06 were more commonly observed in patients with melanomas than in patients of the control group. The mean dermoscopic scores obtained on the 7-point checklist, revised 7-point checklist, 3-point checklist, ABCD rule, and CASH algorithm were 5.36, 3.41, 2.05, 6.89, and 9.68, respectively, in the primary melanomas, and 1.33, 0.93, 0.46, 2.45, and 3.60, respectively, in the control group (all, P < 0.001. The present study showed that melanoma-related dermoscopic patterns were common in Asian patients. Dermoscopy is a reliable diagnostic tool for the melanomas of the trunk and extremities in the Asian populations.

  5. Neuromuscular control of trunk stability: clinical implications for sports injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazulak, Bohdanna; Cholewicki, Jacek; Reeves, N Peter

    2008-09-01

    Recent prospective evidence supports the hypothesis that impaired trunk control is a contributing factor to sports injuries of the spine as well as to segments of the kinetic chain. The current concepts regarding neuromuscular control of trunk stability are best described from a systems engineering perspective. In the analysis of current neuromuscular training protocols for sports injury prevention, these principles are applied to identify components that optimize neuromuscular control of trunk stability. Current perspectives of neuromuscular learning can be applied clinically to aid in the formulation of injury prevention strategies.

  6. Reorganized trunk muscle activity during multidirectional floor perturbations after experimental low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain changes the trunk muscle activity after external perturbations but the relationship between pain intensities and distributions and their effect on the trunk muscle activity remains unclear. The effects of unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain on trunk muscle activity...... each perturbation was extracted and averaged across perturbations. The difference (ΔRMS-EMG) and absolute difference (absolute ΔRMS-EMG) RMS from baseline conditions were extracted for each muscle during pain conditions and averaged bilaterally for back and abdominal muscle groups. Bilateral compared...... with unilateral pain induced higher VAS scores (P pain areas (P pain (P back (P

  7. Persistent L5 lumbosacral radiculopathy caused by lumbosacral trunk schwannoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Guive; Jahanbakhshi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    Schwannomais, usually, benign tumor of nerve sheath that occurs evenly along the spinal cord. Intra-pelvic schwannoma is very rare entity that may arise from lumbosacral nerve roots or from sciatic nerve. Radicular pain of the lower limb as a presenting symptom of pelvic schwannoma is extremely rare. In the current report, the patient is presented with a right sided L5 radicular pain typical of lumbar discopathy. Interestingly, a herniated lumbar disc was noted on lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In pre-operative studies a large pelvic mass was detected in the right pre-sacral area with solid and cystic components consistent with schwannoma. The patient underwent a low midline laparotomy to evacuate the retroperitoneal mass. Uniquely, we found the tumor to be arisen from lumbosacral trunk not from a root or peripheral nerve. Most cases with intra-pelvic schwannoma present so late with vague abdominal and pelvic discomfort or pain, low back pain, urinary and bowel symptoms because of compressive effect of the tumor, or incidentally following gynecologic work-ups; So, these patients are mostly referred to gynecologists and urologists. A neurosurgeon should have a high degree of suspicion to diagnose such an entity among his or her patients presented with pains typical for discopathy. PMID:28413533

  8. Gnarled-trunk evolutionary model of influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihito Ito

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses undergo antigenic changes with gradual accumulation of amino acid substitutions on the hemagglutinin (HA molecule. A strong antigenic mismatch between vaccine and epidemic strains often requires the replacement of influenza vaccines worldwide. To establish a practical model enabling us to predict the future direction of the influenza virus evolution, relative distances of amino acid sequences among past epidemic strains were analyzed by multidimensional scaling (MDS. We found that human influenza viruses have evolved along a gnarled evolutionary pathway with an approximately constant curvature in the MDS-constructed 3D space. The gnarled pathway indicated that evolution on the trunk favored multiple substitutions at the same amino acid positions on HA. The constant curvature was reasonably explained by assuming that the rate of amino acid substitutions varied from one position to another according to a gamma distribution. Furthermore, we utilized the estimated parameters of the gamma distribution to predict the amino acid substitutions on HA in subsequent years. Retrospective prediction tests for 12 years from 1997 to 2009 showed that 70% of actual amino acid substitutions were correctly predicted, and that 45% of predicted amino acid substitutions have been actually observed. Although it remains unsolved how to predict the exact timing of antigenic changes, the present results suggest that our model may have the potential to recognize emerging epidemic strains.

  9. Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) exposure of neuronal in vitro networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Tim; Wölfel, Maximilian; Ciba, Manuel; Bochtler, Ulrich; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-12-19

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a worldwide common mobile communication standard, used by authorities and organizations with security tasks. Previous studies reported on health effects of TETRA, with focus on the specific pulse frequency of 17.64Hz, which affects calcium efflux in neuronal cells. Likewise among others, it was reported that TETRA affects heart rate variability, neurophysiology and leads to headaches. In contrast, other studies conclude that TETRA does not affect calcium efflux of cells and has no effect on people's health. In the present study we examine whether TETRA short- and long-term exposure could affect the electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks. Experiments were performed with a carrier frequency of 395MHz, a pulse frequency of 17.64Hz and a differential quaternary phase-shift keying (π/4 DQPSK) modulation. Specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.17W/kg and 2.21W/kg were applied. In conclusion, the present results do not indicate any effect of TETRA exposure on electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks, neither for short-term nor long-term exposure. This applies to the examined parameters spike rate, burst rate, burst duration and network synchrony. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimisation of Graft Copolymerisation of Fibres from Banana Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mpon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheets from banana trunks were opened out and dried for several weeks in air. Pulp was obtained by the nitric acid process with a yield of 37.7% while fibres were obtained according to the modified standard Japanese method for cellulose in wood for pulp (JIS 8007 with a yield of 65% with respect to oven dried plant material. Single fibre obtained by the JIS method had an average diameter of 11.0 μm and Young's modulus, tensile strength and strain at break-off 7.05 GPa, 81.7 MPa and 5.2% respectively. Modification of the fibres was carried out by grafting ethyl acrylate in the presence of ammonium nitrate cerium(IV. Optimisation of the copolymerisation reaction conditions was studied by measuring the rate of conversion, the rate of grafting and the grafting efficiency. The results showed that at low values of ceric ion concentration (0.04 M, at ambient temperature, after three hours and at a concentration of 0.2 M ethyl acrylate, maximum values of the parameters cited were obtained.

  11. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed. PMID:22295177

  12. Athletic background is related to superior trunk proprioceptive ability, postural control, and neuromuscular responses to sudden perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glofcheskie, Grace O; Brown, Stephen H M

    2017-04-01

    Trunk motor control is essential for athletic performance, and inadequate trunk motor control has been linked to an increased risk of developing low back and lower limb injury in athletes. Research is limited in comparing relationships between trunk neuromuscular control, postural control, and trunk proprioception in athletes from different sporting backgrounds. To test for these relationships, collegiate level long distance runners and golfers, along with non-athletic controls were recruited. Trunk postural control was investigated using a seated balance task. Neuromuscular control in response to sudden trunk loading perturbations was measured using electromyography and kinematics. Proprioceptive ability was examined using active trunk repositioning tasks. Both athlete groups demonstrated greater trunk postural control (less centre of pressure movement) during the seated task compared to controls. Athletes further demonstrated faster trunk muscle activation onsets, higher muscle activation amplitudes, and less lumbar spine angular displacement in response to sudden trunk loading perturbations when compared to controls. Golfers demonstrated less absolute error and variable error in trunk repositioning tasks compared to both runners and controls, suggestive of greater proprioceptive ability. This suggests an interactive relationship between neuromuscular control, postural control, and proprioception in athletes, and that differences exist between athletes of various training backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of Bobath-based trunk exercises on trunk control, functional capacity, balance, and gait: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Muhammed; Avcu, Fatma; Onursal, Ozge; Ayvat, Ender; Savcun Demirci, Cevher; Aksu Yildirim, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Bobath-based individually designed trunk exercises on trunk control, upper and lower extremity function, and walking and balance in stroke patients. The main aim of treatment was to eliminate individual trunk impairments during various patient functions. The study was planned as an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A total of 22 patients volunteered to participate in the study. Trunk function, functional capacity, and gait were assessed with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM), and a 10-m walking test, respectively. The Berg Balance Test (BBT), functional reach (FR), and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests were used to evaluate balance. After the initial assessment, the patients were divided randomly into two groups, the study group (12 patients) and the control group (10 patients). The mean age of the patients in the study group was 55.91 years (duration of stroke 58.66 months) and that of the control group was 54.00 years (duration of stroke 67.20 months). Individual training programs were determined for the patients in the study group, taking into consideration their evaluation results; and strengthening, stretching, range of motion, and mat exercises were determined for the control group according to their functional level. The participants in both groups were taken into the physiotherapy program for 12 weeks, 3 days a week for 1 hour a day. In group analyses, both groups showed improvement in STREAM, TIS, and TUG tests. Only the study group produced significant gains in the BBT, FR, and 10 m walking tests (P 0.05). Individually developed exercise programs in the Bobath concept improve trunk performance, balance, and walking ability in stroke patients more than do conventional exercises.

  14. Finding the neck-trunk boundary in snakes: anteroposterior dissociation of myological characteristics in snakes and its implications for their neck and trunk body regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuihiji, Takanobu; Kearney, Maureen; Rieppel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    The neck and trunk regionalization of the presacral musculoskeletal system in snakes and other limb-reduced squamates was assessed based on observations on craniovertebral and body wall muscles. It was confirmed that myological features characterizing the neck in quadrupedal squamates (i.e., squamates with well-developed limbs) are retained in all examined snakes, contradicting the complete lack of the neck in snakes hypothesized in previous studies. However, the posterior-most origins of the craniovertebral muscles and the anterior-most bony attachments of the body wall muscles that are located at around the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates were found to be dissociated anteroposteriorly in snakes. Together with results of a recent study that the anterior expression boundaries of Hox genes coinciding with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal amniotes were dissociated anteroposteriorly in a colubrid snake, these observations support the hypothesis that structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates are displaced relative to one another in snakes. Whereas certain craniovertebral muscles are elongated in some snakes, results of optimization on an ophidian cladogram show that the most recent common ancestor of extant snakes would have had the longest craniovertebral muscle, M. rectus capitis anterior, that is elongated only by several segments compared with that of quadrupedal squamates. Therefore, even such a posteriorly displaced "cervical" characteristic plesiomorphically lies fairly anteriorly in the greatly elongated precloacal region of snakes, suggesting that the trunk, not the neck, would have contributed most to the elongation of the snake precloacal region. A similar dissociation of structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates is observed in limb-reduced squamates, suggesting that these forms and snakes may share a developmental mechanism producing modifications in the

  15. Vulnerability of terrestrial-trunked radio to intelligent intentional electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanuhardja, Ray R.; van de Beek, G.S.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The terrestrial-trunked radio (TETRA) specification is produced by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute for private mobile radio systems. We investigated the resilience of TETRA against intelligent intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) with low amplitude. Low power signals

  16. Hippotherapy effects on trunk, pelvic, and hip motion during ambulation in children with neurological impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encheff, Jenna L; Armstrong, Charles; Masterson, Michelle; Fox, Christine; Gribble, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 10-week hippotherapy program on trunk, pelvis, and hip joint positioning during the stance phase of gait. Eleven children (6 boys and 5 girls; 7.9 ± 2.7 years) with neurological disorders and impaired ambulation participated. Joint range of motion data were collected via 3-dimensional computerized gait analysis before and after the program. Paired t tests were performed on kinematic data for each joint. Significant improvements (P ≤ .008) and large effect sizes (ESs) for sagittal plane hip positions at initial contact and toe-off were found. No differences in pelvic or trunk positioning were determined, although sagittal plane pelvic positioning displayed a trend toward improvement with large ESs. Several trunk variables displayed moderate ESs with a trend toward more upright positioning. Improvements in pelvic and hip joint positioning and more normalized vertical trunk position may indicate increased postural control during gait after 10 sessions of hippotherapy.

  17. Studi Analisa Teknis Instalasi dan Ekonomi Desain Sistem Kelistrikan Kapal Penumpang Dengan Menggunakan Busbar Trunking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Firdaus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sistem distribusi kelistrikan merupakan salah satu faktor yang dibutuhkan untuk sumber tenaga mentransmisi daya menuju beban agar dapat dioperasikan sesuai kebutuhan. Secara data stastitika bahwa kecelakaan kapal, khususnya kebakaran kapal, mayoritas dipengaruhi oleh instalasi kabel dalam mendistribusikan daya menuju beban. Hal ini dikarenakan sistem kabel tidak terbuat dari bahan yang bebas dengan zat hologen. Busbar trunking merupakan salah satu media distribusi kelistrikan yang memiliki tingkat keandalan dan keamanan yang lebih baik diabndingkan kabel. Berdasarkan referensi tersebut, pada penulisan tugas akhir ini mengacu pada aplikasi busbar trunking pada kapal penumpang yati KM Bukit Siguntang. Dari hasil analisa yang didapat pada sistem busbar trunking ini secara teknis memiliki losses daya kecil, saat perawatan dapat menjaga continuitas kerja, simple dan tepat diaplikasikan pada kapal yang membutuhkan daya besar. Selain itu dalam segi ekonomi, karena lebih efisien dari kabel maka harga pemasangan hingga perawatan lebih mahal dibandingkan dengan sistem kabel. Oleh karena itu, dibutuhkan sistem campuran (Busbar Trunking dan Kabel untuk lebih efisien

  18. Slow Expiration Reduces External Oblique Muscle Activity during Maximum Trunk Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Tajima, Saya; Masuno, Riyo; Kogame, Yoshiko; Ando, Suguru; Yokohata, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of expiration on abdominal muscle activity during maximum trunk flexion. [Subjects] Twenty-one healthy university students (10 men, 11 women) participated in this study. [Methods] Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activity of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles. The paired t-test was used to examine the significance of differences in the abdominal muscles between maximum trunk flexion with breath holding and slow expiration. [Results] There was a significantly lower EMG activity in the external oblique muscle during maximum trunk flexion with slow expiration. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that slow expiration reduces external oblique muscle activity during maximum trunk flexion performed by healthy young subjects.

  19. Is the Sørensen test valid to assess muscle fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Christophe; Boyer, Mathieu; Duchateau, Jacques; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Jidovtseff, Boris; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Very few studies have quantified the degree of fatigue characterized by the decline in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the trunk extensors induced by the widely used Sørensen test. Measure the degree of fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles induced by the Sørensen test. Eighty young healthy subjects were randomly divided into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG), each including 50% of the two genders. The EG performed an isometric MVC of the trunk extensors (pre-fatigue test) followed by the Sørensen test, the latter being immediately followed by another MVC (post-fatigue test). The CG performed only the pre- and post-fatigue tests without any exertion in between. The comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue tests revealed a significant (Pmuscles to generate maximal force, and indicates that this test is valid for the assessment of fatigue in trunk extensor muscles.

  20. Double facial nerve trunk emerged from the stylomastoid foramen and petrotympanic fissure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cenk; Kirici, Yalcin; Kocaoglu, Murat

    2010-08-01

    There are several studies concerning branches of the facial nerve, but we encountered less information about the trunk of the facial nerve in the literature. During the routine dissection of a 65-yr-old Caucasian male cadaver, double facial nerve trunk emerged from the stylomastoid foramen and petrotympanic fissure were encountered. Because of an extremely rare variation, we presented this case report. In addition this cadaver had two buccal plexuses. These plexuses and other branches were formed to structures like to polygon. These anatomic peculiarities were described, photographed and illustrated. Finally, magnetic resonance imaging was performed by using 1.5T scanner to this cadaver. The facial nerve trunk can be damaged during surgical procedures of the parotid gland tumours and submandibular region. Surgeons who are willing to operate on this area should be aware of the possible anatomical variations of the facial nerve trunk.

  1. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.

    2007-01-01

    of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. Methods......Study Design. Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. Objective. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Summary of Background Data....... Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement...

  2. Trunk and neck kinematics during overground manual wheelchair propulsion in persons with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Marie C; Morgan, Kerri; Stephens, Christina L; Standeven, John; Engsberg, Jack

    2014-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that movement of the head and trunk increases as a consequence of speed during manual wheelchair propulsion over the ground in individuals with tetraplegia. Seven adult participants with tetraplegia who used manual wheelchairs (5 men and 2 women, aged 33.0 ± 10.2) were selected for the study. Participants propelled over the ground at three different speeds while video motion capture methods collected kinematic data. Variables investigated were forward flexion, lateral flexion and axial rotation for both the head and trunk. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to determine effects of speed on head and trunk movements. Both neck and trunk forward flexion significantly increased as a result of speed (p = 0.034, p = 0.031), with a large effect size (r = 0.6, r = 0.6) between slow and fast speeds. Lateral flexion and axial rotation were minimal for the neck and trunk and did not significantly increase with speed. Results suggest that manual wheelchair users with tetraplegia compensate for trunk muscle weakness by flexing the upper trunk and neck forward during manual wheelchair propulsion and that these movements increase with speed. Further studies should examine if these movements relate to overuse injuries and interventions that focus on improving manual wheelchair biomechanics of individuals with tetraplegia. Individuals who use manual wheelchairs utilize their upper extremities almost exclusively for both everyday mobility and participation in daily life activities which can often lead to overuse injuries and pain. Despite having a lack of trunk muscle innervation, manual wheelchair users with tetraplegia are able to compensate for this weakness by using the upper trunk and neck. The way in which force is translated from the trunk through the upper extremities to the pushrim may impact propulsion biomechanics, and ultimately the extent in which upper extremity pain and injury develops. A better understanding of how

  3. A technique for estimating activity in whole nerve trunks applied to the cervical sympathetic trunk, in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, F; Roatta, S; Johansson, H; Passatore, M

    1999-12-24

    The changes in sympathetic outflow may be evaluated from the amplitude of the antidromic compound action potential (ACAP) according to the collision technique described by Douglas and Ritchie (Douglas, W.W. and Ritchie J.M., A technique for recording functional activity in specific groups of medullated and non-medullated fibers in whole nerve trunks. J. Physiol., 138(1957) 19-30). This technique was revised, taking into account the depressant action exerted by antidromic stimulation on sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs). Cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN) of rabbits was used as experimental model. Stimulation frequencies of 0.2-0.5 Hz were found to be sufficiently low to avoid depressant actions on CSN spontaneous activity; they were employed to test the sensitivity of the technique during different experimental manoeuvres, such as changes in pulmonary-ventilation, baroreceptor unloading and arousal stimuli. In addition a procedure was devised to calibrate the ACAP amplitude: high frequency antidromic stimulation was used to induce a complete and transient inhibition of SPNs which allows to record the ACAP maximum amplitude. ACAPs recorded in various experimental conditions can then be expressed as percentage of this value.

  4. Effect of Ankle Mobility and Segment Ratios on Trunk Lean in the Barbell Back Squat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil I; Telling, Anders S; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    kinematic analysis. Simple linear and multiple regressions were used to test the correlation between the lower extremity angles, segment ratios, and the trunk angle. On average, subjects had an 11.4 ± 4.4° deficit in dorsiflexion ROM between maximal ROM and ROM in the parallel squat (PS) which....... Furthermore, when combined, no significant relationship between ankle mobility, segment length ratios, and trunk angle were found, although it was noticed that this more complex model showed the greatest R value....

  5. Influence of trunk control and lower extremity impairments on gait capacity in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Balzer, Julia; Marsico, Petra; Mitteregger, Elena; van der Linden, Marietta; Mercer, Tom; van Hedel, Hubertus J A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the combined impact of trunk control and lower extremities impairments on predicting gait capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and evaluated relationships between trunk control and lower extremities impairments. Methods: Data of 52 children with CP [29 boys, mean age 11 years 9 months (±4 years 6 months)] were included in this observational study. Gait capacity was measured by the “modified Time Up and Go test”. Experienced therapists performed the “Modified ...

  6. Trunk Dynamics Are Impaired in Ballet Dancers with Back Pain but Improve with Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Jan E; VAN DEN Hoorn, Wolbert; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    Trunk control is essential in ballet and may be compromised in dancers with a history of low back pain (LBP) by associated changes in motor control. This study aimed to compare trunk mechanical properties between professional ballet dancers with and without a history of LBP. As a secondary aim, we assessed whether asking dancers to use motor imagery to respond in a "fluid" manner could change the mechanical properties of the trunk and whether this was possible for both groups. Trunk mechanical properties of stiffness and damping were estimated with a linear second-order system, from trunk movement in response to perturbations, in professional ballet dancers with (n = 22) and without (n = 8) a history of LBP. The second-order model adequately described trunk movement in response to the perturbations. Trials were performed with and without motor imagery to respond in a fluid manner to the perturbation. Dancers with a history of LBP had lower damping than dancers without LBP during the standard condition (P = 0.002) but had greater damping during the "fluid" condition (P 0.99). Stiffness was not different between the dancers with and those without a history of LBP (P = 0.252) but was less during the fluid condition than the standard condition (P < 0.001). Although dancers with a history of LBP have less trunk damping than those without LBP, they have the capacity to modulate the trunk's mechanical properties to match that of pain-free dancers by increasing damping with motor imagery. These observations have potential relevance for LBP recurrence and rehabilitation.

  7. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsu Jang; Jong Yeol Kim; Haejung Lee; Honggie Kim; Younghwa Baek; Siwoo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM). The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM) consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruit...

  8. An Unusual Case of Stent Migration After Celiac Trunk Endovascular Revascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Silvia; Ferraro, Stefania; Piffaretti, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.piffaretti@uninsubria.it; Rivolta, Nicola; Bossi, Matteo [University of Insubria School of Medicine, Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Circolo University Hospital (Italy); Carrafiello, Gianpaolo [University of Insubria School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Circolo University Hospital (Italy); Castelli, Patrizio [University of Insubria School of Medicine, Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Circolo University Hospital (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    A 61-year-old woman underwent celiac trunk stenting to treat abdominal angina. Three months later, she was readmitted for recurrent symptoms. Computed tomography control revealed the migration of the stent into the splenic artery. No sign of vessel injury or end-organ ischemia was detected. Repeat stenting of the celiac trunk was performed; the postoperative course was uneventful. 12 months later, the patient was asymptomatic with the second stent in its correct position, and she was asymptomatic for mesenteric ischemia.

  9. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: Pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ilke Keser, PhD, PT; Nuray Kirdi, Prof PhD, PT; Aydin Meric, PhD, PT; Asli Tuncer Kurne, Assoc Prof MD; Rana Karabudak, Prof MD

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed bala...

  10. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    OpenAIRE

    Han Suk Lee; Hyung Kuk Chung; Sun Wook Park

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation...

  11. The effect of Core Stability Exercises (CSE) on trunk sagittal acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Aluko, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate Core Stability Exercise (CSE) induced changes in trunk sagittal acceleration as a measure of performance in participants following an acute onset of non-specific low back pain (LBP). Methodology: A Lumbar Motion Monitor (LMM) was used to measure trunk sagittal acceleration. The LMM was demonstrated to be reliable [Intra-Class Correlation (ICC)...

  12. Double Facial Nerve Trunk Emerged from the Stylomastoid Foramen and Petrotympanic Fissure: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Cenk; Kirici, Yalcin; Kocaoglu, Murat

    2010-01-01

    There are several studies concerning branches of the facial nerve, but we encountered less information about the trunk of the facial nerve in the literature. During the routine dissection of a 65-yr-old Caucasian male cadaver, double facial nerve trunk emerged from the stylomastoid foramen and petrotympanic fissure were encountered. Because of an extremely rare variation, we presented this case report. In addition this cadaver had two buccal plexuses. These plexuses and other branches were fo...

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution of trunk-injected imidacloprid in apple tree canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aćimović, Srđan G; VanWoerkom, Anthony H; Reeb, Pablo D; Vandervoort, Christine; Garavaglia, Thomas; Cregg, Bert M; Wise, John C

    2014-11-01

    Pesticide use in orchards creates drift-driven pesticide losses which contaminate the environment. Trunk injection of pesticides as a target-precise delivery system could greatly reduce pesticide losses. However, pesticide efficiency after trunk injection is associated with the underinvestigated spatial and temporal distribution of the pesticide within the tree crown. This study quantified the spatial and temporal distribution of trunk-injected imidacloprid within apple crowns after trunk injection using one, two, four or eight injection ports per tree. The spatial uniformity of imidacloprid distribution in apple crowns significantly increased with more injection ports. Four ports allowed uniform spatial distribution of imidacloprid in the crown. Uniform and non-uniform spatial distributions were established early and lasted throughout the experiment. The temporal distribution of imidacloprid was significantly non-uniform. Upper and lower crown positions did not significantly differ in compound concentration. Crown concentration patterns indicated that imidacloprid transport in the trunk occurred through radial diffusion and vertical uptake with a spiral pattern. By showing where and when a trunk-injected compound is distributed in the apple tree canopy, this study addresses a key knowledge gap in terms of explaining the efficiency of the compound in the crown. These findings allow the improvement of target-precise pesticide delivery for more sustainable tree-based agriculture. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Trunk rotation affects temporal order judgments with direct saccades: Influence of handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Kerstin; Kagan, Igor; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Bähr, Mathias; Wilke, Melanie

    2015-12-01

    Manipulation of the trunk midline has been shown to improve visuospatial performance in patients with unilateral visual neglect. The goal of the present study was to disentangle motor and perceptual components of egocentric midline manipulations and to investigate the contribution of individual hand preference. Two versions of visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks were tested in healthy right- and left-handed subjects while trunk rotation was varied. In the congruent version, subjects were required to execute a saccade to the first of two horizontal stimuli presented with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA). In the incongruent version, subjects were required to perform a vertical saccade to a pre-learned color target, thereby dissociating motor response from the perceptual stimulus location. The main findings of this study are a trunk rotation and response direction specific impact on temporal judgments in form of a prior entry bias for right hemifield stimuli during rightward trunk rotation, but only in the congruent task. This trunk rotation-induced spatial bias was most pronounced in left-handed participants but had the same sign in the right-handed group. Results suggest that egocentric midline shifts in healthy subjects induce a spatially-specific motor, but not a perceptual, bias and underline the importance of taking individual differences in functional laterality such as handedness and mode of perceptual report into account when evaluating effects of trunk rotation in either healthy subjects or neurological patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effect of Gene and Physical Activity Interaction on Trunk Fat Percentage Among the Newfoundland Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of FTO gene and physical activity interaction on trunk fat percentage. Design and Methods Subjects are 3,004 individuals from Newfoundland and Labrador whose trunk fat percentage and physical activity were recorded, and who were genotyped for 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FTO gene. Subjects were stratified by gender. Multiple tests and multiple regressions were used to analyze the effects of physical activity, variants of FTO , age, and their interactions on trunk fat percentage. Dietary information and other environmental factors were not considered. Results Higher levels of physical activity tend to reduce trunk fat percentage in all individuals. Furthermore, in males, rs9939609 and rs1421085 were significant (α = 0.05 in explaining central body fat, but no SNPs were significant in females. For highly active males, trunk fat percentage varied significantly between variants of rs9939609 and rs1421085, but there is no significant effect among individuals with low activity. The other SNPs examined were not significant in explaining trunk fat percentage. Conclusions Homozygous male carriers of non-obesity risk alleles at rs9939609 and rs1421085 will have significant reduction in central body fat from physical activity in contrast to homozygous males of the obesity-risk alleles. The additive effect of these SNPs is found in males with high physical activity only.

  16. Effects of experimentally increased trunk stiffness on thorax and pelvis rotations during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen Hua; Lin, Xiao Cong; Meijer, Onno G; Gao, Jin Tuan; Hu, Hai; Prins, Maarten R; Liang, Bo Wei; Zhang, Li Qun; Van Dieën, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-02-01

    Patients with non-specific low back pain, or a similar disorder, may stiffen their trunk, which probably alters their walking coordination. To study the direct effects of increasing trunk stiffness, we experimentally increased trunk stiffness during walking, and compared the results with what is known from the literature about gait coordination with, e.g., low back pain. Healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 3 speeds (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m/s), in three conditions (normal, while contracting their abdominal muscles, or wearing an orthopedic brace that limits trunk motions). Kinematics of the legs, thorax and pelvis were recorded, and relative Fourier phases and amplitudes of segment motions were calculated. Increasing trunk stiffness led to a lower thorax-pelvis relative phase, with both a decrease in thorax-leg relative phase, and an increase in pelvis-leg relative phase, as well as reduced rotational amplitude of thorax relative to pelvis. While lower thorax-pelvis relative phase was also found in patients with low back pain, higher pelvis-leg relative phase has never been reported in patients with low back pain or related disorders. These results suggest that increasing trunk stiffness in healthy subjects causes short-term gait coordination changes which are different from those seen in patients with back pain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (bathing trunk nevus associated with lipoma and neurofibroma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant congenital melanocytic nevi are rare and occur in about one out of every 2,00,000 to 5,00,000 births. There is a significant association between bathing trunk nevus and neurofibromatosis and lipomatosis. Apart from this, association of bathing trunk nevus with abnormalities like spina bifida occulta, meningocele, club foot and hypertrophy or atrophy of deeper structures of a limb, have been described. We are herewith reporting two cases of bathing trunk nevi. In our first case, an eight-year-old girl presented with a bathing trunk nevus studded with multiple, large nodules. Histopathological examination of the biopsy taken from one nodule revealed features of both neurofibroma and lipoma. To the best of our knowledge, features of both these hamartomas in one nodule of a single patient are probably not reported in the literature. In our second case, a 12-year-old girl presented with bathing trunk nevus and she had spina bifida occulta. She also had lipoma in the lesion of bathing trunk nevus. Both of our patients had satellite melanocytic nevi over the face, forearm, upper back and legs. Our second patient, in addition, had small melanocytic nevi over the medial canthus and sclerocorneal junction of the right eye. By the time this girl presented to us, the melanocytic nevus started fading in color and it had become brownish. We are reporting these cases for their peculiarities and for their rare features.

  18. Influence of trunk muscle activity and stability in front and back holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Guang; Huang, Qiang-Min; Wang, Feng-Hu; Fan, Shuai

    2017-06-01

    A tandem carrying style is often used in the workplace, but carrying approaches are different for two people because of the holding load in the tandem posture. To understand these carrying styles, this study aimed to investigate the patterns of muscle activity and stability of the trunk influenced by front and back holding of a heavy load. Electromyography data of eight trunk and two hip muscles, as well as displacements of the trunk, were recorded for analysis while subjects stood statically holding a handle in the front and back of the body with and without load. Without load, muscle activities during front holding mirrored those during back holding. With load, greater muscle activities were observed in the dorsal muscles of the trunk and lesser activities were noted in the ventral muscles in the two holding styles. More frequencies of trunk oscillations occurred in front holding with and without load. The results revealed that back holding of load created more stability of the upper body, whereas front holding resulted in more instability of the trunk.

  19. The movement of the trunk and breast during front crawl and breaststroke swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Lomax, Mitch; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Breast displacement has been investigated in various activities to inform bra design, with the goal of minimising movement; however, breast motion during swimming has yet to be considered. The aim was to investigate trunk and breast kinematics whilst wearing varying levels of breast support during two swimming strokes. Six larger-breasted females swam front crawl and breaststroke (in a swimming flume), in three breast support conditions while three video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated. Greater breast displacement occurred mediolaterally in the swimsuit condition (7.8, s = 1.5 cm) during front crawl and superioinferiorly in the bare-breasted condition (3.7, s = 1.6 cm) during breaststroke, with the sports bra significantly reducing breast displacements. During front crawl, the greatest trunk roll occurred in the sports bra condition (43.1, s = 8.3°) and during breaststroke greater trunk extension occurred in the swimsuit condition (55.4, s = 5.0°); however, no differences were found in trunk kinematics between the three breast support conditions. Results suggest that the swimsuit was ineffective as a means of additional support for larger-breasted women during swimming; incorporating design features of sports bras into swimsuits may improve the breast support provided.

  20. Effects of fatigue on lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and muscle activation: Gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessi, Giovanna Camparis; Dos Santos, Ana Flávia; Batista, Luis Fylipe; de Oliveira, Gabriela Clemente; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2017-02-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with biomechanical changes that may lead to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Alterations in trunk and pelvis kinematics may also be involved in ACL injury. Although some studies have compared the effects of muscle fatigue on lower limb kinematics between men and women, little is known about its effects on pelvis and trunk kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of fatigue on lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and muscle activation between men and women during landing. The participants included forty healthy subjects. We performed kinematic analysis of the trunk, pelvis, hip and knee and muscle activation analysis of the gluteal muscles, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris, during a single-leg landing before and after fatigue. Men had greater trunk flexion than women after fatigue. After fatigue, a decrease in peak knee flexion and an increase in Gmax and BF activation were observed. The increase in the trunk flexion can decrease the anterior tibiofemoral shear force resulted from the lower knee flexion angle, thereby decreasing the stress on the ACL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Comparison of Propagation Model for Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Kartika R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A system of digital radio Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA is designed for communication which need specialility, better privacy, better quality of audio with speed transmission data and access capacity to the internet and telephone network. TETRA system of TMO and DMO operation mode which has wide coverage and reliable than the interference so that the TETRA planning needs a propagation model which corresponding with environment. Therefore, this research compare a pathloss value of calculation of propagation model such as Free Space Loss, Wickson, Bacon, CEPT SE21, Ericsson (9999, ITU-R SM 2028 and Okumura Hata based on the environment are clutter urban, sub urban dan rural. The calculation of pathloss provide that Bacon propagation model is an corresponding model for DMO operation mode with a frequency of 380 MHz, height handhelds 1.5 m and 2 m with pathloss value of 76.82 dB at a distance of 100 m and 113.63 dB at a distance of 1 km while the 400 MHz frequency pathloss value of 77.08 dB at a distance of 100 m and 113.6 dB at a distance of 1 km. The propagation model which corresponding to the TMO operation mode with a frequency of 400 MHz distance of 1 km, the transmitter antenna height (hb 30 m and receiver antenna height (hm 1.5 m is a model of Ericsson (9999 on urban clutter with pathloss value of 96.4 dB, the model ITU-R SM2028 in suburban clutter with a pathloss value of 101.13 dB, and the model ITU-R SM2028 on rural clutter with pathloss value of 83.59 dB. Keywords: TETRA, propagation model, urban, suburban, rural

  2. Skeletogenic fate of zebrafish cranial and trunk neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kague

    Full Text Available The neural crest (NC is a major contributor to the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton, detailed in model organisms through embryological and genetic approaches, most notably in chick and mouse. Despite many similarities between these rather distant species, there are also distinct differences in the contribution of the NC, particularly to the calvariae of the skull. Lack of information about other vertebrate groups precludes an understanding of the evolutionary significance of these differences. Study of zebrafish craniofacial development has contributed substantially to understanding of cartilage and bone formation in teleosts, but there is currently little information on NC contribution to the zebrafish skeleton. Here, we employ a two-transgene system based on Cre recombinase to genetically label NC in the zebrafish. We demonstrate NC contribution to cells in the cranial ganglia and peripheral nervous system known to be NC-derived, as well as to a subset of myocardial cells. The indelible labeling also enables us to determine NC contribution to late-forming bones, including the calvariae. We confirm suspected NC origin of cartilage and bones of the viscerocranium, including cartilages such as the hyosymplectic and its replacement bones (hymandibula and symplectic and membranous bones such as the opercle. The cleithrum develops at the border of NC and mesoderm, and as an ancestral component of the pectoral girdle was predicted to be a hybrid bone composed of both NC and mesoderm tissues. However, we find no evidence of a NC contribution to the cleithrum. Similarly, in the vault of the skull, the parietal bones and the caudal portion of the frontal bones show no evidence of NC contribution. We also determine a NC origin for caudal fin lepidotrichia; the presumption is that these are derived from trunk NC, demonstrating that these cells have the ability to form bone during normal vertebrate development.

  3. Permanent upper trunk plexopathy after interscalene brachial plexus block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellanet, Merce; Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Rodrigo, Lidia; Gonzalez-Viejo, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) has been widely used in shoulder surgical procedures. The incidence of postoperative neural injury has been estimated to be as high as 3 %. We report a long-term neurologic deficit after a nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. A 55 year-old male, with right shoulder impingement syndrome was scheduled for elective surgery. The patient was given an oral dose of 10 mg of diazepam prior to the nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. The patient immediately complained, as soon as the needle was placed in the interscalene area, of a sharp pain in his right arm and he was sedated further. Twenty-four hours later, the patient complained of severe shoulder and arm pain that required an increased dose of analgesics. Severe peri-scapular atrophy developed over the following days. Electromyography studies revealed an upper trunk plexus injury with severe denervation of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles together with a moderate denervation of the biceps brachii muscle. Chest X-rays showed a diaphragmatic palsy which was not present post operatively. Pulmonary function tests were also affected. Phrenic nerve paralysis was still present 18 months after the block as was dysfunction of the brachial plexus resulting in an inability to perform flexion, abduction and external rotation of the right shoulder. Severe brachial plexopathy was probably due to a local anesthetic having been administrated through the perineurium and into the nerve fascicles. Severe brachial plexopathy is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of IBPB. We propose a clinical algorithm using ultrasound guidance during nerve blocks as a safer technique of regional anesthesia.

  4. Radiologic Findings of Epidermal Cysts in the Trunk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hyun; Chung, Jae Joon; Park, Kyoung Seuk; Park, Su Mi [NHIC Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) or computer tomography (CT) findings of surgically proven epidermal cysts in the trunk, and to compare the echogenicity of cysts with internal contents. Forty-five patients were retrospectively evaluated. US and CT findings of epidermal cysts were assessed in regard to location, size, shape, number, echogenicity, posterior sound enhancement, internal density, septa, mural nodule and calcification, perilesional infiltration, contrast enhancement, and internal contents. All 45 patients (M:F=29:16; US in 26, CT in 19) had only one cyst, and they were located in the buttocks (n=19), back (n=13), inguinal (n=4), posterior neck (n=3), perineum (n=2), abdominal wall (n=2), presternal (n=1), and axilla (n=1). Of 26 patients who underwent US, there were 8 cases of homogeneously hypoechoic mass (30.8%), 8 of inhomogeneously hypoechoic mass (30.8%), 7 of homogeneously hypoechoic mass with internal hypoechoic lines and echogenic spots (26.9%) and 3 of homogeneously hypoechoic mass with internal echogenic spots (11.5%). Posterior sound enhancement was noted in 21 patients (80.8%). Of 19 patients who underwent CT, there were 14 cases of simple cyst (73.7%) and 5 of abscess-like lesion (26.3%). Overlying skin thickening (n=13), contrast enhancement of cystic wall (n=11), perilesional infiltration (n=7), and internal septa (n=6) were demonstrated. The internal contents of the cysts were keratinous (n=27, 60.0%) or greasy (n=15, 33.3%) material. There was no statistical significance between the echogenicity of the cysts and the internal contents (p > 0.2). Epidermal cysts showed homogeneous or inhomogeneous hypoechoic mass with posterior sound enhancement on US. There was no relationship between the echogenicity of the cysts and the internal contents. In the case of ruptured cyst, an abscess-like lesion with wall enhancement and perilesional infiltration was noted on CT scan

  5. Trunk muscle activation and associated lumbar spine joint shear forces under different levels of external forward force applied to the trunk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; Staudenmann, D.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    High anterior intervertebral shear loads could cause low back injuries and therefore the neuromuscular system may actively counteract these forces. This study investigated whether, under constant moment loading relative to L3L4, an increased externally applied forward force on the trunk results in a

  6. Precision control of an upright trunk posture in low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke W; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2012-11-01

    Low back pain appears to be associated with impaired trunk postural control, which could be caused by proprioceptive deficits. We assessed control of trunk posture in conditions requiring high and low precision, with and without disturbance of proprioception by lumbar muscle vibration. Twenty a-specific low back pain patients and 13 healthy controls maintained a self-chosen upright trunk posture. Initial frontal and sagittal plane angles of an opto-electronic marker on the 12th thoracic spinous process defined the center of a target area on a monitor. Subjects were instructed to stay within that target and visual feedback was provided when they left the target. The precision demand was manipulated by changing target size. The standard deviation of trunk angle quantified precision and mean Euclidian distance to target center quantified accuracy. Ratios of antagonistic co-activation were calculated from trunk muscle electromyography recordings. With the small target, visual feedback was present intermittently and patients controlled their trunk as accurately and precisely as healthy controls. For the large target, subjects mostly stayed within the target, and patients were on average 0.18° (31%) less accurate than healthy controls (P=0.025), due to a larger postural drift. Lumbar muscle vibration deteriorated control over trunk posture in both groups and ratios of antagonistic co-activation did not differ between groups or conditions. These results indicate that the weighting of proprioceptive feedback from lumbar muscle spindles did not differ between groups and that low back pain patients were less able to detect low frequency drift in posture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weight-shift training improves trunk control, proprioception, and balance in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungsim; Kim, Young; Chung, Yijung; Hwang, Sujin

    2014-03-01

    Trunk instability is one of main problems in survivors following stroke. We investigated the effects of weight-shift training (WST) on an unstable surface in sitting position on trunk control, proprioception, and balance in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Eighteen participants with chronic hemiparetic stroke were recruited and were allocated to either WST or control group. The WST group received a weight-shift training program for 30 min and then received a conventional exercise program for 30 min, while the control group received conventional exercise program for 60 min, five times a week for four weeks for both groups. In this randomized control study, we used three outcome measures: trunk reposition error (TRE), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. TRE was measured by each participant's reposition error to the target angle during his/her active trunk movement. TIS and TUG were examined for trunk control abilities and dynamic balance abilities, respectively. After training, TRE showed significantly greater improvement in the WST group (mean change, 1.67 ± 1.45˚) than the control group (mean change, 0.08 ± 1.05˚). The TIS score was significantly higher in the WST group (mean change, 2.33 ± 1.50) than the control group (mean change, 0.13 ± 0.83). The TUG test also showed a significant improvement in the WST group (mean change, 5.03 ± 1.88 sec) than the control group (mean change, 2.59 ± 1.86 sec). Our findings indicate that weight-shift training is beneficial for improving trunk control and proprioception in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

  8. Effects of Exercise Induced Low Back Pain on Intrinsic Trunk Stiffness and Paraspinal Muscle Reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily M.; Bazrgari, Babak; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) compare trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with no history of low back pain (LBP) and individuals who experience exercise-induced LBP (eiLBP) when pain free, and 2) investigate changes in trunk neuromuscular behavior with eiLBP. Seventeen young adult males participated including eight reporting recurrent, acute eiLBP and nine control participants reporting no history of LBP. Intrinsic trunk stiffness and paraspinal muscle reflex delay were determined in both groups using sudden trunk flexion position perturbations 1-2 days following exercise when the eiLBP participants were experiencing an episode of LBP (termed post-exercise) and 4-5 days following exercise when eiLBP had subsided (termed post-recovery). Post-recovery, when the eiLBP group was experiencing minimal LBP, trunk stiffness was 26% higher in the eiLBP group compared to the control group (p=0.033) and reflex delay was not different (p=0.969) between groups. Trunk stiffness did not change (p=0.826) within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery, but decreased 22% within the control group (p=0.002). Reflex delay decreased 11% within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery (p=0.013), and increased 15% within the control group (p=0.006). Although the neuromuscular mechanisms associated with eiLBP and chronic LBP may differ, these results suggest that previously-reported differences in trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with chronic LBP and healthy controls reflect a combination of inherent differences in neuromuscular behavior between these individuals as well as changes in neuromuscular behavior elicited by pain. PMID:23182221

  9. Hierarchical Si/ZnO trunk-branch nanostructure for photocurrent enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Chang Fu; Chong, Su Kong; Rahman, Saadah Abdul; Omar, Fatin Saiha; Huang, Nay Ming; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2014-09-01

    Hierarchical Si/ZnO trunk-branch nanostructures (NSs) have been synthesized by hot wire assisted chemical vapor deposition method for trunk Si nanowires (NWs) on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and followed by the vapor transport condensation (VTC) method for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) which was laterally grown from each Si nanowires (NWs). A spin coating method has been used for zinc oxide (ZnO) seeding. This method is better compared with other group where they used sputtering method for the same process. The sputtering method only results in the growth of ZnO NRs on top of the Si trunk. Our method shows improvement by having the growth evenly distributed on the lateral sides and caps of the Si trunks, resulting in pine-leave-like NSs. Field emission scanning electron microscope image shows the hierarchical nanostructures resembling the shape of the leaves of pine trees. Single crystalline structure for the ZnO branch grown laterally from the crystalline Si trunk has been identified by using a lattice-resolved transmission electron microscope. A preliminary photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell testing has been setup to characterize the photocurrent of sole array of ZnO NR growth by both hydrothermal-grown (HTG) method and VTC method on ITO substrates. VTC-grown ZnO NRs showed greater photocurrent effect due to its better structural properties. The measured photocurrent was also compared with the array of hierarchical Si/ZnO trunk-branch NSs. The cell with the array of Si/ZnO trunk-branch NSs revealed four-fold magnitude enhancement in photocurrent density compared with the sole array of ZnO NRs obtain from VTC processes.

  10. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Disruption of coordination between arm, trunk, and center of pressure displacement in patients with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, Ksenia I; Goussev, Valery M; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Leven, Mindy F

    2004-04-01

    To determine how arm movements influence postural sway in the upright position after stroke, interactions between arm, trunk, and center of pressure (CoP) displacements in the sagittal direction were investigated in participants with hemiparesis and healthy subjects. Participants swung both arms sagittally in either of 2 directions (in-phase, anti-phase) and at 2 speeds (preferred, fast) while standing on separate force plates. Variables measured included amplitude and frequency of arm swinging, shoulder and trunk range of motion, CoP displacements under each foot and of the whole body, and the relationships between the arm, trunk, and CoP displacements. CoP displacements under the non-paretic leg were greater than those under the paretic leg, which may in part be related to the larger amplitude of swinging of the non-paretic arm. CoP displacements under each foot were not related to arm swinging during in-phase swinging at the preferred speed in healthy subjects. When speed of arm swinging was increased, however, the CoP moved in a direction opposite to the arm movement. In contrast, in individuals with hemiparesis, CoPs and arms moved in the same direction for both speeds. During anti-phase swinging in healthy subjects, the trunk counterbalanced the arm movements, while in participants with hemiparesis, the trunk moved with the affected arm. Results show that stroke resulted in abnormal patterns of arm-trunk-CoP interactions that may be related to a greater involvement of the trunk in arm transport, an altered pattern of coordination between arm and CoP displacements, and an impaired ability of the damaged nervous system to adapt postural synergies to changes in movement velocity.

  12. Determining inertial measurement unit placement for estimating human trunk sway while standing, walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Yu; Tian Bao; Dingguo Zhang; Carender, Wendy; Sienko, Kathleen H; Shull, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Inertial measurement units (IMU) are often used to estimate medial-lateral (M/L) trunk sway for assessing and treating gait disorders, and IMU sensor placement is an important factor effecting estimation accuracy. This study tracked multi-segment spine movements during standing and ambulation tasks to determine optimal IMU placement. Ten young healthy subjects, wearing markers placed along the spine, left/right acromion, and left/right posterior superior iliac spine performed standing and walking trials in a motion capture laboratory. Results showed that movement at the spine location T7-T8 most closely matched the clinical definition of M/L trunk sway for standing trials (0.5 deg error) and at the spine location T9-T10 for walking trials (1.0 deg error), while movement at the lower spine L2-L4 tended to be the least accurate for standing and ambulation tasks (1.5 deg error and 4.0 deg error, respectively). Based on these results, a second study was performed to develop and validate a trunk sway estimation algorithm during walking trials with a single optimally-placed IMU. IMU trunk sway estimation was compared to the clinical definition of trunk sway from motion capture markers and showed root-mean-square errors of 2.5 deg and peak trunk sway errors of 2.0 deg. The results of this study suggest that IMUs should be placed on the mid-back to reduce errors associated with spine movements not matching clinically-defined M/L trunk motion.

  13. Reducing Trunk Compensation in Stroke Survivors: A Randomized Crossover Trial Comparing Visual and Force Feedback Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Bulmaro Adolfo; Schneider, Andrea Nicole; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether the compensatory trunk movements of stroke survivors observed during reaching tasks can be decreased by force and visual feedback, and to examine whether one of these feedback modalities is more efficacious than the other in reducing this compensatory tendency. Randomized crossover trial. University research laboratory. Community-dwelling older adults (N=15; 5 women; mean age, 64±11y) with hemiplegia from nontraumatic hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke (>3mo poststroke), recruited from stroke recovery groups, the research group's website, and the community. In a single session, participants received augmented feedback about their trunk compensation during a bimanual reaching task. Visual feedback (60 trials) was delivered through a computer monitor, and force feedback (60 trials) was delivered through 2 robotic devices. Primary outcome measure included change in anterior trunk displacement measured by motion tracking camera. Secondary outcomes included trunk rotation, index of curvature (measure of straightness of hands' path toward target), root mean square error of hands' movement (differences between hand position on every iteration of the program), completion time for each trial, and posttest questionnaire to evaluate users' experience and system's usability. Both visual (-45.6% [45.8 SD] change from baseline, P=.004) and force (-41.1% [46.1 SD], P=.004) feedback were effective in reducing trunk compensation. Scores on secondary outcome measures did not improve with either feedback modality. Neither feedback condition was superior. Visual and force feedback show promise as 2 modalities that could be used to decrease trunk compensation in stroke survivors during reaching tasks. It remains to be established which one of these 2 feedback modalities is more efficacious than the other as a cue to reduce compensatory trunk movement. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trunk Postural Muscle Timing Is Not Compromised In Low Back Pain Patients Clinically Diagnosed With Movement Coordination Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rupal; Cannella, Marco; Henry, Sharon M; Smith, Susan; Giszter, Simon; Silfies, Sheri P

    2017-04-01

    Trunk muscle timing impairment has been associated with nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP), but this finding has not been consistent. This study investigated trunk muscle timing in a subgroup of patients with NSLBP attributed to movement coordination impairment (MCI) and matched asymptomatic controls in response to a rapid arm-raising task. Twenty-one NSLBP subjects and 21 matched controls had arm motion and surface EMG data collected from seven bilateral trunk muscles. Muscle onset and offset relative to deltoid muscle activation and arm motion, duration of muscle burst and abdominal-extensor co-contraction time were derived. Trunk muscle onset and offset latencies, and burst and co-contraction durations were not different (p > .05) between groups. Patterns of trunk muscle activation and deactivation relative to arm motion were not different. Task performance was similar between groups. Trunk muscle timing does not appear to be an underlying impairment in the subgroup of NSLBP with MCI.

  15. Do teashirt family genes specify trunk identity? Insights from the single tiptop/teashirt homolog of Tribolium castaneum

    OpenAIRE

    Shippy, Teresa D.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Nie, Wensheng; Brown, Susan J.; Denell, Robin E.

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila teashirt gene acts in concert with the homeotic selector (Hox) genes to specify trunk (thorax and abdomen) identity. There has been speculation that this trunk-specifying function might be very ancient, dating back to the common ancestor of insects and vertebrates. However, other evidence suggests that the role of teashirt in trunk identity is not well conserved even within the Insecta. To address this issue, we have analyzed the function of Tc-tiotsh, the lone teashirt family ...

  16. The Role of the Trunk Control in Athletic Performance of a Reactive Change-of-Direction Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Suzi; Austin, Aaron P; Bird, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Edwards, S, Austin, AP, and Bird, SP. The role of the trunk control in athletic performance of a reactive change-of-direction task. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 126-139, 2017-Agility is vital to success in team sport competition with the trunk argued to play a key role in sport performance. This study explored the role of trunk control during a reactive change-of-direction task (R-COD) and field-based measures of athletic performance. Twenty male players completed field-based athletic performance assessments (modified Illinois agility test [mIAT], 3 repetition maximum back squat, and 5 countermovement jumps [CMJ]) and R-CODs, during which 3-dimensional ground reaction forces and kinematics were recorded. Trunk control was assessed as the sum of the trunk relative to the pelvis range of motion (ROM) in all 3 planes during the R-COD. Participants with the highest (HIGH, n = 7) and lowest (LOW, n = 7) trunk ROM values were grouped. The HIGH group achieved significantly shorter mIAT time duration, higher CMJ height, and lower knee flexion angles, greater trunk lateral flexion and rotation relative to pelvis, and greater angular momentum during the R-COD compared with the LOW group. Superior athletic performance was associated with decreased trunk control (high trunk ROM) during the R-COD. Although this study suggested that trunk control is a vital component of performance, it is unknown whether this trunk control is inherent or an effect of training history, nor does not support current optimal athletic performance recommendation of decreased trunk motion during R-COD.

  17. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jørgensen, Kurt; Schibye, Bente; Fallentin, Nils

    2007-06-01

    Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. The study included 23 participants and 14 controls. All were healthy without prior history of low back pain (LBP). The training group participated in a total of 18 training sessions during a 9-week period. The training focused on reactions to a variety of sudden trunk loadings. Before and after the training intervention and at a 1-year follow-up, all subjects were tested for their reaction to expected and unexpected sudden trunk loading by applying a horizontal force of 58 N to the upper back of the subjects and measuring the electromyographic (EMG) response from the erector spinae muscles. In the training group, the stopping time and the distance moved after unexpected sudden trunk loading decreased significantly (13%-19%, P = 0.02). The improved stopping time was associated with marked changes in the time-wise distribution of the EMG signal after training. In addition, the follow-up study showed a high sustainability of the training effect. The results demonstrated a training-induced improvement of the response to sudden trunk loading that may be beneficial in workers, such as nurses, who are exposed to sudden trunk perturbations

  18. Abdominal Muscle Activation During Common Modifications of the Trunk Curl-Up Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommert, Martin Eriksson; Bjerkefors, Anna; Tarassova, Olga; Ekblom, Maria M

    2018-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of common modifications of trunk curl-up exercise on the involvement of the abdominal muscles, particularly the deepest muscle layer, transversus abdominis (TrA). Ten healthy females performed five different variations of the trunk curl-up at a standardized speed, varying the exercise by assuming three different arm positions and applying left and right twist. Indwelling fine-wire electromyography (EMG) electrodes were used to record from TrA, obliquus internus (OI), obliquus externus (OE) and rectus abdominis (RA) unilaterally on the right side. Increasing the load by changing the arm position during a straight trunk curl-up increased the EMG of all abdominal muscles. OI and TrA showed higher activation during right twist compared to left twist whereas OE displayed the opposite pattern. RA did not show any change in activation level between twisting directions. The apparent load dependency on the activation level of all muscles and the twisting direction dependency of all muscles except RA are in keeping with the fiber orientation of the muscles. Notably, also TrA, with a less obvious mechanical role with regards to fiber orientation, increased activation with load during the straight trunk curl-up. However, the highest activation level of TrA during the trunk curl-up was only 40 % of a maximum contraction, thus it might not be the most suitable strength training exercise for this muscle.

  19. Trunk rotational strength asymmetry in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntire Kevin L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have suggested a rotational strength weakness in rotations to the concave side in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. There have been no studies presenting normative values of female adolescent trunk rotational strength to which a comparison of female adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis could be made. The purpose of this study was to determine trunk rotational strength asymmetry in a group of female adolescents with AIS and a comparison group of healthy female adolescents without scoliosis. Methods Twenty-six healthy adolescent females served as the healthy group (HG (average age 14 years and fourteen otherwise healthy adolescent females with idiopathic scoliosis served as the idiopathic scoliosis group (ISG (average age 13.5 years, average Cobb 28°. Participant's isometric trunk rotational strength was measured in five randomly ordered trunk positions: neutral, 18° and 36° of right and left pre-rotation. Rotational strength asymmetry was compared within each group and between the two groups using several different measures. Results The HG showed strength asymmetry in the 36° pre-rotated trunk positions when rotating towards the midline (p Conclusion The AIS females were found to be significantly weaker when contracting toward their main curve concavity in the neutral and concave pre-rotated positions compared to contractions toward the convexity. These weaknesses were also demonstrated when compared to the group of healthy female adolescent controls. Possible mechanisms for the strength asymmetry in ISG are discussed.

  20. The Role of Trunk Stabilization in Functional-Classification Levels in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltan, Asuman; Ankarali, Handan

    2017-07-01

    To compare classification levels and trunk stabilization of wheelchair basketball players and to identify their norm values of trunk balance. 113 wheelchair basketball players in the super and first Turkish leagues. A modified Wheelchair Skills Test (WST) (version 4.1) was used to evaluate trunk stabilization. Two skills were chosen that correspond to the stationary wheelie activity in WST, the 30-s stationary wheelie and stationary wheelie in 180°. There are no statistical differences between WST rates and point means. The skills and success and safety rates of the players with 1.5 points (51.9%, 44.4%) were lower than those of the players with 1.0 point (70%, 66.7%). In players with 2.5 and 2.0 points, the most successful and safest percentage values were 78.6%, 78.6% and 82.1%, 75%. Although it is expected that trunk stabilization would be better in players with high points, in our study we encountered conflicting results between the points and sitting balance or trunk stabilization. Our study supports the studies in the literature suggesting modifications in the functional-classification system.

  1. Variability with xylem depth in sap flow in trunks and branches of mature olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Nadezhdin, Valeriy; Ferreira, Maria Isabel; Pitacco, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of sap flow variability in tree trunks is important for up-scaling transpiration from the measuring point to the whole-tree and stand levels. Natural variability in sap flow, both radial and circumferential, was studied in the trunks and branches of mature olive trees (Olea europea L., cv Coratina) by the heat field deformation method using multi-point sensors. Sapwood depth ranged from 22 to 55 mm with greater variability in trunks than in branches. Two asymmetric types of sap flow radial patterns were observed: Type 1, rising to a maximum near the mid-point of the sapwood; and Type 2, falling continuously from a maximum just below cambium to zero at the inner boundary of the sapwood. The Type 1 pattern was recorded more often in branches and smaller trees. Both types of sap flow radial patterns were observed in trunks of the sample trees. Sap flow radial patterns were rather stable during the day, but varied with soil water changes. A decrease in sap flow in the outermost xylem was related to water depletion in the topsoil. We hypothesized that the variations in sap flow radial pattern in a tree trunk reflects a vertical distribution of water uptake that varies with water availability in different soil layers.

  2. Lateral trunk lean and medializing the knee as gait strategies for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbrands, T A; Pisters, M F; Theeven, P J R; Verschueren, S; Vanwanseele, B

    2017-01-01

    To determine (1) if Medial Thrust or Trunk Lean reduces the knee adduction moment (EKAM) the most during gait in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis, (2) if the best overall strategy is the most effective for each patient and (3) if these strategies affect ankle and hip kinetics. Thirty patients with symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Participants received verbal instructions on two gait strategies (Trunk Lean and Medial Thrust) in randomized order after comfortable walking was recorded. The peaks and impulse of the EKAM and strategy-specific kinematic and kinetic variables were calculated for all conditions. Early stance EKAM peak was significantly reduced during Medial Thrust (-29%). During Trunk Lean, early and late stance EKAM peak and EKAM impulse reduced significantly (38%, 21% and -25%, respectively). In 79% of the subjects, the Trunk Lean condition was significantly more effective in reducing EKAM peak than Medial Thrust. Peak ankle dorsi and plantar flexion, knee flexion and hip extension and adduction moments were not significantly increased. Medial Thrust and Trunk Lean reduced the EKAM during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Individual selection of the most effective gait modification strategy seems vital to optimally reduce dynamic knee loading during gait. No detrimental effects on external ankle and hip moments or knee flexion moments were found for these conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-related alterations in the activation of trunk and lower limb muscles during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Spinoso, Deborah Hebling; Crozara, Luciano Fernandez; Morcelli, Mary Hellen; Karuka, Aline Harumi; Navega, Marcelo Tavella; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2016-04-27

    Walking is a complex motor task that requires an integrated coordination of the trunk, lower limb, and upper limb movements. Previously, few studies have investigated the activation pattern of trunk muscles during walking. However, the mechanisms by how aging affects the recruitment of trunk muscles during walking remain unclear. The present study aimed to compare the activation of trunk and lower limb muscles during walking in younger and older women. Fifteen younger women between 18 and 30 yr and 19 older women between 60-82 yr walked on the treadmill at a self-selected speed, while 1-min surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the multifidus, internal oblique, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius lateralis. EMG signals were processed and a linear envelope was calculated at an initial stance (50 ms after heel contact) and final stance (50 ms before toe-off). Compared with younger women, older women had 52.32% lower activation of the internal oblique (p = 0.027) and 39.95% lower activation of the rectus femoris (p = 0.003) at initial stance. Results of this study demonstrated that older women had lower activation of trunk and knee muscles during the initial stance, which may have resulted from weakness and balance impairments caused by aging.

  4. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Ilke; Kirdi, Nuray; Meric, Aydin; Kurne, Asli Tuncer; Karabudak, Rana

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p 0.05). Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs.

  5. Effect of Core Stability Training on Trunk Function, Standing Balance, and Mobility in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Koshiro; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Otsuka, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Trunk function is important for standing balance, mobility, and functional outcome after stroke, but few studies have evaluated the effects of exercises aimed at improving core stability in stroke patients. To investigate the effectiveness of core stability training on trunk function, standing balance, and mobility in stroke patients. An assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial was undertaken in a stroke rehabilitation ward, with 32 participants randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group (n = 16 each). The experimental group received 400 minutes of core stability training in place of conventional programs within total training time, while the control group received only conventional programs. Primary outcome measures were evaluated using the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), which reflects trunk function. Secondary outcome measures were evaluated by pelvic tilt active range of motion in the sagittal plane, the Balance Evaluation Systems Test-brief version (Brief-BESTest), Functional Reach test, Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC). A general linear repeated-measures model was used to analyze the results. A treatment effect was found for the experimental group on the dynamic balance subscale and total score of the TIS ( P = .002 and P Core stability training has beneficial effects on trunk function, standing balance, and mobility in stroke patients. Our findings might provide support for introducing core stability training in stroke rehabilitation.

  6. Validity of the Microsoft Kinect for providing lateral trunk lean feedback during gait retraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao; Bryant, Adam L; Hunt, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Gait retraining programs are prescribed to assist in the rehabilitation process of many clinical conditions. Using lateral trunk lean modification as the model, the aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of kinematic data recorded using a marker-based 3D motion analysis (3DMA) system and a low-cost alternative, the Microsoft Kinect™ (Kinect), during a gait retraining session. Twenty healthy adults were trained to modify their gait to obtain a lateral trunk lean angle of 10°. Real-time biofeedback of the lateral trunk lean angle was provided on a computer screen in front of the subject using data extracted from the Kinect skeletal tracking algorithm. Marker coordinate data were concurrently recorded using the 3DMA system, and the similarity and equivalency of the trunk lean angle data from each system were compared. The lateral trunk lean angle data obtained from the Kinect system without any form of calibration resulted in errors of a high (>2°) magnitude (mean error=3.2±2.2°). Performing global and individualized calibration significantly (PKinect can be used to create a real-time biofeedback system for gait retraining. Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to laboratory-based gait retraining systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic trunk stabilization: a conceptual back injury prevention program for volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad E; Nyland, John; Caudill, Paul; Brosky, Joseph; Caborn, David N M

    2008-11-01

    The sport of volleyball creates considerable dynamic trunk stability demands. Back injury occurs all too frequently in volleyball, particularly among female athletes. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review functional anatomy, muscle coactivation strategies, assessment of trunk muscle performance, and the characteristics of effective exercises for the trunk or core. From this information, a conceptual progressive 3-phase volleyball-specific training program is presented to improve dynamic trunk stability and to potentially reduce the incidence of back injury among volleyball athletes. Phase 1 addresses low-velocity motor control, kinesthetic awareness, and endurance, with the clinician providing cues to teach achievement of biomechanically neutral spine alignment. Phase 2 focuses on progressively higher velocity dynamic multiplanar endurance, coordination, and strength-power challenges integrating upper and lower extremity movements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Phase 3 integrates volleyball-specific skill simulations by breaking down composite movement patterns into their component parts, with differing dynamic trunk stability requirements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Prospective research is needed to validate the efficacy of this program.

  8. Limb and Trunk Mechanisms for Balance Control during Locomotion in Quadrupeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musienko, Pavel E.; Deliagina, Tatiana G.; Gerasimenko, Yury P.; Orlovsky, Grigori N.

    2014-01-01

    In quadrupeds, the most critical aspect of postural control during locomotion is lateral stability. However, neural mechanisms underlying lateral stability are poorly understood. Here, we studied lateral stability in decerebrate cats walking on a treadmill with their hindlimbs. Two destabilizing factors were used: a brief lateral push of the cat and a sustained lateral tilt of the treadmill. It was found that the push caused considerable trunk bending and twisting, as well as changes in the stepping pattern, but did not lead to falling. Due to postural reactions, locomotion with normal body configuration was restored in a few steps. It was also found that the decerebrate cat could keep balance during locomotion on the laterally tilted treadmill. This postural adaptation was based on the transformation of the symmetrical locomotor pattern into an asymmetrical one, with different functional lengths of the right and left limbs. Then, we analyzed limb and trunk neural mechanisms contributing to postural control during locomotion. It was found that one of the limb mechanisms operates in the transfer phase and secures a standard (relative to the trunk) position for limb landing. Two other limb mechanisms operate in the stance phase; they counteract distortions of the locomotor pattern by regulating the limb stiffness. The trunk configuration mechanism controls the body shape on the basis of sensory information coming from trunk afferents. We suggest that postural reactions generated by these four mechanisms are integrated, thus forming a response of the whole system to perturbation of balance during locomotion. PMID:24741060

  9. Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of trunk flexion on the cervical muscle whiplash response

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    Narayan Yogesh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical muscles are considered a potential site of whiplash injury, and there is a need to understand the cervical muscle response under non-conventional whiplash impact scenarios, including variable body position and impact direction. There is no data, however, on the effect of occupant position on the muscle response to frontal impacts. Therefore, the objective of the study was to measure cervical muscle response to graded right anterolateral impacts. Methods Twenty volunteers were subjected to right anterolateral impacts of 4.3, 7.8, 10.6, and 12.8 m/s2 acceleration with their trunk flexed forward 45 degrees and laterally flexed right or left by 45 degrees. Bilateral EMG of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis and acceleration of the sled, torso, and head were measured. Results and discussion With either direction of trunk flexion at impact, the trapezius EMGs increased with increasing acceleration (p Conclusion When the subject sits with trunk flexed out of neutral posture at the time of anterolateral impact, the cervical muscle response is dramatically reduced compared to frontal impacts with the trunk in neutral posture. In the absence of bodily impact, the flexed trunk posture appears to produce a biomechanical response that would decrease the likelihood of cervical muscle injury in low velocity impacts.

  10. The improvement of suspension training for trunk muscle power in Sanda athletes

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    Xiujie Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether both suspension training (ST and traditional training (TT can improve Sanda athlete's strength quality of trunk muscles and to explore the effect of suspension training on Sanda athletes' trunk muscle power production. Twelve elite Sanda athletes from the Competitive Sports School of Shanghai University of Sport were randomly assigned to experimental group (EG and control group (CG. EG and CG were regularly trained with suspension training and traditional strength training for 40 minutes three times per week. The total duration of training was 10 weeks. The measurements including peak torque (PT, PT/body weight (BW, and rate of force development (RFD were used to assess trunk muscles strength. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups' performance when it was tested at the higher velocity of dynamometer (test of muscle power, but less significant differences when the two groups performance was tested at the lower velocity of dynamometer (test of maximum strength. The conclusion of this study is that compared with traditional training methods, suspension training can improve back and trunk flexion muscles strength more effectively. In particular, suspension training can improve the explosive power of trunk extension and flexion muscles.

  11. Kinematic gait deficits at the trunk and pelvis: characteristic features in children with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Brooke; Rodda, Jillian; McGinley, Jennifer L; Graham, H Kerr; Morris, Meg E

    2016-08-01

    To examine the kinematic gait deviations at the trunk and pelvis of children with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). This exploratory observational study quantified gait kinematics for the trunk and pelvis from 11 children with HSP (7 males, 4 females) using the Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Scores (GVS), and compared the kinematics to data from children with typical development using a Mann-Whitney U test. Children with HSP (median age 11y 4mo, interquartile range 4y) demonstrated large deviations in the GVS for the trunk and pelvis in the sagittal and coronal planes when compared to the gait patterns of children with typical development (p=0.010-0.020). Specific deviations included increased range of movement for the trunk in the coronal plane and increased excursion of the trunk and pelvis in the sagittal plane. In the transverse plane, children with HSP demonstrated later peaks in posterior pelvic rotation. The kinematic gait deviations identified in this study raise questions about the contribution of muscle weakness in HSP. Further research is warranted to determine contributing factors for gait dysfunction in HSP, especially the relative influence of spasticity and weakness. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Body weight support during robot-assisted walking: influence on the trunk and pelvis kinematics.

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    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Hens, Gerrit; Knaepen, Kristel; Beckwée, David; Michielsen, Marc; Clijsen, Ron; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Efficacy studies concerning robot assisted gait rehabilitation showed limited clinical benefits. A changed kinematic pattern might be responsible for this. Little is known about the kinematics of the trunk and pelvis during robot assisted treadmill walking (RATW). The aim of this study was to assess the trunk and pelvis kinematics of healthy subjects during RATW, with different amounts of body weight support (BWS) compared to regular treadmill walking (TW). Eighteen healthy participants walked on a treadmill, while kinematics were registered by an electromagnetic tracking device. Hereafter, the kinematics of pelvis and trunk were registered during RATW (guidance force 30%) with 0%, 30% and 50% BWS. Compared to TW, RATW showed a decrease in the following trunk movements: axial rotation, anteroposterior flexion, lateral and anteroposterior translation. Besides, a decrease in lateral tilting and all translation of the pelvis was found when comparing RATW with TW. Furthermore, the anteroposterior tilting of the pelvis increased during RATW. In general, there was a decrease in trunk and pelvis movement amplitude during RATW compared with regular TW. Though, it is not known if these changes are responsible for the limited efficacy of robot assisted gait rehabilitation. Further research is indicated.

  13. Common Arterial Trunk in a 3-Day-Old Alpaca Cria

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    Tsumugi Anne Kurosawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-day-old alpaca cria presented for progressive weakness and dyspnea since birth. Complete bloodwork, thoracic radiographs, and endoscopic examination of the nasal passages and distal trachea revealed no significant findings. Echocardiogram and contrast study revealed a single artery overriding a large ventricular septal defect (VSD. A small atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale was also noted. Color flow Doppler and an agitated saline contrast study revealed bidirectional but primarily right to left flow through the VSD and bidirectional shunting through the atrial defect. Differential diagnosis based on echocardiographic findings included common arterial trunk, Tetralogy of Fallot, and pulmonary atresia with a VSD. Postmortem examination revealed a large common arterial trunk with a quadricuspid valve overriding a VSD. Additionally, defect in the atrial septum was determined to be a patent foramen ovale. A single pulmonary trunk arose from the common arterial trunk and bifurcated to the left and right pulmonary artery, consistent with a Collet and Edwards’ type I common arterial trunk with aortic predominance. Although uncommon, congenital cardiac defects should be considered in animals presenting with clinical signs of hypoxemia, dyspnea, or failure to thrive.

  14. Spinal manipulation causes variable spine kinematic and trunk muscle electromyographic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, G J; McGill, S M

    2001-05-01

    Analytic cohort with a convenience sample in a research clinic. To determine the influence of a spinal manipulation on trunk kinematics and associated trunk myoelectric activity. While the mechanism of spinal manipulation is unknown, it has been theorized to influence spinal range of motion and trunk muscle activity. Trunk kinematics were measured in low back pain patients (n = 14) during simple range of motion tasks in three planes, while trunk muscle electromyogram signals were recorded bilaterally from paraspinal and abdominal musculature. Kinematics and electromyogram signals were assessed pre-post manipulation. Electromyogram activity was also assessed pre-post manipulation during quiet stance. While no consistent kinematic or electromyographic changes occurred following manipulation across the population, individual changes were observed. The largest changes (> 6 degrees ) in range of motion occurred in the sagittal plane of three patients experiencing the greatest amount of pain. During quiet stance 17 muscles across all subjects exhibited changes in muscle activity following manipulation. Sixteen of those changes were decreases in muscle amplitude. This study offers some preliminary data on the short-term effects of manipulation on lumbar range of motion and dynamic electromyogram. The findings suggest that the response to manipulation is variable and dependent on the individual, with no change in some to the largest changes seen in the more pained patients. Relevance. Basic science investigations into the mechanisms and biomechanical influences of spinal manipulation are few. This study attempts to address issues of measureable functional change with manipulative therapy.

  15. Trunk sway reductions in young and older adults using multi-modal biofeedback.

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    Davis, Justin R; Carpenter, Mark G; Tschanz, Roger; Meyes, Simon; Debrunner, Daniel; Burger, Juergen; Allum, John H J

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated whether real-time biofeedback of angular trunk displacement could alter balance performance among healthy older and young adults. Healthy community-dwelling older adults (n=32) and healthy young adults (n=32) were included in the randomized control trial study. The intervention group received combined vibrotactile, auditory and visual biofeedback of angular trunk displacement in real-time during training on a battery of static and dynamic balance tasks and during the subsequent post-training balance re-assessment. The control group received balance training and were re-assessed in the absence of real-time biofeedback of their trunk displacement. The 90% range of angular trunk displacement was calculated for each balance task pre- and post-training. Significant age-related differences were observed independent of the intervention. Biofeedback intervention significantly changed the angular displacement of the trunk for both young and older participants on a number of balance tasks compared to control treatment (40-60% reduction in angular displacement). In some cases, biofeedback influenced balance in older adults, but not younger adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. WOOD ANATOMY OF ROOT, TRUNK AND BRANCH FROM BARBATIMÃO (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart Coville

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    Selma Lopes Goulart

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the wood of root, trunk and branch from barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens in the cerrado area, in Lavras (Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil. Trunk and branch wood samples were removed at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the trunk and branch total height. Root wood samples were removed at 40 cm depth soil. Qualitatively the barbatimão wood has distinct growth layers for the trunk and branch; at the root they are poorly defined. Diffuse porosity. Simple perforation plates. Inter-vascular and vessel-ray. Bordered, alternate and with garnishes. Vasicentric paratracheal parenchyma. Uniseriate rays predominant, presenting multiseriate rays. The rays are heterocellular, where the ray body is formed by procumbent cells and margins with square and upright cells. It was observed that homogeneous rays are formed only by procumbent cells. Crystals are present at the axial and radial parenchyma cells, and in the fibers. Quantitatively the relevant features to the wood were: higher vessel frequency in branch wood; thicker wall fibers in the root wood and larger rays in the trunk.

  17. The right intercostobronchial trunk: anatomical study in respect of posterior intercostal artery origin and its clinical application.

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    Kocbek, Lidija; Rakuša, Mateja

    2018-01-01

    The right bronchial artery usually arises from the descending thoracic aorta as a common trunk with the right intercostal artery and forms the right intercostobronchial trunk. Both, the third right posterior intercostal artery and the right intercostobronchial trunk, are described as the most constant vessels. The focus of the study was to determine the characteristics of the right intercostobronchial trunk regarding the origins of the posterior intercostal arteries from the thoracic aorta. Posterior intercostal arteries and the right bronchial arteries were dissected in 43 human cadavers, preserved after Thiel's embalming method with intraarterial infusion of red colored latex. Postmortem examination gave valued information on the right intercostobronchial trunk present in 58% of cases. The right intercostobronchial trunk was mapped and new classification regarding the origin of the posterior intercostal arteries from the thoracic aorta suggested type A, B and C, the latter ones into subtypes 1 and 2. Type A was proportional to the origin level of the PIA and its corresponding intercostal space. Size of outer diameter at the origin did not indicate the right bronchial artery branch. In subtype 2 of type B the proximal posterior intercostal artery diameter that gave off right bronchial artery was thicker than distal one. The right bronchial artery originates from the second to the fifth posterior intercostal artery forming the right intercostobronchial trunk. Various origin and types of origin, diameter and course of the right intercostobronchial trunk described and analyzed in the study offer valuable information on the procedures involving the right intercostobronchial trunk.

  18. Anatomical variations of hepatic arterial system, coeliac trunk and renal arteries: an analysis with multidetector CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurel, M S; Battal, B; Bozlar, U; Nural, M S; Tasar, M; Ors, F; Saglam, M; Karademir, I

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine the anatomical variations in the coeliac trunk-hepatic arterial system and the renal arteries in patients who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography of the abdominal aorta for various reasons. A total of 100 patients were analysed retrospectively. The coeliac trunk, hepatic arterial system and renal arteries were analysed individually and anatomical variations were recorded. Statistical analysis of the relationship between hepatocoeliac variations and renal artery variations was performed using a chi(2) test. There was a coeliac trunk trifurcation in 89% and bifurcation in 8% of the cases. Coeliac trunk was absent in 1%, a hepatosplenomesenteric trunk was seen in 1% and a splenomesenteric trunk was present in 1%. Hepatic artery variation was present in 48% of patients. Coeliac trunk and/or hepatic arterial variation was present in 23 (39.7%) of the 58 patients with normal renal arteries, and in 27 (64.3%) of the 42 patients with accessory renal arteries. There was a statistically significant correlation between renal artery variations and coeliac trunk-hepatic arterial system variations (p = 0.015). MDCT angiography permits a correct and detailed evaluation of hepatic and renal vascular anatomy. The prevalence of variations in the coeliac trunk and/or hepatic arteries is increased in people with accessory renal arteries. For that reason, when undertaking angiographic examinations directed towards any single organ, the possibility of variations in the vascular structure of other organs should be kept in mind.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

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    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  20. Balloon-assisted coil embolization of the celiac trunk before endovascular aortic repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masayuki; Kaminou, Toshio; Ohuchi, Yasufumi; Sugiura, Kimihiko; Yata, Shinsaku; Adachi, Akira; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Takasugi, Syohei; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Ihaya, Takashi; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2013-03-01

    Celiac trunk coil embolization before thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) of a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm involving the celiac trunk can prevent type II endoleaks. One disadvantage of conventional coil embolization is the risk of coil displacement. We performed coil embolization under balloon occlusion of the celiac trunk to address this issue. Between December 2008 and January 2011, 5 patients (3 men and 2 women, mean age 76 years) were included in this study. For all patients, after confirming the collateral blood flow from the superior mesenteric artery via the pancreaticoduodenal arcades by using the balloon occlusion test, celiac trunk coil embolization proceeded under balloon occlusion of the proximal part of the celiac trunk. Balloon-assisted coil embolization of the celiac trunk was completed for all patients without any complications. All coils were deployed as planned in the short segment of the celiac trunk without displacement. Coil migration, ischemic complications, and endoleaks via the celiac trunk did not arise in any of the patients over a follow-up period of 77-637 (mean 258) days. Balloon-assisted coil embolization of the celiac trunk before TEVAR could be a feasible treatment option for suitable patients.

  1. The effect of trunk stabilization exercises with a swiss ball on core muscle activation in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Gil; Yong, Min Sik; Na, Sang Su

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk stabilization exercise on the muscle EMG activations related to core stability. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen elderly people in a geriatric hospital performed trunk stabilization exercises with a Swiss ball for 20 minutes five times per week for 8 weeks. Trunk muscle activations were measured using electromyography before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the muscle activations of the rectus abdominis, erector spinae, lateral low-back (quadratus lumborum and external oblique), and gluteus medius muscles increased significantly. [Conclusion] The trunk stabilization exercise with a Swiss ball significantly increased the muscle activities of the elderly.

  2. Trunk biomechanics and its association with hip and knee kinematics in patients with and without patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Theresa Helissa; Maciel, Carlos Dias; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2015-02-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common lower extremity condition observed in sports clinics. Recently, it has been suggested that trunk motion could affect hip and knee biomechanics in the frontal plane. Thus, the purpose of the study was compare trunk kinematics, strength and muscle activation between people with PFP and healthy participants. In addition, the associations among trunk biomechanics, hip and knee kinematics were analysed. Thirty people with PFP and thirty pain-free individuals participated. The peak ipsilateral trunk lean, hip adduction, and knee abduction were evaluated with an electromagnetic tracking system, and the surface electromyographic signals of the iliocostalis and external oblique muscle were recorded during single-leg squats. Trunk extension and trunk flexion with rotation isometric strength and side bridge tests were quantified using a handheld dynamometer. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated increased ipsilateral trunk lean, hip adduction and knee abduction (p = 0.02-0.04) during single-leg squat accompanied with decreased trunk isometric strength (p = biomechanics were found in people with PFP. No relationship among trunk, hip and knee biomechanics was found in the PFP group, suggesting that people with PFP show different movement patterns compared to the control group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphological characteristics of origin of superior arterial mesenteric trunk

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    Niscoveanu C.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our study was conducted on a total of 46 CT angiographies, performed on a GE LightSpeed VCT 64-slice CT installation. Benchmarks were followed in relation to the gender of the person examined. The origin of the superior mesenteric artery relative to the spine we found it in a range between T12 vertebra and L1-L2 intervertebral disc. The T12 vertebra origin was localized in 2 cases (4.35% of cases, both in women. Superior mesenteric artery originated at the level of L1 in 78.26% (90.91% of male cases and in 66.67% of women cases. In 8 cases (17.39% of cases the origin of the superior mesenteric artery was located at the L1-L2 intervertebral disc. Endolumenal vertical diameter of the superior mesenteric artery orifice we found it in the range of 5.6 to 10.9 mm (6.9 to 10.9 mm in men, and 5.6 to 8.6 mm in women. Horizontal diameter sizes ranged from 4.9 to 9.7 mm, having 6.4 to 9.7 mm in men and 4.9 to 8.3 mm in women. Vertical diameter in males was higher in 59.09% of cases, with differences between 0.1 to 2.4 mm, and in 40.91% of cases the horizontal diameter was larger with differences between 0,1-2.1 mm. Vertical diameter in women was higher in 50% of cases, with differences of 0.1-2.0 mm and the other 50% the horizontal diameter was larger, with differences ranging from 0.1 to 2.2 mm. The angle that the superior mesenteric artery makes it with the aortic wall we found between 16,60-120,8o, males having values between 24,8-120,8o, and in women 16,7-120,8o. The distance between the origin of the superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk we found it between 5.0 and 16.5 mm, males having 5.0 to 12.1 mm and women 6.9 -16.5 mm. The distance between the origin of the superior mesenteric artery and right renal artery was ranging between 6.2 to 23.5 mm, in males being 6.5 to 19.1 mm and in women from 6.2 to 23 5 mm. The distance between the origin of the superior mesenteric artery and left renal artery we found between 5.7 to 23.5 mm, in males being

  4. Preliminary Trials on Treatment of Esca-Infected Grapevines with Trunk Injection of Fungicides

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    T. Dula

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available An increase in trunk diseases (due to esca, Agrobacterium, rugose wood virus, leaf roll viruses, phytoplasma etc. leading to young vines death is a very serious worry in vineyards in Hungary, as it is in other countries. In response to a demand expressed by grapevine growers, a method was tested for the direct treatment of pathogens in wood tissue. An experiment based on trunk injection was carried out in an esca infected vineyard. The various fungicides (propiconazole, difenoconazole, thiabendazole; propiconazole+ thiabendazole were injected into the trunk before the beginning of the xylem sap flow at high pressure. As a result the number of symptomatic plants was decreased, and the vigour of the plants was not impaired by the fungicide ingredients. The combination difenoconazole+ thiabendazole showed the best result.

  5. Effects of unstable shoes on trunk muscle activity and lumbar spine kinematics.

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    Lisón, Juan F; Pérez-Soriano, Padro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Salvador-Coloma, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    In patients with neuromuscular disease and a forced vital capacity (FVC) of spine kinematics and trunk muscle activity during gait. To compare trunk muscle activity and lumbar spine range of motion (ROM) during gait using an unstable shoe and a conventional stable control shoe. Cross-sectional study. A Biomechanics laboratory. Forty-eight healthy voluntary participants (24.5±5.6 years and 22.7±6.8 kg/m2). Subjects underwent gait analysis while simultaneously collecting surface EMG data of erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA) and lumbar spine sagittal plane ROM while treadmill walking wearing regular shoes and unstable shoes. The results showed that the unstable shoes resulted in significantly higher ES and RA EMG muscle activity levels in all gait phases compared to control shoes (Pspine extension values (Pspine tissue health, particularly in strengthening trunk muscles in healthy population or in low back pain treatment.

  6. Using Program Package NSPCG to Analyze the Trunk Reservation Service Protection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Vincent A.; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    1994-01-01

    Unlike certain service protection methods for mixed traffic streams, such as the class-limitation method, the trunk reservation scheme cannot be based on a product form property of a stationary probability distribution vector. Rather, the analysis of the trunk reservation scheme requires solving......, by purely numerical methods, a set of balance equations, Ax = 0, often of very high order. Since the coefficient matrix is typically sparse, it is natural to apply iterative methods to this task. Many such methods have been incorporated in program package NSPCG, developed at the Center for Numerical...... Analysis at the University of Texas at Austin. In this paper we report our experience in applying the NSPCG package to a typical system arising from the trunk reservation scheme....

  7. Traumatic Neuroma around the Celiac Trunk after Gastrectomy Mimicking a Nodal Metastasis: A Case Report

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    Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Ryu, Seung Wan; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Traumatic neuroma is a well-known disorder that occurs after trauma or surgery involving the peripheral nerve and develops from a nonneoplastic proliferation of the proximal end of a severed, partially transected, or injured nerve. However, in the abdomen, traumatic neuromas have been sporadically reported to occur in the bile duct. We present here a case of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk after gastrectomy that mimicks a nodal metastasis. In conclusion, the imaging finding of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk was a homogeneous hypovascular mass without narrowing or irregularity of encased arteries and without increased uptake on PET-CT. Although from a clinical standpoint, establishing an accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult to perform, the presence of a traumatic neuroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass around the celiac trunk in a patient that has undergone celiac nodal dissection.

  8. Pain-evoked trunk muscle activity changes during fatigue and DOMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Muscle pain may reorganize trunk muscle activity but interactions with exercise-related muscle fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is to be clarified.METHODS:In 19 healthy participants, the trunk muscle activity during 20 multi-directional unpredictable surface perturbations...... were recorded after bilateral isotonic saline injections (control) and during unilateral and bilateral hypertonic saline-induced low back pain (LBP) in conditions of back muscle fatigue (Day-1) and DOMS (Day-2). Pain intensity and distribution were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores...... and pain drawings. The degree of fatigue and DOMS were assessed by Likert scale scores. Root-mean-square electromyographic (RMS-EMG) signals were recorded post-perturbation from six bilateral trunk muscles and the difference from baseline conditions (Delta-RMS-EMG) was extracted and averaged across...

  9. Changes in trunk sway of quay crane operators during work shift: A possible marker for fatigue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leban, Bruno; Fancello, Gianfranco; Fadda, Paolo; Pau, Massimiliano

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated changes in task-induced trunk sway of quay crane operators during a four-hour shift performed in a dedicated simulator as an indicator of postural control system effectiveness. Using a pressure sensitive mat placed on the seat pan, center-of-pressure (COP) time series were acquired and processed to calculate sway area, path length and COP displacements and velocities. The results show a well-defined linear trend for sway path and area, with significant increases starting from 65 to 155 min of work respectively. This indicates non-optimized trunk control most likely originated by the combination of physical and cognitive workload and suggests a possible role of long-term monitoring of trunk sway of crane operators as a useful tool in detecting non-optimized movements potentially associated with deteriorating performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

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    Renata Neves Granito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  11. Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S; Harduarsingh-Permaul, Aruna Selina

    2014-01-01

    Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL) alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX) plus WL (AEX+WL), on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (to measure trunk fat and lean mass) and computed tomography (CT) (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas) was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50-76 years). The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (Pmuscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (Pweight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (Pfat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (Pmuscle groups - by 6% in the erector spinae (Ploss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. A lifestyle modification of diet-induced WL alone, or with AEX training, results in a significant reduction of the fat infiltration in the abdominal and spinal muscles of the trunk region. Our finding that losses of total body fat predict a reduction in the IMAT of the trunk supports the idea that WL reduces fat depots throughout the body.

  12. Reliability of isometric trunk moment measurements in healthy persons over 50 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienbacher, Thomas; Paul, Birgit; Habenicht, Richard; Starek, Christian; Wolf, Markus; Kollmitzer, Josef; Ebenbichler, Gerold

    2014-03-01

    To determine the short- and long-term test-retest reliability of maximum isometric trunk moment measurements in healthy volunteers over 50 years of age, to compare these results with those from volunteers younger than 50 years, and to test whether volunteers' anticipatory emotional state affects the precision of these measurements. Forty-two older persons (21 females; age range 50-90 years) and 44 younger persons (19 females; age range 18-49 years) performed maximum isometric trunk extensions, flexions, and rotations using dynamometers (DAVID, Fi, David Health Solutions Ltd, Helsinki, Finland). They repeated the tests after 1-2 days (short-term) and at 6 weeks (long-term). Retest-reliability was evaluated for age- and gender-specific subgroups, with assessment of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) , standard error of measurement, smallest real difference, and smallest real difference, in percent. For the elderly group, smallest real difference, in percent values varied up to 33% and were similar to those obtained from young volunteers. Precision of the trunk rotation tests was lower than that of trunk flexion or extension. Retest agreement exceeded 0.75 (ICC2,1) for all tests, with no relevant differences observed between gender- and age-specific subgroups. Neither participants' motivation nor their anticipatory emotions correlated with the individual coefficients of variation of the trunk muscle moment measurements. Isometric maximum trunk extension and flexion moment measurements taken from healthy persons > 50 years old are as reliable as those from persons < 50 years old, and can be expected to enable an acceptable level of detection of expected changes in muscle strength parameters as a result of planned exercise interventions.

  13. A correlational study of scoliosis and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuncheng Zhou

    Full Text Available Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an "S" type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p1°, while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.

  14. Trunk-strengthening exercises for chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Susan C; Keating, Jennifer L

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of lumbar spine-strengthening exercises on outcomes for people with chronic low back pain. Two independent reviewers followed Cochrane Back Review Group and QUORUM Statement guidelines to complete this systematic review. Exercise effects were reported as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals. Thirteen high-quality randomized controlled trials were included. For chronic low back pain, trunk strengthening is more effective than no exercise on long-term pain (SMD 0.95 [0.35-1.55]; intensive trunk strengthening is more effective than less intensive on function (pooled SMD: short-term, 0.58 [0.22-0.94]; long-term, 0.77 [0.33-1.20]). Compared with physiotherapy or aerobics, effects are comparable on pain and function. Motivation strategies increase effectiveness. After disk surgery, effects are significant for function (pooled SMD: short-term, 1.08 (0.76-1.41); long-term, 0.53 (0.03-1.04). For severe degeneration, trunk strengthening is less favorable than fusion on long-term pain (SMD, -0.50 [-0.99 to -0.01]) or function (SMD, -0.76 [-1.25 to -0.26]). Intensive trunk strengthening is less effective than McKenzie exercises for pain reduction (SMD: short-term, -0.29 [-0.54 to -0.05]; long-term, -0.31 [-0.55 to -0.06]). We estimated that moderate effect sizes (0.5) indicate that approximately 50% of participants and large effect sizes (0.8) indicate that approximately 80% of participants would achieve important improvement. Trunk strengthening appears effective compared with no exercise. Increasing exercise intensity and adding motivation increase treatment effects. Trunk strengthening, compared with aerobics or McKenzie exercises, showed no clear benefit of strengthening. It is unclear whether observed benefits are due to tissue loading or movement repetition.

  15. Trunk muscle strength and disability level of low back pain in collegiate wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Kazunori; Nakazato, Koichi; Irie, Kazunori; Fujimoto, Hideo; Nakajima, Hiroyuki

    2004-08-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a frequent injury in athletes. This study examined the relationship between isokinetic trunk muscle strength and the functional disability level of chronic LBP. We particularly focused on the existence of radiological abnormalities (RA) in the lumbar region. Subjects were 53 collegiate wrestlers. Trunk extensor and flexor muscle strength was measured at three angular velocities (60, 90, and 120degrees x s(-1)). The examined parameters for trunk muscle strength were peak torque, work, average torque, and average power. The disability level of LBP was estimated by using two questionnaires. Based on the RA evaluation with x-ray and MRI, all 53 wrestlers were assigned to two groups as the RA group (N = 35, 66%) and the non-RA group (N = 18, 34%). Correlations between trunk muscle strength and the disability level of LBP in each group were analyzed with Spearman's rank test. Without considering the disability level, there were 14 subjects with LBP (40%) in the RA group and 8 (44%) in the non-RA. Significantly correlated parameters with the disability level of LBP could be observed only when the subjects were restricted to the non-RA group. The correlated parameters with the two questionnaires were peak torque at 120degrees x s(-1), work at 60degrees x s(-1) and 90degrees x s(-1), and average torque at 90degrees x s(-1) and 120degrees x s(-1). There were no significantly correlated parameters in the RA group. None of the trunk flexor parameters were significantly correlated with the disability level of LBP. The relatively low strength of trunk extensors may be one of the factors related to nonspecific chronic low back pain in collegiate wrestlers.

  16. Relation between trunk fat volume and reduction of total lung capacity in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R A; Pride, N B; Thomas, E Louise; Ind, P W; Bell, J D

    2012-01-01

    Reduction in total lung capacity (TLC) in obese men is associated with restricted expansion of the thoracic cavity at full inflation. We hypothesized that thoracic expansion was reduced by the load imposed by increased total trunk fat volume or its distribution. Using MRI, we measured internal and subcutaneous trunk fat and total abdominal and thoracic volumes at full inflation in 14 obese men [mean age: 52.4 yr, body mass index (BMI): 38.8 (range: 36-44) kg/m(2)] and 7 control men [mean age: 50.1 yr, BMI: 25.0 (range: 22-27.5) kg/m(2)]. TLC was measured by multibreath helium dilution and was restricted (volume was 16.65 (range: 12.6-21.8) liters in obese men and 6.98 (range: 3.0-10.8) liters in control men. Anthropometry and mean total trunk fat volumes were similar in OR men and obese men without restriction (the ON subgroup). Mean total intraabdominal volume was 9.41 liters in OR men and 11.15 liters in ON men. In obese men, reduced thoracic expansion at full inflation and restriction of TLC were not inversely related to a large volume of 1) intra-abdominal or total abdominal fat, 2) subcutaneous fat volume around the thorax, or 3) total trunk fat volume. In addition, trunk fat volumes in obese men were not inversely related to gas volume or estimated intrathoracic volume at supine functional residual capacity. In conclusion, this study failed to support the hypotheses that restriction of TLC or impaired expansion of the thorax at full inflation in middle-aged obese men was simply a consequence of a large abdominal volume or total trunk fat volume or its distribution.

  17. Comparison of Trunk Proprioception Between Patients With Low Back Pain and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angela S.; Cholewicki, Jacek; Reeves, N. Peter; Zazulak, Bohdanna T.; Mysliwiec, Lawrence W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if proprioceptive impairments exist in patients with low back pain (LBP). We hypothesized that patients with LBP would exhibit larger trunk proprioception errors than healthy controls. Design Case-control study. Setting University laboratory. Participants 24 patients with non-specific LBP and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures We measured trunk proprioception in all 3 anatomical planes using motion perception threshold, active repositioning, and passive repositioning tests. Results LBP patients had significantly greater motion perception threshold than controls (Pproprioception may be detected in patients with LBP when assessed with a motion perception threshold measure. PMID:20801248

  18. The Effects of Vibration and Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Sensorimotor Control in Low Back Pain Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Normand, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Changes in sensorimotor function and increased trunk muscle fatigability have been identified in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP). This study assessed the control of trunk force production in conditions with and without local erector spinae muscle vibration and evaluated the influence of muscle fatigue on trunk sensorimotor control. Methods Twenty non-specific cLBP patients and 20 healthy participants were asked to perform submaximal isometric trunk extension torque with and without local vibration stimulation, before and after a trunk extensor muscle fatigue protocol. Constant error (CE), variable error (VE) as well as absolute error (AE) in peak torque were computed and compared across conditions. Trunk extensor muscle activation during isometric contractions and during the fatigue protocol was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG). Results Force reproduction accuracy of the trunk was significantly lower in the patient group (CE = 9.81 ± 2.23 Nm; AE = 18.16 ± 3.97 Nm) than in healthy participants (CE = 4.44 ± 1.68 Nm; AE = 12.23 ± 2.44 Nm). Local erector spinae vibration induced a significant reduction in CE (4.33 ± 2.14 Nm) and AE (13.71 ± 3.45 Nm) mean scores in the patient group. Healthy participants conversely showed a significant increase in CE (8.17 ± 2.10 Nm) and AE (16.29 ± 2.82 Nm) mean scores under vibration conditions. The fatigue protocol induced erector spinae muscle fatigue as illustrated by a significant decrease in sEMG median time-frequency slopes. Following the fatigue protocol, patients with cLBP showed significant decrease in sEMG root mean square activity at L4-5 level and responded in similar manner with and without vibration stimulation in regard to CE mean scores. Conclusions Patients with cLBP have a less accurate force reproduction sense than healthy participants. Local muscle vibration led to significant trunk neuromuscular control improvements in the cLBP patients before and after a muscle

  19. [The surgical treatment of an aneurysm of the celiac trunk and hepatic artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Camarero, S J; Menéndez, A I; Rodero, J I; Alvarez, J L; Cermeño, B; Viana, M M

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of splenic aneurysms with double location, at the celiac trunks and at the common hepatic artery, in the same patient that was treated by a surgical procedure. We also review literature about the hepatic aneurysms at the celiac trunks, with special attention on the aspects of etiology, natural evolutions and different surgical procedures available. It is remarkable on this kind of pathology that special attention should be paid in order to avoid the simple ligature-exclusion of the aneurysm, it involves realizing an endoaneurysmorrhaphy followed by an aorto-hepatic by-pass.

  20. Endovascular Retrieval of Entrapped Elephant Trunk Graft During Complex Hybrid Aortic Arch Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodharan, Karthikeyan, E-mail: drdkarthik@hotmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Chao, Victor T. T., E-mail: victor.chao.t.t@singhealth.com.sg [National Heart Centre, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@singhealth.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    Entrapment of the elephant trunk graft within the false lumen is a rare complication of surgical repair of an aortic dissection. This is normally retrieved by emergent open surgery. We describe a technique of endovascular retrieval of the dislodged graft, during hybrid aortic arch repair. The elephant trunk was cannulated through and through from a femoral access and the free end of the wire was snared and retrieved from a brachial access. The wire was externalised from both accesses and was used to reposition the graft into the true lumen using a body flossing technique.

  1. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens T; Randers, Morten B; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2009-01-01

    A slower reflex response to sudden trunk loading (SL) has been shown to increase future risk of low back injuries in healthy subjects, and specific readiness training can improve the response to SL among healthy subjects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of recreational soccer...... stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time) decreased (p football training includes a high number of sudden loadings of the upper body and can improve...... the reflex response to SL. The faster reflex response indicates that soccer training can reduce the risk of low back injuries....

  2. The Effects of Vibration and Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Sensorimotor Control in Low Back Pain Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Alexandre Boucher

    Full Text Available Changes in sensorimotor function and increased trunk muscle fatigability have been identified in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP. This study assessed the control of trunk force production in conditions with and without local erector spinae muscle vibration and evaluated the influence of muscle fatigue on trunk sensorimotor control.Twenty non-specific cLBP patients and 20 healthy participants were asked to perform submaximal isometric trunk extension torque with and without local vibration stimulation, before and after a trunk extensor muscle fatigue protocol. Constant error (CE, variable error (VE as well as absolute error (AE in peak torque were computed and compared across conditions. Trunk extensor muscle activation during isometric contractions and during the fatigue protocol was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG.Force reproduction accuracy of the trunk was significantly lower in the patient group (CE = 9.81 ± 2.23 Nm; AE = 18.16 ± 3.97 Nm than in healthy participants (CE = 4.44 ± 1.68 Nm; AE = 12.23 ± 2.44 Nm. Local erector spinae vibration induced a significant reduction in CE (4.33 ± 2.14 Nm and AE (13.71 ± 3.45 Nm mean scores in the patient group. Healthy participants conversely showed a significant increase in CE (8.17 ± 2.10 Nm and AE (16.29 ± 2.82 Nm mean scores under vibration conditions. The fatigue protocol induced erector spinae muscle fatigue as illustrated by a significant decrease in sEMG median time-frequency slopes. Following the fatigue protocol, patients with cLBP showed significant decrease in sEMG root mean square activity at L4-5 level and responded in similar manner with and without vibration stimulation in regard to CE mean scores.Patients with cLBP have a less accurate force reproduction sense than healthy participants. Local muscle vibration led to significant trunk neuromuscular control improvements in the cLBP patients before and after a muscle fatigue protocol. Muscle vibration

  3. The Effects of Vibration and Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Sensorimotor Control in Low Back Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-Alexandre; Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Normand, Martin C; Descarreaux, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Changes in sensorimotor function and increased trunk muscle fatigability have been identified in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP). This study assessed the control of trunk force production in conditions with and without local erector spinae muscle vibration and evaluated the influence of muscle fatigue on trunk sensorimotor control. Twenty non-specific cLBP patients and 20 healthy participants were asked to perform submaximal isometric trunk extension torque with and without local vibration stimulation, before and after a trunk extensor muscle fatigue protocol. Constant error (CE), variable error (VE) as well as absolute error (AE) in peak torque were computed and compared across conditions. Trunk extensor muscle activation during isometric contractions and during the fatigue protocol was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG). Force reproduction accuracy of the trunk was significantly lower in the patient group (CE = 9.81 ± 2.23 Nm; AE = 18.16 ± 3.97 Nm) than in healthy participants (CE = 4.44 ± 1.68 Nm; AE = 12.23 ± 2.44 Nm). Local erector spinae vibration induced a significant reduction in CE (4.33 ± 2.14 Nm) and AE (13.71 ± 3.45 Nm) mean scores in the patient group. Healthy participants conversely showed a significant increase in CE (8.17 ± 2.10 Nm) and AE (16.29 ± 2.82 Nm) mean scores under vibration conditions. The fatigue protocol induced erector spinae muscle fatigue as illustrated by a significant decrease in sEMG median time-frequency slopes. Following the fatigue protocol, patients with cLBP showed significant decrease in sEMG root mean square activity at L4-5 level and responded in similar manner with and without vibration stimulation in regard to CE mean scores. Patients with cLBP have a less accurate force reproduction sense than healthy participants. Local muscle vibration led to significant trunk neuromuscular control improvements in the cLBP patients before and after a muscle fatigue protocol. Muscle vibration stimulation

  4. Effects of trunk-hip strengthening on standing in children with spastic diplegia: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems.

  5. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in patients with low back pain enhance the stability of the lumbar spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieën, Jaap H; Cholewicki, Jacek; Radebold, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A comparative study of trunk muscle recruitment patterns in healthy control subjects and patients with chronic low back pain was conducted. OBJECTIVE: To assess trunk muscle recruitment in patients with low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Conflicting evidence has been reported

  6. The association between trunk muscle endurance and lumbo-pelvic stability in adolescent low back pain: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased trunk muscle endurance has been identified as a risk factor for adolescent LBP, and poor lumbo-pelvic stability has been found to be associated with LBP in the adult population. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between adolescent LBP, trunk muscle endurance and poor lumbo-pelvic stability. Design: A cross sectional study. Participants: 80 adolescents in grade 8 to grade 11, aged 12 to 17 years, at three high schools in Gauteng, who agreed to participate in the study. Method: Data was collected by means of a validated questionnaire and physical tests. The active straight leg raise test was used to record the lumbo-pelvic stabilising muscles. The Sorensen, Shirado and side-bridge tests were used to record trunk extensor, flexor and side flexor muscle endurance, respectively. Results: The results revealed a lifetime prevalence of LBP of 82.50%, one year prevalence of 78.80% and point prevalence of 23.80%. Adolescents with LBP demonstrated decreased trunk extensor muscle endurance but increased trunk flexor muscle endurance (p=0.044, compared to non-LBP adolescents. Poor lumbo-pelvic stability was not associated with adolescent LBP, but was associated with decreased extensor trunk muscle endurance (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was an association between trunk flexor muscle endurance and adolescent LBP, and between decreased trunk extensor muscle endurance and poor lumbo-pelvic stability. No association was found between LBP and poor lumbo-pelvic stability.

  7. Validity of trunk extensor and flexor torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Giroux, Caroline; Couturier, Antoine; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of trunk muscle strength testing performed with a latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer. Eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles was measured in 15 healthy subjects. Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were respectively correlated to peak torque and submaximal isometric torque for erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles. Reliability of peak torque measurements was determined during test and retest sessions. Significant correlations were consistently observed between muscle CSA and peak torque for all contraction types (r=0.74-0.85; Ptorque (r ⩾ 0.99; Pmuscles. Intraclass correlation coefficients were comprised between 0.87 and 0.95, and standard errors of measurement were lower than 9% for all contraction modes. The mean difference in peak torque between test and retest ranged from -3.7% to 3.7% with no significant mean directional bias. Overall, our findings establish the validity of torque measurements using the tested trunk module. Also considering the excellent test-retest reliability of peak torque measurements, we conclude that this latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer could be used with confidence to evaluate trunk muscle function for clinical or athletic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of trunk-injected 14C-Imidacloprid in Fraxinus trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara R. Tanis; Bert M. Cregg; David Mota-Sanchez; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer) in 2002, researchers have tested several methods of chemical control. Soil drench or trunk injection products containing imidacloprid are commonly used to control adults. However, efficacy can be highly variable andmay be due to uneven translocation of systemic...

  9. Museum Education for Children with Disabilities: Development of the Nature Senses Traveling Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyojung; Jolley, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Since museums are cultural, educational, and social institutions, providing access to people with disabilities has increased in recent decades. This research examines the need and development process of the educational program, the Nature Senses Traveling Trunk, to serve children with Autism Spectrum disorders and visual impairments at the Lubbock…

  10. Ligamentous stenosis of the coeliac trunk - a diagnosis of a true pathological entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabbe, E.; Erbe, E.M.; Erbe, W.

    1982-04-01

    The angiographic appearances of a ligamentous stenosis of the coeliac trunk are well known, but the clinical significance of this compression syndrome is slight and nowadays it is rarely regarded as an indication for surgery. The significance of this diagnosis is discussed in relation to 63 patients with angiographically confirmed ligamentous truncus stenosis and the differential diagnosis is reviewed.

  11. Old oil palm trunk: A promising source of sugars for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H.; Ohara, S. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Tanaka, R.; Yamamoto, K. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Hamid, Z.A.A.; Yahya, M.K.A. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Kosugi, A.; Arai, T.; Murata, Y.; Nirasawa, S. [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nor; Ibrahim, Wan Asma [Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Selangor (Malaysia); Mori, Y. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Oil palm trees are replanted at an interval of approximately 25 years because of decreased oil productivity of old trees. Consequently the felled trunks are the enormous amount of biomass resources in the palm oil producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. In this report, we found that the felled oil palm trunk contains large quantity of sap, which accounts for approximately 70% of the whole trunk weight, and that sugars existing in the sap increased remarkably during storage after logging. Total sugar in the sap increased from 83 mg ml{sup -1} to 153 mg ml{sup -1}, the concentration comparable to that of sugar cane juice, after 30 days of storage, followed by the gradual decrease. The sugars contained in the sap were glucose, sucrose, fructose and galactose, all of which are fermentable by ordinary industrial yeast strains. The results indicate that old oil palm trunk becomes a promising source of sugars by proper aging after logging and, thus, its sap can be a good feedstock for bioethanol. (author)

  12. Trunk muscle activation and low back loading in lifting in the absence of load knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Steenhuizen, S.; Boeken-Kruger, M.C.; Baten, C.T.M.; Kingma, I.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2000-01-01

    People who know the actual mass of an object to be lifted normally prepare themselves before attempting a lift to control the movement and to minimize low back loading. In this study, the trunk muscular reactions and low back torque were investigated in the situation in which the individual did not

  13. The effect of feeding mixtures of banana trunk and soybean meal on lambs performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was intended to determine the effects of increasing the ratio of banana trunk to soybean meal on intake, nitrogen excretion and lambs performance. Sixteen lambs (averaging 21.21 + 1.69 kg were pen individually and fed a basal diet consisted of chopped fresh king grass and commercial concentrate and unlimited access of water. Lambs were randomly assigned to one out of four different ratio of banana trunk to soybean meal as feed supplements, i.e. (R0 0:1; (R1 1:1; (R2 2:1 and (R3 4:1. Results showed that the inclusion of banana trunk had no adverse effect on lambs performance. As it is expected, altering the ratio of banana trunk to soybean meal increased (P 0.05 by feed supplement. Despite of no difference was observed in the coefficient of nitrogen digestibility, apparent fecal and urine N-output were significantly (P < 0.05 affected. The highest ratio of fed supplement (R3 tended to decrease nitrogen retention. Overall data indicated that lambs offered basal diet supplemented with R2 treatment accumulated more N per-day, than those fed other treatments, and consequently lambs performance was the best on those fed R2 treatment.

  14. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  15. Quantity and quality benefits of in-service invasive cleaning of trunk mains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sunny

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Trunk mains are high risk critical infrastructure where poor performance can impact on large numbers of customers. Both quantity (e.g. hydraulic capacity and quality (e.g. discolouration of trunk main performance are affected by asset deterioration in the form of particle accumulation at the pipe wall. Trunk main cleaning techniques are therefore desirable to remove such material. However, little is quantified regarding the efficacy of different maintenance interventions or longer-term changes following such cleaning. This paper presents an assessment of quantity and quality performance of a trunk main system pre, post and for 12 months following cleaning using pigging with ice slurry. Hydraulic calibration showed a 7 times roughness height reduction after ice slurry pigging, evidencing substantially improved hydraulic capacity and reduced headloss. Turbidity response due to carefully imposed shear stress increase remained significant after the cleaning intervention, showing that relatively loose material had not been fully removed from the pipe wall. Overall the results demonstrate that cleaning by pigging with ice slurry can be beneficial for quantity performance, but care and further assessment may be necessary to realise the full quality benefits.

  16. Case Report: Variant Origin of an Arterial Trunk from Axillary Artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Since the axillary artery is next choice of artery for arterial canulation in cardiopulmonary bypass procedures, prior knowledge of existence of such variation in its branching pattern helps in avoiding possible diagnostic or interventional therapeutic errors. Keywords: axillary artery, common trunk, profunda brachii, ...

  17. Lateral trunk lean and medializing the knee as gait strategies for knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbrands, T. A.; Pisters, M. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/317999303; Theeven, P. J R; Verschueren, S.; Vanwanseele, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine (1) if Medial Thrust or Trunk Lean reduces the knee adduction moment (EKAM) the most during gait in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis, (2) if the best overall strategy is the most effective for each patient and (3) if these strategies affect ankle and hip kinetics.

  18. Lateral trunk lean and medializing the knee as gait strategies for knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Pisters; Drs. Ing. Tim Gerbrands; B. Vanwanseele; P.J.R. Theeven; S. Verschueren

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine (1) if Medial Thrust or Trunk Lean reduces the knee adduction moment (EKAM) the most during gait in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis, (2) if the best overall strategy is the most effective for each patient and (3) if these strategies affect ankle and hip

  19. Velocity- and acceleration-sensitive units in the trunk lateral line of the trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, A. B.; Schellart, N. A.

    1992-01-01

    1. The two main types of lateral line organs of lower vertebrates are the superficial neuromasts (SN), with a cupula that protrudes in the surrounding water, and the canal neuromasts (CN), located in the lateral line canal. The scales of the trunk lateral line canal of fish contain SNs as well as

  20. Analysis of Trunk Rolling Performances by Mattress Mobility Detection System in Poststroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lin Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of kinematic variables with quality of trunk control in poststroke patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study included stroke subjects with mild to moderate motor deficit corresponding to Brunnstrom stages 3-4. Trunk functional performance was measured using bed mobility monitor system. All tasks were repeated ten times for both directions in each subject. Outcome measurements included the movement time and displacement of center of pressure (CoP from supine to side lying and returning. Results. The results revealed that a significant longer turning time was observed when turning from the paretic side toward the nonparetic side compared to the other direction, with an estimated mean difference of 0.427 sec (P=0.005. We found a significant difference in the time of rolling back to supine position between two directions. The displacement of CoP in rolling back from side lying on the nonparetic side was smaller than that from the paretic side with an estimated mean difference of −0.797 cm (P=0.023. Conclusions. The impaired trunk mobility was associated with increased movement time and decreased displacement of CoP in poststroke patients. Trunk rolling performance has potential in assessment of stroke patients.

  1. The effects of vibrotactile biofeedback training on trunk sway in Parkinson's disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanhoe-Mahabier, S.W.; Allum, J.H.J.; Pasman, E.P.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postural instability in Parkinson's disease (PD) can lead to falls, injuries and reduced quality of life. We investigated whether balance in PD can improve by offering patients feedback about their own trunk sway as a supplement to natural sensory inputs. Specifically, we investigated

  2. How does knee pain affect trunk and knee motion during badminton forehand lunges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Hsing-Hsan; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Liao, Jen-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Badminton requires extensive lower extremity movement and a precise coordination of the upper extremity and trunk movements. Accordingly, this study investigated motions of the trunk and the knee, control of dynamic stability and muscle activation patterns of individuals with and without knee pain. Seventeen participants with chronic knee pain and 17 healthy participants participated in the study and performed forehand forward and backward diagonal lunges. This study showed that those with knee pain exhibited smaller knee motions in frontal and horizontal planes during forward lunge but greater knee motions in sagittal plane during backward lunge. By contrast, in both tasks, the injured group showed a smaller value on the activation level of the paraspinal muscles in pre-impact phase, hip-shoulder separation angle, trunk forward inclination range and peak centre of mass (COM) velocity. Badminton players with knee pain adopt a more conservative movement pattern of the knee to minimise recurrence of knee pain. The healthy group exhibit better weight-shifting ability due to a greater control of the trunk and knee muscles. Training programmes for badminton players with knee pain should be designed to improve both the neuromuscular control and muscle strength of the core muscles and the knee extensor with focus on the backward lunge motion.

  3. Assessment of spatio-temporal gait parameters from trunk accelerations during human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Hof, AL

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of an analysis of spatio-temporal gait parameters based upon accelerometry. To this purpose, acceleration patterns of the trunk and their relationships with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analysed in healthy subjects. Based on model predictions of the body's

  4. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP. Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p<0.05. If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p=0.026. However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  5. 49 CFR 236.108 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dry. Insulation resistance tests shall be made between all conductors and ground, and between conductors in each multiple conductor cable, and between conductors in trunking, when wires or cables are... annually. (c) In no case shall a circuit be permitted to function on a conductor having an insulation...

  6. 49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be made between all conductors and ground, between conductors in each multiple conductor cable, and between conductors in trunking. Insulation resistance tests shall be performed when wires, cables, and... be made annually. (d) A circuit with a conductor having an insulation resistance of less than 200,000...

  7. Transmission of the Translational Trunk Vibration to the Head-Neck Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Mohammad A.; Ishihara, Tadashi; Inooka, Hikaru

    The flexion-extension motion of the head-neck complex (HNC) in the trunk horizontal (fore-and-aft) vibration was investigated. It was assumed that the motion of the HNC only occurs in mid-sagittal plane. An electro-hydraulic vibrator was used as a source of vibration. The input acceleration and HNC angular velocity were measured whereas the trunk of the seated subject was fixed to the seatback. Accordingly, the acceleration of the vibrator was considered to be equal to that of the trunk. Six subjects took part in the experiment. They were exposed to the random motion at a magnitude of 1.60ms-2rms (root-mean-square) for 50 seconds. The coherence and frequency response function between the HNC angular velocity and the trunk horizontal acceleration were then obtained on 0.5Hz to 10Hz. Averaging the obtained transmissibilities allowed to represent an optimized frequency response corresponding to each of the subjects. It was found that the HNC behavior above 0.8Hz was quasi-linear with a dominant resonance frequency between 0.8Hz and 1.6Hz. The variabilities of the results within and between subjects were investigated. It was further concluded that linear models could describe the HNC so that their orders should be selected in accordance with the frequency response function of the system as well as the objectives of modeling.

  8. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  9. Changes in postural activity of the trunk muscles following spinal manipulative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuela L; Ferreira, Paulo H; Hodges, Paul W

    2007-08-01

    Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is common in the management of low back pain (LBP) and has been associated with changes in muscle activity, but evidence is conflicting. This study investigated the effect of SMT on trunk muscle activity in postural tasks in people with and without LBP. In 20 subjects (10 with LBP and 10 controls), EMG recordings were made with fine-wire electrodes inserted into transversus (TrA), obliquus internus (OI), and externus (OE) abdominis. Rectus abdominis (RA) and anterior deltoid EMG was recorded with surface electrodes. Standing subjects rapidly flexed an arm in response to a light, before and after a small amplitude end range rotational lumbar mobilization at L4-5. In controls, there was no change in trunk muscle EMG during the postural perturbation after SMT. In LBP subjects there was an increase in the postural response of OI and an overall increase in OE EMG. There was no change in TrA or RA EMG. These results indicate that SMT changes the functional activity of trunk muscles in people with LBP, but has no effect on control subjects. Importantly, SMT increased the activity of the oblique abdominal muscles with no change in the deep trunk muscle TrA, which is often the target of exercise interventions.

  10. Modelling the economics and efficacy of early adoption of preventative practices for managing trunk diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunk diseases pose one of the most significant threats to vineyard longevity, since the introduction of Phylloxera. Research on resistant germplasm and detection tools will help in the long term. In the short term, we aim to promote preventative practices. Experimental trials show three practices t...

  11. Trunk muscle activation during stabilization exercises with single and double leg support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vaquero, María Pilar; Moreside, Janice M; Brontons-Gil, Evaristo; Peco-González, Noelia; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trunk muscle activity during bridge style stabilization exercises, when combined with single and double leg support strategies. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers performed bridge exercises in 3 different positions (back, front and side bridges), with and without an elevated leg, and a quadruped exercise with contralateral arm and leg raise ("bird-dog"). Surface EMG was bilaterally recorded from rectus abdominis (RA), external and internal oblique (EO, IO), and erector spinae (ES). Back, front and side bridges primarily activated the ES (approximately 17% MVC), RA (approximately 30% MVC) and muscles required to support the lateral moment (mostly obliques), respectively. Compared with conventional bridge exercises, single leg support produced higher levels of trunk activation, predominantly in the oblique muscles. The bird-dog exercise produced greatest activity in IO on the side of the elevated arm and in the contralateral ES. In conclusion, during a common bridge with double leg support, the antigravity muscles were the most active. When performed with an elevated leg, however, rotation torques increased the activation of the trunk rotators, especially IO. This information may be useful for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists in determining appropriate exercise progression for the trunk stabilizers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The classic elephant trunk technique for staged thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic repair: Long-term results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrovinci, S.; Murana, G.; Maat, G.E. de; Smith, T.; Schepens, M.A.A.M.; Heijmen, R.H.; Morshuis, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The classic elephant trunk (ET) technique has become the standard approach for patients with diffuse aortic disease requiring a staged thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic repair. The aim of this study was to assess long-term outcomes and predictors for survival after surgical repair of

  13. The Relationship between Trunk Function and Injury among Junior High School Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Rie; Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between trunk stability and injury among young soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 male soccer players in junior high school. The presence of injury was noted, and trunk stability was measured by using the bench test and sideways bench test, which were modified from "The 11+" exercises. [Results] There was no significant difference in endurance time in the bench test or sideways bench test between the injury group (n=9) and non-injury group (n=10). Comparison within each group revealed no significant difference in endurance time between the right and left sideways bench tests in the non-injury group; however, the time in the left sideways bench test was significantly longer than that in the right in the injury group. [Conclusion] This study suggests that there is a relationship between asymmetric trunk stability and injury. Further research investigating the relationship between asymmetric trunk function and balance skills is necessary.

  14. Museum Trunks: Making an Impact on Future Teachers of Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Victoria; Wall, Timothy J.; Herr, Lois J.

    2016-01-01

    Providing hands-on experiences for teacher candidates is just as critical as facilitating opportunities for children in an elementary classroom to engage in interaction with reproductions about historical events and the past. Bringing museum trunks from the Kansas Museum of History into the pre-service classroom allows teacher candidates to…

  15. Trunk inclination estimate during the sprint start using an inertial measurement unit: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, Elena; Guillon, Pélagie; Camomilla, Valentina; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2013-10-01

    The proper execution of the sprint start is crucial in determining the performance during a sprint race. In this respect, when moving from the crouch to the upright position, trunk kinematics is a key element. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of a trunk-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU) in estimating the trunk inclination and angular velocity in the sagittal plane during the sprint start. In-laboratory sprint starts were performed by five sprinters. The local acceleration and angular velocity components provided by the IMU were processed using an adaptive Kalman filter. The accuracy of the IMU inclination estimate and its consistency with trunk inclination were assessed using reference stereophotogrammetric measurements. A Bland-Altman analysis, carried out using parameters (minimum, maximum, and mean values) extracted from the time histories of the estimated variables, and curve similarity analysis (correlation coefficient > 0.99, root mean square difference < 7 deg) indicated the agreement between reference and IMU estimates, opening a promising scenario for an accurate in-field use of IMUs for sprint start performance assessment.

  16. Effectiveness of Natural Antifungal Compounds in Controlling Infection by Grapevine Trunk Disease Pathogens through Pruning Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Rebeca; Mateos, Rosa María; Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; Olego, Miguel Angel; Sevillano, Silvia; González-García, Sandra; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2015-09-01

    Grapevine trunk fungal pathogens, such as Diplodia seriata and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, can infect plants through pruning wounds. They cause grapevine trunk diseases and are involved in grapevine decline. Accordingly, the protection of pruning wounds is crucial for the management of grapevine trunk diseases. The efficacy of different natural antifungals in inhibiting the growth of several fungi causing grapevine trunk diseases was evaluated in vitro. The fungi showing greater in vitro efficacy were tested on autoclaved grape wood assays against D. seriata and P. chlamydospora. Based on results from these assays, chitosan oligosaccharide, vanillin, and garlic extract were selected for further evaluation on pruning wounds inoculated with D. seriata and P. chlamydospora in field trials. A significant decrease in plant mortality was observed after 2 years of growth in the plants treated with the different natural antifungals compared to the mortality rate observed in infected plants that were not treated with antifungals. Also, the infection rate for the inoculated pathogens was significantly reduced in plants treated with the selected natural antifungals. Therefore, natural antifungals represent a promising alternative for disease control and could provide significant economic benefits for the grape-growing industry. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. The distribution and symptomatology of grapevine trunk disease pathogens are influenced by climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Niekerk, J.M.; Bester, W.; Halleen, F.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grapevine trunk diseases, caused by a range of phytopathogenic fungi, represent a serious impediment to wine and table grape production wherever these crops are cultivated. Previous studies have shown that the distribution of these pathogens is influenced by climate and that they are associated with

  18. The comparison of abdominal muscle activation on unstable surface according to the different trunk stability exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of abdominal muscle activities and the activation ratio related to trunk stabilization to compare the effects between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and lumbar stabilization exercises on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain, who were equally and randomly assigned to either the abdominal drawing-in maneuver group and the lumbar stabilization exercise group. Abdominal muscle activation and ratio was measured using a wireless TeleMyo DTS during right leg raise exercises while sitting on a Swiss ball. [Results] Differences in rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, and internal oblique abdominis muscle activation were observed before and after treatment. Significant differences were observed between the groups in the muscle activation of the external oblique abdominis and internal oblique abdominis, and the muscle activation ratio of external oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis and internal oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis. [Conclusion] Consequently trunk stability exercise enhances internal oblique abdominis activity and increases trunk stabilization. In addition, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver facilitates the deep muscle more than LSE in abdominal muscle. Therefore, abdominal drawing-in maneuver is more effective than lumbar stabilization exercises in facilitating trunk stabilization.

  19. Biomechanical compensations of the trunk and lower extremities during stepping tasks after unilateral transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Amanda M; Gaffney, Brecca M; Davidson, Bradley S; Christiansen, Cory L

    2017-11-01

    Lower extremity movement compensations following transtibial amputation are well-documented and are likely influenced by trunk posture and movement. However, the biomechanical compensations of the trunk and lower extremities, especially during high-demand tasks such as step ascent and descent, remain unclear. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during step ascent and descent tasks for three groups of individuals: diabetic/transtibial amputation, diabetic, and healthy. An ANCOVA was used to compare peak trunk, hip and knee joint angles and moments in the sagittal and frontal planes between groups. Paired t-tests were used to compare peak joint angles and moments between amputated and intact limbs of the diabetic/transtibial amputation group. During step ascent and descent, the transtibial amputation group exhibited greater trunk forward flexion and lateral flexion compared to the other two groups (Pamputation group (Ptranstibial amputation, by identifying low back, hip, and knee joint moment patterns unique to transtibial amputation during stepping tasks. In addition, the results suggest that some movement compensations may be confounded by the presence of diabetes and precede limb amputation. The increased and asymmetrical loading patterns identified may predispose individuals with transtibial amputation to the development of secondary pain conditions, such as low back pain or osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trunk muscle endurance and low back pain in female dance students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Christopher; Redding, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is often cited as a common condition at all levels of dance. Evidence suggests that reduced endurance of the trunk muscles can predispose an individual to LBP. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in trunk muscle endurance in a sample of tertiary level dance students with and without LBP. Seventeen full-time female dance students were divided into two groups: dance students with LBP (N = 11), and without LBP (N = 6). All participants provided informed consent, and the study was approved by an institutional ethics review board. Participants performed four isometric tests that assess trunk muscle endurance: the right and left side plank, double straight leg raise (DSLR), and the Sorensen test. A modified version of the Osaka City University test was used to assess the presence of LBP. A significant difference (p students with LBP displayed lower levels of endurance compared to those without. No other significant differences were found. This study offers some evidence that reduced trunk muscle endurance is present among dancers with LBP and provides direction for future research into back health among dancers.

  1. Density and Ultrasonic Characterization of Oil Palm Trunk Infected by Ganoderma Boninense Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmie, M. M. K.; Khalid, K.; Sidek, A. A.; Jusoh, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm trunks infected by Ganoderma boninense disease have been studied using density and ultrasonic characterizations. The ultrasonic characterizations have been performed using a commercial ultrasonic instrument at the frequency of 54 kHz. The measurements have been done in 3 zones: inner zone, central zone and peripheral zone. It was found that the stem density of the oil palm infected by Ganoderma boninense disease was reduced by 50% in comparison to the original healthy trunk. From this effect the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagated through the Longitudinal, Radial, and Tangential directions is lower for the trunk infected by Ganoderma boninense disease compared to a healthy trunk. For the 10 cm thickness of samples, the ultrasonic velocity for all transit directions was in range of 260 - 750 ms-1 for the infected sample, whereas for healthy samples was in the range of 460 - 900 ms-1. These results are very useful for the detection of the area which has been affected by the disease.

  2. Improved irrigation scheduling for pear-jujube trees based on trunk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A suitable indicator for scheduling pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) irrigation in China was developed based on trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF). Parameters derived from TDF responses to variations in soil matrix potential (Ψsoil) were compared under deficit and well irrigation. Maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) increased ...

  3. Trunk-rotation flexibility in collegiate softball players with or without a history of shoulder or elbow injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Veronica J; Oyama, Sakiko; Oliaro, Scott M; Padua, Darin A; Myers, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Throwing is a whole-body motion that requires the transfer of momentum from the lower extremity to the upper extremity via the trunk. No research to date examines the association between a history of shoulder or elbow injury and trunk flexibility in overhead athletes. To determine if injury history and trunk-rotation flexibility are associated and to compare trunk-rotation flexibility measured using 3 clinical tests: half-kneeling rotation test with the bar in the back, half-kneeling rotation test with the bar in the front, and seated rotation test in softball position players with or without a history of shoulder or elbow injury. Cross-sectional design. University softball facilities. Sixty-five female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I softball position players. Trunk-rotation flexibility was measured with 3 clinical tests. Recent injury history was obtained using a questionnaire and verified by the certified athletic trainer. Binomial regression models were used to determine if injury history was associated with flexibility categories (high, normal, or limited tertiles) for each of the 6 (3 tests × 2 directions) trunk-rotation flexibility measures. Trunk-rotation flexibility measures from 3 clinical tests were compared between participants with and without a history of shoulder or elbow injury using analysis-of-variance models. When measured using the half-kneeling rotation test with the bar in the back and the seated rotation test, injury history and forward trunk-rotation flexibility were associated. However, no mean group differences were seen in trunk-rotation flexibility between participants with and without a history of shoulder or elbow injury. Limited forward trunk-rotation flexibility may be a risk factor for shoulder or elbow injuries. However, further study is needed to confirm the study finding.

  4. Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan AS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alice S Ryan, Aruna Selina Harduarsingh-Permaul Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland; Baltimore Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC, and Research and Development Service, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. Methods: The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX plus WL (AEX+WL, on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA (to measure trunk fat and lean mass and computed tomography (CT (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50-76 years. Results: The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (P<0.05. Both the spinal and abdominal muscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max (P<0.05. Body weight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (P<0.001. The VO2max increased by 11% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 but did not change with WL alone (group effect, P<0.001. The DXA-measured trunk fat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 and by 12% after WL (P<0.001. When both groups were combined, the IMAT decreased in all four muscle groups - by 6% in the erector spinae (P<0.01, by 9% in the psoas (P<0.01, by 11% in the lateral abdominals (P<0.001, and by 6% in the rectus abdominis (P<0.05. The loss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. Conclusions: A lifestyle

  5. Lower trunk of brachial plexus injury in the neonate rat: effects of timing repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretti, Liverana; Pallini, Roberto; Romani, Rossana; Di Rocco, Federico; Ciampini, Alessandro; Gangitano, Carlo; Del Fa, Aurora; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    After lesion of a peripheral nerve in neonatal mammals, motoneurons undergo a cell death. We wanted to ascertain if early surgery could influence such post-axotomy motoneuronal death and improve the functional outcome. In this study, we investigated the functional and anatomical results after immediate and delayed repair of the lower trunk of brachial plexus (BP) sectioned at birth in rats. In neonate rats, the lower trunk of the left BP was cut. This nerve trunk was repaired either immediately [immediately-reconstructed group of rats (IR), or 30 days after, tardy reconstructed group of rats (TR)]; in the third group of animals, the nerve was not repaired (noreconstructed group of rats, NoR). In each group of animals, functional studies were performed at 90 days of age using the grooming test and the walking tracks analysis. Histologic studies of the C7-T1 spinal cord and lower trunk of BP were performed at 30 and 90 days of age; the numbers of motoneuron and axon were counted. Functional recovery was related to the difference in motoneuron number between the injured and the uninjured sides of the spinal cord of the operated animals. On the one side, only in the rats in which the inferior trunk was immediately repaired, the difference in motoneuron number between the two sides of the spinal cord was not statistically significant; these animals showed a good axonal regeneration and function recovery. On the other side, in the rats in which the inferior trunk was left unrepaired or tardy repaired, the decrease in motoneuron number in the injured side compared with the uninjured side of the spinal cord was statistically significant; these animals showed no axonal regeneration and no function recovery. The results cited above suggest that an important role in restoration of good neurological function after section of the lower trunk of BP in neonate rats is played by early nerve repair. Good neurological function was related more to a quite numerical balance of

  6. Effects of a 16-week Pilates exercises training program for isometric trunk extension and flexion strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliziene, Irina; Sipaviciene, Saule; Vilkiene, Jovita; Astrauskiene, Audrone; Cibulskas, Gintautas; Klizas, Sarunas; Cizauskas, Ginas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises designed to improve isometric trunk extension and flexion strength of muscles in women with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Female volunteers with cLBP were divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 27) and a control group (CG; n = 27). Pilates exercises were performed twice per week by the EG; the duration of each session was 60 min. The program lasted for 16 weeks; thus patients underwent a total of 32 exercise sessions. The maximum isometric waist bending strength of the EG had improved significantly (p = 0.001) after 16 weeks of the Pilates program. The results of trunk flexion muscle endurance tests significantly depended on the trunk extension muscle endurance before the intervention, and at 1 month (r = 0.723, p Pilates exercise program. At the end of the 16-week exercise program, cLBP intensity decreased by 2.01 ± 0.8 (p Pilates exercise program the pain intensified and the functional state deteriorated much faster than the maximum trunk muscle strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that, to decrease pain and improve functional condition, regular exercise (and not only improved strength and endurance) is required. We established that, although the 16-week lumbar stabilization exercise program increased isometric trunk extension and flexion strength and this increase in strength persisted for 2 months, decreased LBP and improved functional condition endured for only 1 month. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-duration fatigue alters neuromuscular coordination of trunk musculature: implications for injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, M; Brown, J M M; Groeller, H

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of muscle fatigue, produced by two different fatigue protocols, on the coordination of trunk and thigh muscles during the performance of a manual-handling task (e.g. a weighted stoop lift). The two fatigue protocols were designed to produce either (a) a non-specific widespread fatigue of trunk and limb muscles (e.g. rowing fatigue protocol), or (b) a specific fatigue of the trunk extensor musculature (e.g. back extension fatigue protocol). Specifically, we wished to determine whether the coordination of trunk muscles during a stoop lift was compromised more, or less, by either of these two fatigue protocols. Ten male subjects (20-24 years) were tested utilising an electromyographic technique which collected electromyograms from trunk flexor and extensor muscles, as well as the Hamstring muscle group, during a pre- and a post-fatigue performance of a weighted stoop lift. The results showed that the back extension fatigue protocol, but not the rowing fatigue protocol, produced significant (pmuscle activation during a stoop lift. The longer periods of muscle activation seen only after the back extension fatigue protocol, suggested that fatigue of these muscles had required the CNS to alter their periods of activation to a pattern similar to that previously seen in elderly populations. The results also suggested that intense short-duration motor tasks, which may differentially target the back and its musculature, could leave the spine susceptible to increased risk of injury even though worker perceptions of general fatigue are low. Risk assessment guidelines for manual handling should consider not only the weight and frequency of the lift, but lift duration as well to maintain worker safety.

  8. THE ROLE OF LEG AND TRUNK MUSCLES PROPRIOCEPTION ON STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED Hossein Hosseinimehr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The proprioception information is a prerequisite for balance, body’s navigation system, and the movement coordinator. Due to changes between the angles of ankle, knee, and hip joints the aforementioned information are important in the coordination of the limbs and postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate therole of leg and trunk muscles proprioception on static and dynamic postural control. Thirty males students of physical education and sport sciences (age =21.23 ± 2.95 years, height = 170.4 ± 5.1 cm, and weight = 70.7 ± 5.6 kg participated in this study volunteered. Vibration (100HZ was used to disturb of proprioception. Vibrationoperated on leg muscle (gasterocnemius and trunk muscles (erector spine muscle, at L1 level. Leg stance time and Star Excursion Balance Test were used for evaluation of static and dynamic postural control respectively.Subjects performed pre and post (with operated vibration leg stance time and star excursion balance test. Paired sample test used for investigation the effect of vibration on leg and trunk muscles in static and dynamic postural control. Result of this study showed in static postural control, there is no significant difference between pre and post test (operated vibration in leg and trunk muscles (p≤0.05. In contrast there is significant difference indynamic postural control between pre and post test in leg muscles in 8 directions of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05 while there is only significant difference in trunk muscle in antrolateral and lateral of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05. During physical training such conditions like fatigue and injury can disturbproprioceptions’ information. Thus, due to the importance of this information we recommend that coaches'additionally specific trainings any sport used specific exercises to enhance the proprioception information

  9. Trunk Strength Characteristics of Elite Alpine Skiers - a Comparison with Physically Active Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Lisa; Heisse, Christian; Raschner, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Core muscle imbalances and weak trunk strength are relevant for injury prevention and performance. Information regarding core strength requirements and ideal flexion/extension ratios in alpine skiing is limited. We aimed to compare trunk strength capacities in elite alpine skiers with those of a matched control group. The concentric maximal trunk flexion and extension of 109 elite skiers and 47 active controls were measured at 150°/s in a ballistic mode using the CON-TREX® TP 1000 test system. The relative flexion peak torque was higher in male ski racers ( p = 0.003; 2.44 ± 0.30 Nm/kg) than in the controls (2.32 ± 0.42 Nm/kg). The relative peak torque for extension was 4.53 ± 0.65 Nm/kg in ski racers and 4.11 ± 0.52 Nm/kg in the controls ( p = 0.001). Female athletes were significantly stronger in both, relative flexion force ( p = 0.006; skiers 2.05 ± 0.22 Nm/kg; controls 1.74 ± 0.28 Nm/kg) and relative extension force ( p = 0.001; skiers 3.55 ± 0.53 Nm/kg; controls 3.14 ± 0.48 Nm/kg). No significant differences were found in the ratios of flexion to extension forces in females and males. Ski racers are engaged in extensive strength training for both leg and trunk muscles, which explains the higher peak values. Both groups indicated a low ratio from 0.54-0.59, which represents high trunk extensor muscles strength relative to flexor muscles.

  10. Trunk Strength Characteristics of Elite Alpine Skiers - A Comparison with Physically Active Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrandt Carolin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Core muscle imbalances and weak trunk strength are relevant for injury prevention and performance. Information regarding core strength requirements and ideal flexion/extension ratios in alpine skiing is limited. We aimed to compare trunk strength capacities in elite alpine skiers with those of a matched control group. The concentric maximal trunk flexion and extension of 109 elite skiers and 47 active controls were measured at 150°/s in a ballistic mode using the CON-TREX® TP 1000 test system. The relative flexion peak torque was higher in male ski racers (p = 0.003; 2.44 ± 0.30 Nm/kg than in the controls (2.32 ± 0.42 Nm/kg. The relative peak torque for extension was 4.53 ± 0.65 Nm/kg in ski racers and 4.11 ± 0.52 Nm/kg in the controls (p = 0.001. Female athletes were significantly stronger in both, relative flexion force (p = 0.006; skiers 2.05 ± 0.22 Nm/kg; controls 1.74 ± 0.28 Nm/kg and relative extension force (p = 0.001; skiers 3.55 ± 0.53 Nm/kg; controls 3.14 ± 0.48 Nm/kg. No significant differences were found in the ratios of flexion to extension forces in females and males. Ski racers are engaged in extensive strength training for both leg and trunk muscles, which explains the higher peak values. Both groups indicated a low ratio from 0.54-0.59, which represents high trunk extensor muscles strength relative to flexor muscles.

  11. Heat-provoked skin vasodilatation in innervated and denervated trunk dermatomes in human spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, A; Asahina, M; Young, T M; Mathias, C J

    2006-04-01

    Cross-sectional, observational, controlled study. High spinal cord injury (SCI) results in disruption of sympathetic vasomotor control. Vasodilatation as a response to local heating is a biphasic mechanism: the first phase (neurogenic) is mediated by the axon-reflex and is modulated by activity of sympathetic nerves. Our objective was to determine whether the response to heat provocation in trunk dermatomes may provide a measure of vasomotor sympathetic function in SCI. National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Buckinghamshire, UK; Autonomic Unit, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK; Neurovascular Medicine Unit, Imperial College London at St Mary's Hospital, UK. A total of 30 subjects were studied; 18 had chronic complete SCI (level C6-T11) and 12 were healthy controls. Recordings of skin blood flow (SkBF) were obtained with thermostatic laser Doppler probes placed in the upper trunk (at C4) and lower trunk (T10 or T12) dermatomes. SkBF at baseline (SkBF(bas)) and SkBF at the first peak of vasodilatation (SkBF(max)) showed no significant differences between SCI and controls either in upper or lower trunk dermatomes. However, the ratio of SkBF(max)/SkBF(bas) was significantly different in lower trunk dermatomes in SCI at C6-T5 level (7.5+/-3.5 PU) compared to SCI at T6-T11 level (3.5+/-1.5 PU) (P < 0.01). Measurement of SkBF in response to local heating may provide a safe, noninvasive method to assess integrity of sympathetic spinal pathways to the local vasculature. This may aid the classification of the SCI lesions, as the autonomic component currently is not included in the accepted American Spinal Injury Association scoring.

  12. Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles.

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    Tayashiki, Kota; Maeo, Sumiaki; Usui, Seiji; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    It is unknown whether maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles, called abdominal bracing, can be a training maneuver for improving strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. The present study aimed to elucidate this. Twenty young adult men (23.3 ± 1.8 years) were allocated to training (TG, n = 11) or control (CG, n = 9) group. TG conducted an 8-week training program (3 days/week) consisting of 2-s maximal abdominal bracing followed by 2-s muscle relaxation (5 × 10 repetitions/day). Maximal voluntary isometric strength during trunk flexion and extension, hip extension, and knee extension, maximal lifting power from sitting position, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, surface electromyograms from trunk and lower limb muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during the maximal abdominal bracing and maximal lifting tasks were also determined. After the intervention, TG showed significant increases in isometric trunk extension (+14.4 %) and hip extension (+34.7 %) strength and maximal lifting power (+15.6 %), while CG did not show any changes in strength and power variables. Furthermore, TG had significant gains in the muscle thickness of the oblique internal (+22.4 %), maximal IAP during abdominal bracing (+36.8 %), and the rate of IAP rise during lifting task (+58.8 %), without corresponding changes in CG. The current study indicates that a training style with maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles can be an effective maneuver for increasing strength and power during movements involving trunk and hip extensions, without using external load.

  13. Trunk bradykinesia and foveation delays during whole-body turns in spasmodic torticollis.

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    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Ziavra, Nafsica; Pearce, Ronald; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2013-08-01

    We have investigated how the abnormal head posture and motility in spasmodic torticollis interferes with ecological movements such as combined eye-to-foot whole-body reorientations to visual targets. Eight mildly affected patients and 10 controls voluntarily rotated eyes and body in response to illuminated targets of eccentricities up to ± 180°. The experimental protocol allowed separate evaluation of the effects of target location, visibility and predictability on movement parameters. Patients' latencies of eye, head, trunk and foot motion were prolonged but showed a normal modification pattern when target location was predictable. Peak head-on-trunk displacement and velocity were reduced both ipsi- and contralaterally with respect to the direction of torticollis. Surprisingly, peak trunk velocity was also reduced, even more than in previously studied patients with Parkinson's disease. As a consequence, patients made short, hypometric gaze saccades and only exceptionally foveated initially nonvisible targets with a single large gaze shift (4 % of predictable trials as opposed to 30 % in controls). Foveation of distant targets was massively delayed by more than half a second on average. Spontaneous dystonic head movements did not interfere with the execution of voluntary gaze shifts. The results show that neck dystonia does not arise from gaze (head-eye) motor centres but the eye-to-foot turning synergy is seriously compromised. For the first time we identify significant 'secondary' complications of torticollis such as trunk bradykinesia and foveation delays, likely to cause additional disability in patients. Eye movements per se are intact and compensate for the reduced head/trunk performance in an adaptive manner.

  14. Trunk-pelvis motion, joint loads, and muscle forces during walking with a transtibial amputation.

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    Yoder, Adam J; Petrella, Anthony J; Silverman, Anne K

    2015-03-01

    People with unilateral, transtibial amputation (TTA) have an increased prevalence of chronic low back pain (LBP) relative to able-bodied people. However, a definitive cause of increased LBP susceptibility has not been determined. The purpose of this work was to compare dynamic trunk-pelvis biomechanics between people with (n=6) and without (n=6) unilateral TTA during walking using a computational modeling approach. A generic, muscle-actuated whole body model was scaled to each participant, and experimental walking data were used in a static optimization framework to calculate trunk-pelvis motion, L4L5 joint contact forces, and muscle forces within the trunk-pelvis region. Results included several significant between-group differences in trunk-pelvis biomechanics during different phases of the gait cycle. Most significant was greater lateral bending toward the residual side during residual single-limb stance (p<0.01), concurrent with an elevated L4L5 joint contact force (p=0.02) and greater muscle force from the intact-side obliques (p<0.01) in people with TTA relative to able-bodied people. During both double-limb support phases, people with TTA also had a greater range of axial trunk rotation away from the leading limb, concurrent with greater ranges of muscle forces in the erector spinae and obliques. In addition, a greater range of force (p=0.03) in residual-side psoas was found during early residual limb swing in people with TTA. Repeated exposure to atypical motion and joint/muscle loading in people with TTA may contribute to the development of secondary musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic, mechanical LBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of trunk and pelvis movement compensations in patients with transtibial amputation using angular momentum separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Brecca M; Murray, Amanda M; Christiansen, Cory L; Davidson, Bradley S

    2016-03-01

    Patients with unilateral dysvascular transtibial amputation (TTA) have a higher risk of developing low back pain than their healthy counterparts, which may be related to movement compensations used in the absence of ankle function. Assessing components of segmental angular momentum provides a unique framework to identify and interpret these movement compensations alongside traditional observational analyses. Angular momentum separation indicates two components of total angular momentum: (1) transfer momentum and (2) rotational momentum. The objective of this investigation was to assess movement compensations in patients with dysvascular TTA, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and healthy controls (HC) by examining patterns of generating and arresting trunk and pelvis segmental angular momenta during gait. We hypothesized that all groups would demonstrate similar patterns of generating/arresting total momentum and transfer momentum in the trunk and pelvis in reference to the groups (patients with DM and HC). We also hypothesized that patients with amputation would demonstrate different (larger) patterns of generating/arresting rotational angular momentum in the trunk. Patients with amputation demonstrated differences in trunk and pelvis transfer angular momentum in the sagittal and transverse planes in comparison to the reference groups, which indicates postural compensations adopted during walking. However, patients with amputation demonstrated larger patterns of generating and arresting of trunk and pelvis rotational angular momentum in comparison to the reference groups. These segmental rotational angular momentum patterns correspond with high eccentric muscle demands needed to arrest the angular momentum, and may lead to consequential long-term effects such as low back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbado David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

  17. Trunk, pelvis and hip biomechanics in individuals with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: Strategies for step ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Laura E; Bennell, Kim L; Wrigley, Tim V; Hinman, Rana S; Hall, Michelle; O'Donnell, John; Hodges, Paul W

    2018-01-11

    Femoroacetabular impingment (FAI) syndrome is common among young active adults and a proposed risk factor for the future development of hip osteoarthritis. Pain is dominant and drives clinical decision-making. Evidence for altered hip joint function in this patient population is inconsistent, making the identification of treatment targets challenging. A broader assessment, considering adjacent body segments (i.e. pelvis, trunk) and individual movement strategies, may better inform treatment programs. This exploratory study aimed to compare trunk, pelvis, and hip biomechanics during step ascent between individuals with and without FAI syndrome. Fifteen participants diagnosed with symptomatic cam-type or combined (cam plus pincer) FAI who were scheduled for arthroscopic surgery, and 11 age-, and sex-comparable pain- and disease-free individuals, underwent three-dimensional motion analysis during a step ascent task. Trunk, pelvis and hip biomechanics were compared between groups. Participants with FAI syndrome exhibited altered ipsilateral trunk lean and pelvic rise towards the symptomatic side during single-leg support compared to controls. Alterations were not uniformly adopted across all individuals with FAI syndrome; those who exhibited more pronounced alterations to frontal plane pelvis control tended to report pain during the task. There were minimal between-group differences for hip biomechanics. Exploratory data suggest biomechanics at the trunk and pelvis during step ascent differ between individuals with and without FAI syndrome. Those with FAI syndrome implement a range of proximal strategies for task completion, some of which may have relevance for rehabilitation. Longitudinal investigations of larger cohorts are required to evaluate hypothesized clinical and structural consequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Trunk and lower limb biomechanics during stair climbing in people with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Connor A; Hatfield, Gillian L; Gilbart, Michael K; Garland, S Jayne; Hunt, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement is a pathomechanical hip condition leading to pain and impaired physical function. It has been shown that those with femoroacetabular impingement exhibit altered gait characteristics during level walking and stair climbing, and decreased muscle force production during isometric muscle contractions. However, no studies to-date have looked at trunk kinematics or muscle activation during dynamic movements such as stair climbing in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanical outcomes (trunk and lower limb kinematics as well as lower limb kinetics and muscle activation) during stair climbing in those with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement. Trunk, hip, knee and ankle kinematics, as well as hip, knee and ankle kinetics and muscle activity of nine lower limb muscles were collected during stair climbing for 20 people with clinical and radiographic femoroacetabular impingement and compared to 20 age- and sex-matched pain-free individuals. Those with femoroacetabular impingement ascended the stairs slower (effect size=0.82), had significantly increased peak trunk forward flexion angles (effect size=0.99) and external hip flexion moments (effect size=0.94) and had decreased peak external knee flexion moments (effect size=0.90) compared to the control group. Findings from this study indicate that while those with and without femoroacetabular impingement exhibit many biomechanical similarities when ascending stairs, differences in trunk forward flexion and joint kinetics indicate some important differences. Further longitudinal research is required to elucidate the cause of these differences as well as the clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Constraint-induced therapy with trunk restraint for improving functional outcomes and trunk-arm control after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Yi-an; Lin, Keh-chung; Chao, Ching-ping; Chen, Yu-ting

    2012-04-01

    Studies have suggested that constraint-induced therapy combined with trunk restraint (CIT-TR) improves arm movement and reduces trunk compensation. Whether participants who receive CIT-TR can translate the benefits to real-life circumstances awaits further investigation. The effects of distributed CIT-TR (dCIT-TR) on motor function, daily function, quality of life (QOL), and arm-trunk control were investigated. The study was a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. The study took place at 4 hospitals. Participants were 57 people who had had a stroke 6 to 55 months earlier. Participants received a dose-matched intervention (2 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 3 weeks) of dCIT-TR, distributed constraint-induced therapy (dCIT), or control therapy. The Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Motor Activity Log, Frenchay Activities Index (FAI), and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) were used to evaluate motor function, daily function, and QOL. Data for reaching kinematics were recorded. Participants receiving dCIT-TR and dCIT exhibited higher overall scores on the ARAT, FAI, and hand function domain of the SIS and better quality of movement and larger amount of use (of the affected arm) on the Motor Activity Log than participants in the control group. Participants receiving dCIT-TR further demonstrated greater improvements on the ARAT grip subscale and FAI outdoor activities scale than participants receiving dCIT or participants in the control group. However, participants receiving dCIT showed greater improvements on the strength domain of the SIS after training than participants receiving dCIT-TR or participants in the control group. Limitations Research with a larger sample size is needed. Participants who received dCIT-TR were able to translate gains in arm-trunk control into functional performance and QOL, specifically in grip function and outdoor activities. A long-term study to examine the recovery course for force output may be needed to evaluate people's perception of

  20. The harmonic ratio of trunk acceleration predicts falling among older people: results of a 1-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doi Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait variables derived from trunk accelerometry may predict the risk of falls; however, their associations with falls are not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to determine which gait variables derived from upper and lower trunk accelerometry are associated with the incidence of falls, and to compare the discriminative ability of gait variables and physical performance. Methods This study was a 1-year prospective study. Older people (n = 73 walked normally while wearing accelerometers attached to the upper and lower trunk. Participants were classified as fallers (n = 16 or non-fallers (n = 57 based on the incidence of falls over 1 year. The harmonic ratio (HR of the upper and lower trunk was measured. Physical performance was measured in five chair stands and in the timed up and go test. Results The HR of the upper and lower trunk were consistently lower in fallers than non-fallers (P P Conclusions HR derived from upper trunk accelerometry may predict the risk of falls, independently of physical performance. The discriminative ability of HR for the risk of falls may have some validity, and further studies are needed to confirm the clinical relevance of trunk HR.

  1. Surface electromyography as a measure of trunk muscle activity in patients with spinal cord injury: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-ji; Li, Jian-jun; Zhou, Hong-jun; Liu, Geng-lin; Zheng, Ying; Wei, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Hao, Chun-xia; Kang, Hai-qiong; Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Lian-jun

    2016-01-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) may be a sensitive marker for distinguishing the activity of trunk muscles, which are critical to functional mobility recovery in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). This manuscript presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on the effect of SEMG as a measure of trunk muscle activity in patients with SCI. A comprehensive search of the research literature included Pubmed, Medline, CNKI, WANFANG DATA, Web of Science, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Karger, OVID, and a review of reference lists within found articles. Case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies were included in the review. Eleven studies were included in this meta-analysis. Trunk muscle activities for the sitting condition were greater in patients with SCI than normal subjects. SEMG activity of trunk muscles for the sitting condition and posterior transfer was greater in patients with high level (HL)-SCI compared to those with low level (LL)-SCI. In addition, across studies, the level of trunk muscle activity for various difficulty settings was different for a given SCI group. This systematic review evaluated the value of trunk muscles for patients with SCI. We recommend use of SEMG as an assessment tool for improving the comparability and interpretability of trunk muscle activity of SCI therapeutic strategies.

  2. Individuals with non-specific low back pain use a trunk stiffening strategy to maintain upright posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie L; Henry, Sharon M; Raasch, Christine C; Hitt, Juvena R; Bunn, Janice Y

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that individuals with non-specific low back pain (LBP) have altered movement coordination. However, the relationship of this neuromotor impairment to recurrent pain episodes is unknown. To assess coordination while minimizing the confounding influences of pain we characterized automatic postural responses to multi-directional support surface translations in individuals with a history of LBP who were not in an active episode of their pain. Twenty subjects with and 21 subjects without non-specific LBP stood on a platform that was translated unexpectedly in 12 directions. Net joint torques of the ankles, knees, hips, and trunk in the frontal and sagittal planes as well as surface electromyographs of 12 lower leg and trunk muscles were compared across perturbation directions to determine if individuals with LBP responded using a trunk stiffening strategy. Individuals with LBP demonstrated reduced peak trunk torques, and enhanced activation of the trunk and ankle muscle responses following perturbations. These results suggest that individuals with LBP use a strategy of trunk stiffening achieved through co-activation of trunk musculature, aided by enhanced distal responses, to respond to unexpected support surface perturbations. Notably, these neuromotor alterations persisted between active pain periods and could represent either movement patterns that have developed in response to pain or could reflect underlying impairments that may contribute to recurrent episodes of LBP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Individuals with non-specific low back pain use a trunk stiffening strategy to maintain upright posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie L.; Henry, Sharon M.; Raasch, Christine C.; Hitt, Juvena R.; Bunn, Janice Y.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that individuals with non-specific low back pain (LBP) have altered movement coordination., hHowever, the relationship of this neuromotor impairment to recurrent pain episodes is unknown. To assess coordination while minimizing the confounding influences of pain we characterized automatic postural responses to multi-directional support surface translations in individuals with a history of LBP who were not in an active episode of their pain. Twenty subjects with and 21 subjects without non-specific LBP stood on a platform that was translated unexpectedly in 12 directions. Net joint torques of the ankles, knees, hips and trunk in the frontal and sagittal planes as well as surface electromyographs of 12 lower leg and trunk muscles were compared across perturbation directions to determine if individuals with LBP responded using a trunk stiffening strategy. Individuals with LBP demonstrated reduced peak trunk torques, and enhanced activation of the trunk and ankle muscle responses following perturbations. These results suggest that individuals with LBP use a strategy of trunk stiffening achieved through co-activation of trunk musculature, aided by enhanced distal responses, to respond to unexpected support surface perturbations. Notably, these neuromotor alterations persisted between active pain periods and could represent either movement patterns that have developed in response to pain or could reflect underlying impairments that maymay contribute to recurrent episodes of LBP. PMID:22100719

  4. Effects of truncal motor imagery practice on trunk performance, functional balance, and daily activities in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor imagery is beneficial to treat upper and lower limbs motor impairments in stroke patients, but the effects of imagery in the trunk recovery have not been reported. Hence, the aim is to test the effects of truncal motor imagery practice on trunk performance, functional balance, and daily activities in acute stroke patients. Methods: This pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted in acute stroke unit. Acute stroke patients with hemodynamic stability, aged between 30 and 70 years, first time stroke, and scoring <20 on trunk impairment scale (TIS were included in the study. Patients in the experimental group practiced trunk motor imagery in addition to physical training. Control group was given conventional physical therapy. The treatment intensity was 90 min/day, 6 days a week for 3 weeks duration. Trunk control test, TIS, brunel balance assessment (BBA, and Barthel index (BI were considered as the outcome measures. Results: Among 23 patients included in the study, 12 and 11 patients, respectively, in the control and experimental groups completed the intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA, i.e., timeFNx01 group factor analysis and effect size showed statistically significant improvements (P = 0.001 in the scores of TIS (1.64, BBA (1.83, and BI (0.67. Conclusion: Motor imagery of trunk in addition to the physical practice showed benefits in improving trunk performance, functional balance, and daily living in acute stroke.

  5. Walking more slowly than with normal velocity: The influence on trunk and pelvis kinematics in young and older healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Pintens, Seppe; Buyl, Ronald; Goossens, Maggie; Meeusen, Romain; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have addressed trunk and pelvis movements during gait, although they play an important role in gait control. The aim of this study was to compare trunk and pelvis kinematics between slower walking (1, 2, 3, 4kmph) and normal walking (5kmph), and between healthy adults who were young (n=15, 20-30years) and older (n=17, 50-60years). After 4min of treadmill walking, the 3-dimensional trunk and pelvis kinematics was measured (Polhemus Liberty™, 250Hz). A repeated measures ANOVA with simple contrasts was used to look for differences between the velocity conditions of walking and independent t-testing for comparison between the age groups (significance level: 5%, SPSS20). Walking more slowly than with normal velocity induces (1) a decrease in vertical center of mass of the trunk displacement, trunk lateral flexion and axial rotation and pelvis lateral and antero-posterior tilting, and (2) an increase in lateral and antero-posterior center of mass of the trunk displacement. Compared to young persons, older persons show: (1) larger pelvis axial rotations and trunk lateral and antero-posterior movements, and (2) smaller pelvis lateral tilting and trunk vertical movements and rotations. The literature reports that patients often walk slowly and that older persons show different gait patterns compared to young persons. This study shows that there are changes in trunk and pelvis kinematics (1) when walking more slowly than with normal velocity and (2) in older persons compared to young persons. These data could be taken into account in gait rehabilitation. © 2013.

  6. Trunk Exercises Improve Gait Symmetry in Parkinson Disease: A Blind Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Ryan P; Naughton, Geraldine; Silburn, Peter A; Cole, Michael H

    2018-03-01

    Deficits in step-to-step symmetry and trunk muscle activations have been linked to falls in Parkinson disease. Given such symptoms are poorly managed with anti-parkinsonian medications, alternate therapies are needed. This blind phase II randomized controlled trial sought to establish whether exercise can improve step-to-step symmetry in Parkinson disease. Twenty-four Parkinson disease patients with a falls history completed baseline assessments of symptom severity, balance confidence, mobility, and quality of life. Step-to-step symmetry was assessed by deriving harmonic ratios from three-dimensional accelerations collected for the head and trunk. Patients were randomly assigned to either 12 wks of exercise and falls prevention education or falls prevention education only. Both groups repeated the baseline tests 12 and 24 wks after the initial assessment. The Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number is ACTRN12613001175763. At 12 wks, the exercise group had statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements in anterior-posterior step-to-step trunk symmetry. In contrast, the education group recorded statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in medial-lateral and vertical step-to-step trunk symmetry at 12 wks. Given that step-to-step symmetry improved for the exercise group and declined for the education group after intervention, active interventions seem more suited to increasing independence and quality of life for people with Parkinson disease. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to do the following: (1) Describe the effect deficits in trunk muscle function have on gait in individuals with Parkinson disease; (2) Identify the benefits of targeted trunk exercises on step-to-step symmetry; and (3) Discuss the benefits of improving step-to-step symmetry in individuals with Parkinson

  7. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  8. Can lumbosacral orthoses cause trunk muscle weakness? A systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadinia, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Cholewicki, Jacek; Maroufi, Nader

    2017-04-01

    Wearing lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) is one of the most common treatments prescribed for conservative management of low back pain. Although the results of randomized controlled trials suggest effectiveness of LSO in reducing pain and disability in these patients, there is a concern that prolonged use of LSO may lead to trunk muscle weakness and atrophy. The present review aimed to evaluate available evidence in literature to determine whether LSO results in trunk muscle weakness or atrophy. This is a systematic review. A systematic search of electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Medline (via Ovid) followed by hand search of journals was performed. Prospective studies published in peer-reviewed journals, with full text available in English, investigating the effect of lumbar orthosis on trunk muscle activity, muscle thickness, strength or endurance, spinal force, and intra-abdominal pressure in healthy subjects or in patients with low back pain, were included. Methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by using the modified version of Downs and Black checklist. This research had no funding source, and the authors declare no conflicts of interest-associated biases. Thirty-five studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The mean and standard deviation of the quality score was 64±9.7%. Most studies investigating the effect of lumbar orthosis on electromyographic activity (EMG) of trunk muscles demonstrated a decrease or no change in the EMG parameters. A few studies reported increased muscle activity. Lumbosacral orthosis was found to have no effect on muscle strength in some studies, whereas other studies demonstrated increased muscle strength. Only one study, which included ultrasound assessment of trunk muscle stabilizers, suggested reduced thickness of the abdominal muscles and reduced cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscles. Out of eight studies that investigated spinal compression load, the load was reduced in four

  9. Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Lewis

    Full Text Available The single leg squat and single leg step down are two commonly used functional tasks to assess movement patterns. It is unknown how kinematics compare between these tasks. The purpose of this study was to identify kinematic differences in the lower extremity, pelvis and trunk between the single leg squat and the step down. Fourteen healthy individuals participated in this research and performed the functional tasks while kinematic data were collected for the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremities using a motion capture system. For the single leg squat task, the participant was instructed to squat as low as possible. For the step down task, the participant was instructed to stand on top of a box, slowly lower him/herself until the non-stance heel touched the ground, and return to standing. This was done from two different heights (16 cm and 24 cm. The kinematics were evaluated at peak knee flexion as well as at 60° of knee flexion. Pearson correlation coefficients (r between the angles at those two time points were also calculated to better understand the relationship between each task. The tasks resulted in kinematics differences at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk at both time points. The single leg squat was performed with less hip adduction (p ≤ 0.003, but more hip external rotation and knee abduction (p ≤ 0.030, than the step down tasks at 60° of knee flexion. These differences were maintained at peak knee flexion except hip external rotation was only significant in the 24 cm step down task (p ≤ 0.029. While there were multiple differences between the two step heights at peak knee flexion, the only difference at 60° of knee flexion was in trunk flexion (p < 0.001. Angles at the knee and hip had a moderate to excellent correlation (r = 0.51-0.98, but less consistently so at the pelvis and trunk (r = 0.21-0.96. The differences in movement patterns between the single leg squat and the step down should be considered when selecting a

  10. Burned and buried by the Siberian traps: tree trunks in volcaniclastics and lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik H.; Jerram, Dougal A.; Looy, Cindy

    2017-04-01

    Major Phanerozoic mass extinctions could be explained by intense volcanic activity related to the formation of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). The Siberian Traps LIP possibly caused the most severe mass extinction on the Earth, the end-Permian extinction. This event is documented by global data showing the extinction of floral and faunal species and by stable isotope excursions. Information about the direct impact of the Siberian Traps on the local flora and fauna is scarce. By our knowledge, no detailed description has been done on the faith of trees in Siberia. However, the story of Late Permian giant trees like Cordaites and wood ferns, could shed light on the impact of the onset of the LIP magmatism and the related mass extinction. For the first time we describe that Late Permian tree trunks were buried in volcaniclastic deposits and at the footwall contact of the oldest lava flows of the Siberian Traps, and despite that this phenomenon is known by local geologists it is not well described in the literature. Tree trunks in volcaniclastic deposits were compressed during consolidation of the volcaniclastic material originated from pyroclastic density currents from nearby volcanic centers. Tree petrification is presented by quartz with minor sulphides, zeolite, calcite and sulphates. Tree trunks at the footwall contact of the lava flows have a better preserved year rings structure and late permineralization presented by calcite with minor quartz and sulphides. Our results demonstrate that intensive magmatic activity related with LIP formation affects land vegetation at various grades. Lavas have had a local violent impact, but burned and buried tree trunks have a better preserved structure reflecting single dominated permineralization processes than the tree trunks buried by pyroclastics that have covered extensive areas and followed by trees compression and later multistage permineralization. In a global context, such type of volcanic activity has a variable

  11. Origem ectópica da artéria subclávia direita e do tronco bicarotídeo no cão Ectopic origin of the right subclavian artery and the bicarotid trunk in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulete de Oliveira Vargas Culau

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O suprimento sangüíneo para a cabeça, pescoço, tórax e membros torácicos dos cães provém da artéria aorta através de dois grandes vasos que surgem do arco aórtico, o tronco braquiocefálico e a artéria subclávia esquerda. O presente trabalho descreve a variação de origem da artéria subclávia direita e do tronco bicarotídeo, que foram observados em 8 cães durante 20 anos de dissecções em aulas de anatomia. Nos oito casos examinados, três artérias surgiram do arco aórtico. O primeiro ramo a emergir foi o tronco bicarotídeo, logo após nasceu a artéria subclávia esquerda e imediatamente a seguir, a artéria subclávia direita. O tronco bicarotídeo surgiu do arco aórtico, lateroventralmente à esquerda da traquéia, dirigindo-se cranialmente e bifurcando-se em nível da primeira costela em artérias carótidas comuns direita e esquerda. Na seqüência, emerge a artéria subclávia esquerda e imediatamente após, surgindo diretamente do arco aórtico, encontra-se a artéria subclávia direita, que se dirige para a margem cranial da primeira costela, estendendo-se dorsocranialmente para cruzar a linha mediana ao nível da primeira costela, dorsalmente ao esôfago e à traquéia. As artérias subclávia direita e esquerda apresentaram todos os seus ramos sem alterações. Embora o esôfago tenha se apresentado externamente marcado por um sulco, em razão do percurso alterado da artéria subclávia direita, a relativa ausência de dilatação cranial a este e o bom estado nutricional dos animais, nos levaram a supor que o progresso dos alimentos no esôfago não foi afetado significativamente.The blood supply to the head, neck, thorax and thoracic limb come from the aorta artery through its two broad branches, the brachiocephalic trunk and the left subclavian artery, which arise from the arch of the aorta. The present report described the abnormal origins of the right subclavian and common carotid arteries observed in eigth

  12. The Reliability of the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo) in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lisbeth; Erhardsen, Katrine Thingholm; Bencke, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To assess the live-versus-video, intrarater interday and interrater interday reliability of the test Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo), which seeks to estimate the degree of sitting trunk control in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Thirty-one children with CP between 9...... months and 16 years of age (22 males, mean age 8y 10mo [SD 3y 5mo], Gross Motor Function Classification System level I [n = 13], II [n = 4], III [n = 4], IV [n = 3], and V [n = 7]) were included. Children were tested twice by two raters and tests were video recorded. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test, ICC [2...

  13. Spiders and harvestmen on tree trunks obtained by three sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machač, Ondřej

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied spiders and harvestmen on tree trunks using three sampling methods. In 2013, spider and harvestman research was conducted on the trunks of selected species of deciduous trees (linden, oak, maple in the town of Přerov and a surrounding floodplain forest near the Bečva River in the Czech Republic. Three methods were used to collect arachnids (pitfall traps with a conservation fluid, sticky traps and cardboard pocket traps. Overall, 1862 spiders and 864 harvestmen were trapped, represented by 56 spider species belonging to 15 families and seven harvestman species belonging to one family. The most effective method for collecting spider specimens was a modified pitfall trap method, and in autumn (September to October a cardboard band method. The results suggest a high number of spiders overwintering on the tree bark. The highest species diversity of spiders was found in pitfall traps, evaluated as the most effective method for collecting harvestmen too.

  14. Study of trunk flexibility and body composition between football and badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANDALAL SINGH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was an attempt to compare the flexibility (trunk flexibility and bodycomposition (percentage of body fat, total body fat and lean body mass between inter-college level malefootball and badminton players. Fifty (50 male inter-college level football players (N=25 and badmintonplayers (N=25 ranging between 17 to 25years were selected randomly from different colleges of PanjabUniversity, Chandigarh for this study. To compare the mean differences between the inter-college level footballand badminton players,t tests were computed using SPSS Software. Flexibility (trunk flexibility, and bodycomposition (percentage of body fat and total body fat were not found to be statistically significant

  15. A rare anatomical variation: a case of a common celiacomesenteric trunk in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, B M C; Moens, H C; Wolschrijn, C F

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we present a cat with a common 1-cm-long celiacomesenteric trunk. The arteria hepatica branched off first from the separate arteria celiaca and gave rise to the arteria gastrica dextra and arteria gastroduodenalis. The main stem of the arteria celiaca then split into the arteria gastrica sinistra and the arteria lienalis. The arteria mesenterica cranialis extended ventrocaudally in the mesentery. This variation is due to developmental changes in the ventral splanchnic arteries, and they are quite varied. The basic architecture and perfused organs are comparable, which indicates that the presence of a common celiacomesenteric trunk is more related to individual development than to phylogeny or function. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Research regarding stiffness optimization of wires used for joints actuation from an elephant's trunk robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Elephant's trunk robotic arms driven by wires and pulley mechanisms have issues with wires stiffness because of the entailed elastic deformations that is causing errors of positioning. Static and dynamic loads from each joint of the robotic arm affect the stiffness of driving wires and precision positioning. The influence of wires elastic deformation on precision positioning decreases with the increasing of wires stiffness by using different pre-tensioning devices. In this paper, we analyze the variation of driving wires stiffness particularly to each wire driven joint. We obtain optimum wires stiffness variation by using an analytical method that highlights the efficiency of pre-tensioning mechanism. The analysis of driving wires stiffness is necessary for taking appropriate optimization measures of robotic arm dynamic behavior and, thus, for decreasing positioning errors of the elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires/cables.

  17. Rupture of celiac trunk aneurysm in patient with Behçet Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Márcio Luís; Frankini, Tiago; Frankini, Ângelo; Aerts, Newton; Tourinho, Tatiana Freitas

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a ruptured aneurysm of the celiac trunk in a 32-year-old, male patient with Behçet Disease (BD). Aneurysm resection was performed and the patient is well during a follow up of 32 months. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a ruptured celiac trunk aneurysm successfully treated in a patient with BD. RESUMO Relatamos o caso de um aneurisma roto do tronco celíaco em um paciente de 32 anos, do sexo masculino, portador de Doença de Behçet (DB). A ressecção do aneurisma foi realizada e o paciente está bem, com acompanhamento de 32 meses. Até onde sabemos, este é o primeiro caso relatado de um aneurisma do tronco celíaco roto tratado com sucesso em um paciente com DB.

  18. Comparative analysis of trunk muscle activities in climbing of during upright climbing at different inclination angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Joong-Hwi; Kim, Jang-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Ho

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to provide evidence for the therapeutic exercise approach through a compative analysis of muscle activities according to climbing wall inclination. [Subjects and Methods] Twentyfour healthy adult subjects without climbing experience performed static exercises at a therapeutic climbing at with various inclination angles (0°, 10°, 20°), and the activities of the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, erector spinae) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) for 7 seconds. [Results] Significant differences were found between the inclination angles of 10° and 0°, as well as 20° in the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, right obliquus externus abdominis, and right erector spinae. [Conclusion] Based on measurements of trunk muscle activity in a static climbing standing position at different angles, significant changes in muscle activity appear to be induced at 10 degrees. Therefore, the results appear to provide clinically relevant evidence.

  19. Hepatic Vessels Condition in Experimental Pulmonary Trunk Stenosis With Different Level of Blood Circulation Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kulikov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic changes have been studied in 25 pupies with modeled stenosis with compensation and 8 animals with decompensated stenosis of pulmonary trunk. For controlling we have used liver of 10 dogs of the same age. Material has been tested by hystological, morfometric and stereometric mesurements. We have figured that after pulmanory trunk stenosis and the decrease in circulation of hepatic venous blood tonus of arteries increases, reflectory and resistance to circulation grows. Except venous-arterial reactions in incoming vessels small boundles of oblique intimal muscular system, muscular-elastic sfincters, polipsimillar pillows have been formed and in outcoming vessels muscular structures hypertrophy.has been indicated In case decompensated stenosis with hypoxia relaxation of outcoming and outgoing vessels happens, the quantity of arteries with adapting structures decreases, and muscular formations of hepatic veins atrophy.

  20. Neuromuscular response of the trunk to inertial based sudden perturbations following whole body vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Danielle; Cort, Joel A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of whole body vibration exposure on the neuromuscular responses following inertial-based trunk perturbations were examined. Kinematic and surface EMG (sEMG) data were collected while subjects were securely seated on a robotic platform. Participants were either exposed to 10 min of vibration or not, which was followed by sudden inertial trunk perturbations with and without timing and direction knowledge. Amplitude of sEMG was analyzed for data collected during the vibration protocol, whereas the onset of sEMG activity and lumbar spine angle were analyzed for the perturbation protocol. Data from the vibration protocol did not show a difference in amplitude of sEMG for participants exposed to vibration and those not. The perturbation protocol data showed that those not exposed to vibration had a 14% faster muscle onset, despite data showing no difference in fatigue level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An immediate effect of PNF specific mobilization on the angle of trunk rotation and the Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle range of motion in adolescent girls with double idiopathic scoliosis-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, A; Fabian, K; Graff, K; Podgurniak, M; Wit, A

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of spine rotation is a key concept in several theories explaining the pathogenesis and progression of scoliosis. In previous studies, a more limited range of motion in scoliotic girls compared to their non-scoliotic peers was noted. The Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle measurement is a test used to assess the range of motion in the trunk-pelvis-hip complex in the transverse plane. The aim of this study was to assess an immediate effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation specific mobilization (mPNF) on the angle of trunk rotation and Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle range of motion in adolescent girls with double scoliosis. The study was conducted on 83 girls aged 10 to 17 years (mean 13.7 ± 1.9) with double idiopathic scoliosis consisting of a right-sided thoracic curve (mean 25.1° ± 13.9°) and a left-sided thoracolumbar or lumbar curve (mean 20.8° ± 11.4°). The angle of trunk rotation and Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle were measured at baseline and after PNF mobilization. Bilateral lower limb patterns of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation were used in combination with the "contract-relax" technique and stimulation of asymmetrical breathing. In the statistical analysis, the SAS rel. 13.2 software was used. Preliminary statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. According to Shapiro-Wilk criterion of normality, the Wilcoxon test was used to compare paired samples. Next, the data was analyzed using multivariate GLM models. In adolescent girls with double scoliosis, significant differences between the left and right side of the body concerning the Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle ranges were noted. A single, unilateral PNF mobilization significantly decreased the angle of trunk rotation in the thoracic (p PNF mobilization also increased the Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle ranges on the left (p PNF mobilization led to a decrease in the angle of trunk rotation, improvement in the range of motion, and the symmetry of mobility in the transverse

  2. Trunk Muscle Activation at the Initiation and Braking of Bilateral Shoulder Flexion Movements of Different Amplitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eriksson Crommert

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if trunk muscle activation patterns during rapid bilateral shoulder flexions are affected by movement amplitude. Eleven healthy males performed shoulder flexion movements starting from a position with arms along sides (0° to either 45°, 90° or 180°. EMG was measured bilaterally from transversus abdominis (TrA, obliquus internus (OI with intra-muscular electrodes, and from rectus abdominis (RA, erector spinae (ES and deltoideus with surface electrodes. 3D kinematics was recorded and inverse dynamics was used to calculate the reactive linear forces and torque about the shoulders and the linear and angular impulses. The sequencing of trunk muscle onsets at the initiation of arm movements was the same across movement amplitudes with ES as the first muscle activated, followed by TrA, RA and OI. All arm movements induced a flexion angular impulse about the shoulders during acceleration that was reversed during deceleration. Increased movement amplitude led to shortened onset latencies of the abdominal muscles and increased level of activation in TrA and ES. The activation magnitude of TrA was similar in acceleration and deceleration where the other muscles were specific to acceleration or deceleration. The findings show that arm movements need to be standardized when used as a method to evaluate trunk muscle activation patterns and that inclusion of the deceleration of the arms in the analysis allow the study of the relationship between trunk muscle activation and direction of perturbing torque during one and the same arm movement.

  3. Effects of trunk muscle fatigue and load timing on spinal responses during sudden hand loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Diane E; Potvin, Jim R

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of the spine during sudden loading in the presence of back and abdominal muscle fatigue, with a primary focus on the implications for spinal stability. Fifteen females were studied and each received sudden loads to the hands, at both known and unknown times. Participants received these loading trials (a) while rested, (b) with back muscle fatigue, and (c) with a combination of back and abdominal muscle fatigue. Measures were taken on the EMG activity of two trunk extensor and two abdominal muscles, and on the trunk angle and centre of pressure. A 3x2 Repeated Measures ANOVA was also performed. There were no preparations made prior to the perturbation even when it could be anticipated. However, the peak responses that followed were greater in the unexpected versus the expected condition. In addition, trunk muscle fatigue led to an increase in the baseline activity of the trunk muscles but no additional increase in activity just prior to loading. There was increased activation of both (opposing) muscle groups when only one muscle group was fatigued. Because the peak responses following the perturbation were enhanced in the unknown timing condition, preparations must have taken place prior to the anticipated perturbations, perhaps in other segments of the body that were not measured. Also, the load impact may not have been great enough to elicit large preparations. The heightened baseline activity with fatigue suggests that there may have been increased spinal stiffness whenever the spine was fatigued, and not just immediately prior to an impending perturbation. The increased activation of opposing muscle groups is evidence of increased cocontraction in response to fatigue, possibly to maintain stability with decreasing coordination.

  4. Understanding the Effects of Spaceflight on Head-trunk Coordination during Walking and Obstacle Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madansingh, S.; Bloomberg, J.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to spaceflight conditions results in a battery of physiological changes, some of which contribute to sensorimotor and neurovestibular deficits. Upon return to Earth, functional performance changes are tested using the Functional Task Test (FTT), which includes an obstacle course to observe post-flight balance and postural stability, specifically during turning. Aims: To quantify changes in movement strategies during turning events by observing the latency between head-andtrunk coordinated movement. Hypothesis: It is hypothesized that subjects experiencing neurovestibular adaptations will exhibit head-to-trunk locking ('en bloc' movement) during turning, exhibited by a decrease in latency between head and trunk movement. Sample: FTT data samples were collected from Shuttle and ISS missions. Samples were analyzed three times pre exposure, immediately post-exposure (0 or 1 day post) and 2-to-3 times during recovery from the microgravity environment. Methods: Two 3D inertial measurements units (XSens MTx) were attached to subjects, one on the head and one on the upper back. This study focused primarily on the yaw movements about the subject's center of rotation. Time differences (latency) between head and trunk movement were calculated at two points: the first turn (Fturn) to enter the obstacle course (approximately 90° turn) and averaged across a slalom obstacle portion, consisting of three turns (approximately three 90° turns). Results: Preliminary analysis of the data shows a trend toward decreasing head-to-trunk movement latency during post-flight ambulation, after reintroduction to Earth gravity in Shuttle and ISS astronauts. Conclusion: It is clear that changes in movement strategies are adopted during exposure to the microgravity environment and upon reintroduction to a gravity environment. Some subjects exhibit symptoms of neurovestibular neuropathy ('en bloc movement') that may impact their ability to perform post-flight functional tasks.

  5. Trunk muscle activation in the back and hack squat at the same relative loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David R; Lambert, Michael I; Hunter, Angus M

    2017-07-12

    The hack squat (HS) is likely to produce a greater 1 repetition maximum (1RM) compared to the back squat (BS). This can be attributed to the support of the trunk during the HS compared to no support during BS. This support however, may compromise trunk muscle activation (TMA), therefore producing different training adaptations. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare 1RM in BS and HS and TMA at 4 relative loads, 65, 75, 85 and 95% of maximal system mass. Ten males completed 3 test sessions:1) BS and HS 1RM, 2) HS & BS neuromuscular test familiarization, and, 3) Neuromuscular test for 3 reps at 4 loads for BS and HS. BS TMA was significantly greater (p<0.05) than HS for all muscles and phases except rectus abdominus in concentric phase. TMA increased (p<0.05) with load in all muscles for both exercises and phases apart from lumbar sacral erector spinae in HS eccentric phase. Mean HS 1RM and submaximal loads were significantly (p<0.0001) higher than the equivalent BS loads. Duration of the eccentric phase was higher (p<0.01) in HS than BS but not different in concentric phase. Duration increased significantly (p<0.01) with load in both exercises and both phases. Despite higher absolute tests loads in HS, TMA was higher in BS. TMA is sensitive to load in both exercises. BS is more effective than HS in activating the muscles of the trunk and therefore arguably more effective in developing trunk strength and stability for dynamic athletic performance.

  6. Uncovering hidden treasures in silver trunks: the Zandra Rhodes Digital Study Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Amy; Gramstadt, Marie-Therese

    2013-01-01

    Hidden away in silver trunks at the Zandra Rhodes Studio are over 5,000 dresses spanning fifty years of British Fashion and including designs worn by clients such as Elizabeth Taylor, Freddie Mercury, and Diana, Princess of Wales. The Zandra Rhodes Digital Study Collection, with an accompanying Open Education Resource (OER), will provide unique online access to images of 500 of the designer’s most iconic garments, for use in study and research by the next generation of fashion and textile...

  7. Local scour at roundhead and along the trunk of low crested structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Lamberti, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    not exhibit the pattern experienced in the case of emerged breakwaters where the scour and deposition areas are bcorrelatedQ with the nodal and antinodal points of the standing wave in front of the structure. Furthermore, it was found that scour occurs not only at the offshore side of the breakwater but also...... observations undertaken in the present study. Recommendations are made for toe protection for both the trunk scour and the roundhead scour....

  8. Consequences of Laughter Upon Trunk Compression and Cortical Activation: Linear and Polynomial Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Svebak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Results from two studies of biological consequences of laughter are reported. A proposed inhibitory brain mechanism was tested in Study 1. It aims to protect against trunk compression that can cause health hazards during vigorous laughter. Compression may be maximal during moderate durations and, for protective reasons, moderate in enduring vigorous laughs. Twenty-five university students volunteered to see a candid camera film. Laughter responses (LR and the superimposed ha-responses were operationally assessed by mercury-filled strain gauges strapped around the trunk. On average, the thorax compression amplitudes exceeded those of the abdomen, and greater amplitudes were seen in the males than in the females after correction for resting trunk circumference. Regression analyses supported polynomial relations because medium LR durations were associated with particularly high thorax amplitudes. In Study 2, power changes were computed in the beta and alpha EEG frequency bands of the parietal cortex from before to after exposure to the comedy “Dinner for one” in 56 university students. Highly significant linear relations were calculated between the number of laughs and post-exposure cortical activation (increase of beta, decrease of alpha due to high activation after frequent laughter. The results from Study 1 supported the hypothesis of a protective brain mechanism that is activated during long LRs to reduce the risk of harm to vital organs in the trunk cavity. The results in Study 2 supported a linear cortical activation and, thus, provided evidence for a biological correlate to the subjective experience of mental refreshment after laughter.

  9. Surface effects on dynamic stability and loading during outdoor running using wireless trunk accelerometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schütte, Kurt; Aeles, Jeroen; Op De Beéck, Tim; van der Zwaard, Babette C.; Venter, Rachel; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Despite frequently declared benefits of using wireless accelerometers to assess running gait in real-world settings, available research is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate outdoor surface effects on dynamic stability and dynamic loading during running using tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Twenty eight runners (11 highly-trained, 17 recreational) performed outdoor running on three outdoor training surfaces (concrete road, synthetic track and woodchip trail) at self-selected...

  10. Control of Citrus Huanglongbing via Trunk Injection of Plant Defense Activators and Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Jiang, J; Wang, N

    2017-12-14

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) or greening is a devastating disease of citrus worldwide and no effective control measure is currently available. Plant defense activators environmentally friendly compounds capable of inducing resistance against many plant pathogens. Earlier studies showed that foliar spray of plant defense inducers could slow down HLB disease progress. In this study, eight plant defense activators and three antibiotics were evaluated in three field trials for their effect to control HLB by trunk injection of young and mature sweet orange trees. Results showed that four trunk injections of several activators, including salicylic acid, oxalic acid, acibenzolar-S-methyl, and potassium phosphate, provided significant control of HLB by suppressing 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' titer and disease progress. Trunk injection of penicillin, streptomycin, and oxytetracycline hydrochloride resulted in excellent control of HLB. In general, antibiotics were more effective in reduction of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' titer and HLB symptom expressions than plant defense activators. These treatments also resulted in increased yield and better fruit quality. Injection of both salicylic acid and acibenzolar-S-methyl led to significant induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-1 and PR-2 genes. Meanwhile, injection of either potassium phosphate or oxalic acid resulted in significant induction of PR-2 or PR-15 gene expression, respectively. These results suggested that HLB diseased trees remained inducible for systemic acquired resistance under field conditions. In summary, this study presents information regarding controlling HLB via trunk injection of plant defense activators and antibiotics, which helps citrus growers in decision making regarding developing an effective HLB management program.

  11. Re-evaluation of the amplitude-force relationship of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Agnes; Faenger, Bernd; Scholle, Hans-Christoph; Anders, Christoph

    2015-04-13

    Amplitude-force relationships of major trunk muscles are established in terms of curve characteristics, but up to now were not normalized with respect to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force levels. The study therefore aims at a re-evaluation of trunk muscle amplitude-force relationship data according to MVC. Surface EMG of five major trunk muscles was taken from 50 healthy subjects of both sexes (age 20-40 years). All tasks were performed in a device where submaximal loads on the trunk were applied by gradually tilting the subjects in sagittal plane to horizontal position. MVC flexion and extension forces were determined in upright position using an additional harness over the subject's shoulders. Furthermore, the subject's upper body mass (UBM) was obtained during forward tilt to horizontal. MVC to UBM ratio was calculated, corrected by the actual tilt angle, and these linearly estimated values compared with the measured relative values according to MVC. All abdominal muscles confirmed the known non-linear amplitude-force relationship. At low load levels the linearly estimated values overestimated the measured ones and, at higher load levels, underestimated the true stress levels considerably. Back muscles confirmed the known linear curve shape, but for the longissimus muscle at L1 level measured data was always below estimated values. With increasing load, muscular stress of abdominal muscles changes from overestimated towards considerably underestimated values if expected stress levels are based on linear interpolation. Major back muscles' activation levels are nearly linear, but the amplitude-force relationship values seem overestimated for longissimus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measured and modelled static and dynamic axial trunk torsion during twisting in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, S M; Hoodless, K

    1990-09-01

    Study of the mechanics of trunk twisting is of special interest given epidemiological evidence linking occupational twisting to increased incidence of low back pain. An anatomically detailed, three-dimensional model of the trunk (rib cage, pelvis, five lumbar vertebrae and 50 muscles), was used to predict maximum axial trunk torque. Predicted axial torques were compared with measured torques. Thirty-one (10 male and 21 female) subjects performed maximum effort isometric twisting exertions, at 0 degrees of twist and +/- 30 degrees of twist together with dynamic exertions, at 30 degrees s-1 and 60 degrees s-1. Females were able to generate approximately two-thirds of the torque of males (males, 97Nm; females 60Nm, isometric at 0 degrees). When the trunk was prerotated to 30 degrees, subjects were able to generate greater torque when the effort was toward the 0 degree position (approximately 105Nm by males and 68Nm by females). Experimental data indicated that velocity of rotation and amount of twist are important modulators of axial torque. Changes in muscle length were demonstrated to be minimal from model output as most muscle length changes during a twist from 0 degrees to 30 degrees, measured between the pelvis and the shoulder harness, were less than 1%, although some portions of the abdominal obliques underwent a length excursion of 5%. The small changes in the individual muscle force components that contribute to twist, i.e. the muscle unit vector about the axial twist axis and its moment arm that change as a function of twisted position, do not entirely account for the measured differences in torque, suggesting that additional mechanisms influence axial torque generation.

  13. The movement of the trunk and breast during front crawl and breaststroke swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Chris; Lomax, Mitch; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Breast displacement has been investigated in various activities to inform bra design, with the goal of minimising movement; however, breast motion during swimming has yet to be considered. The aim was to investigate trunk and breast kinematics whilst wearing varying levels of breast support during two swimming strokes. Six larger-breasted females swam front crawl and breaststroke (in a swimming flume), in three breast support conditions while three video cameras recorded the motion of the tru...

  14. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pain-evoked trunk muscle activity changes during fatigue and DOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L H; Hirata, R P; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-05-01

    Muscle pain may reorganize trunk muscle activity but interactions with exercise-related muscle fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is to be clarified. In 19 healthy participants, the trunk muscle activity during 20 multi-directional unpredictable surface perturbations were recorded after bilateral isotonic saline injections (control) and during unilateral and bilateral hypertonic saline-induced low back pain (LBP) in conditions of back muscle fatigue (Day-1) and DOMS (Day-2). Pain intensity and distribution were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and pain drawings. The degree of fatigue and DOMS were assessed by Likert scale scores. Root-mean-square electromyographic (RMS-EMG) signals were recorded post-perturbation from six bilateral trunk muscles and the difference from baseline conditions (Delta-RMS-EMG) was extracted and averaged across abdominal and back muscles. In DOMS, peak VAS scores were higher during bilateral control and bilateral saline-induced pain than fatigue (p fatigue (p fatigue and DOMS, the back muscle Delta-RMS-EMG increased during bilateral compared with unilateral pain and control injections (p fatigue, the post-perturbation Delta-RMS-EMG in back muscles was higher during bilateral pain and lower during unilateral pain (p muscle responses to surface perturbations in bilateral and unilateral LBP, respectively, was more expressed during exercise-induced back muscle soreness compared with fatigue. Back muscle activity decreased during unilateral and increased during bilateral pain after unpredictable surface perturbations during muscle fatigue and DOMS. Accumulation effects of DOMS on pain intensity and spreading and trunk muscle activity after pain-induction. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  16. CYSTIC MEDIONECROSIS OF PULMONARY ARTERIAL TRUNK AS A PROBABLE CAUSE OF THROMBOSIS OF ITS BRANCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. А. Boldueva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a rare clinical case of thrombosis of large and small branches of the pulmonary artery, the probable cause of which was the degeneration of the muscle fibers of the wall of the pulmonary artery trunk by type of the cystic medionecrosis, possibly having a viral etiology. The disease was associated with the tumor of the pancreas body, smoldering purulent pancreatitis complicated by the syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  17. Corticoreticular tract lesion in children with developmental delay presenting with gait dysfunction and trunk instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Min Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corticoreticular tract (CRT is known to be involved in walking and postural control. Using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT, we investigated the relationship between the CRT and gait dysfunction, including trunk instability, in pediatric patients. Thirty patients with delayed development and 15 age-matched, typically-developed (TD children were recruited. Fifteen patients with gait dysfunction (bilateral trunk instability were included in the group A, and the other 15 patients with gait dysfunction (unilateral trunk instability were included in the group B. The Growth Motor Function Classification System, Functional Ambulation Category scale, and Functional Ambulation Category scale were used for measurement of functional state. Fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, fiber number, and tract integrity of the CRT and corticospinal tract were measured. Diffusion parameters or integrity of corticospinal tract were not significantly different in the three study groups. However, CRT results revealed that both CRTs were disrupted in the group A, whereas CRT disruption in the hemispheres contralateral to clinical manifestations was observed in the group B. Fractional anisotropy values and fiber numbers in both CRTs were decreased in the group A than in the group TD. The extents of decreases of fractional anisotropy values and fiber numbers on the ipsilateral side relative to those on the contralateral side were greater in the group B than in the group TD. Functional evaluation data and clinical manifestations were found to show strong correlations with CRT status, rather than with corticospinal tract status. These findings suggest that CRT status appears to be clinically important for gait function and trunk stability in pediatric patients and DTT can help assess CRT status in pediatric patients with gait dysfunction.

  18. A new walker with upper trunk suspension system for severely disabled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppetta, C; Scoppetta, M

    2013-10-01

    We have recently designed a new type of walker for those severely disabled patients who cannot walk with commonly used medical walkers. A drawing and the description of this new walker is reported in order to permit the worldwide companies as well as artisans to develop and produce it for the people affected from severe motor problems. This walker supposes the patient wearing either a modified climbing harness or equipped clothes and being suspended to the walking frame. It consists in two series of bands suspending the patient from the frame; the upper one suspends him for the upper part of his trunk, the lower one by his pelvis. This walker is suggested for patients belonging to three principal groups: (1) Persons who have no trunk control (e.g.: patients affected by severe stroke or ataxias). (2) Persons whose walk is allowed only if they achieve a significant reduction (up to 30-40%) of the their body weight charging on trunk, spine, and lower limbs. (3) Persons who need a differentiated reduction of the body weight either among anterior and posterior side or among their right and left part of the body (hemiparesis, Parkinson disease, scoliosis, kyphosis). Creating this walker is easy; producing costs are low; there are no maintenance costs.

  19. The effect of trunk coordination exercise on dynamic postural control using a Core Noodle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakajima, Masaaki

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the influence of trunk coordination exercise on dynamic postural control relative to postural sway. The effects of trunk coordination exercises were examined using a Core Noodle for the postural sway in healthy students who were assigned to an exercise or control group. The independent variable was the extent of exposure to Core Noodle exercise, and the dependent variable was dynamic postural control. A stabilometer, which measures dynamic postural control, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the exercises. In addition, center of gravity movements were assessed using a Gravicorder G-620 stabilometer in which the subject was asked to shift their center of gravity between 2 circles on a computer monitor. Pre- and post-intervention dynamic postural control was statistically evaluated between the exercise group and control group using the Mann-Whitney test. Finally, we investigated the application of these exercises for a stroke patient. For post-intervention, the envelop area, mean length of the pathways between 2 circles, and the number of circles were significantly higher in the exercise group. Trunk coordination exercise performed Core Noodle may be used to enhance the dynamic postural balance of healthy young adults, and it can also be adapted for stroke patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  1. Activity modulations of trunk and lower limb muscles during impact-absorbing landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yoshiaki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Inaba, Yuki; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the activity patterns of trunk and lower limb muscles during impact-absorbing landing. Electromyogram activities of the trunk and lower limb muscles along with kinematic and ground reaction forces were measured while subjects (n=17) performed 10 landings from a height of 35 cm. Landing motions were divided into three phases: 100 ms preceding ground contact (GC) (PRE phase), from GC through 100 ms (ABSORPTION phase), and from the end of the ABSORPTION phase until the vertical position of the center of mass was minimized (BRAKING phase). During the PRE phase, the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and medial gastrocnemius were highly activated. Upon GC, the hip and knee joints were in a flexed position; the ankle joints, in a plantarflexed position. After GC, peak timings of muscle activities and lower limb joint rotations were characterized by distal-to-proximal sequential patterns. The peak vertical ground reaction force in the ABSORPTION phase relative to body weight positively correlated with the activity levels of the vastus lateralis and gluteus maximus in the PRE phase and that of rectus abdominis in the ABSORPTION phase. These findings indicate that the intensities and peak timings of muscle activities in the trunk and lower limb are coordinated to absorb landing impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A non-MVC EMG normalization technique for the trunk musculature: Part 1. Method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, W S; Davis, K G

    2001-02-01

    Normalization of muscle activity has been commonly used to determine the amount of force exerted by a muscle. The most widely used reference point for normalization is the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). However, MVCs are often subjective, and potentially limited by sensation of pain in injured individuals. The objective of the current study was to develop a normalization technique that predicts an electromyographic (EMG) reference point from sub-maximal exertions. Regression equations predicting maximum exerted trunk moments were developed from anthropometric measurements of 120 subjects. In addition, 20 subjects performed sub-maximal and maximal exertions to determine the necessary characteristic exertions needed for normalization purposes. For most of the trunk muscles, a highly linear relationship was found between EMG muscle activity and trunk moment exerted. This analysis determined that an EMG-moment reference point can be obtained via a set of sub-maximal exertions in combination with a predicted maximal exertion (expected maximum contraction or EMC) based upon anthropometric measurements. This normalization technique overcomes the limitations of the subjective nature for the MVC method providing a viable assessment method of individuals with a low back injury or those unwilling to exert an MVC as well as could be extended to other joints/muscles.

  3. Effect of shoulder girdle strengthening on trunk alignment in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Amina; Shaker, Hussien; Shendy, Wael; Fahmy, Manal

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of shoulder girdle strengthening, particularly the scapular muscles, on poststroke trunk alignment. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 30 patients with residual hemiparesis following cerebrovascular stroke. Patient assessment included measuring shoulder muscle peak torque, scapular muscles peak force, spinal lateral deviation angle, and motor functional performance. Patients were randomly allocated either to the control group or the study group and received an 18-session strengthening program including active resisted exercises for shoulder abductors and external rotators in addition to trunk control exercises. The study group received additional strengthening exercises for the scapular muscles. [Results] The two groups showed significant improvement in strength of all shoulder and scapular muscles, with higher improvement in the study group. Similarly, the lateral spinal deviation angles significantly improved in both groups, with significantly higher improvement in the study group. Transfer activity, sitting balance, upper limb functions, and hand movements significantly improved in the two groups, with higher improvement in the latter two functions in the study group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of shoulder girdle muscles, particularly scapular muscles, can significantly contribute to improving the postural alignment of the trunk in patients with poststroke hemiparesis.

  4. mDurance: A Novel Mobile Health System to Support Trunk Endurance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition. This disorder constitutes one of the most common causes of disability worldwide, and as a result, it has a severe socioeconomic impact. Endurance tests are normally considered in low back pain rehabilitation practice to assess the muscle status. However, traditional procedures to evaluate these tests suffer from practical limitations, which potentially lead to inaccurate diagnoses. The use of digital technologies is considered here to facilitate the task of the expert and to increase the reliability and interpretability of the endurance tests. This work presents mDurance, a novel mobile health system aimed at supporting specialists in the functional assessment of trunk endurance by using wearable and mobile devices. The system employs a wearable inertial sensor to track the patient trunk posture, while portable electromyography sensors are used to seamlessly measure the electrical activity produced by the trunk muscles. The information registered by the sensors is processed and managed by a mobile application that facilitates the expert’s normal routine, while reducing the impact of human errors and expediting the analysis of the test results. In order to show the potential of the mDurance system, a case study has been conducted. The results of this study prove the reliability of mDurance and further demonstrate that practitioners are certainly interested in the regular use of a system of this nature.

  5. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in specific chronic low back pain populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfies, Sheri P; Squillante, Dawn; Maurer, Philip; Westcott, Sarah; Karduna, Andrew R

    2005-06-01

    It is hypothesized that injury or degeneration of osteoligamentous spinal structures would require compensation by trunk musculature and alterations in motor control to maintain spine stability. While, biomechanical modeling has supported this hypothesis, studies of muscle recruitment patterns in chronic low back pain patients both with and without significant osteoligamentous damage have been limited. This study utilized a non-randomized case-control design to investigate trunk muscle recruitment patterns around the neutral spine position between subgroups of patients with chronic mechanical low back pain and asymptomatic controls. Twenty subjects with chronic low back pain attributed to clinical lumbar instability were matched to 20 asymptomatic controls. In addition 12 patients with non-specific chronic low back pain were studied. Surface EMG from five trunk muscles was analyzed to determine activation levels and patterns of recruitment during a standing reach under two different loading conditions. The chronic low back pain group with symptoms attributed to clinical instability demonstrated significantly higher activation levels of the external oblique and rectus abdominus muscles and lower abdominal synergist ratios than the control group. No significant differences were found between patient subgroups. While these data demonstrate altered muscle recruitment patterns in patients with chronic low back pain, the changes are not consistent with Panjabi's theory suggesting that these alterations are driven by passive subsystem damage. However, the higher activation of global abdominal musculature and altered synergist patterns may represent a motor control pattern that has consequences for continued dysfunction and chronic pain.

  6. Comparison of trunk strength measurements between two different isokinetic devices used at clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupli, M; Sainio, P; Hurri, H; Alaranta, H

    1997-10-01

    Intradevice reliability of isokinetic trunk strength measurements has been studied frequently, but no evidence is available on interdevice reliability. This motivated the present study, in which two isokinetic devices, the Ariel 5000 and Lido Multi-Joint II, were compared in a sample of 41 subjects (20 healthy and 21 low back pain subjects). The measurements were made in a random order with both machines. The results showed that the two isokinetic machines gave quite different results in trunk flexion-extension strength measurements. A statistically significant difference was present in the average peak torques between the two devices, with the exception of flexion at low angular velocity (60 degrees/s), and the correlations between the two measurements were low. The results were assumed to be more of a reflection of the interdevice variations (hardware and software, attachment of the subject) than of learning effects or other phenomena. We conclude that isokinetic trunk-muscle strength test results with the Ariel and Lido are device specific, and one cannot automatically compare results obtained from different devices with each other.

  7. Isolation of table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Jimenez, F.; Castro-Garcia, S.; Blanco-Roldan, G. L.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, E. J.; Gil-Ribes, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the Manzanilla variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of bruise 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations. (Author) 34 refs.

  8. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis.

  9. Scoliosis curve type classification using kernel machine from 3D trunk image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adankon, Mathias M.; Dansereau, Jean; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Cheriet, Farida

    2012-03-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a deformity of the spine manifested by asymmetry and deformities of the external surface of the trunk. Classification of scoliosis deformities according to curve type is used to plan management of scoliosis patients. Currently, scoliosis curve type is determined based on X-ray exam. However, cumulative exposure to X-rays radiation significantly increases the risk for certain cancer. In this paper, we propose a robust system that can classify the scoliosis curve type from non invasive acquisition of 3D trunk surface of the patients. The 3D image of the trunk is divided into patches and local geometric descriptors characterizing the surface of the back are computed from each patch and forming the features. We perform the reduction of the dimensionality by using Principal Component Analysis and 53 components were retained. In this work a multi-class classifier is built with Least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) which is a kernel classifier. For this study, a new kernel was designed in order to achieve a robust classifier in comparison with polynomial and Gaussian kernel. The proposed system was validated using data of 103 patients with different scoliosis curve types diagnosed and classified by an orthopedic surgeon from the X-ray images. The average rate of successful classification was 93.3% with a better rate of prediction for the major thoracic and lumbar/thoracolumbar types.

  10. Development of Coconut Trunk Fiber Geopolymer Hybrid Composite for Structural Engineering Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, F.; Akifah, N.; Nurfadilla; Subaer

    2017-03-01

    A research on the influence of coconut fiber trunk on mechanical properties based on fly ash has been conducted. The aims of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of geopolymer composites by varrying the concentration of coconut trunk fiber. Geopolymer synthesized by alkali activated (NaOH+H2O+Na2O.3SiO2) and cured at the temperature 700C for one hour. Specimens were synthesized into 5 different mass of fiber 0 g, 0.25 g, 0.50 g, 0.75 g, and 1.00 g keeping fly ash constant. The highest compressive strength was 89.44 MPa for specimen added with 0.50 g of fiber. The highest flexural strength was 7.64 MPa for the same sample. The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the matrix of geopolymers and coconut fiber was conducted by using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The chemical composition of the specimen was examined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of coconut fiber trunk was analyzed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). It was found that coconut fiber was able to improve the mechanical and microstructure properties of geopolymers composites.

  11. TRUNK ROTATION AND WEIGHT TRANSFER PATTERNS BETWEEN SKILLED AND LOW SKILLED GOLFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Okuda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine trunk rotational patterns and weight transfer patterns that may differentiate swing skill level in golfers. Thirteen skilled golfers (mean handicap = 0.8 ± 2.6 and seventeen low skilled golfers (mean handicap = 30.8 ± 5.5 participated in this study. Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained through high-speed 3-D videography and force plates while the participant performed a full shot golf swing with a driver. Data at six temporal events during the swing were selected for the analysis. The results indicated that significant differences existed between the groups in the multiple events, as the skilled golfers showed the following motion patterns when compared to the low skilled golfers; 1 An earlier trunk horizontal rotation with a rapid weight transfer to the trail foot during the backswing; 2 An earlier pelvic horizontal rotation accompanied with an earlier weight transfer to the lead foot during the downswing motion; and 3 Less upper trunk horizontal rotation and more posterior pelvic rotation at the follow through. Collectively, these finding may be useful for instruction of golfers to improve their swing mechanics on a full shot golf swing

  12. Effects of performing an abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during curl-up exercise on an unstable surface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise on an unstable surface by measuring electromyography (EMG) activity. [Subjects...

  13. Progression of trunk imbalance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with a thoracolumbar/lumbar curve: is it predictable at the initial visit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Choon Sung; Lee, Dong-Ho; Cho, Jae Hwan

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Progression of trunk imbalance is an important finding during follow-up of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Nevertheless, no factors that predict progression of trunk imbalance have been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify parameters that predict progression of trunk imbalance in cases of AIS with a structural thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve. METHODS This study included 105 patients with AIS and a structural TL/L curve who were followed up at an outpatient clinic. Patients with trunk imbalance (trunk shift ≥ 20 mm) at the initial visit were excluded. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. Patients were divided into the following groups according to progression of trunk imbalance: 1) Group P, trunk shift ≥ 20 mm at the final visit and degree of progression ≥ 10 mm; and 2) Group NP, trunk shift < 20 mm at the final visit or degree of progression < 10 mm. Radiological parameters included Cobb angle, upper end vertebrae and lower end vertebrae (LEV), LEV tilt, disc wedge angle between LEV and LEV+1, trunk shift, apical vertebral translation, and apical vertebral rotation (AVR). Each parameter was compared between groups. Radiological parameters were assessed at every visit using whole-spine standing anteroposterior radiographs. RESULTS Among the 105 patients examined, 13 showed trunk imbalance with progression ≥ 10 mm at the final visit (Group P). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a lower Risser grade (p = 0.002) and a greater initial AVR (p = 0.020) as predictors of progressive trunk imbalance. A change in LEV tilt during follow-up was associated with trunk imbalance (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Risser grade and AVR measured at the initial visit may predict progression of trunk imbalance. Surgeons should consider the risk of progressive trunk imbalance if patients show skeletal immaturity and a greater AVR at the initial visit.

  14. Effects of Muscle Fatigue, Creep, and Musculoskeletal Pain on Neuromuscular Responses to Unexpected Perturbation of the Trunk: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Lardon, Arnaud; Boivin, Frédéric; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Trunk neuromuscular responses have been shown to adapt under the influence of muscle fatigue, as well as spinal tissue creep or even with the presence of low back pain (LBP). Despite a large number of studies exploring how these external perturbations affect the spinal stability, characteristics of such adaptations remains unclear. Aim: The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the quality of evidence of studies investigating trunk neuromuscular responses to unexpected trunk perturbation. More specifically, the targeted neuromuscular responses were trunk muscle activity reflex and trunk kinematics under the influence of muscle fatigue, spinal creep, and musculoskeletal pain. Methods: A research of the literature was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, and Sport-Discus databases using terms related to trunk neuromuscular reflex responses, measured by electromyography (baseline activity, reflex latency, and reflex amplitude) and/or trunk kinematic, in context of unexpected external perturbation. Moreover, independent variables must be either trunk muscle fatigue or spinal tissue creep or LBP. All included articles were scored for their electromyography methodology based on the "Surface Electromyography for the Non-Invasive Assessment of Muscles (SENIAM)" and the "International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK)" recommendations whereas overall quality of articles was scored using a specific quality checklist modified from the Quality Index. Meta-analysis was performed on reflex latency variable. Results: A final set of 29 articles underwent quality assessments. The mean quality score was 79%. No effect of muscle fatigue on erector spinae reflex latency following an unexpected perturbation, nor any other distinctive effects was found for back muscle fatigue and reflex parameters. As for spinal tissue creep effects, no alteration was found for any of the trunk reflex variables. Finally, the meta-analysis revealed an increased erector

  15. Characteristics of trunk control during crook-lying unilateral leg raising in different types of chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Atsushi; Kimura, Teiji; Goh, Ah-Cheng; Oba, Akemi; Takahashi, Jun; Mogami, Yuji

    2015-04-15

    Cross-sectional observational study. To quantitatively clarify the characteristics of trunk control during unilateral leg-raising movement in different types of nonspecific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP) patients who were identified by aggravation of symptoms during trunk movement. Although there is a need to classify NS-CLBP patients for clinical decision making in physical therapy, the characteristics of trunk control during unilateral leg-raising movement in different types of NS-CLBP patients have not been quantitatively analyzed in previous studies by simultaneously measuring the lumbar spine movement, trunk muscle activity, and leg movement. Thirty NS-CLBP patients, of whom 13 were aggravated by trunk flexion (flexion group) and 17 were aggravated by trunk extension (extension group), and 30 healthy controls performed crook-lying unilateral leg-raising movement on the painful side in patient group and the dominant leg in controls. During the unilateral leg-raising movement, pressure changes produced by the movement of the lumbar lordotic curve, measured by a custom-made recording device, were used as indices of the lumbar spine movement. Trunk muscle activities were recorded by surface electromyography and diagnostic ultrasonography. The pressure changes and trunk muscle activities were statistically compared among the 3 groups. At foot-off during unilateral leg-raising movement, the extension group demonstrated increase in pressure changes, whereas the flexion group and controls demonstrated decrease in pressure changes. Bilateral external obliques muscle activities in the extension group were significantly larger than those in the flexion group and controls (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that the characteristics of trunk control during unilateral leg-raising movement were different depending on the types of NS-CLBP patients. These results indicate that patients with NS-CLBP might select compensatory trunk control strategies subconsciously to prevent

  16. Concurrent measurement of isokinetic muscle strength of the trunk, knees, and ankles in patients with lumbar disc herniation with sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Cheng; Kuo, Chu-Wen; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Ni, Shou-Min; Ho, Cheng-Wen

    2010-12-15

    A cross-sectional study comparing normal subjects and patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) with sciatica. To simultaneously measure the isokinetic muscle strength of the trunk, knees, and ankles in both groups. Coordination between the trunk and lower extremity muscles is important for normal physical activity. Reduced trunk and knee muscle strength have been reported in patients with lower level LDH; however, ankle performance in these patients is still unknown. We recruited 43 normal subjects as controls and 33 patients with lower level LDH with sciatica. The isokinetic strength of the trunk, knees, and ankles was measured at 2 velocities in random order: 60°/s and 120°/s, and 60°/s and 180°/s for trunk and ankle strength and for knee strength, respectively. The isokinetic trunk strength was significantly lower in the LDH group irrespective of test modes or velocity. Despite unilateral sciatica or test modes and velocity, the unilateral knee strength was significantly lower in the LDH group than that in the control group. Knee extension torque was also found to be significantly lower in the limbs with sciatica than in those without sciatica at the testing velocity of 180°/s (80.25 ± 24.88 vs. 95.42 ± 26.29 Nm, P sciatica or test velocity, ankle plantar flexion torque revealed to be significantly lower in the LDH group than the control group; however, dorsiflexion torque was not different. Significant correlations were demonstrated among the total muscle strength of the trunk, knees, and ankles in both groups. Besides the lower trunk strength, concurrent lower unilateral knee and ankle plantar flexion but not dorsiflexion strength was demonstrated in the LDH subjects with unilateral sciatica, regardless of its location. As compared to the limbs without sciatica, an additional 14% reduction of knee extension torque at 180°/s was found in the limbs with sciatica in the LDH patients.

  17. Wireless Tri-Axial Trunk Accelerometry Detects Deviations in Dynamic Center of Mass Motion Due to Running-Induced Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt H Schütte

    Full Text Available Small wireless trunk accelerometers have become a popular approach to unobtrusively quantify human locomotion and provide insights into both gait rehabilitation and sports performance. However, limited evidence exists as to which trunk accelerometry measures are suitable for the purpose of detecting movement compensations while running, and specifically in response to fatigue. The aim of this study was therefore to detect deviations in the dynamic center of mass (CoM motion due to running-induced fatigue using tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Twenty runners aged 18-25 years completed an indoor treadmill running protocol to volitional exhaustion at speeds equivalent to their 3.2 km time trial performance. The following dependent measures were extracted from tri-axial trunk accelerations of 20 running steps before and after the treadmill fatigue protocol: the tri-axial ratio of acceleration root mean square (RMS to the resultant vector RMS, step and stride regularity (autocorrelation procedure, and sample entropy. Running-induced fatigue increased mediolateral and anteroposterior ratios of acceleration RMS (p < .05, decreased the anteroposterior step regularity (p < .05, and increased the anteroposterior sample entropy (p < .05 of trunk accelerometry patterns. Our findings indicate that treadmill running-induced fatigue might reveal itself in a greater contribution of variability in horizontal plane trunk accelerations, with anteroposterior trunk accelerations that are less regular from step-to-step and are less predictable. It appears that trunk accelerometry parameters can be used to detect deviations in dynamic CoM motion induced by treadmill running fatigue, yet it is unknown how robust or generalizable these parameters are to outdoor running environments.

  18. Trunk sway measures of postural stability during clinical balance tests in patients with chronic whiplash injury symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Henrik; Allum, John H J; Carpenter, Mark G; Adkin, Allan L; Honegger, Flurin; Ettlin, Thierry

    2003-08-01

    Trunk sway occurring during clinical stance and gait tasks was compared between a group of subjects with a chronic whiplash injury, resulting from an automobile collision, and a normal collective. To examine if population specific trunk sway patterns for stance and gait could be identified for chronic whiplash injury patients. Our previous work has established that it is possible to identify specific patterns of stance and gait deficits for vestibular loss (both acute and compensated) patients and those with Parkinson's disease. Our question was whether it was possible to use the same stance and gait tasks to identify patterns of trunk sway differences with respect to those of healthy subjects and individuals with a chronic whiplash injury. Twenty-five subjects with history of whiplash injury and 170 healthy age-matched control subjects participated in the study. Trunk sway angular displacements in chronic whiplash patients were assessed for a number of stance and gait tasks similar to those of the Tinetti and Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) protocols. We used a lightweight, easy-to-attach, body-worn apparatus to measure trunk angular displacements and velocities in the roll (lateral) and the pitch (forward-backward) planes. Data analysis revealed several significant differences between the two groups. A pattern could be identified, showing greater trunk sway for stance tasks and for complex gait tasks that required task-specific gaze control such as walking up and down stairs. Trunk sway was less, however, for simple gait tasks that demanded large head movements but no task-specific gaze control, such as walking while rotating the head. Subjects who have a chronic whiplash injury show a characteristic pattern of trunk sway that is different from that of other patient groups with balance disorders. Balance was most unstable during gait involving task-specific head movements which possibly enhance a pathologic vestibulo-cervical interaction.

  19. Effect of core strengthening with pelvic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on trunk, balance, gait, and function in chronic stroke

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    Sharma, Vishal; Kaur, Jaskirat

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of core strengthening combined with pelvic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on trunk impairment, balance, gait, and functional ability of chronic stroke patients. Twenty-three participants with chronic stroke were recruited and randomly allocated to one of the two groups: core strengthening combined with pelvic PNF (group 1, n=13), and pelvic PNF with trunk flexibility exercises (group 2, n=10). Intervention was given to bot...

  20. Sports-related testing protocols are required to reveal trunk stability adaptations in high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, David; Barbado, Luis C; Elvira, Jose L L; Dieën, Jaap H van; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    Trunk/core stability is considered a key component of training programs, because it could contribute to prevention of low-back and lower-limb injuries and to sports performance. Based on the specificity principle, sports-related trunk stability tests would be required in elite sports performance. However, there may be some generic qualities underlying trunk stability that can be assessed with nonspecific protocols, which are broadly used in sport and rehabilitation. To assess whether specific tests are needed in a high-performance context, we analyzed the influence of specialization in sports with large but qualitatively different balance control demands (judo and kayaking) on trunk stability and compared high-performance athletes with recreational athletes without a specific training history. Twenty-five judokas, sixteen kayakers and thirty-seven recreational athletes performed two trunk stability protocols: sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to external and unexpected perturbations; stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participant's ability to control trunk while sitting. Within-session test-retest reliability analyses were performed to support the between-groups comparison. Judokas showed lower angular displacement (0.199rad) against posterior loading than kayakers (0.221rad) probably because they are frequently challenged by higher sudden loads while they are pushed or pulled. Kayakers showed lower error (7.33mm), probably because they train and compete seated on unstable surfaces. Importantly, judokas and kayakers obtained better results than recreational athletes only in those tests designed according to the specific demands of each sport (psport training induces specific trunk stability adaptations, which are not revealed through nonspecific tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of virtual reality game training on trunk to pelvis coupling in a child with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Foster, Richard J; Holmes, Gill; Butler, Penny B

    2013-02-07

    Good control of trunk and pelvic movements is necessary for well controlled leg movements required to perform activities of daily living. The nature of movement coupling between the trunk and pelvis varies and depends on the type of activity. Children with cerebral palsy often have reduced ability to modulate coupling between the trunk and pelvis but movement patterns of the pelvis can be improved by training. The aim of this study was to examine how pelvis to trunk coupling changed while playing a computer game driven by pelvic rotations. One boy with cerebral palsy diplegia played the Goblin Post Office game on the CAREN virtual rehabilitation system for six weeks. He navigated a flying dragon in a virtual cave towards randomly appearing targets by rotating the pelvis around a vertical axis. Motion of the pelvis and trunk was captured in real-time by a Vicon 612 optoelectronic system tracking two clusters of three markers attached to the sacrum and thoracic spine. Convex hull areas calculated from angle-angle plots of pelvic and trunk rotations showed that coupling increased over game training (F1,11 = 7.482, p = 0.019). Reaching to targets far from the midline required tighter coupling than reaching near targets (F1,12 = 10.619, p = 0.007). Increasing coupling appears to be an initial compensation mechanism using the better controlled trunk to drive rotation of the pelvis. Co-contractions causing increased coupling are expected to reduce over longer exposure to training. The control scheme of the training game can be set to facilitate de-coupling of pelvic movements from the trunk. Using large ranges of pelvic rotation required more coupling suggesting that training of selective pelvic movements is likely to be more effective close to a neutral pelvic posture.

  2. Fast development of high intra-abdominal pressure when a trained participant is exposed to heavy, sudden trunk loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essendrop, Morten; Trojel Hye-Knudsen, Christian; Skotte, Jørgen; Faber Hansen, Anne; Schibye, Bente

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during sudden trunk loads. Ten participants were exposed to heavy, sudden trunk loads as they might occur during patient handling. The aim was to study the development of intra-abdominal pressure when well-trained participants cope with heavy, sudden trunk loads. It is hypothesized that high IAP develops sufficiently fast to be present when the large torques act on the low-back structures. Well-trained sportsmen expose themselves to heavy sudden loads of the trunk without getting injured, but it is unknown how they cope with these loads. Do they use IAP? IAP is believed to play a significant role in spine stability, but this has only been documented in experimental studies with light trunk loads. Ten well-trained judo and jujitsu fighters were exposed to heavy sudden trunk loads through imitated patient handling situations in which the patient fell, and the fighters were to hold the patient and prevent the fall. IAP was measured with a catheter in the stomach. Along with the IAP measurement, the load on the low back during the patient falls was quantified by a three-dimensional dynamic biomechanical calculation of the torques and the compression at the L4/L5 joint. High IAP developed quickly and timed in relation to the external torque when the fighters were exposed to a sudden patient fall. When the trunk load was heavy and sudden, IAP was developed to be present at the time when low-back structures had to cope with the large load. High IAP was developed sufficiently fast to be present when the low-back structures had to cope with the large torques released from the sudden trunk loading.

  3. Effect of early trunk control training on balance function of patients with acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-jin LI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Trunk is the core part of human body, and plays an important role in maintaining the body balance. Studies show that trunk control training can improve the balance function and mobility ability, and promote motor function and activities of daily living (ADL of stroke patients. This study aims to investigate the effect of early trunk control training on the recovery of balance function of acute stroke patients.  Methods A total of 120 patients with acute ischemic stroke (duration ≤ 14 d were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group [N = 60, 39 males and 21 females; age 23-85 years, mean age (63.43 ± 13.61 years; duration 1-13 d, median duration 4.12 (2.30, 6.09 d] and observation group [N = 60, 40 males and 20 females; age 20-84 years, average age (62.55 ± 13.77 years; duration 1-12 d, median duration 4.19 (2.48, 6.30 d]. Control group was given routine drug treatment plus rehabilitation education and guidance, and observation group was given routine drug treatment, rehabilitation education and guidance plus trunk control training. Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale-Balance (FMA-Balance and Modified Rivermead Mobility Index (MRMI were used to evaluate the balance function of patients in both groups before training and after 2-week training.  Results All patients finished the rehabilitation training programme without adverse reactions. Compared with before training, the scores of FMA-Balance (P =0.000 and MRMI (P = 0.000 were significantly increased after 2-week training in both groups. Compared to control group, the scores of FMA-Balance (P = 0.002 and MRMI (P = 0.002 were significantly increased after 2-week training in observation group.  Conclusions Early trunk control training can significantly improve the balance function and motor ability of patients with acute stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.005

  4. Fast gaze reorientations by combined movements of the eye, head, trunk and lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Naushahi, J; Sklavos, Sokratis; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2015-05-01

    Large reorientations of the line of sight, involving combined rotations of the eyes, head, trunk and lower extremities, are executed either as fast single-step or as slow multiple-step gaze transfers. In order to obtain more insight into the mechanisms of gaze and multisegmental movement control, we have investigated time-optimal gaze shifts (i.e. with the instruction to move as fast as possible) during voluntary whole-body rotations to remembered targets up to 180° eccentricity performed by standing healthy humans in darkness. Fast, accurate, single-step movement patterns occurred in approximately 70 % of trials, i.e. considerably more frequently than in previous studies with the instruction to turn at freely chosen speed (30 %). Head-in-space velocity in these cases was significantly higher than during multiple-step transfers and displayed a conspicuously regular bell-shaped profile, increasing smoothly to a peak and then decreasing slowly until realignment with the target. Head-in-space acceleration was on average not different during reorientations to the different target eccentricities. In contrast, head-in-space velocity increased with target eccentricity due to the longer duration of the acceleration phase implemented during trials to more distant targets. Eye saccade amplitude approached the eye-in-orbit mechanical limit and was unrelated to eye/head velocity, duration or target eccentricity. Overall, the combined movement was stereotyped such that the first two principal components accounted for data variance almost up to gaze shift end, suggesting that the three mechanical degrees of freedom under consideration (eye-in-orbit, head-on-trunk and trunk-in-space) are on average reduced to two kinematic degrees of freedom (i.e. eye, head-in-space). Synchronous EMG activity in the anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles preceded the onset of eye rotation. Since the magnitude and timing of peak head-in-space velocity were scaled with target eccentricity and

  5. Trunk position in supine of infants born preterm and at term: an assessment using a computerized pressure mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusing, Stacey; Mercer, Vicki; Yu, Bing; Reilly, Marie; Thorpe, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Trunk position may influence motor, cognitive, and social development during infancy and early childhood and has not been quantitatively assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess the trunk positions of infants born at term and preterm in supine using a computerized pressure mat. Trunk position was represented as a ratio of head and pelvis to trunk pressure. Eighteen healthy infants born preterm with a mean gestational age of 31.9 weeks (25.0-34.6) and fifteen healthy infants born at term with a mean gestational age of 38.9 weeks (37.3-40.6) were assessed at 38 to 43 weeks gestational age. Infants born at term spent more than two-thirds of the time in either flexed or neutral trunk positions. No significant differences were found between infants born preterm and those born at term in total duration of flexion or extension or in flexion event duration. This study provides evidence that infants born preterm may not exhibit greater trunk extension tendencies in supine than infants born at term. Results should be interpreted with caution, however, because of the small sample size and large variability observed within the subject groups. Infants born at less than 30 weeks of gestation may demonstrate greater extension tendencies than those born at more than 30 weeks of gestation.

  6. Spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction of trunk fossils from the Parnaíba Basin, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Wemerson J.; Santos, F. Eroni P.; Cisneros, Juan C.; da Silva, João H.; Freire, Paulo T. C.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.

    2015-01-01

    The Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin is of the Paleozoic age and is located in Northeast Brazil, covering the states of Piauí, Maranhão and Tocantins and a small part of Ceará and Pará. In this work we applied several chemical analytical techniques to characterize trunk fossils found in the Parnaíba Sedimentary Basin, collected from four different sites, and discuss their fossilization process. We performed a study of the trunk fossils through X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The analysis allow us to identify the different compositions which are present in the trunk fossils: kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), hematite (Fe2O3) and quartz (SiO2). Based in these results we were able to identify that the main fossilization mechanism of the trunk fossil was silicification. Furthermore, through Raman spectroscopy, we have observed the presence of carbonaceous materials in the Permian fossils, as evidenced by the D and G Raman bands. The relative intensities and bandwidths of the D and G bands indicated that the carbon has a low crystallinity. Thus, most of trunk fossils analyzed were permineralized and not petrified, because there is the presence of carbon that characterizes the partial decomposition of the organic matter in some trunks.

  7. Spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction of trunk fossils from the Parnaíba Basin, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Wemerson J; Santos, F Eroni P; Cisneros, Juan C; da Silva, João H; Freire, Paulo T C; Viana, Bartolomeu C

    2015-01-25

    The Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin is of the Paleozoic age and is located in Northeast Brazil, covering the states of Piauí, Maranhão and Tocantins and a small part of Ceará and Pará. In this work we applied several chemical analytical techniques to characterize trunk fossils found in the Parnaíba Sedimentary Basin, collected from four different sites, and discuss their fossilization process. We performed a study of the trunk fossils through X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The analysis allow us to identify the different compositions which are present in the trunk fossils: kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), hematite (Fe2O3) and quartz (SiO2). Based in these results we were able to identify that the main fossilization mechanism of the trunk fossil was silicification. Furthermore, through Raman spectroscopy, we have observed the presence of carbonaceous materials in the Permian fossils, as evidenced by the D and G Raman bands. The relative intensities and bandwidths of the D and G bands indicated that the carbon has a low crystallinity. Thus, most of trunk fossils analyzed were permineralized and not petrified, because there is the presence of carbon that characterizes the partial decomposition of the organic matter in some trunks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations between trunk flexion and physical activity of patient care workers for a single shift: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Oscar E; Umukoro, Peter E; Stoffel, Sonja D; Hopcia, Karen; Sorensen, Glorian; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-01-01

    Trunk flexion and occupational physical activity are parameters that have been used to assess and characterize jobs with high physical demands. Characterize the physical load of trunk flexion and physical activity of patient care unit (PCU) workers during a single work shift. Participants wore an accelerometer to measure physical activity and an inclinometer to assess trunk flexion during a single work shift, which was compared using correlation and linear regression analyses. Participants spent 74% of their work time upright between - 10° to 20° and 19% of their time flexed between 20° to 45°. On average workers spent 3% and 5% of their time, in the extreme postures of less than - 10° and greater than 45°, respectively. Participants spent 99% of their shift below moderate and vigorous activity. The largest correlation found was between the number of forward trunk flexions to 20° degrees per shift and minutes in lifestyle activity (r = 0.6, p < 0.001). No correlations between minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity and trunk flexion were observed. This study suggests that the physical demands of patient care unit workers as measured through trunk flexion are associated with lifestyle and light levels of physical activity.

  9. Isokinetic trunk strength and lumbosacral range of motion in elite female field hockey players reporting low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenety, A; Kumar, S

    1992-01-01

    This study was funded, in part, by a Small Faculties Grant from the University of Alberta. Physical therapists have reported an increased incidence of low back pain (LBP) in female field hockey (FH) players, commonly accompanied by decreased trunk range of motion (ROM) and strength. The purpose of this study was to compare lumbosacral sagittal ROM and isokinetic trunk strength in three groups of women: 1) FH athletes with a history of chronic LBP, 2) pain-free FH athletes, and 3) an age-matched, healthy nonathletic control group. Photographs (35 mm) of subjects wearing spinal motion markers were used to determine the limits of lumbosacral saggital ROM in standing. Eccentric and concentric isokinetic trunk flexion and extension torques were measured in sitting through 60 degrees of trunk movement using a Kin-Com dynamometer set at 60 degrees /sec. The ANOVA showed that the pain group had 12 degrees and 18 degrees less extension (p pain-free and control groups, respectively. Only peak (p pain group than in the nonathletic control group. These results suggest that physical therapists should perform preseason screening of trunk strength and lumbosacral ROM. In-season trunk extension stretching and strengthening is needed in the training regimes of these athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16(3):129-135.

  10. Trunk kinetic effort during step ascent and descent in patients with transtibial amputation using angular momentum separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Brecca M M; Christiansen, Cory L; Murray, Amanda M; Davidson, Bradley S

    2017-10-01

    Patients with transtibial amputation adopt trunk movement compensations that alter effort and increase the risk of developing low back pain. However, the effort required to achieve high-demand tasks, such as step ascent and descent, remains unknown. Kinematics were collected during bilateral step ascent and descent tasks from two groups: 1) seven patients with unilateral transtibial amputation and 2) seven healthy control subjects. Trunk kinetic effort was quantified using translational and rotational segmental moments (time rate of change of segmental angular momentum). Peak moments during the loading period were compared across limbs and across groups. During step ascent, patients with transtibial amputation generated larger sagittal trunk translational moments when leading with the amputated limb compared to the intact limb (P=0.01). The amputation group also generated larger trunk rotational moments in the frontal and transverse planes when leading with either limb compared to the healthy group (P=0.01, Pamputation group generated larger trunk translational and rotational moments in all three planes when leading with the intact limb compared to the healthy group (Ptranstibial amputation compared to healthy individuals. Compensations that produce identified increased and asymmetric trunk segmental moments, may increase the risk of the development of low back pain in patients with amputation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Limb fat to trunk fat ratio in elderly persons is a strong determinant of insulin resistance and adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavi, Shai; Feiner, Joshua J; Melendez, Mark M; Mynarcik, Dennis C; Gelato, Marie C; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2007-09-01

    Similar to lipodystrophy syndromes, aging results in increased visceral adiposity with loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the extremities. The hypothesis of this study is that the distribution of limb fat to trunk fat (LF/TF) ratio in elderly persons has a stronger correlation than trunk fat alone to insulin resistance and adiponectin levels. Thirty-eight elderly participants were divided into an insulin-resistant (IR) group and an insulin-sensitive (IS) group. Limb fat and trunk fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. There was no significant difference between the IS and IR groups with respect to body mass index, body fat index, absolute amount of trunk fat, or percent body fat. However, the difference in LF/TF ratio between the IS (1.02 +/- 0.05) and the IR groups (0.77 +/- 0.05) was highly significantly different (p <.001). Insulin resistance had a stronger correlation to the LF/TF ratio (r = 0.61, p <.001) than to absolute trunk fat (r = -0.32, p =.051). Adiponectin levels had a strong association with the LF/TF ratio (r = 0.63, p <.001), but did not correlate to absolute trunk fat (r = -0.24, p =.18). The distribution of body fat (LF/TF ratio) in elderly persons is a stronger determinant of insulin resistance and adiponectin levels than is trunk fat alone. The LF/TF ratio can be a useful tool to assess insulin sensitivity in the elderly population.

  12. Body trunk fat and insulin resistance in post-pubertal obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Caroline dos Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder commonly associated with excess body fat accumulation that may increase chronic disease risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between body composition and insulin resistance among obese adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the Adolescence Center, Pediatric Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was evaluated using a three-day dietary record. The biochemical evaluation comprised glucose, insulin, serum lipid, leptin and ghrelin measurements. Insulin resistance was calculated by means of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: Forty-nine post-pubertal obese adolescents participated in the study: 12 boys and 37 girls of mean age 16.6 (1.4 years and mean body mass index (BMI of 35.0 (3.9 kg/m². The mean glucose, insulin and HOMA values were 90.3 (6.4 mg/dl, 16.6 (8.1 µIU/ml and 3.7 (1.9, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were observed in 40.2% and 57.1% of the subjects, respectively. Adolescents with insulin resistance had higher BMI and body trunk fat. There was a trend towards higher leptin concentration in obese individuals with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was positively correlated with body trunk fat, BMI, body fat mass (kg, leptin and body fat percentage. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between HOMA-IR and lean body mass. The body composition predicted 30% of the HOMA-IR levels, according to linear regression models. CONCLUSION: Body trunk fat was significantly associated with insulin resistance, demonstrating the clinical importance of abdominal obesity during adolescence.

  13. Role of trunk muscles in generating follower load in the lumbar spine of neutral standing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2008-08-01

    Recently, experimental results have demonstrated that the load carrying capacity of the human spine substantially increases under the follower load condition. Thus, it is essential to prove that a follower load can be generated in vivo by activating the appropriate muscles in order to demonstrate the possibility that the stability of the spinal column could be maintained through a follower load mechanism. The aim of this study was to analyze the coordination of the trunk muscles in order to understand the role of the muscles in generating the follower load. A three-dimensional finite element model of the lumbar spine was developed from T12 to S1 and 117 pairs of trunk muscles (58 pairs of superficial muscles and 59 pairs of deep muscles) were considered. The follower load concept was mathematically represented as an optimization problem. The muscle forces required to generate the follower load were predicted by solving the optimization problem. The corresponding displacements and rotations at all nodes were estimated along with the follower forces, shear forces, and joint moments acting on those nodes. In addition, the muscle forces and the corresponding responses were investigated when the activations of the deep muscles or the superficial muscles were restricted to 75% of the maximum activation, respectively. Significantly larger numbers of deep muscles were involved in the generation of the follower load than the number of superficial muscles, regardless of the restriction on muscle activation. The shear force and the resultant joint moment are more influenced by the change in muscle activation in the superficial muscles. A larger number of deep trunk muscles were activated in order to maintain the spinal posture in the lumbar spine. In addition, the deep muscles have a larger capability to reduce the shear force and the resultant joint moment with respect to the perturbation of the external load or muscle fatigue compared to the superficial muscles.

  14. Early daily trunk shrinkage is highly sensitive to water stress in nectarine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; De la Rosa, Jose M.; Dodd, Ian C.; Conesa, María R.; Domingo, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    The sensitivity to water stress of different plant water status indicators was evaluated during two consecutive years in early nectarine trees grown in a semi-arid region. Measurements were made post-harvest and two irrigation treatments were applied: a control treatment (CTL), irrigated at 120% of crop evapotranspiration demand to achieve non-limiting water conditions, and a deficit irrigation treatment (DI), that applied around 37% less water than CTL during late postharvest. The plant water status indicators evaluated were midday stem water potential (Ψstem) and parameters derived from trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF): maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), trunk daily growth rate (TGR), early daily shrinkage measured between 0900 and 1200 h solar time (EDS), and late daily shrinkage (LDS) that occurred between 1200 h solar time and the moment that minimum trunk diameter was reached (typically 1600 h solar time). The most sensitive (highest ratio of signal intensity (SI) to noise) indicators to water stress were Ψstem together with EDS. The SI of EDS was greater than that of Ψstem, although with greater variability. EDS was a better indicator than MDS, with higher SI and similar variability. Although MDS was linearly related to Ψstem down to -1.5 MPa, thereafter MDS decreased with increasing water stress. In contrast, EDS was linearly related to Ψstem, although the slope of the regression decreased as the season progressed, as in the case of MDS. Further studies are needed to determine whether EDS is a sensitive indicator of water stress in a range of species.

  15. Effect of natural sagittal trunk lean on standing balance in untreated scoliotic girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leteneur, Sébastien; Simoneau-Buessinger, Émilie; Barbier, Franck; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Allard, Paul

    2017-09-06

    Generally, scoliotic girls have a tendency to lean further back than a comparable group of non-scoliotic girls. To date, no study has addressed how standing balance in untreated scoliotic girls is affected by a natural backwardly or forwardly inclined trunk. 27 able-bodied young girls and 27 young girls with a right thoracic curve were classified as leaning forward or backward according to the median of their trunk sagittal inclination. Participants stood upright barefoot. Trunk and pelvis orientations were calculated from 8 bony landmarks. Upright standing balance was assessed by 9 parameters calculated from the excursion of the center of pressure and the free moment. In the anterior-posterior direction, backward scoliotic girls had a greater center of pressure range (P=0.036) and speed (P=0.015) by 10.4mm and 2.8mm/s respectively than the forward scoliotic group. Compared to their matching non-scoliotic group, the backward scoliotic girls stood more on their heels by 14.6mm (P=0.017) and display greater center of pressure speed by 2.5mm/s (P=0.028). Medio-lateral center of pressure range (P=0.018) and speed (P=0.008) were statistically higher by 8.7mm and 3.6mm/s for the backward group. Only the free moment RMS was significantly larger (P=0.045) for the backward scoliotic group when compared to the forwardly inclined scoliotic group. Only those with a backward lean displayed statistically significant differences from both forward scoliotic girls and non-scoliotic girls. Untreated scoliotic girls with an exaggerated back extension could profit more from postural rehabilitation to improve their standing balance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Asymmetrie of maximum trunk, hand and leg in comparison of volleyball and fitness athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Klaus; Wollesen, Bettina; Manzer, Stefanie

    2017-09-06

    Playing volleyball and corresponding training loads lead to specific strains and might result in asymmetric muscle pattern. The study aimed to identify volleyball specific maximum bilateral strength asymmetries in comparison to fitness athletes. The cross-sectional study design compared an age-matched male volleyball group (n= 23; 27.9 ± 5 years) with a fitness group (n= 30; 26.3 ± 3 years). The participants performed an isometric maximum handgrip strength test followed by two isokinetic concentric maximum strength tests to determine the performance capacity of the axial trunk rotators (left-right) and bilateral leg extensors.Differences between groups and left-right side (within group) were proven by variance analysis with repeated measurement.There was a left-right-difference with higher maximum forces for the rotation in the right direction in the volleyball group (p=0.0058) but the group interaction effect was not significant after alpha error accumulation. The results of the leg press indicated a stronger left leg in the fitness group (non-significant) in comparison to the volleyball group.Overall, the volleyball group displayed symmetry in maximum hand grip and leg strength and asymmetry in trunk rotation with higher strength in right rotation. This asymmetry for the right trunk rotation showed a small effect size.The resulting asymmetry might be an adaptation to the volleyball techniques, but it remains unclear if this is a cause for or of injury.As a practical implication the asymmetries should be examined to develop individualized strength training programs for both groups.

  17. Lower Limb and Trunk Biomechanics After Fatigue in Competitive Female Irish Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Catherine Y; Grealish, Avril; Hopper, Diana

    2017-07-01

      Because of the increasing popularity of participation in Irish dance, the incidence of lower limb injuries is high among this competitive population.   To investigate the effects of fatigue on the peak lower limb and trunk angles as well as the peak lower limb joint forces and moments of competitive female Irish dancers during the performance of a dance-specific single-limb landing.   Cross-sectional study.   Laboratory.   Fourteen healthy, female, competitive Irish dancers (age = 19.4 ± 3.7 years, height = 165.3 ± 5.9 cm, mass = 57.9 ± 8.2 kg).   Participants performed an Irish dance-specific leap before and after a dance-specific fatigue protocol. During each landing movement, 3-dimensional lower limb kinematics (250 Hz) and ground reaction forces (1000 Hz) were collected. Paired t tests were performed to determine the differences (P ≤ .05) in lower limb and trunk biomechanics prefatigue and postfatigue.   Peak lower limb and trunk angles as well as peak lower limb joint reaction forces and external moments.   Compared with the prefatigue trials, dancers landed with reduced ankle plantar flexion (P = .003) and hip external rotation (P = .007) and increased hip-adduction alignment (P = .034) postfatigue. Dancers displayed greater anterior shear (P = .003) and compressive (P = .024) forces at the ankle and greater external knee-flexion moments (P = .024) during the postfatigue compared with the prefatigue landing trials.   When fatigued, dancers displayed a decline in landing performance in terms of aesthetics as well as increased ankle- and knee-joint loading, potentially exposing them to a greater risk of injuries.

  18. TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVITIES DURING ABDOMINAL BRACING: COMPARISON AMONG MUSCLES AND EXERCISES

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    Sumiaki Maeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG activities of the rectus abdominis (RA, external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and erector spinae (ES muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax. The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60% than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%. The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements

  19. Surgical treatment of complex aneurysms and thoracic aortic dissections with the Frozen Elephant Trunk technique

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    Ricardo Ribeiro Dias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:Report initial experience with the Frozen Elephant Trunk technique.Methods:From July 2009 to October 2013, Frozen Elephant Trunk technique was performed in 21 patients (66% male, mean age 56 ±11 years. They had type A aortic dissection (acute 9.6%, chronic 57.3%, type B (14.3%, all chronic and complex aneurysms (19%. It was 9.5% of reoperations and 38% of associated procedures (25.3% miocardial revascularization, 25.3% replacement of aortic valve and 49.4% aortic valved graft. Aortic remodeling was evaluated comparing preoperative and most recent computed tomography scans. One hundred per cent of complete follow-up, mean time of 28 months.Results:In-hospital mortality of 14.2%, being 50% in acute type A aortic dissection, 8.3% in chronic type A aortic dissection, 33.3% in chronic type B aortic dissection and 0% in complex aneurysms. Mean times of cardiopulmonary bypass (152±24min, myocardial ischemia (115±31min and selective cerebral perfusion (60±15min. Main complications were bleeding (14.2%, spinal cord injury (9.5%, stroke (4.7%, prolonged mechanical ventilation (4.7% and acute renal failure (4.7%. The need for second-stage operation was 19%. False-lumen thrombosis was obtained in 80%.Conclusion:Frozen Elephant Trunk is a feasible technique and should be considered. The severity of the underlying disease justifies high mortality rates. The learning curve is a reality. This approach allows treatment of more than two segments at once. Nonetheless, if a second stage is made necessary, it is facilitated.

  20. Postural and trunk responses to unexpected perturbations depend on the velocity and direction of platform motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, E; Kováčiková, Z; Jeleň, M; Neumannová, K; Janura, M

    2016-11-23

    This study compares postural and trunk responses to translating platform perturbations of varied velocities and directions. A group of 18 young and physically active subjects were exposed to a set of postural perturbations at varied velocities (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm/s) and directions of platform movement (forward, backward, left-lateral, and right-lateral). The center of pressure (CoP) displacement measurement, in addition to the trunk motion (representing the center of mass (CoM) displacement), were both monitored. Results identified that the CoP displacement increased from slow to faster velocities of platform motion more widely in both anterior and posterior directions (50.4 % and 48.4 %) as compared to the CoM displacement (17.8 % and 14.9 %). However a greater increase in the peak CoM velocity (70.3 % and 69.6 %) and the peak CoM acceleration (60.5 % and 53.1 %) was observed. The values in the anterior and posterior direction only differed significantly at the highest velocity of platform motion (i.e. 20 cm/s). A similar tendency was observed in the medio-lateral direction, but there were no significant differences in any parameter in the left-lateral and right-lateral direction. The velocity of the platform motion highly correlated with peak velocity (r=0.92-0.97, Pdisplacement (r=0.56-0.63, Pdisplacement. The effect of the direction of perturbations on the trunk response emerges only at a high velocity of platform motion, such that the peak CoM velocity and peak CoM acceleration are significantly greater in anterior than posterior direction.

  1. Kinematic and electromyographic parameters of the cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon: the effect of trunk positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pialasse, J-P; Dubois, J-D; Choquette, M-H Pilon; Lafond, D; Descarreaux, M

    2009-02-01

    The cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) is a neck extensor myoelectric "silence" that occurs during complete cervical flexion. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of this phenomenon in the cervical region and to explore the kinematics and EMG parameters in two different experimental conditions. Nineteen young healthy adults (22.2+/-2.4 years), without any cervical pain history, participated in this study and performed each of the experimental conditions. They had to accomplish a cervical flexion from a neutral seated position and from a 45 degrees forward leaning seated position. Neck kinematics was assessed using a kinematic capture device in order to assess onset and cessation angle of the PFR. Cervical paraspinal and trapezius muscles EMG activities were also recorded. All data were compared in order to assess the differences between the two experimental conditions. Eighteen of the nineteen subjects showed a FRP. The phenomenon appears between 72.6 and 76.3% of maximal cervical flexion and disappears during the return to neutral position between 91.9 and 93.1% of maximal cervical flexion. The FRP was observed, at least unilaterally, in 84.2% (67.4% bilaterally) of tasks without forward bending of trunk, and 90.5% (79.0% bilaterally) of tasks with 45 degrees forward bending of trunk. A significant increase in the flexion-relaxation ratio was observed in the 45 degrees forward leaning condition. No significant difference could be observed between the two experimental conditions for the kinematics parameters. The results of the present study indicate that cervical spine flexion in healthy subjects is characterized by a flexion-relaxation response. Moreover, the results indicate that trunk inclination might facilitate the evaluation of the cervical FRP.

  2. Measuring anterior trunk deformity in scoliosis: development of asymmetry parameters using surface topography (a pilot study

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    Patrick Knott

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians who assess and treat patients for scoliosis typically use parameters that are all visible from the posterior view. Radiographs assess the internal spinal deformity, but do not directly evaluate body shape, either posterior or anterior. This is problematic, as the patient is most concerned about the way they appear in the mirror. An objective set of anterior measurements is needed to help quantify the anterior asymmetry that is present in scoliosis. Methods The design of this system of assessment was developed as a consensus of thinking from four points of view. A spine surgeon provided the musculoskeletal structural perspective. A plastic surgeon specializing in breast reconstruction provided the aesthetic and soft tissue perspective. A surface topography researcher provided the imaging perspective, and a scoliosis patient provided the self-perception and emotional perspective. Using an iterative process, a series of potential measurement parameters using surface topography measurements were considered, debated, and ultimately selected to be part of a system of measurement that provides an overall assessment of anterior trunk asymmetry. Results An anterior surface topography scan in the relaxed, standing position was taken of the scoliosis patient. The computer provides a 3D topographical model that is used to complete measurements that can be combined to achieve an Anterior Aesthetic Deformity Score. Shoulder parameters, including shoulder height difference and shoulder slope difference, make up 40 % of the total score. Breast asymmetry, including nipple height difference and sternal notch-to-nipple distance, make up 30 % of the total score. Waist asymmetry makes up the final 30 % of the score, providing an objective and quantifiable measure of anterior trunk deformity. Conclusions These measurements provide an objective, systematic evaluation of anterior trunk asymmetry that can be used in the assessment of

  3. Effects of Static, Stationary, and Traveling Trunk Exercises on Muscle Activation

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    Darien T. Pyka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new fitness trend incorporates stability exercises that challenges trunk muscles and introduces crawling as an exercise, but has yet to be investigated for muscle activity. Purpose: To compare the effects of static (STA, stationary (STN, and traveling (TRV trunk exercises on muscle activation of the rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, external oblique, and erector spinae using surface electromyography (EMG. Methods: Seventeen recreationally active women (mean age ± SD = 22.4 ± 2.4 years, body mass 62.9 ± 6.9 kg, height 165.1 ± 5.8 cm and twenty-three men (23.6 ±3.9 years, 83.2 ±17.1 kg, 177.1 ± 9.1 cm volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects performed maximal voluntary contractions for normalization of each muscle’s EMG activity. They then performed the three exercises in random order for thirty seconds each with a two-minute rest in between. Results: For the rectus abdominis, STA was significantly lower than STN (P = 0.003 and TRV (P = 0.001. For the external oblique, STA was significantly lower than STN (P = 0.001 and TRV (P = 0.001 and STN was significantly greater than TRV (P = 0.009. For the erector spinae and rectus femoris, STA was significantly lower than STN (P = 0.001 and TRV (P = 0.001 Conclusions: There was greater muscle activation in all muscles tested in the stationary and traveling exercises versus the static. Strength and conditioning coaches and allied health professionals could potentially use stationary and traveling forms of trunk stabilization exercises as a viable strategy to increase muscle activation.

  4. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mogens T; Randers, Morten B; Skotte, Jørgen H; Krustrup, Peter

    2009-12-01

    A slower reflex response to sudden trunk loading (SL) has been shown to increase future risk of low back injuries in healthy subjects, and specific readiness training can improve the response to SL among healthy subjects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of recreational soccer training on the reaction to SL among untrained healthy women. Thirty-six healthy, untrained, Danish women (age 19-45 years) were randomly assigned to a soccer group (SO, n = 19) and a running group (RU, n = 17). In addition, an untrained control group (CON, n = 10) was recruited. Training was performed for 1 hour twice a week (mean heart rate of 165 b.min-1 in SO and 164 b.min-1 in RU) for 16 weeks. Test of reactions to sudden unexpected trunk loading was performed before and after the training period. Furthermore, time-motion analysis of the soccer training was performed for 9 subjects. Group assignment was blinded to the test personnel. Physical education students organized the training. During 1 hour of soccer training, the total number of sudden moves including sudden loading of the upper body (e.g. turns, stops, throw-ins, headers, and shoulder tackles) was 192 (63). In SO, time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time) decreased (p < 0.05) by 15% and distance moved after unexpected SL decreased (p < 0.05) by 24% compared with no changes in RU and CON. In conclusion, football training includes a high number of sudden loadings of the upper body and can improve the reflex response to SL. The faster reflex response indicates that soccer training can reduce the risk of low back injuries.

  5. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

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    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  6. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively...... function and mobility with significant clinical implications for the treatment of children with CP....

  7. Influence of Lumbar Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Adaptations during Sudden External Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Lardon, Arnaud; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: When the spine is subjected to perturbations, neuromuscular responses such as reflex muscle contractions contribute to the overall balance control and spinal stabilization mechanisms. These responses are influenced by muscle fatigue, which has been shown to trigger changes in muscle recruitment patterns. Neuromuscular adaptations, e.g., attenuation of reflex activation and/or postural oscillations following repeated unexpected external perturbations, have also been described. However, the characterization of these adaptations still remains unclear. Using high-density electromyography (EMG) may help understand how the nervous system chooses to deal with an unknown perturbation in different physiological and/or mechanical perturbation environments. Aim: To characterize trunk neuromuscular adaptations following repeated sudden external perturbations after a back muscle fatigue task using high-density EMG. Methods: Twenty-five healthy participants experienced a series of 15 sudden external perturbations before and after back muscle fatigue. Erector spinae muscle activity was recorded using high-density EMG. Trunk kinematics during perturbation trials were collected using a 3-D motion analysis system. A two-way repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to assess: (1) the adaptation effect across trials; (2) the fatigue effect; and (3) the interaction effect (fatigue × adaptation) for the baseline activity, the reflex latency, the reflex peak and trunk kinematic variables (flexion angle, velocity and time to peak velocity). Muscle activity spatial distribution before and following the fatigue task was also compared using t-tests for dependent samples. Results: An attenuation of muscle reflex peak was observed across perturbation trials before the fatigue task, but not after. The spatial distribution of muscle activity was significantly higher before the fatigue task compared to post-fatigue trials. Baseline activity showed a trend to higher values after muscle

  8. Effect of short-term exercise program on trunk muscles performance in women basketball players

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    Tina Grapar Žargi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies showed that the addition of trunk muscle or core stability exercises in the sport training programs is an effective prevention of spinal and other musculoskeletal injuries. Methods: Twelve female basketball players performed supervised five-week exercise program focused on strengthening the trunk muscles. The program was performed three times per week during pre-season. Sorensen test, Fitnessgram Dynamic Curl-Up test, Prone Plank test and Side Bridge test were used to evaluate trunk muscles performance prior to and immediately after the exercise program completion and again after a three-month follow up period. Results: The results of Sorensen test and Prone Plank test significantly improved immediately after the program, but values returned to baseline at follow-up. In contrast, the results of Fitnessgram Dynamic Curl-Up test and Side Bridge test improved significantly with exercise program and remained significantly higher also at follow-up. Conclusions: Exercise program with emphasis on strengthening the trunk and core muscles can improve muscle performance, however, the results deteriorate shortly after program termination. In order to achieve long-term results, trunk and core muscle exercises have to be performed on regular basis, hence they must be incorporated into general strengthening programs of basketball players.

  9. The effects of core stability strength exercise on muscle activity and trunk impairment scale in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong-Hun; Park, Seong-Doo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of core stability-enhancing exercises on the lower trunk and muscle activity of stroke patients. The control group (n = 10) underwent standard exercise therapy, while the experiment group (n =10) underwent both the core stability-enhancing exercise and standard exercise therapy simultaneously. The standard exercise therapy applied to the two groups included weight bearing and weight shifts and joint movements to improve flexibility and the range of motion. The core stability-enhancing exercise was performed 5 times a week for 30 min over a period of 4 weeks in the room where the patients were treated. For all 20 subject, the items measured before the exercise were measured after the therapeutic intervention, and changes in muscle activity of the lower trunk were evaluated. The activity and stability of the core muscles were measured using surface electromyography and the trunk impairment scale (TIS). The mean TIS score and muscle activity of the lower trunk increased in the experiment group significantly after performing the core stability-enhancing exercise (Pcore stability-enhancing exercise is effective in improving muscle activity of the lower trunk, which is affected by hemiplegia.

  10. The Activation Pattern of Trunk and Lower Limb Muscles in an Electromyographic Assessment; Comparison Between Ground and Treadmill Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Reza; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Radmehr, Gelareh; Halabchi, Farzin; Angoorani, Hooman

    2016-09-01

    Due to biomechanical differences, various patterns of muscle contraction are expected to occur while walking over ground versus when walking on a treadmill. This study aimed to compare amplitude and duration of activation of selected trunk and lower extremity muscles during over-ground and treadmill walking. Through a simple sampling method, 19 sedentary healthy men within the age range of 20 - 40 were selected. Surface electromyography of rectus abdominis, external oblique, longissimus and multifidus muscles as the selected trunk muscles and vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and hamstrings as the selected lower limb muscles were recorded. In each gait cycle, there were no statistically significant differences in duration of selected trunk as well as lower limb muscles activity between treadmill and over-ground walking. However the mean amplitude of rectus abdominis (P = 0.005), longissimus (P = 0.018) and multifidus (P = 0.044) as the selected trunk muscles as well as the mean amplitude of vastus lateralis (P = 0.005) and vastus medialis (P lower limb muscles was greater on treadmill compared with over ground. Due to the stabilizing role of trunk and lower limb muscles during walking, these muscles seem to be active throughout the entire gait cycle. The increased muscle amplitude on treadmill can demonstrate that more motor units may be recruited during the contraction, which can be helpful in prescribing the appropriate type of exercise especially for patients with core muscle weakness.

  11. Rehabilitation effect of trunk control training under suspension on motor function of stroke patients in sequela period

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    Xiao-hua YAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of two trunk control trainings on motor function recovery of stroke patients in sequela period.  Methods A total of 42 patients were randomly divided into control group (N = 21 and observation group (N = 21. The control group was treated by traditional trunk control training, and the observation group was treated by trunk control training using suspension technology. Both groups all received other conventional rehabilitation treatment. All patients received Trunk Control Test (TCT, Functional Ambulation Category Scale (FAC, Berg Balance Scale (BBS and 10 m Maximum Walking Speed (10 m MWS before and 20 d after treatment.  Results After two courses of treatment, the scores of TCT (P = 0.000, FAC (P = 0.000, BBS (P = 0.000 and 10 m MWS (P = 0.000 were significantly improved in both groups. The scores of TCT (P = 0.000, FAC (P = 0.002, BBS (P = 0.000 and 10 m MWS (P = 0.000 after treatment in observation group were all significantly higher than those in control group.  Conclusions The method of trunk control training under suspension can effectively improve the motor function of stroke patients in sequela period. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.006

  12. Contralesional Trunk Rotation Dissociates Real vs. Pseudo-Visual Field Defects due to Visual Neglect in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Thomas; Paladini, Rebecca E; Hopfner, Simone; Job, Oliver; Nef, Tobias; Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Müri, René M; Kerkhoff, Georg; Cazzoli, Dario

    2017-01-01

    In stroke patients, the clinical presentation of visual field defects (VFDs) is frequently accompanied by visual neglect, i.e., the inability to attend and respond to the contralesional space. However, the diagnostic discrimination between the lack of reactions to contralesional stimuli due to VFDs or visual neglect is challenging during clinical examination. This discrimination is particularly relevant, since both clinical pictures are associated with different therapeutic approaches and outcomes. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effectiveness of trunk rotation toward the contralesional side-a manipulation dissociating the coordinate system of the trunk from that of the head and eyes-in disentangling real VFDs from "pseudo-VFDs" that occur due to visual neglect. Twenty patients with a left-sided VFD after a right-hemispheric stroke (10 additionally showing visual neglect in neuropsychological testing, VFD + neglect; 10 without neglect, VFD) were tested with Goldmann perimetry in both standard and trunk rotation conditions. In the standard condition, both VFD and VFD + neglect patients showed a conspicuous narrowing of the left visual field. However, trunk rotation triggered strikingly different patterns of change in the two groups: it elicited a significant increase in visual field extension in the VFD + neglect group, but left visual field extension virtually unchanged in the VFD group. Our results highlight contralesional trunk rotation as a simple, viable manipulation to effectively and rapidly disentangle real VFDs from "pseudo-VFDs" (i.e., due to visual neglect) during clinical examination.

  13. Effects of frontal and sagittal thorax attitudes in gait on trunk and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begon, Mickaël; Leardini, Alberto; Belvedere, Claudio; Farahpour, Nader; Allard, Paul

    2015-10-01

    While sagittal trunk inclinations alter upper body biomechanics, little is known about the extent of frontal trunk bending on upper body and pelvis kinematics in adults during gait and its relation to sagittal trunk inclinations. The objective was to determine the effect of the mean lateral trunk attitude on upper body and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics during gait in asymptomatic subjects. Three gait cycles were collected in 30 subjects using a motion analysis system (Vicon 612) and an established protocol. Sub-groups were formed based on the mean thorax lateral bending angle, bending side, and also sagittal tilt. These were compared based on 38 peak angles identified on pelvis, thorax and shoulder kinematics using MANOVAs. A main effect for bending side (p = 0.038) was found, especially for thorax peak angles. Statistics revealed also a significant interaction (p = 0.04993) between bending side and tilt for the thorax sagittal inclination during body-weight transfer. These results reinforce the existence of different gait patterns, which correlate upper body and pelvis motion measures. The results also suggest that frontal and sagittal trunk attitude should be considered carefully when treating a patient with impaired gait. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The phylogenetic trunk: maximal inclusion of taxa with missing data in an analysis of the lepospondyli (Vertebrata, Tetrapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J S

    2001-04-01

    The importance of fossils to phylogenetic reconstruction is well established. However, analyses of fossil data sets are confounded by problems related to the less complete nature of the specimens. Taxa that are incompletely known are problematic because of the uncertainty of their placement within a tree, leading to a proliferation of most-parsimonious solutions and "wild card" behavior. Problematic taxa are commonly deleted based on a priori criteria of completeness. Paradoxically, a taxon's problematic behavior is tree dependent, and levels of completeness are not directly associated with problematic behavior. Exclusion of taxa on the basis of completeness eliminates real character conflict and, by not allowing incomplete taxa to determine tree topology, diminishes the phylogenetic hypothesis. Here, the phylogenetic trunk approach is proposed to allow optimization of taxonomic inclusion and tree stability. The use of this method in an analysis of the Paleozoic Lepospondyli finds a single most-parsimonious tree, or trunk, after the removal of one taxon identified as being problematic. Moreover, the 38 trees found at one additional step from this primary trunk were reduced to 2 by removal of one additional taxon. These trunks are compared with the trees that were found by excluding taxa with various degrees of completeness, and the effects of incomplete taxa are explored with regard to use of the trunk. Correlated characters associated with limblessness are discussed regarding the assumption of character independence; however, inclusion of intermediate taxa is found to be the single best method for breaking down long branches.

  15. A biomechanical analysis of trunk and pelvis motion during gait in subjects with knee osteoarthritis compared to control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Heather S; Sled, Elizabeth A; Culham, Elsie G; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2010-12-01

    Trunk lean over the stance limb during gait has been linked to a reduction in the knee adduction moment, which is associated with joint loading. We examined differences in knee adduction moments and frontal plane trunk lean during gait between subjects with knee osteoarthritis and a control group of healthy adults. Gait analysis was performed on 80 subjects (40 osteoarthritis). To define lateral trunk lean two definitions were used. The line connecting the midpoint between two reference points on the pelvis and the midpoint between the acromion processes was projected onto the lab frontal plane and the pelvis frontal plane. Pelvic tilt was also measured in the frontal plane as the angle between the pelvic and lab coordinate systems. Angles were calculated across the stance phase of gait. We analyzed the data, (i) by extracting discrete parameters (mean and peak) waveform values, and (ii) using principal component analysis to extract shape and magnitude differences between the waveforms. Osteoarthritis subjects had a higher knee adduction moment than the control group (α=0.05). Although the discrete parameters for trunk lean did not show differences between groups, principal component analysis did detect characteristic waveform differences between the control and osteoarthritis groups. A thorough biomechanical analysis revealed small differences in the pattern of motion of the pelvis and the trunk between subjects with knee osteoarthritis and control subjects; however these differences were only detectable using principal component analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on respiratory function and trunk control ability in patients with scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jwa Jun; Song, Gui Bin; Park, Eun Cho

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on the respiratory function and trunk control ability of patients with scoliosis. [Subjects] Forty scoliosis patients were randomly divided into the Swiss ball exercise group (n= 20) and resistance exercise group (n = 20). [Methods] The Swiss ball and resistance exercise groups performed chest expansion and breathing exercises with a Swiss ball and a therapist's resistance, respectively. Both groups received training 30 min per day, 5 times per week for 8 weeks. [Results] Both groups exhibited significant changes in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and trunk impairment scale after the intervention. However, there was no significant change in the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio after the intervention in either group. Meanwhile, forced expiratory volume in one second and trunk impairment scale were significantly greater in the resistance exercise group after the intervention. [Conclusion] Both Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise are effective for improving the respiratory function and trunk control ability of patients with scoliosis. However, resistance exercise is more effective for increasing the forced expiratory volume in one second and trunk control ability.

  17. A comparative study of the effects of trunk exercise program in aquatic and land-based therapy on gait in hemiplegic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program on gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 28 hemiplegic stroke patients (20 males, 8 females). The subjects performed a trunk exercise program for a total of four weeks. [Results] Walking speed and cycle, stance phase and stride length of the affected side, and the symmetry index of the stance phase significantly improved after the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program may help improve gait performance ability after stroke.

  18. Use of the recipient celiac trunk for hepatic artery reconstruction in orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hinnawi, A; Nishida, S; Levi, D; Selvaggi, G; Tekin, A; Fan, J; Ernesto, P; Kyota, F; Tzakis, A G

    2013-06-01

    Arterial complications contribute to significant morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (OLT). If hepatic artery inflow to the graft is inadequate, alternative approaches can be considered, such as supraceliac or infrarenal aortic conduits and splenic artery as an arterial inflow. Between January 2005 and January 2012, we performed 928 OLTs. We used the recipient celiac trunk for arterial inflow in 9 patients (1%). evaluated retrospectively, We the indications, results, and outcome of this technique. Doppler ultrasound of the liver was used to evaluate arterial flow. Eight cases are first transplant and 1 case is a second transplant. Five cases are pediatric recipients and four cases are adult recipients. Male to female ratio is 3/6. Average follow-up is 23 months. No complications were encountered as a result of sacrificing the branches of the celiac axis. The conclusion is that the celiac trunk provides an adequate arterial inflow in OLT when the recipient's hepatic artery is not suitable to use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anthropological analysis of projectile trauma to the bony regions of the trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Caitlin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistics literature often focuses on soft tissue injures and projectile trauma to the cranium. Minimal details on the bony characteristics of projectile trauma to the thorax/abdomen regions have been published. This study aims to analyse projectile trauma to the bony trunk region including the ribs, vertebrae, scapula, sternum and the hip bone to form a better understanding of the characteristics and biomechanics of skeletal trauma caused by a projectile and contribute to the existing database on skeletal trauma caused by projectiles. Fourteen cases of documented projectile trauma to the bony regions of the trunk from the Hamman-Todd Human Osteological Collection at the Cleveland Natural History Museum, Ohio were analysed. Of the 14 individuals with gunshot wounds examined, 40 wounds occurred to the bones. Twenty- four injuries to the ribs, 1 ilium, 11 vertebrae, 3 scapulae, and 1 sternum. Fracture patterns, heaving and bevelling can be used to determine the direction of travel of the projectile which can be evident on the ribs, sternum, scapula and ilium. It is critical to understand the wounding patterns associated with projectile trauma to the torso region as this is often targeted, due to being the centre of mass.

  20. An algorithm for detecting EMG onset/offset in trunk muscles during a reaction- stabilization test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubany, Júlia; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2016-04-27

    Most of the EMG analysis algorithms developed to date don't detect the whole sequence of rhythmic and subtle changes that take place during the process of trunk stabilization. Indeed, the few recent methods that are capable of assessing these important EMG characteristics are highly complex and not accessible in most applied clinic contexts. To validate and disseminate a software program suitable for detecting multiple and relatively small EMG bursts during a trunk stabilization response. Ninety EMG recordings randomly selected from 50 individuals (24 with chronic low back pain) were analysed by our algorithm based on means and standard deviations and an experienced examiner (as a gold standard). Concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were considered to analyse reliability. Results showed a high degree of concordance between the two methods (87.2%), high sensitivity and specificity rates (79.5 and 89.2%), a moderate-low positive predicted value (66.9%) and a high negative predicted value (94.4%). The program provided is flexible and useful to detect EMG activity. The selected parameters of the program were able to detect onset/offset EMG bursts and were valid for the purpose of this study with a small tendency to over-detect bursts.

  1. A novel stability and kinematics-driven trunk biomechanical model to estimate muscle and spinal forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihosseinali, M; Arjmand, N; Shirazi-Adl, A; Farahmand, F; Ghiasi, M S

    2014-10-01

    An anatomically detailed eighteen-rotational-degrees-of-freedom model of the human spine using optimization constrained to equilibrium and stability requirements is developed and used to simulate several symmetric tasks in upright and flexed standing postures. Predictions of this stability and kinematics-driven (S+KD) model for trunk muscle forces and spine compressive/shear loads are compared to those of our existing kinematics-driven (KD) model where both translational and rotational degrees-of-freedom are included but redundancy is resolved using equilibrium conditions alone. Unlike the KD model, the S+KD model predicted abdominal co-contractions that, in agreement with electromyography data, increased as lifting height increased at a constant horizontal moment arm. The S+KD model, however, could not fully explain the CNS strategy in activating antagonistic muscles for most of the remaining tasks. Despite quite distinct activities in individual muscles, both models predicted L4-L5 intradiscal pressure that matched the in vivo data, the L4-S1 compression loads, and the sum of all trunk muscle forces. For modeling applications in ergonomics, where the compressive spine loads are of interest, the two models yielded model explained more properly the CNS strategy in activating the antagonistic muscles for some tasks. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of the weight configuration of hand load on trunk musculature during static weight holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinei, Saman; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2017-10-09

    The performance of manual material handling tasks is one major cause of lower back injuries. In the current study, we investigated the influence of the weight configuration of hand loads on trunk muscle activities and the associated spinal stability. Thirteen volunteers each performed static weight-holding tasks using two different 9 kg weight bars (with medial and lateral weight configurations) at two levels of height (low and high) and one fixed horizontal distance (which resulted in constant spinal joint moment across conditions). Results of the current study demonstrated that holding the laterally distributed load significantly reduced activation levels of lumbar and abdominal muscles by 9-13% as compared with holding the medially distributed load. We believe such an effect is due to an elevated rotational moment of inertia when the weight of the load is laterally distributed. These findings suggest that during the design and assessment of manual material handling tasks, such as lifting and carrying, the weight configuration of the hand load should be considered. Practitioner summary: Elevated trunk muscle activities were found when holding a medially distributed load vs. a laterally distributed load (with an equivalent external moment to the spine), indicating a reduced spinal stability due to the reduced rotational moment of inertia. The configuration of the hand load should be considered when evaluating manual material handling tasks.

  3. Test-retest reliability of trunk motor variability measured by large-array surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Loranger, Michel; Descarreaux, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the trunk muscle activity distribution in asymptomatic participants during muscle fatigue using large-array surface electromyography (EMG). Trunk muscle activity distribution was evaluated twice, with 3 to 4 days between them, in 27 asymptomatic volunteers using large-array surface EMG. Motor variability, assessed with 2 different variables (the centroid coordinates of the root mean square map and the dispersion variable), was evaluated during a low back muscle fatigue task. Test-retest reliability of muscle activity distribution was obtained using Pearson correlation coefficients. A shift in the distribution of EMG amplitude toward the lateral-caudal region of the lumbar erector spinae induced by muscle fatigue was observed. Moderate to very strong correlations were found between both sessions in the last 3 phases of the fatigue task for both motor variability variables, whereas weak to moderate correlations were found in the first phases of the fatigue task only for the dispersion variable. These findings show that, in asymptomatic participants, patterns of EMG activity are less reliable in initial stages of muscle fatigue, whereas later stages are characterized by highly reliable patterns of EMG activity. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of intermittent trunk flexion to alleviate low back pain during prolonged standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Danielle M; Gregory, Diane E

    2016-04-01

    The current study examined of the effect of intermittent, short-term periods of full trunk flexion on the development of low back pain (LBP) during two hours of standing. Sixteen participants completed two 2-h standing protocols, separated by one week. On one day, participants stood statically for 2h (control day); on the other day participants bent forward to full spine flexion (termed flexion trials) to elicit the flexion relaxation (FR) phenomenon for 5s every 15min (experimental day). The order of the control and experimental day was randomized. During both protocols, participants reported LBP using a 100mm visual analogue scale every 15min. During the flexion trials, lumbar spine posture, erector spinae and gluteus medius muscle activation was monitored. Ultimately, intermittent trunk flexion reduced LBP by 36% (10mm) at the end of a 2-h period of standing. Further, erector spinae and gluteus medius muscle quietening during FR was observed in 91% and 65% of the flexion trials respectively, indicating that periods of rest did occurred possibly contributing to the reduction in LBP observed. Since flexion periods do not require any aids, they can be performed in most workplaces thereby increasing applicability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinematics and the implementation of an elephant's trunk manipulator and other continuum style robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Michael W.; Walker, Ian D.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, robot manipulators have been a simple arrangement of a small number of serially connected links and actuated joints. Though these manipulators prove to be very effective for many tasks, they are not without their limitations, due mainly to their lack of maneuverability or total degrees of freedom. Continuum style (i.e., continuous "back-bone") robots, on the other hand, exhibit a wide range of maneuverability, and can have a large number of degrees of freedom. The motion of continuum style robots is generated through the bending of the robot over a given section; unlike traditional robots where the motion occurs in discrete locations, i.e., joints. The motion of continuum manipulators is often compared to that of biological manipulators such as trunks and tentacles. These continuum style robots can achieve motions that could only be obtainable by a conventionally designed robot with many more degrees of freedom. In this paper we present a detailed formulation and explanation of a novel kinematic model for continuum style robots. The design, construction, and implementation of our continuum style robot called the elephant trunk manipulator is presented. Experimental results are then provided to verify the legitimacy of our model when applied to our physical manipulator. We also provide a set of obstacle avoidance experiments that help to exhibit the practical implementation of both our manipulator and our kinematic model. c2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The mechanics of the in vivo infant and toddler trunk during respiratory physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Baptiste; Vajda, Emmanuel; Alonzo, François; Bruyère, Karine; Bermond, François

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the in vivo mechanical response of the child trunk under loading during physiotherapy treatments. Twenty-six children aged 45 days to 7 years (14 girls and 12 boys) took part in this study. The forces applied by the physiotherapist were recorded using a force-plate embedded in the manipulation table supporting the child. Two synchronized cameras filmed the scene in a calibrated environment. The displacement of reflective targets glued on the physiotherapist's hands was calculated using an automatic tracking procedure and the 3D reconstruction "Direct Linear Transformation" algorithm. The progression of physical parameters was evaluated according to the age of the child. They included force, displacement, normalized displacement, loading speed, displacement and normalized displacement at the maximum force, force at the maximum displacement, viscous criterion and effective stiffness. For all patients, the mean maximum displacement and load were 22 mm (SD 9 mm) and 240 N (SD 46 N) respectively. The force-displacement curves had shown the complexity of the in vivo behavior: four phases have been distinguished with cycles in respect with the respiratory phases. The increase in force always occurred before the increase in displacement. This study helps to understand the in vivo behavior of the child trunk subjected to repetitive non-injurious mechanical loading. Further analysis in other populations and with different therapeutic maneuvers would refine the results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-body MRI in adult inflammatory myopathies: Do we need imaging of the trunk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Manoliu, Andrei; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Maurer, Britta [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Division of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate whether imaging of the trunk could be omitted in patients with inflammatory myopathies without losing diagnostic accuracy using a restricted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (rWB-MRI) protocol. After approval by the institutional review board, this study was performed in 63 patients (male/female, 13/50; median age, 52 years; range, 20-81 years) with new-onset myopathic symptoms (group 1, n = 41) or previously diagnosed inflammatory myopathy (group 2, n = 22). After performing whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) at 3.0 Tesla, myositis and fatty atrophy were evaluated in different muscles by two independent radiologists. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate inter-observer reliability. Acquisition time was 56:01 minutes for WB-MRI and 37:37 minutes (32.8 % shorter) for rWB-MRI. In group 1, 14 patients were diagnosed with inflammatory myopathy based on muscle biopsy. rWB-MRI and WB-MRI showed equal sensitivity (42.9 %) and specificity (100 %) for myositis, and showed equal sensitivity (71.4 %) and similar specificity (63.0 % and 48.1 %, respectively) for fatty atrophy. No myositis was found in the body trunk in any patient. Inter-observer reliability was between substantial and perfect (ICC, 0.77-1.00). rWB-MRI showed diagnostic accuracy similar to WB-MRI for inflammatory myopathy at markedly reduced overall acquisition time. (orig.)

  8. Surface effects on dynamic stability and loading during outdoor running using wireless trunk accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Kurt H; Aeles, Jeroen; De Beéck, Tim Op; van der Zwaard, Babette C; Venter, Rachel; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2016-07-01

    Despite frequently declared benefits of using wireless accelerometers to assess running gait in real-world settings, available research is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate outdoor surface effects on dynamic stability and dynamic loading during running using tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Twenty eight runners (11 highly-trained, 17 recreational) performed outdoor running on three outdoor training surfaces (concrete road, synthetic track and woodchip trail) at self-selected comfortable running speeds. Dynamic postural stability (tri-axial acceleration root mean square (RMS) ratio, step and stride regularity, sample entropy), dynamic loading (impact and breaking peak amplitudes and median frequencies), as well as spatio-temporal running gait measures (step frequency, stance time) were derived from trunk accelerations sampled at 1024Hz. Results from generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis showed that compared to concrete road, woodchip trail had several significant effects on dynamic stability (higher AP ratio of acceleration RMS, lower ML inter-step and inter-stride regularity), on dynamic loading (downward shift in vertical and AP median frequency), and reduced step frequency (poutdoor surfaces in situ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of a Trunk Injection Technique to Control Grapevine Wood Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Darrieutort

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vineyard experiments were conducted over five years in the Bordeaux area to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk injections in controlling Eutypa dieback (4 trials and esca (1 trial. Single treatments were applied in winter 2001 or 2002 using the tree injector StemJect®. Three compounds were tested: two triazole-derived fungicides, propiconazole and difenoconazole, and one elicitor, 2-hydroxybenzoïc acid. Symptomatic vines of two susceptible cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc, had first been identified in summer in the year before the treatments were started. A disease scale was used to rate the severity of the foliar symptoms. After treatment, disease development was recorded on the same vines in the following years, from 2002 to 2005. Analyses were based on the evolution of foliar symptoms and on the development of wood symptoms (% area of dead wood. This novel procedure made it possible to determine the sanitary status of each vine in terms of three classes of disease severity: remission of symptoms, stability or worsening. No treatment had a significantly durable effect on disease expression irrespective of the site, the compound or the disease studied. Some phytotoxic effects with the triazole fungicides were noticed. Prospects for trunk injections as a means to solve these insidious problems in viticulture are discussed.

  10. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsu Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM. The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  11. Impact of Comprehensive Rehabilitation Therapy on Trunk Controlling Ability of Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J-X; Shi, S-X; Wang, B; Kan, X-L

    2015-05-06

    This study aims to investigate the impact of comprehensive treatment on the trunk controlling ability (TCA) of children with cerebral palsy (CPC). Twenty children with spastic cerebral palsy had truncal stability parameters in the sitting posture and the symmetry parameters of left-right-forward-backward centre of pressure evaluated by the stationary stability assessment module of the PK 254 P balance training instrument. After a six-month trunk control training with physical therapy technology and balancing instrument, the above indicators were re-evaluated, and the evaluations before and after the treatment were analysed to assess the therapeutic effect. The difference in the truncal stability parameters before and after the treatment was statistically significant ( p < 0.05); the difference in the symmetry parameters of forward-backward centre of pressure was significant ( p < 0.05). The balancing instrument training, combined with physical therapy technology training, could effectively improve the TCA of CPC, and the balancing instrument could also provide the objective and quantitative efficacy assessment toward the TCA of CPC.

  12. Workshop on stems and trunks in plant form and function. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, B.L. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the final report on the workshop on stems and trunks in plant form and function relating to DOE grant DE-FG06-93ER20128 which took place at Oregon State University in February 1994. The resulting book is organized into four sections and a synthesis: roles of stem architecture in plant performance, roles of stems in transport and storage of water, roles of live stem cells in plant performance, and the roles of stems in preventing or reacting to response to plant injury. The synthesis stemmed from debated and discussion by the authors and a few dozen other workshop participants. The authors cover many stem functions, although the list is not exhaustive, and the focus is on terrestrial woody tree stems, primarily of temperate and boreal zones. More research on trunks, branches and twigs is important for a baseline understanding of plant biology. In the face of anticipated human-caused changes to most environments, we need not only have a baseline understanding of whole-plant biology, but also predictive capabilities for how plants will react to perturbations.

  13. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

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    Hong-Liang Qi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China. The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  14. Size and symmetry of trunk muscles in ballet dancers with and without low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Jan E; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul W

    2013-08-01

    Cross-sectional, observational study. To investigate the cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk muscles in professional ballet dancers with and without low back pain (LBP). LBP is the most prevalent chronic injury in classical ballet dancers. Research on nondancers has found changes in trunk muscle size and symmetry to be associated with LBP. There are no studies that examine these changes in ballet dancers. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 14 male and 17 female dancers. The CSAs of 4 muscles (multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, psoas, and quadratus lumborum) were measured and compared among 3 groups of dancers: those without LBP or hip pain (n = 8), those with LBP only (n = 13), and those with both hip-region pain and LBP (n = 10). Dancers with no pain had larger multifidus muscles compared to those with LBP at L3-5 (Phip-region pain and LBP at L3 and L4 on the right side (Phip-region pain and LBP compared to those with LBP only (P.05). The CSAs of the other muscles did not differ between groups. The psoas (Pballet dancers, LBP and hip-region pain and LBP are associated with a smaller CSA of the multifidus but not the erector spinae, psoas, or quadratus lumborum muscles.

  15. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  16. Increase in corticospinal excitability of limb and trunk muscles according to maintenance of neck flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Tomita, Hidehito; Kunita, Kenji

    2009-09-25

    The effect of maintenance of neck flexion on corticospinal excitability of limb and trunk muscles was investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Nine healthy young subjects participated in this experiment. Every measurement was performed with subjects sitting on a chair. Target muscles were the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GcM) on the right side. TMS was applied to the left primary motor cortex, and motor evoked potential (MEP) was measured from the muscles listed above. Optimal stimulus location and resting motor threshold (RMT) were identified for each target muscle, and stimulus intensity used was 120% of RMT. MEPs of the target muscle were recorded with the chin resting on a chin support (chin-on condition) with neck in 20 degrees of flexion, and with voluntary maintenance of the neck flexion posture (chin-off condition). Amplitude and latency of MEP and background activity of target muscles were analyzed. For FDI, BB, TB, ES, and RF, amplitude of MEP increased and latency shortened in the chin-off compared with the chin-on condition. No significant difference in background activity of each target muscle was found between the two conditions. Corticospinal excitability of limb and trunk muscles was selectively enhanced while neck flexion was maintained.

  17. Neck posture during lifting and its effect on trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavenka, Thomas M; Christner, Vanessa F K; Gregory, Diane E

    2017-07-01

    Neck and head posture have been found to have a significant influence on the posture of the lower spine region during lifting and both an extended/upward gaze and a flexed/downward gaze have been hypothesized to lead to increased pain and/or overuse of the neck musculature. As a result, strength training recommendations have turned to the use of a retracted neck posture as being the safer posture to assume during lifting. This study examined trunk and neck muscle activity and lumbar spine posture in seven participants while performing moderate load lifts using a retracted neck posture (chin drawn in posteriorly; recently gaining popularity among coaches, trainers, and physical therapists to reduce neck pain during lifting, and freestyle neck posture (no instructions given). The retracted neck resulted in less lumbar spine flexion and increased lumbar erector spinae, external oblique, and sternocleidomastoid activity. The retracted posture also resulted in decreased activity in the thoracic erector spinae and dorsal neck musculature. The increased trunk and sternocleidomastoid activity and decreased spine flexion observed in the seven participants of this study when lifting with a retracted neck may have the potential to help lower the risk of spine pain/injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Feasibility of Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) Trunk for Raw Material of Parquet (Wood Flooring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, A.; Tarigan, A.; Hakim, L.

    2017-03-01

    In the market, parquet was made from high density wood such as teak, merbau, kempas, ulin, oak, lime, maple, or other high density wood. Parquet has been used for flooring in specific buildings, for instance sport hall, library, commercial building (i.e hotel lobby, hypermarket), and office building. Because of the scarcity of high density wood nowadays and in order to find out the alternative material for wood flooring, the utilization of sugar palm trunk was considered. In this contribution, unproductive sugar palm tree was cut down and divided into three sections using chain saw, namely bottom, middle, and tip. For each section, physical and mechanical samples testing were made according to British Standard 373:1957 for small clear specimen. Investigation of both properties was done in ambient temperature with at least three replications. Instron UTM (Universal Testing Machine) was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. Results of the physical testing (density, moisture content and tangential shrinkage) showed the entire trunk was suitable for raw material of parquet. However, the results of mechanical testing (hardness, MOE/modulus of elasticity, MOR/modulus of rupture, and compression perpendicular to grain) showed only bottom and middle parts were suitable for raw material of parquet while the upper part was vice versa.

  19. Evaluation of Strength and Irradiated Movement Pattern Resulting from Trunk Motions of the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bahia Gontijo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF is a physiotherapeutic concept based on muscle and joint proprioceptive stimulation. Among its principles, the irradiation is the reaction of the distinct regional muscle contractions to the position of the application of the motions. Objective. To investigate the presence of irradiated dorsiflexion and plantar flexion and the existing strength generated by them during application of PNF trunk motions. Methods. The study was conducted with 30 sedentary and female volunteers, the PNF motions of trunk flexion, and extension with the foot (right and left positioned in a developed equipment coupled to the load cell, which measured the strength irradiated in Newton. Results. Most of the volunteers irradiated dorsal flexion in the performance of the flexion and plantar flexion during the extension motion, both presenting an average force of 8.942 N and 10.193 N, respectively. Conclusion. The distal irradiation in lower limbs became evident, reinforcing the therapeutic actions to the PNF indirect muscular activation.

  20. LEGS AND TRUNK MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY FOLLOWING WALK TRAINING WITH RESTRICTED LEG MUSCLE BLOOD FLOW

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    Mikako Sakamaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of walk training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR on the size of blood flow-restricted distal muscles, as well as, on the size of non-restricted muscles in the proximal limb and trunk. Nine men performed walk training with BFR and 8 men performed walk training alone. Training was conducted two times a day, 6 days/wk, for 3 wk using five sets of 2-min bouts (treadmill speed at 50 m/min, with a 1-min rest between bouts. After walk training with BFR, MRI-measured upper (3.8%, P < 0.05 and lower leg (3.2%, P < 0. 05 muscle volume increased significantly, whereas the muscle volume of the gluteus maximus (-0.6% and iliopsoas (1.8% and the muscle CSA of the lumber L4-L5 (-1.0 did not change. There was no significant change in muscle volume in the walk training alone. Our results suggest that the combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction with slow walk training elicits hypertrophy only in the distal blood flow restricted leg muscles. Exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to increase muscle mass in the non- blood flow restricted muscles (gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles.