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Sample records for brachiocephalic trunk

  1. Diverticulum of the brachiocephalic trunk - angiography and embryological explanation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, J.R.; Lunkenheimer, A.; Loeser, H.; Hilgenberg, F.

    1983-03-01

    A diverticulum of the brachiocephalic trunk is described in 5 children with unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery, in a child with tetralogy of Fallot, and in an other child with Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The diverticulum is a remnant of a contralateral ductus arteriosus, which closed after birth and represents the origin of the distal part of the sixth aortic arch.

  2. A diverticulum of the brachiocephalic trunk - angiography and embryological explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diverticulum of the brachiocephalic trunk is described in 5 children with unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery, in a child with tetralogy of Fallot, and in an other child with Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The diverticulum is a remnant of a contralateral ductus arteriosus, which closed after birth and represents the origin of the distal part of the sixth aortic arch. (orig.)

  3. Brachiocephalic trunk and left brachiocephalic vein injuries following penetrating right sternoclavicular junction trauma: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Ling-wen; TAN Yuan-kang; DU Ding-yuan; SU Hong-jie; ZHANG Wei-ming; ZHAO Xing-ji

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old male sustained severe penetrating injury by a sharp instrument to his right upper sternoclavicular junction.The wound tract was from suprasternal notch to mediastinum.Exploratory operation via median sternotomy under general anesthesia found a large mediastinal septum hematoncus,as well as brachiocephalic trunk and left brachiocephalic vein injuries.The perforating vascular wounds were repaired with 5-0 prolene suture.He was recovered uneventfully and discharged 9 days after operation.There was no sequel found during 7 years follow-up.

  4. Left common carotid artery arising from brachiocephalic trunk and their aberrant course displacing trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiksha Yadav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine arch commonly refer a group of congenital variations in the branches of arch of aorta, in which there is aberrant origin of left common carotid artery. These are usually detected incidentally, however rarely they can cause dysphagia lusoria. We report a case of bovine arch and aberrant left common carotid artery in a 62 years old female who had come with complaint of mild dyspnea. On radiograph there was superior mediastinal widening and shift of trachea to right side. CT scan was advised for further evaluation. On CECT there was only two main branches arised from arch of aorta, brachiocephalic trunk and right subclavian artery. There was aberrant origin of left common carotid artery seen from brachiocephalic trunk. The brachiocephalic trunk was very tortuous and displacing trachea to right side. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 4220-4222

  5. Arterial reconstruction of the brachiocephalic trunk and the subclavian arteries. 10 years' experience with a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Hansen, Hans Jørgen Buchardt

    1980-01-01

    During a 10-year period, 60 patients were operated on for occlusive lesions in the brachiocephalic trunk and/or the subclavian arteries proximal to the vertebral artery. Angiography showed 68 occlusive lesions, of which 64 were treated surgically. Of these, 47 exhibited subclavian steal. Sixty-th...... three per cent worsened. Twice as many patients could work after the operation as before. The cumulative survival rate was found to be somewhat lower than that of a normal population.......During a 10-year period, 60 patients were operated on for occlusive lesions in the brachiocephalic trunk and/or the subclavian arteries proximal to the vertebral artery. Angiography showed 68 occlusive lesions, of which 64 were treated surgically. Of these, 47 exhibited subclavian steal. Sixty......-three reconstructive procedures were performed together with two arterial ligations (four patients were operated on bilaterally and one patient was operated on twice on the same side). There were 30 transthoracic procedures, essentially endarterectomies, and 35 supraclavicular procedures, mostly carotid...

  6. Fístula traumática entre tronco braquiocefálico e veia braquiocefálica por arma de fogo Traumatic fistula between the brachiocephalic trunk and the brachiocephalic vein due to gunshot wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Martins de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos caso de paciente do sexo masculino, 49 anos, que sofreu ferimento por arma de fogo no tórax, transfixando o mediastino médio. Apresentava-se estável hemodinamicamente, contudo taquicárdico e taquipnéico. Ele foi submetido à propedêutica armada com radiograma de tórax, ecocardiografia transtorácica, tomografia computadorizada de tórax e arteriografia do arco aórtico. Evidenciou-se fístula traumática do tronco braquiocefálico com a veia braquiocefálica. Realizou-se correção cirúrgica com a utilização de circulação extracorpórea e hipotermia profunda com parada circulatória total. O paciente evolui bem com alta no quinto pós-operatório.We describe the case of a 49-year old male patient who suffered a gunshot wound in the chest which transfixed the medial mediastinum. He was hemodynamically stable, but had tachycardia and tachypnea. He was submitted to integrated work-up with chest radiogram, transthoracic echocardiography, computerized chest tomography, and arteriography of the aortic arch. A traumatic fistula was evidenced between the brachiocephalic trunk and the brachiocephalic vein. Surgical repair was performed using extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermia with total circulatory arrest. The patient progressed well and was discharged on the fifth day postoperatively.

  7. Cirurgia do arco aórtico com perfusão cerebral bilateral pelo isolamento do tronco braquiocefálico e da artéria carótida esquerda Aortic arch surgery with bilateral cerebral perfusion by isolation of brachiocephalic trunk and left carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdo José Carreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os resultados da técnica descrita por Carreira et al. com utilização de perfusão cerebral seletiva bilateral (PCSAB pelo isolamento do tronco braquiocefálico e artéria carótida esquerda. MÉTODOS: Quinze pacientes foram operados consecutivamente entre de junho de 2005 e setembro de 2007. Os dados foram analisados por programa informatizado Epi Info e significância estatística com p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de PCSAB é reprodutível e apresenta resultados semelhantes aos da literatura mundial. A excelente evolução neurológica e o fácil controle de sangramentos nas linhas de sutura podem ter contribuído com os resultados obtidos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of a technique described by Carreira et al. using bilateral antegrade selective cerebral perfusion by isolating the brachiocephalic trunk and the left carotid artery. METHODS: Fifteen patients were operated between June 2005 and September 2007. Data analysis were performed using Epi Info and statistical significance was set at p0.05. CONCLUSION: The technique of bilateral selective cerebral perfusion described by Carreira et al. can be performed by others and presents similar results to the international literature. The excellent neurological outcome and easy bleeding control on surgical sutures lines are the major advantages of this new procedure.

  8. File list: ALL.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: ALL.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Oth.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: DNS.CDV.05.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Oth.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Oth.CDV.05.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: DNS.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: His.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells hg19 Unclassified Cardiovascular Brachioceph...alic endothelial cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.CDV.05.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Oth.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: His.CDV.05.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells hg19 Unclassified Cardiovascular Brachioceph...alic endothelial cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells.bed ...

  11. [Antegrade unilateral perfusion of the brain through the brachiocephalic trunk in operations on the aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, B N; Panfilov, D S; Kuznetsov, M S; Ponomarenko, I V; Nasrashvili, G G; Shipulin, V M

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein is a technique of unilateral antegrade perfusion of the brain in operations on the aortic arch. The method makes it possible to perform both systemic artificial circulation and adequate physiological perfusion of the brain, promoting minimization of the number of neurological complications. PMID:27100557

  12. File list: InP.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells hg19 Input control Cardiovascular Brachioceph...alic endothelial cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: NoD.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.CDV.05.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: NoD.CDV.05.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: InP.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. Endovascular procedures in the treatment of obstructive lesions of brachiocephalic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagić Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To assess the early effects, possible risks, and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA of brachiocephalic trunk (BT and subclavian arteries (SA. Methods. During the period of 11 years, in 92 patients (57 males - 62%, mean age 53,5 ± 7,8 years 93 PTA of SA/BT were performed; 70 (75% lesions were stenosis, while 23 (25% lesions were occlusions with mean diameter stenosis percent of 83,1 ± 6,2%. Clinical indications were: vertebrobasilar insufficiency (n=57, upper limb ischemia (n=40, coronary steal syndrome (n=4 and scheduled aorto-coronary bypass, using internal thoracic artery (ITA (n=4 asymptomatic patients. Mean lesion length was 22 ± 8 mm. Results. Eighty one (87% out of 93 lesions were successfully dilated; all of 12 (13% failures were due to unsuccessful recanalisation of occluded arteries. In 10 patients 10 stents were implanted (2 in BT and 8 in left SA. There were 6 (6.5% procedural complications: 1 dissection, 1 thrombosis of the left SA, transient ischemic attack in 2 patients, and 2 cases of dislocation of atheromatous plaque from the right SA into the right common carotid artery. During the follow-up of 48 ± 3 months, 16 (20% restenoses were treated by PTA (n=7 or operatively (n=9. Primary and secondary patency for all lesions treated during 11 years was 87% and 80%, respectively (stenosis: 97% and 89%; occlusions: 58% and 58%. Conclusion. PTA with or without stenting was relatively simple, efficient and safe procedure. It required short hospitalization with low treatment costs. If any of suboptimal results or chronic occlusions were present, the implantation of endovascular stents should have been considered.

  20. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbado

    Full Text Available Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas. Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1 sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2 stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants' ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05 and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05 than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512 significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance.

  1. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, David; Lopez-Valenciano, Alejandro; Juan-Recio, Casto; Montero-Carretero, Carlos; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas). Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1) sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2) stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants’ ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05) and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05) than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512) significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance. PMID:27232602

  2. Aberrant left brachiocephalic vein: CT imaging findings and embryologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography was utilized to evaluate aberrant left brachiocephalic vein (ALBCV), an infrequently discussed congenital vascular anomaly among Chinese people. Associated vascular variation and possible embryonic correlation are discussed. Since 1990, a total of 14 cases of ALBCV have been reported in patients receiving CT scan of chest, and was mainly an incidental diagnosis. One case was confirmed angiographically and two others were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Emphasis was placed on the entry of the azygos vein into the superior vena cava (SVC), the length of the SVC, and the presence of other cardiovascular abnormalities. Of the 14 cases of ALBCV, the level of azygos vein entry was higher than the origin of the SVC in 7 cases: 4 were approximately the same level and 3 were lower. The average length of the SVC was approximately 5.6 cm shorter than that of the general population, which is approximately 7.0 cm. Three cases had associated vascular anomaly. Most cases of ALBCV had azygos vein drainage level higher than or equal to the origin of the SVC. Right-sided aorta is one of the causes giving rise to the ALBCV during embryonic development. The CT scan remains a definitive diagnostic modality for ALBCV. (orig.)

  3. The Hunter Pulmonary Angiography Catheter for a Brachiocephalic Vein Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to describe our experience in performing pulmonary angiography using the Hunter pulmonary catheter, manufactured by Cook, Inc., which is a modified 6F pigtail catheter with a 'C-shaped' curve, designed for a brachiocephalic vein approach. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent pulmonary angiograms using the Hunter catheter between August 1997 and January 2002. Operator comments were gathered in 86 (70%) of the cases. The operator was, if possible, the most junior resident on the service. Thirty-nine operators participated in the survey. Efficacy, safety, and ease of use of the catheter were determined by operators' comments and ECG observations during the procedure. Corroborating clinical data were gathered from medical records. In 68 (79%) of the procedures that were commented upon, the operator described insertion into the pulmonary artery (PA) as easy; only 2 (2%) indicated difficulty in accessing the PA. In 41 (63%) of the bilateral angiograms that were commented upon, the operator described accessing the left PA from the right PA as easy; only 6 (9%) rated it as difficult and all were with an older technique in which the catheter was withdrawn to the pulmonary bifurcation without a wire or with only the soft tip of the wire in the pigtail and then rotated to the left main pulmonary artery. Thirty-one of the 41 patients who demonstrated premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) had a previous history of heart disease. Nineteen of the 39 patients who did not have PVCs had a history of heart disease (p = 0.018). The maneuverability and shape of the Hunter catheter make pulmonary angiography an easy procedure, even for operators with minimal experience and limited technical proficiency. PVCs demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with a positive patient history for cardiac disease, rather than being a universal risk

  4. Cephalic arch stenosis in autogenous brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistulas: results of cutting balloon angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren Thorup; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V; Hansen, Marc Allan

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis is a known cause of hemodialysis access failure in patients with brachiocephalic fistulas (BCFs). Outcomes of endovascular treatment are affected by resistance of the stenosis to balloon dilation, a high vein rupture rate and the development of early restenosis. The purpose...

  5. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  6. Selective catheterization of the brachiocephalic arteries via the right brachial artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the brachiocephalic arteries using the right brachial artery approach was successfully performed for 169 of 173 patients, 33 of whom were outpatients. Catheterization was unsuccessful for four patients; two of them elderly hypertensive men with tortuos brachial arteries, and two of them middle-aged obese women for whom arterial puncture could not be performed. 4-F modified Simmons type catheters were used in this study. Selective catheterizations of both common carotid arteries were successfully performed in all but one patient, a woman whose aberrant right subclavian artery prevented bilateral common carotid arterial catheterizations. Selective catheterizations of the right vertebral and left subclavian arteries, though relatively difficult, were successfully performed in 84.2% and 93.9% of patients, respectively. The mean examination time for a four-vessel study was 24.3 min. No major complications were encountered. Thus, transbrachial selective catheterization of the brachiocephalic arteries proved to be safe, useful, and relatively easy to perform. (orig.)

  7. Fístula traumática entre tronco braquiocefálico e veia braquiocefálica por arma de fogo Traumatic fistula between the brachiocephalic trunk and the brachiocephalic vein due to gunshot wound

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Paulo Martins de Oliveira; Orlando Petrucci; Karlos Alexandre de Souza Vilarinho; Lindemberg Mota Silveira; Reinaldo Wilson Vieira; Domingo Marcolino Braile

    2008-01-01

    Descrevemos caso de paciente do sexo masculino, 49 anos, que sofreu ferimento por arma de fogo no tórax, transfixando o mediastino médio. Apresentava-se estável hemodinamicamente, contudo taquicárdico e taquipnéico. Ele foi submetido à propedêutica armada com radiograma de tórax, ecocardiografia transtorácica, tomografia computadorizada de tórax e arteriografia do arco aórtico. Evidenciou-se fístula traumática do tronco braquiocefálico com a veia braquiocefálica. Realizou-se correção cirúrgic...

  8. System trunking logic trunked radio (LTR for comunications on roaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johalin Ospina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fundamental de este trabajo fue determinar la factibilidad al nivel de usuario y técnico para la optimización del sistema Trunking LTR para comunicaciones en Roaming. Para tal efecto se realizó una investigación basada en la elaboración de Proyectos Factibles, no experimental, inscrito en un método descriptivo y de campo; utilizando como instrumento el cuestionario Logic Trunking User (LTU desarrollado por el autor para efectos de este estudio. La población estuvo constituida por 68 usuarios que hacen uso del servicio de radio enlace de la Empresa Telecomunicaciones Trunkline, C.A. y se empleó censo poblacional por las dimensiones accesibles de la población. Se determinaron fallas tales como: deficiencia, alto ruido, baja calidad, logística de acceso poco operativa y retardo en las comunicaciones enlazadas. Sé recomendó a la empresa poner en práctica un modelo de intervención de aquellos indicadores de mayor incidencia. Los lineamientos generales de dicho plan se presentaron en modo de propuesta.Palabras Clave:Sistema Trunking LTR, Factibilidad, Optimización, Eficiencia.

  9. Importance of atherosclerotic stenotic lesion of the brachiocephalic arteries in the development of cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Khasanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the pattern of atherosclerotic stenotic lesion on the clinical presentation of cognitive impairments (CIs has been inadequately investigated. Objective: to estimate the impact of the degree and site of an atherosclerotic stenotic process on cerebral perfusion and cognitive functions. Patients and methods. A total of 123 patients (65 men and 58 women aged 50 to 75 years with brachiocephalic artery stenosis of at least 40%, without hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other systemic vascular pathology were examined. The structural state of the brain substance and the state of cerebral blood flow were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. The scale described by P. Scheltens et al. was used to determine changes in the white matter. The site and degree of a stenotic process were estimated by extracranial and transcranial duplex scanning. CIs were identified applying a set of neuropsychological assessment scales. The Hamilton hospital depression rating scale was also employed. Results and discussion. Varying degrees of CIs were detected in the majority of the examinees with brachiocephalic artery atherosclerosis. The most severe CIs were associated with the involvement of parietal and frontal lobes. There was significant deterioration in cognitive functions with a higher percentage of stenosis: more severe CIs were seen in the presence of stenosis in the carotid system than in those in the vertebrobasilar bed. In addition, the patients with concomitant stenoses and tandem stenoses were observed to have more pronounced CIs than those with single artery stenosis. Cerebral atherosclerosis is shown to be one of the major risk factors for CIs. Not only the degree of stenoses, but also to a greater extent their site was observed to impact the occurrence of CIs accompanied by the development of a perfusion deficit in the specific vascular beds. The determination of the pattern of a stenotic process will be

  10. SISTEMA TRUNKING LOGIC TRUNKED RADIO (LTR PARA COMUNICACIONES EN ROAMING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Johalin Ospina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fundamental de este trabajo fue determinar la factibilidad al nivel de usuario y técnico para la optimización del sistema Trunking LTR para comunicaciones en Roaming. Para tal efecto se realizó una investigación basada en la elaboración de Proyectos Factibles, no experimental, inscrito en un método descriptivo y de campo; utilizando como instrumento el cuestionario Logic Trunking User (LTU desarrollado por el autor para efectos de este estudio. La población estuvo constituida por 68 usuarios que hacen uso del servicio de radio enlace de la Empresa Telecomunicaciones Trunkline, C.A. y se empleó censo poblacional por las dimensiones accesibles de la población. Se determinaron fallas tales como: deficiencia, alto ruido, baja calidad, logística de acceso poco operativa y retardo en las comunicaciones enlazadas. Sé recomendó a la empresa poner en práctica un modelo de intervención de aquellos indicadores de mayor incidencia. Los lineamientos generales de dicho plan se presentaron en modo de propuesta.

  11. ENDOVASCULAR TREATMENT OF SACCULAR CEREBRAL ANEURYSMS IN PATIENTS WITH PATHOLOGICAL KINKING AND LOOPING BRACHIOCEPHALIC ARTERIES IN ARTERIAL SPASM

    OpenAIRE

    Kuharuk, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective — to analyses the results of endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysm in patients with pathological kinking and looping in brachiocephalic arteries against the background of vasospasm. Materials and methods. The analysis of endovascular treatment of patients with saccular cerebral aneurysms was made in the neurosurgical department of Volyn Regional Hospital in 2008-2012. All patients that underwent various types of aneurysms and hemorrhage were operated by endovascular method...

  12. CT and MR imaging of post-aortic left brachiocephalic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of CT and MR imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of post-aortic left brachiocephalic vein (PALBV) is discussed. The subjects of the present study consisted of five patients with PALBV, two males and three females, aged for months to sixty years. Chest CT and MRI were performed as a follow-up study of other intrathoracic lesions in two cases, and for further examination of congenital heart diseases in two infant cases. The other patient underwent both CT and MRI to evaluate sporadic chest pain. Therefore, all PALBV were found incidentally. PALBV passes below the aortic arch in front of the trachea, draining the superior vena cava behind the ascending aorta. The finding was particularly well documented on consecutive coronal sections on MRI. In patients with intrathoracic malignant or specific inflammatory lesion, differentiation between PALBV and lymphadenopathy is necessary for treatment. From our experience, marked enhancement on CT and no signal intensity on MRI in PALBV could differentiate this anomaly from mediastinal lymphadenopathy. In two infantile cases with congenital cardiovascular anomalies such as tetralogy of Fallot, right aortic arch and pulmonary arterial stenosis, MRI was found to be superior to CT in demonstrating these anomalies. (author)

  13. CT and MR imaging of post-aortic left brachiocephalic vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Takagi, Ryo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Kumazaki, Tatsuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    The usefulness of CT and MR imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of post-aortic left brachiocephalic vein (PALBV) is discussed. The subjects of the present study consisted of five patients with PALBV, two males and three females, aged for months to sixty years. Chest CT and MRI were performed as a follow-up study of other intrathoracic lesions in two cases, and for further examination of congenital heart diseases in two infant cases. The other patient underwent both CT and MRI to evaluate sporadic chest pain. Therefore, all PALBV were found incidentally. PALBV passes below the aortic arch in front of the trachea, draining the superior vena cava behind the ascending aorta. The finding was particularly well documented on consecutive coronal sections on MRI. In patients with intrathoracic malignant or specific inflammatory lesion, differentiation between PALBV and lymphadenopathy is necessary for treatment. From our experience, marked enhancement on CT and no signal intensity on MRI in PALBV could differentiate this anomaly from mediastinal lymphadenopathy. In two infantile cases with congenital cardiovascular anomalies such as tetralogy of Fallot, right aortic arch and pulmonary arterial stenosis, MRI was found to be superior to CT in demonstrating these anomalies. (author).

  14. 47 CFR 69.112 - Direct-trunked transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct-trunked transport. 69.112 Section 69.112... Computation of Charges § 69.112 Direct-trunked transport. (a) A flat-rated direct-trunked transport charge... other persons that use telephone company direct-trunked transport facilities. (b)(1) For...

  15. Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F

    2014-10-01

    Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases. PMID:24624953

  16. [Variations of the celiac trunk branches in the fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordei, P; Antohe, D S

    2002-09-01

    The study was performed on 60 human foetuses, aged between 4 to 9 months, using as methods dissection and plastic and contrast substances injection. We studied the celiac trunk in what concerns the division into its terminal branches, insisting on the possible morphological variations, some rare collateral branches starting from the common arterial trunk, the dimensional relations between the branches at their origin and the level of the celiac trunk origin from the aorta, in relation with the vertebral column, the diaphragmatic passage of the aorta and with the superior mesenteric artery. We also assessed the dimensional relations (calibers at origin) between the branches of the celiac trunk. Ass possible variations of the division of the celiac trunk, we assessed: gastro-hepatic trunk, with the splenic artery directly from the aorta or from the hepatic artery; gastro-splenic trunk, with the hepatic artery originating from the aorta; hepato-splenic trunk, with origin of the left gastric artery either directly from the aorta or from the hepatic artery. Rare variations: celiaco-mesenteric trunk; two arterial trunks, hepato-splenic and hepato-gastric; separate aortic origin for all three "classic" branches of the celiac trunk; two hepatic arteries, one from the celiac trunk and the other from the aorta or superior mesenteric artery; celiac trunk that divides into several terminal branches; one or two suprarenal arteries originating from the celiac trunk. PMID:12572348

  17. A rare variant of common arterial trunk.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubay, J E; Macartney, F J; Anderson, R H

    1987-01-01

    A 13 day old baby was admitted to hospital with multiple abnormalities, increasing cyanosis, and cardiac failure. Cardiac catheterisation was performed on the day of admission and he died shortly after the procedure. A rare variant of common arterial trunk, in which the pulmonary arteries arose directly from the underside of the aortic arch, was found at necropsy.

  18. Electrical Imaging of Roots and Trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hagrey, S.; Werban, U.; Meissner, R.; Ismaeil, A.; Rabbel, W.

    2005-05-01

    We applied geoelectric and GPR techniques to analyze problems of botanical structures and even processes, e.g., mapping root zones, internal structure of trunks, and water uptake by roots. The dielectric nature of root zones and trunks is generally a consequence of relatively high moisture content. The electric method, applied to root zones, can discriminate between old, thick, isolated roots (high resistivity) and the network of young, active, and hydraulically conductive zones (low resistivity). Both types of roots show low radar velocity and a strong attenuation caused by the dominant effect of moisture (high dielectric constant) on the electromagnetic wave propagation. Single root branches could be observed in radargrams by their reflection and diffraction parabolas. We have perfected the inversion method for perfect and imperfect cylindrical objects, such as trunks, and developed a new multielectrodes (needle or gel) ring array for fast applications on living trees and discs. Using synthetic models we tested the technique successfully and analyzed it as a function of total electrode number and configuration. Measurements at a trunk show a well established inverse relationship between the imaged resistivity and the moisture content determined from cores. The central resistivity maximum of healthy trees strongly decreases toward the rim. This agrees with the moisture decrease to the outside where active sap flow processes take place. Branching, growth anomalies (new or old shoots) and meteorological effects (sunshine and wind direction) lead to deviations of the concentric electric structure. The strongest anomalies are related to infections causing wet, rotting spots or cavities. The heartwood resistivity is highest in olive and oak trunks, intermediate in young fruit trees and lowest in cork oak trunks that are considered to be anomalously wet. Compared to acoustic tomography our electric technique shows a better resolution in imaging internal ring structures

  19. Trunk and knee performance of rowers

    OpenAIRE

    Grosdent, Stéphanie; Demoulin, Christophe; Gauthier, Stéphanie; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Vanderthommen, Marc; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study showed some difference in trunk and knee extensors strength between rowers and control subjects as well as between rowers and non-rowing athletes. The increased performances of extensor muscles in elite rowers appear to be probably related to the specificity of this sport. In the drive phase of rowing, rowers sequentially push with the legs and then pull with the arms and lower back, requiring both muscular strength and endurance. However, no difference was shown between groups reg...

  20. Cooling system for modern trunk diesel locomotives

    OpenAIRE

    Мошенцев, Ю. Л.; Гогоренко, А. А.; Минчев, Д. С.

    2011-01-01

    The existing and alternative schemes of engine cooling system for modern trunk diesel locomotives are considered. The method for comparison of various schemes of cooling system with the purpose to find the most compact and effective of them is offered. Slow flow systems are the most appropriate as it is shown. The optimal scheme of cooling system, that permits to increase supercharging air-cooling efficiency to 0,94…0,96 it is been selected.

  1. Segmental Trunk Control Acquisition and Reaching in Typically Developing Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwani, Jaya; Santamaria, Victor; Saavedra, Sandra L.; Wood, Stacy; Porter, Francine; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the influence of an external support at the thoracic and pelvic level of the trunk on the success of reaching, postural stability and reaching kinematics while infants reached for a toy. Seventeen infants (4–6 months) were clustered into two groups according to their trunk control assessed with the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Major differences were seen between groups with pelvic support, whereas with thoracic support, all infants showed similar quality reaching behaviours. With the external pelvic support, infants who had acquired trunk control in the lumbar region were more accurate in their reaching movements (less movement time, improved straightness of reach, less movement units and path length per movement unit) and were more stable (decreased trunk and head displacement) during a reach than infants that had only acquired trunk control in the thoracic region. These results support the hypothesis that trunk control influences the quality of reaching behaviour. PMID:23681292

  2. Diagnosis of Brachiocephalic Thrombophlebitis as the Cause of Fever of Unknown Origin by 18F-FDG-PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas Demirev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fever of unknown origin (FUO represents a challenge in diagnosis and treatment. The role of 18Ffluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET / computed tomography (CT in the differential diagnosis of this entity is presently well established. We report the case of a patient with infectious/inflammatory symptoms but no evident localization and subsequent relapse, in which PET/CT showed its ability to not only determine the exact localization of a thrombophlebitic focus as cause of FUO, but also to monitor and determine the success of treatment. After performing a FDG-PET/CT and detecting a thrombophlebitis in the brachiocephalic vein, low molecular heparins were introduced in the course of therapy. Soon (about 24 hours thereafter, clinical symptoms significantly decreased and could no longer be observed. After continuing the antibiotic and anticoagulant therapy for 4 weeks, a follow-up PET/CT scan was performed. That scan no longer showed abnormal uptake in the previous intravascular localization. Consequently, we suggest that PET/CT is a diagnostic modality feasible to identify and monitor therapy response of intravascular thrombophlebitic foci.

  3. Influences of trunk muscles on lumbar lordosis and sacral angle

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho-Jun; Chung, Seokhee; Kim, Sungsoo; Shin, Hyundae; Lee, Jongsoo; Kim, Sehyun; Song, Mi-Yeon

    2005-01-01

    Background: The strength of abdominal muscle and back extensors or their balances are commonly mentioned as major indicators of potential low back pain (LBP). Former studies on anthropometrics in terms of trunk muscle strength seemed to lack precision in methodology. Furthermore, the extension-flexion ratio, which is a good parameter of trunk muscle balance, was not as much studied as simple maximum torques in this area of study. Objectives: To investigate relationship between trunk muscle st...

  4. Trunk fatigue profile and low back pain in tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, José Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Ciências da Fisioterapia Introduction The trunk plays an important role in tennis strokes. Its asymmetric muscle activation, coupled with the high repeatability of the sport, places tennis players at risk for injuries such as low back pain. Objectives This study aimed to present a trunk fatigue profile in tennis players and verify its association with low back pain (LBP). Material and Methods 35 tennis players completed an isometric trunk endurance protocol co...

  5. The effect of backpack heaviness on trunk-lower extremity muscle activities and trunk posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khabbaz, Yusuf S S M; Shimada, Tomoaki; Hasegawa, Masashi

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze trunk-lower extremity muscle activities and trunk postural changes during the carriage of different backpacks. Nineteen male university students (21+/-3 years) participated in the experiment's four standing modes: (1) unloaded standing, (2) 10% body weight (BW) load (in the form of a backpack), (3) 15% BW load and (4) 20% BW load. Bilateral rectus abdominis, erector spinae, vastus medialis and biceps femoris muscle activities were recorded using surface electromyography (SEMG), while trunk inclination, side flexion and rotation were measured by using VICON 250 during all standing modes. The results showed that rectus abdominis muscle activities increased progressively and disproportionably as the backpack load increased. As for the trunk posture, almost the same backward inclination was adapted even with increasing backpack heaviness. Twenty percent BW backpack causes the most significant muscular and postural changes so it should be avoided. However, it is recommended to study other backpack factors such as frequency of usage, usage time, type of the backpack and age to come up with a complete usage recommendation. PMID:18329270

  6. The Additive Effects of Core Muscle Strengthening and Trunk NMES on Trunk Balance in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun Jae; Kim, Dae Yul; Yi, Jin Hwa; Kim, Won; Hong, Jayoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate an additive effect of core muscle strengthening (CMS) and trunk neuromuscular electrical stimulation (tNEMS) on trunk balance in stroke patients. Methods Thirty patients with acute or subacute stroke who were unable to maintain static sitting balance for >5 minutes were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups, i.e., patients in the CMS (n=10) group received additional CMS program; the tNMES group (n=10) received additional tNMES over the posterior back muscles; and the combination (CMS and tNMES) group (n=10) received both treatments. Each additional treatment was performed 3 times per week for 20 minutes per day over 3 weeks. Korean version of Berg Balance Scale (K-BBS), total score of postural assessment scale for stroke patients (PASS), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of therapeutic intervention. Results All 3 groups showed improvements in K-BBS, PASS, TIS, and K-MBI after therapeutic interventions, with some differences. The combination group showed more improvements in K-BBS and the dynamic sitting balance of TIS, as compared to the CMS group; and more improvement in K-BBS, as compared to the tNMES group. Conclusion The results indicated an additive effect of CMS and tNMES on the recovery of trunk balance in patients with acute or subacute stroke who have poor sitting balance. Simultaneous application of CMS and tNMES should be considered when designing a rehabilitation program to improve trunk balance in stroke patients. PMID:26949681

  7. Cellulose nanocrystals isolated from oil palm trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nordin, Noor Afeefah

    2015-01-01

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis) using acid hydrolysis method. The morphology and size of the nanocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanocrystals isolated from raw oil palm trunk (OPT) fibers and hot water treated OPT fibers had an average diameter of 7.67 nm and 7.97 nm and length of 397.03 nm and 361.70 nm, respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy indicated that lignin and hemicellulose contents decreased. It seems that lignin was completely removed from the samples during chemical treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that cellulose nanocrystals after acid hydrolysis had higher thermal stability compared to the raw and hot water treated OPT fibers. The X-ray diffraction analysis increased crystallinity of the samples due to chemical treatment. The crystalline nature of the isolated nanocrystals from raw and hot water treated OPT ranged from 68 to 70%. PMID:25965475

  8. The effect of superficial trunk muscle exercise and deep trunk muscle exercise on the foot pressure of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Suzy; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Kim, Hwanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of superficial trunk muscle exercise and deep trunk muscle exercise on the foot pressure of healthy adults. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy females and males who agreed to participate in this study. There were two groups, a superficial trunk muscle exercise group and a deep trunk muscle exercise group, with 15 participants in each. [Methods] The exercises were conducted 5 times a week for 4 weeks for both groups. A gait ana...

  9. Trunk Flexibility Improvement in Response to Powered Assisted Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bains

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background study: Flexibility in human spine has always plays an important role in dexterity and seamless ambulatory activities. When optimum range is not maintained by the trunk column, due to lack of flexibility, the posture gets affected resulting in reduce trunk rotation flexibility and mobility hence loss of complete trunk rotation. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Shapemaster Power Assisted Exercise Equipment (SPAEE on trunk flexibility. Methodology: Twenty healthy individual ages between 40 to 60 years were randomly divided into control and exercise groups. Shapemaster exercise program performed two times per week for 5 weeks and 45 minutes per session. Before and after 10 sessions of Shapemaster exercise protocol, Seated trunk rotation test was used to measure trunk flexibility. Results: Repeated measurement ANOVA were used to analysis data between groups. The results of this study illustrated that after 10th sessions trunk flexibility significantly improved (F (1.0, 18 = 11.732, p < 0.003. Conclusion: In conclusion results were determined that SPAEE is safe and it did effectively enhance flexibility among individual healthy adults.Keyword: Shapemaster Power Assisted Exercise Equipment (SPAEE, Trunk Flexibility, Healthy individual

  10. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The timber reforestation, mainly by Eucalyptus and Pinus sp., has low power processing, strength, good natural durability and, most importantly, provide reduce pressure on native forests. The concern with native forests and the high price of some of these woods force the market to replace those species by other, more abundant and available at most competitive prices. Anything that involves the handling of animals in its various phases has a direct dependency of husbandry facilities, pastures and actions of the people involved (best practices. With the segment of the production and export of meat increasingly competitive and globalized world, the adoption of best practices and animal welfare criteria are striking and decision makers for the acceptance of Brazilian beef in the world market, especially the European market. The use of appropriate animal husbandry facilities is critical to the proper rational management ("action with knowledge" of animals and increased productivity. The trunk restraint carries important role in the implementation and conduct of good animal welfare as having desirable features strength, durability, ability to contain cattle of various sizes, as well as easy to manipulate when the animal inside. Available on the market in the form of different models and costs, is an installation manufactured in wood and iron or galvanized, and may or may not be coupled with an analytical balance or digital, still and mechanical and other systems or electronics. The concern in this installation is perceived improvement in the number of patents filed and recorded and the constant evolution of their functions, with various companies operating in this segment. However, the development and validation of containment trunks with alternative materials, reflecting mainly the reduction of the final cost are poorly studied. In this first phase of the project will be considered the construction of trunk restraint coupled with analytical balance

  11. Successful surgical repair of impending rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery with prior reconstruction of the carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the successful repair of impending rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic artery (BCA) in a 70-year-old man. He had undergone a mediastinal tumor resection through a median sternotomy in 1995. Pathological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Two years later, he underwent radiation therapy of 65 Gray for metastasis to the supraclavicular lymph nodes. On January 18, 2000, plastic surgeons planned to perform a pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap to repair a radiation skin ulcer. During the operation, the BCA was lacerated, possibly in an area of radiation tissue damage. We performed a prosthetic graft (10-mm Gelseal) replacement of the BCA. The right subclavian artery had to be ligated. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed excellent reconstruction of the artery. Magnetic resonance angiography of the brain showed a deficit in the anterior communicating artery and stenosis of the posterior communicating artery, which indicated that the reconstruction procedure was reasonable. Seven months later, on August 18, 2000, the patient was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right neck and oozing from the previous cutaneous wound. CT scan and DSA demonstrated the presence of a pseudoaneurysm of the proximal anastomosis site, which required emergency surgery. Before this third sternotomy, a saphenous vein graft was interposed between both external carotid arteries. Removal of the prosthetic graft and resection of the pseudoaneurysm were performed under mild hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass with left common carotid arterial perfusion. Then, the wound was closed completely using a left pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap. The postoperative course was uneventful and DSA showed good patency of the graft and intracranial arteries. The patient was discharged without neurological complications. We conclude that prior reconstruction of the carotid artery is a safe and effective procedure for patients with

  12. Transcatheter Closure of a Chronic Iatrogenic Arteriovenous Fistula Between the Carotid Artery and the Brachiocephalic Vein with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder in Combination with a Carotid Stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an original method of transcatheter closure of an arteriovenous fistula using the combination of an Amplatzer PDA occluder and a carotid stent. The fistula was between the left carotid artery and the brachiocephalic vein. The patient had significant left-to-right shunt and was highly symptomatic. Due to the large orifice and pseudoaneurysmatic enlargement of the fistula, we had to use a large Amplatzer PDA occluder and the protruding part of the PDA device disk had to be covered with a carotid stent. The fistula was completely closed. The patient stopped having symptoms and, 2 years after the procedure, the effect persists.

  13. aTrunk—An ALS-Based Trunk Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lamprecht

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rapid multi-return ALS-based (Airborne Laser Scanning tree trunk detection approach. The multi-core Divide & Conquer algorithm uses a CBH (Crown Base Height estimation and 3D-clustering approach to isolate points associated with single trunks. For each trunk, a principal-component-based linear model is fitted, while a deterministic modification of LO-RANSAC is used to identify an optimal model. The algorithm returns a vector-based model for each identified trunk while parameters like the ground position, zenith orientation, azimuth orientation and length of the trunk are provided. The algorithm performed well for a study area of 109 trees (about 2/3 Norway Spruce and 1/3 European Beech, with a point density of 7.6 points per m2, while a detection rate of about 75% and an overall accuracy of 84% were reached. Compared to crown-based tree detection methods, the aTrunk approach has the advantages of a high reliability (5% commission error and its high tree positioning accuracy (0.59m average difference and 0.78m RMSE. The usage of overlapping segments with parametrizable size allows a seamless detection of the tree trunks.

  14. Autogenous brachio-cephalic arterio-venousautogenous brachio-cephalic arterio-venous fistulae: effect of age, diabetes,fistulae: effect of age, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and anticoagulation on theatherosclerosis, and anticoagulation on the long-term outcomelong-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalois, Vassilios E; Ndzengue, Albert; Choi, Peter; Hakim, Nadey S

    2008-01-01

    Age, diabetes, and generalized atherosclerosis are thought to be limiting factors forAge, diabetes, and generalized atherosclerosis are thought to be limiting factors for creating an autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF) unlike the use of anticoagulants. Wecreating an autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF) unlike the use of anticoagulants. We retrospectively assessed the effect of these factors on the outcome of 75 autogenousretrospectively assessed the effect of these factors on the outcome of 75 autogenous brachio-cephalic AVFs created between January 1, 2002 and August 31, 2005. Differentbrachio-cephalic AVFs created between January 1, 2002 and August 31, 2005. Different groups of patients were compared and the longevity of the AVFs was calculated. Fifty-twogroups of patients were compared and the longevity of the AVFs was calculated. Fifty-two percent of the patients were >65 years old, 41.3% werepercent of the patients were >65 years old, 41.3% were diabetic, 48% were arteriopaths,diabetic, 48% were arteriopaths, and 41.3% were not using anticoagulants. The maximum follow-up was 35 months (mean,and 41.3% were not using anticoagulants. The maximum follow-up was 35 months (mean, 11.2 +/- 10.3 months; median, 7 months). The success rate of the operation was 93.3% (mean 11.2 +/- 10.3 months; median, 7 months). The success rate of the operation was 93.3% (70 patent AVFs); 79.3% of the AVFs were functioning at 35 months. Age >65 years old,patent AVFs); 79.3% of the AVFs were functioning at 35 months. Age >65 years old, diabetes, generalized atherosclerosis, and the lack of use of anticoagulants were notdiabetes, generalized atherosclerosis, and the lack of use of anticoagulants were not associated with an increased rate of technical failures or a decreased long-term patencyassociated with an increased rate of technical failures or a decreased long-term patency rate of the AVFs.rate of the AVFs. PMID:19731852

  15. Features of cerebral blood flow, cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances in patients with essential hypertension stage II associated with occlusive and stenotic lesions of brachiocephalic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizir V.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is the most common disease of the cardiovascular system in industrially advanced countries. With the aim to determine the characteristics of cerebral blood flow, disorders of cardiac rhythm and conduction in patients with stage 2 hypertension associated with stenotic and occlusive lesions of brachiocephalic arteries, cerebral blood flow indicators were studied in 87 patients using duplex scanning of extracranial arteries and Holter ECG monitoring. It was established that linear blood flow velocity was considerably decreased in the basins of the internal and common carotid artery; cerebral blood flow asymmetry was present in the course of the internal carotid artery. Evidence-based differences in structure of arrhythmias were revealed by single and paired ventricular extrasystoles, as well as episodes of unstable ventricular tachycardia. All this indicates the progressive decrease of elasticity and tonicity of vessel walls, intensified rigidity and sinuosity of carotid arteries, more severe disorders of cardiac rhythm and conduction in case of simultaneous hypertension and atherosclerotic lesion of brachiocephalic arteries.

  16. Guideline of stereotactic radiotherapy of body trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guideline is issued for safe and effective practice of the stereotactic radiotherapy of body trunk by giving appropriate methodologies and their theoretical backgrounds to radiological stuff concerned, such as doctors, technologists, physicists, quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) personnel, and nurses. The issue is motivated by the recent and expected increase of facilities conducting the therapy popularized from its approval by health insurance authorities in 2004, is based on the drafts by the Study Group for improving prognosis of the accurate 3-D radiotherapy organized in the MHLW and by Jap. 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group and, after edition by QA committee of Jap. Soc. Ther. Radiol. Oncol., is herein published by the Society. The guideline is composed mainly from 4 chapters of Introduction, Clinical practice, Physics and technology, and QA/QC of equipments and systems. The second chapter contains, concerning the therapy, its definition, contraindication, application to health insurance (applicable diseases and requirement), target setting, radiation dose and fractionation, risk organs (serial and parallel ones) and dose limits, and progress observation post therapy. The third chapter, its definition and methods, therapeutic planning, and actual performance, and the forth, the principle, essential concept, items particularly needed (dosimetry and mechanical/geometrical accuracy of equipments, equipments for therapy planning, and QA/QC of the system). The guideline is to be revised within 2-3 years hereafter. (R.T.)

  17. Observing of tree trunks and other cylindrical objects using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Lambot, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Trees are a part of our everyday life, hence it is important to prevent their collapse to protect people and urban infrastructures. It is also important to characterize tree wood properties for usages in construction. In order to investigate internal parts of tree trunks non-invasively, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), or in this case, ultra-wideband microwave radar as a general tool, appears to be a very promising technology. Nevertheless, tree trunk tomography using microwave radar is a complicated task due to the circular shape of the trunk and the very complex (heterogeneous and anisotropic) internal structures of the trunk. Microwave sensing of tree trunks is also complicated due to the electromagnetic properties of living wood, which strongly depend on water content, density and temperature of wood. The objective of this study is to describe tree trunk radar cross sections including specific features originating from the particular circumferential data acquisition geometry. In that respect, three experiments were performed: (1) numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain software, namely, gprMax 2D, (2) measurements on a simplified laboratory trunk model including plastic and cardboard pipes, sand and air, and (3) measurements over a real tree trunk. The analysis was further deepened by considering: (1) common zero-offset reflection imaging, (2) imaging with a planar perfect electrical conductor (PEC) at the opposite side of the trunk, and (3) imaging with a PEC arc at the opposite side of the trunk. Furthermore, the shape of the reflection curve of a cylindrical target was analytically derived based on the straight-ray propagation approximation. Subsequently, the total internal reflection (TIR) phenomenon occurring in cylindrical objects was observed and analytically described. Both the straight-ray reflection curve and TIR were well observed on the simulated and laboratory radar data. A comparison between all experiments and radar

  18. Methods for assessment of trunk stabilization, a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaswinkel, E; Griffioen, M; Perez, R S G M; van Dieën, J H

    2016-02-01

    Trunk stabilization is achieved differently in patients with low back pain compared to healthy controls. Many methods exist to assess trunk stabilization but not all measure the contributions of intrinsic stiffness and reflexes simultaneously. This may pose a threat to the quality/validity of the study and might lead to misinterpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to provide a critical review of previously published methods for studying trunk stabilization in relation to low back pain (LBP). We primarily aimed to assess their construct validity to which end we defined a theoretical framework operationalized in a set of methodological criteria which would allow to identify the contributions of intrinsic stiffness and reflexes simultaneously. In addition, the clinimetric properties of the methods were evaluated. A total of 133 articles were included from which four main categories of methods were defined; upper limb (un)loading, moving platform, unloading and loading. Fifty of the 133 selected articles complied with all the criteria of the theoretical framework, but only four articles provided information about reliability and/or measurement error of methods to assess trunk stabilization with test-retest reliability ranging from poor (ICC 0) to moderate (ICC 0.72). When aiming to assess trunk stabilization with system identification, we propose a perturbation method where the trunk is studied in isolation, the perturbation is unpredictable, force controlled, directly applied to the upper body, completely known and results in small fluctuations around the working point. PMID:26803526

  19. The Mechanistic Connection Between the Trunk, Knee, and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular control of the trunk and knee predicts anterior cruciate ligament injury risk with high sensitivity and specificity. These predictors are linked, as lateral trunk positioning creates high knee abduction torque (load). The hypotheses explored are that lateral trunk motion increases load and that neuromuscular training that increases trunk control will decrease load.

  20. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karayannis, N.V.; Smeets, R.J.P.; Hoorn, W. van den; Hodges, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological features have been related to trunk muscle activation patterns in low back pain (LBP). We hypothesised higher pain-related fear would relate to changes in trunk mechanical properties, such as higher trunk stiffness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between trunk mec

  1. The Effect of Plyometric Training on Trunk Muscle Pre-activation in Active Females with Trunk Neuromuscular Control Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    M Hadadnezhad; R. Rajabi; A Ashraf Jamshidi; E Shirzad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Plyometric training via neuromuscular adaptations to the stretch reflex, elasticity of muscle and Golgi tendon organs has an important role in pre-activation of muscles. Due to lack of research in regard to effect of plyometric training on lumbo pelvic muscle, this study aimed to investigate the effect of plyometric training on lumbo pelvic muscle pre-activation in active females with trunk control deficit. Methods: Twenty-five active females who suffered from trunk control de...

  2. Lumbopelvic flexibility modulates neuromuscular responses during trunk flexion-extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Artacho-Pérez, Carla; Biviá-Roig, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Various stimuli such as the flexibility of lumbopelvic structures influence the neuromuscular responses of the trunk musculature, leading to different load sharing strategies and reflex muscle responses from the afferents of lumbopelvic mechanoreceptors. This link between flexibility and neuromuscular response has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lumbopelvic flexibility and neuromuscular responses of the erector spinae, hamstring and abdominal muscles during trunk flexion-extension. Lumbopelvic movement patterns were measured in 29 healthy women, who were separated into two groups according to their flexibility during trunk flexion-extension. The electromyographic responses of erector spinae, rectus abdominis and biceps femoris were also recorded. Subjects with greater lumbar flexibility had significantly less pelvic flexibility and vice versa. Subjects with greater pelvic flexibility had a higher rate of relaxation and lower levels of hamstring activation during maximal trunk flexion. The neuromuscular response patterns of the hamstrings seem partially modulated by pelvic flexibility. Not so with the lumbar erector spinae and lumbar flexibility, despite the assertions of some previous studies. The results of this study improve our knowledge of the relationships between trunk joint flexibility and neuromuscular responses, a relationship which may play a role in low back pain. PMID:27155332

  3. Ring-shaped variation of the coeliac trunk branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, A; Pynadath, N; Anguswamy, N; Vallath, S; Kordali, P; Stirling, A

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant arterial variations in the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk are of great interest to surgeons and radiologists. We report on a rare arterial variation found in a 79-year-old cadaver during educational dissection. Specifically, the coeliac axis formed a unique incomplete trunk termed the hepato-hepatic trunk. The splenic artery arose separately from the anterior aspect of the abdominal aorta. On the right side, there was a right hepatic artery giving rise to a gastroduodenal but an absence of the left hepatic. On the left side, there was a branch coursing towards the porta hepatis; the left hepatic artery, dividing into the left gastric, an accessory left gastric, and a branch to the distal oesophagus. The hepato-hepatic trunk formed a ring-shaped vascular structure around the caudate lobe of the liver. Precise mapping and observation of the extrahepatic arteries and bile duct branches is essential in a variety of hepato-biliary laparoscopic procedures of the liver and gallbladder. Other operative procedures requiring, a comprehensive kno-wledge of the varied coeliac trunk patterns are liver transplantation and arterial embolism for hepatic tumour therapy. PMID:26620519

  4. Common celiaco-mesenterico-phrenic trunk and renal vascular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Satheesha

    2006-12-01

    The knowledge of vascular variations like other anatomical variations, is important during the operative, diagnostic, and endovascular procedures in abdomen. This report describes multiple variations in the upper abdominal vessels as found during the routine dissection in a 60-year-old male cadaver. The variations found were; presence of a celiaco-mesenterico-phrenic trunk, a common inferior phrenic trunk, 2 right renal arteries originating from abdominal aorta, 2 suprarenal arteries originating from the lower right renal artery, 3 right renal veins opening separately into inferior vena cava, and termination of right testicular vein into the lowest vein among the 3 right renal veins. The existence of a celiaco-mesenterico-phrenic trunk has not been reported yet. Although, other variations reported in this case exist as individual variations, a concomitant variation of them has not been reported yet. The knowledge of such variations is quite useful in planning any upper abdominal surgery. PMID:17143371

  5. The effect of active sitting on trunk motion

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Wang; Kaitlyn J. Weiss; Mason C. Haggerty; Jacqueline E Heath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for low-back pain. The primary purpose of this study is to determine if prolonged active sitting will result in increased trunk motion. Methods: Fifteen healthy female participants volunteered to sit for 30 min on each of three surfaces including an air-cushion, a stability ball, and a hard surface. Trunk motion was monitored using a Vicon motion capture system, and foot center of pressure was collected with two AMTI force plates. Results: ...

  6. Beveled reversed elephant trunk procedure for complex aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Takuya; Yamamoto, Shin; Sekine, Yuji; Oshima, Susumu; Kasai, Reo; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2016-03-01

    The reversed elephant trunk procedure uses an inverted graft for distal aortic replacement before aortic arch replacement in patients with mega aorta, to reduce the risk in the second stage. However, the conventional technique restricts the maximum diameter of the inverted graft to the aortic graft diameter. We employed a beveled reversed elephant trunk procedure to overcome the discrepancy between graft diameters in a 54-year-old woman with a severely twisted ascending aortic graft and enlarging chronic dissection of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. The patient was discharged with a satisfactory repair and no neurologic deficit. PMID:25406402

  7. Chondroid lipoma of the trunk: MRI appearance and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boets, An; Mieghem, Isabelle M.Van; Breuseghem, Iwan Van [Catholic University Leuven Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Sciot, Raf [Catholic University Leuven, Pathology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Chondroid lipoma is a rare tumour of adipose tissue, bearing a strikingly close pathologic resemblance to myxoid liposarcoma and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Unlike these malignant tumours, chondroid lipoma has a non-aggressive behaviour and does not require radical treatment. Although repeatedly reported in the proximal extremities and limb girdles, this rare entity may less frequently be observed in the trunk. We describe the imaging findings of a chondroid lipoma in the trunk and provide a discussion on the radiologic-pathologic correlation and differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of Trunk Activity during Gait Initiation and Walking in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Christine; Cazalets, Jean-René

    2009-01-01

    To understand the role of trunk muscles in maintenance of dynamic postural equilibrium we investigate trunk movements during gait initiation and walking, performing trunk kinematics analysis, Erector spinae muscle (ES) recordings and dynamic analysis. ES muscle expressed a metachronal descending pattern of activity during walking and gait initiation. In the frontal and horizontal planes, lateroflexion and rotation occur before in the upper trunk and after in the lower trunk. Comparison of ES muscle EMGs and trunk kinematics showed that trunk muscle activity precedes corresponding kinematics activity, indicating that the ES drive trunk movement during locomotion and thereby allowing a better pelvis mobilization. EMG data showed that ES activity anticipates propulsive phases in walking with a repetitive pattern, suggesting a programmed control by a central pattern generator. Our findings also suggest that the programs for gait initiation and walking overlap with the latter beginning before the first has ended. PMID:19997606

  9. Surgical treatment of celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm-7 case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxi; Cai, Xiangjun; Liang, Faqi; Chu, Futao; Chen, Gang; Duan, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    The celiomesenteric trunk is a rare anomaly characterized by a common origin of the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery from the aorta, which accounts for less than 1% of all celiac artery anomalies, so the aneurysm occurred in such trunk is even rarer. There have been few reports on how to diagnose and deal with such malformed celiomesenteric trunk aneurysms till now. This paper tries to summarize the experience of how to expose and excise such kind of aneurysm according to the seven cases' data. The clinic data were collected retrospectively. There were seven cases with celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm from February 2000 to February 2013, including 5 males and 2 females aged 35~62. The operations were done including aneurysm resection and vascular reconstruction under general anesthesia. The operated patients were followed-up at the sixth month and each year post operation. The vascular stomas were detected or examined by Color Doppler Sonography, spiral Computed Tomography angiography (SCTA). The seven operated patients were cured and discharged from hospital, and they were followed up for 3~10 years (mean time 5 years), with four patients being followed up longer than 5 years. No sign of intestinal ischemia or hepatic ischemia or splenic ischemia was found, and no image of anastomosis stricture or stenosis was found during the follow-up. Five patients are alive now while two patients were dead, with one dying of large area myocardial infarction unexpectedly at 6 years post operation and the other dying of cerebral infarction abruptly at 4 years post operation. It is an effective and safe method to treat the celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm by using by-pass operation with artificial blood vessels, originating from inferior kidney aorta to visceral arteries including hepatic artery, splenic artery and superior mesenteric artery. Its short-term and middle-term effects are relatively better. PMID:25227061

  10. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Karayannis, Nicholas V.; Smeets, Rob J. E. M.; Wolbert van den Hoorn; Paul W Hodges

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological features have been related to trunk muscle activation patterns in low back pain (LBP). We hypothesised higher pain-related fear would relate to changes in trunk mechanical properties, such as higher trunk stiffness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between trunk mechanical properties and psychological features in people with recurrent LBP. METHODS: The relationship between pain-related fear (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, TSK; Photograph Series of Daily Activ...

  11. Trunk muscle co-activation using functional electrical stimulation modifies center of pressure fluctuations during quiet sitting by increasing trunk stiffness

    OpenAIRE

    Milosevic, Matija; Masani, Kei; Wu, Noel; McConville, Kristiina M. V.; Popovic, Milos R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced co-activation of trunk muscles during quiet sitting. We hypothesized that FES applied to the trunk muscles will increase trunk stiffness. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare the center of pressure (COP) fluctuations during unsupported and FES-assisted quiet sitting - an experimental study and; 2) investigate how FES influences sitting balance - an analytical (simulati...

  12. Structural evolution and diversity of the caterpillar trunk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    The thesis explores some major transformation series in the structure of the lepidopteran larval trunk, focusing partly on the initial events in the evolution of the order, partly on one of the more spectacular cases of subsequent biological diversification within ‘typical’/’higher’ Lepidoptera: ......, Harvard-based) is presented at a level where publication-readiness can be achieved, once an ongoing phylogenetic analysis by other Harvard-lab workers is completed, and SD’s findings can be analyzed in the light thereof....... the link between cuticle thickness, the degree of myrmecopily and the underlying mechanism of lycaenid-ant associations (MS4). In two major manuscripts (MS1-2), comparative descriptions are provided of the larval trunk in, respectively the Micropterigidae and the lowest-grade leaf-mining caterpillars...

  13. Thrombosis of celiacomesenteric trunk: Report of a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Lovisetto; Gianbattista Finocchiaro De Lorenzi; Piera Stancampiano; Carmen Corradini; Fabio De Cesare; Orazio Geraci; Mario Manzi

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the case of a 79-year-old woman who complained of acute abdominal pain,vomiting and diarrhoea.Laboratory exams demonstrated a severe metabolic imbalance.Abdominal X-rays showed bowel overdistension and pneumatosis of the stomach wall.Abdominal tomography revealed infarction of the stomach,duodenum and small bowel due to thrombosis of the celiacomesenteric trunk.Exploratory laparotomy revealed ischemia of the liver,spleen infarction and necrosis of the gastro-intestinal tube (from the stomach up to the first third of the transverse colon).No further surgical procedures were performed.The patient died the following day.To our knowledge,this is the first reported case about severe gastro-intestinal ischemia due to thrombosis of the celiacomesenteric trunk,a rare anatomic variation of the gastrointestinal vascularisation.

  14. Quantifying coordination between the head and the trunk during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    This study developed unique measures of coordination between the head and the trunk during the combined tasks of locomotion and gaze fixation of visual targets. These measures will be used to determine the effects of long-duration space flight on sensorimotor function. This will enable evaluation of the efficacy of countermeasures and postflight rehabilitation programs. Indices were proposed as composite measures reflecting the functional aspects of the control system involved in gaze fixation during locomotion. The stiffness index (Nm/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular motion. The viscosity index (Nm-sec/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular velocity. These coordination measures were used to evaluate the normal dynamic pattern of coordination between the head and the trunk with respect to the events occurring in a gait cycle. The indices were evaluated for three discrete speeds of locomotion for the same gaze fixation task and for three discrete gaze fixation tasks at the same speed of locomotion. The indices were found to be repeatable measures reflecting inter-segmental coordination strategies while performing an activity of daily living. These indices showed that the coordination of the head with respect to the trunk was significantly different between the events of heel strike and swing phases during the gait cycle. These indices showed no significant differences between the different gaze fixation tasks. The speed of locomotion had a significant effect on the magnitude of these indices. The results indicate that the CNS dynamically modulates head motion with respect to the trunk dependent on the events occurring during the gait cycle. This modulation is appropriate for stabilizing gaze during locomotion. The results support the hypothesis

  15. The measurement of blood speed in the pulmonary artery trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a non invasive methodology for the measurement of blood speed in the pulmonary artery trunk. The methodology has been tested with a moving radioactive tracer (nuclear medicine). An image processing technique is proposed, for detection and analysis of a moving object with variable shape and intensity over time (radioactive bolus). Experiments on the application of the technique in nuclear medicine are critically analysed. (authors)

  16. Multiphasic strain differentiation of atypical mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Loke, Mun Fai; Ong, Bee Lee; Wong, Yan Ling; Hong, Kar Wai; Tan, Kian Hin; Kaur, Sargit; Ng, Hien Fuh; Abdul Razak, MFA; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Two non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains, UM_3 and UM_11, were isolated from the trunk wash of captive elephants in Malaysia. As they appeared to be identical phenotypes, they were investigated further by conventional and whole genome sequence-based methods of strain differentiation. Methods. Multiphasic investigations on the isolates included species identification with hsp65 PCR-sequencing, conventional biochemical tests, rapid biochemical profiling using API strips and the Bio...

  17. Safety and pitfalls in frozen elephant trunk implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Damberg, Anneke; Schälte, Gereon; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Hoffman, Andras

    2013-01-01

    The frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedure, or open stent grafting, is a tool for the combined open and endovascular treatment via a median sternotomy of extensive aortic disease involving both aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. The technique aims to stabilize the maximum extent of the thoracic aorta in one step, with the goal of either rendering a secondary intervention to the downstream aorta unnecessary or producing an easy landing zone for secondary thoracic endovascular aortic rep...

  18. The Role of Trunk Musculature in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures: Implications for Prediction, Prevention, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Anderson, Dennis E

    2016-06-01

    This review examines the current evidence for associations between vertebral fractures (VFx), the most common type of fracture in older adults, and trunk muscles, which are intimately tied to spinal loading and function. Individuals with prevalent VFxs have more fat infiltration in the trunk muscles, lower trunk extension strength, and altered muscle activation patterns. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether assessment of trunk muscle can contribute to prediction of fracture risk. A few studies report that exercise interventions targeting the trunk muscles can reduce the risk of VFx, improve trunk strength and endurance in patients who have had a VFx, and reduce the risk of falling, a common cause of VFx, but the quality of evidence is low. Trunk muscles likely have an important role to play in prediction, prevention, and management of VFx, but additional longitudinal studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify this role. PMID:27040104

  19. Geophysical imaging of root-zone, trunk, and moisture heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia Al Hagrey, Said

    2007-01-01

    The most significant biotic and abiotic stress agents of water extremity, salinity, and infection lead to wood decay and modifications of moisture and ion content, and density. This strongly influences the (di-)electrical and mechanical properties and justifies the application of geophysical imaging techniques. These are less invasive and have high resolution in contrast to classical methods of destructive, single-point measurements for inspecting stresses in trees and soils. This review presents some in situ and in vivo applications of electric, radar, and seismic methods for studying water status and movement in soils, roots, and tree trunks. The electrical properties of a root-zone are a consequence of their moisture content. Electrical imaging discriminates resistive, woody roots from conductive, soft roots. Both types are recognized by low radar velocities and high attenuation. Single roots can generate diffraction hyperbolas in radargrams. Pedophysical relationships of water content to electrical resistivity and radar velocity are established by diverse infiltration experiments in the field, laboratory, and in the full-scale 'GeoModel' at Kiel University. Subsurface moisture distributions are derived from geophysical attribute models. The ring electrode technique around trunks images the growth ring structure of concentric resistivity, which is inversely proportional to the fluid content. Healthy trees show a central high resistivity within the dry heartwood that strongly decreases towards the peripheral wet sapwood. Observed structural deviations are caused by infection, decay, shooting, or predominant light and/or wind directions. Seismic trunk tomography also differentiates between decayed and healthy woods. PMID:17229759

  20. Sequential control signals determine arm and trunk contributions to hand transport during reaching in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elena; Mitnitski, Arnold; Feldman, Anatol G

    2002-01-15

    When reaching towards objects placed outside the arm workspace, the trunk assumes an active role in transport of the hand by contributing to the extent of movement while simultaneously maintaining the direction of reach. We investigated the spatial-temporal aspects of the integration of the trunk motion into reaching. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the efficiency ('gain') of the arm-trunk co-ordination determining the contribution of the trunk to the extent of hand movement may vary substantially with the phase of reaching. Sitting subjects made fast pointing movements towards ipsi- and a contralateral targets placed beyond the reach of the right arm so that a forward trunk motion was required to assist in transporting the hand to the target. Sight of the arm and target was blocked before the movement onset. In randomly selected trials, the trunk motion was unexpectedly prevented by an electromagnet. Subjects were instructed to make stereotypical movements whether or not the trunk was arrested. In non-perturbed trials, most subjects began to move the hand and trunk simultaneously. In trunk-blocked trials, it was impossible for the hand to cover the whole pointing distance but the hand trajectory and velocity profile initially matched those from the trials in which the trunk motion was free, approximately until the hand reached its peak velocity. The arm inter-joint co-ordination substantially changed in response to the trunk arrest at a minimal latency of 40 ms after the perturbation onset. The results suggest that when the trunk was free, the influence of the trunk motion on the hand trajectory and velocity profile was initially neutralized by appropriate changes in the arm joint angles. Only after the hand had reached its peak velocity did the trunk contribute to the extent of pointing. Previous studies suggested that the central commands underlying the transport component of arm movements are completed when the hand reaches peak velocity. These

  1. Trunk Reservation in Multi-service Networks with BPP Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.; Zhang, Qi; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we develop approximate models for trunk reservation in multi-service systems with BPP (Binomial-Poisson-Pascal) multi-rate traffic streams. The approximation is a generalization of previous work by Tran-Gia & Hubner who assumed Poisson arrival processes. It is based on a generalized...... algorithm which allows for calculation of individual performance measures for each service, in particular the traffic congestion. The algorithm is numerically robust and requires a minimum of computer memory and computing time. The approximation is good when the services have equal mean service times....

  2. A tutorial on queuing and trunking with applications to communications

    CERN Document Server

    Tranter, William H

    2012-01-01

    The motivation for developing this synthesis lecture was to provide a tutorial on queuing and trunking, with extensions to networks of queues, suitable for supplementing courses in communications, stochastic processes, and networking. An essential component of this lecture is MATLAB-based demonstrations and exercises, which can be easily modified to enable the student to observe and evaluate the impact of changing parameters, arrival and departure statistics, queuing disciplines, the number of servers, and other important aspects of the underlying system model. Much of the work in this lecture

  3. Oct4 Is a Key Regulator of Vertebrate Trunk Length Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Rita; Jurberg, Arnon D; Leal, Francisca; Nóvoa, Ana; Cohn, Martin J; Mallo, Moisés

    2016-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit a remarkably broad variation in trunk and tail lengths. However, the evolutionary and developmental origins of this diversity remain largely unknown. Posterior Hox genes were proposed to be major players in trunk length diversification in vertebrates, but functional studies have so far failed to support this view. Here we identify the pluripotency factor Oct4 as a key regulator of trunk length in vertebrate embryos. Maintaining high Oct4 levels in axial progenitors throughout development was sufficient to extend trunk length in mouse embryos. Oct4 also shifted posterior Hox gene-expression boundaries in the extended trunks, thus providing a link between activation of these genes and the transition to tail development. Furthermore, we show that the exceptionally long trunks of snakes are likely to result from heterochronic changes in Oct4 activity during body axis extension, which may have derived from differential genomic rearrangements at the Oct4 locus during vertebrate evolution. PMID:27453501

  4. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Barbado David; Elvira Jose Luis L.; Moreno Francisco J.; Vera-Garcia Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (S...

  5. Visual afference mediates head and trunk stability in vestibular hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chen, Po-Yin; Chen, Hung-Ju; Kao, Chung-Lan; Schubert, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    Humans must maintain head and trunk stability while walking. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of healthy controls and patients with vestibular hypofunction (VH) when walking and making head rotations of different frequencies in both light and dark conditions. We recruited eight individuals with VH and nine healthy control subjects to perform four tasks at their preferred gait speed, being normal walk, walking and making yaw head rotations at 1.5Hz and 2Hz, and walking in the dark and making yaw head rotations at 1.5Hz. Linear kinematics as well as head, trunk, and pelvis angular velocities were captured using the Vicon motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). We found no difference in walking velocities for any of the four walking conditions across groups. The lateral displacement of the center of mass was increased in VH patients. In the dark, patients had more head instability in pitch (larger amplitudes and velocities) even though they were walking and making active yaw head rotations. Patients also had a smaller relative phase angle (mean 3.50±standard deviation 2.13°) than controls (mean 10.31±standard deviation 2.70°) (plight. PMID:26976344

  6. Muscular condition and trunk stability in judoka of national and international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casto Juan-Recio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is theorized that the development of the ability to stabilize the trunk may improve the performance of a judoka because it improves body balance control and optimizes force transmission from the lower extremities to the upper limbs. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence to establish a clear relationship between trunk stability and performance in judo.Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the quantification of trunk stability and muscular strength and endurance allowed differentiation between national level (n = 7 and international level judoka (n = 6. In addition, the relationship between trunk stability and muscular strength and endurance of the muscles involved in trunk stability control was analyzed.Method: To assess trunk stability, trunk responses to sudden loads applied by a pneumatic mechanism were analyzed, as well as trunk postural control through an unstable sitting paradigm. Muscular strength and endurance were assessed via a flexion and extension trunk test using an isokinetic dynamometer.Results/Conclusions: International level judokas showed lower CoP displacement in the most complex task in unstable seat (7.00 ± 1.19 vs 8.93 ± 1.45 mm, T = .025 and higher absolute and relative peak torque in extensor muscles (7.05 ± 0.87 vs 5.74 ± 0.72 Nm, T = .013 than national level judoka. According to these results, core stability and trunk muscular condition are important qualities in the physical training of elite judoka. Correlational analysis found no relation between the analyzed variables, thus muscular strength and endurance appear to have a non-significant effect on performance in the trunk stability tests.

  7. Effect of short-term application of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk repositioning in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Sara A; Frost, Lydia R; Vallis, Lori Ann; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk position sense when applied for a short period (30 min) to the low back of healthy female participants. Twenty-four participants were assigned to one of two groups: kinesio tape applied in either the recommended stretched or non-stretched (control) manner over the low back. Tests were performed at three time points (pre-tape, with tape, post-tape) to assess low-back muscle flexion-relaxation, position sense during active trunk repositioning and trunk postural control during seated balance. Results demonstrated that wearing kinesio tape did not affect the angle at which the erector spinae muscles became silent during trunk flexion (flexion-relaxation). Trunk repositioning error increased when wearing kinesio tape in both the stretched and non-stretched manner, and this increased error persisted after the tape was removed. Seated balance control improved when wearing kinesio tape in both the stretched and non-stretched manner, and these improvements persisted after the tape was removed. In conclusion, these findings do not support the general suggestions that short-term use of kinesio tape on the low-back region alter low-back muscle activation and enhance tasks related to proprioception, at least under these taping conditions in a group of healthy females. PMID:26252507

  8. The Performance Analysis of Traffic Channel Coding in Digital Trunking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The encoding and decoding processes of traffic channel in digital trunking system are studied. On the basis of computer simulation, the BER (bit error ratio) with different RCPC decoding step is analyzed. As a result, the optimal RCPC decoding step is provided, which gives essential theoretical evidences for the implementation of digital trunking system.

  9. Three-dimensional trunk kinematics in golf: between-club differences and relationships to clubhead speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Cochrane, Jodie; Ball, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether significant three-dimensional (3D) trunk kinematic differences existed between a driver and a five-iron during a golf swing; and (ii) to determine the anthropometric, physiological, and trunk kinematic variables associated with clubhead speed. Trunk range of motion and golf swing kinematic data were collected from 15 low-handicap male golfers (handicap = 2.5 +/- 1.9). Data were collected using a 10-camera motion capture system operating at 250 Hz. Data on clubhead speed and ball velocity were collected using a real-time launch monitor. Paired t-tests revealed nine significant (p golf swing kinematics, namely trunk and lower trunk flexion/extension and lower trunk axial rotation. Multiple regression analyses explained 33.7-66.7% of the variance in clubhead speed for the driver and five-iron, respectively, with both trunk and lower trunk variables showing associations with clubhead speed. Future studies should consider the role of the upper limbs and modifiable features of the golf club in developing clubhead speed for the driver in particular. PMID:23898684

  10. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.;

    2007-01-01

    the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect...

  11. A multiwavelength study of young stars in the Elephant Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Martí, B.; Bayo, A.; Morales Calderón, M.; Barrado, D.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a multiwavelength study of young stars in IC 1396A, ``the Elephant Trunk Nebula''. Our targets are selected combining optical, near-infrared and mid-infrared photometry. Near-infrared and optical spectroscopy are used to confirm their youth and to derive spectral types for these objects, showing that they are early to mid-M stars, and that our sample includes some of the lowest-mass objects reported so far in the region. The photometric and spectroscopic information is used to construct the spectral energy distributions and to study the properties of the stars (mass, age, accretion, disks, spatial location). The implications for the triggered star formation picture are discussed.

  12. Postoperative Trunk Shift in Lenke 1C Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody Eric; Wu, Chunsen;

    2012-01-01

    potential risk factors. The 18 parameters measured (1) amount of correction obtained by surgery; (2) preoperative position of LIV; (3) magnitude of major thoracic and thoracolumbar/lumbar (MT and TL/L) curves and ratio of MT: TL/L curve; and (4) curve flexibility. Both comparative and correlation analyses...... inclusion criteria. The parameters that measured the preoperative position of LIV and ratio of MT: TL/L curve showed high correlation with the 2-year thoracic AV-CSVL distance. With regard to the parameters that measured the amount of correction obtained by surgery, only the correction of the thoracic AV-T1...... by surgery, however, did not seem to be an independent causative factor. Postoperative trunk shift is less likely to occur when selecting LEV as LIV and the ratio of MT: TL/L Cobb angle of 1.2° or more....

  13. Safety and pitfalls in frozen elephant trunk implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damberg, Anneke; Schälte, Gereon; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Hoffman, Andras

    2013-09-01

    The frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedure, or open stent grafting, is a tool for the combined open and endovascular treatment via a median sternotomy of extensive aortic disease involving both aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. The technique aims to stabilize the maximum extent of the thoracic aorta in one step, with the goal of either rendering a secondary intervention to the downstream aorta unnecessary or producing an easy landing zone for secondary thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) or open surgery. Even though large case series have reported good results, we still have no conclusive evidence as to which patients and what kind of pathologies benefit from this technique. The surgical sequences described for total arch replacement with the FET procedure are just as varied as the associated devices and indications. This article focuses on important perioperative and surgical aspects, as well as potential complications during FET procedures. PMID:24109583

  14. Inter-joint coordination between hips and trunk during downswings: Effects on the clubhead speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, In-Kwang; Choi, Mun-Taek; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the inter-joint coordination between rotational movement of each hip and trunk in golf would provide basic knowledge regarding how the neuromuscular system organises the related joints to perform a successful swing motion. In this study, we evaluated the inter-joint coordination characteristics between rotational movement of the hips and trunk during golf downswings. Twenty-one right-handed male professional golfers were recruited for this study. Infrared cameras were installed to capture the swing motion. The axial rotation angle, angular velocity and inter-joint coordination were calculated by the Euler angle, numerical difference method and continuous relative phase, respectively. A more typical inter-joint coordination demonstrated in the leading hip/trunk than trailing hip/trunk. Three coordination characteristics of the leading hip/trunk reported a significant relationship with clubhead speed at impact (r golf swing performance of unskilled golfers. PMID:26911704

  15. The effects of virtual reality game training on trunk to pelvis coupling in a child with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Barton Gabor J; Hawken Malcolm B; Foster Richard J; Holmes Gill; Butler Penny B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Good control of trunk and pelvic movements is necessary for well controlled leg movements required to perform activities of daily living. The nature of movement coupling between the trunk and pelvis varies and depends on the type of activity. Children with cerebral palsy often have reduced ability to modulate coupling between the trunk and pelvis but movement patterns of the pelvis can be improved by training. The aim of this study was to examine how pelvis to trunk coupli...

  16. The Effect of Trunk Stabilization Exercise Using an Unstable Surface on the Abdominal Muscle Structure and Balance of Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Junsang; Jeong, Juri; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of unstable surface trunk stabilization exercise on the abdominal muscle structure and balance of stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were divided into two groups: an unstable surface trunk stabilization exercise group (n=13), and a stable surface trunk stabilization exercise group (n=11). [Methods] Both groups performed trunk stabilization exercise for 30 minutes, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Abdominal muscle thickness and the Berg Balance Sc...

  17. The Relationship between Performance and Trunk Movement During Change of Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Sakurai, Takakuni; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m) participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as quickly as possible. The shuttle run cutting time, ground contact time during a change-of-direction, and trunk inclination angle were measured. The shuttle run cutting time tends to correlate positively with ground contact time. During the change- of-direction task, the trunk forward inclination angle gradually increased during the first 50% of the stance phase and decreased subsequently whereas the trunk flexed, maintaining a left inclination during the first 40% of the stance phase and changing exponentially in the opposite direction. Forward angular displacement of the trunk between foot-contact and maximum trunk inclination correlated positively with the shuttle run cutting time (r = 0.61, p < 0.05) and ground contact time (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the change-of-direction performance could be related to the small angular displacement of the trunk during a change of direction. Moreover, it was considered that there might be optimal inclination angles related to change-of-direction performance. Therefore, coaches in field sports should check body posture and trunk movements during changes of direction. Key pointsSmall forward angular displacement of the trunk during a direction change is related to the change-of-direction performance.Trunk stability during a change of direction is an important factor in the change-of-direction performance.There might be a range of optimal angles of trunk inclination during a change of direction.Coaches in field

  18. Methane emissions from the trunks of living trees on upland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Ping; Gu, Qian; Deng, Feng-Dan; Huang, Jian-Hui; Megonigal, J Patrick; Yu, Qiang; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Li, Ling-Hao; Chang, Scott; Zhang, Yun-Hai; Feng, Jin-Chao; Han, Xing-Guo

    2016-07-01

    Upland forests are traditionally thought to be net sinks for atmospheric methane (CH4 ). In such forests, in situ CH4 fluxes on tree trunks have been neglected relative to soil and canopy fluxes. We measured in situ CH4 fluxes from the trunks of living trees and other surfaces, such as twigs and soils, using a static closed-chamber method, and estimated the CH4 budget in a temperate upland forest in Beijing. We found that the trunks of Populus davidiana emitted large quantities of CH4 during July 2014-July 2015, amounting to mean annual emissions of 85.3 and 103.1 μg m(-2)  h(-1) on a trunk surface area basis on two replicate plots. The emission rates were similar in magnitude to those from tree trunks in wetland forests. The emitted CH4 was derived from the heartwood of trunks. On a plot or ecosystem scale, trunk CH4 emissions were equivalent to c. 30-90% of the amount of CH4 consumed by soils throughout the year, with an annual average of 63%. Our findings suggest that wet heartwoods, regardless of rot or not, occur widely in living trees on various habitats, where CH4 can be produced. PMID:26918765

  19. Dermoscopy of Melanomas on the Trunk and Extremities in Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Je-Ho; Ohn, Jungyoon; Kim, Woo-Il; Park, Sung-Min; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma among the Asian population is lower compared to that among the Western European population. These populations differed in their most common histopathologic subtypes, acral lentiginous melanoma being the most common in the Asian population. Although the dermoscopic features of the melanomas on the acral skin have been thoroughly investigated in the Asian population, studies concerning the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the non-acral skin have been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the trunk and extremities in the Asian population. To achieve this, we evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of 22 primary melanomas diagnosed at two university hospitals in Korea. In addition, 100 benign melanocytic lesions were included as the control group for comparative analysis. A P value less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Melanoma-associated dermoscopic features such as asymmetry (odds ratio [OR], 30.00), multicolor pattern (OR, 30.12), blotches (OR, 13.50), blue white veils (OR, 15.75), atypical pigment networks (OR, 9.71), irregular peripheral streaks (OR, 6.30), atypical vascular patterns (OR, 11.50), ulcers (OR, 15.83), atypical dots/globules (OR, 3.15), shiny white lines (OR, 5.88), and regression structures (OR, 7.06) were more commonly observed in patients with melanomas than in patients of the control group. The mean dermoscopic scores obtained on the 7-point checklist, revised 7-point checklist, 3-point checklist, ABCD rule, and CASH algorithm were 5.36, 3.41, 2.05, 6.89, and 9.68, respectively, in the primary melanomas, and 1.33, 0.93, 0.46, 2.45, and 3.60, respectively, in the control group (all, P < 0.001). The present study showed that melanoma-related dermoscopic patterns were common in Asian patients. Dermoscopy is a reliable diagnostic tool for the melanomas of the trunk and extremities in the Asian populations. PMID:27391775

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND TRUNK MOVEMENT DURING CHANGE OF DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Sasaki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as quickly as possible. The shuttle run cutting time, ground contact time during a change-of-direction, and trunk inclination angle were measured. The shuttle run cutting time tends to correlate positively with ground contact time. During the change- of-direction task, the trunk forward inclination angle gradually increased during the first 50% of the stance phase and decreased subsequently whereas the trunk flexed, maintaining a left inclination during the first 40% of the stance phase and changing exponentially in the opposite direction. Forward angular displacement of the trunk between foot-contact and maximum trunk inclination correlated positively with the shuttle run cutting time (r = 0.61, p < 0.05 and ground contact time (r = 0.65, p < 0.05. These findings suggest that the change-of-direction performance could be related to the small angular displacement of the trunk during a change of direction. Moreover, it was considered that there might be optimal inclination angles related to change-of-direction performance. Therefore, coaches in field sports should check body posture and trunk movements during changes of direction.

  1. Coil embolization of an aneurysm located at the trunk of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Yutaka; Ohmori, Yuki; Watanabe, Masaki; Morioka, Motohiro; Hirano, Teruyuki; Kawano, Takayuki; Sakurama, Tomotaka; Miura, Akiko; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman presented with an aneurysm at the trunk of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography and three-dimensional computed tomography revealed a wide-necked saccular aneurysm at the trunk of the left PPTA. Coil embolization with the balloon-assist technique was successful and PPTA patency was preserved. Preoperative conventional angiography should be performed to check for cross-filling of the PPTA. This case demonstrates that an aneurysm of the trunk of the PPTA can be successfully treated by coil embolization using the balloon-assist technique. PMID:21613761

  2. Neutron equivalent dose attenuation in the geometry of UNK service trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain regularities of radiation dose field formation in terms of the idealized geometry of the UNK service trunk are studied. Four different technical solutions enabling to reduce dose rate over the trunk by 10 times are suggested. Dimensions of the required additional protection and its positioning for every of four variants are calculated and presented. Optimal variant of protective overlapping of the trunk outlet made of reinforced 3.5 t/m3 density concrete was selected on the basis of the obtained results. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Trunk in a Mildly Symptomatic Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fan-Ying Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, also known as Garland-Bland-White syndrome, is an extremely rare but potentially fatal congenital cardiovascular anomaly, and it often exists as an isolated condition. We hereby report an adult female who was admitted for mild chest discomfort and was accidentally diagnosed to have anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. This anomaly was simply repaired by using a bovine pericardial patch to obliterate the anomalous opening in the pulmonary trunk and a single coronary artery bypass graft. This report highlights the characteristic events of the anomaly in an adult with only mild symptoms.

  4. Gnarled-trunk evolutionary model of influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihito Ito

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses undergo antigenic changes with gradual accumulation of amino acid substitutions on the hemagglutinin (HA molecule. A strong antigenic mismatch between vaccine and epidemic strains often requires the replacement of influenza vaccines worldwide. To establish a practical model enabling us to predict the future direction of the influenza virus evolution, relative distances of amino acid sequences among past epidemic strains were analyzed by multidimensional scaling (MDS. We found that human influenza viruses have evolved along a gnarled evolutionary pathway with an approximately constant curvature in the MDS-constructed 3D space. The gnarled pathway indicated that evolution on the trunk favored multiple substitutions at the same amino acid positions on HA. The constant curvature was reasonably explained by assuming that the rate of amino acid substitutions varied from one position to another according to a gamma distribution. Furthermore, we utilized the estimated parameters of the gamma distribution to predict the amino acid substitutions on HA in subsequent years. Retrospective prediction tests for 12 years from 1997 to 2009 showed that 70% of actual amino acid substitutions were correctly predicted, and that 45% of predicted amino acid substitutions have been actually observed. Although it remains unsolved how to predict the exact timing of antigenic changes, the present results suggest that our model may have the potential to recognize emerging epidemic strains.

  5. Multiphasic strain differentiation of atypical mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Loke, Mun Fai; Ong, Bee Lee; Wong, Yan Ling; Hong, Kar Wai; Tan, Kian Hin; Kaur, Sargit; Ng, Hien Fuh; Abdul Razak, Mfa; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Two non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains, UM_3 and UM_11, were isolated from the trunk wash of captive elephants in Malaysia. As they appeared to be identical phenotypes, they were investigated further by conventional and whole genome sequence-based methods of strain differentiation. Methods. Multiphasic investigations on the isolates included species identification with hsp65 PCR-sequencing, conventional biochemical tests, rapid biochemical profiling using API strips and the Biolog Phenotype Microarray analysis, protein profiling with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, repetitive sequence-based PCR typing and whole genome sequencing followed by phylogenomic analyses. Results. The isolates were shown to be possibly novel slow-growing schotochromogens with highly similar biological and genotypic characteristics. Both strains have a genome size of 5.2 Mbp, G+C content of 68.8%, one rRNA operon and 52 tRNAs each. They qualified for classification into the same species with their average nucleotide identity of 99.98% and tetranucleotide correlation coefficient of 0.99999. At the subspecies level, both strains showed 98.8% band similarity in the Diversilab automated repetitive sequence-based PCR typing system, 96.2% similarity in protein profiles obtained by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and a genomic distance that is close to zero in the phylogenomic tree constructed with conserved orthologs. Detailed epidemiological tracking revealed that the elephants shared a common habitat eight years apart, thus, strengthening the possibility of a clonal relationship between the two strains. PMID:26587340

  6. Trunk anomalies in the centipede Stigmatogaster subterranea provide insight into late-embryonic segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewska, Małgorzata; Bonato, Lucio; Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    We describe and analyze naturally occurring anomalies in the segmental structures of the trunk in an isolated population of the geophilomorph centipede Stigmatogaster subterranea. Recorded anomalies include mispaired tergites, shrunk segments, variously deformed sclerites, bifurcated trunk, and defects of spiracles and sternal pore areas. One specimen has a perfect segmentally patterned trunk, but with an even number of leg-bearing segments, representing the first record of such a phenotype in adult centipedes. We interpret these anomalies as the effects of perturbation of specific morphogenetic processes in trunk segmentation, occurring at different embryonic stages. The variety of segmental anomalies found in this population provides insights into the developmental process of segmentation and its evolution in geophilomorph centipedes. Variation in dorsal mispairing anomalies demonstrates that segments, as traditionally defined in arthropod morphology, are not the effective developmental units throughout embryogenesis. PMID:19477297

  7. The Contribution of Trunk Axial Kinematics to Poststrike Ball Velocity During Maximal Instep Soccer Kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullenkamp, Adam M; Campbell, Brian M; Laurent, C Matthew; Lane, Amanda Paige

    2015-10-01

    To date, biomechanical analyses of soccer kicking have focused predominantly on lower-extremity motions, with little emphasis on the trunk and upper body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in trunk axial kinematics between novice (n = 10) and skilled (n = 10) participants, as well as to establish the relationship of trunk axial motion and sagittal plane thigh rotation to poststrike ball velocity. Three-dimensional body segmental motion data were captured using high-resolution motion analysis (120 Hz) while each participant completed 5 maximal instep soccer-style kicks. The results demonstrate that skilled participants use 53% greater axial trunk range of motion compared with novice participants (P soccer athletes. PMID:26099160

  8. Diagnosis of celiac trunk compression stenosis in ischemic gastric and duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers may result from ischemia determined by celiac trunk compression stenosis (CTCS). In such cases angiography is necessary to specify diagnosis, to bring to light the causes of ulceration and to define therapeutic tactics. An analysis of angiograms of 75 patients with gastric and duodenal mucosa ulcers in CTCS and its characteristics have presented. The opening and proximal part of the celiac trunk are more frequently subjected to compression. The length of a narrow part of the celiac trunk is on an average of 6.62±0.31 mm. Enlargement in the diameter of the gastroduodenal artery was noted. Simultaneous narrowing of the celaic trunk and the upper mesenteric artery was found in 18 patients

  9. An Unusual Case of Stent Migration After Celiac Trunk Endovascular Revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 61-year-old woman underwent celiac trunk stenting to treat abdominal angina. Three months later, she was readmitted for recurrent symptoms. Computed tomography control revealed the migration of the stent into the splenic artery. No sign of vessel injury or end-organ ischemia was detected. Repeat stenting of the celiac trunk was performed; the postoperative course was uneventful. 12 months later, the patient was asymptomatic with the second stent in its correct position, and she was asymptomatic for mesenteric ischemia.

  10. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of pistachio trees in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Mohammadi; Mehdi Sarcheshmehpour; Ebrahim Mafi

    2015-01-01

    Over the growing seasons of 2011–2013, various pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cv. Fandoghi, and wild pistachio (P. atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica) trees were inspected in Iran to determine the aetiology of trunk diseases with specific reference to species of Phaeoacremonium and Botryosphaeriaceae spp. Samples were collected from branches of trees exhibiting yellowing, defoliation, canker and dieback, as well as wood discoloration in cross sections. Fungal trunk pathogens were identified using mo...

  11. The association between isoinertial trunk muscle performance and low back pain in male adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Balagué, Federico; Bibbo, Evelyne; Mélot, Christian; Szpalski, Marek; Gunzburg, Robert; Keller, Tony S.

    2009-01-01

    The literature reports inconsistent findings regarding the association between low back pain (LBP) and trunk muscle function, in both adults and children. The strength of the relationship appears to be influenced by how LBP is qualified and the means by which muscle function is measured. The aim of this study was to examine the association between isoinertial trunk muscle performance and consequential (non-trivial) low back pain (LBP) in male adolescents. Healthy male adolescents underwent an...

  12. A giant left main trunk and left circumflex artery-to-right ventricle fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-hui Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistula including the left trunk and left circumflex is uncommon. We present a 24-year-old male patient with a giant left main trunk and left circumflex artery to right ventricle fistula, which is diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography and coronary computed tomography angiography. In this paper, the case report is to provide a better understanding of clinical characteristics for this disease.

  13. Traumatic Neuroma around the Celiac Trunk after Gastrectomy Mimicking a Nodal Metastasis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Ryu, Seung Wan; Kang, Yu Na

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic neuroma is a well-known disorder that occurs after trauma or surgery involving the peripheral nerve and develops from a nonneoplastic proliferation of the proximal end of a severed, partially transected, or injured nerve. We present a case of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk after gastrectomy in a 56-year-old man, which was confirmed by pathology. CT demonstrated the presence of a lobulated, homogeneous, hypoattenuating mass around the celiac trunk, mimicking a nodal metast...

  14. Effect of FTO Gene and Physical Activity Interaction on Trunk Fat Percentage Among the Newfoundland Population

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Anthony; Cahill, Farrell; Sun, Guang; Loredo-Osti, J. Concepción; Abarin, Taraneh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of FTO gene and physical activity interaction on trunk fat percentage. DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects are 3,004 individuals from Newfoundland and Labrador whose trunk fat percentage and physical activity were recorded, and who were genotyped for 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FTO gene. Subjects were stratified by gender. Multiple tests and multiple regressions were used to analyze the effects of physical activity, variants of FTO, age, and their ...

  15. Dark mammoth trunks in the merging galaxy NGC 1316 and a mechanism of cosmic double helices

    CERN Document Server

    Carlqvist, Per

    2010-01-01

    NGC 1316 is a giant, elliptical galaxy containing a complex network of dark, dust features. The morphology of these features has been examined in some detail using a Hubble Space Telescope, Advanced Camera for Surveys image. It is found that most of the features are constituted of long filaments. There also exist a great number of dark structures protruding inwards from the filaments. Many of these structures are strikingly similar to elephant trunks in H II regions in the Milky Way Galaxy, although much larger. The structures, termed mammoth trunks, generally are filamentary and often have shapes resembling the letters V or Y. In some of the mammoth trunks the stem of the Y can be resolved into two or more filaments, many of which showing signs of being intertwined. A model of the mammoth trunks, related to a recent theory of elephant trunks, is proposed. Based on magnetized filaments, the model is capable of giving an account of the various shapes of the mammoth trunks observed, including the twined structu...

  16. Trunk rotation affects temporal order judgments with direct saccades: Influence of handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Kerstin; Kagan, Igor; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Bähr, Mathias; Wilke, Melanie

    2015-12-01

    Manipulation of the trunk midline has been shown to improve visuospatial performance in patients with unilateral visual neglect. The goal of the present study was to disentangle motor and perceptual components of egocentric midline manipulations and to investigate the contribution of individual hand preference. Two versions of visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks were tested in healthy right- and left-handed subjects while trunk rotation was varied. In the congruent version, subjects were required to execute a saccade to the first of two horizontal stimuli presented with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA). In the incongruent version, subjects were required to perform a vertical saccade to a pre-learned color target, thereby dissociating motor response from the perceptual stimulus location. The main findings of this study are a trunk rotation and response direction specific impact on temporal judgments in form of a prior entry bias for right hemifield stimuli during rightward trunk rotation, but only in the congruent task. This trunk rotation-induced spatial bias was most pronounced in left-handed participants but had the same sign in the right-handed group. Results suggest that egocentric midline shifts in healthy subjects induce a spatially-specific motor, but not a perceptual, bias and underline the importance of taking individual differences in functional laterality such as handedness and mode of perceptual report into account when evaluating effects of trunk rotation in either healthy subjects or neurological patients. PMID:26518506

  17. Skeletogenic fate of zebrafish cranial and trunk neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kague

    Full Text Available The neural crest (NC is a major contributor to the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton, detailed in model organisms through embryological and genetic approaches, most notably in chick and mouse. Despite many similarities between these rather distant species, there are also distinct differences in the contribution of the NC, particularly to the calvariae of the skull. Lack of information about other vertebrate groups precludes an understanding of the evolutionary significance of these differences. Study of zebrafish craniofacial development has contributed substantially to understanding of cartilage and bone formation in teleosts, but there is currently little information on NC contribution to the zebrafish skeleton. Here, we employ a two-transgene system based on Cre recombinase to genetically label NC in the zebrafish. We demonstrate NC contribution to cells in the cranial ganglia and peripheral nervous system known to be NC-derived, as well as to a subset of myocardial cells. The indelible labeling also enables us to determine NC contribution to late-forming bones, including the calvariae. We confirm suspected NC origin of cartilage and bones of the viscerocranium, including cartilages such as the hyosymplectic and its replacement bones (hymandibula and symplectic and membranous bones such as the opercle. The cleithrum develops at the border of NC and mesoderm, and as an ancestral component of the pectoral girdle was predicted to be a hybrid bone composed of both NC and mesoderm tissues. However, we find no evidence of a NC contribution to the cleithrum. Similarly, in the vault of the skull, the parietal bones and the caudal portion of the frontal bones show no evidence of NC contribution. We also determine a NC origin for caudal fin lepidotrichia; the presumption is that these are derived from trunk NC, demonstrating that these cells have the ability to form bone during normal vertebrate development.

  18. Radiologic Findings of Epidermal Cysts in the Trunk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hyun; Chung, Jae Joon; Park, Kyoung Seuk; Park, Su Mi [NHIC Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) or computer tomography (CT) findings of surgically proven epidermal cysts in the trunk, and to compare the echogenicity of cysts with internal contents. Forty-five patients were retrospectively evaluated. US and CT findings of epidermal cysts were assessed in regard to location, size, shape, number, echogenicity, posterior sound enhancement, internal density, septa, mural nodule and calcification, perilesional infiltration, contrast enhancement, and internal contents. All 45 patients (M:F=29:16; US in 26, CT in 19) had only one cyst, and they were located in the buttocks (n=19), back (n=13), inguinal (n=4), posterior neck (n=3), perineum (n=2), abdominal wall (n=2), presternal (n=1), and axilla (n=1). Of 26 patients who underwent US, there were 8 cases of homogeneously hypoechoic mass (30.8%), 8 of inhomogeneously hypoechoic mass (30.8%), 7 of homogeneously hypoechoic mass with internal hypoechoic lines and echogenic spots (26.9%) and 3 of homogeneously hypoechoic mass with internal echogenic spots (11.5%). Posterior sound enhancement was noted in 21 patients (80.8%). Of 19 patients who underwent CT, there were 14 cases of simple cyst (73.7%) and 5 of abscess-like lesion (26.3%). Overlying skin thickening (n=13), contrast enhancement of cystic wall (n=11), perilesional infiltration (n=7), and internal septa (n=6) were demonstrated. The internal contents of the cysts were keratinous (n=27, 60.0%) or greasy (n=15, 33.3%) material. There was no statistical significance between the echogenicity of the cysts and the internal contents (p > 0.2). Epidermal cysts showed homogeneous or inhomogeneous hypoechoic mass with posterior sound enhancement on US. There was no relationship between the echogenicity of the cysts and the internal contents. In the case of ruptured cyst, an abscess-like lesion with wall enhancement and perilesional infiltration was noted on CT scan

  19. Radiologic Findings of Epidermal Cysts in the Trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) or computer tomography (CT) findings of surgically proven epidermal cysts in the trunk, and to compare the echogenicity of cysts with internal contents. Forty-five patients were retrospectively evaluated. US and CT findings of epidermal cysts were assessed in regard to location, size, shape, number, echogenicity, posterior sound enhancement, internal density, septa, mural nodule and calcification, perilesional infiltration, contrast enhancement, and internal contents. All 45 patients (M:F=29:16; US in 26, CT in 19) had only one cyst, and they were located in the buttocks (n=19), back (n=13), inguinal (n=4), posterior neck (n=3), perineum (n=2), abdominal wall (n=2), presternal (n=1), and axilla (n=1). Of 26 patients who underwent US, there were 8 cases of homogeneously hypoechoic mass (30.8%), 8 of inhomogeneously hypoechoic mass (30.8%), 7 of homogeneously hypoechoic mass with internal hypoechoic lines and echogenic spots (26.9%) and 3 of homogeneously hypoechoic mass with internal echogenic spots (11.5%). Posterior sound enhancement was noted in 21 patients (80.8%). Of 19 patients who underwent CT, there were 14 cases of simple cyst (73.7%) and 5 of abscess-like lesion (26.3%). Overlying skin thickening (n=13), contrast enhancement of cystic wall (n=11), perilesional infiltration (n=7), and internal septa (n=6) were demonstrated. The internal contents of the cysts were keratinous (n=27, 60.0%) or greasy (n=15, 33.3%) material. There was no statistical significance between the echogenicity of the cysts and the internal contents (p > 0.2). Epidermal cysts showed homogeneous or inhomogeneous hypoechoic mass with posterior sound enhancement on US. There was no relationship between the echogenicity of the cysts and the internal contents. In the case of ruptured cyst, an abscess-like lesion with wall enhancement and perilesional infiltration was noted on CT scan

  20. Permanent upper trunk plexopathy after interscalene brachial plexus block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellanet, Merce; Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Rodrigo, Lidia; Gonzalez-Viejo, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) has been widely used in shoulder surgical procedures. The incidence of postoperative neural injury has been estimated to be as high as 3 %. We report a long-term neurologic deficit after a nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. A 55 year-old male, with right shoulder impingement syndrome was scheduled for elective surgery. The patient was given an oral dose of 10 mg of diazepam prior to the nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. The patient immediately complained, as soon as the needle was placed in the interscalene area, of a sharp pain in his right arm and he was sedated further. Twenty-four hours later, the patient complained of severe shoulder and arm pain that required an increased dose of analgesics. Severe peri-scapular atrophy developed over the following days. Electromyography studies revealed an upper trunk plexus injury with severe denervation of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles together with a moderate denervation of the biceps brachii muscle. Chest X-rays showed a diaphragmatic palsy which was not present post operatively. Pulmonary function tests were also affected. Phrenic nerve paralysis was still present 18 months after the block as was dysfunction of the brachial plexus resulting in an inability to perform flexion, abduction and external rotation of the right shoulder. Severe brachial plexopathy was probably due to a local anesthetic having been administrated through the perineurium and into the nerve fascicles. Severe brachial plexopathy is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of IBPB. We propose a clinical algorithm using ultrasound guidance during nerve blocks as a safer technique of regional anesthesia. PMID:25744163

  1. Lateralization in trunk and forefoot movements in a population of free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthipriya, P; Tewari, Rachna; Vidya, T N C

    2015-11-01

    We examined side preferences in trunk and forefoot movement during feeding in a wild population of Asian elephants. Trunk sweeping movements to pluck/uproot/gather vegetation and forefoot scuffing movements to uproot vegetation were scored in 206 individuals. We found a much stronger side preference in trunk use than in forefoot use, supporting a modified task complexity hypothesis. The forefoot and trunk appeared to be coordinated while feeding and, among individuals that had significant forefoot preferences, the proportion of right forefoot use was higher among right trunkers than left trunkers. Trunk and forefoot preferences were not dependent on individuals' social associates, and trunk preferences were also not dependent on feeding associates. There was a significant effect of individual identity on forefoot preference strength but no population-level side preference in trunk or forefoot movement, suggesting no dominant eye control over the task, which might be true of feeding-related foot movement in other herbivores also. There was no effect of age or sex on trunk or forefoot side preference or strength. The onset of trunk side preference, however, was very early compared with that observed in other species studied and calls for a comparison of the ontogeny of side preferences in precocial and altricial species. Based on 57 mother-offspring pairs, we found that offspring trunk side preferences were independent of their mothers' preferences, suggesting that these preferences are not maternally inherited. PMID:26389557

  2. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SPRINT VELOCITIES, HORIZONTAL GROUND REACTION FORCE, AND ISOKINETIC TRUNK STRENGTH VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among sprint velocities, horizontal ground reaction force, and isokinetic trunk strength variables. Voluntary 19 athletes were participated to the study [age (year= 20.9±2.3, training age (month= 91.3±48.2, body height (cm= 173.1±6.5, body weight (kg= 64.7±8.4] from different sports including in explosive strength. Sprints (10m, 20m, 30m, and 40m were tested on a non-motorized treadmill. Velocities (V10m, V20m, V30m, and V40m and horizontal ground reaction forces (HGRF-10m, HGRF-20m, HGRF-30m, and HGRF-40m of the sprints were calculated. Isokinetic trunk strength criteria (flexion-extension peak torques at 3 different angular velocities (30o.s-1, 90o.s-1, and 120o.s-1 were tested. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Probability level was p≤0.05. All sprint velocities was correlated with all horizontal ground reaction forces (except the correlation between V10m and HGRF-20m and all isokinetic trunk flexion-extension peak torques (except the correlation between V10m and isokinetic trunk flexion peak torque at 120o.s-1. Statistically highest significant correlations have been found between V40m and all horizontal ground reaction forces and also between V40m and isokinetic trunk flexion-extension peak torques (30o.s-1, 90o.s-1, and 120o.s-1. There were significant relationships of horizontal ground reaction forces with isokinetic trunk extension-flexion peak torques at 30o.s-1, 90o.s-1, and 120o.s-1. In conclusion, isokinetic trunk flexion and extension strength values are crucial for improving sprint acceleration and horizontal component of ground reaction force.

  3. Weight-shift training improves trunk control, proprioception, and balance in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungsim; Kim, Young; Chung, Yijung; Hwang, Sujin

    2014-01-01

    Trunk instability is one of main problems in survivors following stroke. We investigated the effects of weight-shift training (WST) on an unstable surface in sitting position on trunk control, proprioception, and balance in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Eighteen participants with chronic hemiparetic stroke were recruited and were allocated to either WST or control group. The WST group received a weight-shift training program for 30 min and then received a conventional exercise program for 30 min, while the control group received conventional exercise program for 60 min, five times a week for four weeks for both groups. In this randomized control study, we used three outcome measures: trunk reposition error (TRE), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. TRE was measured by each participant's reposition error to the target angle during his/her active trunk movement. TIS and TUG were examined for trunk control abilities and dynamic balance abilities, respectively. After training, TRE showed significantly greater improvement in the WST group (mean change, 1.67 ± 1.45˚) than the control group (mean change, 0.08 ± 1.05˚). The TIS score was significantly higher in the WST group (mean change, 2.33 ± 1.50) than the control group (mean change, 0.13 ± 0.83). The TUG test also showed a significant improvement in the WST group (mean change, 5.03 ± 1.88 sec) than the control group (mean change, 2.59 ± 1.86 sec). Our findings indicate that weight-shift training is beneficial for improving trunk control and proprioception in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke. PMID:24646921

  4. Determining inertial measurement unit placement for estimating human trunk sway while standing, walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Yu; Tian Bao; Dingguo Zhang; Carender, Wendy; Sienko, Kathleen H; Shull, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Inertial measurement units (IMU) are often used to estimate medial-lateral (M/L) trunk sway for assessing and treating gait disorders, and IMU sensor placement is an important factor effecting estimation accuracy. This study tracked multi-segment spine movements during standing and ambulation tasks to determine optimal IMU placement. Ten young healthy subjects, wearing markers placed along the spine, left/right acromion, and left/right posterior superior iliac spine performed standing and walking trials in a motion capture laboratory. Results showed that movement at the spine location T7-T8 most closely matched the clinical definition of M/L trunk sway for standing trials (0.5 deg error) and at the spine location T9-T10 for walking trials (1.0 deg error), while movement at the lower spine L2-L4 tended to be the least accurate for standing and ambulation tasks (1.5 deg error and 4.0 deg error, respectively). Based on these results, a second study was performed to develop and validate a trunk sway estimation algorithm during walking trials with a single optimally-placed IMU. IMU trunk sway estimation was compared to the clinical definition of trunk sway from motion capture markers and showed root-mean-square errors of 2.5 deg and peak trunk sway errors of 2.0 deg. The results of this study suggest that IMUs should be placed on the mid-back to reduce errors associated with spine movements not matching clinically-defined M/L trunk motion. PMID:26737331

  5. Coordination of the head with respect to the trunk and pelvis in the roll and pitch planes during quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, F; van Spijker, G J; Allum, J H J

    2012-06-28

    This study examined the relationship between head and trunk sway during quiet stance and compared this relationship with that of the pelvis to the trunk. Sixteen younger and 14 elderly subjects participated, performing four different sensory tasks: standing quietly on a firm or foam support surface, with eyes open or closed. Roll and pitch angular velocities were recorded with six body-worn gyroscopes; a set of two mounted at the upper trunk, an identical set at the hips, and another set on a head band. Angle correlation analysis was performed in three frequency bands: below 0.7 Hz (LP), above 3 Hz (HP) and in between (BP) using the integrated angle velocity signals. Angular velocities were spectrally analysed. Greater head than trunk motion was observed in angle correlations, power spectral density (PSD) ratios, and transfer functions (TFs). Head on trunk motion could be divided for all sensory conditions into a low-frequency (inverted pendulum mode, a mid-frequency (ca. 3 Hz), resonant mode, and a slightly anti-phasic head motion on stabilised trunk, high-frequency (>3 Hz) mode. There was coherent motion between head and trunk but not between head and pelvis. Trunk and pelvis data were consistent with previously reported in-phase and anti-phase movements between these segments. Significant age differences were not found. These data indicate that during quiet stance body motion increases in the order of pelvis, trunk, head and quiet stance involves control of at least two separate links: trunk on pelvis and head on trunk dominated by head resonance. The head is locked to the trunk for low-frequency motion possibly because motion is just supra-vestibular threshold. The head is not stabilised in space during stance, rather the pelvis is. PMID:22521818

  6. Subjects with hip osteoarthritis show distinctive patterns of trunk movements during gait-a body-fixed-sensor based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reininga Inge HF; Stevens Martin; Wagenmakers Robert; Bulstra Sjoerd K; Groothoff Johan W; Zijlstra Wiebren

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Compensatory trunk movements during gait, such as a Duchenne limp, are observed frequently in subjects with osteoarthritis of the hip, yet angular trunk movements are seldom included in clinical gait assessments. Hence, the objective of this study was to quantify compensatory trunk movements during gait in subjects with hip osteoarthritis, outside a gait laboratory, using a body-fixed-sensor based gait analysis. Frontal plane angular movements of the pelvis and thorax and ...

  7. The Effect of Trunk Stabilization Exercises with a Swiss Ball on Core Muscle Activation in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Gil; Yong, Min Sik; Na, Sang Su

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk stabilization exercise on the muscle EMG activations related to core stability. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen elderly people in a geriatric hospital performed trunk stabilization exercises with a Swiss ball for 20 minutes five times per week for 8 weeks. Trunk muscle activations were measured using electromyography before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the muscle activations of the rect...

  8. Identification of trunk and pelvis movement compensations in patients with transtibial amputation using angular momentum separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Brecca M; Murray, Amanda M; Christiansen, Cory L; Davidson, Bradley S

    2016-03-01

    Patients with unilateral dysvascular transtibial amputation (TTA) have a higher risk of developing low back pain than their healthy counterparts, which may be related to movement compensations used in the absence of ankle function. Assessing components of segmental angular momentum provides a unique framework to identify and interpret these movement compensations alongside traditional observational analyses. Angular momentum separation indicates two components of total angular momentum: (1) transfer momentum and (2) rotational momentum. The objective of this investigation was to assess movement compensations in patients with dysvascular TTA, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and healthy controls (HC) by examining patterns of generating and arresting trunk and pelvis segmental angular momenta during gait. We hypothesized that all groups would demonstrate similar patterns of generating/arresting total momentum and transfer momentum in the trunk and pelvis in reference to the groups (patients with DM and HC). We also hypothesized that patients with amputation would demonstrate different (larger) patterns of generating/arresting rotational angular momentum in the trunk. Patients with amputation demonstrated differences in trunk and pelvis transfer angular momentum in the sagittal and transverse planes in comparison to the reference groups, which indicates postural compensations adopted during walking. However, patients with amputation demonstrated larger patterns of generating and arresting of trunk and pelvis rotational angular momentum in comparison to the reference groups. These segmental rotational angular momentum patterns correspond with high eccentric muscle demands needed to arrest the angular momentum, and may lead to consequential long-term effects such as low back pain. PMID:26979898

  9. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Ilke; Kirdi, Nuray; Meric, Aydin; Kurne, Asli Tuncer; Karabudak, Rana

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p 0.05). Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs. PMID:23516089

  10. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Keser, PhD, PT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS. Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS, and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p 0.05. Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs.

  11. WOOD ANATOMY OF ROOT, TRUNK AND BRANCH FROM BARBATIMÃO (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart Coville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Lopes Goulart

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the wood of root, trunk and branch from barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens in the cerrado area, in Lavras (Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil. Trunk and branch wood samples were removed at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the trunk and branch total height. Root wood samples were removed at 40 cm depth soil. Qualitatively the barbatimão wood has distinct growth layers for the trunk and branch; at the root they are poorly defined. Diffuse porosity. Simple perforation plates. Inter-vascular and vessel-ray. Bordered, alternate and with garnishes. Vasicentric paratracheal parenchyma. Uniseriate rays predominant, presenting multiseriate rays. The rays are heterocellular, where the ray body is formed by procumbent cells and margins with square and upright cells. It was observed that homogeneous rays are formed only by procumbent cells. Crystals are present at the axial and radial parenchyma cells, and in the fibers. Quantitatively the relevant features to the wood were: higher vessel frequency in branch wood; thicker wall fibers in the root wood and larger rays in the trunk.

  12. Kinematic aspects of trunk motion and gender effect in normal adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Se Jin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze kinematic trunk motion data in normal adults and to investigate gender effect. Methods Kinematic trunk motion data were obtained for 20 healthy subjects (11 men and 9 women; age from 21 to 40 years during walking a 9 m long lane at a self selected speed, namely, motions in the sagittal (tilt, coronal (obliquity, and transverse (rotation planes, which were all expressed as motions in global (relative to the ground and those in pelvic reference frame (relative to pelvis, i.e., tilt (G, obliquity (G, rotation (G, tilt (P, obliquity (P, rotation (P. Results Range of tilt (G, obliquity (G and rotation (G showed smaller motion than that of tilt (P, obliquity (P and rotation (P, respectively. When genders were compared, female trunks showed a 5 degree more extended posture during gait than male trunks (p = 0.002, which appeared to be caused by different lumbar lordosis. Ranges of coronal and transverse plane motion appeared to be correlated. In gait cycle, the trunk motion appeared to counterbalance the lower extremity during swing phase in sagittal plane, and to reduce the angular velocity toward the contralateral side immediate before the contralateral heel strike in the coronal plane. Conclusions Men and women showed different lumbar lordosis during normal gait, which might be partly responsible for the different prevalence of lumbar diseases between genders. However, this needs further investigation.

  13. Dynamic trunk stabilization: a conceptual back injury prevention program for volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad E; Nyland, John; Caudill, Paul; Brosky, Joseph; Caborn, David N M

    2008-11-01

    The sport of volleyball creates considerable dynamic trunk stability demands. Back injury occurs all too frequently in volleyball, particularly among female athletes. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review functional anatomy, muscle coactivation strategies, assessment of trunk muscle performance, and the characteristics of effective exercises for the trunk or core. From this information, a conceptual progressive 3-phase volleyball-specific training program is presented to improve dynamic trunk stability and to potentially reduce the incidence of back injury among volleyball athletes. Phase 1 addresses low-velocity motor control, kinesthetic awareness, and endurance, with the clinician providing cues to teach achievement of biomechanically neutral spine alignment. Phase 2 focuses on progressively higher velocity dynamic multiplanar endurance, coordination, and strength-power challenges integrating upper and lower extremity movements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Phase 3 integrates volleyball-specific skill simulations by breaking down composite movement patterns into their component parts, with differing dynamic trunk stability requirements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Prospective research is needed to validate the efficacy of this program. PMID:18978452

  14. Effect of unilateral exercise on spinal and pelvic deformities, and isokinetic trunk muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Kyoungkyu; Kim, Soonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to collect basic data regarding the prevention of spinal and pelvic deformities by investigating the spinal shape and muscular function characteristics of imbalance reduction and functional improvement following asymmetric activities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 14 archery athletes who mostly perform unilateral motion with spinal and pelvic pain, and 19 healthy subjects. All the participants were evaluated using spinal structure analysis and for 60°/sec isokinetic muscular strength of the trunk. [Results] Between the two groups, there were significant differences in the interaction effect of trunk inclination deformities, and flexor and extensor 60°/sec isokinetic muscular strength of the trunk. Also, the main effects of gender comparison showed significant differences in the trunk inclination deformities, pelvic rotation deformities, lordosis angles, and flexor and extensor 60 ˚/sec isokinetic muscular strengths of the trunk. [Conclusion] The basic data obtained in this study can be used to help develop a strategic exercise program for improving unilateral movement and malalignment of the spine and pelvis. PMID:27134369

  15. Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of trunk flexion on the cervical muscle whiplash response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Yogesh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical muscles are considered a potential site of whiplash injury, and there is a need to understand the cervical muscle response under non-conventional whiplash impact scenarios, including variable body position and impact direction. There is no data, however, on the effect of occupant position on the muscle response to frontal impacts. Therefore, the objective of the study was to measure cervical muscle response to graded right anterolateral impacts. Methods Twenty volunteers were subjected to right anterolateral impacts of 4.3, 7.8, 10.6, and 12.8 m/s2 acceleration with their trunk flexed forward 45 degrees and laterally flexed right or left by 45 degrees. Bilateral EMG of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis and acceleration of the sled, torso, and head were measured. Results and discussion With either direction of trunk flexion at impact, the trapezius EMGs increased with increasing acceleration (p Conclusion When the subject sits with trunk flexed out of neutral posture at the time of anterolateral impact, the cervical muscle response is dramatically reduced compared to frontal impacts with the trunk in neutral posture. In the absence of bodily impact, the flexed trunk posture appears to produce a biomechanical response that would decrease the likelihood of cervical muscle injury in low velocity impacts.

  16. Comparison of Two- and Three-Dimensional Methods for Analysis of Trunk Kinematic Variables in the Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aimée C; Roberts, Jonathan R; Wallace, Eric S; Kong, Pui; Forrester, Stephanie E

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional methods have been used to compute trunk kinematic variables (flexion/extension, lateral bend, axial rotation) and X-factor (difference in axial rotation between trunk and pelvis) during the golf swing. Recent X-factor studies advocated three-dimensional (3D) analysis due to the errors associated with two-dimensional (2D) methods, but this has not been investigated for all trunk kinematic variables. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk kinematic variables and X-factor calculated by 2D and 3D methods to examine how different approaches influenced their profiles during the swing. Trunk kinematic variables and X-factor were calculated for golfers from vectors projected onto the global laboratory planes and from 3D segment angles. Trunk kinematic variable profiles were similar in shape; however, there were statistically significant differences in trunk flexion (-6.5 ± 3.6°) at top of backswing and trunk right-side lateral bend (8.7 ± 2.9°) at impact. Differences between 2D and 3D X-factor (approximately 16°) could largely be explained by projection errors introduced to the 2D analysis through flexion and lateral bend of the trunk and pelvis segments. The results support the need to use a 3D method for kinematic data calculation to accurately analyze the golf swing. PMID:26367337

  17. Contributions of individual muscles to the sagittal- and frontal-plane angular accelerations of the trunk in walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, Rudolf; Steele, Katherine M; Moilanen, Petro; Avela, Janne; Timonen, Jussi

    2014-07-18

    This study was conducted to analyze the unimpaired control of the trunk during walking. Studying the unimpaired control of the trunk reveals characteristics of good control. These characteristics can be pursued in the rehabilitation of impaired control. Impaired control of the trunk during walking is associated with aging and many movement disorders. This is a concern as it is considered to increase fall risk. Muscles that contribute to the trunk control in normal walking may also contribute to it under perturbation circumstances, attempting to prevent an impending fall. Knowledge of such muscles can be used to rehabilitate impaired control of the trunk. Here, angular accelerations of the trunk induced by individual muscles, in the sagittal and frontal planes, were calculated using 3D muscle-driven simulations of seven young healthy subjects walking at free speed. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that the abdominal and back muscles displayed large contributions throughout the gait cycle both in the sagittal and frontal planes. Proximal lower-limb muscles contributed more than distal muscles in the sagittal plane, while both proximal and distal muscles showed large contributions in the frontal plane. Along with the stance-limb muscles, the swing-limb muscles also exhibited considerable contribution. The gluteus medius was found to be an important individual frontal-plane control muscle; enhancing its function in pathologies could ameliorate gait by attenuating trunk sway. In addition, since gravity appreciably accelerated the trunk in the frontal plane, it may engender excessive trunk sway in pathologies. PMID:24873862

  18. Effect of Planning on Trunk Motion and Knee Moments During a Side Step Cut Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jeff; Gorniak, Stacey; Nicholson, Kristen

    2004-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that alterations in knee biomechanics associated with unanticipated cutting tasks place athletes at higher risk of knee injuries. Besier et al observed alterations in knee moments during unanticipated cutting tasks that were consistent with in-vitro ACL injury mechanisms. During similar tasks, Patla et al observed lateral trunk lean and decreased foot placement, suggesting that full body center of mass control is perturbed during such tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare the trunk and knee frontal plane moments and evaluate a relationship between the two during unanticipated cutting tasks. The results of this study suggest that there is a relationship between the trunk and knee frontal plane moments during the first 200-400ms of the stance phase of gait.

  19. Traumatic Neuroma around the Celiac Trunk after Gastrectomy Mimicking a Nodal Metastasis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Ryu, Seung Wan; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Traumatic neuroma is a well-known disorder that occurs after trauma or surgery involving the peripheral nerve and develops from a nonneoplastic proliferation of the proximal end of a severed, partially transected, or injured nerve. However, in the abdomen, traumatic neuromas have been sporadically reported to occur in the bile duct. We present here a case of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk after gastrectomy that mimicks a nodal metastasis. In conclusion, the imaging finding of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk was a homogeneous hypovascular mass without narrowing or irregularity of encased arteries and without increased uptake on PET-CT. Although from a clinical standpoint, establishing an accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult to perform, the presence of a traumatic neuroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass around the celiac trunk in a patient that has undergone celiac nodal dissection.

  20. Changes in trunk orientation do not induce asymmetries in covert orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, David A; Jones, Stephanie A H; Cowper-Smith, Christopher D; Klein, Raymond M

    2013-08-01

    We explored the effect of trunk orientation on responses to visual targets in five experiments, following work suggesting a disengage deficit in covert orienting related to changes in the trunk orientation of healthy participants. In two experiments, participants responded to the color of a target appearing in the left or right visual field following a peripheral visual cue that was informative about target location. In three additional experiments, participants responded to the location (left/right) of a target using a spatially compatible motor response. In none of the experiments did trunk orientation interact with spatial-cuing effects, suggesting that orienting behavior is not affected by the rotation of the body relative to the head. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23666630

  1. THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Sulaiman,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

  2. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Neves Granito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  3. Trunk Kinematics and Centre of Pressure Displacement during Lateral Lifting and Lowering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qiangmin; Alf Thorstensson; Andrew Cresswell

    2006-01-01

    Lateral bending of the trunk has been specifically identified as a high risk factor for lower back disorders. However, few studies have presented in vivo kinematic data of the trunk while performing functional lateral bending tasks. Five healthy male subjects performed lateral lifting and lowering tasks under loading condition ranging from light (2kg) to 100% of a maximum (ML) at a controlled velocity. Single lowering tasks were also performed at 125% and 150% of ML. Video based movement analysis was used to determine kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, shoulders and neck in the frontal plane. Centre of pressure (COP) data was also obtained from a force platform on which the subjects stood when performing the lifting and lowering tasks. Kinematics of the trunk revealed a smooth and relatively large change in angular displacement (between 69°to 55°) toward the unloaded side during the lifting phase. Trunk angular displacement significantly decreased with increasing lifting load. The trunk was additionally divided into four segments representing the lower and upper lumbar regions and the lower and upper thoracic regions. The greatest displacement in these segments took place at the upper lumbar and lower thoracic regions (ranging from 29°to 22°and 23°to 17°, respectively) with the least displacement occurring in the lower lumbar and upper thoracic regions (approx. 6° and 5°, respectively). Both the upper lumbar and lower thoracic segments showed significant decreases in angular displacement with increasing load. During the single lowering trials the trunk rotated toward the loaded side with slightly less magnitude to that recorded during the lowering phase of the heaviest lifting and lowering conditions. Angular displacements of the upper lumbar and lower thoracic segments also decreased with increasing load in single lowering. Identified changes in the COP displacement were also correlated to increasing lifting and lowering load. The main findings of this study

  4. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Neves Granito; Mariana Chaves Aveiro; Ana Claudia Muniz Rennó; Jorge Oishi; Patricia Driusso

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age); adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88); and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67). Bone mineral density (BMD), degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors...

  5. Evaluating Primary Dendrite Trunk Diameters in Directionally Solidified Al-Si Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The primary dendrite trunk diameters of Al-Si alloys that were directionally solidified over a range of processing conditions have been measured. These data are analyzed with a model based primarily on an assessment of secondary dendrite arm dissolution in the mushy zone. Good fit with the experimental data is seen and it is suggested that the primary dendrite trunk diameter is a useful metric that correlates well with the actual solidification processing parameters. These results are placed in context with the limited results from the aluminium - 7 wt. % silicon samples directionally solidified aboard the International Space Station as part of the MICAST project.

  6. The Relationship between Performance and Trunk Movement During Change of Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Shogo Sasaki; Yasuharu Nagano; Satoshi Kaneko; Takakuni Sakurai; Toru Fukubayashi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m) participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as q...

  7. Evaluation of Relationship between Trunk Muscle Endurance and Static Balance in Male Students

    OpenAIRE

    Barati, Amirhossein; SafarCherati, Afsaneh; Aghayari, Azar; Azizi, Faeze; Abbasi, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Fatigue of trunk muscle contributes to spinal instability over strenuous and prolonged physical tasks and therefore may lead to injury, however from a performance perspective, relation between endurance efficient core muscles and optimal balance control has not been well-known. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of trunk muscle endurance and static balance. Methods Fifty male students inhabitant of Tehran university dormitory (age 23.9±2.4, height 173.0±4.5 weig...

  8. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  9. 49 CFR 571.401 - Standard No. 401; Interior trunk release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must include a feature, like lighting or phosphorescence, that allows the release mechanism to be... with a person inside the trunk compartment. S4.3(a) Except as provided in paragraph S4.3(b), actuation..., actuation of the release mechanism required by paragraph S4.1 of this standard must result in the...

  10. Effectiveness of Natural Antifungal Compounds in Controlling Infection by Grapevine Trunk Disease Pathogens through Pruning Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Rebeca; Mateos, Rosa María; Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; Olego, Miguel Angel; Sevillano, Silvia; González-García, Sandra; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2015-09-01

    Grapevine trunk fungal pathogens, such as Diplodia seriata and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, can infect plants through pruning wounds. They cause grapevine trunk diseases and are involved in grapevine decline. Accordingly, the protection of pruning wounds is crucial for the management of grapevine trunk diseases. The efficacy of different natural antifungals in inhibiting the growth of several fungi causing grapevine trunk diseases was evaluated in vitro. The fungi showing greater in vitro efficacy were tested on autoclaved grape wood assays against D. seriata and P. chlamydospora. Based on results from these assays, chitosan oligosaccharide, vanillin, and garlic extract were selected for further evaluation on pruning wounds inoculated with D. seriata and P. chlamydospora in field trials. A significant decrease in plant mortality was observed after 2 years of growth in the plants treated with the different natural antifungals compared to the mortality rate observed in infected plants that were not treated with antifungals. Also, the infection rate for the inoculated pathogens was significantly reduced in plants treated with the selected natural antifungals. Therefore, natural antifungals represent a promising alternative for disease control and could provide significant economic benefits for the grape-growing industry. PMID:26162882

  11. Towards Automatic Trunk Classification on Young Conifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Stig; Immerkær, John

    2009-01-01

    trunk. The classification performance of the method was investigated using a SVM and 10-fold stratified cross validation, resulting in a correct classification rate of 90.2% (101/112) when discriminating between trees having one top shoot and trees having multiple top shoots. Future work aims to improve...

  12. Old oil palm trunk: A promising source of sugars for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H.; Ohara, S. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Tanaka, R.; Yamamoto, K. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Hamid, Z.A.A.; Yahya, M.K.A. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Kosugi, A.; Arai, T.; Murata, Y.; Nirasawa, S. [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nor; Ibrahim, Wan Asma [Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Selangor (Malaysia); Mori, Y. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Oil palm trees are replanted at an interval of approximately 25 years because of decreased oil productivity of old trees. Consequently the felled trunks are the enormous amount of biomass resources in the palm oil producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. In this report, we found that the felled oil palm trunk contains large quantity of sap, which accounts for approximately 70% of the whole trunk weight, and that sugars existing in the sap increased remarkably during storage after logging. Total sugar in the sap increased from 83 mg ml{sup -1} to 153 mg ml{sup -1}, the concentration comparable to that of sugar cane juice, after 30 days of storage, followed by the gradual decrease. The sugars contained in the sap were glucose, sucrose, fructose and galactose, all of which are fermentable by ordinary industrial yeast strains. The results indicate that old oil palm trunk becomes a promising source of sugars by proper aging after logging and, thus, its sap can be a good feedstock for bioethanol. (author)

  13. Mechanical behaviour of the in vivo paediatric and adult trunk during respiratory physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yumin; Bruyère-Garnier, Karine; Mitton, David; Vajda, Emmanuel; Bermond, François

    2014-01-01

    The load-deflection response of the human trunk has been studied using various methods. The different shapes observed may be due to the methodology and the population. The purpose of this study is to quantify and explain the in vivo mechanical response of paediatric and adult trunks during respiratory physiotherapy. Eight children aged 5-15 months and eight healthy adult volunteers aged 30-87 years participated in this study. The force applied by the physiotherapist and the displacement of the targets on his hands were recorded. Parameters were also measured and calculated to compare against other studies. Time lags between force time histories and displacement time histories were observed on both children and adults. Different time lags resulted in different shapes of the force-displacement curves. Factors including respiration, muscle contraction and loading pattern are part of the assumptions used to explain this phenomenon. The maximum displacements of the paediatric and adult trunks were 18 and 44 mm, respectively, with a maximum load of 208 and 250 N, respectively. This study provides a better explanation of the peculiar force-displacement characteristics of both living and active children and adults under a non-injurious, low-rate compression condition. Complementary data (e.g. muscle activity and breathing) should be collected in the future to go towards in vivo human trunk modelling. PMID:24280228

  14. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP...

  15. Modelling the economics and efficacy of early adoption of preventative practices for managing trunk diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunk diseases pose one of the most significant threats to vineyard longevity, since the introduction of Phylloxera. Research on resistant germplasm and detection tools will help in the long term. In the short term, we aim to promote preventative practices. Experimental trials show three practices t...

  16. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  17. Trunk muscle activation during stabilization exercises with single and double leg support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vaquero, María Pilar; Moreside, Janice M; Brontons-Gil, Evaristo; Peco-González, Noelia; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trunk muscle activity during bridge style stabilization exercises, when combined with single and double leg support strategies. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers performed bridge exercises in 3 different positions (back, front and side bridges), with and without an elevated leg, and a quadruped exercise with contralateral arm and leg raise ("bird-dog"). Surface EMG was bilaterally recorded from rectus abdominis (RA), external and internal oblique (EO, IO), and erector spinae (ES). Back, front and side bridges primarily activated the ES (approximately 17% MVC), RA (approximately 30% MVC) and muscles required to support the lateral moment (mostly obliques), respectively. Compared with conventional bridge exercises, single leg support produced higher levels of trunk activation, predominantly in the oblique muscles. The bird-dog exercise produced greatest activity in IO on the side of the elevated arm and in the contralateral ES. In conclusion, during a common bridge with double leg support, the antigravity muscles were the most active. When performed with an elevated leg, however, rotation torques increased the activation of the trunk rotators, especially IO. This information may be useful for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists in determining appropriate exercise progression for the trunk stabilizers. PMID:22436839

  18. Grower perceptions of preventative practices for management of trunk diseases of grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trials on prevention of trunk diseases (e.g., Eutypa dieback) show that three practices [delayed pruning, double pruning, pruning-wound protectants] prevent pruning-wound infections by 25-100%. Nonetheless, they are often not adopted until disease incidence is >20% in mature vineyards. There are no ...

  19. Bridging the gaps between scientific literature and grower perceptions of trunk disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunk diseases significantly limit the productivity of California vineyards. Field trials have shown three practices to minimize infection of pruning wounds: delayed pruning, double pruning, and the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M). For optimal efficacy, such preventative practices must be a...

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of the rare association of common arterial trunk and double aortic arch

    OpenAIRE

    Rock, Andrea; Eltayeb, Osama; Camarda, Joseph; Gotteiner, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Common arterial trunk with associated double aortic arch is a very rare constellation of congenital heart disease. Prenatal diagnosis allows for surgical repair prior to development of respiratory morbidity, which is otherwise described in all cases with this association.

  1. Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan AS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alice S Ryan, Aruna Selina Harduarsingh-Permaul Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland; Baltimore Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC, and Research and Development Service, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. Methods: The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX plus WL (AEX+WL, on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA (to measure trunk fat and lean mass and computed tomography (CT (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50-76 years. Results: The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (P<0.05. Both the spinal and abdominal muscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max (P<0.05. Body weight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (P<0.001. The VO2max increased by 11% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 but did not change with WL alone (group effect, P<0.001. The DXA-measured trunk fat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 and by 12% after WL (P<0.001. When both groups were combined, the IMAT decreased in all four muscle groups - by 6% in the erector spinae (P<0.01, by 9% in the psoas (P<0.01, by 11% in the lateral abdominals (P<0.001, and by 6% in the rectus abdominis (P<0.05. The loss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. Conclusions: A lifestyle

  2. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbado David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

  3. Balance recovery is compromised and trunk muscle activity is increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle D; Chang, Angela T; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Increased respiration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires greater abdominal muscle activation, which may impact on contribution of the trunk to postural control. This study aimed to determine whether recovery of balance from postural perturbations and trunk muscle activity differs in people with and without COPD before and/or after exercise. Electromyography (EMG) of the obliquus internus (OI) and externus (OE) abdominis, rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and deltoid muscles was recorded with surface electrodes during rapid shoulder flexion and extension. Time taken to regain baseline centre of pressure velocity (vCOP) and the number of postural adjustments following arm movement was calculated from force plate data. Time to recover balance in the direction of postural disturbance (anteroposterior vCOP) was longer in COPD, particularly more severe COPD, than controls. Mediolateral vCOP (perpendicular to the perturbation) and the number of postural adjustments did not differ between groups, but people with more severe COPD were less successful at returning their mediolateral vCOP to baseline. Abdominal muscle EMG was similar between groups, but controls had greater ES EMG during arm movements. Individuals with more severe COPD had greater OE and RA EMG both before and during arm movement compared to those with less severe COPD and controls. Following exercise, OE and ES EMG increased in people with less severe COPD. This study shows that severe COPD is associated with impaired ability to recover balance and greater trunk muscle activity during postural challenges. Augmented trunk muscle activity may limit the contribution of trunk movements to balance recovery and could contribute to increased falls risk. PMID:26471324

  4. THE ROLE OF LEG AND TRUNK MUSCLES PROPRIOCEPTION ON STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED Hossein Hosseinimehr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The proprioception information is a prerequisite for balance, body’s navigation system, and the movement coordinator. Due to changes between the angles of ankle, knee, and hip joints the aforementioned information are important in the coordination of the limbs and postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate therole of leg and trunk muscles proprioception on static and dynamic postural control. Thirty males students of physical education and sport sciences (age =21.23 ± 2.95 years, height = 170.4 ± 5.1 cm, and weight = 70.7 ± 5.6 kg participated in this study volunteered. Vibration (100HZ was used to disturb of proprioception. Vibrationoperated on leg muscle (gasterocnemius and trunk muscles (erector spine muscle, at L1 level. Leg stance time and Star Excursion Balance Test were used for evaluation of static and dynamic postural control respectively.Subjects performed pre and post (with operated vibration leg stance time and star excursion balance test. Paired sample test used for investigation the effect of vibration on leg and trunk muscles in static and dynamic postural control. Result of this study showed in static postural control, there is no significant difference between pre and post test (operated vibration in leg and trunk muscles (p≤0.05. In contrast there is significant difference indynamic postural control between pre and post test in leg muscles in 8 directions of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05 while there is only significant difference in trunk muscle in antrolateral and lateral of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05. During physical training such conditions like fatigue and injury can disturbproprioceptions’ information. Thus, due to the importance of this information we recommend that coaches'additionally specific trainings any sport used specific exercises to enhance the proprioception information

  5. The harmonic ratio of trunk acceleration predicts falling among older people: results of a 1-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doi Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait variables derived from trunk accelerometry may predict the risk of falls; however, their associations with falls are not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to determine which gait variables derived from upper and lower trunk accelerometry are associated with the incidence of falls, and to compare the discriminative ability of gait variables and physical performance. Methods This study was a 1-year prospective study. Older people (n = 73 walked normally while wearing accelerometers attached to the upper and lower trunk. Participants were classified as fallers (n = 16 or non-fallers (n = 57 based on the incidence of falls over 1 year. The harmonic ratio (HR of the upper and lower trunk was measured. Physical performance was measured in five chair stands and in the timed up and go test. Results The HR of the upper and lower trunk were consistently lower in fallers than non-fallers (P P Conclusions HR derived from upper trunk accelerometry may predict the risk of falls, independently of physical performance. The discriminative ability of HR for the risk of falls may have some validity, and further studies are needed to confirm the clinical relevance of trunk HR.

  6. Muscle Activation and Performance During Trunk Strength Testing in High-Level Female and Male Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    For performance and injury prevention in sport, core strength and endurance are focused prerequisites. Therefore we evaluated characteristics of trunk muscle activation and performance during strength-endurance related trunk field tests. Strength-endurance ability, as total time to failure, and activation of trunk muscles was measured in 39 football players of the highest German female football league (Bundesliga) (N = 18, age: 20.7 y [SD 4.4]) and the highest national male under-19 league (N = 21, age: 17.9 y [0.7]) in prone plank, side plank, and dorsal position. Maximal isometric force was assessed during trunk extension and flexion, rotation, and lateral flexion to normalize EMG and to compare with the results of strength-endurance tests. For all positions of endurance strength tests, a continuous increase in normalized EMG activation was observed (P females (P = .02). We conclude, that in the applied strength-endurance testing, the activation of trunk muscles was high, especially in females. As high trunk muscle activation can infer fatigue, limb strength can limit performance in prone and side plank position, particularly during high trunk muscle activation. PMID:26671894

  7. Understanding the Effects of Spaceflight on Head-trunk Coordination During Walking and Obstacle Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madansingh, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to spaceflight conditions results in a battery of physiological changes, some of which contribute to sensorimotor and neurovestibular deficits. Upon return to Earth, functional performance changes are tested using the Functional Task Test (FTT), which includes an obstacle course to observe post-flight balance and postural stability, specifically during turning. The goal of this study was to quantify changes in movement strategies during turning events by observing the latency between head-and-trunk coordinated movements. It was hypothesized that subjects experiencing neurovestibular adaptations would exhibit head-to-trunk locking ('en bloc' movement) during turning, exhibited by a decrease in latency between head and trunk movement. FTT data samples were collected from 13 ISS astronauts and 26 male 70-day head down tilt bed rest subjects, including bed rest controls (10 BRC) and bed rest exercisers (16 BRE). Samples were analyzed three times pre-exposure, immediately post-exposure (0 or 1 day post) and 2-to-3 times during recovery from the unloading environment. Two 3D inertial measurements units (XSens MTx) were attached to subjects, one on the head and one on the upper back. This study focused primarily on the yaw movements about the subject's center of rotation. Time differences (latency) between head and trunk movement were averaged across a slalom obstacle portion, consisting of three turns (approximately three 60° turns). All participants were grouped as 'decreaser' or 'increaser,' relating to their change in head-to-trunk movement latency between pre- and post- environmental adaptation measures. Space flight unloading (ISS) showed a bimodal response between the 'increaser' and 'decreaser' group, while both bed rest control (BRC) and bed rest exercise (BRE) populations showed increased preference towards a 'decreaser' categorization, displaying greater head-trunk locking. It is clear that changes in movement strategies are adopted during

  8. Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Lewis

    Full Text Available The single leg squat and single leg step down are two commonly used functional tasks to assess movement patterns. It is unknown how kinematics compare between these tasks. The purpose of this study was to identify kinematic differences in the lower extremity, pelvis and trunk between the single leg squat and the step down. Fourteen healthy individuals participated in this research and performed the functional tasks while kinematic data were collected for the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremities using a motion capture system. For the single leg squat task, the participant was instructed to squat as low as possible. For the step down task, the participant was instructed to stand on top of a box, slowly lower him/herself until the non-stance heel touched the ground, and return to standing. This was done from two different heights (16 cm and 24 cm. The kinematics were evaluated at peak knee flexion as well as at 60° of knee flexion. Pearson correlation coefficients (r between the angles at those two time points were also calculated to better understand the relationship between each task. The tasks resulted in kinematics differences at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk at both time points. The single leg squat was performed with less hip adduction (p ≤ 0.003, but more hip external rotation and knee abduction (p ≤ 0.030, than the step down tasks at 60° of knee flexion. These differences were maintained at peak knee flexion except hip external rotation was only significant in the 24 cm step down task (p ≤ 0.029. While there were multiple differences between the two step heights at peak knee flexion, the only difference at 60° of knee flexion was in trunk flexion (p < 0.001. Angles at the knee and hip had a moderate to excellent correlation (r = 0.51-0.98, but less consistently so at the pelvis and trunk (r = 0.21-0.96. The differences in movement patterns between the single leg squat and the step down should be considered when selecting a

  9. Trunk muscle fatigue during a lateral isometric hold test: what are we evaluating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagé Isabelle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Side bridge endurance protocols have been suggested to evaluate lateral trunk flexor and/or spine stabilizer muscles. To date, no study has investigated muscle recruitment and fatigability during these protocols. Therefore the purpose of our study was to quantify fatigue parameters in various trunk muscles during a modified side bridge endurance task (i.e. a lateral isometric hold test on a 45° roman chair apparatus and determine which primary trunk muscles get fatigued during this task. It was hypothesized that the ipsilateral external oblique and lumbar erector spinae muscles will exhibit the highest fatigue indices. Methods Twenty-two healthy subjects participated in this study. The experimental session included left and right lateral isometric hold tasks preceded and followed by 3 maximal voluntary contractions in the same position. Surface electromyography (EMG recordings were obtained bilaterally from the external oblique, rectus abdominis, and L2 and L5 erector spinae. Statistical analysis were conducted to compare the right and left maximal voluntary contractions (MVC, surface EMG activities, right vs. left holding times and decay rate of the median frequency as the percent change from the initial value (NMFslope. Results No significant left and right lateral isometric hold tests differences were observed neither for holding times (97.2 ± 21.5 sec and 96.7 ± 24.9 sec respectively nor for pre and post fatigue root mean square during MVCs. However, participants showed significant decreases of MVCs between pre and post fatigue measurements for both the left and right lateral isometric hold tests. Statistical analysis showed that a significantly NMFslope of the ipsilateral external oblique during both conditions, and a NMFslope of the contralateral L5 erector spinae during the left lateral isometric hold test were steeper than those of the other side’s respective muscles. Although some participants

  10. Identifying Head-Trunk and Lower Limb Contributions to Gaze Stabilization During Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent full-body sensorimotor subsystems respond to a change in gaze stabilization task constraints during locomotion. Nine subjects performed two gaze stabilization tasks while walking at 6.4 km/hr on a motorized treadmill: 1) focusing on a central point target; 2) reading numeral characters; both presented at 2m in front at the level of their eyes. While subjects performed the tasks we measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. We tested the hypothesis that with the increased demands placed on visual acuity during the number recognition task, subjects would modify full-body segmental kinematics in order to reduce perturbations to the head in order to successfully perform the task. We found that while reading numeral characters as - compared to the central point target: 1) compensatory head pitch movement was on average 22% greater despite the fact that the trunk pitch and trunk vertical translation movement control were not significantly changed; 2) coordination patterns between head and trunk as reflected by the peak cross correlation between the head pitch and trunk pitch motion as well as the peak cross correlation between the head pitch and vertical trunk translation motion were not significantly changed; 3) knee joint total movement was on average 11% greater during the period from the heel strike event to the peak knee flexion event in stance phase of the gait cycle; 4) peak acceleration measured at the head was significantly reduced by an average of 13% in four of the six subjects. This was so even when the peak acceleration at the shank and the transmissibility of the shock wave at heel strike (measured by the peak acceleration ratio of the head/shank) remained unchanged. Taken

  11. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  12. Carotid-cavernous fistula caused by rupture of persistent primitive trigeminal artery trunk aneurysm--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Ezura, Masayuki; Mino, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old female presented with a carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) manifesting as left abducens nerve palsy. Left internal carotid digital subtraction angiography showed a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) near the CCF. Super-selective angiography showed direct shunt flow between the PPTA trunk aneurysm and the left cavernous sinus. The aneurysm was successfully occluded with detachable coils. The CCF disappeared and the PPTA was preserved. The abducens nerve paralysis had disappeared 6 months later. CCF caused by a PPTA trunk aneurysm is extremely rare. We speculate that the PPTA trunk aneurysm formed and then ruptured due to hemodynamic stress caused by hypoplasia of the basilar artery. PMID:21785245

  13. Complete trunk severance of a motorcyclist by a traffic sign post at a comparably low collision speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggenthaler, H; Drobnik, S; Hubig, M; Reiners, J; Mall, G

    2012-11-30

    Traumatic limb amputations and transections of the trunk generally indicate high impact velocities. Complete traumatic severances of the trunk in road accidents however are rarely reported in literature. We describe a case where the trunk of a motorcyclist was completely severed as he hit the post of a traffic sign. Based on the documented end position and damage of the motorcycle, an impact velocity range of 52-80 km/h could be determined for the motorcyclist. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the type and mechanism of injury at this comparatively low collision speed range. PMID:23022766

  14. Enhanced Algorithms for Estimating Tree Trunk Diameter Using 2D Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Ringdahl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate vehicle localization in forest environments is still an unresolved problem. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS have well known limitations in dense forest, and have to be combined with for instance laser based SLAM algorithms to provide satisfying accuracy. Such algorithms typically require accurate detection of trees, and estimation of tree center locations in laser data. Both these operations depend on accurate estimations of tree trunk diameter. Diameter estimations are important also for several other forestry automation and remote sensing applications. This paper evaluates several existing algorithms for diameter estimation using 2D laser scanner data. Enhanced algorithms, compensating for beam width and using multiple scans, were also developed and evaluated. The best existing algorithms overestimated tree trunk diameter by ca. 40%. Our enhanced algorithms, compensating for laser beam width, reduced this error to less than 12%.

  15. Study of trunk flexibility and body composition between football and badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANDALAL SINGH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was an attempt to compare the flexibility (trunk flexibility and bodycomposition (percentage of body fat, total body fat and lean body mass between inter-college level malefootball and badminton players. Fifty (50 male inter-college level football players (N=25 and badmintonplayers (N=25 ranging between 17 to 25years were selected randomly from different colleges of PanjabUniversity, Chandigarh for this study. To compare the mean differences between the inter-college level footballand badminton players,t tests were computed using SPSS Software. Flexibility (trunk flexibility, and bodycomposition (percentage of body fat and total body fat were not found to be statistically significant

  16. Dynamical Models for the Formation of Elephant Trunks in H II Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The formation of pillars of dense gas at the boundaries of H II Regions is investigated with hydrodynamical numerical simulations including ionising radiation from a point source. We show that shadowing of ionising radiation by an inhomogeneous density field is capable of forming so-called elephant trunks (pillars of dense gas as in e.g. M16) without the assistance of self-gravity, or of ionisation front and cooling instabilities. A large simulation of a density field containing randomly generated clumps of gas is shown to naturally generate elephant trunks with certain clump configurations. These configurations are simulated in isolation and analysed in detail to show the formation mechanism and determine possible observational signatures. Pillars formed by the shadowing mechanism are shown to have rather different velocity profiles depending on the initial gas configuration, but asymmetries mean that the profiles also vary significantly with perspective, limiting their ability to discriminate between format...

  17. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Skotte, Jørgen H.;

    2009-01-01

    A slower reflex response to sudden trunk loading (SL) has been shown to increase future risk of low back injuries in healthy subjects, and specific readiness training can improve the response to SL among healthy subjects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of recreational soccer...... training on the reaction to SL among untrained healthy women. Thirty-six healthy, untrained, Danish women (age 19-45 years) were randomly assigned to a soccer group (SO, n = 19) and a running group (RU, n = 17). In addition, an untrained control group (CON, n = 10) was recruited. Training was performed for...... 1 hour twice a week (mean heart rate of 165 b.min-1 in SO and 164 b.min-1 in RU) for 16 weeks. Test of reactions to sudden unexpected trunk loading was performed before and after the training period. Furthermore, time-motion analysis of the soccer training was performed for 9 subjects. Group...

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Influence from Forest Fire Front on a Coniferous Tree Trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Baranovskiy Nikolay V.; Barakhnin Vladimir B.; Andreeva Ksenia N.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical research results of heat transfer in layered tree trunk influenced by heat flux from forest fire presented. The problem solved in two-dimensional statement in Cartesian system of co-ordinates. The typical range of influence parameters of heat flux from forest fire considered. Temperature distributions in different moments of time obtained. Condition of tree damage by forest fire influence is under consideration in this research.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Influence from Forest Fire Front on a Coniferous Tree Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Barakhnin, Vladimir B.; Andreeva, Ksenia N.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical research results of heat transfer in layered tree trunk influenced by heat flux from forest fire presented. The problem solved in two-dimensional statement in Cartesian system of co-ordinates. The typical range of influence parameters of heat flux from forest fire considered. Temperature distributions in different moments of time obtained. Condition of tree damage by forest fire influence is under consideration in this research.

  20. Fracture risk assessment of trunk oil pipeline by corrosion fatigue mechanism of service defects development

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyl Luzhetskyy

    2013-01-01

    Engineering estimations of the corrosion fracture velocity of oil pipelines have been given, which include both mechanical and physical-chemical interaction operation factors of strained material with workspace. Characteristics of cyclic corrosion crack resistance of a pipe metal of the exploited oil-trunk pipeline with the regard for operating production factors have been defined. New data about corrosive and fatigue failure of pipes in dependence on the initial sizes and forms of their dete...

  1. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Zhong Fan; Xia Liu; Guo-Xin Ni

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and latissimus dorsi (LD) bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque ...

  2. Differences in trunk accelerometry between frail and non-frail elderly persons in functional tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Galán-Mercant, Alejandro; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical conditions through gait and other functional task are parameters to consider for frailty detection. The aim of the present study is to measure and describe the variability of acceleration, angular velocity and trunk displacement in the ten meter Extended Timed Get-Up-and-Go test in two groups of frail and non-frail elderly people through instrumentation with the iPhone4® smartphone. Secondly, to analyze the differences and performance of the variance between the study grou...

  3. Anomalous Origin of the Left Atrial Branch from the Left Main Trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Gholoobi

    2015-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman was referred for coronary angiography with the chief complaint of exertional angina and dyspnea of a very long duration during routine daily physical activities. She had a history of poorly controlled hypertension and dyslipidemia. Coronary angiography revealed diffuse three-vessel disease. Interestingly, an unusual branch was noted originating from the mid shaft of the left main trunk with a funnel-shaped root and travelling the course of a left atrial (LA) branch (Figure...

  4. On the Stability of Berm Breakwater Roundheads and Trunk Erosion in Oblique Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The stability of a berm type breakwater (sacrificial breakwater) was tested in a 3-dimensional model at The Hydraulics Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Aalborg. The object was to study the stability/erosion of the breakwater head and the trunk, the latter exposed to both...... head-on and oblique irregular waves. To avoid too many parameters a simple breakwater geometry and only one class of stones were used....

  5. THE ROLE OF LEG AND TRUNK MUSCLES PROPRIOCEPTION ON STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    SEYED Hossein Hosseinimehr; ALI ASGHAR Norasteh

    2010-01-01

    The proprioception information is a prerequisite for balance, body’s navigation system, and the movement coordinator. Due to changes between the angles of ankle, knee, and hip joints the aforementioned information are important in the coordination of the limbs and postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate therole of leg and trunk muscles proprioception on static and dynamic postural control. Thirty males students of physical education and sport sciences (age =21.23 ± 2.95 yea...

  6. The formation of elephant-trunk globules in the Rosette nebula: CO observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prominent elephant-trunk globules in the northwest quadrant of the Rosette nebula have been observed in the microwave lines of CO and 13CO (J=1→0). The CO emission closely follows the optical outline of the obscuring material and leaves little doubt that the emission is associated with the globules. The physical characteristics derived are typical of those observed in other dust globules which are not necessarily associated with H II regions

  7. A Smart Solution for Solving Acute Angulations during Frozen Elephant Trunk Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Martin; Grabenwöger, Martin; von Segesser, Ludwig

    2016-03-01

    Acute angulations of native thoracic aortic segments affect treatment strategies for acute and chronic thoracic aortic pathology. These angulations might present an issue not only in segments where thoracic endovascular aortic repair is planned but also in segments where open repair is intended. Consequently, clinical scenarios arise where there is need for adapting strategies in frozen elephant trunk implantation. In this conceptual report, we do describe a technical modification to solve this issue. PMID:26166290

  8. A gait abnormality measure based on root mean square of trunk acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Sekine, Masaki; Tamura, Toshiyo; Yoshida, Masaki; Suda, Yuki; Kimura, Yuichi; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Kijima, Yoshifumi; Higashi, Yuji; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Root mean square (RMS) of trunk acceleration is seen frequently in gait analysis research. However, many studies have reported that the RMS value was related to walking speed. Therefore, the relationship between the RMS value and walking speed should be considered when the RMS value is used to assess gait abnormality. We hypothesized that the RMS values in three sensing axes exhibit common proportions for healthy people if they walk at their own preferred speed and that the RMS pro...

  9. Dark mammoth trunks in the merging galaxy NGC 1316 and a mechanism of cosmic double helices

    OpenAIRE

    Carlqvist, Per

    2010-01-01

    NGC 1316 is a giant, elliptical galaxy containing a complex network of dark, dust features. The morphology of these features has been examined in some detail using a Hubble Space Telescope, Advanced Camera for Surveys image. It is found that most of the features are constituted of long filaments. There also exist a great number of dark structures protruding inwards from the filaments. Many of these structures are strikingly similar to elephant trunks in H II regions in the Milky Way Galaxy, a...

  10. Consequences of Laughter Upon Trunk Compression and Cortical Activation: Linear and Polynomial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svebak, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Results from two studies of biological consequences of laughter are reported. A proposed inhibitory brain mechanism was tested in Study 1. It aims to protect against trunk compression that can cause health hazards during vigorous laughter. Compression may be maximal during moderate durations and, for protective reasons, moderate in enduring vigorous laughs. Twenty-five university students volunteered to see a candid camera film. Laughter responses (LR) and the superimposed ha-responses were operationally assessed by mercury-filled strain gauges strapped around the trunk. On average, the thorax compression amplitudes exceeded those of the abdomen, and greater amplitudes were seen in the males than in the females after correction for resting trunk circumference. Regression analyses supported polynomial relations because medium LR durations were associated with particularly high thorax amplitudes. In Study 2, power changes were computed in the beta and alpha EEG frequency bands of the parietal cortex from before to after exposure to the comedy “Dinner for one” in 56 university students. Highly significant linear relations were calculated between the number of laughs and post-exposure cortical activation (increase of beta, decrease of alpha) due to high activation after frequent laughter. The results from Study 1 supported the hypothesis of a protective brain mechanism that is activated during long LRs to reduce the risk of harm to vital organs in the trunk cavity. The results in Study 2 supported a linear cortical activation and, thus, provided evidence for a biological correlate to the subjective experience of mental refreshment after laughter. PMID:27547260

  11. Conversion of different part core oil palm trunk into methyl levulinate & hydroxymethylfurfural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosnan, Afifah Aqilah Alias; Jahar, NoorHasmiera Abu; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chin Chia

    2015-09-01

    In this study, sugar was extracted from the of core oil palm trunk (OPT) and undergoes methanolysis process. The objective of this research is to study the production of methyl levulinate (MLA) and hydroxymethyl furfurals (HMF) from four different parts of OPT such as inner, middle, outer and whole. After methanolysis, samples were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  12. Head stability during quiet sitting in children with cerebral palsy: effect of vision and trunk support

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Sandra; Woollacott, Marjorie; van Donkelaar, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in postural control are one of the hallmarks of disability in children with cerebral palsy. Yet, much remains unknown regarding the etiology of postural deficits in these children. Here we evaluated postural control at a simplified task level by measuring head stability during quiet sitting while systematically manipulating the level of trunk support and vision in 15 children with CP (6–16 years), 26 typically developing (TD) children (4–14 years), and 11 adults. While TD children di...

  13. Chemokine Signaling Directs Trunk Lymphatic Network Formation along the Preexisting Blood Vasculature

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Young Ryun; Fujita, Misato; Butler, Matthew; Isogai, Sumio; Kochhan, Eva; Siekmann, Arndt F; Weinstein, Brant M

    2012-01-01

    The lymphatic system is crucial for fluid homeostasis, immune responses, and numerous pathological processes. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for establishing the anatomical form of the lymphatic vascular network remain largely unknown. Here, we show that chemokine signaling provides critical guidance cues directing early trunk lymphatic network assembly and patterning. The chemokine receptors Cxcr4a and Cxcr4b are expressed in lymphatic endothelium, while chemokine ligands Cxcl...

  14. Drying Shrinkage Characteristics of Concrete Reinforced With Oil Palm Trunk Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Zakiah Ahmad; Azmi Ibrahim,; Paridah MD Tahir

    2010-01-01

    Concrete is subject to some form of restraint, such as steel reinforcement, forms or adjacent members. As concrete begins to lose volume, the restraint inhibits movement, which then induces tensile stress in the concrete. Once the tensile capacity of the concrete has been exceeded, it will crack. Therefore this paper reports on a study of shrinkage of plain and concrete reinforced with bio-waste fiber namely oil palm trunk fiber (OPTF). Metallic rings are the most widely used devices to test ...

  15. Slow Expiration Reduces External Oblique Muscle Activity during Maximum Trunk Flexion

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Tajima, Saya; Masuno, Riyo; Kogame, Yoshiko; Ando, Suguru; Yokohata, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of expiration on abdominal muscle activity during maximum trunk flexion. [Subjects] Twenty-one healthy university students (10 men, 11 women) participated in this study. [Methods] Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activity of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles. The paired t-test was used to examine the significance of differences in the abdominal muscles between maximum tru...

  16. THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Othman Sulaiman; Nurjannah Salim,; Noor Afeefah Nordin; Rokiah Hashim; , Mazlan Ibrahim,; Masatoshi Sato

    2012-01-01

    Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to revie...

  17. Efficient ethanol production from dried oil palm trunk treated by hydrothermolysis and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, In-Yong; Yu, Ju-Hyun; Jung, Chan-Duck; Hong, Kyung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Oil palm trunk (OPT) is a valuable bioresource for the biorefinery industry producing biofuels and biochemicals. It has the distinct feature of containing a large amount of starch, which, unlike cellulose, can be easily solubilized by water when heated and hydrolyzed to glucose by amylolytic enzymes without pretreatment for breaking down the biomass recalcitrance. Therefore, it is suggested as beneficial to extract most of the starch from OPT through autoclaving and subsequent amyl...

  18. Study of trunk flexibility and body composition between football and badminton players

    OpenAIRE

    NANDALAL SINGH; RANJIT SINGH, R; KUMAR SINGH

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was an attempt to compare the flexibility (trunk flexibility) and bodycomposition (percentage of body fat, total body fat and lean body mass) between inter-college level malefootball and badminton players. Fifty (50) male inter-college level football players (N=25) and badmintonplayers (N=25) ranging between 17 to 25years were selected randomly from different colleges of PanjabUniversity, Chandigarh for this study. To compare the mean differences between the i...

  19. TRUNK ROTATION AND WEIGHT TRANSFER PATTERNS BETWEEN SKILLED AND LOW SKILLED GOLFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Okuda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine trunk rotational patterns and weight transfer patterns that may differentiate swing skill level in golfers. Thirteen skilled golfers (mean handicap = 0.8 ± 2.6 and seventeen low skilled golfers (mean handicap = 30.8 ± 5.5 participated in this study. Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained through high-speed 3-D videography and force plates while the participant performed a full shot golf swing with a driver. Data at six temporal events during the swing were selected for the analysis. The results indicated that significant differences existed between the groups in the multiple events, as the skilled golfers showed the following motion patterns when compared to the low skilled golfers; 1 An earlier trunk horizontal rotation with a rapid weight transfer to the trail foot during the backswing; 2 An earlier pelvic horizontal rotation accompanied with an earlier weight transfer to the lead foot during the downswing motion; and 3 Less upper trunk horizontal rotation and more posterior pelvic rotation at the follow through. Collectively, these finding may be useful for instruction of golfers to improve their swing mechanics on a full shot golf swing

  20. mDurance: A Novel Mobile Health System to Support Trunk Endurance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition. This disorder constitutes one of the most common causes of disability worldwide, and as a result, it has a severe socioeconomic impact. Endurance tests are normally considered in low back pain rehabilitation practice to assess the muscle status. However, traditional procedures to evaluate these tests suffer from practical limitations, which potentially lead to inaccurate diagnoses. The use of digital technologies is considered here to facilitate the task of the expert and to increase the reliability and interpretability of the endurance tests. This work presents mDurance, a novel mobile health system aimed at supporting specialists in the functional assessment of trunk endurance by using wearable and mobile devices. The system employs a wearable inertial sensor to track the patient trunk posture, while portable electromyography sensors are used to seamlessly measure the electrical activity produced by the trunk muscles. The information registered by the sensors is processed and managed by a mobile application that facilitates the expert’s normal routine, while reducing the impact of human errors and expediting the analysis of the test results. In order to show the potential of the mDurance system, a case study has been conducted. The results of this study prove the reliability of mDurance and further demonstrate that practitioners are certainly interested in the regular use of a system of this nature.

  1. Isolation of table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jimenez-Jimenez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the ‘Manzanilla’ variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of interference 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit-branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations.

  2. Isolation of table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Jimenez, F.; Castro-Garcia, S.; Blanco-Roldan, G. L.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, E. J.; Gil-Ribes, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the Manzanilla variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of bruise 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations. (Author) 34 refs.

  3. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis. PMID:21472438

  4. Evaluation of DNA Extraction Techniques for Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Organisms in Asian Elephant Trunk Wash Samples▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Meagan K.; Linke, Lyndsey; Triantis, Joni; Salman, M D; Larsen, R. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic assays for the detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in elephants are lacking. DNA extraction with PCR analysis is useful for tuberculosis screening in many species but has not been validated on elephant trunk wash samples. We estimated the analytical sensitivity and specificity of three DNA extraction methods to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in trunk wash specimens. A ZR soil microbe DNA kit (ZR) and a traditional salt and ethanol precipit...

  5. TRUNK AND HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN EARLY WALKERS WITH AND WITHOUT CEREBRAL PALSY – A FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Prosser, Laura A.; Lee, Samuel C. K.; Barbe, Mary F.; VanSant, Ann F.; Lauer, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    Poor control of postural muscles is a primary impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), yet core trunk and hip muscle activity has not been thoroughly investigated. Frequency analysis of electromyographic (EMG) signals provides insight about the intensity and pattern of muscle activation, correlates with functional measures in CP, and is sensitive to change after intervention. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in trunk and hip muscle activation frequency in children with CP ...

  6. The effects of virtual reality game training on trunk to pelvis coupling in a child with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Gabor J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good control of trunk and pelvic movements is necessary for well controlled leg movements required to perform activities of daily living. The nature of movement coupling between the trunk and pelvis varies and depends on the type of activity. Children with cerebral palsy often have reduced ability to modulate coupling between the trunk and pelvis but movement patterns of the pelvis can be improved by training. The aim of this study was to examine how pelvis to trunk coupling changed while playing a computer game driven by pelvic rotations. Methods One boy with cerebral palsy diplegia played the Goblin Post Office game on the CAREN virtual rehabilitation system for six weeks. He navigated a flying dragon in a virtual cave towards randomly appearing targets by rotating the pelvis around a vertical axis. Motion of the pelvis and trunk was captured in real-time by a Vicon 612 optoelectronic system tracking two clusters of three markers attached to the sacrum and thoracic spine. Results Convex hull areas calculated from angle-angle plots of pelvic and trunk rotations showed that coupling increased over game training (F1,11 = 7.482, p = 0.019. Reaching to targets far from the midline required tighter coupling than reaching near targets (F1,12 = 10.619, p = 0.007. Conclusions Increasing coupling appears to be an initial compensation mechanism using the better controlled trunk to drive rotation of the pelvis. Co-contractions causing increased coupling are expected to reduce over longer exposure to training. The control scheme of the training game can be set to facilitate de-coupling of pelvic movements from the trunk. Using large ranges of pelvic rotation required more coupling suggesting that training of selective pelvic movements is likely to be more effective close to a neutral pelvic posture.

  7. Association of trunk control with mobility performance and accelerometry-based gait characteristics in hemiparetic patients with subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isho, Takuya; Usuda, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Trunk control plays an important role in movement control and postural balance during functional activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of trunk control early after stroke with mobility performance and quantitative gait characteristics derived from trunk accelerations. Fifteen patients with hemiparesis following stroke (median age, 61 years [range, 56-78 years]; median time since stroke, 9 days [range, 7-15 days]) participated in this cross-sectional observational study. Subjects were evaluated using the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), the short-form of the Berg Balance Scale (SF-BBS), an isometric knee extension strength test, the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), and a timed walking test. The linear acceleration of the lower trunk was recorded along the 3 axes during walking and quantified using the autocorrelation coefficient and harmonic ratio to assess the variability and smoothness of upper-body movement. The TIS total score had a significant correlation with TUG time. The coordination subscale score of the TIS was significantly correlated with TUG time, walking speed, and accelerometry variables in univariate analysis. The TIS coordination subscale score was significantly related to accelerometry variables in the partial correlation analysis adjusted for SF-BBS score and knee extension strength on the paretic and nonparetic side. These results indicate that trunk motor impairment after stroke is closely associated with poor mobility performance and trunk instability in gait. These findings support intensive rehabilitation treatment targeting trunk control to regain better mobility and stable gait in patients early after stroke. PMID:27004638

  8. The harmonic ratio of trunk acceleration predicts falling among older people: results of a 1-year prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Doi Takehiko; Hirata Soichiro; Ono Rei; Tsutsumimoto Kota; Misu Shogo; Ando Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Gait variables derived from trunk accelerometry may predict the risk of falls; however, their associations with falls are not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to determine which gait variables derived from upper and lower trunk accelerometry are associated with the incidence of falls, and to compare the discriminative ability of gait variables and physical performance. Methods This study was a 1-year prospective study. Older people (n = 73) walked normally wh...

  9. [Diurnal variation of Quercus variabilis trunk diameter in response to environmental factors at south aspect of Taihang Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-Jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Jia, Chang-Rong; Ren, Ying-Feng

    2012-08-01

    By using Circumference Dendrometer 2 (DC2), this paper studied the diurnal variation of trunk diameter in Quercus variabilis plantation at the south aspect of Taihang Mountains. During seasonal drought, the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter was quite evident. The time of the diameter shrinkage followed the start-up time of sap flow, but the appearance of the minimum trunk diameter lagged behind the maximum sap flow flux about 3-4 h. The maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) value of the trunk diameter presented a trend low-high-low, being significantly correlated with the diurnal differences of cumulative sap flow flux and leaf water potential and having a significant quadratic relationship with soil moisture content. The MDS value was affected by the variations of meteorological factors, being significantly correlated with the diurnal variations of air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and relative humidity, but less correlated with the diurnal variation of solar radiation. After successive precipitation, soil moisture content was no longer the limiting factor of the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter. The MDS value had less correlations with the diurnal differences of cumulative sap flow flux, leaf water potential, soil moisture content, and other meteorological factors. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that the soil moisture content and air temperature in seasonal drought and rain seasons were the key factors affecting the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter. PMID:23189691

  10. The effects of core muscle activation on dynamic trunk position and knee abduction moments: implications for ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Steve T; McNally, Michael P; Schmitt, Laura C; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2013-09-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common serious lower-extremity injuries experienced by athletes participating in field and court sports and often occurs during a sudden change in direction or pivot. Both lateral trunk positioning during cutting and peak external knee abduction moments have been associated with ACL injury risk, though it is not known how core muscle activation influences these variables. In this study, the association between core muscle pre-activation and trunk position as well as the association between core muscle pre-activation and peak knee abduction moment during an unanticipated run-to-cut maneuver were investigated in 46 uninjured individuals. Average co-contraction indices and percent differences between muscle pairs were calculated prior to initial contact for internal obliques, external obliques, and L5 extensors using surface electromyography. Outside tilt of the trunk was defined as positive when the trunk was angled away from the cutting direction. No significant associations were found between pre-activations of core muscles and outside tilt of the trunk. Greater average co-contraction index of the L5 extensors was associated with greater peak knee abduction moment (p=0.0107). Increased co-contraction of the L5 extensors before foot contact could influence peak knee abduction moment by stiffening the spine, limiting sagittal plane trunk flexion (a motion pattern previously linked to ACL injury risk) and upper body kinetic energy absorption by the core during weight acceptance. PMID:23891313

  11. Multi-segment trunk models used to investigate the crunch factor in golf and their relationship with selected swing and launch parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Chivers, Paola; Sato, Kimitake; Burnett, Angus

    2016-10-01

    The use of multi-segment trunk models to investigate the crunch factor in golf may be warranted. The first aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the trunk and lower trunk for crunch factor-related variables (trunk lateral bending and trunk axial rotation velocity). The second aim was to determine the level of association between crunch factor-related variables with swing (clubhead velocity) and launch (launch angle). Thirty-five high-level amateur male golfers (Mean ± SD: age = 23.8 ± 2.1 years, registered golfing handicap = 5 ± 1.9) without low back pain had kinematic data collected from their golf swing using a 10-camera motion analysis system operating at 500 Hz. Clubhead velocity and launch angle were collected using a validated real-time launch monitor. A positive relationship was found between the trunk and lower trunk for axial rotation velocity (r(35) = .47, P < .01). Cross-correlation analysis revealed a strong coupling relationship for the crunch factor (R(2) = 0.98) between the trunk and lower trunk. Using generalised linear model analysis, it was evident that faster clubhead velocities and lower launch angles of the golf ball were related to reduced lateral bending of the lower trunk. PMID:26930121

  12. Effects of support surface stability on feedback control of trunk posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulou, Georgia; Maaswinkel, Erwin; Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the interactions of visual, vestibular, proprioceptive, and tactile sensory manipulations and sitting on either a stable or an unstable surface on mediolateral (ML) trunk sway. Fifteen individuals were measured. In each trial, subjects sat as quiet as possible, on a stable or unstable surface, with or without each of four sensory manipulations: visual (eyes open/closed), vestibular (left and right galvanic vestibular stimulation alternating at 0.25 Hz), proprioceptive (left and right paraspinal muscle vibration alternating at 0.25 Hz), and tactile (minimal finger contact with object moving in the frontal plane at 0.25 Hz). The root mean square (RMS) and the power at 0.25 Hz (P25) of the ML trunk acceleration were the dependent variables. The latter was analyzed only for the rhythmic sensory manipulations and the reference condition. RMS was always significantly larger on the unstable than the stable surface. Closing the eyes caused a significant increase in RMS, more so on the unstable surface. Vestibular stimulation significantly increased RMS and P25 and more so on the unstable surface. Main effects of the proprioceptive manipulation were significant, but the interactions with surface condition were not. Finally, also tactile manipulation increased RMS and P25, but did not interact with surface condition. Sensory information in feedback control of trunk posture appears to be reweighted depending on stability of the environment. The absolute effects of visual and vestibular manipulations increase on an unstable surface, suggesting a relative decrease in the weights of proprioceptive and tactile information. PMID:25537472

  13. Retinoic acid regulates size, pattern and alignment of tissues at the head-trunk transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun; Skromne, Isaac

    2014-11-01

    At the head-trunk transition, hindbrain and spinal cord alignment to occipital and vertebral bones is crucial for coherent neural and skeletal system organization. Changes in neural or mesodermal tissue configuration arising from defects in the specification, patterning or relative axial placement of territories can severely compromise their integration and function. Here, we show that coordination of neural and mesodermal tissue at the zebrafish head-trunk transition crucially depends on two novel activities of the signaling factor retinoic acid (RA): one specifying the size and the other specifying the axial position relative to mesodermal structures of the hindbrain territory. These activities are each independent but coordinated with the well-established function of RA in hindbrain patterning. Using neural and mesodermal landmarks we demonstrate that the functions of RA in aligning neural and mesodermal tissues temporally precede the specification of hindbrain and spinal cord territories and the activation of hox transcription. Using cell transplantation assays we show that RA activity in the neuroepithelium regulates hindbrain patterning directly and territory size specification indirectly. This indirect function is partially dependent on Wnts but independent of FGFs. Importantly, RA specifies and patterns the hindbrain territory by antagonizing the activity of the spinal cord specification gene cdx4; loss of Cdx4 rescues the defects associated with the loss of RA, including the reduction in hindbrain size and the loss of posterior rhombomeres. We propose that at the head-trunk transition, RA coordinates specification, patterning and alignment of neural and mesodermal tissues that are essential for the organization and function of the neural and skeletal systems. PMID:25371368

  14. Neuroanatomy and clinical analysis of the cervical sympathetic trunk and longus colli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaoyang; Yin, Jian; Cai, Jun; Sui, Tao; Cao, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Anterior cervical surgery is commonly used for cervical vertebral body lesions. However, the structure of blood vessels and nerve tissues along the route of anterior cervical surgery is complex. We aimed to measure the data of the longus colli, the sympathetic trunk and the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) ganglia in Chinese cadaver specimens. A total of 32 adult cadavers were studied. We delineated the surgical anatomy of the CST. The superior and inferior/cervicothoracic ganglia of the sympathetic trunk consistently appeared. The middle ganglion was observed in 28.1% of the specimens and there were 2 cases of unilateral double middle cervical ganglia. The inferior ganglion was observed in 25.0% of the specimens and the cervicothoracic ganglion was observed in the remaining specimens. The distance between the CST gradually decreased from the top to the bottom, and the distance between the medial edges of the longus colli gradually broadened from the top down. The average angle between the bilateral CST and the midline of the vertebra was 11.2°±1.8° on the left side and 10.3°±1.4° on the right side. The average angle between the medial margins of longus colli of both sides was 11.1°±1.9°. The CST is at high risk when LC muscle is cut transversely or is dragged heavily, especially at the levels of C6 and C7. Awareness of the regional anatomy of the CST could help surgeons to identify and preserve it during anterior cervical surgeries. PMID:26668584

  15. Repeatability of kinematic and electromyographical measures during standing and trunk motion: how many trials are sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; DiMonte, Stephen; Drake, Janessa D M

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have recommended a minimum of five trials to produce repeatable kinematic and electromyography (EMG) measures during target postures or contraction levels. This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of kinematic and EMG measures that are of primary interest in the investigation of trunk movement, and to determine the number of trials required to achieve repeatability and reliability for these measures. Thirty participants performed ten trials of upright standing and maximum trunk ranges-of-motion. Mean (upright standing) and maximum (movement tasks) kinematic and EMG measures were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement, which were used to identify the minimum number of trials for each measure. The repeatability and reliability of the measures were generally high, with 64%, 77%, 85%, and 92% of measures producing repeatable and reliable values with two, three, four, and five trials, respectively. Ten trials were not sufficient for several upright standing angle measures and maximum twist lumbar angles. Further, several abdominal muscles during maximum flexion, as well as the left lower-thoracic erector spinae during maximum twist, required as many as five trials. These measures were typically those with very small amounts of motion, or muscles that did not act in the role of prime mover. These results suggest that as few as two trials may be sufficient for many of the kinematic and EMG measures of primary interest in the investigation of trunk movement, while the collection of four trials should produce repeatable and reliable values for over 80% of measures. These recommendations are intended to provide an acceptable trade-off between repeatable and reliable values and feasibility of the collection protocol. PMID:25661241

  16. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  17. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SPRINT VELOCITIES, HORIZONTAL GROUND REACTION FORCE, AND ISOKINETIC TRUNK STRENGTH VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Kale Mehmet; Kirkaya I

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among sprint velocities, horizontal ground reaction force, and isokinetic trunk strength variables. Voluntary 19 athletes were participated to the study [age (year)= 20.9±2.3, training age (month)= 91.3±48.2, body height (cm)= 173.1±6.5, body weight (kg)= 64.7±8.4] from different sports including in explosive strength. Sprints (10m, 20m, 30m, and 40m) were tested on a non-motorized treadmill. Velocities (V10m, V20m, V30m, and V40m...

  18. Steam gasification of oil palm trunk waste for clean syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Initial high values of syngas flow rate are attributed to rapid devolatilization. ► Over 50% of syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. ► Increase in steam flow rate resulted in reduced gasification time. ► Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency. ► Oil palm yielded more energy than that from mangrove wood, paper and food waste. -- Abstract: Waste and agricultural residues offer significant potential for harvesting chemical energy with simultaneous reduction of environmental pollution, providing carbon neutral (or even carbon negative) sustained energy production, energy security and alleviating social concerns associated with the wastes. Steam gasification is now recognized as one of the most efficient approaches for waste to clean energy conversion. Syngas generated during the gasification process can be utilized for electric power generation, heat generation and for other industrial and domestic uses. In this paper results obtained from the steam assisted gasification of oil palm trunk waste are presented. A batch type gasifier has been used to examine the syngas characteristics from gasification of palm trunk waste using steam as the gasifying agent. Reactor temperature was fixed at 800 °C. Results show initial high values of syngas flow rate, which is attributed to rapid devolatilization of the sample. Approximately over 50% of the total syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. An increase in steam flow rate accelerated the gasification reactions and resulted in reduced gasification time. The effect of steam flow rate on the apparent thermal efficiency has also been investigated. Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency and was found to be very high. Properties of the syngas obtained from the gasification of oil palm trunk waste have been compared to other samples under similar operating

  19. Legs and Trunk Muscle Hypertrophy Following Walk Training with Restricted Leg Muscle Blood Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Mikako Sakamaki; Bemben, Michael G.; Takashi Abe

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of walk training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on the size of blood flow-restricted distal muscles, as well as, on the size of non-restricted muscles in the proximal limb and trunk. Nine men performed walk training with BFR and 8 men performed walk training alone. Training was conducted two times a day, 6 days/wk, for 3 wk using five sets of 2-min bouts (treadmill speed at 50 m/min), with a 1-min rest between bouts. After walk training with BFR, MRI-measure...

  20. Successful treatment of a giant pediatric fusiform basilar trunk aneurysm with surpass flow diverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Peter; Mokin, Maxim; Puri, Ajit S; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2016-06-01

    Fusiform aneurysms present a unique challenge to traditional microsurgical and endovascular treatment because of the lack of a discernible neck and the involvement of parent vessel. Flow diversion has increasingly become the treatment of choice for fusiform aneurysms in the anterior circulation, but its results in the posterior circulation are variable. We report successful treatment of a giant fusiform upper basilar trunk aneurysm with the Surpass flow diverter in an adolescent, and discuss the potential advantages of this emerging technology in the treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms. PMID:26063795

  1. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Skotte, Jørgen H.;

    2009-01-01

    training on the reaction to SL among untrained healthy women. Thirty-six healthy, untrained, Danish women (age 19-45 years) were randomly assigned to a soccer group (SO, n = 19) and a running group (RU, n = 17). In addition, an untrained control group (CON, n = 10) was recruited. Training was performed for...... stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time) decreased (p < 0.05) by 15% and distance moved after unexpected SL decreased (p < 0.05) by 24% compared with no changes in RU and CON. In conclusion, football training includes a high number of sudden loadings of the upper body and can improve...

  2. The Study of Predictor's Anthropometric Parameters with Trunk Anatomical Alignment in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Shahrokhi; Hasan Daneshmandi; Pegah Rahmani; Ali Akbar Hashemi Javaheri

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was investigation of trunk anatomical alignment in relation toanthropometric parameters in athletes. 20 healthy athletes (age 22.25±1.88 yr; height182.78±5.49 cm; weight 75.35±3.19 and athletic experience 9.38±3.77) and 20 healthy nonathletes(age 22.80±2.01 yr; height 179.35±6.25 cm; weight 71.10±2.30) randomly participatedin this study voluntarily. Variables sitting height; spinal length; Arm Span; chest width anddepth; acrominal distance; Kyphosis and lordosis were...

  3. The potential of subfossil trunks for deriving floating dendrochronologies in NE Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Nechita; Maria, Radoane; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Nicolae, Radoane; Ionel, Popa

    2015-04-01

    The subfossil wood material collected along rivers from north-eastern part of Romania was dated with radiocarbon and dendrochronological investigated. The study area is represented by Siret and Moldova rivers. Both rivers originate in the Eastern Carpathians where they collect the majority of their tributaries, further crossing through the eastern sector of the mountains by creating transverse valleys. Along these rivers, on reaches covering lengths of 100 km and 140 km, tree-rings samples were collected (n = 40 along Moldova River and n = 37 along Siret River). Of the total number of 77 collected wood samples, we dated 26 in order to determine the absolute age. The species of subfossil trunks belong to Quercus (n=51), Ulmus (n=20) and Alnus genus (n=3). The ratio between the average growth and the trunk age varies greatly, from trees aged as little as 38 years with average diameters above 32 cm, to trees as old as 184 years with diameters of just 45 cm. The absolute age of subfossil trunks varied from few decades to 6900-6670 cal yrs BP. The obtained result consists in dendrochronological series which covers periods from Mid to Late Holocene. The highest concentration of deposited subfossil trunks was carried out in the last 3000 yrs BP. Therefore, it is possible to create an exclusively dendrochronological sequence for this time frame. A first step in this direction is the extension of living tree rings series (180 yrs.) with modern wood in order to create an enlarged series of 383 years, (as illustrated for rings series of modern oaks in Dolhasca site, Siret Valley). Albeit there are many gaps in the reconstruction of these phases, several clusters are easily distinguishable, i.e. 3500-2900 years BP, 2200-2075 years BP, and 1000-800 years BP extending to LIA. By relating this data to obtained information from other proxies (lacustrine sediments, pollen records, lake levels, etc) we may conclude that the two major periods in Holocene history were characterized by

  4. A feasibility study on the measurement of tree trunks in forests using multi-scale vertical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berveglieri, A.; Oliveira, R. O.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The determination of the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) is an important variable that contributes to several studies on forest, e.g., environmental monitoring, tree growth, volume of wood, and biomass estimation. This paper presents a preliminary technique for the measurement of tree trunks using terrestrial images collected with a panoramic camera in nadir view. A multi-scale model is generated with these images. Homologue points on the trunk surface are measured over the images and their ground coordinates are determined by intersection of rays. The resulting XY coordinates of each trunk, defining an arc shape, can be used as observations in a circle fitting by least squares. Then, the DBH of each trunk is calculated using an estimated radius. Experiments were performed in two urban forest areas to assess the approach. In comparison with direct measurements on the trunks taken with a measuring tape, the discrepancies presented a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 1.8 cm with a standard deviation of 0.7 cm. These results demonstrate compatibility with manual measurements and confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  5. Kinematics and the implementation of an elephant's trunk manipulator and other continuum style robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Michael W.; Walker, Ian D.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, robot manipulators have been a simple arrangement of a small number of serially connected links and actuated joints. Though these manipulators prove to be very effective for many tasks, they are not without their limitations, due mainly to their lack of maneuverability or total degrees of freedom. Continuum style (i.e., continuous "back-bone") robots, on the other hand, exhibit a wide range of maneuverability, and can have a large number of degrees of freedom. The motion of continuum style robots is generated through the bending of the robot over a given section; unlike traditional robots where the motion occurs in discrete locations, i.e., joints. The motion of continuum manipulators is often compared to that of biological manipulators such as trunks and tentacles. These continuum style robots can achieve motions that could only be obtainable by a conventionally designed robot with many more degrees of freedom. In this paper we present a detailed formulation and explanation of a novel kinematic model for continuum style robots. The design, construction, and implementation of our continuum style robot called the elephant trunk manipulator is presented. Experimental results are then provided to verify the legitimacy of our model when applied to our physical manipulator. We also provide a set of obstacle avoidance experiments that help to exhibit the practical implementation of both our manipulator and our kinematic model. c2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sample size for estimating average trunk diameter and plant height in eucalyptus hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In eucalyptus crops, it is important to determine the number of plants that need to be evaluated for a reliable inference of growth. The aim of this study was to determine the sample size needed to estimate average trunk diameter at breast height and plant height of inter-specific eucalyptus hybrids. In 6,694 plants of twelve inter-specific hybrids it was evaluated trunk diameter at breast height at three (DBH3 and seven years (DBH7 and tree height at seven years (H7 of age. The statistics: minimum, maximum, mean, variance, standard deviation, standard error, and coefficient of variation were calculated. The hypothesis of variance homogeneity was tested. The sample size was determined by re sampling with replacement of 10,000 re samples. There was an increase in the sample size from DBH3 to H7 and DBH7. A sample size of 16, 59 and 31 plants is adequate to estimate DBH3, DBH7 and H7 means, respectively, of inter-specific hybrids of eucalyptus, with amplitude of confidence interval of 95% equal to 20% of the estimated mean.

  7. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhong Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and latissimus dorsi (LD bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Conclusion. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity.

  8. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of pistachio trees in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohammadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the growing seasons of 2011–2013, various pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Fandoghi, and wild pistachio (P. atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica trees were inspected in Iran to determine the aetiology of trunk diseases with specific reference to species of Phaeoacremonium and Botryosphaeriaceae spp. Samples were collected from branches of trees exhibiting yellowing, defoliation, canker and dieback, as well as wood discoloration in cross sections. Fungal trunk pathogens were identified using morphological and cultural characteristics as well as comparisons of DNA sequence data of the ITS and TEF-1α (for Botryosphaeriaceae species and β-tubulin gene (for Phaeoacremonium species regions. Phaeoacremonium parasiticum was the dominant species followed by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Neofusicoccum parvum, Phaeoacremoniumcinereum, Phaeoacremonium viticola and Dothiorella viticola. Pathogenicity tests were undertaken to determine the role of these species on pistachio under field conditions. Neofusicoccum parvum and Pm. aleophilum caused the longest and smallest lesions respectively. This study represents the first report on the occurrence and pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium species on P. vera cv. Fandoghi. This also represents the first report of Pleurostomophora sp. on pistachio and Pm. parasiticum and D. viticola on wild pistachio.

  9. Clarifying the anatomy of hearts with concordant ventriculo-arterial connections but abnormally related arterial trunks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Gulati, Gurpreet S; Henry, G William; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Hearts in which the arterial trunks arise from the morphologically appropriate ventricles, but in a parallel manner, rather than the usual spiralling arrangement, have long fascinated anatomists. These rare entities, for quite some time, were considered embryological impossibilities, but ongoing experience has shown that they can be found in various segmental combinations. Problems still exist about how best to describe them, as the different variants are often described with esoteric terms, such as anatomically corrected malposition or isolated ventricular inversion. In this review, based on our combined clinical and morphological experience, we demonstrate that the essential feature of all hearts described in this manner is a parallel arrangement of the arterial trunks as they exit from the ventricular mass. We show that the relationship of the arterial roots needs to be described in terms of the underlying ventricular topology, rather than according to the arrangement of the atrial chambers. We then discuss the importance of determining atrial arrangement on the basis of the morphology of the appendages, following the precepts as set out in the so-called "morphological method" and distinguished according to the extent of the pectinate muscles relative to the atrioventricular junctions as opposed to basing diagnosis on the venoatrial connections. We show that, when approached in this manner, the various combinations can be readily diagnosed in the clinical setting and described in straightforward way. PMID:26311213

  10. A preliminary investigation of trunk and wrist kinematics when using drivers with different shaft properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Cochrane, Jodie; Reyes, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether skilled golfers will modify their kinematics when using drivers of different shaft properties. This study aimed to firstly determine if golf swing kinematics and swing parameters and related launch conditions differed when using modified drivers, then secondly, determine which kinematics were associated with clubhead speed. Twenty high level amateur male golfers (M ± SD: handicap = 1.9 ± 1.9 score) had their three-dimensional (3D) trunk and wrist kinematics collected for two driver trials. Swing parameters and related launch conditions were collected using a launch monitor. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant (p ≤ 0.003) between driver differences; specifically, faster trunk axial rotation velocity and an early wrist release for the low kick point driver. Launch angle was shown to be 2° lower for the high kick point driver. Regression models for both drivers explained a significant amount of variance (60-67%) in clubhead speed. Wrist kinematics were most associated with clubhead speed, indicating the importance of the wrists in producing clubhead speed regardless of driver shaft properties. PMID:27075379

  11. The Application of Parallel Robotics to Investigate the Effect of Lumbar Bracing on Trunk Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kawchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar bracing is prescribed frequently for disability caused by low back pain; however, investigations into this practice demonstrate a range of patient outcomes. This inconsistency may arise from the practice of employing voluntary, single-axis trunk movements when investigating braces. Alternatively, this study employed a parallel robot to create a standardised, multi-axis testing environment. Surface electromyographic (sEMG data were collected from the trunk of 24 asymptomatic participants, who were seated on the robot, tilted to 15°, then circumducted while attempting to maintain an upright posture. Multiple trials were performed for three randomised conditions: non-braced, soft-material brace and stiff-material brace. As expected, the sEMG activity was significantly reduced in the majority of muscle responses (201/240. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical increase in the sEMG activity was observed in 39/240 responses. While lumbar bracing reduces the sEMG activity on average, these data suggest the existence of an infrequent paradoxical response that may provide a possible explanation for the discordant results observed in previous bracing investigations.

  12. Motor control of the trunk during a modified clean and jerk lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson Crommert, M; Ekblom, M M; Thorstensson, A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the pattern of trunk muscle activation and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in a somewhat modified version of the clean and jerk lift. Nine healthy physically active male amateurs performed the exercise with a 30-kg barbell. Muscle activity was registered with electromyography from transversus abdominis (TrA) and obliquus internus (OI) using intramuscular electrodes and from rectus abdominis (RA) and erector spinae (ES) with surface electrodes. IAP was recorded with a nasogastric catheter. Measurements were made in various static positions throughout the lift and in the transitional phases separating them, both during lifting and lowering. The results demonstrated that the innermost abdominal muscle, TrA, showed increased activation levels in the two highest positions, whereas ES was most active, together with the highest IAP, in the lowest position. OI and RA showed generally little activation and no obvious trend throughout the lift. The results strengthen the view of a contributing role of TrA to the upright control of the trunk and indicate that the clean and jerk lift might constitute a whole-body exercise, still targeting the TrA muscle, in late-stage rehabilitation, especially for athletes during return to sports. PMID:23489349

  13. EFFECT OF TRUNK ROTATION EXERCISE ON SCOLIOSIS IN POST- POLIO RESIDUAL PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibi Paul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:This study conducted to find out the effectiveness of trunk flexion rotation, extension rotationand combined flexion rotation & extension rotation exercises in reduction of scoliosis. Twenty fivemale scolioticsubjects secondary to post-polio residual paralysis were selected for the study as per the inclusionand exclusioncriteria.Method:Materials used for the study were Rontgenograph, Protractor, Pencil and Scale to evaluate the Cobb’sangle. Purposive random sampling method used to select the subjects in three groups for the study. Each groupA, B and C performed trunk flexion rotation, extension rotation and combined flexion rotation and extensionrotation exercises respectively. Subjects performed exercise regularly twice a day for five months under thesupervision of the researcher. The subjects did exercise for one hour with one minute rest in between eachmovement. Cobb’s angle was measured before and after the treatment program for each subject.Results:The calculated t’ value of group A, B and C were 11.00, 9.00 and 10.95 respectively at 5% level andP < 0.0001 for all groups, there for it was significant in reduction of angle of scoliosis among post- polio residualparalysis. The comparative study found that there was no significant difference in reduction of scoliosis amongthe groups.Conclusion:Based on the statistical analysis performed it could conclude that all the groups undergone trunkrotation exercises have improvement in terms of reduction of scoliosis but there was no much difference betweenthe groups on reduction of scoliosis

  14. Whole-body MRI in adult inflammatory myopathies: Do we need imaging of the trunk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Manoliu, Andrei; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Maurer, Britta [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Division of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate whether imaging of the trunk could be omitted in patients with inflammatory myopathies without losing diagnostic accuracy using a restricted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (rWB-MRI) protocol. After approval by the institutional review board, this study was performed in 63 patients (male/female, 13/50; median age, 52 years; range, 20-81 years) with new-onset myopathic symptoms (group 1, n = 41) or previously diagnosed inflammatory myopathy (group 2, n = 22). After performing whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) at 3.0 Tesla, myositis and fatty atrophy were evaluated in different muscles by two independent radiologists. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate inter-observer reliability. Acquisition time was 56:01 minutes for WB-MRI and 37:37 minutes (32.8 % shorter) for rWB-MRI. In group 1, 14 patients were diagnosed with inflammatory myopathy based on muscle biopsy. rWB-MRI and WB-MRI showed equal sensitivity (42.9 %) and specificity (100 %) for myositis, and showed equal sensitivity (71.4 %) and similar specificity (63.0 % and 48.1 %, respectively) for fatty atrophy. No myositis was found in the body trunk in any patient. Inter-observer reliability was between substantial and perfect (ICC, 0.77-1.00). rWB-MRI showed diagnostic accuracy similar to WB-MRI for inflammatory myopathy at markedly reduced overall acquisition time. (orig.)

  15. Whole-body MRI in adult inflammatory myopathies: Do we need imaging of the trunk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate whether imaging of the trunk could be omitted in patients with inflammatory myopathies without losing diagnostic accuracy using a restricted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (rWB-MRI) protocol. After approval by the institutional review board, this study was performed in 63 patients (male/female, 13/50; median age, 52 years; range, 20-81 years) with new-onset myopathic symptoms (group 1, n = 41) or previously diagnosed inflammatory myopathy (group 2, n = 22). After performing whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) at 3.0 Tesla, myositis and fatty atrophy were evaluated in different muscles by two independent radiologists. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate inter-observer reliability. Acquisition time was 56:01 minutes for WB-MRI and 37:37 minutes (32.8 % shorter) for rWB-MRI. In group 1, 14 patients were diagnosed with inflammatory myopathy based on muscle biopsy. rWB-MRI and WB-MRI showed equal sensitivity (42.9 %) and specificity (100 %) for myositis, and showed equal sensitivity (71.4 %) and similar specificity (63.0 % and 48.1 %, respectively) for fatty atrophy. No myositis was found in the body trunk in any patient. Inter-observer reliability was between substantial and perfect (ICC, 0.77-1.00). rWB-MRI showed diagnostic accuracy similar to WB-MRI for inflammatory myopathy at markedly reduced overall acquisition time. (orig.)

  16. Effect of treated particles on the properties of particleboard made from oil palm trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The suitability of particles from oil palm trunk was evaluated. • Influence of pre-treatment particles on particleboard properties. • Hot water treatment improves properties of the boards. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the properties of particleboard made from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trunks treated with hot water and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Experimental panels were manufactured from oil palm particles soaked in hot water for 30 min and soaked in NaOH with 2% concentration for the same time span. Urea formaldehyde adhesive was used for both types of particles as binder. Bending, internal bonding strength, thickness swelling and water absorption of the panels were tested. Scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to analyze the properties of raw materials and manufactured panels. Based on the findings in this study, samples made with raw material treated with hot water resulted in 863.93 MPa modulus of elasticity and 7.09 MPa modulus of rupture which were higher than those of control panels and made from NaOH treated particles. Internal bond strength of the specimens also followed the similar trend. Both treatments improved the dimensional characteristics of the specimens

  17. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles. PMID:26746381

  18. Influence of press temperature on the properties of binderless particleboard made from oil palm trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Influence of press temperature on binderless particleboard of oil palm trunk. → Modulus of rupture increased with increasing press temperature. → The internal bond strength of samples meets JIS standard. → Water absorption and thickness swelling improved. → Increasing pressing temperature improve properties of the boards. -- Abstract: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the properties of binderless particleboard manufactured from oil palm trunk as a function of press temperature. Particleboard samples were manufactured with a target density of 0.80 g/cm3 using press temperatures of 160 oC, 180 oC and 200 oC. The modulus of rupture, internal bond strength, water absorption and thickness swelling of the boards were determined based on Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS). Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis were employed to characterize the properties of the raw materials and the manufactured panels. The moduli of rupture of the samples were observed to increase with increasing press temperature, but they did not meet the standard values. However, the internal bond strength of the samples attained satisfactory values according to the JIS standard for all three temperature levels. Water absorption and thickness swelling of the boards decreased with increasing pressing temperature. Based on the findings in this study, increasing the pressing temperature may be considered a potential way of improving the properties of binderless particleboard.

  19. Surprising trunk rotational capabilities in chimpanzees and implications for bipedal walking proficiency in early hominins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathan E.; Demes, Brigitte; O'Neill, Matthew C.; Holowka, Nicholas B.; Larson, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Human walking entails coordinated out-of-phase axial rotations of the thorax and pelvis. A long-held assumption is that this ability relies on adaptations for trunk flexibility present in humans, but not in chimpanzees, other great apes, or australopithecines. Here we use three-dimensional kinematic analyses to show that, contrary to current thinking, chimpanzees walking bipedally rotate their lumbar and thoracic regions in a manner similar to humans. This occurs despite differences in the magnitude of trunk motion, and despite morphological differences in truncal ‘rigidity' between species. These results suggest that, like humans and chimpanzees, early hominins walked with upper body rotations that countered pelvic rotation. We demonstrate that even if early hominins walked with pelvic rotations 50% larger than humans, they may have accrued the energetic and mechanical benefits of out-of-phase thoracic rotations. This would have allowed early hominins to reduce work and locomotor cost, improving walking efficiency early in hominin evolution. PMID:26441046

  20. Tree Trunks from MIS3 Revealed in Pacific Northwest Landslide Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, P. K.; Leavitt, S. W.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Jull, A. T.; Testa, N. R.; Squire, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple large tree trunks have been discovered in landslide deposits dating to before the last full-glacial provide a new source for paleo-climatic reconstructions from the northwest coast of North America. Excavation during US Highway 20 realignment through the Oregon Coast Range uncovered organic deposits at depth that included the boles of twelve large trees. Radiocarbon dates on subsurface organic material from multiple landslide deposits range from 17,850 ± 100 to >46,400 (radiocarbon dates B.P.). A single cohort of twelve tree trunks, found emplaced nearly upright, date to >53,000 radiocarbon years B.P. The sedimentary deposits are interpreted as paleo-translational landslides involving the Tyee Formation. The trees are tentatively identified as Thuja plicata, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Abies spp. Preservation of the wood material and associated macrofossils is excellent because of clay sediments that encased the material, halting decomposition. Preliminary analysis shows excellent preservation of late-wood rings but the early wood is composed primarily of ghost tracheids. Ring counts from a portion of the Thuja plicata bole, a four inch block of outer rings, contained between 120 to 130 rings of annual growth with good sensitivity for climate reconstruction. This makes the find particularly important for inferring high-resolution environmental variability, because it is one of only very few deposits of wood of this age worldwide. In addition to paleobotanical and paleoclimatic information, the large amount of wood will be used for radioisotope and stable isotope studies.

  1. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong-Liang; Tian, Wei-Ping; Li, Jia-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China). The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation. PMID:26528994

  2. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Qi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China. The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  3. Segmentation of the millipede trunk as suggested by a homeotic mutant with six extra pairs of gonopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkari, Nesrine; Enghoff, Henrik; Minelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    discuss the segmental distribution of these appendages in the framework of alternative models of segmentation and present an interpretation of the origin of the distribution of the additional gonopods. The anterior set of contiguous gonopods (those normally occurring on ring 7 plus the first set of...... segmentation are similar in both a normal and the studied homeotic specimen. The difference between them would consist in the size of the embryonic trunk region endowed with a positional marker whose presence will later determine the replacement of walking legs by gonopods. Keywords: Segmentation models......Background: The mismatch between dorsal and ventral trunk features along the millipede trunk was long a subject of controversy, largely resting on alternative interpretations of segmentation. Most models of arthropod segmentation presuppose a strict sequential antero-posterior specification of...

  4. Effects of a low-center-of-gravity backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a backpack with a low center of gravity (LCG) and investigated the effects of the LCG backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males aged 20-32 years were recruited. The subjects ascended and descended a road with an inclination of 30 degrees wearing the standard or LCG backpack, and trunk acceleration was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. [Results] The anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) trunk acceleration while ascending and descending with the LCG backpack were significantly lower than those with the standard backpack. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the LCG backpack could prevent falling injuries during mountaineering and mountain-related activities. PMID:26644687

  5. Evaluation of DNA extraction techniques for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in Asian elephant trunk wash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Meagan K; Linke, Lyndsey; Triantis, Joni; Salman, M D; Larsen, R Scott

    2011-02-01

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic assays for the detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in elephants are lacking. DNA extraction with PCR analysis is useful for tuberculosis screening in many species but has not been validated on elephant trunk wash samples. We estimated the analytical sensitivity and specificity of three DNA extraction methods to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in trunk wash specimens. A ZR soil microbe DNA kit (ZR) and a traditional salt and ethanol precipitation (TSEP) approach were evaluated under three different treatment conditions: heat treatment, phenol treatment, and contamination with Mycobacterium avium. A third approach, using a column filtration method, was evaluated for samples contaminated with soil. Trunk wash samples from uninfected elephants were spiked with various concentrations of M. bovis cells and subjected to the described treatment conditions prior to DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was amplified using IS6110-targeted PCR analysis. The ZR and TSEP methods detected as low as 1 to 5 M. bovis cells and 10 M. bovis cells, respectively, per 1.5 ml of trunk wash under all three conditions. Depending on the amount of soil present, the column filtration method detected as low as 5 to 50 M. bovis cells per 1.5 ml of trunk wash. Analytical specificity was assessed by DNA extraction from species of nontuberculous mycobacteria and amplification using the same PCR technique. Only M. bovis DNA was amplified, indicating 100% analytical specificity of this PCR technique. Our results indicate that these DNA extraction techniques offer promise as useful tests for detection of M. tuberculosis complex organisms in elephant trunk wash specimens. PMID:21159933

  6. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Neto, Severino Aires; Mello-Junior, Carlos Fernando de; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Claudia Martina Araujo; Borges, Rafael Farias; Magalhaes, Ana Guardiana Ximenes de, E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. (author)

  7. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. (author)

  8. Effects of a low-center-of-gravity backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a backpack with a low center of gravity (LCG) and investigated the effects of the LCG backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males aged 20–32 years were recruited. The subjects ascended and descended a road with an inclination of 30 degrees wearing the standard or LCG backpack, and trunk acceleration was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. [Results] The anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-l...

  9. THE CERVICAL SYMPATHETIC TRUNK AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CERVICAL FASCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hejazi

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper has attempted t o shew t he rela t i onship of the cervi c a l sympa t het ic trunk t o t h e cervi c a l fasc i a . The cervic al por t ion o f each sympathe tic t runk usually cons i s t s of thr ee gang l ia , distingui s hed according t o their pos i t i ons a s t he superior, middle, and i nfe rior , and conne c ted by an intervening c ord. The cervical sympathetics ( t r unk and ganglia send grey rami communi c antes to all the cer v i c a l spi na l nerves, but receive no

  10. THE CERVICAL SYMPATHETIC TRUNK AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CERVICAL FASCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Hejazi

    1980-01-01

    This paper has attempted t o shew t he rela t i onship of the cervi c a l sympa t het ic trunk t o t h e cervi c a l fasc i a . The cervic al por t ion o f each sympathe tic t runk usually cons i s t s of thr ee gang l ia , distingui s hed according t o their pos i t i ons a s t he superior, middle, and i nfe rior , and conne c ted by an intervening c ord. The cervical sympathetics ( t r unk and ganglia) send grey rami communi c antes to all the cer v i c a l spi na l nerves, but receive no

  11. Fungi and bacteria associated with the wet and brown wood in trunk of Betula pendula trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and fungi were isolated from external and internal zone of brown and water saturated wood of trunk of Betula pendula trees aged 44-46. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the bacterial and fungal populations were found between both the zones. Populations of bacteria increased towards the internal sapwood, contrary to the fungi which more frequently colonised the external zone. The most common bacteria were Pseudomonas spp. (mainly P.fluorescens biovar I whereas Bacillus macerans, B. alvei and Erwinia heibicola were able to degrade the polygalacturonic acid and pectin gels. In case of the fungi population, the most common (more than 3% colonising the external zone were successively: Phialophora fastigiata, Trichoderma harzianum, Alternaria alternata, Mortierella isabellina, Cladosporium herbarum, T. viride, C. cladosporioides and Melanconium betulinum. In the community of fungi occurring in the internal zone, the most common (more than 6.5% were:Cladosporium herbarum, Phialophora lagerbergii and Ph.fastigiata.

  12. Social support modifies association between forward bending of the trunk and low-back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Morten; Holtermann, Andreas; Samani, Afshin;

    2016-01-01

    -reported social support was categorized into low, moderate, and high levels. Multi-adjusted logistic regressions estimated the association between forward bending and LBPi and the effect modification by social support. RESULTS: Forward bending and LBPi were not significantly associated but modified by social......OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the association between forward bending of the trunk and low-back pain intensity (LBPi) among blue-collar workers in Denmark as well as whether the level of social support modifies the association. METHODS: In total, 457 workers were included in the study...... support. Workers with low social support and long duration of forward bending had higher likelihood of high LBPi [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.11-7.95] compared to workers with high social support and long duration of forward bending. Among workers with low social support...

  13. A novel experimental setup with sand trunk for heat extraction of geothermal heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi-qiang; YAO Yang; CHEN Yi-ming; MA Zui-liang

    2008-01-01

    A novel experimental setup was developed to study the heat extraction of geothermal heat exchanger (GHE) in different operational modes under adiabatic and isothermal boundaries. The experimental setup con-sists of a sand trunk, a tailored water chiller, a natural cold source unit, two water boxes containing hot water and cool water, and a data acquisition system. The experimental results indicate that the volume flow rate of the entering water is a main factor affecting the heat extraction; furthermore, the heat extraction value per meter pipe decreases gradually along the heat extraction pipe and increases with the increase of the incoming water volume flow rate. Therefore, this novel experimental setup may be helpful to further study the operation per-formance of GHE in different types of soil.

  14. Finite Element Estimation of Pressure Distribution inside the Trunk on a Mattress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigekazu Ishihara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a bedsore-prevention mattress and wheel chair cushion. Throughout development, we made numerous body pressure measurements on different mattresses and cushions. Such measurements required much time and effort. Simulation of body pressure has the potential to estimate the pressure distribution caused by physical parameters of different mattresses. In this study, we show attempts to model the body and estimate the pressure on its transverse plane. The computation was based on a non-linear finite element method with hyperelastic materials, such as muscle, skin and fat. Because the model simulates different tissues, we can estimate the pressure not only on the surface, but also that inside the trunk. The simulated results agreed well with actual pressure measurement results. Differences in physical properties of the mattresses were also modeled.

  15. Diterpenes from the Trunk of Abies holophylla and Their Potential Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-26

    Eleven new abietane-type diterpenes, holophyllins D-N (1-11), and 17 known analogues (12-28), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the trunk of Abies holophylla. The chemical structures of 1-11 were determined through spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRFABMS methods. All isolated compounds (1-28) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-116), for their potential neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor in C6 glioma cells, and for their effects on nitric oxide levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. PMID:26812172

  16. Leader Cells Define Directionality of Trunk, but Not Cranial, Neural Crest Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jo; Gauert, Anton; Briones Montecinos, Luis; Fanlo, Lucía; Alhashem, Zainalabdeen Mohmammed; Assar, Rodrigo; Marti, Elisa; Kabla, Alexandre; Härtel, Steffen; Linker, Claudia

    2016-05-31

    Collective cell migration is fundamental for life and a hallmark of cancer. Neural crest (NC) cells migrate collectively, but the mechanisms governing this process remain controversial. Previous analyses in Xenopus indicate that cranial NC (CNC) cells are a homogeneous population relying on cell-cell interactions for directional migration, while chick embryo analyses suggest a heterogeneous population with leader cells instructing directionality. Our data in chick and zebrafish embryos show that CNC cells do not require leader cells for migration and all cells present similar migratory capacities. In contrast, laser ablation of trunk NC (TNC) cells shows that leader cells direct movement and cell-cell contacts are required for migration. Moreover, leader and follower identities are acquired before the initiation of migration and remain fixed thereafter. Thus, two distinct mechanisms establish the directionality of CNC cells and TNC cells. This implies the existence of multiple molecular mechanisms for collective cell migration. PMID:27210753

  17. Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique in a Patient with Multiple Previous Cardiac Procedures: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Torsten; Lembcke, Alexander; Laule, Michael; Dohmen, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We present the case of a 69-year-old female patient with giant aortic aneurysm who underwent previously multiple cardiac surgeries or interventions. CASE REPORT Ross procedure was performed in 2006 due to aortic valve regurgitation and aneurysm of the ascending aorta. In 2010 the patient was re-admitted for pulmonary valve insufficiency and a transcatheter pulmonary valve was implanted. Recently, the patient presented with an aortic arch aneurysm, maximum diameter 78 mm, which was treated by a hybrid approach, implanting a frozen elephant trunk and a covered stent graft. CONCLUSIONS The current case report demonstrates a suitable hybrid option for an extremely demanding procedure by multiple previous cardiac procedures. PMID:27357920

  18. Does anterior trunk pain predict a different course of recovery in chronic low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagopoulos, John; Hancock, Mark J; Kongsted, Alice; Hush, Julia; Kent, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Patient characteristics associated with the course and severity of low back pain (LBP) and disability have been the focus of extensive research, however, known characteristics do not explain much of the variance in outcomes. The relationship between anterior trunk pain (ATP) and LBP has not been...... explored, though mechanisms for visceral referred pain have been described. Study objectives were: (1) determine prevalence of ATP in chronic LBP patients, (2) determine whether ATP is associated with increased pain and disability in these patients, and (3) evaluate whether ATP predicts the course of pain...... and disability in these patients. In this study, spinal outpatient department patients mapped the distribution of their pain and patients describing pain in their chest, abdomen or groin were classified with ATP. Generalized estimating equations were performed to investigate the relationship between...

  19. Active faults crossing trunk pipeline routes: some important steps to avoid the disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besstrashnov, Vladimir; Strom, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Trunk pipelines that pass through tectonically active areas connecting oil and gas reservoirs with terminals and refineries cross active faults that can produce large earthquakes. Besides strong motion affecting vast areas, these earthquakes are often associated with surface faulting that provides additional hazard to pipelines. To avoid significant economic losses and environmental pollution, pipelines should be designed to sustain both effects (shaking and direct rupturing) without pipe damage and spill. Special studies aimed to provide necessary input data for the designers should be performed in the course of engineering survey. However, our experience on conducting and review of such studies for several oil and gas trunk pipelines in Russia show urgent need of more strict definition of basic conceptions and approaches used for identification and localization of these potentially hazardous tectonic features. Identification of active faults (fault zones) considered as causative faults - sources of strong motion caused by seismic waves that affect dozens kilometers of pipeline route can be done by use of both direct and indirect evidence of Late Pleistocene - Holocene activity of faults and fault zones. Since strong motion parameters can be considered as constant within the near-field zone, which width in case of large earthquake is up to dozens kilometers, accuracy of active fault location is not so critical and ±1-2 km precision provided by use of indirect evidence is acceptable. In contrast, if one have to identify and characterize zones of potential surface rupturing that require special design of the endangered pipeline section, only direct evidence of such activity can provide reliable input data for crossing design with relevant accuracy of fault location, amount and direction of displacement. Only traces of surface faults displacing Late Pleistocene - Holocene sediments and/or geomorphic features are considered as direct evidence of fault activity. Just

  20. Effect of particle geometry on the properties of binderless particleboard manufactured from oil palm trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental binderless composite panels were manufactured using fine particles and strands of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trunks. Modulus of rupture (MOR), internal bond strength (IB), dimensional stability, and surface roughness of the panels made with a target density of 0.80 g/cm3 were evaluated. Strand type samples had MOR and IB values of 24.95 and 0.95 MPa, respectively. Corresponding values for the fine particle type samples were 4.04 and 0.49 MPa. Panels made from strands met MOR requirement stated in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Enhanced bonding between strands observed by micrographs taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also supported the findings. However, the samples having fine particles had lower MOR values than minimum requirement listed in JIS. Strand type panels had 41.6% thickness swelling which is only 4.6% lower than that of the panels made from fine particles. It appears that dimensional stability of both types of panels exhibited insufficient results according to JIS. Surface roughness quality of the samples made from fine particles had average surface roughness values comparable to those of panels made in past studies. Based on initial results of this work, raw material from oil palm trunks can have some potential to be used to manufacture binderless panels without using any adhesives. This study revealed that mechanical and physical properties of such experimental panels were influenced by the particle geometry. It would be important to consider possible addition of chemical or wax in the particles to improve their dimensional stability in further studies.

  1. Mechanisms of vertebrate embryo segmentation: Common themes in trunk and limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba, Caroline J; Andrade, Raquel P; Palmeirim, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Various ultradian rhythms ensure proper temporal regulations during embryo development. The embryo molecular clock, which was first identified in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) underlying periodic somite formation, is one among them. Somites are the earliest manifestation of the segmented vertebrate body and they are formed with strict temporal precision. The tetrapod limb is also a segmented structure and the formation of limb bone elements have also been associated with a molecular clock, operating in the distal limb mesenchyme. In both the PSM and the distal limb mesenchyme, the molecular clock (MC) is influenced by FGF, SHH and RA, which are also the key regulators of the development of these tissues. While somitogenesis has been continuously scrutinized to understand the mechanisms of the MC, the limb bud has served as an outstanding paradigm to study how a cohort of undifferentiated cells is organized into functional 3D structures. The fact that both the trunk and limb development are shaped by the MC and by common signaling molecules has prompted the exciting possibility of establishing parallelisms between somitogenesis and limb development. Systematically correlating various parameters during trunk and limb development will help us to appreciate the common principles underlying segmented structure formation and allow the rise of new questions in order to fill the gaps in our present understanding. In this review we have established the parallelisms between somitogenesis and limb development at the level of gene expression patterns and their regulation. Finally, we have also discussed the most evident new avenues this exercise could open to the scientific community. PMID:26805722

  2. Trunk Muscle Activation and Estimating Spinal Compressive Force in Rope and Harness Vertical Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret; Dai, Boyi; Zhu, Qin; Humphrey, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Rope and harness vertical dance takes place off the floor with the dancer suspended from his or her center of mass in a harness attached to a rope from a point overhead. Vertical dance represents a novel environment for training and performing in which expected stresses on the dancer's body are different from those that take place during dance on the floor. Two male and eleven female dancers with training in vertical dance performed six typical vertical dance movements with electromyography (EMG) electrodes placed bilaterally on rectus abdominus, external oblique, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi. EMG data were expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). A simplified musculoskeletal model based on muscle activation for these four muscle groups was used to estimate the compressive force on the spine. The greatest muscle activation for erector spinae and latissimus dorsi and the greatest trunk compressive forces were seen in vertical axis positions where the dancer was moving the trunk into a hyper-extended position. The greatest muscle activation for rectus abdominus and external oblique and the second highest compressive force were seen in a supine position with the arms and legs extended away from the center of mass (COM). The least muscle activation occurred in positions where the limbs were hanging below the torso. These movements also showed relatively low muscle activation compression forces. Post-test survey results revealed that dancers felt comfortable in these positions; however, observation of some positions indicated insufficient muscular control. Computing the relative contribution of muscles, expressed as muscle activation and estimated spinal compression, provided a measure of how much the muscle groups were working to support the spine and the rest of the dancer's body in the different movements tested. Additionally, identifying typical muscle recruitment patterns in each movement will help identify key exercises

  3. The Influence of Hip Abductor Weakness on Frontal Plane Motion of the Trunk and Pelvis in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwurst, Britta K.; Wolf, Sebastian I.; Heitzmann, Daniel W. W.; Gantz, Simone; Braatz, Frank; Dreher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Trendelenburg walking pattern is a common finding in various disorders, including cerebral palsy (CP), where it is seen in children and adults. Clinically, this deviation is viewed as a consequence of hip abductor weakness resulting in pelvic obliquity. Trunk lean to the ipsilateral side is a common compensatory mechanism to counteract pelvic…

  4. Between-day reliability of three-dimensional motion analysis of the trunk: A comparison of marker based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Fabian Marcel; Graf, Eveline Silvia; Meichtry, André; Kool, Jan; Bauer, Christoph Michael

    2016-03-21

    Motion capture of the trunk using three-dimensional optoelectronic systems and skin markers placed on anatomical landmarks is prone to error due to marker placement, thus decreasing between-day reliability. The influence of these errors on angular output might be reduced by using an overdetermined number of markers and optimization algorithms, or by defining the neutral position using a reference trial. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the between-day reliability of trunk kinematics, when using these methods. In each of two sessions, 20 subjects performed four movement tasks. Trunk kinematics were established through the plug-in-gait protocol, the point cloud optimization algorithm, and by defining upright standing as neutral position. Between-day reliability was analyzed using generalizability theory and quantified by indexes of dependability. Across all movement tasks, none of the methods was superior in terms of between-day reliability. The point cloud algorithm did not improve between-day reliability, but did result in 24.3% greater axial rotation angles. The definition of neutral position by means of a reference trial revealed 5.8% higher indexes of dependability for lateral bending and axial rotation angles, but 13.7% smaller indexes of dependability for flexion angles. Further, using a reference trial resulted in 8.3° greater trunk flexion angles. Therefore, the selection of appropriate marker placement and the corresponding calculation of angular output are dependent on the movement task and the underlying research question. PMID:26920506

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were installed at the height of 1.30 meters (DBH to monitor the diameter growth every 14 days, for 26 months. After measuring growth, the trees were felled and wood discs were removed at the DBH level to determine the radial density profile through x-ray microdensitometry and then re-scale the average values every 14 days. Climatic variables for the monitoring period were obtained and grouped every 14 days. The effect of the climate variables was determined by maximum and minimum growth periods in assessing trunk growth. These growth periods were related with precipitation, average temperature and relative air humidity. The re-scaled wood density values, calculated using the radial growth of the tree trunks measured accurately with steel dendrometers, enabled the determination of the relationship of small changes in wood density and the effect of the climatic variations and growth rate of eucalyptus tree trunks. A high sensitivity of the wood density to variation in precipitation levels was found.

  6. Gait modification strategies in trunk over right stance phase in patients with right anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongliang; Li, Nannan; Wang, Yubin; Jiang, Shuyun; Lin, Jianping; Zhu, Wenhui

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gait modification strategies of trunk over right stance phase in patients with right anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACL-D). Thirty-six patients with right chronic ACL-D were recruited, as well as 36 controls. A 3D optical video motion capture system was used during gait and stair ambulation. Kinematic variables of the trunk and kinematic and kinetic variables of the knee were calculated. Patients with chronic right ACL-D exhibited many significant abnormalities compared with controls. Trunk rotation with right shoulder trailing over the right stance phase was lower in all five motion patterns (Pstairs to walking when the knee sagittal plane moment ended (Pstairs at the start of right knee coronal plane moment (P=0.01), when descending stairs at the maximal knee coronal plane moment (Pstairs at the end of the knee coronal plane moment (P=0.03). Trunk rotation with right shoulder forward was higher at the minimal knee transverse plane moment (Pstair tasks as part of a rehabilitation program). PMID:27131179

  7. Anatomical variations of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: an analysis using multidetector computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Mello Junior, Carlos Fernando de; Silva Neto, Eulampio Jose; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; Duarte, Claudia Martina Araujo; Cavalcanti Neto, Bartolomeu Fragoso; Farias, Rebeca Danielly da Fonseca, E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence of anatomical variations of celiac arterial trunk (CAT) branches and hepatic arterial system (HAS), as well as the CAT diameter, length and distance to the superior mesenteric artery. Materials And Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional and predominantly descriptive study based on the analysis of multidetector computed tomography images of 60 patients. Results: The celiac trunk anatomy was normal in 90% of cases. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 8.3% of patients, and hepatogastric trunk in 1.7%. Variation of the HAS was observed in 21.7% of cases, including anomalous location of the right hepatic artery in 8.3% of cases, and of the left hepatic artery, in 5%. Also, cases of joint relocation of right and left hepatic arteries, and trifurcation of the proper hepatic artery were observed, respectively, in 3 (5%) and 2 (3.3%) patients. Mean length and caliber of the CAT were 2.3 cm and 0.8 cm, respectively. Mean distance between CAT and superior mesenteric artery was 1.2 cm (standard deviation = 4.08). A significant correlation was observed between CAT diameter and length, and CAT diameter and distance to superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: The pattern of CAT variations and diameter corroborate the majority of the literature data. However, this does not happen in relation to the HAS. (author)

  8. Anatomical variations of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: an analysis using multidetector computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence of anatomical variations of celiac arterial trunk (CAT) branches and hepatic arterial system (HAS), as well as the CAT diameter, length and distance to the superior mesenteric artery. Materials And Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional and predominantly descriptive study based on the analysis of multidetector computed tomography images of 60 patients. Results: The celiac trunk anatomy was normal in 90% of cases. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 8.3% of patients, and hepatogastric trunk in 1.7%. Variation of the HAS was observed in 21.7% of cases, including anomalous location of the right hepatic artery in 8.3% of cases, and of the left hepatic artery, in 5%. Also, cases of joint relocation of right and left hepatic arteries, and trifurcation of the proper hepatic artery were observed, respectively, in 3 (5%) and 2 (3.3%) patients. Mean length and caliber of the CAT were 2.3 cm and 0.8 cm, respectively. Mean distance between CAT and superior mesenteric artery was 1.2 cm (standard deviation = 4.08). A significant correlation was observed between CAT diameter and length, and CAT diameter and distance to superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: The pattern of CAT variations and diameter corroborate the majority of the literature data. However, this does not happen in relation to the HAS. (author)

  9. The influence of seat height, trunk inclination and hip posture on the activity of the superior trapezius and longissimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolaccini, Guilherme da Silva; Nakajima, Rafael Kendi; Filho, Idinei Francisco Pires de Carvalho; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos; Medola, Fausto Orsi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the influence of seat height and body posture on the activity of the superior trapezius and longissimus muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty two healthy subjects were instructed to perform a total of eight different body postures, varying according three main factors: seat height (low and high seat); trunk inclination (upright and leaning forward at 45°); and the hips in abduction and adduction. Electromyography of the superior trapezius and longissimus was collected bilaterally, and the average values were obtained and compared across all the postures. [Results] The activity of the superior trapezius and longissimus significantly changes according to the seat height and trunk inclination. For both seat heights, sitting with trunk leaning forward resulted in a significant increase in the activity of both muscles. When sitting in a high seat and the trunk leaning forward, the superior trapezius activity was significantly reduced when compared to the same posture in a low seat. [Conclusion] This study contributes to the knowledge on the influence of the body posture and seat configuration on the activity of postural muscles. Reducing the biomechanical loads on the postural muscles must be targeted in order to improve users’ comfort and safety.

  10. [Immediate and remote results of stenting of left coronary artery trunk in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokeriia, L A; Alekian, B G; Buziashvili, Iu I; Golukhova, E Z; Staferov, A V; Zakarian, N V; Al-Sharjabi, R M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was assessment of efficacy of stenting in patients with ischemic heart disease with lesions of left coronary artery (LCA) trunk. In the A.N. Bakulev Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery between June 1997 and March 2005 stenting of LCA trunk was carried out in 50 patients (33 with stable effort angina and 17 with acute coronary syndrome). Immediate success rate was 100% in patients with stable angina. In a group of patients with acute coronary syndrome angiographic success rate was 100%. Total lethality in this group was (3 cases) 17.7%. In remote period (6 to 60 months) 33 of 39 patients were examined and recurrence of angina was noted in 7 of them (21.1%). Control angiography was carried out in 16 patients and restenosis of LCA was revealed in 18.75% of cases. The authors believe that stenting of LCA trunk is an effective and safe method of treatment of patients with stable angina and sufficiently safe method in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Roentgenoendovascular treatment may serve as an alternative to aortocoronary bypass surgery especially in isolated lesions of LCA trunk. Application of stents with drug coating allows to cardinally improve long term results of stenting. PMID:16710248

  11. Interactions of touch feedback with muscle vibration and galvanic vestibular stimulation in the control of trunk posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaswinkel, E; Veeger, H E J; Dieen, J Hv

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of touch on trunk sway in a seated position. Two touch conditions were included: touching an object with the index finger of the right hand (hand-touch) and maintaining contact with an object at the level of the spine of T10 on the mid back (back-touch). In both touch conditions, the exerted force stayed below 2N. Furthermore, the interaction of touch with paraspinal muscle vibration and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was studied. Thirteen healthy subjects with no history of low-back pain participated in this study. Subjects sat on a stool and trunk sway was measured with a motion capture system tracking a cluster marker on the trunk. Subjects performed a total of 12 trials of 60-s duration in a randomized order, combining the experimental conditions of no-touch, hand-touch or back-touch with no sensory perturbation, paraspinal muscle vibration or GVS. The results showed that touch through hand or back decreased trunk sway and decreased the effects of muscle vibration and GVS. GVS led to a large increase in sway whereas the effect of muscle vibration was only observed as an increase of drift and not of sway. In the current experimental set-up, the stabilizing effect of touch was strong enough to mask any effects of perturbations of vestibular and paraspinal muscle spindle afference. In conclusion, tactile information, whenever available, seems to play a dominant role in seated postural sway and therefore has important implications for studying trunk control. PMID:24192277

  12. Modification of trunk thickness of MIRD phantom based on the comparison of organ doses with voxel phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Sik [Innovative Technology Center for Radiation Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    Because the MIRD phantom, the representative mathematical phantom was developed for the calculation of internal radiation dose, and simulated by the simplified mathematical equations for rapid computation, the appropriateness of application to external dose calculation and the closeness to real human body should be justified. This study was intended to modify the MIRD phantom according to the comparison of the organ absorbed doses in the two phantoms exposed to monoenergetic broad parallel photon beams of the energy between 0.05 MeV and 10 MeV. The organ absorbed doses of the MIRD phantom and the Zubal voxel phantom were calculated for AP and PA geometries by MCNP4C, general-purpose Monte Carlo code. The MIRD phantom received higher doses than the Zubal phantom for both AP and PA geometries. Effective dose in PA geometry for 0.05MeV photon beams showed the difference up to 50%. Anatomical axial views of the two phantoms revealed the thinner trunk thickness of the MIRD phantom than that of the Zubal phantom. To find out the optimal thickness of trunk, the difference of effective doses for 0.5MeV photon beams for various trunk thickness of the MIRD phantom from 20 cm to 36 cm were compared. The optimal trunk thickness, 24 cm and 28 cm for AP and PA geometries, respectively, showed the minimum difference of effective doses between the two phantoms. The trunk model of the MIRD phantom was modified and the organ doses were recalculated using the modified MIRD phantom. The differences of effective dose for AP and PA geometries reduced to 7.3% and the overestimation of organ doses decreased, too. Because MIRD-type phantoms are easier to be adopted in Monte Carlo calculations and to standardize, the modifications of the MIRD phantom allow us to hold the advantage of MIRD-type phantoms over a voxel phantom and alleviate the anatomical difference and consequent disagreement in dose calculation.

  13. Dynamic iso-resistive trunk extension simulation: contributions of the intrinsic and reflexive mechanisms to spinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarani, S Zeinali; Shirazi-Adl, A; Hemami, H; Mousavi, S J; Parnianpour, M

    2007-01-01

    The effects of external resistance on the recruitment of trunk muscles and the role of intrinsic and reflexive mechanisms to ensure the spinal stability are significant issues in spinal biomechanics. A computational model of spine under the control of 48 anatomically oriented muscle actions was used to simulate iso-resistive trunk movements. Neural excitation of muscles was attained based on inverse dynamics approach along with the stability-based optimization. The effect of muscle spindle reflex response on the trunk movement stability was evaluated upon the application of a perturbation moment. In this study, the trunk extension movement at various resistance levels while extending from 60 degrees flexion to the upright posture was investigated. Incorporation of the stability condition as an additional constraint in the optimization algorithm increased antagonistic activities for all resistance levels demonstrating that the co-activation caused an increase in the intrinsic stiffness of the spine and its stability in a feed-forward manner. During the acceleration phase of the movement, extensors activity increased while flexors activity decreased in response to the higher resistance. The co-activation ratio noticed in the braking phase of the movement increased with higher resistance. In presence of a 30 Nm flexion perturbation moment, reflexive feed-back noticeably decreased the induced deviation of the velocity and position profiles from the desired ones at all resistance levels. The stability-generated co-activation decreased the reflexive response of muscle spindles to the perturbation demonstrating that both intrinsic and reflexive mechanisms contribute to the trunk stability. The rise in muscle co-activation can ameliorate the corruption of afferent neural sensory system at the expense of higher loading of the spine. PMID:18057565

  14. An Incidental Finding of the Thyroidea Ima Artery:-A Case Report Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit C. Ratanpara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We are here reporting a case of an incidental finding of the thyroidea ima artery emerging from the brachiocephalic trunk with a typical inferior thyroid vessels on both sides emerging from the thyrocervical trunk. The thyroidea ima artery entered the thyroid gland near to anterior surface of right lobe of thyroid gland. It arose from the brachiocephalic artery proximal to its bifurcation.

  15. Magnitude of forward trunk flexion influences upper limb muscular efforts and dynamic postural stability requirements during sitting pivot transfers in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Guillaume; Gagnon, Dany; Nadeau, Sylvie; Popovic, Milos

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of imposing different degrees of forward trunk flexion during sitting pivot transfers on electromyographic activity at the leading and trailing upper limb muscles and on dynamic stability requirements. Thirty-two individuals with a spinal cord injury performed three types of sitting pivot transfers: natural technique, exaggerated forward trunk flexion and upright trunk position. Ground reaction forces, trunk kinematics, and bilateral electromyographic activity of eight upper limb muscles were recorded. Electromyographic data were analyzed using the area under the curve of the muscular utilization ratio. Dynamic stability requirements of sitting pivot transfers were assess using a dynamic equilibrium model. Compared to the natural strategy, significantly greater muscle activities were found for the forward trunk flexion condition at the anterior deltoid and both heads of the pectorialis major, whereas the upright trunk strategy yielded greater muscle activity at the latissimus dorsii and the triceps. The forward flexed condition was found to be more dynamically stable, with a lower stabilizing force, increased area of base of support and greater distance traveled. Thus, transferring with a more forward trunk inclination, even though it increases work of few muscles, may be a beneficial trade-off because increased dynamic stability of this technique and versatility in terms of potential distance of the transfer. PMID:24094473

  16. Subjects with hip osteoarthritis show distinctive patterns of trunk movements during gait-a body-fixed-sensor based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reininga Inge HF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compensatory trunk movements during gait, such as a Duchenne limp, are observed frequently in subjects with osteoarthritis of the hip, yet angular trunk movements are seldom included in clinical gait assessments. Hence, the objective of this study was to quantify compensatory trunk movements during gait in subjects with hip osteoarthritis, outside a gait laboratory, using a body-fixed-sensor based gait analysis. Frontal plane angular movements of the pelvis and thorax and spatiotemporal parameters of persons who showed a Duchenne limp during gait were compared to healthy subjects and persons without a Duchenne limp. Methods A Body-fixed-sensor based gait analysis approach was used. Two body-fixed sensors were positioned at the dorsal side of the pelvis and on the upper thorax. Peak-to-peak frontal plane range of motion (ROM and spatiotemporal parameters (walking speed, step length and cadence of persons with a Duchenne limp during gait were compared to healthy subjects and persons without a Duchenne limp. Participants were instructed to walk at a self-selected low, preferred and high speed along a hospital corridor. Generalized estimating equations (GEE analyses were used to assess group differences between persons with a Duchenne limp, without a Duchenne limp and healthy subjects. Results Persons with a Duchenne limp showed a significantly larger thoracic ROM during walking compared to healthy subjects and to persons without a Duchenne limp. In both groups of persons with hip osteoarthritis, pelvic ROM was lower than in healthy subjects. This difference however only reached significance in persons without a Duchenne limp. The ratio of thoracic ROM relative to pelvic ROM revealed distinct differences in trunk movement patterns. Persons with hip osteoarthritis walked at a significantly lower speed compared to healthy subjects. No differences in step length and cadence were found between patients and healthy subjects, after

  17. Relation between pH in the Trunk and Face: Truncal pH Can Be Easily Predicted from Facial pH

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Ae; Kim, Bo Ri; Chun, Mi Young; Youn, Sang Woong

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical symptoms of facial and truncal acne differ. Skin surface acidity (pH), which is affected by sebum secretions, reflects the different clinical characteristics of the face and trunk. However, no studies have been conducted on truncal sebum production and skin pH. Objective We evaluated the differences and relationship between pH values of the face and trunk. We also evaluated the relationship between pH and the quantity of sebum produced in the trunk. Methods A total of ...

  18. Effect of wearing tight pants on the trunk flexion and pelvic tilting angles in the stand-to-sit movement and a seated posture

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wearing the tight pants on the trunk flexion and pelvic tilting angles in the stand-to-sit movement and a seated posture. [Subjects] Nine male subjects were recruited. [Methods] The trunk flexion angle and pelvic posterior tilting angle were measured using a motion-capture system during the stand-to-sit movement and in a seated posture. [Results] The trunk flexion and the posterior pelvic tilting angles during the stand-to-sit ...

  19. An anomalous case of the left gastric artery, the splenic artery and hepato-mesenteric trunk independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Tsuyoshi; Hirao, Takeshi; Kitashima, Sadaharu; Watanabe, Koh-Ichi; Nohno, Mariko; Araki, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Seiji; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of an arterial anomaly in the celiaco-mesenteric region, encountered in a Japanese female cadaver for dissection at the gross anatomy laboratory of Kurume University School of Medicine in 2003. The usual celiac trunk was not identified, and the left gastric artery, the splenic artery and the hepato-mesenteric trunk independently arose from the abdominal aorta. Moreover, the hepatic artery arising from the hepato-mesenteric trunk ran behind the portal vein. The classification for this type of arterial anomaly is a Type II' of Morita's classification and Type II of Higashi and Hirai's classification, not belong to the Adachi's. PMID:16119612

  20. Trunk, head, and step characteristics during normal and narrow-based walking under deteriorated sensory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Zhang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The ability to maintain stability in the frontal plane (medialateral direction) while walking is commonly included as a component of motor performance assessment. Postural control in the frontal plane may deteriorate faster and earlier with increasing age, compared to that in the sagittal plane (anteroposterior direction). Fifteen young (20-30 years old) and 15 older (>65 years old) healthy participants were recruited to investigate age-related differences in postural control during the normal and narrow-based walking when performed under suboptimal vestibular and lower limb somatosensory conditions achieved by galvanic stimulation and compliant surfaces, respectively. Gait speed decreased in the narrow-based walking condition, with larger decrease in the elderly (by 6%). In the elderly head roll increased with perturbed vestibular information in impaired somatosensory condition (by 40.70%). In both age groups trunk roll increased under impaired somatosensation in the narrow-based walking condition (by 43.62%) but not in normal walking condition. Older participants adopted a more cautious strategy characterized by lower walking speed when walking on a narrow base and exhibited deteriorated integrative ability of the CNS for head control. Accurate lower limb somatosensation may play a critical role in narrow-based walking. PMID:24528161

  1. Study on bio-ethanol production from oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks sap using factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norhazimah, A. H.; Che Ku, M. Faizala [Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)], email: amfaizal@ump.edu.my

    2011-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks (OPT), a waste generated from the re-plantation of oil palm trees for palm oil production, contain useful fermentable sugar for bio-ethanol production, and are a very important biomass material for future energy production. The fermentation usually can be affected along several parameters: temperature, pH, agitation rate, percentage inoculums, time of incubation, nitrogen sources, age of the inoculums and other chemical and physical factors. Since identifying all the effects of a particular factor on the fermentation process is impractical for reasons of time and cost, the approach of this study was based on a two-level five-factor (25) full factorial design (FFD) in order to identify the independent parameters for screening experiment purposes and determine the range of levels of the factor as well as the regions for optimization. The results from this study showed that the most influential principal factors affecting ethanol concentration and productivity were temperature, followed by initial pH and agitation rate.

  2. SEASONAL INCREMENT IN TRUNK DIAMETER OF Eucalyptus grandis TREES APPLYING DENDROMETER BANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987557The present work aimed to evaluate the seasonal increment in diameter of Eucalyptus grandis trees for 24 months and its relationship with the climatic variables and fertilization with nitrogen and with sewer mud. The trees were planted in the spacing of 3x2 m and fertilized with nitrogen (planting, 6, 12, 18 months and sewer mud (planting and 8 months. 20 trees were selected by treatment according witch the distribution of basal area and installed dendrometer bands at a 1.3 meter. The results showed a clear effect of the climatic variables on the seasonal increment in diameter of trees, being observed a delay period (lag of 28 days for the answer of the trees in relation to the climatic variables. Regading to the fertilization effect, it was observed that the increment of trunk diameter was higher in the eucalyptus trees with organic in relation to mineral fertilization with nitrogen.

  3. Relative growth of the limbs and trunk in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, B T

    1981-10-01

    Examination of relative growth and allometry is important for our understanding of the African apes, as they represent a closely related group of species of increasing body size. This study presents a comparison of ontogenetic relative growth patterns of some postcranial dimensions in Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla. Interspecific proportion differences among the three species are also analyzed. It is stressed that reliable ontogenetic information can only be obtained if subadults are examined-growth data cannot be inferred from static adult scaling. Results indicate that some postcranial relative growth patterns are very similar in the three species, suggesting differential extrapolation of a common growth pattern, whereas for other proportion comparisons the growth trends differ markedly among the species, producing distinct shape differences in the adults. Interspecific shape changes among the three species are characterized by positive allometry of chest girth and negative allometry of body height and leg length. It is suggested that relative decrease of leg length with increasing body size among the African pongids might be expected on biomechanical grounds, in quadrupedal terrestrialism. Relative to body weight or trunk length, the limbs of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) are longer than in the common chimpanzee or the gorilla, with a lower intermembral index. This may most closely resemble the primitive condition for the African apes. PMID:7325219

  4. Histological and stereological characterization of brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) trunk kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Albina D; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Malhão, Fernanda; Franquinho, Filipa; Monteiro, Rogério A F; Rocha, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The large variability in kidney morphology among fish makes it difficult to build a "universal" model on its function and structure. Therefore, a morphological study of brown trout trunk kidney was performed, considering potential seasonal and sex effects. Three-year-old specimens of both sexes were collected at four stages of their reproductive cycle. Kidney was processed for light and electron microscopy. The relative volumes of renal components, such as renal corpuscles and different nephron tubules, were estimated by stereological methods. Qualitatively, the general nephron structure of brown trout was similar to that described for other glomerular teleost species. Quantitatively, however, differences in the relative volume of some renal components were detected between sexes and among seasons. Particularly, highest values of vacuolized tubules and new growing tubules were observed after spawning, being more relevant in females. Despite seasonal changes, more linear correlations were found between those parameters and the reno-somatic index than the gonado-somatic index. Thus, we verified that some brown trout renal components undergo sex dependent seasonal variations, suggesting a morphological adaptation of the components to accomplish physiological needs. These findings constitute a baseline for launching studies to know which factors govern the morphological variations and their functional consequences. PMID:20932361

  5. Radiation-MHD models of elephant trunks and globules in H II regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of pillars of dense gas, known as elephant trunks, at the boundaries of H II regions, formed by shadowing of ionising radiation by dense clumps. The effects of magnetic fields on this process are investigated using 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulations. For a simulation in which an initially uniform magnetic field of strength |B|=50 uG is oriented perpendicular to the radiation propagation direction, the field is swept into alignment with the pillar during its dynamical evolution, in agreement with observations of the "Pillars of Creation" in M16, and of some cometary globules. This effect is significantly enhanced when the simulation is re-run with a weaker field of 18 uG. A stronger field with |B|=160 uG is sufficient to prevent this evolution completely, also significantly affecting the photoionisation process. Using a larger simulation domain it is seen that the pillar formation models studied in Mackey & Lim (2010) ultimately evolve to cometary structures ...

  6. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author)

  7. Thermal windows on the trunk of hauled-out seals: hot spots for thermoregulatory evaporation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Björn; Bilgmann, Kerstin; Jones, Daryl D; Eysel, Ulf; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2003-05-01

    Seals have adapted to the high heat transfer coefficient in the aquatic environment by effective thermal insulation of the body core. While swimming and diving, excess metabolic heat is supposed to be dissipated mainly over the sparsely insulated body appendages, whereas the location of main heat sinks in hauled-out seals remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate thermal windows on the trunk of harbour seals, harp seals and a grey seal examined under various ambient temperatures using infrared thermography. Thermograms were analysed for location, size and development of thermal windows. Thermal windows were observed in all experimental sessions, shared some common characteristics in all seals and tended to reappear in similar body sites of individual seals. Nevertheless, the observed variations in order and location of appearance, number, size and shape of thermal windows would imply no special anatomical site for this avenue of heat loss. Based on our findings, we suggest that, in hauled-out seals, heat may be transported by blood flow to a small area of the wet body surface where the elevation of temperature facilitates evaporation of water trapped within the seals' pelages due to increased saturation vapour pressure. The comparatively large latent heat necessary for evaporation creates a temporary hot spot for heat dissipation. PMID:12682104

  8. "Snow White" Coating Protects SpaceX Dragon's Trunk Against Rigors of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    He described it as "snow white." But NASA astronaut Don Pettit was not referring to the popular children's fairy tale. Rather, he was talking about the white coating of the Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) Dragon spacecraft that reflected from the International Space Station s light. As it approached the station for the first time in May 2012, the Dragon s trunk might have been described as the "fairest of them all," for its pristine coating, allowing Pettit to clearly see to maneuver the robotic arm to grab the Dragon for a successful nighttime berthing. This protective thermal control coating, developed by Alion Science and Technology Corp., based in McLean, Va., made its bright appearance again with the March 1 launch of SpaceX's second commercial resupply mission. Named Z-93C55, the coating was applied to the cargo portion of the Dragon to protect it from the rigors of space. "For decades, Alion has produced coatings to protect against the rigors of space," said Michael Kenny, senior chemist with Alion. "As space missions evolved, there was a growing need to dissipate electrical charges that build up on the exteriors of spacecraft, or there could be damage to the spacecraft s electronics. Alion's research led us to develop materials that would meet this goal while also providing thermal controls. The outcome of this research was Alion's proprietary Z-93C55 coating."

  9. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Laibao; Ni, Yang; Duan, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars 'Wanhongzhu' and 'Lapins' was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs) and the incompatibility (S) gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs) and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD) is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree's development. The high density 'W×L' genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding. PMID:26516760

  10. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium cultivars 'Wanhongzhu' and 'Lapins' was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs and the incompatibility (S gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree's development. The high density 'W×L' genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding.

  11. Anatomical bases for the radiological delineation of lymph node areas. Major collecting trunks, head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer spreads locally through direct infiltration into soft tissues or at distance by invading vascular structures, then migrating through the lymphatic or blood flow. Although cancer cells carried in the blood can end in virtually any corner of the body, lymphatic migration is usually stepwise, through successive nodal stops, which can temporarily delay further progression. In radiotherapy, irradiation of lymphatic paths relevant to the localisation of the primary has been common practice for decades. Similarly, excision of cancer is often completed by lymphatic dissection. Both in radiotherapy and in surgery, advanced knowledge of the lymphatic pathways relevant to any tumor location is an important information for treatment preparation and execution. This first part describes the major collecting trunks of the lymphatic system and then the lymphatics of the head and neck providing anatomical bases for the radiological delineation of lymph node areas in the cervical region, it adds to the existing nomenclature of six nodal levels (I-VI), three new areas listed as parotid, buccal and external jugular levels

  12. Intraoperative evaluation of the spiral nerve cuff electrode on the femoral nerve trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasek, K. H.; Schiefer, M. A.; Pinault, G. C. J.; Triolo, R. J.; Tyler, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Evaluation of the Case Western Reserve University spiral nerve cuff electrode on the femoral nerve trunk was performed intraoperatively in four subjects undergoing femoral-popliteal bypass surgery. The threshold, nerve size and selective activation capabilities of the electrode were examined. The activation thresholds for the first muscle to be recruited were 6.3, 9, 10.6, and 37.4 nC with pulse amplitudes ranging from 0.3 to 1 mA. The femoral nerve was found to have an elliptical cross-section with a major axis average length of 9 mm (8-12 mm) and a minor axis length of 1.5 mm. In all four subjects selective activation of the sartorius was obtained. In two subjects, the rectus femoris could also be selectively activated and in one subject the vastus medialis was selectively activated. Each electrode had four independent contacts that were evaluated separately. Small air bubbles were formed in the space over some contacts, preventing stimulation. This occurred in one contact in each electrode, leaving three effective stimulation channels. This issue has been corrected for future studies.

  13. Myoelectric activity and sequencing of selected trunk muscles during isokinetic lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, D A; Mostardi, R A; Jackson, M E; Porterfield, J A; Askew, M J

    1992-02-01

    Trained weight lifters lift heavy loads without a concomitant degree of acute low-back injuries. To study the process by which large loads are lifted with minimal injury, integrated electromyographic signals were recorded from four large muscle groups: gluteus maximus, quadriceps, latissimus dorsi, and erector spinae in 4 weight lifters and 11 asymptomatic control subjects. These signals were recorded during a floor-to-knuckle-height isokinetic lift (dead lift) at 30.5 and 45.7 cm/sec. The signals were normalized for the height of the lift and the maximal isokinetic integrated electromyographic activity. The weight lifters achieved maximal force at 50% of maximal lift height, whereas the control subjects achieved it at 67%. Although not statistically significant, the weight lifters used the gluteus maximus more during the early stages of the lift, perhaps contributing to earlier development of force. This process would stabilize the pelvis and permit the erector spinae to extend the trunk more efficiently. The weight lifter then completed the lift with prolonged and increasing activity in the quadriceps. This technique may minimize the required force in the erector spinae and the forces on the low-back structures. Clinical implications include more effective strength training of lifting muscle groups other than spinal extensors and the teaching of lifting strategies employed by weight lifters in low-back rehabilitation and work-hardening programs. PMID:1532462

  14. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)); Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide

    1992-10-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author).

  15. Bending, twisting and beating trunk robot bioinspired from the ‘3 + 0’ axoneme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The axoneme is the skeleton and motor axis of flagella and cilia in eukaryotic organisms. Basically it consists of a series of longitudinal fibers (outer doublets of microtubules) that design a cylinder and whose sliding, due to the coordinated activities of dedicated molecular motors (the dynein arms), is converted into a bending because outer doublets pairs are stabilized by elastic links (the nexine molecules). In spite of these interesting mechanical properties, mechanical and robotics engineers have never considered this amazing molecular machinery as a model. The aim of this paper is to propose the robotic design and the kinematic modeling of the ‘3 + 0’ axoneme that makes motile the flagellum of Diplauxis hatti, the simplest that exists. The model that we propose bends and twists and combines the two movements. It is able to propagate wave trains that could be involved in the development of biomimetic actuators of various mechanisms such as (sub)aquatic robotic propellers as well as robotic trunks. (paper)

  16. Differential Diagnosis of the pancreatic disease : significance of perivascular changes at celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryang; Kim, Ki Whang; Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Dong Guk; Lee, Sung Il; Ahn, Chang Soo; Oh, Sei Jung [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Kim, Young Hwan [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to classify perivascular change in the celiac trunk and SMA occurring in pancreatic disease and to evaluate its significance in differential diagnosis. In 73 patients with pancreatic disease (42, acute pancreatitis; 14, chronic pancreatitis; 17, pancreatic cancer) abdominal CT findings were retrospectively reviewed. We defined infiltration as linear or irregular density and thickening as presence of a soft tissue mantle surrounding the vessel, and statistically evaluated the usefulness of these factors for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. Thickening of the celiac trunk and SMA is a valuable finding in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic inflammatory disease and pancreatic cancer. When applied to the differential diagnosis of pancreatic disease, perivascular change should be classified as either infiltration or thickening. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  17. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  18. Effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on muscle response to sudden trunk perturbation among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study investigates the effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on muscle reflex response to sudden trunk perturbation among healthcare workers. Methods. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42 [SD 11], BMI: 24 [SD 4], and pain intensity: 3.1 [SD 2.......2] on a scale of 0-10) from 18 departments at three hospitals were randomized at the cluster level to 10 weeks of (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise......, or (2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Mechanical and neuromuscular (EMG) response to randomly assigned unloading and loading trunk perturbations and questions of fear avoidance were assessed at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Results...

  19. Two anomalous cases of the hepato-mesenteric and the gastro-splenic trunks independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y; Yamaki, K; Saga, T; Hirata, T; Yoshida, M; Soejima, H; Kanazawa, T; Tanaka, K; Yoshizuka, M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes two arterial anomaly cases in the celiaco-mesenteric region, which were encountered in two Japanese male cadavers in the dissecting room at Kurume University School of Medicine in 1999. In these cases, the usual celiac trunks were not identified, and the hepato-mesenteric and the gastro-splenic trunks were independently arising from the abdominal aorta. Moreover, in the first case, the common hepatic artery passed ventral side of the portal vein and divided into the hepatic proper and the gastroduodenal arteries. This type of arterial anomaly belongs to the Type V of Adachi's classification and the Type IV' of Morita's classification. In the second case, the common hepatic artery passed dorsal side of the portal vein and divided into the hepatic proper and the gastroduodenal arteries. This type of arterial anomaly belongs to the Type VI of Adachi's classification and the Type IV' of Morita's classification. PMID:11059229

  20. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, HPS; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, WO Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and...

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr; Mario Tomazello F; José Luis Lousada; Domingos Lopes; Jean Paul Laclau

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were instal...

  2. Unusual Congenital Aortic Anomaly with Rare Common Celiamesenteric Trunk Variation: MR Angiography and Digital Substraction Angiography Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance angiography and digital substraction angiography (DSA) findings in a case with a rare congenital thoracoabdominal aortic hypoplasia and common celiamesenteric trunk variation with occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta are described here. To our knowledge, this aortic anomaly has not been previously described in the English literature. DSA is the optimum imaging modality for determination of aortic hypoplasia, associated vascular malformations, collateral vessels, and direction of flow within vessels

  3. Anti-phase action between the angular accelerations of trunk and leg is reduced in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiro; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Masani, Kei; Nozaki, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    Quiet standing posture in humans has often been modeled as a single inverted pendulum pivoting around the ankle joint. However, recent studies have suggested that anti-phase action between leg and trunk segments plays a significant role in stabilizing posture by reducing the acceleration of the center of mass (COM) of the body. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that anti-phase action is attenuated in the elderly compared to the young. The anterior-posterior movements of leg and trunk segments were measured using 4 laser displacement sensors from 22 healthy young subjects (age range, 20-35 years) and 38 healthy elderly subjects (age range, 57-80 years) standing quietly for 30s twice. To focus on the segmental action between trunk and legs, we applied constraints (i.e., wooden splints) on each segment. We found that the velocity and acceleration of the COM (standard deviation of the time series was evaluated) were significantly higher for the elderly subjects than for young subjects. The increase in the acceleration of the COM resulted not only from an increase in the angular acceleration of the segments but also from the reduction of their anti-phase relationship, as demonstrated by an index that quantifies the degree of cancelation between both segments. We conclude that the degree of anti-phase action between trunk and leg segments during quiet standing is smaller for elderly subjects than for young subjects, and that this change of the anti-phase action due to aging resulted in increased COM acceleration in the elderly subjects. PMID:24708906

  4. Consequences of lower extremity and trunk muscle fatigue on balance and functional tasks in older people: A systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Helbostad Jorunn L; Sturnieks Daina L; Menant Jasmine; Delbaere Kim; Lord Stephen R; Pijnappels Mirjam

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Muscle fatigue reduces muscle strength and balance control in young people. It is not clear whether fatigue resistance seen in older persons leads to different effects. In order to understand whether muscle fatigue may increase fall risk in older persons, a systematic literature review aimed to summarize knowledge on the effects of lower extremity and trunk muscle fatigue on balance and functional tasks in older people was performed. Methods Studies were identified with se...

  5. Effects of Compliance on Trunk and Hip Integrative Neuromuscular Training on Hip Abductor Strength in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Bush, Heather M.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Sugimoto, D, Myer, GD, Bush, HM, and Hewett, TE. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes. Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the ...

  6. The Effect of Core and Lower Limb Exercises on Trunk Strength and Lower Limb Stability on Australian Soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Sellentin; Rhondda Jones

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: A before and after design in the collection of data and using analyses of variance to examine the changes in each test score. Objectives: The objectives and hypotheses of this study are: (1) Do specific core exercises, incorporating the lower limbs improve lower limb stability and trunk core muscle strength?; (2) Can the Star Excursion Balance Test be used as a measure of ankle and lower limb stability without a history of ankle instability?; (3) Can static core test...

  7. Aneurysmal rupture of the costo-cervical trunk in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1: A case report ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Hoonjan, Bhupinder; Thayur, Nagendra; Abu-Own, Abdusalam

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Rupture of blood vessels associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is a rare but life threatening complication. We report the first case of an aneurysmal rupture from the costocervical trunk in a NF-1 patient treated by endovascular embolisation. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 43 year-old gentleman with a past medical history of NF-1 presented with sudden onset left sided neck swelling. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a large cervical haematoma, which was causing airway comprom...

  8. Upgrading and electrification of Greek trunk line Piraeus-Athens-Thessaloniki, a connection to the European high speed network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsitouras, C. [ERGOSE Hellas Rail Consult, Athens (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This paper explains the large amount of work being undertaken by Greek railways to improve their network and to make connections of the European development of modern, high speed railways. It describes the projects of infrastructure rehabilitation and new line sections along the main trunk line from Athens to Thessaloniki including electrification and new signalling. It also refers to adjacent projects towards the line to the Peleponese, in the Athens area and towards the northern border. (orig.)

  9. Pelvis morphology, trunk posture and standing imbalance and their relations to the Cobb angle in moderate and severe untreated AIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Dalleau

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and usually affects young girls. Studies mostly describe the differences between scoliotic and non-scoliotic girls and focus primarily on a single set of parameters derived from spinal and pelvis morphology, posture or standing imbalance. No study addressed all these three biomechanical aspects simultaneously in pre-braced AIS girls of different scoliosis severity but with similar curve type and their interaction with scoliosis progression. The first objective of this study was to test if there are differences in these parameters between pre-braced AIS girls with a right thoracic scoliosis of moderate (less than 27° and severe (more than 27° deformity. The second objective was to identify which of these parameters are related to the Cobb angle progression either individually or in combination of thereof. Forty-five scoliotic girls, randomly selected by an orthopedic surgeon from the hospital scoliosis clinic, participated in this study. Parameters related to pelvis morphology, pelvis orientation, trunk posture and quiet standing balance were measured. Generally moderate pre-brace idiopathic scoliosis patients displayed lower values than the severe group characterized by a Cobb angle greater than 27°. Only pelvis morphology and trunk posture were statistically different between the groups while pelvis orientation and standing imbalance were similar in both groups. Statistically significant Pearson coefficients of correlation between individual parameters and Cobb angle ranged between 0.32 and 0.53. Collectively trunk posture, pelvis morphology and standing balance parameters are correlated with Cobb angle at 0.82. The results suggest that spinal deformity progression is not only a question of trunk morphology distortion by itself but is also related to pelvis asymmetrical bone growth and standing neuromuscular imbalance.

  10. Treatment of an aneurysm of the celiac artery arising from a celiomesenteric trunk. Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lipari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our finding of a very rare case of a celiomesenteric anomaly with a concurrent aneurysm is extremely rare (20 cases in word literature in the last 32 years. The feasibility of the endovascular approach for aneurysms originating from the common celiomesenteric trunk depends mainly on aneurysmal location, diameter and neck size. In case of specific unfit anatomy, a careful surgical treatment can ensure the best results.

  11. Pseudo aneurysm of the celiac trunk - radiological findings report; Pseudo-aneurisma do tronco celiaco - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes Junior, Mauricio R. de; Henrique, Katia; Teixeira, Sonia Marcelino; Cardenas, Gloria Pamela Galdames; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Acceta, Pietro [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a case of a celiac trunk pseudoneurysm, diagnosed by ultrasonography, computed tomography and arteriography, in a 54-year-old man, alcoholic, with gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal pain and an epigastric pulsatile mass. After the diagnostic, he was operated and it was showed a fistula from the pseudoaneurysm to the choledoch and the gall bladder fill with blood. The patient has a good clinic development. (author) 10 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Complete remission of a lymphoma-associated chylothorax by radiotherapy of the celiac trunk and thoracic duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, J.; Fruehauf, J.; Bremer, M. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Kofahl-Krause, D. [Dept. of Hematology, Hemostasis, Stem Cell Transplantation and Oncology, Hannover Medical School (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Background: a chylothorax is a rare complication of mostly advanced malignant lymphomas. A case of a refractory chylothorax unresponsive to chemotherapy and successfully treated with radiotherapy is reported. Case report: a 45-year-old woman with recurrent stage IV low-grade follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and a progressive chylothorax is described. The CT scans showed bulky lymphadenopathy at the thoracic trunk but no detectable enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes. After ineffective pretreatment including chemotherapy and chest drainage, fractionated radiotherapy to the celiac trunk (20.4 Gy) and the thoracic duct (15 Gy) was performed. Result: already after 7.5 Gy a rapid decline of chylothorax was noted and the chest drain could be removed. A complete remission of the chylothorax could be achieved after 20.4 Gy. During a follow-up of 16 months no recurrence of chylothorax occurred. CT scans showed nearly complete remission of the lymphadenopathy of the celiac trunk 12 months after radiotherapy. Conclusion: radiotherapy with limited total doses is an effective treatment option for lymphoma-associated chylothorax and should always be taken into consideration, especially in cases unresponsive to chemotherapy. (orig.)

  13. The impact of adding trunk motion to the interpretation of the role of joint moments during normal walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mausam; Talaty, Mukul; Ounpuu, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    Biomechanical model assumptions affect the interpretation of the role of the muscle or joint moments to the segmental power estimated by induced acceleration analysis (IAA). We evaluated the effect of modeling the pelvis and trunk segments as two separate segments (8 SM) versus as a single segment (7 SM) on the segmental power, support of the body, knee and hip extension acceleration produced by the joint moments during the stance phase of normal walking. Significant differences were observed in the contribution of the stance hip abductor and extensor moments to support, ipsilateral knee and hip acceleration, and ipsilateral thigh and upper body power. The primary finding was that the role of the stance hip moment in generating ipsilateral thigh and upper body power differed based on degrees of freedom in the model. Secondarily, the magnitude of contributions also differed. For example, the hip abductor and extensor moments showed greater contribution to support, hip and knee acceleration in the 8 SM. IAA and segment power analysis are sensitive to the degrees of freedom between the pelvis and trunk. There is currently no gold standard by which to evaluate the accuracy of IAA predictions. However, modeling the pelvis and trunk as separate segments is closer to the anatomical architecture of the body. An 8 SM appears to be more appropriate for estimating the role of joint moments, particularly to motion of more proximal segments during normal walking. PMID:17765906

  14. The association between back pain and trunk posture of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Raymond YW

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aims to determine the time spent in different static trunk postures during a typical working day of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps. Methods Eighteen workers with low back pain (LBP and fifteen asymptomatic workers were recruited. A cross-sectional design was employed to study the time spent in different static trunk postures which was recorded by a biaxial accelerometer attached to the T12 level of the back of the subjects. Results The results of ANCOVA revealed that subjects with LBP spent significantly longer percentage of time in static trunk posture when compared to normal (p Conclusion An innovative method has been developed for continuous tracking of spinal posture, and this has potential for widespread applications in the workplace. The findings of the present investigation suggest that teachers in special schools are at increased risk of getting LBP. In order to minimise such risk, frequent postural change and awareness of work posture are recommended.

  15. Three-dimensional kinematics of the scapula and trunk, and associated scapular muscle timing in individuals with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baets, Liesbet; Van Deun, Sara; Monari, Davide; Jaspers, Ellen

    2016-08-01

    Poor scapulothoracic control is a risk for developing shoulder pathology, but has received little attention so far in individuals with stroke (IwS). Trunk and scapular kinematics and surface muscle activity were measured in 15 healthy controls and 18 IwS during a low and high forward flexion (FF). Group-differences in trunk and scapular kinematics were assessed during low and high FF using a t-test (independent samples). Differences in muscle onset and offset time relative to movement start (both FF tasks) were determined using a mixed model taking into account the different groups and muscles. Recruitment patterns per group and task were described based on significant differences between muscles. In IwS, earlier lower trapezius and late infraspinatus offset were found during low FF, as well as a later onset and earlier offset of serratus anterior. For low FF, significantly more trunk axial rotation was found in IwS during both elevation and lowering. During high FF, IwS showed significantly less scapular posterior tilt during elevation and more scapular lateral rotation during lowering. IwS demonstrated adaptive muscle timing with earlier initiation and late inactivation of lower trapezius and infraspinatus, possibly to compensate for a late activation and early deactivation of the serratus anterior and to establish as such the correct pattern of scapulothoracic movement. PMID:27155342

  16. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  17. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hee Won; Baek, Sora; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm²) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829. PMID:27550488

  18. A modified total arch replacement combined with a stented elephant trunk implantation for acute type A dissection under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Su-Min; Xu, Ping; Cheng-xiang LI; Huang, Qiang; Gao, Hong-Bo; Li, Zhen-Fu; Chang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Since the optimal management of patients with acute aortic dissection is unclear, this study analyzed total arch replacement combined with stented elephant trunk implantation in the treatment of acute type A aortic dissection. Methods Between February 2008 and February 2013, 86 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital for acute type A dissection underwent total arch replacement combined with stented elephant trunk implantation under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. The Ben...

  19. Perception of stress level, trunk appearance, body function and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated conservatively: a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Latuszewska, Joanna; Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In the presented study, we aimed to assess changes over time in the perception of trunk deformity, body function, stress level and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were treated conservatively with a Cheneau brace, taking the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS), Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQ) criteria of evaluation into consideration. Methods The study design was comprised of three quest...

  20. Sensory Interactions for Head and Trunk Control in Space in Young and Older Adults During Normal and Narrow-Base Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Deshpande, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen young (20-30 years old) and 15 older (>65 years old) healthy participants were recruited to investigate age-related differences in head and trunk control under suboptimal vestibular conditions (galvanic vestibular stimulation, or GVS) and vision conditions during normal and narrow-based walking. Head-roll velocity decreased in the blurred-vision condition and marginally increased with GVS in older but not in young participants. Head pitch increased, whereas head-roll velocity decreased in narrow-base walking. Trunk pitch, trunk-pitch velocity, and gait speed increased with GVS, whereas trunk-pitch velocity and gait speed decreased in narrow-base walking. Marginally increased head-roll velocity in the older participants possibly suggests decreased integrative ability of the central nervous system in elderly people. The changes in head control during narrow-base walking may be an attempt to simplify the interpretation of the vestibular signal and increase otolith sensitivity. The complexity of controlling the trunk in the mediolateral direction was suggested by different strategies used for trunk control in different conditions. PMID:25675141

  1. Leiomiossarcoma cutâneo no tronco Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma on the trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Carpinteiro André

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O Leiomiossarcoma cutâneo é um tumor maligno que representa 7% dos sarcomas dos tecidos moles, afetando, mais frequentemente, homens entre os 50-70 anos. A localização, no tronco, é atípica, constituindo 10 a 15% dos casos. A radioterapia e o traumatismo prévio têm sido referidos como fatores de risco. Descrevemos um homem de 57 anos, com tumor eritemato-violáceo, indolor, de consistência dura, localizado na região pré-esternal, com cerca de oito meses de evolução. A histopatologia evidenciou tumor maligno de células fusiformes, com núcleos em forma de "charuto", pleomórficos, com alto índice mitótico, ocupando toda a espessura da derme. Estas células expressaram actina do músculo liso, desmina e vimentina e foram negativas para proteína S-100 e pancitoqueratina. Foi efetuada a exérese cirúrgica radical do tumor.Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma is a relatively uncommon tumor that accounts for 7% of all soft tissue sarcomas. It occurs more frequently in males between 50-70 years and only 10-15% of cases are located on the trunk. Radiotherapy and previous trauma have been implied as risk factors. We report the case of a 57 year-old male with an eight-month history of a hard painless erythematous-violaceous tumor on the presternal region. Histopathology evidenced a malignant spindle cell tumor, "cigar" shaped, with pleomorphic nuclei and a high mitotic index that occupied the entire dermal thickness. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cells was positive for smooth muscle actin, desmin and vimentin and negative for S-100 protein and pan-cytokeratin, which supported the diagnosis of dermal leiomyosarcoma. Radical surgery was performed to remove the tumor.

  2. A 51-year-old woman crushed by an elephant trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Ann H; Allen, Brandon R

    2015-03-01

    Wild and exotic animal attacks are not common in the United States. Animal-related injuries in the United States are usually caused by dog bites, followed by cattle and horse injuries. Exotic animal attacks can occur when the animals are provoked, depressed, or housed improperly by owners. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who sustained multiple systemic traumatic injuries after she was pinned to a fence by an elephant's trunk. Upon arrival in the emergency department, she was hypothermic with a temperature of 35.1ºC (95.1ºF), hypotensive to 94/60 mm Hg after 5 L crystalloid, tachycardic at 108 beats/min, and intubated with oxygen saturation of 100%. Tranexamic acid was administered in addition to starting a massive transfusion protocol. Injuries included bilateral multiple rib fractures, left abdominal wall degloving injury, right pneumothorax, right hemothorax, left chest wall puncture wound, grade IV splenic laceration, 3 grade III liver lacerations, retroperitoneal hematoma, and degloving injuries to bilateral posterior thighs requiring more than 30 operations. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Several factors need to be considered when evaluating animal-related injuries, including type, age, and sex of the animal. Multisystem traumatic injuries should be assumed when a large animal is involved. Prehospital care and transport time are vital to a patient's survival in both urban and rural settings. During the initial resuscitation, administering antibiotics tailored to the specific animal can greatly decrease risk of infection and morbidity. Additionally, tetanus immunoglobulin, tetanus toxoid, and rabies immunoglobulin and vaccine may be needed, unless the victim has been previously vaccinated. PMID:25443758

  3. A review of the trunk surface metrics used as Scoliosis and other deformities evaluation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggouris Costas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although scoliosis is characterized by lateral deviation of the spine, a 3D deformation actually is responsible for geometric and morphologic changes in the trunk and rib cage. In a vast related medical literature, one can find quite a few scoliosis evaluation indices, which are based on back surface data and are generally measured along three planes. Regardless the large number of such indices, the literature is lacking a coherent presentation of the underlying metrics, the involved anatomic surface landmarks, the definition of planes and the definition of the related body axes. In addition, the long list of proposed scoliotic indices is rarely presented in cross-reference to each other. This creates a possibility of misunderstandings and sometimes irrational or even wrong use of these indices by the medical society. Materials and methods It is hoped that the current work contributes in clearing up the issue and gives rise to innovative ideas on how to assess the surface metrics in scoliosis. In particular, this paper presents a thorough study on the scoliosis evaluation indices, proposed by the medical society. Results More specifically, the referred indices are classified, according to the type of asymmetry they measure, according to the plane they refer to, according to the importance, and relevance or the level of scientific consensus they enjoy. Conclusions Surface metrics have very little correlation to Cobb angle measurements. Indices measured on different planes do not correlate to each other. Different indices exhibit quite diverging characteristics in terms of observer-induced errors, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Complicated positioning of the patient and ambiguous anatomical landmarks are the major error sources, which cause observer variations. Principles that should be followed when an index is proposed are presented.

  4. Postural responses to anterior and posterior perturbations applied to the upper trunk of standing human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebatch, James G; Govender, Sendhil; Dennis, Danielle L

    2016-02-01

    This study concerned the effects of brisk perturbations applied to the shoulders of standing subjects to displace them either forwards or backwards, our aim being to characterise the responses to these disturbances. Subjects stood on a force platform, and acceleration was measured at the level of C7, the sacrum and both tibial tuberosities. Surface EMG was measured from soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA), the hamstrings (HS), quadriceps (QUAD), rectus abdominis (RA) and lumbar paraspinal (PS) muscles. Trials were recorded for each of four conditions: subjects' eyes open (reference) or closed and on a firm (reference) or compliant surface. Observations were also made of voluntary postural reactions to a tap over the deltoid. Anterior perturbations (mean C7 acceleration 251.7 mg) evoked activity within the dorsal muscles (SOL, HS, PS) with a similar latency to voluntary responses to shoulder tapping. Responses to posterior perturbations (mean C7 acceleration -240.4 mg) were more complex beginning, on average, at shorter latency than voluntary activity (median TA 78.0 ms). There was activation of TA, QUAD and SOL associated with initial forward acceleration of the lower legs. The EMG responses consisted of an initial phasic discharge followed by a more prolonged one. These responses differ from the pattern of automatic postural responses that follow displacements at the level of the ankles, and it is unlikely that proprioceptive afferents excited by ankle movement had a role in the initial responses. Vision and surface properties had only minor effects. Perturbations of the upper trunk evoke stereotyped compensatory postural responses for each direction of perturbation. For posterior perturbations, EMG onset occurs earlier than for voluntary responses. PMID:26487178

  5. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s-1 and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s-1. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching.

  6. Drying Shrinkage Characteristics of Concrete Reinforced With Oil Palm Trunk Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiah Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is subject to some form of restraint, such as steel reinforcement, forms or adjacent members. As concrete begins to lose volume, the restraint inhibits movement, which then induces tensile stress in the concrete. Once the tensile capacity of the concrete has been exceeded, it will crack. Therefore this paper reports on a study of shrinkage of plain and concrete reinforced with bio-waste fiber namely oil palm trunk fiber (OPTF. Metallic rings are the most widely used devices to test the restrain shrinkage of concrete. When the concrete deforms due to shrinkage, the ring restrains the material and tensile stresses are induced. However in this investigation, square column with PVC ring was used to determine the time for concrete specimens to crack under restrained shrinkage. Forty five test specimens of square columns sized 400 mm x 400mm with height of 150 mm were manufactured using Grade 30 concrete with 25 mm length OPTF at different volume percentage of OPTF; 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% of the total concrete volume. Thick PVC pipe with different diameters; 150mm, 250 mm and 350 mm were cast at the centre of the specimens to act as stiff cores which provide the internal restraint. It is shown with the ring setup that the cracking potential of concrete under restrained shrinkage can be classified on the basis of how long it takes the material to crack or the rate of stressdevelopment in the material at various percentages of fibers. The contributions of fibers were evaluated by using crack width and length. It was found that by increasing the fiber content has resulted in reduction in drying shrinkage as well as controlling the cracking.

  7. Results of "elephant trunk" total aortic arch replacement using a multi-branched, collared graft prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan R B; Dell'Aquila, Angelo M; Akil, Ali; Schlarb, Dominik; Panuccio, Guiseppe; Martens, Sven; Rukosujew, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    We report on our experience with a simplified elephant trunk (ET) procedure with a multi-branched prosthesis (Vascutek(®) Siena™ Collared Graft). It consists of a proximal portion (20 cm) with prefabricated side branches, a collar and a distal portion (30 cm). The collar, which can be trimmed into any desired diameter, constitutes the suture portion to the descending aorta. Radiopaque markers in the distal portion indicate the landing zone. Between January 2011 and June 2013, 20 consecutive patients (10 women; mean age, 66 ± 9.3 years) underwent ET procedure, including 6 re-do cases. Underlying aortic diseases were acute dissection (n = 6), chronic dissection (n = 4), aneurysm (n = 8) and PAU (n = 2). Mean preoperative diameter of the descending aorta was 49.1 ± 12.9 mm (range 74.7-29.7 mm). Concomitant procedures included ascending aortic replacement in 16 patients; root replacement in 2; AVR in 2, CABG in 3 and mitral repair in 1 patient. CPB time was 263 ± 94 min; mean duration of ACP was 65 ± 14 min. Two patients died on POD 8 and 78, respectively. Major adverse events included stroke (n = 1), resternotomy for bleeding (n = 2), renal failure requiring temporary dialysis (n = 1) and recurrent nerve paresis (n = 2). After a mean follow-up of 10 ± 8 months, all discharged patients were alive. Seven patients underwent stent-graft implantation of the descending aorta and one patient underwent open descending aortic replacement. The last generation of multi-branched arch prosthesis and especially the Vascutek(®) Siena™ Collared Graft make ET procedure a reasonable treatment option even in patients with acute aortic dissection. PMID:25491933

  8. Identification of motor and sensory fascicles in peripheral nerve trunk using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wang; Dongxin Liu; Feiyu Ma; Xuedong Li; Shixin Du

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of methods have been used to identify and distinguish motor and sensory nerves. However, their application is limited clinically due to the complex operation, time consumption, and subjectivity. Raman spectroscopy is a minimally invasive method that provides information about molecular structure and constitutions and has been frequently used for tissue identification.OBJECTIVE: To explore a time-efficient method of identifying motor and sensory fascicles in peripheral nerve trunk using laser micro-Raman spectroscopy.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A comparative observation was performed at the Key Laboratory of Excited States Physics in Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun Branch, from October 2004 to October 2005.MATERIALS: JY-HR800 laser confocal micro-Raman spectrometer was purchased from Jobin-Yvon,France; 2060-10 argon ion laser was purchased from Spectra-Physics, USA.METHODS: A total of 32 New Zealand rabbits were selected and sacrificed. The roots of spinal nerves were exposed under an operating microscope, and the anterior and posterior roots,approximately 3-5 ram, were dissociated, and frozen as transverse sections of 30 μm thickness.The sections were examined by micro-Raman spectroscopy.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The specific spectral features of motor and sensory fascicles in the Raman spectra.RESULTS: Sections of the same type of nerve fascicle showed reproducibility with similar spectral features. Significant differences in the spectral properties, such as the intensity and breadth of the peak, were found between motor and sensory fascicles in the frequency regions of 1 088, 1 276,1 439, 1 579, and 1 659 cm-1. With the peak intensity ratio of 1.06 (/1 276/1 439) as a standard, we could identify motor fascicles with a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 94 %, positive predictive value of 93% and negative predictive value of 88%. In the range of 2 700-3 500 cm-1, the half-peak width of the motor fascicles was narrow and sharp, while that of

  9. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. PMID:25462474

  10. MRI in callosal apraxia and agraphia due to a traumatic lesion in the posterior trunk of the corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumura, Shuichi; Ito, Naoki; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Iwabuchi, Reiko

    1987-08-01

    We discussed functional topography of the corpus callosum in a case with ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand due to a traumatic callosal hematoma confirmed by MRI. The patient was a 35-year-old right-handed woman with head injury in a traffic accident. On admission she was semi-comatose with left oculomotor palsy and her left upper limb showed a decorticate rigidity by noxious stimuli, however, she became alert within 14 days. X-ray CT showed an abnormal high density area in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum on admission. MRI (inversion recovery technique) on the 60th hospital day showed a low intensity area extending for about 2 cm posteriorly from the center of the trunk. Sequential neuropsychological examinations for the callosal disconnection syndrome were performed. The patient showed ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia in her left hand only. Her response to verbal commands were all parapraxic except for correct use of a comb and a tooth brush. Her writings with her left hand were those of scrawls due to apraxia. These apraxia and agraphia of the left hand were transient and recovered completely within 80 days of onset. Transient impairement of bimanual coordination movement was also observed. Ataxie optique, callosal pseudoneglect, left hand tactile anomia, difficulty of somesthetic transfer or diagonistic dyspraxia was not observed. Based on the neuropsychological and the MRI findings we suggest that the lesion in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum is important for causing ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand.

  11. Effects of variation in external pulling force magnitude, elevation, and orientation on trunk muscle forces, spinal loads and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouaaid, Z; Shirazi-Adl, A; Plamondon, A

    2016-04-11

    Nowadays in various daily, occupational and training activities, there are many occasions with forces supported in hands acting at various magnitudes, elevations, and orientations with substantial horizontal components. In this work, we aim to compute trunk muscle forces, stability, and spinal loads under pulling external forces applied at 3 elevations and 13 orientations. Under an identical upright standing posture and upper body weight, the trunk active-passive response is computed using a validated iterative finite element kinematics-driven model. Pulling forces of 80, 120, and 160N are resisted symmetrically in both hands held at 20, 40, and 60cm elevations above the L5-S1 and oriented each in upward (-90°), inclined upward (-75°, -60°, -45°, -30°, and -15°), horizontal (0°), inclined downward (15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75°) and finally downward in gravity direction (90°). In addition, in all analyses, an antagonist moment of 10Nm is applied in order to generate rather small antagonist coactivity and intra-abdominal pressures of 8-12kPa are considered when abdominal muscles are active under upward pulling forces. Results demonstrated substantial differences in muscular response, spinal loads, and stability margin as the pulling force elevation, orientation, and magnitude altered. Compression and shear forces at lower lumbar levels peaked under forces at higher elevations acting with downward inclinations. Minimum spinal forces were computed at all elevations under pulling forces in the upward direction. Trunk stability was also maximum under these latter forces pulling upward. These findings have important consequences in rehabilitation, training, and design of safer occupational activities. PMID:26475220

  12. Physicochemical and structural characterization of alkali soluble lignins from oil palm trunk and empty fruit-bunch fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Fang, J M; Tomkinson, J; Bolton, J

    1999-07-01

    Six alkali soluble lignin fractions were extracted from the cell wall materials of oil palm trunk and empty fruit-bunch (EFB) fibers with 5% NaOH, 10% NaOH, and 24% KOH/2% H(3)BO(3). All of the lignin fractions contained rather low amounts of associated neutral sugars (0.8-1.2%) and uronic acids (1.1-2.0%). The lignin fractions isolated with 5% NaOH from the lignified palm trunk and EFB fibers gave a relatively higher degree of polymerization as shown by weight-average molecular weights ranging between 2620 and 2840, whereas the lignin fractions isolated with 10% NaOH and 24% KOH/2% H(3)BO(3) from the partially delignified palm trunk and EFB fibers showed a relatively lower degree of polymerization, as shown by weight-average molecular weights ranging between 1750 and 1980. The results obtained by alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation showed that all of the lignin preparations contained a high proportion of noncondensed syringyl units with small amounts of noncondensed guaiacyl and fewer p-hydroxyphenyl units. The lignin fraction extracted with 5% NaOH from the lignified EFB fiber was mainly composed of beta-O-4 ether-linked units. Small amounts of 5-5', beta-5, and beta-beta' carbon-carbon linkages were also found to be present between the lignin structural units. Further studies showed that uronic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and ferulic acids in the cell walls of palm fibers were esterified to lignin. PMID:10552589

  13. Medullosalean fusain trunk from the roof rocks of a coal seam: Insight from FTIR and NMR (Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); D' Angelo, Jose A. [Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT-CONICET-Mendoza, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n Parque Gral. San Martin (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Area de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario - M5502JMA - Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-05-01

    Reported for the first time from the Sydney Coalfield, Canada, is a fragmentary fusain (R{sub o} = 2.51%) specimen, 41 cm long, of a medullosalean trunk or massive petiole that originated from the roof rocks of the banded bituminous Hub Seam (R{sub o} {proportional_to} 0.65%). Megascopic characteristics of the flat-preserved specimen include an irregular-cracked fusain surface with secretinite-rodlet structures and sclerenchymatous strands some of which still embedded in the shaly matrix, and locally preserved vitrain (R{sub o} 0.69%). Co-occurrence with a compression flora composed virtually of only the seed-fern taxon Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri (Hoffmann) is noted. The goal of this study is to provide a framework for the phytophysicochemical taphonomic history which includes the perspective on vitrinite/fusinite relationship, formation of fusinite, and on the significance the only fusinized identifiable plant-fossil specimen in the Sydney Coalfield. We use state-of-the-art solid-state FTIR, {sup 13}C, {sup 1}H NMR CP/MAS techniques, and standard reflected-light microscopy and SEM methods as investigative tools. Results indicate that the fusinite is characterized by long and narrow xylem fibers, without fungal signals, and cell structures infilled with pyrite and carbonate. FTIR spectra of the fusinite and secretinite are similar particularly in respect to high absorbance of aromatic and low absorbance of aliphatic compounds, and absorbance of Si-O functionalities relating to kaolinite. {sup 13}C NMR experiments with direct carbon excitation quantify the aromatic to aliphatic ratio as being 20 {+-} 3:1. As part of the taphonomic history, the evidence favors a hot, > 400 C, directional surface-fueled flame palaeofire of local extent that charred trunks of growing arborescent seed ferns on only one side, and that these trunks were transported to comprise part of the roof rocks of the Hub Seam. (author)

  14. MRI in callosal apraxia and agraphia due to a traumatic lesion in the posterior trunk of the corpus callosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discussed functional topography of the corpus callosum in a case with ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand due to a traumatic callosal hematoma confirmed by MRI. The patient was a 35-year-old right-handed woman with head injury in a traffic accident. On admission she was semi-comatose with left oculomotor palsy and her left upper limb showed a decorticate rigidity by noxious stimuli, however, she became alert within 14 days. X-ray CT showed an abnormal high density area in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum on admission. MRI (inversion recovery technique) on the 60th hospital day showed a low intensity area extending for about 2 cm posteriorly from the center of the trunk. Sequential neuropsychological examinations for the callosal disconnection syndrome were performed. The patient showed ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia in her left hand only. Her response to verbal commands were all parapraxic except for correct use of a comb and a tooth brush. Her writings with her left hand were those of scrawls due to apraxia. These apraxia and agraphia of the left hand were transient and recovered completely within 80 days of onset. Transient impairement of bimanual coordination movement was also observed. Ataxie optique, callosal pseudoneglect, left hand tactile anomia, difficulty of somesthetic transfer or diagonistic dyspraxia was not observed. Based on the neuropsychological and the MRI findings we suggest that the lesion in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum is important for causing ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand. (author)

  15. Postural Cueing to Increase Lumbar Lordosis Increases Lumbar Multifidus Activation During Trunk Stabilization Exercises: Electromyographic Assessment Using Intramuscular Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneck, George J; Story, John W; Donald, Shelby

    2016-04-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, repeated-measures design. Background Diminished multifidus activation and cross-sectional area are frequent findings in persons with low back pain. Increasing lumbar lordosis has been shown to increase activation of the multifidus with a minimal increase in activation of the long global extensors during unsupported sitting. Objectives To examine the influence of postural cueing to increase lumbar lordosis on lumbar extensor activation during trunk stabilization exercises. Methods Thirteen asymptomatic participants (9 male, 4 female) were instructed to perform 6 trunk stabilization exercises using a neutral position and increasing lumbar lordosis. Electrical activity of the deep multifidus and longissimus thoracis was recorded using fine-wire intramuscular electrodes. The mean root-mean-square of the electromyography (EMG) signal obtained during each exercise was normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). A 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance (posture by exercise) was performed for each muscle. Results When averaged across the 6 exercises, postural cueing to increase lumbar lordosis resulted in greater multifidus EMG activity compared to performing the exercises in a neutral posture (35.3% ± 15.1% versus 29.5% ± 11.2% MVIC). No significant increase in longissimus thoracis EMG activity was observed when exercising with cueing to increase lumbar lordosis. Conclusion This study suggests that postural cueing to increase lumbar lordosis during trunk stabilization exercises may better promote multifidus activation than traditional stabilization exercises alone. Future studies are needed to determine whether increasing lumbar lordosis improves multifidus activation in persons with low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(4):293-299. Epub 8 Mar 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6174. PMID:26954268

  16. PlexinA3 restricts spinal exit points and branching of trunk motor nerves in embryonic zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Feldner, Julia; Reimer, Michell M.; Schweitzer, Jörn; Wendik, Björn; Meyer, Dirk; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2007-01-01

    The pioneering primary motor axons in the zebrafish trunk are guided by multiple cues along their pathways. Plexins are receptor components for semaphorins that influence motor axon growth and path finding. We cloned plexinA3 in zebrafish and localized plexinA3 mRNA in primary motor neurons during axon outgrowth. Antisense morpholino knock-down led to substantial errors in motor axon growth. Errors comprised aberrant branching of primary motor nerves as well as additional exit points of axons...

  17. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Lin; Cao, Xuecheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Lifeng; Wang, Pingshan; Cai, Jinfang

    2012-01-01

    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was...

  18. Dendrochronological evidence of cockchafer (Melolontha sp.) outbreaks in subfossil tree-trunks from Tovačov (CZ Moravia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Tomáš; Rybníček, M.; Tegel, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2013), s. 29-33. ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cockchafer * Oak * Tree-ring * Dendrochronology * Subfossil trunk Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2013 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S1125786512000574

  19. Rs9939609 Variant of the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and Trunk Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609 in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP, homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence.

  20. Rs9939609 variant of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and trunk obesity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Renner, Wilfried; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate

    2011-01-01

    A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609) in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP), homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence. PMID:21318054

  1. Forensic identification of trunk mat by trace element analysis of single fiber with laser ablation ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) to the chemical characterization of single trunk mat fibers made of PET was investigated in order to establish a forensic analytical method for the discrimination of samples of different origins. The analytical conditions of LA-ICP-MS equipped with a 213 nm Nd : YAG laser were optimized to analyze trace elements, such as Cu, Sb, and Ba at ppm levels. A total of 31 samples produced by 7 car manufactures in Japan were used for analysis. The concentrations of Li, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti, Co, Cu, Ge, Nb, Sb, Ta, and Pb were successfully measured from a single fiber sample with a diameter of ca. 20 μm. It was possible to discriminate all 31 samples based on the analytical results of a single fiber by LA-ICP-MS combined with those of FT-IR and SEM-EDS. LA-ICP-MS has good analytical sensitivity, and requires a much shorter preparation time and a smaller sample size than any other conventional element analysis methods. This paper demonstrates for the first time that this method is practically useful as a powerful tool for the forensic identification of a single trunk mat fiber. (author)

  2. Stabilization and mobility of the head, neck and trunk in horses during overground locomotion: comparisons with humans and other primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Donald C; Macpherson, Jane M; Simmons, Roger W; Zarcades, Athina

    2008-12-01

    Segmental kinematics were investigated in horses during overground locomotion and compared with published reports on humans and other primates to determine the impact of a large neck on rotational mobility (> 20 deg.) and stability (Three adult horses (Equus caballus) performing walks, trots and canters were videotaped in lateral view. Data analysis included locomotor velocity, segmental positions, pitch and linear displacements and velocities, and head displacement frequencies. Equine, human and monkey skulls and cervical spines were measured to estimate eye and vestibular arc length during head pitch displacements. Horses stabilized all three segments in all planes during all three gaits, unlike monkeys and humans who make large head pitch and yaw rotations during walks, and monkeys that make large trunk pitch rotations during gallops. Equine head angular displacements and velocities, with some exceptions during walks, were smaller than in humans and other primates. Nevertheless, owing to greater off-axis distances, orbital and vestibular arc lengths remained larger in horses, with the exception of head-neck axial pitch during trots, in which equine arc lengths were smaller than in running humans. Unlike monkeys and humans, equine head peak-frequency ranges fell within the estimated range in which inertia has a compensatory stabilizing effect. This inertial effect was typically over-ridden, however, by muscular or ligamentous intervention. Thus, equine head pitch was not consistently compensatory, as reported in humans. The equine neck isolated the head from the trunk enabling both segments to provide a spatial reference frame. PMID:19043061

  3. The effect of hip abductor exercise on muscle strength and trunk stability after an injury of the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kak, Hwang-Bo; Park, Sun-Ja; Park, Byun-Joon

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The gluteus medius, a hip abductor, controls femoral movement and stabilizes the pelvis during lower extremity mobilization. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 subjects into control and experimental groups. [Methods] This randomized controlled study included patients who underwent arthroscopy after meniscus injury and started a rehabilitative exercise program 8 weeks after surgery. Subjects were divided into the experimental gluteus medius resistance exercise group (n=12) and the control group (n=12). The study investigated muscle strength and balance of the flexors, extensors, and abductors of the knee for 8 weeks. [Results] Strengths of knee extensors in patients who underwent rehabilitative exercise for 8 weeks were measured. Strength of the knee extensors of the experimental and control groups increased by 40% and 31%, respectively; strength of the hip flexors of the experimental and control groups increased by 31% and 18%, respectively. Strength of the hip joint muscles showed a 40% increase in the experimental group and a 14% increase in the control group. However, there was a significant difference (18%) in muscle strength of the hip abductors between the groups. Measurements of trunk lateral flexion showed a difference within a group, but no intergroup difference was found. [Conclusion] This study investigated the effect of hip abductor exercise on muscular strength and trunk stability in patients with a meniscus injury. PMID:27134387

  4. AN INVESTIGATION OF LEG AND TRUNK STRENGTH AND REACTION TIMES OF HARD-STYLE MARTIAL ARTS PRACTITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver O'Donovan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk and knee strength in practitioners of hard-style martial arts. An additional objective was to examine reaction times in these participants by measuring simple reaction times (SRT, choice reaction times (CRT and movement times (MT. Thirteen high-level martial artists and twelve sedentary participants were tested under isokinetic and isometric conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Response and movement times were also measured in response to simple and choice auditory cues. Results indicated that the martial arts group generated a greater body-weight adjusted peak torque with both legs at all speeds during isokinetic extension and flexion, and in isometric extension but not flexion. In isokinetic and isometric trunk flexion and extension, martial artists tended to have higher peak torques than controls, but they were not significantly different (p > 0.05. During the SRT and CRT tasks the martial artists were no quicker in lifting their hand off a button in response to the stimulus [reaction time (RT] but were significantly faster in moving to press another button [movement time (MT]. In conclusion, the results reveal that training in a martial art increases the strength of both the flexors and extensors of the leg. Furthermore, they have faster movement times to auditory stimuli. These results are consistent with the physical aspects of the martial arts

  5. Kinetics of throwing arm joints and the trunk motion during an overarm distance throw by skilled Japanese elementary school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasuto; Ae, Michiyoshi; Miyazaki, Akiyo; Fujii, Norihisa; Iiboshi, Akira; Nakatani, Hideki

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate joint kinetics of the throwing arms and role of trunk motion in skilled elementary school boys during an overarm distance throw. Throwing motions of 42 boys from second, fourth, and sixth grade were videotaped with three high-speed cameras operating at 300 fps. Seven skilled boys from each grade were selected on the basis of throwing distance for three-dimensional kinetic analysis. Joint forces, torques, and torque powers of the throwing arm joints were calculated from reconstructed three-dimensional coordinate data smoothed at cut-off frequencies of 10.5-15 Hz and by the inverse dynamics method. Throwing distance and ball velocity significantly increased with school grade. The angular velocity of elbow extension before ball release increased with school grade, although no significant increase between the grades was observed in peak extension torque of elbow joint. The joint torque power of shoulder internal/external rotation tended to increase with school grade. When teaching the overarm throw, elementary school teachers should observe large backward twisting of trunk during the striding phase and should keep in mind that young children, such as second graders (age 8 years), will be unable to effectively utilise shoulder external/internal rotation during the throwing phase. PMID:27125238

  6. Estimation of inertial parameters of the lower trunk in pregnant Japanese women: A longitudinal comparative study and application to motion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, Yasuyo; Kanemura, Naohiko; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to quantify the inertial parameters of the lower trunk segment in pregnant Japanese women and compare kinetic data during tasks calculated with parameters estimated in this study to data calculated with standard parameters. Eight pregnant women and seven nulliparous women participated. Twenty-four infrared reflective markers were attached to the lower trunk, and the standing position was captured by eight infrared cameras. The lower trunk was divided into parts, and inertial parameters were calculated. Pregnant women performed a movement task that involved standing from a chair, picking up plates, and walking forward after turning to the right. Kinetic analysis was performed using standard inertial parameters and the newly calculated parameters. There were more significant differences between methods in the kinetic data at the latter stages of pregnancy. The inertial parameters calculated in this study should be used to ensure the validity of biomechanical studies of pregnant Japanese women. PMID:26995047

  7. The validity of assessing temporal events, sub-phases and trunk kinematics of the sit-to-walk movement in older adults using a single inertial sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgaard, Stefan; Faber, Gert S; van Lummel, Rob C; van Dieën, Jaap H; Kingma, Idsart

    2016-06-14

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to identify temporal events, sub-phases and trunk kinematics of the sit-to-walk (STW) using a single inertial sensor (IS) worn at the lower back and to determine the validity of this method. Twenty-seven healthy older adults performed a STW movement, which started from sitting in a chair and included walking 3m. Participants׳ movements were recorded with the IS, a reference measurement system consisting of an optical motion capture system (3 markers on the IS and one on each foot) and on-off switches located in the seat of the chair. Using the data from the IS and the reference measurement systems, the following signals and variables were calculated and compared: 3D IS motion (accelerations, velocities, displacements and angles), temporal events (start of trunk movement, seat-off, end of trunk flexion phase, end of trunk rising phase and gait initiation) and trunk kinematics (flexion range, maximum flexion velocity, maximum forward velocity and forward velocity during seat-off and at first heel-strike and maximum vertical velocity and vertical velocity at first heel-strike). For most variables acceptable differences (RMSE<10%) were found between IS and reference measurement systems, except for sideways displacements and non-sagittal plane rotations. Furthermore, good results were found for temporal event detection, with ICC values for all variables being 0.988 or higher. With exception of the vertical velocity at heel-strike agreement for trunk kinematics was high, with ICC values being 0.867 or higher. PMID:27017301

  8. 电动车后备箱逆向工程建模%Reverse Engineering Modeling of Household Electric Car Trunk and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓梅; 程晓宇

    2011-01-01

    对基于逆向工程的家用电动车后备箱建模技术进行了研究。针对家用电动车后备箱的点云特征,提出了模型重构的方法和流程。%The paper studied the technology of the household electric car trunk based on reverse engineering modeling.According to the point cloud characteristics of the household electric car trunk,the reconstruction methods and processes were proposed.

  9. THE IMPACT OF ERGOMETER DESIGN ON HIP AND TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN ELITE ROWERS: AN ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Horne

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used surface electromyography (sEMG to examine whether there were differences in hip and trunk muscle activation during the rowing cycle on two of the most widely used air braked ergometers: the Concept 2C and the Rowperfect. sEMG methods were used to record the muscle activity patterns from the right: m. Erector spinae (ES, m. Rectus Abdominus (RA, m. Rectus Femoris (RF and m. Biceps Femoris (BF for their contributions as agonist-antagonist pairs underlying hip and trunk extension/flexion. The sEMG activity patterns of these muscles were examined in six young male elite rowers completing a 2 minute set at a moderate training intensity (23 stroke·min-1 and 1:47.500 m-1 split time, 300W. The rowers closely maintained the required target pace through visual inspection of the standard LCD display of each ergometer. The measurements of duration of each rowing cycle and onset of each stroke during the test were recorded simultaneously with the sEMG activity through the additional instrumentation of a foot-pressure switch and handle accelerometry. There were no significant differences between the two ergometer designs in group means for: work rate (i.e., rowing speed and stroke rate, metabolic load as measured by mean heart rate, rowing cycle duration, or timing of the stroke in the cycle. 2-D motion analysis of hip and knee motion for the rowing cycle from the video footage taken during the test also revealed no significant differences in the joint range of motion between the ergometers. Ensemble average sEMG activity profiles based on 30+ strokes were obtained for each participant and normalised per 10% intervals of the cycle duration as well as for peak mean sEMG amplitude for each muscle. A repeated measures ANOVA on the sEMG activity per 10% interval for the four muscles contributing to hip and trunk motion during the rowing cycle revealed no significant differences between the Concept 2C and Rowperfect (F = 0.070, df = 1,5, p = 0

  10. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sulaiman, Othman; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nasir, Mohammed

    2015-12-10

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated through acid hydrolysis process from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis). The morphological properties of obtained cellulose nanocrystals were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopy images showed smoother and cleaner surface of parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals when compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The TEM image shows a higher length and diameter for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed changes in functional groups after acid hydrolysis due to removal of lignin, hemicelluloses and other impurities in both type of cellulose nanocrystals. Crystallinity index of cellulose nanocrystals was observed higher for vascular bundle as compared to parenchyma. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals and it was observed higher for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle. PMID:26428155

  11. Mass Attenuation Coefficients of Binderless and Polylactic Acid Added Oil Palm Trunk Particleboard in the Diagnostic Energy Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Baskaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of oil palm trunk particleboards namely binderless and polylactic acid (PLA added board were manufactured with a target density of 1.0 g/cm3. The mass attenuation coefficients of the binderless and PLA added particleboards were determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF photons emanating from high purity metal plates. The energies of the XRF emitted from those metal plates were in the range of 16.59 keV– 25.26 keV. The experimental values of the mass attenuation coefficients of the binderless particleboards and the XCOM calculated values for water are comparable. These results suggest that binderless particleboards have the potential to be a phantom material at diagnostic photon energies.

  12. Marked lateral deviation of the phrenic nerve due to variant origin and course of the thyrocervical trunk: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, Keiko; Saiki, K; Okamoto, K; Wakebe, T; Manabe, Y; Imamura, T; Tsurumoto, T

    2016-05-01

    Phrenic nerve impairment can often lead to serious respiratory disorders under various pathological conditions. During routine dissection of an 88-year-old Japanese male cadaver, a victim of heart failure, we recognized an extremely rare variation of the right thyrocervical trunk arising from the subclavian artery laterally to the anterior scalene muscle. In addition to that, the ipsilateral phrenic nerve was drawn and displaced remarkably laterad by this vessel. We examined all of the branches arising from subclavian arteries, phrenic nerves and diaphragm muscles. The embryological background of this arterial variation is considered. The marked displacement with prolonged strain had a potential to cause phrenic nerve impairment with an atrophic change of the diaphragm muscle. Recently many image diagnostic technologies have been developed and are often used. However, it is still possible that rare variations like this case may be overlooked and can only be recognized by intimate regional examination while keeping these rare variations in mind. PMID:26438272

  13. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks. PMID:26035983

  14. Learning distance function for regression-based 4D pulmonary trunk model reconstruction estimated from sparse MRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanovski, Dime; Tsymbal, Alexey; Ionasec, Razvan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2011-03-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common birth defect and a frequent cause of death for children. Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is the most often occurring CHD which affects in particular the pulmonary valve and trunk. Emerging interventional methods enable percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, which constitute an alternative to open heart surgery. While minimal invasive methods become common practice, imaging and non-invasive assessment tools become crucial components in the clinical setting. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) are techniques with complementary properties and ability to acquire multiple non-invasive and accurate scans required for advance evaluation and therapy planning. In contrary to CT which covers the full 4D information over the cardiac cycle, cMRI often acquires partial information, for example only one 3D scan of the whole heart in the end-diastolic phase and two 2D planes (long and short axes) over the whole cardiac cycle. The data acquired in this way is called sparse cMRI. In this paper, we propose a regression-based approach for the reconstruction of the full 4D pulmonary trunk model from sparse MRI. The reconstruction approach is based on learning a distance function between the sparse MRI which needs to be completed and the 4D CT data with the full information used as the training set. The distance is based on the intrinsic Random Forest similarity which is learnt for the corresponding regression problem of predicting coordinates of unseen mesh points. Extensive experiments performed on 80 cardiac CT and MR sequences demonstrated the average speed of 10 seconds and accuracy of 0.1053mm mean absolute error for the proposed approach. Using the case retrieval workflow and local nearest neighbour regression with the learnt distance function appears to be competitive with respect to "black box" regression with immediate prediction of coordinates, while providing transparency to the

  15. Cryptococcus randhawai sp nov., a novel anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast isolated from tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa (peepal tree) from New Delhi, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Z.U.; Ahmad, S.; Hagen, F.; Fell, J.W.; Kowshik, T.; Chandy, R.; Boekhout, T.

    2010-01-01

    A novel anamorphic Cryptococcus species is described, which was isolated in New Delhi (India) from decaying wood of a tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa. On the basis of sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 region seque

  16. Movement patterns of the upper extremity and trunk before and after corrective surgery of impaired forearm rotation in patients with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kreulen; M.J.C. Smeulders; H.E.J. Veeger; J.J. Hage

    2006-01-01

    The effect of surgical correction of impaired forearm rotation on associated body movement patterns was studied prospectively by comparison of preoperative and postoperative three-dimensional video analysis of the upper extremity and trunk in eight male and two female patients with hemiplegic cerebr

  17. The Characteristics of Celiac Trunk Lymph-node Metastases of Esophageal Cancer in the Thoracic Segment and Clinical Significance for Wide-Excision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjiang Wang; Zuoliang Pang; Sikandaer; Wei Sun; Warasijiang; Zhiqin Fan; Feng Xue

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the characteristics of celiac trunk lymph-node metastases of thoracic esophageal carcinoma and their influence on prognosis of the patients, and to investigate a reasonable range for regional celiac trunk lymph-node clearance.METHODS Clinical specimens of 241 patients receiving resection of a thoracic esophageal carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS The rate of the patient celiac lymph-node metastases was 32.4%(78/241), and of the lymph nodes examined, 9.8% were found to have metastasis. The extent of metastases adjacent to the common hepatic artery and celiac trunk and within the hepatoduodenal ligaments was 6.6%, 6.9% and 6.3%, respectively. The tumor site, extent of invasion and level of cell differentiation were the factors influencing lymph-node metastases, but they were unrelated to the length of the tumor. The overall rate of regional celiac recurrence for the patients 3 years after operation was 5.4%. The 3-year survivals for the patients with metastases of the celiac lymph nodes was 42.3%, which was lower compared to the non-metastatic patients (70.6%) (P<0.01).CONCLUSION Celiac lymph-node metastases are one of key factors affecting the prognosis of the patients receiving resection of esophageal cancer, and extensive clearance of the celiac-trunk lymph nodes can reduce the rate of postoperative regional metastases.

  18. Stars at the Tip of Peculiar Elephant Trunk-Like Clouds in IC 1848E: A Possible Third Mechanism of Triggered Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Neelam; Pandey, Anil K; Samal, Manash R; Bhatt, Bhuwan C

    2011-01-01

    The HII region IC 1848 harbors a lot of intricate elephant trunk-like structures that look morphologically different from usual bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs). Of particular interest is a concentration of thin and long elephant trunk-like structures in the southeastern part of IC 1848E. Some of them have an apparently associated star (or two stars) at their very tip. We conducted $VI_{c}$ photometry of several of these stars. Their positions on the $V/(V-I_{c})$ color-magnitude diagram as well as the physical parameters obtained by SED fittings indicate that they are low-mass pre-main-sequence stars having ages of mostly one Myr or less. This strongly suggests that they formed from elongated, elephant trunk-like clouds. We presume that such elephant trunk-like structures are genetically different from BRCs, on the basis of the differences in morphology, size distributions, and the ages of the associated young stars. We suspect that those clouds have been caused by hydrodynamical instability of the ionization/sho...

  19. Quantitative Fraction Evaluation of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibres in the Skin Samples Obtained in Two Orientations from the Trunk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Histomorphic evaluation of dermal collagen and elastic fibres was analysed by image analysis technique. The quantification of dermal elements was performed in skin tissues, collected in horizontal and vertical directions from trunk region and discussed under the perspective of consequences of scar related complications. Materials and Method. Total number of 200 skin samples collected from 5 areas of trunk region were processed histologically and subjected to tissue-quant image analysis. Statistical analysis involving mean with SEM and paired t test by SPSS were employed to the percentage values obtained from image analysis. Result. Among the chosen 5 areas of trunk region, abdomen showed the statistically significant difference for both collagen and elastic content between horizontal and vertical orientations (P< 0.05, whereas upper back, presternal, and lateral chest areas showed significant difference (P< 0.05 only for collagen and groin only for elastic content. Conclusion. The differences in the distribution of dermal collagen and elastic fibres in 2 directions of the samples from the same areas might be attributed to final outcome of wound healing process by influencing the appearance and behaviour of scar related complications in the region of trunk.

  20. The role of pest control advisors in managing grapevine trunk diseases: a survey of perceptions of practice efficacy and trends in recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunk diseases (Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, Phomopsis dieback) significantly limit vineyard productivity. The causal fungi establish chronic wood infections, which accumulate over time. Symptoms do not become obvious until the vineyard is 6-8 years old. Post-infection practices (vi...

  1. Treatment of a Celiac Trunk Aneurysm Close to the Hepato-splenic Bifurcation by Using Hepatic Stent-graft Implantation and Splenic Artery Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of a 73-year-old man in whom a celiac trunk aneurysm close to the hepato-splenic bifurcation was discovered and treated by using celiac-hepatic stent-grafts implantation and splenic artery embolization

  2. Postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy provides favorable local control and low toxicities in patients with soft tissue sarcomas in the extremities and trunk wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jianyang Wang, Shulian Wang, Yongwen Song, Xinfan Liu, Jing Jin, Weihu Wang, Zihao Yu, Yueping Liu, Yexiong Li Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and toxicity of postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT for patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STSs in the extremities and trunk wall. Patients and methods: Eighty patients with localized STSs in the extremities and trunk wall treated with function-conserving surgery and postoperative IMRT were analyzed. The primary locations were in the extremities in 51 patients and in the trunk wall in 29 patients. The margins were positive in nine patients and negative in 71 patients. The median dose of IMRT was 64 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 38 months, eight patients developed local recurrences. The 5-year local control (LC rate was 88.1%. The patients with negative margins exhibited much better LC than did those with positive margins (90% vs 64.8%, P=0.023. Multivariate analysis revealed that positive margin was an independent risk factor for LC. The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 75.2%, 72.6%, and 83.6%, respectively. Large tumor size (>5 cm was significantly associated with poor overall survival. Edema and joint stiffness were observed in 17.6% and 9.8% of patients with extremity STSs, respectively. Conclusion: IMRT provides excellent LC and low toxicity for patients with STSs in the extremities and trunk wall. Keywords: soft tissue sarcoma, extremities and trunk wall, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, local control, toxicitiess

  3. Dinamometria isocinética de tronco em nadadores de diferentes estilos Isokinetic trunk dynamometry in diferent swimming strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Luiz Barretti Secchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar a atividade muscular dos músculos flexores e extensores de tronco entre estilos de nado assimétrico e nado simétrico. MÉTODO: Catorze nadadores da elite, velocistas e especialistas em um dos quatro estilos da natação sem história prévia de lesões.. Divididos em dois grupos de sete atletas: 1. Grupo nado assimétrico (GNA: constituído por cinco atletas que nadam o estilo crawl e dois atletas que nadam o estilo costas. 2. Grupo nado simétrico (GNS formado por sete atletas: quatro atletas nadadores no estilo peito e três nadadores no estilo borboleta. Todos foram avaliados no dinamômetro isocinético Cybex 6000. RESULTADOS: O tempo de aceleração na velocidade de 120º/ s do grupo flexor do tronco foi maior no GNS (p=0,054. A potência do grupo extensor nas velocidades de 90 e 120º/ segundo foi maior no GNA que no GNS (p=0,053 e 0,052 respectivamente. Não houve diferença estatística significante nas demais variáveis analisadas. CONCLUSÃO: Os nados assimétricos (crawl e costas proporcionam uma resposta muscular (recrutamento mais eficiente nos grupo dos flexores do tronco, possivelmente pela manutenção constante da contração isométrica dos músculos abdominais.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of asymmetric and symmetric swimming strokes on muscle activity of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles. METHODS: Fourteen elite speed swimmers, specialists in one of four swimming styles, all without any history of spinal cord injury, were divided in two groups: 1 asymmetric group, consisting of five athletes specializing in the freestyle stroke and three in the backstroke; and 2 symmetric group, consisting of four athletes specializing in the butterfly stroke and three in the breaststroke. All the swimmers were assessed using a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The acceleration time for the trunk flexor group at a speed of 120º per second was greater in the symmetric group (p=0.054. The power of the

  4. Vertical head and trunk movement adaptations of sound horses trotting in a circle on a hard surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Sandra D; Willems, Egbert; May, Stephen A; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-07-01

    Trotting a horse in circles is a standard and important part of the subjective equine lameness examination, yet objective data on this form of locomotion are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of trotting in a circle on head and trunk movement symmetry. Vertical movements of the head, withers, os sacrum and left and right tuber coxae were measured using inertial sensors as 12 sound horses were trotted on a hard surface in a straight line and in a circle on both reins. Seven asymmetry measures and hip hike were calculated for each horse for at least nine strides of comparable stride duration across the three conditions (deviation on horse level ≤3.7% stride duration). Trotting in a circle introduced systematic changes to the movement pattern of all five body landmarks, affecting most asymmetry measures. On average the asymmetry magnitude was comparable for midline locations between reins and for the tuber coxae on opposite reins with few exceptions, although individual horses showed unsystematic differences between the two reins. The results from this study showed that the thresholds for objective discrimination between lame and non-lame horses will need adjustment on the circle due to the observed asymmetry bias. PMID:22104508

  5. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, Hps; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, Wo Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and impregnated into the OPTL by vacuum-pressure method. The treated OPTL samples were exposed to natural weathering for the period of 6 and 12 months in West Java, Indonesia according to ASTM D1435-99 standard. Physical and mechanical tests were done for analyzing the changes in phenol formaldehyde-nanoparticles impregnated (PF-NPI) OPTL. FT-IR and SEM studies were done to analyze the morphological changes. The results showed that both exposure time of weathering and concentration of PF-NPI had significant impact on physical and mechanical properties of OPTL. The longer exposure of samples to weathering condition reduced the wave numbers during FT-IR test. However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples. Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions. PMID:25674417

  6. Chemical composition and functional properties of gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, N; Chouaibi, M; Donsì, F; Ferrari, G; Hamdi, S

    2012-06-01

    The physicochemical components and functional properties of the gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis) have been investigated, along with the emulsification and foaming properties. The gum exudates are composed on dry weight basis by 2.45% of proteins, 0.85% of fats and 92.36% of carbohydrates. The latter consist of arabinose, xylitol, galactose and uronic acid (46.8 : 10.9 : 35.5 : 6.0 mass ratio) with traces of rhamnose, mannose and glucose. Moreover, gum exudates are rich in minerals, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. The emulsifying capacity was studied for a 20% w/w olive oil in water emulsion as a function of gum concentration (from 3% to 12% w/w in the aqueous phase) as well as pH levels (from 3.0 to 10.0). The most stable and homogeneous emulsion was prepared with an 8% w/w aqueous almond gum solution at a pH between 5.0 and 8.0. In particular, for the same formulation, the emulsion processed by high pressure homogenization (5 passes at 200 MPa) resulted to be extremely stable under accelerated ageing, exhibiting no significant change in droplet size distribution for 14 days at 55 °C. All the tested systems exhibited an extremely low foaming capacity. PMID:22701057

  7. Effect of forest fragmentation on the epiphytic lichen cover of pine trunks on the example taiga town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigysh Irina Sergeevna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of epiphytic lichen cover on pine trunks depending on the area of natural pine forest in Kostomuksha (north Karelia were analysed. The town of Kostomuksha was built so that to provide the conservation of forest sites. 56 fragments with the area of 0.04 - 6.13 ha were studied. The average area of fragment is 0.62 ha, with 49 fragments (88% having the area less than 1 ha. Biodiversity and lichen cover were studied in the each fragment with using framework 10x20 cm. 1792 sample plots were made on 448 trees. The total lichens cover varies from 0 to 85%,averaging 10%. 25 species of lichens were found. The number of species in the sample plots varies from 0 to 9. Dominant species found are Hypogymnia physodes, Parmeliopsis ambigua, P. hyperopta, Imshaugia aleurites, Cladonia. Species Alectoria sarmentosa, Cladonia macilenta, Pseudevernia fufruraceae, Bryoria fremontii were less common. It was shown that the main parameters of lichen cover are closely related to the size of the area left in the city forest fragments. The maximum values of species diversity and cover of lichens were found in the fragments of more 1-2 hectares.

  8. Investigation of trunk muscle activities during lifting using a multi-objective optimization-based model and intelligent optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Sadegh; Arjmand, Navid; Boroushaki, Mehrdad; Farahmand, Farzam

    2016-03-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine was developed to predict the activity of trunk muscles during light, moderate and heavy lifting tasks in standing posture. The model was formulated into a multi-objective optimization problem, minimizing the sum of the cubed muscle stresses and maximizing the spinal stability index. Two intelligent optimization algorithms, i.e., the vector evaluated particle swarm optimization (VEPSO) and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA), were employed to solve the optimization problem. The optimal solution for each task was then found in the way that the corresponding in vivo intradiscal pressure could be reproduced. Results indicated that both algorithms predicted co-activity in the antagonistic abdominal muscles, as well as an increase in the stability index when going from the light to the heavy task. For all of the light, moderate and heavy tasks, the muscles' activities predictions of the VEPSO and the NSGA were generally consistent and in the same order of the in vivo electromyography data. The proposed methodology is thought to provide improved estimations for muscle activities by considering the spinal stability and incorporating the in vivo intradiscal pressure data. PMID:26088358

  9. Batch removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by adsorption on oil palm trunk fibre: equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-06-15

    Oil palm trunk fibre (OPTF)--an agricultural solid waste--was used as low-cost adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The operating variables studied were contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by three isotherms, namely the Freundlich isotherm, the Langmuir isotherm, and the multilayer adsorption isotherm. The best fit to the data was obtained with the multilayer adsorption. The monolayer adsorption capacity of OPTF was found to be 149.35 mg/g at 30 degrees C. Adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ho's pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. It was found that the Lagergren's model could be used for the prediction of the system's kinetics. The overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, then for initial MG concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 150, and 300 mg/L the rate-control changed to intraparticle diffusion at a later stage, but for initial MG concentrations 200 and 250 mg/L no evidence was found of intraparticle diffusion at any period of adsorption. It was found that with increasing the initial concentration of MG, the pore-diffusion coefficient increased while the film-diffusion coefficient decreased. PMID:18022316

  10. Possible health effects from terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA). Report on an Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report by the National Radiological Protection Board's Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation gives advice on possible health effects of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA). It has been prepared, at the request of Government, as a consequence of a recommendation by the Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (IEGMP) in May 2000 that 'as a precautionary measure, amplitude modulation around 16 Hz should be avoided, if possible, in future developments in signal coding'. The IEGMP recommendation was made because of the results of a number of studies on the effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields on the rate of loss of radiolabelled calcium from brain and other tissues. These studies, most of which were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s on isolated tissues, had suggested that when the RF signal was modulated at around 16 Hz the rate of calcium efflux was increased. IEGMP concluded that although no obvious health risk was suggested, as a precautionary measure, amplitude modulation around 16 Hz should be avoided, if possible

  11. Foraging ants trade off further for faster: use of natural bridges and trunk trail permanency in carpenter ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Hart, Adam G.; Pereira, Thairine M.; Freitas, Mayara L. R.; Hughes, David P.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2013-10-01

    Trail-making ants lay pheromones on the substrate to define paths between foraging areas and the nest. Combined with the chemistry of these pheromone trails and the physics of evaporation, trail-laying and trail-following behaviours provide ant colonies with the quickest routes to food. In relatively uniform environments, such as that provided in many laboratory studies of trail-making ants, the quickest route is also often the shortest route. Here, we show that carpenter ants ( Camponotus rufipes), in natural conditions, are able to make use of apparent obstacles in their environment to assist in finding the fastest routes to food. These ants make extensive use of fallen branches, twigs and lianas as bridges to build their trails. These bridges make trails significantly longer than their straight line equivalents across the forest floor, but we estimate that ants spend less than half the time to reach the same point, due to increased carriage speed across the bridges. We also found that these trails, mainly composed of bridges, are maintained for months, so they can be characterized as trunk trails. We suggest that pheromone-based foraging trail networks in field conditions are likely to be structured by a range of potentially complex factors but that even then, speed remains the most important consideration.

  12. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. Clinical features and midterm results after surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Fernando

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the authors' experience with the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (AOLCA from the pulmonary trunk, emphasizing preoperative data, surgical aspects and midterm results of the follow-up. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 11 patients operated upon at the Royal Brompton Hospital from October, 84 to April, 97. RESULTS: Nine infants had heart failure (HF and two other children presented with dyspnea and chest pain. All had ECG changes. The echocardiogram identified the anomalous origin of the coronary artery in 7 (64% patients and hemodynamic studies were performed in 7 patients. All infants were operated upon between the 2nd and 10th month of life. Six patients were treated with aortic reimplantation of the left coronary artery, whereas five were operated upon according to the Takeuchi technique. All patients are alive, with clear improvement of the ECG changes and ventricular function, as evaluated by echocardiography. Two patients operated upon according to the Takeuchi technique required additional surgery due to severe supravalvular pulmonary stenosis. CONCLUSION: AOLCA is a rare disease. Most patients show early signs of severe HF associated with ECG findings. Surgical therapy must be instituted early in the disease, preferentially through aortic implantation of the anomalous coronary artery, with a high possibility of success. Shortly after surgery, clinical and ECG improvement, as well as normalization of left ventricular function, should be expected.

  13. The effect of resistance level and stability demands on recruitment patterns and internal loading of spine in dynamic flexion and extension using a simple trunk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Dariush, Behzad; Hemami, Hooshang; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2011-07-01

    The effects of external resistance on the recruitment of trunk muscles in sagittal movements and the coactivation mechanism to maintain spinal stability were investigated using a simple computational model of iso-resistive spine sagittal movements. Neural excitation of muscles was attained based on inverse dynamics approach along with a stability-based optimisation. The trunk flexion and extension movements between 60° flexion and the upright posture against various resistance levels were simulated. Incorporation of the stability constraint in the optimisation algorithm required higher antagonistic activities for all resistance levels mostly close to the upright position. Extension movements showed higher coactivation with higher resistance, whereas flexion movements demonstrated lower coactivation indicating a greater stability demand in backward extension movements against higher resistance at the neighbourhood of the upright posture. Optimal extension profiles based on minimum jerk, work and power had distinct kinematics profiles which led to recruitment patterns with different timing and amplitude of activation. PMID:21246424

  14. An anomalous case of the hepato-spleno-mesenteric and the gastro-phrenic trunks independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y; Yamaki, K; Saga, T; Hirata, T; Yoshida, M; Soejima, H; Kanazawa, T; Araki, Y; Yoshizuka, M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an arterial anomaly case in the celiaco-mesenteric region, which was encountered in a Japanese male cadaver in the dissecting room at Kurume University School of Medicine in 1999. In this case, the usual celiac trunk was not identified, and the hepato-spleno-mesenteric and the gastro-phrenic trunks were independently arising from the abdominal aorta. In addition, the common hepatic artery divided into the left hepatic, the right hepatic, and the gastroduodenal arteries simultaneously, then, the accessory gastric artery arose from the left hepatic artery. This type of arteral anomaly belongs to the Type III of Adachi's classification and the Type II of Morita's classification. PMID:10948660

  15. Spatial variations in xylem sap flux density in the trunk of orchard-grown, mature mango trees under changing soil water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Müller, Warren J.; Chacko, Elias K.

    2000-05-01

    Circumferential and radial variations in xylem sap flux density in trunks of 13-year-old mango (Mangifera indica L.) trees were investigated with Granier sap flow sensor probes under limiting and non-limiting soil water conditions. Under non-limiting soil water conditions, circumferential variation was substantial, but there was no apparent relationship between sap flux density and aspect (i.e., the radial position of the sensor probes on the trunk relative to the compass). Hourly sap flux densities over 24 hours at different aspects were highly pair-wise correlated. The relationships between different aspects were constant during well-watered periods but highly variable under changing soil water conditions. Sap flux density showed marked radial variation within the trunk and a substantial flux was observed at the center of the trunk. For each selected aspect on each tree, changes in sap flux densities over time at different depths were closely correlated, so flux at a particular depth could be extrapolated as a multiple of flux from 0 to 2 cm beneath the cambium. However, depth profiles of sap flux density differed between trees and even between aspects within a tree, and also varied in an unpredictable manner as soil water conditions changed. Nevertheless, over a period of non-limiting soil water conditions, depth profiles remained relatively constant. Based on the depth profiles obtained during these periods, a method is described for calculating total sap flow in a mango tree from sap flux density at 0-2 cm beneath the cambium. Total daily sap flows obtained were consistent with water use estimated from soil water balance. PMID:12651518

  16. Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography Angiography Imitating a Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysm in Subsequent Conventional Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Lee, Jae Il

    2015-01-01

    Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is rare but becoming more common, with increasing use of CTA for various cerebral vascular diseases. We report on two cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which the CTA showed an upper basilar trunk saccular lesion suggesting ruptured aneurysm. However, immediate subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) failed to show a vascular lesion. In one case, repeated follow up DSA was also negative. The patient wa...

  17. Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography Angiography Imitating a Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysm in Subsequent Conventional Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Lee, Jae Il

    2015-01-01

    Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is rare but becoming more common, with increasing use of CTA for various cerebral vascular diseases. We report on two cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which the CTA showed a saccular lesion of the upper basilar trunk suggesting a ruptured aneurysm. However, no vascular lesion was observed on immediate subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In one case, repeated follow up DSA was also negative. The ...

  18. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk Animal experiments and clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zou; Xuecheng Cao; Jing Li; Lifeng Liu; Pingshan Wang; Jinfang Cai

    2012-01-01

    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was approximately 80%. Myelinated nerve fibers were arranged loosely but the thickness of the myelin sheath was similar to that of the healthy side. In clinical applications,39 patients with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were followed for 6 months to 4.5 years after treatment using the improved C3 instead of C5 nerve root transfer and C4 nerve root and phrenic nerve instead of C6 nerve root transfer. Results showed that the strength of the brachial biceps and deltoid muscles recovered to level III-IV, scapular muscle to level III-IV, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major muscles to above level III, and the brachial triceps muscle to level 0-III. Results showed that the improved C3-4 transfer for root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk in animal models is similar to clinical findings and that C3-4 and the phrenic nerve transfer for neurotization of C5-6 can innervate the avulsed brachial plexus upper trunk and promote the recovery of nerve function in the upper extremity.

  19. A pregnant patient with fetal distress with severe post burn contracture of anterior trunk and perineum: A surgeon′s nightmare!

    OpenAIRE

    Madhubari Vathulya; Meenakshi Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A case report of a pregnant lady in the third trimester, presenting in the emergency with absent fetal movements is being described. A multi-speciality expertise was involved and a full term female baby was delivered. Presentation: The patient presented in a Government hospital, Dehradun, India. At the time of presentation the fetal heart sounds were absent and subsequently the severe post-burn deformity involving the anterior trunk, perineum and thighs were discovered. Manageme...

  20. Use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy With Automated, Volumetric Instillation for the Treatment of Extremity and Trunk Wounds: Clinical Outcomes and Potential Cost-Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Allen; Kahn, Kevin; Karmy-Jones, Riyad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A growing body of literature supports use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with instillation and dwell time (NPWTi-d) with positive clinical outcomes and potential cost savings. A retrospective analysis was performed to compare clinical outcomes of wounds treated with NPWTi-d versus NPWT and to estimate cost-differences between treatments based on clinical outcomes. Methods: Data were extracted from records of patients with extremity or trunk wounds treated with NPWT (n = ...

  1. Postural destabilization induced by trunk extensor muscles fatigue is suppressed by use of a plantar pressure-based electro-tactile biofeedback.

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Pinsault, Nicolas; Chenu, Olivier; Fleury, Anthony; Payan, Yohan; Demongeot, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Separate studies have reported that postural control during quiet standing could be (1) impaired with muscle fatigue localized at the lower back, and (2) improved through the use of plantar pressure-based electro-tactile biofeedback, under normal neuromuscular state. The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether this biofeedback could reduce postural destabilization induced by trunk extensor muscles. Ten healthy adults were asked to stand as immobile as possible in four experimental c...

  2. Engraftment and Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived Neural Progenitor Cells in the Cochlear Nerve Trunk: Growth of Processes into the Organ of Corti

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales, C. Eduardo; Pan, Luying; Li, Huawei; Liberman, M. Charles; Heller, Stefan; Edge, Albert S. B.

    2006-01-01

    Hearing loss in mammals is irreversible because cochlear neurons and hair cells do not regenerate. To determine whether we could replace neurons lost to primary neuronal degeneration, we injected EYFP-expressing embryonic stem cell–derived mouse neural progenitor cells into the cochlear nerve trunk in immunosuppressed animals 1 week after destroying the cochlear nerve (spiral ganglion) cells while leaving hair cells intact by ouabain application to the round window at the base of the cochlea ...

  3. Trunk and hip muscle recruitment patterns during the prone leg extension following a lateral ankle sprain: A prospective case study pre and post injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lehman Gregory J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background and case presentation The prone leg extension (PLE) is commonly used to identify dysfunction of muscle recruitment patterns. The prone leg extension is theorized to identify proximal muscle disturbances which are a result of distal injury or dysfunction (i.e. an ankle sprain). This case study compares the trunk and hip muscle (bilateral lower erector spine, ipsilateral hamstring and ipsilateral gluteus maximus) timing during a PLE of a 27 year old female runner during a he...

  4. The effect of flexi-bar exercise with vibration on trunk muscle thickness and balance in university students in their twenties

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seong-Jin; Kim, Yong-Nam; Lee, Dong-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Flexi-Bar exercise with vibration on trunk muscle thickness and balance in university students in their twenties. [Subjects and Methods] This research evaluated 26 university students in their twenties, equally and randomly divided into two groups. Both the experimental and control groups used an ordinary pole for exercise. In addition, the experimental group exercised by using a Flexi-Bar. Ultrasonic imaging was used to me...

  5. Characterization of oil-palm trunk residue degradation enzymes derived from the isolated fungus, Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kok Chang; Arai, Takamitsu; Ibrahim, Darah; Deng, Lan; Murata, Yoshinori; Mori, Yutaka; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2016-06-01

    This study characterizes crude enzymes derived from Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL, a mesophilic fungus isolated from the local soil of Malaysia. Prior to enzyme activity evaluation, P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL was inoculated into a broth medium containing oil-palm trunk residues for the preparation of crude enzymes. Oil-palm trunk residues were optimally hydrolysed at pH5.0 and 50°C. P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived crude enzymes displayed higher thermal stability compared with the commercial enzymes, Celluclast 1.5 L and Acellerase 1500. Moreover, the hydrolysing activities of the P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived crude enzymes (xylan, arabinan, and laminarin) were superior compared to that of Celluclast 1.5 L and Acellerase 1500, and exhibit 2- to 3-fold and 3- to 4-fold higher oil-palm trunk residues-hydrolysing specific activity, respectively. This higher hydrolysis efficiency may be attributed to the weak 'lignin-binding' ability of the P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived enzymes compared to the commercial enzymes. PMID:26582429

  6. Rehabilitation of the Upper Extremity after Stroke: A Case Series Evaluating REO Therapy and an Auditory Sensor Feedback for Trunk Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thielman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Training in the virtual environment in post stroke rehab is being established as a new approach for neurorehabilitation, specifically, ReoTherapy (REO a robot-assisted virtual training device. Trunk stabilization strapping has been part of the concept with this device, and literature is lacking to support this for long-term functional changes with individuals after stroke. The purpose of this case series was to measure the feasibility of auditory trunk sensor feedback during REO therapy, in moderate to severely impaired individuals after stroke. Case Description. Using an open label crossover comparison design, 3 chronic stroke subjects were trained for 12 sessions over six weeks on either the REO or the control condition of task related training (TRT; after a washout period of 4 weeks; the alternative therapy was given. Outcomes. With both interventions, clinically relevant improvements were found for measures of body function and structure, as well as for activity, for two participants. Providing auditory feedback during REO training for trunk control was found to be feasible. Discussion. The degree of changes evident varied per protocol and may be due to the appropriateness of the technique chosen, as well as based on patients impaired arm motor control.

  7. Canoe game-based virtual reality training to improve trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Mo; Shin, Doo-Chul; Song, Chang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the preliminary therapeutic efficacy and usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n=5) or a control group (CG; n=5). Patients in both groups participated in a conventional rehabilitation program, but those in the EG additionally participated in a 30-min canoe game-based virtual reality training program 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed based on trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function. In addition, the usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training was assessed in the EG and therapist group (TG; n=20), which consisted of physical and occupational therapists, by using the System Usability Scale (SUS). [Results] Improvements in trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function were observed in the EG and CG, but were greater in the EG. The mean SUS scores in the EG and TG were 71 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 4.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Canoe game-based virtual reality training is an acceptable and effective intervention for improving trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in stroke patients. PMID:27512255

  8. Effect of the difficulty level of a biofeedback device for postural correction on the orbicularis oculi and upper trapezius muscle activity and trunk flexion angle during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the difficulty level of a biofeedback device for postural correction on the orbicularis oculi and upper trapezius muscle activity and trunk flexion angle during computer work. [Subjects] Ten computer workers were included in this study. [Methods] The biofeedback tool used in this study provided visual and auditory feedback with regard to changes in trunk flexion angle under two different conditions during computer work: The first condition was when there was an increase of more than 10 degrees in a standard sitting posture. The second condition was when there was an increase of more than 20 degrees in the same posture. [Results] The trunk flexion angle showed no significant difference between conditions. The muscle activities of the orbicularis oculi and upper trapezius under condition 1 (high difficulty level) was significantly increased compared with those under condition 2 (low difficulty level). [Conclusion] This result showed that frequent feedback with greater sensitivity can trigger stress and lead to the outbreak of other illnesses. PMID:27065535

  9. Análise radiográfica comparativa do trunk shift da escoliose idiopática do adolescente entre ganchos, híbrida e parafusos Análisis comparativo radiológico del trunk shift de la escoliosis idiopática del adolescente entre los ganchos, tornillos e híbridas Comparative radiographic analysis of trunk shift of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis between hooks, screws and hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Daniel Macedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar radiograficamente a descompensação lateral do tronco (trunk shift em pacientes com escoliose idiopática do adolescente submetidos à artrodese seletiva da curva torácica principal nas três diferentes técnicas de gancho, híbridas e parafusos. MÉTODOS: Avaliadas e comparadas retrospectivamente radiografias ântero-posteriores no período pré-operatório, pós-operatório imediato e no seguimento mínimo de um ano em nove pacientes com ganchos, 13 híbridas e 13 parafusos, quanto à mensuração do trunk shift e ângulo de Cobb entre essas três diferentes técnicas de instrumentação. RESULTADOS: As médias no período pré-operatório imediato da descompensação do tronco para direita foram de 16,7 mm para ganchos, 13,2 mm para híbridas, 27,3 mm para parafusos. No pós-operatório imediato foram de -16 mm para ganchos, -12,8 mm para híbridas, -10,7 mm para parafusos, com uma correção no seguimento de um ano para -9,6 mm para ganchos, -11,8 mm para híbridas e -10,7 mm para parafusos ocorrendo o deslocamento do tronco para esquerda. Todos os casos com uso de somente parafusos pediculares apresentaram trunk shift menor que 20 mm. Verificamos desequilíbrio no grupo de ganchos em um paciente (11,11% e de híbridas em dois pacientes (15,38%. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença significativa na descompensação lateral do tronco entre o uso das três técnicas de instrumentação.OBJETIVOS: Analizar, radiográficamente, la descompensación del tronco (trunk shift: desplazamiento del tronco en pacientes con escoliosis idiopática del adolescente sometidas a artrodesis selectivas de la curva torácica primaria en las tres diferentes técnicas: ganchos, híbridas y tornillos. MÉTODOS: Evaluación y comparación retrospectiva de las radiografías anteroposteriores en los períodos preoperatorio, posoperatorio y d el seguimiento de, al menos. 1 año en 9 pacientes con ganchos, 13 híbridas y 13 con tornillos, cuanto a la

  10. Programación del riego deficitario controlado en melocotonero extratemprano con sensores del diámetro del tronco = Regulated deficit irrigation scheduling in early maturing peach trees using trunk diameter sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Mellisho Salas, Carmen Diana

    2012-01-01

    [ENG] The research reported in this Thesis was carried out i) to review the state of the art as regards the use of trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF) derived parameters for irrigation scheduling, considering the strengths and weaknesses of these continuously measured plant-based water status indicators, their agronomic and physiological significance and the perspectives of the use of maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) as a precision tool in deficit irrigation scheduling, ii)...

  11. Ecoescleroterapia com microespuma em varizes tronculares primárias Microfoam ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy in primary trunk varicose veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Figueiredo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o tratamento de varizes tronculares primárias por ecoescleroterapia com microespuma. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 25 membros de seis pacientes do sexo masculino e 19 do sexo feminino, com incompetência das veias safenas magna (21 membros ou parva (quatro membros. Eles foram avaliados de acordo com a classificação clínica, etiológica, anatômica e fisiopatológica (CEAP e classificados nos graus C³ (10 membros, C4 (seis membros, C5 (cinco membros e C6 (quatro membros. A microespuma (5 ml, preparada pela mistura de 1 ml de polidocanol a 3% e 5 ml de ar, era injetada na veia do paciente, em posição de Trendelenburg, com monitoração por ultra-sonografia com Doppler colorido. Os membros eram enfaixados com atadura inelástica por 3 dias; depois disso, os pacientes usavam meias elásticas, 30-40 mmHg, 3/4 ou 7/8, durante 3 meses. A eficiência do tratamento foi avaliada pelo escore clínico da classificação CEAP para dor, edema e claudicação e pelas alterações ultra-sonográficas 12 meses depois. Os escores clínicos antes e depois do tratamento foram comparados pelo teste de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição significante nos escores clínicos (P OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the treatment of primary trunk varicose veins by microfoam ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy. METHODS: The sample was composed of 25 members of six male and 19 female patients, with incompetence of great saphenous vein (21 and short saphenous vein (4. Patients were assessed according to the clinical, etiologic, anatomical and pathophysiological (CEAP classification and divided into degrees C³ (10, C4 (6, C5 (5 and C6 (4. With the patients in the Trendelenburg position, microfoam (5 ml, prepared by mixture of 1 ml polidocanol at 3% and 5 ml of air, was injected in their vein and monitored by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography. The members were then swaddled with inelastic bandage for 3 days; afterward, the patients used 30-40 mmHg, 3

  12. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Relationship with the Position of the Central Retinal Vessel Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Baek-Lok; Kim, Hyunjoong; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the factors influencing the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface depth (LCD) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG), focusing on the association between LCD and the position of the central retinal vessel trunk (CRVT) at the anterior LC surface. Methods Optic nerve heads of 205 OAG eyes were scanned using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). After processing the images using adaptive compensation, the LCD was determined from 11 horizontal B-scan images that divided the optic disc vertically into 12 equal parts. Eyes were divided into two groups (central or peripheral) according to where the CRVT exits from the anterior LC surface. The influence of CRVT position on LCD was evaluated, taking into account age, gender, untreated intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP at optic-disc scanning, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, visual-field mean deviation, central corneal thickness, and axial length. Results Patients in the peripheral CRVT group were younger and more myopic, and had a larger mean LCD and thinner global RNFL than those in the central CRVT group (all P≤0.023). On multivariate analysis, the peripheral CRVT location was significantly associated with a larger LCD (P = 0.002), together with the significant association of younger age (P<0.001), higher untreated IOP (P = 0.010), and thinner RNFL (P = 0.003) on the larger LCD. Conclusion In OAG, CRVT location was an independent factor influencing the LCD, together with age, untreated IOP, and global RNFL thickness. The data indicate that the CRVT may contribute to the resistance of the LC against deformation. A longitudinal prospective observation is required to clarify this relationship. PMID:27355646

  13. Free Shape Context Descriptors Optimized with Genetic Algorithm for the Detection of Dead Tree Trunks in ALS Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polewski, P.; Yao, W.; Heurich, M.; Krzystek, P.; Stilla, U.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a new family of shape descriptors called Free Shape Contexts (FSC) is introduced to generalize the existing 3D Shape Contexts. The FSC introduces more degrees of freedom than its predecessor by allowing the level of complexity to vary between its parts. Also, each part of the FSC has an associated activity state which controls whether the part can contribute a feature value. We describe a method of evolving the FSC parameters for the purpose of creating highly discriminative features suitable for detecting specific objects in sparse point clouds. The evolutionary process is built on a genetic algorithm (GA) which optimizes the parameters with respect to cross-validated overall classification accuracy. The GA manipulates both the structure of the FSC and the activity flags, allowing it to perform an implicit feature selection alongside the structure optimization by turning off segments which do not augment the discriminative capabilities. We apply the proposed descriptor to the problem of detecting single standing dead tree trunks from ALS point clouds. The experiment, carried out on a set of 285 objects, reveals that an FSC optimized through a GA with manually tuned recombination parameters is able to attain a classification accuracy of 84.2%, yielding an increase of 4.2 pp compared to features derived from eigenvalues of the 3D covariance matrix. Also, we address the issue of automatically tuning the GA recombination metaparameters. For this purpose, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) which dynamically adjusts the magnitude of the recombination effects is co-evolved with the FSC parameters in a two-tier evolution scheme. We find that it is possible to obtain an FLC which retains the classification accuracy of the manually tuned variant, thereby limiting the need for guessing the appropriate meta-parameter values.

  14. On the vagal cardiac nerves, with special reference to the early evolution of the head-trunk interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Hiroki; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Hyodo, Susumu; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    The vagus nerve, or the tenth cranial nerve, innervates the heart in addition to other visceral organs, including the posterior visceral arches. In amniotes, the anterior and posterior cardiac branches arise from the branchial and intestinal portions of the vagus nerve to innervate the arterial and venous poles of the heart, respectively. The evolution of this innervation pattern has yet to be elucidated, due mainly to the lack of morphological data on the vagus in basal vertebrates. To investigate this topic, we observed the vagus nerves of the lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum), elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), and mouse (Mus musculus), focusing on the embryonic patterns of the vagal branches in the venous pole. In the lamprey, no vagus branch was found in the venous pole throughout development, whereas the arterial pole was innervated by a branch from the branchial portion. In contrast, the vagus innervated the arterial and venous poles in the mouse and elephant shark. Based on the morphological patterns of these branches, the venous vagal branches of the mouse and elephant shark appear to belong to the intestinal part of the vagus, implying that the cardiac nerve pattern is conserved among crown gnathostomes. Furthermore, we found a topographical shift of the structures adjacent to the venous pole (i.e., the hypoglossal nerve and pronephros) between the extant gnathostomes and lamprey. Phylogenetically, the lamprey morphology is likely to be the ancestral condition for vertebrates, suggesting that the evolution of the venous branch occurred early in the gnathostome lineage, in parallel with the remodeling of the head-trunk interfacial domain during the acquisition of the neck. J. Morphol. 277:1146-1158, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27216138

  15. Long-term results of brachiocephalic artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper establishes the ling-term and angiographic sequelae of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of stenoses of the origins of the brachycephalic arteries. From November of the proximal segments of the brachycephalic arteries. Clinical follow-up after PTA was 45 months. Two patients had recurrence of vertigo, after 16 and 75 months. There was no evidence of restenosis in the patient whose recurrence was after 16 months, but considerable restenosis was noted in the patient whose symptoms recurred after 75 months. That patient underwent successful repeated PTA

  16. Muscles of the Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... four muscle pairs, arranged in layers, and the fascia that envelops them. The abdominal wall muscles are ... formed by two muscular sheets and their associated fascia. « Previous (Head and Neck) Next (Upper Extremity) » Contact ...

  17. Cervical sympathetic trunk transection affects inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat hippocampus following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangzhi Xiong; Yan Wang; Qingxiu Wang; Qingshan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The stellate ganglion block (SGB) plays a protective role in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The human SGB can be simulated by transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk (TCST) in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of TCST on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels and cerebral infarct wolume in the hippocampus of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and to analyze the mechanism of action.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A completely randomized, controlled, neuropathological experiment was performed at the Institute of Neurological Disease, Taihe Hospital, Yunyang Medical College between March and September 2006.MATERIALS: A total of 93 Wistar rats, aged 17-18 weeks, of either gender, were used for this study. 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride was purchased from Changsha Hongyuan Biological Reagent Company, China. Rabbit iNOS antibody and goat anti-rabbit lgG antibody were the products of Wuhan Boster Biological Reagent Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: Ten rats were randomly selected for the sham-operated group. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the suture method in the remaining rats. Forty successful rat models were randomly and equally divided into the following two groups: (1) TCST group: subsequent to TCST, MCAO was performed for 2 hours, followed by 24 hours reperfusion; (2) model group: rats underwent experimental procedures similar to the TCST group, with the exception of TCST. Rats in the sham-operated group were subjected to experimental procedures similar to the model group; however, the thread was only introduced to a depth of 10 mm.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Following 24 hours of reperfusion, functional neurological deficits were scored. Brain tissue sections from ten rats of each group were used to measure cerebral infarct volume by TTC staining. Hippocampal tissue sections of an additional ten rats from each group were used to detect iNOS levels using

  18. [Correlations between standing trees trunk decay degree and soil physical-chemical properties in Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian-Yong; Wang, Li-Hai; Sun, Mo-Long

    2013-07-01

    Standing trees decay often causes vast loss of timber resources. To investigate the correlations between the standing trees decay and the site conditions is of importance to scientifically and reasonably manage forests and to decrease wood resources loss. By using Resistograph and meter ruler, a measurement was made on the decay degree of the trunk near root and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of 15 mature Korean pine standing trees in a Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing' an Mountains in May, 2011. In the meantime, soil samples were collected from the root zones of standing trees and the upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks, respectively. Five physical-chemical properties including moisture content, bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content of the soil samples were tested. The regression equations concerning the trunk decay degree of the standing trees, their DBH, and the 5 soil properties were established. The results showed that the trunk decay degree of the mature Korean pine standing trees had higher correlations with the bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content (R = 0.687), and significant positive correlation with the moisture content (R = 0.507) of the soils at the root zones of standing trees, but less correlation with the 5 properties of the soils at both upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks. The trunk decay degree was decreased when the soil moisture content was below 18.4%. No significant correlation was observed between the trunk decay degree of mature Korean pine standing trees and the tree age. PMID:24175511

  19. Real-time measurement of pelvis and trunk kinematics during treadmill locomotion using a low-cost depth-sensing camera: A concurrent validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Tom W; Taylor, Jonathan; McBain, Thomas; Weston, Matthew; Spears, Iain R

    2016-02-01

    There is currently no suitable kinematic system for a large-scale prospective trial assessing risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders. A practical kinematic system is described which involves the use of a single low-cost depth-sensing camera for the real-time measurement of 3-dimensional linear and angular pelvic and trunk range-of-movement (ROM). The method is based on the creation and processing of dynamic point clouds taken from the posterior surface of the pelvis and trunk. Nine healthy participants performed 3 trials of treadmill locomotion when walking at self-selected speed (3.6-5.6 km/h), running at 70% (10.9-14.0 km/h) and 90% of maximal speed (14.0-18.0 km/h). Stride-by-stride linear and angular ROM data were captured concurrently using the single depth-sensing camera running at 30 Hz (Kinect(TM) for Windows, Microsoft, USA) and a six-camera motion capture system at 100 Hz (Vicon MX13, Vicon Motion Systems, United Kingdom). Within subject correlation coefficients between the practical and criterion method ranged from very large to nearly perfect (r=0.87-1.00) for the linear ROM. Correlation coefficients for the angular ROM ranged from moderate to very large (r=0.41-0.80). The limits of agreement between the two systems for linear movements were ≤ 9.9 mm at all velocities of gait and ≤ 4.6° at all velocities of gait. The single camera system using depth-sensing technology is capable of capturing linear pelvic and trunk ROM during treadmill locomotion with reasonable precision when compared to the criterion method. Further improvements to the measurement of angles and validation across a wider population are recommended. PMID:26718063

  20. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan G. Aćimović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water- or non-injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  1. Esterification of oily-FFA and transesterification of high FFA waste oils using novel palm trunk and bagasse-derived catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel palm trunk and bagasse derived catalysts have been prepared. • Reduction of FFAs from 42 to <1 wt.% in 15 min under pseudo-infinite methanol. • Transesterification of waste oil results in FAME yield of 80.6–83.2% in 4 h. • Pseudo-infinite methanol affords two-folds FAME yield of conventional methods. - Abstract: Waste cooking oil is increasingly becoming a significant component of biodiesel feedstock and its conversion to FAME requires coupling of esterification and transesterification processes. In this study, new environmentally benign catalysts were prepared from oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse, which are sustainable because of the superfluity of oil palm trunk and abundant supply of bagasse. Effect of preparation variable, surface acidity and textural properties, pre-esterification of FFA in oil matrices and transesterification of waste oil under pseudo-infinite methanol and conventional methods were investigated. The preparation variable, H2SO4 impregnation time showed marginal effect on sulfonic acid density after 6 h, and the corresponding values for 6–10 h impregnations were 1.33 ± 0.01–1.41 ± 0.01mmol g−1 for OPT and 1.44 ± 0.01–1.48 ± 0.01mmol g−1 for SCB catalysts. In esterification of palmitic acid, activity of catalysts with different H2SO4 impregnation time correlates with their sulfonic acid density. The catalysts demonstrated rapid esterification of FFA in oil matrices under pseudo infinite methanol, reducing its content from 42 wt.% to <1 wt.% in just 15 min. Similarly, the conversions of waste oil by OPT and SCB derived catalysts were 80.6% and 83.2%, respectively after 4 h under pseudo-infinite methanol, and 43.7% and 45%, respectively after 6 h under conventional method. These catalysts have shown remarkable properties that are suitable for biodiesel production from waste oil

  2. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aćimović, Srđan G; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W; Wise, John C

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control. PMID:25717330

  3. Isokinetic trunk and knee muscle strengths and gait performance in walking patients with T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)

    OpenAIRE

    MIYAZAKI, MASASHI; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Goto, Tatsushi; Kiyama, Ryoji; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Ijiri, Kosei; Yoshida, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the isokinetic trunk and knee muscle strengths, and examine the clinical relevance of dynamic muscle strengths and gait performance in walking patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Thirteen patients with HAM/TSP (8 females and 5 males, aged 38–76) and 13 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. We assessed gait speed, stride length, cadence; an...

  4. Effect of Virtual Reality Exercise Using the Nintendo Wii Fit on Muscle Activities of the Trunk and Lower Extremities of Normal Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effect of virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit on the muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 24 normal adults who were divided into a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n=12) and a stable surface exercise group (SEG, n=12). [Methods] The exercises of the VREG using the Nintendo Wii Fit and the SEG using a stable surface were conducted three times a wee...

  5. Desinserção do tronco braquiocefálico em traumatismo do tórax Brachycephalic trunk rupture in closed thorax traumatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos R Iglézias

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de paciente adulto, de 48 anos de idade, politraumatizado, vítima de acidente automobilístico. O mesmo deu entrada no serviço de emergência do InCór em choque, com múltiplas fraturas de arcos costais, pneumotórax total à direita, fratura de fémur e alargamento importante do mediastino aos raios X. Foi compensado hemodinamicamente, monitorizado e submetido a angiocardiografia, que evidenciou rotura de aorta ao nível do tronco branquiocefálico, tratado cirurgicamente com interposição de um tubo de Dacron entre a aorta ascendente e o tronco braquiocefálico. Dá-se ênfase ao modo como o caso foi conduzido, o que permitiu o êxito do tratamento. Inicialmente, a circulação extracorpórea foi estabelecida entre os vasos femorais e, só após fibrilação ventricular, o tórax foi aberto. Isto determinou o destamponamento da lesão aórtica, permitiu a sutura do local da desinserção do tronco braquiocefálico na aorta e a interposição de um enxerto de Dracon entre os dois vasos, restabelecendo, plenamente, o fluxo cerebral.The case of 48-years-old man politraumatized, victim of automobile accident is reported. The patient entered the emergency service of the Heart Institute in shock, with multiple fractures in the costal archs, total pneumothorax at the right and fracture of femur. Chest X-ray showed an important mediastinum enlargement. The patient was stabilized with fluids, monitor and submitted to angiography which revealed rupture of aorta at the level of brachycephalic trunk. Surgical treatment was undertaken, with the interposition of a Dacron tube between the ascending aorta and the brachycephalic trunk. Emphasis is given as to the way the case was approached. The approach is responsible for the good outcome reached. The procedure with the tamponage of the aortic lesion permitted suture of the rupture of the brachycephalic trunk in the aorta and the interposition of a Dacron patch between the ascending

  6. Moss and liverwort epiphytes on trunks of Cyathea delgadii in a fragment of tropical rain forest, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, Daniel M.; Prado, Jefferson

    2006-01-01

    This study is a survey of the bryophyte species that occur on the trunks of Cyathea delgadii Sternb. (Cyatheaceae), a native tree fern, encountered in a fragment of Atlantic forest located in the area of the „Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI)“, São Paulo State, Brazil. Specimens of bryophytes were collected from March 2001 to October 2003. We found 35 bryophyte species (12 spp. of mosses and 23 of liverworts). Ceratolejeuenea dentacornuta Steph. is presented as a new record for Br...

  7. Effect of Workplace- versus Home-Based Physical Exercise on Muscle Response to Sudden Trunk Perturbation among Healthcare Workers: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Markus D.; Emil Sundstrup; Mikkel Brandt; Kenneth Jay; Per Aagaard; Andersen, Lars L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study investigates the effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on muscle reflex response to sudden trunk perturbation among healthcare workers. Methods. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42 [SD 11], BMI: 24 [SD 4], and pain intensity: 3.1 [SD 2.2] on a scale of 0–10) from 18 departments at three hospitals were randomized at the cluster level to 10 weeks of (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 ×...

  8. Effect of Workplace- versus Home-Based Physical Exercise on Muscle Response to Sudden Trunk Perturbation among Healthcare Workers: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus D. Jakobsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study investigates the effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on muscle reflex response to sudden trunk perturbation among healthcare workers. Methods. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42 [SD 11], BMI: 24 [SD 4], and pain intensity: 3.1 [SD 2.2] on a scale of 0–10 from 18 departments at three hospitals were randomized at the cluster level to 10 weeks of (1 workplace physical exercise (WORK performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (2 home-based physical exercise (HOME performed during leisure time for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Mechanical and neuromuscular (EMG response to randomly assigned unloading and loading trunk perturbations and questions of fear avoidance were assessed at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Results. No group by time interaction for the mechanical trunk response and EMG latency time was seen following the ten weeks (P = 0.17–0.75. However, both groups demonstrated within-group changes (P<0.05 in stopping time during the loading and unloading perturbation and in stopping distance during the loading perturbation. Furthermore, EMG preactivation of the erector spinae and fear avoidance were reduced more following WORK than HOME (95% CI −2.7–−0.7 (P<0.05 and −0.14 (−0.30 to 0.02 (P=0.09, respectively. WORK and HOME performed 2.2 (SD: 1.1 and 1.0 (SD: 1.2 training sessions per week, respectively. Conclusions. Although training adherence was higher following WORK compared to HOME this additional training volume did not lead to significant between-group differences in the responses to sudden trunk perturbations. However, WORK led to reduced fear avoidance and reduced muscle preactivity prior to the perturbation onset, compared with HOME. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01921764.

  9. The energetic costs of trunk and distal-limb loading during walking and running in guinea fowl Numida meleagris: I. Organismal metabolism and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Richard L; Ellerby, David J; Henry, Havalee T; Rubenson, Jonas

    2006-06-01

    We examined the energetic cost of loading the trunk or distal portion of the leg in walking and running guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). These different loading regimes were designed to separately influence the energy use by muscles used during the stance and swing phases of the stride. Metabolic rate, estimated from oxygen consumption, was measured while birds locomoted on a motorized treadmill at speeds from 0.5 to 2.0 m s-1, either unloaded, or with a mass equivalent to 23% of their body mass carried on their backs, or with masses equal to approximately 2.5% of their body mass attached to each tarsometatarsal segment. In separate experiments, we also measured the duration of stance and swing in unloaded, trunk-loaded, or limb-loaded birds. In the unloaded and limb-loaded birds, we also calculated the mechanical energy of the tarsometatarsal segment throughout the stride. Trunk and limb loads caused similar increases in metabolic rate. During trunk loading, the net metabolic rate (gross metabolic rate-resting metabolic rate) increased by 17% above the unloaded value across all speeds. This percentage increase is less than has been found in most studies of humans and other mammals. The economical load carriage of guinea fowl is consistent with predictions based on the relative cost of the stance and swing phases of the stride in this species. However, the available comparative data and considerations of the factors that determine the cost of carrying extra mass lead us to the conclusion that the cost of load carrying is unlikely to be a reliable indicator of the distribution of energy use in stance and swing. Both loading regimes caused small changes in the swing and/or stance durations, but these changes were less than 10%. Loading the tarsometatarsal segment increased its segmental energy by 4.1 times and the segmental mechanical power averaged over the stride by 3.8 times. The increases in metabolism associated with limb loading appear to be linked to the

  10. Inoperable metastatic giant basal cell trunk carcinoma: radiotherapy can be useful; Carcinome basocellulaire geant du tronc metastatique inoperable: la radiotherapie peut etre utile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mania, A.; Durando, X.; Lapeyre, M. [Centre Jean-Perrin, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Barthelemy, I. [CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors evoke some characteristics of the basal cell carcinoma (slow evolution, local morbidity) and report and discuss the case of a giant basal cell trunk carcinoma, associated with several symptoms (pain, bleeding, anaemia), already metastatic at the moment of diagnosis, and locally treated by irradiation. Due to its size and expansion, this carcinoma was considered as inoperable. An external radiotherapy has been performed and resulted in a significant clinical tumour reduction. But the metastatic risk is high in such cases. Radiotherapy is then a therapeutic option for a local treatment with a durable efficiency. Short communication

  11. Detection of pathogenic elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in routine trunk washes from healthy adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by use of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Latimer, Erin; Tan, Jie; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogenesis and transmission of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1) by analyzing various elephant fluid samples with a novel EEHV1-specific real-time PCR assay. Animals 5 apparently healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) from the same herd. Procedures A real-time PCR assay was developed that specifically detects EEHV1. The assay was used to evaluate paired whole blood and trunk-wash samples obtained from the 5 elephants during a 15-week period. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and viral gene subtyping analysis were performed on trunk-wash DNA preparations that had positive results for EEHV1. Viral gene subtypes were compared with those associated with past fatal cases of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Results The PCR assay detected viral DNA to a level of 1,200 copies/mL of whole blood. It was used to detect EEHV1 in trunk secretions of 3 of the 5 elephants surveyed during the 15-week period. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance EEHV1 was shed in the trunk secretions of healthy Asian elephants. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations. PMID:20673092

  12. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24611630

  13. A pregnant patient with fetal distress with severe post burn contracture of anterior trunk and perineum: A surgeon′s nightmare!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhubari Vathulya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A case report of a pregnant lady in the third trimester, presenting in the emergency with absent fetal movements is being described. A multi-speciality expertise was involved and a full term female baby was delivered. Presentation: The patient presented in a Government hospital, Dehradun, India. At the time of presentation the fetal heart sounds were absent and subsequently the severe post-burn deformity involving the anterior trunk, perineum and thighs were discovered. Management: Immediately a multi-speciality approach involving the plastic, obstetrics and pediatrics field were called for and an emergency caesarean with simultaneous contracture release with split skin grafts were performed after optimizing the patient for surgery. Conclusion: This is one of the first case reports reporting this rare combination of post burn contracture of trunk and perineum with fetal distress requiring emergency caesarean section along with release of abdominal and perineal post-burn contracture. This case interestingly reinforces that in such complicated cases a systematic and a combined multi-speciality approach still holds the key to patient′s treatment even in district hospitals.

  14. Risk for low back pain from different frequencies, load mass and trunk postures of lifting and carrying among female healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Clausen, Thomas; Aust, Birgit; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk of developing non-chronic and chronic low back pain (LBP) from frequency, load mass and trunk postures of occupational lifting and carrying among female healthcare workers. METHODS: A total of 9,847 workers in eldercare answered a questionnaire about occupational...... lifting and carrying frequency (rarely, occasionally and frequently), load mass (low: 1-7 kg, moderate: 8-30 kg and heavy: >30 kg), trunk posture (upright or forward bent back), and days with LBP in 2005. The odds ratio (OR) for developing non-chronic (1-30 days the last 12 months) and chronic (>30 days...... back doubled the risk for developing chronic LBP (OR: 2.14; 95 % CI: 1.02-4.50). Occasionally and frequently lifting or carrying of any load mass with upright back did not increase the risk for chronic LBP. Lifting and carrying did not increase the risk for non-chronic LBP. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive...

  15. Necessity of Implementing Fast Trunk Highway in Jiangsu Province%江苏省快速干线公路实施必要性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志强; 潘虹

    2014-01-01

    在分析江苏省发展的宏观形势及国外公路发展的一般趋势的基础上,从经济社会发展、城镇化进程、区域产业分工及路网结构布局等方面,对江苏省实施快速干线公路建设的必要性进行了具体研究。分析结果表明,江苏省快速干线公路的实施可以解决现状干线公路中存在的路网服务水平低,结构不合理等问题,是江苏省公路发展的必然趋势。%Based on the analysis of the development of the macroeconomic situation in Jiangsu Province and the general trend of foreign highway, the article makes a detailed research on the necessity of imple⁃menting fast trunk highway in Jiangsu Province from the aspects of economic and social development, pro⁃cess of urbanization, the regional industry division and the structure of road network. The results show that the implementation of fast trunk highway in Jiangsu Province can solve the questions of the low level service and unreasonable structure. It is the inevitable development trend of highway in Jiangsu Province.

  16. Application of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis to decoding the history of environmental pollutions using tree bark and tree trunk bark pockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distributions of trace elements in tree bark and tree trunk bark pockets were successfully determined by Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) analysis. The sample include outer and inner tree bark, tree trunk bark pockets, cambium, xylem. Two dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis of Ca, K, Mn, Sr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Pb in these samples were made with a combination of monochromatic X-ray (14-16.5 keV) of 150 - 500 μm or ca.6 μm size and an excitation source and Si(Li)-solid state detector. From the results of the XRF imaging results, it was found that the intensity of the elements, such as Pb, Fe and Cu, in outer bark and bark pockets samples were higher than those in cambium and xylem. Moreover, trace element levels were quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results were consistent with the element distribution measured by two dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. This study has demonstrated the advantages of the SR-XRF technique in environmental pollution analysis of minute biological tissue. The XANES analysis disclosed that Pb deposited in the bark existed as Pb2+ state. (author)

  17. The Relationships Between the Center of Mass Position and the Trunk, Hip, and Knee Kinematics in the Sagittal Plane: A Pilot Study on Field-Based Video Analysis for Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Shogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears have common features in the sagittal plane; namely, the body’s center of mass (COM is located posterior to the base of support, the trunk and knee joints are extended, and the hip angle is flexed. However, the relationships among these variables have not been assessed in field-based movements. This study sought to determine relationships between distances from the COM to the base of support and the trunk, hip, and knee positions in women while playing soccer. Sixty events (29 single-leg landing and 31 single-leg stopping events were analyzed using two-dimensional video analysis. The relationships among the measurement variables were determined using the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between the COM position and the kinematic variables. The distance from the COM to the base of support displayed a moderate negative relationship with the trunk angle (r = - 0.623, p < .0001, r2 = 0.388 and a strong positive relationship with the limb angle (r = 0.869, p < .0001, r2 = 0.755. The limb, knee, and trunk angles were selected in the best regression model (adjusted r2 = 0.953, p < .0001, f2 = 20.277. These findings suggest that an increased trunk angle and a decreased limb angle at initial contact are associated with a safer COM position. Neuromuscular training may be useful for controlling the trunk and lower limb positions during dynamic activities.

  18. The relationships between the center of mass position and the trunk, hip, and knee kinematics in the sagittal plane: a pilot study on field-based video analysis for female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Imamura, Shoichiro; Koabayshi, Takuma; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-03-29

    Athletes with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears have common features in the sagittal plane; namely, the body's center of mass (COM) is located posterior to the base of support, the trunk and knee joints are extended, and the hip angle is flexed. However, the relationships among these variables have not been assessed in field-based movements. This study sought to determine relationships between distances from the COM to the base of support and the trunk, hip, and knee positions in women while playing soccer. Sixty events (29 single-leg landing and 31 single-leg stopping events) were analyzed using two-dimensional video analysis. The relationships among the measurement variables were determined using the Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between the COM position and the kinematic variables. The distance from the COM to the base of support displayed a moderate negative relationship with the trunk angle (r = -0.623, p < .0001, r(2) = 0.388) and a strong positive relationship with the limb angle (r = 0.869, p < .0001, r(2) = 0.755). The limb, knee, and trunk angles were selected in the best regression model (adjusted r(2) = 0.953, p < .0001, f(2) = 20.277). These findings suggest that an increased trunk angle and a decreased limb angle at initial contact are associated with a safer COM position. Neuromuscular training may be useful for controlling the trunk and lower limb positions during dynamic activities. PMID:25964811

  19. Visceral hybrid reconstruction of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm after open repair of type a aortic dissection by the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction of chronic type B dissection and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA remaining after the emergency reconstruction of the ascending thoracic aorta and aortic arch for acute type A dissection represents one of the major surgical challenges. Complications of chronic type B dissection are aneurysmal formation and rupture of an aortic aneurysm with a high mortality rate. We presented a case of visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA secondary to chronic dissection type B after the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique due to acute type A aortic dissection in a high-risk patient. Case report. A 62 year-old woman was admitted to our institution for reconstruction of Crawford type I TAAA secondary to chronic dissection. The patient had had an acute type A aortic dissection 3 years before and undergone reconstruction by the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique with valve replacement. On admission the patient had coronary artery disease (myocardial infarction, two times in the past 3 years, congestive heart disease with ejection fraction of 25% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On computed tomography (CT of the aorta TAAA was revealed with a maximum diameter of 93 mm in the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection. All the visceral arteries originated from the true lumen with exception of the celiac artery (CA, and the end of chronic dissection was below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. The patient was operated on using surgical visceral reconstruction of the SMA, CA and the right renal artery (RRA as the first procedure. Postoperative course was without complications. Endovascular TAAA reconstruction was performed as the second procedure one month later, when the elephant trunk was used as the proximal landing zone for the endograft, and distal landing zone was the level of origin of the RRA. Postoperatively, the patient had no neurological deficit and

  20. Waist to hip ratio and trunk to extremity fat (DXA are better surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively than for subcutaneous fat in adolescent girls

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    Russell Melissa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL are associated with increased metabolic risk. Clinical and DXA body composition measures that are associated with VAT are generally even more strongly associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reflecting general adiposity, and thus are not specific for VAT. Measures more strongly associated with VAT than SAT (thus more specific for VAT, and predictors of IMCL have not been reported. Subjects/Methods We studied 30 girls 12-18 years; 15 obese, 15 normal-weight. The following were assessed: (1 anthropometric measures: waist circumference at the umbilicus and iliac crest (WC-UC and WC-IC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, (2 DXA measures: total fat, percent body fat (PBF, percent trunk fat (PTF, trunk-to-extremity fat ratio (TEFR, (3 MRI and 1H-MRS: VAT and SAT (L4-L5, soleus-IMCL. Results Group as a whole: WC, trunk fat and PBF were more strongly associated with SAT than VAT; none were specific for VAT. In contrast, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.83 and 0.81 respectively, p Subgroup analysis: In obese girls, WHR and WHtR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.62 and 0.82, p = 0.04 and 0.001 than SAT (r = 0.41 and 0.73, p not significant and 0.007, and for DXA measures, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.70 and 0.72, p = 0.007 and 0.006 than SAT (r = 0.52 and 0.53, p = 0.07 and 0.06. In controls, PTF and TEFR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.79, p = 0.0004 for both than SAT (r = 0.71 and 0.72, p = 0.003 for both. WHR was associated with IMCL in obese girls (r = 0.78, p = 0.008, but not controls. Conclusion Overall, WHR (anthropometry, and PTF and TEFR (DXA are good surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively in adolescent girls.

  1. Therapeutic comparison of uterine artery chemoembolization with internal iliac anterior trunk arterial chemotherapy performed before radical hysterectomy in patients with stages I b2-II a cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the short-term and long-term therapeutic response of uterine artery chemoembolization with internal iliac anterior trunk arterial chemotherapy performed before radical hysterectomy in patients with stages I b2-II a cervical cancer. Methods: One hundred and fifty-one patients with stages I b2-II a cervical cancer were treated with preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy before radical hysterectomy was carried out. Patients in study group (n = 113) received uterine artery chemoembolization (UACE), while patients control group(n = 38) received internal iliac anterior trunk arterial chemotherapy. Radical hysterectomy was carried out in all patients within 2-4 weeks after UACE or chemotherapy. The tumor size was measured before and after the procedure,and the survival rate at 2 and 5 years after treatment was calculated. Results: The mean maximum diameter of the tumors was (4.58 ± 0.37) cm before interventional therapy, and it was (2.11 ± 0.24) cm in two weeks after interventional therapy. The complete response rate of study group and control group was 31.9% and 21.1% respectively. The total effective rate of study group and control group was 94.7% (107/113) and 76.3% (29/38) respectively. The effective rate of study group two weeks after therapy was significantly higher than that of control group. No surgical margin infiltration was observed in both groups. Pathological findings in study group included vascular invasion around surgical margin (n = 3), parametrial invasion (n = 5) and pelvic lymph node metastasis (n = 6), while in control group vascular invasion around surgical margin, parametrial invasion and pelvic lymph node metastasis were found in one, two and one cases respectively. The two-year and five-year survival rate in study group were 80.9% (68/84) and 73.4% (47/64) respectively, while the two-year and five-year survival rate in control group were 81.3% (26/32) and 75.0% (18/24) respectively. No significant difference in survival

  2. The Effect of Core and Lower Limb Exercises on Trunk Strength and Lower Limb Stability on Australian Soldiers

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    Rolf Sellentin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: A before and after design in the collection of data and using analyses of variance to examine the changes in each test score. Objectives: The objectives and hypotheses of this study are: (1 Do specific core exercises, incorporating the lower limbs improve lower limb stability and trunk core muscle strength?; (2 Can the Star Excursion Balance Test be used as a measure of ankle and lower limb stability without a history of ankle instability?; (3 Can static core tests be used as a measure of core stability?; and (4 Is the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT questionnaire sufficiently sensitive to show any changes to ankle instability following the outcomes of this study? Background: An earlier study undertaken by Sellentin and Sanchez (2011 r identified specific injuries sustained by Australian garrison soldiers of the 16 Air Defence Regiment. These injuries involved the neck, low back, knee and ankle. This current study was designed to address these injuries by providing exercises to specifically strengthen the core and lower limb muscles and to improve proprioception and muscle movement patterns, with the aim of reducing the number of injuries in Australian soldiers. Methods and Measures: Eight young adult males volunteered for this study (mean age of 22 years. Female Australian soldiers did not participate in this study, as there were none available at the time and there were very few women in the Regiment. The eight male subjects undertook a twelve week supervised exercise programme loosely based on the validated FIFA 11+ programme. Subjects performed specific exercises over twelve weeks which were gradually increased in intensity, difficulty and resistance week by week. Each subject also completed a CAIT questionnaire before and after the 12 week exercise program. In order to measure any effect from our exercise programme. Each subject was asked to perform a series of sustained flexion, extension, side holds and prone hold

  3. Use of the frozen elephant trunk technique in complicated chronic dissection with porcelain aorta and visceral arteries originating from different lumens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembala, Michal O; Irimie, Vadim; Urbanski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    A rare case of aortic arch aneurysm combined with chronic aortic dissection is reported. Because the visceral arteries originated from different, equivalently perfused lumens and the descending aorta was circumferentially calcified (porcelain aorta) limiting the possibilities of anastomosing, careful planning of the surgical strategy was of utmost importance. The complex surgery consisted of ascending and total arch replacement using the 'frozen elephant trunk' technique with Thoraflex™ Hybrid Prosthesis (Vascutek, Terumo, Inchinnan, Scotland); however, before insertion of the stent graft, an angioscopic resection of the dissection membrane in the proximal part of the descending aorta was carried out to ensure a complete expansion of the distal edge of the stent within the entire common lumen of the aorta and unimpaired distal flow in both lumens below the stent graft. The surgery and the postoperative course were uneventful. PMID:27002017

  4. Long-term outcome of combined modality therapy in retroperitoneal and deep-trunk soft-tissue sarcoma: analysis of prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome of surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in retroperitoneal and deep-trunk soft-tissue sarcoma, and to identify the prognostic factors for local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Methods and Materials: Between January 1980 and December 1998, 60 patients with nonmetastatic retroperitoneal and deep-trunk soft-tissue sarcoma were treated at Wayne State University using combined surgery and RT. The location was retroperitoneal in 38 patients (63%) and deep trunk in 22 (27%). Forty-six patients (76%) were treated for primary disease and 14 (24%) for recurrent disease. The resection margins were negative in 24 patients (40%), close in 3 (5%), and positive in 33 (55%; 18 microscopic and 15 macroscopic). The median tumor size was 8.6 cm (range 2-55). External beam RT (EBRT; median dose 5220 cGy) was given to 44 patients (73%) and combined EBRT (median dose 4200 cGy) and brachytherapy (median dose 1600 cGy) to 16 patients (27%). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were conducted to identify the possible associations between patient age, race, gender, tumor site, histologic features, grade, size, stage, surgical margin, RT dose, modality (EBRT vs. EBRT plus brachytherapy), and presentation (primary vs. recurrent) and disease control. Results: The actuarial 5- and 10-year disease-free survival rate was 53% and 44%, respectively. Disease-free survival was significantly associated with female gender on univariate analysis (67% for female patients and 37% for male patients at 5 years, p=0.05). On multivariate analysis, both gender and surgical margin had borderline significance (p=0.06). The actuarial local control rate was 71% and 54% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The median time to local relapse was 10.2 months, with 75% of all failures occurring within 29 months. The surgical margin status was significantly associated with local control (78% for patients with negative or close margins vs

  5. Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography Angiography Imitating a Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysm in Subsequent Conventional Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Lee, Jae Il

    2015-12-01

    Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is rare but becoming more common, with increasing use of CTA for various cerebral vascular diseases. We report on two cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which the CTA showed an upper basilar trunk saccular lesion suggesting ruptured aneurysm. However, immediate subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) failed to show a vascular lesion. In one case, repeated follow up DSA was also negative. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged without any neurologic deficit. In the other case, the patient showed sudden mental deterioration on the third hospital day and her brain CT showed rebleeding. The immediate follow up DSA showed contrast stagnation in the vicinity of the upper basilar artery, suggestive of pseudoaneurysm. Double stents deployment at the disease segment was performed. Due to the frequent use of CTA, contrast extravasation is an increasingly common observation. Physicians should be aware that basilar artery extravasation can mimic the appearance of an aneurysm. PMID:27066442

  6. Study and Application of Internal Coating Technique to Drag Reduction of the Trunk Pipeline for the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuShixin; QuShenyang; LinZhu

    2004-01-01

    Coverage layer coated in the internal wall of pipeline enables the friction drag to be reduced, the throughput and the gas transmission efficiency to be increased, the frequency of pigging and the number of the intermediate compressor station to be reduced, and the power consumption of the compressor to be decreased etc. The drag reduction is a high advanced scientific technique with outstanding economical benefit. The study and application of internal coating technique for drag reduction of 4000km trunk pipeline in West-East gas transmission pipeline (WEGTP) project are described, in which the main points are the drag reduction principle, coating process and the indoor study of this technique with own-decided knowledge property right at home.

  7. Effect of trunk sagittal attitude on shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics in able-bodied subjects during gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Leardini

    Full Text Available It has been shown that an original attitude in forward or backward inclination of the trunk is maintained at gait initiation and during locomotion, and that this affects lower limb loading patterns. However, no studies have shown the extent to which shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics are modified during gait due to this sagittal inclination attitude. Thirty young healthy volunteers were analyzed during level walking with video-based motion analysis. Reflecting markers were mounted on anatomical landmarks to form a two-marker shoulder line segment, and a four-marker thorax and pelvis segments. Absolute and relative spatial rotations were calculated, for a total of 11 degrees of freedom. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 according to the median of mean thorax inclination angle over the gait cycle. Preliminary MANOVA analysis assessed whether gender was an independent variable. Then two-factor nested ANOVA was used to test the possible effect of thorax inclination on body segments, planes of motion and gait periods, separately. There was no significant difference in all anthropometric and spatio-temporal parameters between the two groups, except for subject mass. The three-dimensional kinematics of the thorax and pelvis were not affected by gender. Nested ANOVA revealed group effect in all segment rotations apart those at the pelvis, in the sagittal and frontal planes, and at the push-off. Attitudes in sagittal thorax inclination altered trunk segments kinematics during gait. Subjects with a backward thorax showed less thorax-to-pelvis motion, but more shoulder-to-thorax and thorax-to-laboratory motion, less motion in flexion/extension and in lateral bending, and also less motion during push-off. This contributes to the understanding of forward propulsion and sideways load transfer mechanisms, fundamental for the maintenance of balance and the risk of falling.

  8. 137Cs distribution in mulberry (Morus alba) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and effect of spray application of a liquid potassium fertilizer onto trunk surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, contamination of mulberry-leaf tea with over 100Bq kg-1 137Cs was found. We therefore investigated 137Cs distribution in mulberry trees (Morus alba) and soil in Nihonmatsu City from 2012. As a result, mulberry leaves near the end of branches (0 - 30 cm), which are usually used as edible leaves, were shown to contain higher 137Cs concentration than the others. Trunk showed highest 137Cs concentration among the plant parts of mulberry investigated, while root 137Cs concentration was relatively low. Autoradiographic studies for leaf, bark and cross-sectional trunk suggest that radioactive substances were deposited onto bark and leaf radioactive contamination could be due to translocation of 137Cs from trunk. Spray application of 0.5% KH2PO4 solution onto trunk surface significantly reduced 137Cs concentration in edible leaves emerged about one month after the application. However, the effect was limited and insufficient to solve the problem of radioactive contamination in edible mulberry leaves. (author)

  9. Seasonal dynamics in the stable carbon isotope composition δ¹³C from non-leafy branch, trunk and coarse root CO₂ efflux of adult deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptz, Daniel; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-03-01

    Respiration is a substantial driver of carbon (C) flux in forest ecosystems and stable C isotopes provide an excellent tool for its investigation. We studied seasonal dynamics in δ¹³C of CO₂ efflux (δ¹³C(E)) from non-leafy branches, upper and lower trunks and coarse roots of adult trees, comparing deciduous Fagus sylvatica (European beech) with evergreen Picea abies (Norway spruce). In both species, we observed strong and similar seasonal dynamics in the δ¹³C(E) of above-ground plant components, whereas δ¹³C(E) of coarse roots was rather stable. During summer, δ¹³C(E) of trunks was about -28.2‰ (Beech) and -26.8‰ (Spruce). During winter dormancy, δ¹³C(E) increased by 5.6-9.1‰. The observed dynamics are likely related to a switch from growth to starch accumulation during fall and remobilization of starch, low TCA cycle activity and accumulation of malate by PEPc during winter. The seasonal δ¹³C(E) pattern of branches of Beech and upper trunks of Spruce was less variable, probably because these organs were additionally supplied by winter photosynthesis. In view of our results and pervious studies, we conclude that the pronounced increases in δ¹³C(E) of trunks during the winter results from interrupted access to recent photosynthates. PMID:21054435

  10. 专网通信系统传输链路端到端高可靠性应用%Ensure The Security of Data Transmission in Trunking Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚同平; 潘成; 张达

    2015-01-01

    Trunking communication system has been fully turned to digital, more and more business functions(e.g.signaling, voice, data, video and so on) are carried by bearer network trunking communication system, and the type and structure of bearer network are also becoming more complex. IP bearer network face enormous challenges as the basis for trunking communication system which is running many kinds of business. Link quality management and data security transmission design to ensure safe of trunking communication system data is very import. First introduce QoS and encryption technology, second analysis of how each node implement QoS and encryption technology to ensue reliability and security of trunking communication system.%集群通信系统已经全面转向数字化,系统业务功能不断丰富,从而导致集群系统承载网中的业务数据类型(信令、语音、数据、视频等等)也越来越多,且承载网络的类型和结构也日益变得复杂,作为集群通信系统各项业务功能运行基础的I P承载网面临着巨大的挑战。为了保证集群各项业务的安全可靠运行,关于链路质量管理和数据安全传输设计应用显得尤为重要。本文介绍了QoS及加密技术,分析了在集群系统中各节点如何实现QoS及数据加密来保证集群业务的可靠和安全性。

  11. Cryptococcus randhawai sp. nov., a novel anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast isolated from tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa (peepal tree) from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zia U; Ahmad, Suhail; Hagen, Ferry; Fell, Jack W; Kowshik, Tusharantak; Chandy, Rachel; Boekhout, Teun

    2010-03-01

    A novel anamorphic Cryptococcus species is described, which was isolated in New Delhi (India) from decaying wood of a tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa. On the basis of sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 region sequences, the isolate belonged to the Cryptococcus albidus cluster (Filobasidiales, Tremellomycetes) and was closely related to Cryptococcus saitoi, Cryptococcus cerealis and Cryptococcus friedmannii with 98% sequence identity. Phenotypically, the species differed from C. saitoi with respect to growth temperature (up to 37degrees C), presence of a thin capsule, ability to grow in the absence of vitamins, and inability to assimilate citrate and ethylamine. With respect to C. friedmannii, it differed in growth temperature, ability to assimilate lactose, raffinose, L: -rhamnose, myo-inositol, and inability to utilize citrate. Furthermore, our isolate also differed from C. cerealis in growth temperature, presence of capsule and inability to assimilate L: -sorbose. In view of the above phenotypic differences and unique rDNA sequences, we consider that our isolate represents a new species of Cryptococcus, and therefore, a new species, Cryptococcus randhawai is proposed for this taxon. The type strain J11/2002 has been deposited in the culture collection of the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS10160) and CABI Biosciences (IMI 393306). PMID:20091225

  12. Quick lateral movements of the trunk in a seated position reflect mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) function in frail elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Kimura, Daisuke; Okamoto, Kensuke; Arai, Shin; Iwata, Hiroshi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    A novel and safe performance test for measuring mobility is described. The test, which we have named the Seated Side Tapping test (Side Tapping test), requires the subjects to move their bodies laterally to the left and right in turn as quickly as possible whilst remaining in a seated position. We examined the associations between the results of the new test and those of other mobility tests, ADL, and the use of walking aids. The participants were 75 frail elderly people who were receiving rehabilitation services. Gait speed and the timed up and go (TUG) test were employed as mobility tests, and the participants' use of walking aids was recorded. The ADL score was assessed using the Barthel Index. Significant correlations were found between the side tapping test and gait speed (r=-0.59, pwalking aids. These results indicate that an ability to perform quick lateral trunk movements in a seated position reflects their mobility during standing. Thus, we concluded that since the side tapping test is simple and safe, it is useful for detecting mobility impairments, ADL levels, and the need for walking aids, especially in frail elderly individuals. PMID:23270712

  13. Oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse derived solid acid catalysts for rapid esterification of fatty acids and moisture-assisted transesterification of oils under pseudo-infinite methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebor, Francis; Khairuddean, Melati; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Boey, Peng Lim

    2014-04-01

    The use of pseudo-infinite methanol in increasing the rate of esterification and transesterification reactions was studied using oil palm trunk (OPT) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) derived solid acid catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by incomplete carbonisation at 400°C for 8h, followed by sulfonation at 150°C for 15h and characterised using TGA/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, EA and titrimetric determinations of acid sites. Under optimal reaction conditions, the process demonstrated rapid esterification of palmitic acid, with FAME yields of 93% and 94% in 45min for OPT and SCB catalysts, respectively. With the process, moisture levels up to 16.7% accelerated the conversion of low FFA oils by sulfonated carbon catalysts, through moisture-induced violent bumping. Moisture assisted transesterification of palm olein containing 1.78% FFA and 8.33% added water gave FAME yield of 90% in 10h, which was two folds over neat oil. PMID:24561631

  14. The Elephant Trunk Nebula and the Trumpler 37 cluster: Contribution of triggered star formation to the total population of an HII region

    CERN Document Server

    Getman, Konstantin V; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Broos, Patrick S; Kuhn, Michael A; Garmire, Gordon P

    2012-01-01

    Rich young stellar clusters produce HII regions whose expansion into the nearby molecular cloud is thought to trigger the formation of new stars. However, the importance of this mode of star formation is uncertain. This investigation seeks to quantify triggered star formation (TSF) in IC 1396A (a.k.a., the Elephant Trunk Nebula), a bright rimmed cloud (BRC) on the periphery of the nearby giant HII region IC 1396 produced by the Trumpler 37 cluster. X-ray selection of young stars from Chandra X-ray Observatory data is combined with existing optical and infrared surveys to give a more complete census of the TSF population. Over 250 young stars in and around IC 1396A are identified; this doubles the previously known population. A spatio-temporal gradient of stars from the IC 1396A cloud toward the primary ionizing star HD 206267 is found. We argue that the TSF mechanism in IC 1396A is the radiation-driven implosion process persisting over several million years. Analysis of the X-ray luminosity and initial mass f...

  15. Validation of optimal coronary angiography angle for the branch form of the left main trunk by use of multi detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to derive optimal coronary angiography (CAG) angle for the form information on the left main trunk (LMT) by use of multi detector computed tomography (MDCT). To verify the accuracy of angle measurement with MDCT, the angle of phantom with known angle was compared with MDCT (CT method) and angiography (AG method). The take-off angle of LMT was derived using CT method from 200 cases who underwent cardiac CT in this institution. In the phantom, both CT and AG methods were indicated to have high accuracy and the errors were very small (0.3%, 0.3%). The take-off mean angle of LMT was 130.7±19.0 degrees in male, and 139.1±19.3 degrees in female. The optimal CAG angle was indicated at left anterior oblique (LAO) 41 degrees (male) and LAO 49 degrees (female). The optimal CAG angle of LMT was derived from the CT method. (author)

  16. [A Case of Fibromuscular Dysplasia in a Patient with Various Main Trunk Dissections in the Head and Neck over a Short Period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Osamu; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Nashimoto, Takeo; Kikuchi, Bumpei

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)from an intracranial vertebral artery(VA)dissection in a patient with fibromuscular dysplasia(FMD)who presented with headache. A 54-year-old woman complained of spontaneous occipital headache. The dilatation of the left VA was detected on magnetic resonance angiography(MRA). She was diagnosed with left VA dissection(headache onset type). After sudden onset of headache on the second day of hospitalization, her consciousness level, as defined by the Japan Coma Scale, was 300. Computed tomography(CT)revealed SAH. Cerebral angiography showed the dilatation of the left intracranial VA and contrast material pooling, which was suspected to be a sign of dissection. We performed VA intravascular ligation by coil embolization. The postoperative course was good but postoperative MRA revealed arterial wall irregularities in both the extra cranial internal carotid artery and the right VA. Cerebral angiography showed the presence of the string-of-beads sign at these arteries. She was diagnosed with FMD. SAH might develop during the follow-up period in patients with VA dissection, even those in whom the initial symptom is headache. In addition, cases of FMD might also be complicated by various lesions of the main trunk of the cerebral artery. PMID:27384119

  17. Effects of timber harvest on phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in a production forest: abundance of species on tree trunks and prevalence of trypanosomatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest is being exploited for timber production. The harvest removes trees, used by sand flies as resting sites, and decreases the canopy, used as refuges by some hosts. The present study evaluated the impact of the timber harvest, the abundance of sand flies, and their trypanosomatid infection rates before and after selective logging. The study was accomplished in terra-firme production forest in an area of timber harvest, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Sand fly catches were carried out in three areas: one before and after the timber harvest, and two control areas, a nature preservation area and a previously exploited area. The flies were caught by aspiration on tree trunks. Samples of sand flies were dissected for parasitological examination. In the site that suffered a harvest, a larger number of individuals was caught before the selective extraction of timber, showing significant difference in relation to the number of individuals and their flagellate infection rates after the logging. The other two areas did not show differences among their sand fly populations. This fact is suggestive of a fauna sensitive to the environmental alterations associated with selective logging.

  18. Trunk and hip muscle recruitment patterns during the prone leg extension following a lateral ankle sprain: A prospective case study pre and post injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman Gregory J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and case presentation The prone leg extension (PLE is commonly used to identify dysfunction of muscle recruitment patterns. The prone leg extension is theorized to identify proximal muscle disturbances which are a result of distal injury or dysfunction (i.e. an ankle sprain. This case study compares the trunk and hip muscle (bilateral lower erector spine, ipsilateral hamstring and ipsilateral gluteus maximus timing during a PLE of a 27 year old female runner during a healthy state (pre ankle sprain and 2 and 8 weeks post ankle sprain. Results and discussion The gluteus maximus muscle onsets at 8 weeks post injury appeared to occur earlier compared with 2 weeks post injury. The Right Erector Spinae at 8 weeks post injury was also active earlier compared with the participant's non-injured state. A large degree of variability can be noted within trials on the same day for all muscle groups. Conclusion An acute ankle injury did not result in a delay in gluteus maximus muscle activation. The utility of the prone leg extension as a clinical and functional test is questionable due to the normal variability seen during the test and our current inability to determine what is normal and what is dysfunctional.

  19. How Far Can We Go with Laparoscopic Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma? Laparoscopic Sectionectomy of the Liver Combined with the Resection of the Major Hepatic Vein Main Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenichi Morise

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the reports of laparoscopic major liver resection are increasing, hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs close to the liver hilum and/or major hepatic veins are still considered contraindications. There is virtually no report of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR for HCC which involves the main trunk of major hepatic veins. We present our method for the procedure. We experienced 6 cases: 3 right anterior, 2 left medial, and 1 right posterior extended sectionectomies with major hepatic vein resection; tumor sizes are within 40–75 (median: 60 mm. The operating time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay are within 341–603 (median: 434 min, 100–750 (300 ml, and 8–44 (18 days. There was no mortality and 1 patient developed postoperative pleural effusion. For these procedures, we propose that the steps listed below are useful, taking advantages of the laparoscopy-specific view. (1 The Glissonian pedicle of the section is encircled and clamped. (2 Liver transection on the ischemic line is performed in the caudal to cranial direction. (3 During transection, the clamped Glissonian pedicle and the peripheral part of hepatic vein are divided. (4 The root of hepatic vein is divided in the good view from caudal and dorsal direction.

  20. Fermentative l-lactic acid production from pretreated whole slurry of oil palm trunk treated by hydrothermolysis and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, In-Yong; Oh, Young-Hoon; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yu, Ju-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    A simple and cost-effective biochemical conversion process consisting of hydrothermal treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated whole slurry (PWS) was developed for producing l-lactic acid (L-LA) from oil palm trunk (OPT). When OPT was hydrothermally treated at optimal condition capable of achieving maximum yield of hemicellulosic sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis, the enzymatic digestibility of the PWS afforded a yield of 81.4% of the theoretical glucose yield (TGY). However, glucose yield from washed pretreated solid (WPS) was only 43.5% of TGY. The use of two hydrolysates from PWS and WPS for fermentation by Lactobacillus paracasei engineered to selectively produce L-LA afforded yields of 89.5% and 45.8% of the theoretical LA yield (TLY), respectively. This study confirmed the inevitable extensive sugar loss during washing of pretreated slurry due to loss of soluble starch. Alternatively, the proposed design process is considered suitable for converting OPT to L-LA without such starch loss. PMID:25768416

  1. Prognostic variables in patients with primary soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity and trunk treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy or neoadjuvant sequential chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NRT) is an effective strategy to treat soft tissue sarcomas (STS). However, the role of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) remains to be determined. From May 1999 to July 2010, 112 patients with localized STS of the extremity and trunk who were treated with NRT or NCRT followed by surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes including overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Prognostic variables were determined by univariate (UVA) and multivariate analyses (MVA). Median follow-up was 37 months. Median RT dose was 50 Gy. Forty-nine patients received NCRT. Overall limb-preservation rate was 99% and local control was 97%. The estimated 3-year OS, DFS, and DMFS were 86%, 68%, and 72%, respectively. Age was the only variable to predict for OS, DFS and DMFS on UVA. Age ≥ 70 predicted for poor OS, stage III disease predicted for poor DFS and DMFS, and the addition of chemotherapy predicted for improved DMFS on MVA. Excellent rates of local control and limb-preservation were observed in patients with primary STS treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. Neoadjuvant sequential chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy may be considered for young patients with stage III STS

  2. Electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy side promotes brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the ischemic cerebral cortex of a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongjun Guo; Lumin Wang

    2012-01-01

    A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was established by suture occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. In situ hybridization results showed that the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic rat cerebral cortex increased after cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury. Low frequency continuous wave electroacupuncture (frequency 2-6 Hz, current intensity 2 mA) stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side increased the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic cerebral cortex 14 days after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. At the same time, electroacupuncture stimulation of the healthy brachial plexus truck significantly decreased neurological function scores and alleviated neurological function deficits. These findings suggest that electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side can greatly increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression and improve neurological function.

  3. The examination of the musculoskeletal system based only on the evaluation of pelvic-hip complex muscle and trunk flexibility may lead to failure to screen children for generalized joint hypermobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Czaprowski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the clinical assessment of the pelvic-hip complex muscle and trunk flexibility is sufficient for diagnosing generalized joint hypermobility (GJH.A cross-sectional study.Center of Body Posture in Olsztyn, North East Poland.The study included 136 females and 113 males aged 10-13 years.In order to assess muscle flexibility, the straight leg raise (SLR test (for hamstring and modified Thomas test for one- (O-JHF and two-joint (T-JHF hip flexors were performed. To evaluate trunk flexibility the fingertip-to-floor (FTF and lateral trunk flexion (LTF tests were used. The GJH occurrence was assessed with the use of nine-point Beighton scale (threshold value ≥5 points for females, ≥4 for males. The analysis was carried out separately for females and males.There were no significant differences between females with versus without GJH, and males with versus without GJH regarding SLR (p = 0.86, p = 0.19 for females and males, respectively, O-JHF (p = 0.89, p = 0.35 for females and males, respectively, T-JHF (p = 0.77, p = 0.4 for females and males, respectively, FTF (p = 0.19, p = 0.84 for females and males, respectively and LTF (p = 0.58, p = 0.35 for females and males, respectively tests results.Clinical examination of the pelvic-hip complex muscles and trunk flexibility by use of SLR, O-JHF, T-JHF, FTF and LTF revealed to be insufficient in diagnosing GJH in children aged 10-13 years. Thus, the Beighton scale should be considered a standard element of physiotherapeutic examination of the musculoskeletal system in children and youth.

  4. Inventions of the new instruments for pointing and measuring of any heights of trunks and for remote-measuring the upper diameters by using the red-laser-pointer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of pointing and measuring any heights of trunks is based on the theory of the similar triangle. The new apparatus, that is able to point and measure any heights of trunk, is constituted of the red-laser-pointer that is able to move vertically on the observing point, the horizontal-scale that is able to lengthen or shorten its length as 1/100 distance from the observing point to measuring trees, and the vertical-object-scale that has thin horizontal-frames every centimeter as a ladder. When the length of horizontal-scale is adjusted to 1/100 distance from the observing point to the measuring tree, and when the laser-beam is radiated through observing point to the measuring tree, through nearly upper (or under) edge of the thin horizontal-frames of the vertical-object-scale, the any numbers of the thin horizontal-frames of the vertical-object-scale that are radiated by the red-laser-pointer are equal to the meter-lengths of the trunk of the measuring tree. And then the upper diameters that are pointed by the red-laser-pointer can be measured from the remote points as the same distance between two other parallel beams of the two red-laser-pointers that are attached on the remote calipers instead of its arms

  5. Estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and ground reaction forces during trunk bending using a full-body ambulatory inertial motion capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, G S; Chang, C C; Kingma, I; Dennerlein, J T; van Dieën, J H

    2016-04-11

    Inertial motion capture (IMC) systems have become increasingly popular for ambulatory movement analysis. However, few studies have attempted to use these measurement techniques to estimate kinetic variables, such as joint moments and ground reaction forces (GRFs). Therefore, we investigated the performance of a full-body ambulatory IMC system in estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and GRFs during symmetric, asymmetric and fast trunk bending, performed by nine male participants. Using an ambulatory IMC system (Xsens/MVN), L5/S1 moments were estimated based on the upper-body segment kinematics using a top-down inverse dynamics analysis, and GRFs were estimated based on full-body segment accelerations. As a reference, a laboratory measurement system was utilized: GRFs were measured with Kistler force plates (FPs), and L5/S1 moments were calculated using a bottom-up inverse dynamics model based on FP data and lower-body kinematics measured with an optical motion capture system (OMC). Correspondence between the OMC+FP and IMC systems was quantified by calculating root-mean-square errors (RMSerrors) of moment/force time series and the interclass correlation (ICC) of the absolute peak moments/forces. Averaged over subjects, L5/S1 moment RMSerrors remained below 10Nm (about 5% of the peak extension moment) and 3D GRF RMSerrors remained below 20N (about 2% of the peak vertical force). ICCs were high for the peak L5/S1 extension moment (0.971) and vertical GRF (0.998). Due to lower amplitudes, smaller ICCs were found for the peak asymmetric L5/S1 moments (0.690-0.781) and horizontal GRFs (0.559-0.948). In conclusion, close correspondence was found between the ambulatory IMC-based and laboratory-based estimates of back load. PMID:26795123

  6. Another unique river: a consideration of some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile River in northwestern Ethiopia in relationship to their aquatic food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappelman, John; Tewabe, Dereje; Todd, Lawrence; Feseha, Mulugeta; Kay, Marvin; Kocurek, Gary; Nachman, Brett; Tabor, Neil; Yadeta, Meklit

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic food resources are important components of many modern human hunter-gatherer diets and yet evidence attesting to the widespread exploitation of this food type appears rather late in the archaeological record. While there are times when, for example, the capture of fish and shellfish requires sophisticated technology, there are other cases when the exact ecological attributes of an individual species and the particulars of its environment make it possible for these foods to be incorporated into the human diet with little or no tool use and only a minimal time investment. In order to better understand the full set of variables that are considered in these sorts of foraging decisions, it is necessary to detail the attributes of each particular aquatic environment. We discuss here some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile and Blue Rivers in the Horn of Africa. Unlike typical perennial rivers, these 'temporary' rivers flow only during a brief but intense wet season; during the much longer dry season, the rivers are reduced to a series of increasingly disconnected waterholes, and the abundant and diverse fish and mollusk populations are trapped in ever smaller evaporating pools. The local human population today utilizes a number of diverse capture methods that range from simple to complex, and vary according to the size and depth of the waterhole and the time of the year. When we view the particular characteristics of an individual river system, we find that each river is 'unique' in its individual attributes. The Horn of Africa is believed to be along the route that modern humans followed on their migration out of Africa, and it is likely that the riverine-based foraging behaviors of these populations accompanied our species on its movement into the rest of the Old World. PMID:25017504

  7. The Effect of Veneer Layers on the Bending Shear Strength and Delamination of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from Oil Palm Trunk (OPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Nordin, K.; Bahari, S. A.; Ahmad, M.

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the number of veneer layers on the bending shear strength and delamination of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from oil palm trunk (OPT). Five (5), Six (6) and Seven (7) veneer layers of OPT LVL were manufactured. The dimension of the boards was 45 cm by 45 cm by 1.9 cm. The boards were hot pressed for 13 minutes at a pressure of 31 kgf per m2. Urea formaldehyde (UF) supplied by a local adhesive manufacturer was used as the binder for the boards. The bending shear tests consisted of the edgewise and flatwise tests, whereas the delamination test consisted of the cold and hot water boil tests. The preparation of the test specimens and tests set-up was in accordance to the Japanese Standards, JAS-1991 [1]. Six replications were used for each test. The results were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using the Duncan's Multiple Range Test to test for significant differences. The results indicated that as the number of layers increased the strength also increased. All the boards passed the standard. The difference in strength between the different types of samples was significant at 95 percent confidence level. Bending shear failures were primarily in the veneers. It is possible to use the boards as light weight interior building and furniture components. Over the years, the supply of quality timber resources from the natural forest has decrease as the wood-based industry experienced rapid growth. The supply of rubberwood for the furniture industry is also decreasing as a result of increase latex price. Accordingly, OPT LVL can be an alternative or supplementary raw material for the wood-based industry.

  8. the Extremity and Superficial Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Weir

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Limb-sparing surgery combined with radiation treatment has become the accepted treatment for patients with high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma. Adjuvant radiation was not routinely used at this institution for patients with clear margins after surgery.This retrospective review analyses the outcome of this group of patients.

  9. Trunk Orientation, Stability, and Quadrupedalism

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Wright, W. G.; St George, R. J.; Gurfinkel, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Tan and Colleagues (2005–2012) have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists, and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area has undergone a convincing critique (Downey, 2010) and ended with a call “… to move in a different direction … away from thinking solely i...

  10. Trunk orientation, stability and quadrupedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P Ivanenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Uner Tan and colleagues (2005-2012 have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area has undergone a convincing critique (Downey 2010 and ended with a call "... to move in a different direction … away from thinking solely in terms of genetic abnormality and evolutionary atavism". We consider quadrupedalism as a ‘natural experiment’ that may contribute to our knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying our balance system and our tendency toward normal (upright posture. Bipedalism necessitates a number of characteristics that distinguish us from our ancestors and present-day mammals, including: size and shape of the bones of the foot, structure of the axial and proximal musculature, and the orientation of the human body and head. In this review we address the results of experimental studies on the mechanisms that stabilize the body in healthy people, as well as how these mechanisms may be disturbed in various forms of clinical pathology. These disturbances are related primarily to automatic rather than voluntary control of posture and suggest that human quadrupedalism is a behavior that can result from adaptive processes triggered by disorders in postural tone and environmental cues. These results will serve as a starting point for comparing and contrasting bi- and quadrupedalism.

  11. Trunk orientation, stability, and quadrupedalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Y P; Wright, W G; St George, R J; Gurfinkel, V S

    2013-01-01

    Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Tan and Colleagues (2005-2012) have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists, and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area has undergone a convincing critique (Downey, 2010) and ended with a call "… to move in a different direction … away from thinking solely in terms of genetic abnormality and evolutionary atavism." We consider quadrupedalism as a "natural experiment" that may contribute to our knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying our balance system and our tendency toward normal (upright) posture. Bipedalism necessitates a number of characteristics that distinguish us from our ancestors and present-day mammals, including: size and shape of the bones of the foot, structure of the axial and proximal musculature, and the orientation of the human body and head. In this review we address the results of experimental studies on the mechanisms that stabilize the body in healthy people, as well as how these mechanisms may be disturbed in various forms of clinical pathology. These disturbances are related primarily to automatic rather than voluntary control of posture and suggest that human quadrupedalism is a behavior that can result from adaptive processes triggered by disorders in postural tone and environmental cues. These results will serve as a starting point for comparing and contrasting bi- and quadrupedalism. PMID:23504009

  12. Trunk orientation, stability and quadrupedalism

    OpenAIRE

    YuriPIvanenko; W.GeoffreyWright; RebeccaSt George

    2013-01-01

    Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Uner Tan and colleagues (2005-2012) have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area has undergone a convincing critique (Downey 2010) and ended with a call "... to move in a different direction … away from thinkin...

  13. Effects of transection of cervical sympathetic trunk on cerebral infarct volume and oxygen free radical levels in rats with focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangzhi Xiong; Yongxia Shi; Feng Xiao; Qingxiu Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stellate ganglion block (SGB) plays a protective role on the brain, but the precise mechanism of action is not clear.OBJECTIVE: To simulate SGB by transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk (TCST) and to investigate the TCST effects on changes in cerebral infarct volume and oxygen free radical levels in rats with focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A complete randomized control animal experiment was performed at the Institute of Neurological Diseases of Taihe Hospital, Yunyang Medical College from February to December 2005.MATERIALS: A total of 101 healthy Wistar rats, weighing 280-320g, of both genders, aged 17-18 weeks, were used in this study. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) was purchased from Changsha Hongyuan Biological Company. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) assay kits were provided by Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute.METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into a TCST group, a model group and a sham operation group. Successful models were included in the final analysis, with at least 20 rats in each group. After TCST, rat models of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were established in the TCST group by receiving middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by the intraluminal suture method for 2 hours, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Rat models of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were made in the model group. Rats in the sham operation group underwent experimental procedures as for the model group, threading depth of 10mm, and middle cerebral artery was not ligated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain tissue sections of ten rats from each group were used to measure cerebral infarct volume by TTC staining. Brain tissue homogenate of another ten rats from each group was used to detect SOD activities, MDA contents and NO levels. Rat neurological function was assessed by neurobehavioral measures.RESULTS: Cerebral infarct volume was bigger in the

  14. A comprehensive characterisation of the fibre composition and properties of a limb (Flexor digitorum superficialis, membri thoraci and a trunk (Psoas major muscle in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda Julia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibre type attributes and the relationships among their properties play an important role in the differences in muscle capabilities and features. Comprehensive characterisation of the skeletal muscles should study the degree of association between them and their involvement in muscle functionality. The purposes of the present study were to characterise the fibre type composition of a trunk (Psoas major, PM and a limb (Flexor digitorum, membri thoraci, FD muscle in the bovine species and to study the degree of coordination among contractile, metabolic and histological properties of fibre types. Immunohistochemical, histochemical and histological techniques were used. Results The fibre type composition was delineated immunohistochemically in calf muscle samples, identifying three pure (I, IIA, and IIX and two hybrid type fibres (I+IIA, and IIAX. Most of the fibres in FD were types I and IIA, while pure IIX were absent. All fibre types were found in PM, the IIX type being the most frequent. Compared to other species, small populations of hybrid fibres were detected. The five fibre types, previously identified, were ascribed to three different acid and alkaline mATPase activity patterns. Type I fibres had the highest oxidative capacity and the lowest glycolytic capacity. The reverse was true for the IIX fibres, whereas the type IIA fibres showed intermediate properties. Regarding the histological properties, type I fibres tended to be more capillarised than the II types. Correlations among contractile, metabolic and histological features on individual fibres were significantly different from zero (r values varied between -0.31 and 0.78. Hybrid fibre values were positioned between their corresponding pure types, and their positions were different regarding their metabolic and contractile properties. Conclusion Coordination among the contractile, metabolic and histological properties of fibres has been observed. However, the

  15. Influência da fisioterapia aquática no controle de tronco na síndrome de pusher: estudo de caso Influence of hydrotherapy on trunk control in the pusher syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Helita Zorél Meneghetti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de pusher, ou do não-alinhamento, é uma alteração do controle postural observada em pacientes com lesões encefálicas, que apresentam uma inclinação do tronco contralateral à lesão. O estudo visou analisar a influência da fisioterapia aquática no controle de tronco em um paciente de 78 anos com síndrome de pusher. Para o diagnóstico da síndrome foi utilizada a escala de avaliação do sintoma de empurrar (SCP, Scale for contraversive pushing. A simetria do tronco foi avaliada por fotogrametria, medindo-se, nas fotografias do paciente tiradas antes e depois do tratamento, os ângulos de alinhamento da cabeça, dos ombros e do tronco. A fisioterapia aquática consistiu em duas sessôes semanais de uma hora durante dois meses, totalizando 16 sessões, empregando os métodos Bad Ragaz e Halliwick, para fortalecimento da musculatura do tronco e dos membros superiores, respectivamente. Na avaliação após a intervenção, foi observada importante redução dos ângulos de inclinação da cabeça (de 31,7º para 10,6º, dos ombros (de 10,3º para 1,7º e do tronco (de 9,6º para 3,0º. O programa de fisioterapia aquática, portanto, propiciou ao participante com a síndrome de pusher sensível melhora na simetria e alinhamento do tronco.Pusher, or lateropulsion, syndrome is a clinical disorder following brain damage in which patients actively push away from the nonhemiparetic side, leading to a loss of postural balance. This study analysed the effect of hydrotherapy on trunk alignment in a 78 year-old male patient with the syndrome. Pusher syndrome was diagnosed by means of the scale for contraversive pushing. Trunk symmetry was assessed by photogrammetry: head, shoulder and trunk alignment angles were measured on photographs taken before and after treatment. Aquatic therapy consisted in two weekly one-hour sessions for two months (total 16 sessions, using the Bad Ragaz and the Halliwick techniques, with the purpose of

  16. Alterações eletromiográficas dos músculos do tronco de pacientes com hemiparesia após acidente vascular encefálico Electromyographic alterations of trunk muscle of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Iwamoto Marcucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O acidente vascular encefálico é a principal causa de incapacidade crônica em adultos, porém poucos estudos avaliaram a motricidade do tronco nestes indivíduos. OBJETIVO: Comparar a atividade mioelétrica do tronco entre indivíduos hemiparéticos e controle. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados oito indivíduos hemiparéticos e oito controles, por meio de eletromiografia de superfície (EMGs, durante atividades de flexão dos membros inferiores e rotação do tronco em supino; levantar e elevação dos membros superiores na posição sentada. RESULTADOS: O músculo reto abdominal parético apresentou maior ativação que o grupo controle (p=0,031 durante a flexão dos membros inferiores. Os músculos oblíquos apresentaram, bilateralmente, maior ativação na elevação dos membros inferiores do que na rotação (p=0,014 e p=0,002, respectivamente. Não houve diferenças entre músculos eretores durante as atividades. CONCLUSÃO: Os músculos flexores do tronco de indivíduos hemiparéticos apresentaram alterações motoras no reto abdominal do lado parético e realizam compensações por meio dos oblíquos externos.Stroke is the main cause of chronic disability in adults, but few studies evaluated the trunk motor activity in affected subjects. OBJECTIVE: To compare the myoelectrical activity of trunk muscle in hemiparetic and control subjects. METHOD: Eight hemiparetic and eight control subjects were assessed during lower extremities flexion and trunk rotation in supine position; stand up and rise up upper extremities in seated position. RESULTS: Paretic rectus abdominis presented a higher activation than control group (p=0.031 during lower extremities elevation. Obliquus externus abdominis showed a bilateral higher activation during lower extremities elevation than rotation activities (p=0.014 and p=0.002, respectively. There was no difference in extension activities comparison. CONCLUSION: Trunk flexor muscles of hemiparetic subjects demonstrated

  17. Place of the tomo-therapy in the irradiation of child trunk tumors; Place de la tomotherapie dans l'irradiation des tumeurs du tronc de l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneyton, V.; Quetin, P.; Meyer, P.; Niederst, C.; Noel, G. [Centre Paul-Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Lutz, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2009-10-15

    The life expectancy of these children suffering of trunk gliomas is catastrophic. The increased dose in the tumor volume could be a solution by increasing the rate of local control. The intensity modulated radiotherapy with a tomo-therapy device could allow to reach this objective, given the decrease of doses in organs at risk. The long term evaluation of the radiotherapy effects (neuro sensorial, neuro cognitive, second tumors) should be realised, however, if the purpose of lifetime increase is reached. (N.C.)

  18. 俄罗斯干线油气管道焊接加热方法探讨%Discussion on Welding Heating Method for Russia Trunk Oil & Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贵芝

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the advantage and necessity of welding heating for trunk oil & gas pipeline were put forward, the Russia technical specifications of welding heating were introduced, and the technical specifications of Russia, America and England were compared. The welding heating method of Russia trunk oil & gas pipeline, the analysis and discussion from experts to the said method were expatiated . Aiming at Russia technical documents, some supplements and amendment advice were put forward. In the end, constructive suggestion for China welding heating mode was brought forward.%提出了干线油气管道焊接加热的优点和必要性;介绍了俄罗斯焊接加热的技术规范,并与美、英两国的焊接加热方式进行比较.阐述了俄罗斯干线油气管道焊接加热的方法及专家对这些方法的分析和探讨,并针对俄罗斯焊接加热的相关技术文件提出了补充和修改建议.最后,对我国管道焊接加热方式提出了建设性意见.

  19. The effect of different supermarket checkout workstations on trunk kinematics of checkout operators O efeito de diferentes modelos de checkout na cinemática de operadores de supermercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. F. Rodacki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the effect of a standard and a modified checkout workstation during a simulated task on trunk postures of a supermarket checkout operator. METHODS: Eight participants performed a task involving grasping, scanning and depositing products, while 3D images of the trunk were collected. RESULTS: A number of kinematic changes were observed in trunk posture. A greater anterior flexion (3.0±1.2º and lateral bending during grasping (7.1±1.4º were found in the standard checkout workstation when compared to the modified model (p0.05. DISCUSSION: The modified checkout workstation provided less lateral bending of the trunk to grasp products (8.1º ± 2.8; p0.05, irrespective of the checkout workstations (p>0.05. The modified checkout workstation successfully reduced risk of injury in some aspects, particularly the problems associated with lateral bending of the trunk. Other studies are required to test whether such potential benefits are obtained on a daily basis. CONCLUSIONS: Supermarket checkout operators may be at high risk of occupational injury due to different workstation demands. Modifications to checkout workstation design are an attractive possibility to reduce postural stress and fatigue in checkout operators. Longitudinal studies are required to test whether changes observed in the present study are sustained in the long term.OBJETIVOS: Analisar o efeito de um modelo padrão e de um modificado de checkout durante uma tarefa simulada de um operador de caixa de supermercado. MÉTODOS: Oito participantes desempenharam uma tarefa envolvendo apanhar, ler e depositar produtos, enquanto imagens 3D do tronco foram coletadas. RESULTADOS: Um número de mudanças cinemáticas foram observadas na postura do tronco. Uma maior flexão anterior (3.0±1.2º e uma inclinação lateral durante o apanhar (7.1±1.4º foram encontradas no checkout padrão quando comparadas ao modelo modificado (p0.05. DISCUSSÃO: O checkout

  20. 11 cm Haughton D left cervical aortic arch aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    A 56 year old Caucasian man presented with sudden loss of consciousness while driving and was found to have an 11 cm Haughton D type left cervical aortic arch aneurysm with normal brachiocephalic branching and normal descending thoracic laterality but with considerable tortuosity and redundancy of aortic arch. The aneurysm arose between the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery. It compressed and stretched the left common carotid artery, compressed the pulmonary trunk and ...

  1. Primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcoma in a young dog

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Hun-Young; Kang, Hye-Mi; Lee, Mi-Young

    2014-01-01

    Primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcomas are uncommon tumors. A 30-kg, 2-year-old, intact female German shepherd was presented for evaluation of cachexia and respiratory distress of a few days’ duration. Lateral radiographic projection of the thorax revealed significant pleural effusion. Computed tomography revealed a cranial mediastinal mass effect adjacent to the heart. On surgical exploration, a pedunculated mass attached to the esophagus, trachea, brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavia...

  2. Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume em plantios de eucalyptus grandis Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume in eucalyptus grandis plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Márcio de Mello

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha, 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal.This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and

  3. 一种新的人体成分分析分段模型——检测系统设计及初步实验%A new trunk subdivision BIA model system design and preliminary experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娟; 赵舒; 王妍; 沙洪

    2009-01-01

    Objective Taking account of the deficiency in whole body impedance measurement and in the traditional segment measurement, an optimization towards bioelectrical impedance segmental model is developod, then a system based on the new model is designed and preliminary experiment is carried out. Methods A trunk subdivision model was proposed to avoid the undesirable effect from thorax and abdominal cavity on fat measurement. The new model-basod measuring system was established. In addition, the result of the experiment based on trunk subdivision Bio-Impedance Analysis (BIA) method was compared to the result obtained via Multislice Spiral Computer Tomography(MSCT). Results Focusing on trunk detection, the trunk subdivision BIA is able to distinguish the impedance of upper segment (thorax) and the impedance of lower segment (abdominal cavity). With the utilization of the impedance, the fat content of thorax and abdominal cavity can be calculated. Furthermore, the comparison results of the two methods above show excellent correlation. Conclusion The novel method is a good remedy to whole body model method and the traditional segment BIA (SBIA) method. It is an effective improvement in body composition analysis, well meets the requirements and purpose of body composition measurement and more physiologically meaningful.%目的 针对全身阻抗测量方法和传统分段阻抗测量法存在的问题,优化生物电阻抗人体成分分析(BIA)的分段模型,研制基于新模型的测量系统,进行初步实验.方法 分析人体胸部和腹部对脂肪测量的不同影响,提出新的躯干细分模型;对新模型进行理论分析,构建基于躯干细分模型BIA系统,进行多层螺旋CT(MSCT)法与新方法的人体成分测量对照实验.结果 以人体躯干部分为检测重点,基于躯干细分模型的BIA法能有效区分躯干上段和下段的阻抗值,从而得到人体的胸部和腹部脂肪含量.2种方法的对照试验结果显示

  4. Avaliação da modelagem tridimensional do tronco de Pinus elliottii a partir de dados laser terrestre / Evaluation of three-dimensional trunk modeling of Pinus elliottii from terrestrial laser data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rorai Pereira Martins Neto

    2012-10-01

    scanner and measured in the field after overthrown. To facilitate the operationalization in xylometer the trunk was divided into sections (logs of a meter long. The three-dimensional modeling consisted of two stages: pre-processing and processing the point cloud. Three-dimensional models were built of logs with triangular irregular network enabling the achievement of volumes compared to cubage Huber (tape measure and calipers. The evaluation of results indicates that the volume measurements obtained by using three-dimensional modeling of laser data was closer to the parametric value in the initial sections of the trunk, till the free section of branches. For other sections, the method using data from Huber caliper is pointed out as more appropriate. It was found that at the top of tree the high density of needles prevented the scanning laser to reach the surface of the trunk, and thus preventing the three-dimensional modeling. The development of automatic filtering of points which do not represent the surface of the trunk and the reconstruction of the top of the tree should be studied to improve the results obtained in three-dimensional modeling.

  5. Cardiac failure due to arteriovenous fistula with brachiocephalic stenosis: a gated heart case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are numerous causes of cardiac failure of which the commonest in our community include ischaemic cardiomyopathy, post-viral cardiomyopathy, alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy and drug-induced cardiomyopathy. All these entities cause low output cardiac failure however high output cardiac failure is also well recognised. This includes heart failure related to such conditions as hyperthyroidism, anaemia, pregnancy, beri-beri, and Paget's disease. A rare cause of high output cardiac failure is an arteriovenous fistula. We present an unusual case of a patient with end-stage renal failure on haemodialysis who developed extensive dilatation of their left arm arteriovenous fistula secondary to bachiocephalic vein stenosis. The labelled red blood cell gated heart blood pool study demonstrated decreased left ventricular function and extensive pooling of blood within the tortuous dilated left arm vessels. A follow-up study post-ligation of the arteriovenous fistula showed improvement of the left ventricular ejection fraction. The associated contrast venography findings are also demonstrated. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  6. Effect of High Heels on Biomechanics of a Walking Woman's Trunk and Lower Limbs%高跟鞋对行走中女性躯干、下肢的力学影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 吴文华

    2011-01-01

    It is very useful for designing suitable high heels that we investigate the biomechanical characteristics of a woman' s trunk and lower limbs , who is walking with high heehs. This paper summarizes the common impairment caused by high-heels, including platypodia, toe deformity, sprain of ankle, gonarthritis,backache. The gait characters of walking women in high heels are with little stride, low step speed, long gait cycle, more fluctuant center of gravity, shorter phase of single-limb stance. The characters on mechanics shows that the pressure on pelma is not even, the stress at knee joint increases, the muscle power of lower limbs gets weak, and even the load on spine augments. Therefore woman walking in high heels for a long time causes a lot of adverse effects on trunk and lower limbs, that means a woman should wear high heels as few as possible in daily life.%通过探讨高跟鞋对行走中女性躯干、下肢的生物力学影响,可以为设计更符合人体运动功能的高跟鞋提供理论依据.通过总结本文得出高跟鞋对女性的常见损伤有扁平足、足趾畸形、踝关节扭伤、膝关节炎、腰背酸痛;穿高跟鞋行走的步态特征是步幅小、步速慢、周期长、重心起伏大、单支撑时相缩短;其力学特征有足底受力不均匀、踝关节受力减少、膝关节内压力增大、下肢肌肉肌力变小、脊柱负荷加大等.总之长期穿高跟鞋行走对女性躯干、下肢产生许多不利影响,因此建议女性平时尽量少穿高跟鞋.

  7. Coil treatment of a fusiform upper basilar trunk aneurysm with a combination of ''kissing'' neuroform stents, TriSpan-, 3D- and fibered coils, and permanent implantation of the microguidewires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkes, H.; Mariushi, W.; Miloslavski, E.; Brew, S.; Kuehne, D. [Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Alfried Krupp Strasse 21, 45117, Essen (Germany); Kirsch, M. [Zentrum Radiologie, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Ernst Moritz Arndt Universitaet Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Endovascular coil occlusion of fusiform intracranial aneurysms without sacrifice of the parent artery can be technically challenging. Bridging of wide aneurysm necks with stents is common practice for side-wall aneurysms but is less frequently used for bifurcation aneurysms. We describe the technical aspects of the successful coil occlusion of a fusiform aneurysm of the upper basilar trunk, with preservation of the parent vessel. The procedure comprised the following steps: (a) stenting of the left V1- and proximal V2 segments; (b) simultaneous deployment of two Neuroform stents from both P1 segments down to the basilar artery (''kissing'' stents) (c) using a TriSpan device to hold (d) three-dimensional electrolytically detachable coils in place and (e) filling the aneurysmal lumen mainly with fibered electrolytically detachable coils; and finally (f) cutting the extracorporeal part of both microguidewires below the skin level in both groins, leaving the microguidewires as they were used for the deployment of the stents in place, thus reaching from both P2 segments down to the basilar artery and further proximally. (orig.)

  8. 树干注射印楝素对柑橘全爪螨的控制作用%Effect of Trunk Injection of Azadirachtin on the Control of Panonychus citri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾兆华; 王玉林; 杨广

    2013-01-01

    The control effect of azadirachtin with trunk injection at 1 - 3 mg per cm DBH (diameter at breast height) was above 90% on Panonychus citri (McGregor) 7 days after injection in the field, and remained above 75% in 60 days. The sublethal doses of azadirachtin on different developmental stages of P. citri were determined and their long-term effects on P. citri population were discovered to be the extension of developmental duration and reduced fecundity.%开展树干注射印楝素对柑橘全爪螨的控制作用研究.结果表明,每厘米胸径树干注射1~3 mg印楝素在药后7d对柑橘全爪螨田间防治效果可达90%以上,持续至60 d仍可达75 %以上;测定内吸印楝素对各螨态柑橘全爪螨的亚致死剂量,发现其对柑橘全爪螨种群具有延长发育历期、降低繁殖力的长期控制效应.

  9. Application of central plant cold recycling with foamed asphalt in provincial trunk highway%泡沫沥青厂拌冷再生技术在国省干线公路上应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅剑敏

    2015-01-01

    This paper selected the lime fly ash macadam base recycling material of national provincial trunk highway pavement,researched the foamed asphalt cold in-plant recycling,through the foam asphalt cold recycling laboratory tests,determined the optimum water content,maximum dry density and optimum asphalt content,and combining with the test road engineering,elaborated the construction technology and matters should pay attention to in construction process of cold in-plant recycling.%选用国省干线公路路面石灰粉煤灰碎石基层回收料进行泡沫沥青厂拌冷再生的研究,通过泡沫沥青冷再生室内试验,确定了最佳含水量、最大干密度以及最佳沥青用量,并结合试验路工程,阐述了厂拌冷再生的施工工艺及施工过程中应注意的事项。

  10. Tronco de coronária esquerda ocluso secundário a Lues terciária Tronco de coronaria izquierda ocluido secundario a Lúes terciaria Occlusion of the left coronary trunk secondary to tertiary syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 27 anos, portador de sífilis terciária, manifestando isquemia miocárdica, com angina instável, secundária à oclusão do tronco da coronária esquerda. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelos achados da sorologia e da patologia do fragmento da aorta.Paciente de 27 años, portador de sífilis terciaria, manifestando isquemia miocárdica, con angina inestable, secundaria a la oclusión del tronco de la coronaria izquierda. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por los resultados de la serología y de la patología del fragmento de la aorta.A 27-year-old patient with tertiary syphilis, manifested as myocardial ischemia, presenting unstable angina, secondary to left coronary trunk occlusion. The diagnosis was confirmed by the serological findings and the pathological assessment of the aorta fragment.

  11. [The First Successful Application of a Mask with a Left Side Slit for Passing the Trunk of an Endoscope In Situ and Enabling Respiratory Support during Sedation for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tomoko; Maekawa, Kengo; Tokunaga, Yukiko; Oyoshi, Takafumi; Kakihara, Satoshi; Matsushita, Ikuo

    2015-10-01

    Sedation in patients during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy involves the risk of respiratory depression. Ventilation support with a conventional face mask without removing an endoscope is impossible. We devised a ventilation mask with a slit and membranous valve on the left side wall and the circular upper end enabling to pass the trunk of an endoscope in situ, based on an idea published in the Japanese Journal of Anesthesia "Masui" 2013; 62: 105-8. An 82-year-old woman was scheduled for GI endoscopy for severe abdominal pain. An endoscope was inserted into her GI tract through the mouth after midazolam 1.5 mg i.v. Soon after the examination began, she developed respiratory depression, and her SpO2 gradually decreased to 84%, despite oxygen insufflated around the nose and mouth. The new slit mask was applied without removing the endoscope, and respiratory support was started by bag-valve method. Her SpO2 recovered and remained above 95% thereafter as the endoscopic examination continued. The side slit mask offers important advantages allowing its application in situ after an endoscope being inserted and by enabling positive pressure ventilation without interrupting the endoscopic procedure. PMID:26742409

  12. Padrão de co-ativação dos músculos do tronco durante exercícios com haste oscilatória Trunk muscles co-activation patterns during exercises with oscillatory pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nise Ribeiro Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou comparar o padrão de co-ativação dos músculos do tronco durante exercícios com uma haste oscilatória. Participaram do estudo doze voluntárias, que realizaram três diferentes exercícios. A atividade eletromiográfica foi coletada dos músculos oblíquo interno (OI, oblíquo externo (OE, reto abdominal (RA, multifido (MU e iliocostal lombar (IL. O sinal de eletromiografia (EMG foi analisado no domínio do tempo (RMS e foram calculadas as razões: ântero-posterior (A/P=RA+OE+OI/MU+IL, MU/IL e OE/OI. A oscilação bilateral da haste no plano frontal (exercício II provocou maior valor da razão MU/IL que a oscilação unilateral da haste no plano sagital (exercício III. Já a oscilação bilateral da haste no plano frontal (exercício II e a oscilação unilateral da haste no plano sagital (exercício III geraram maior valor de OI/OE que a oscilação bilateral da haste no plano transverso (exercício I. Portanto, os exercícios II e III exigem maior ativação de músculos estabilizadores do tronco, sendo mais indicados para treinamentos que visem o maior recrutamento destes músculos nas atividades de vida diária.This study aimed to compare trunk muscle co-activation pattern during exercises using an oscillatory pole. Twelve volunteers participated in this study, in which they performed three different exercises. EMG activity of internal oblique (IO, external oblique (EO, rectus abdominis (RA, multifidus (MU and iliocostalis lumborum (IL was collected. The EMG signals were analyzed in time domain (RMS and muscles activation ratios were computed as follow: anterior-posterior (A/P=RA+EO+IO/MU+IL, MU/IL and OE/OI. The bilateral oscillation of the pole in frontal plane (exercise II promoted a higher value of MU/IL ratio than unilateral oscillation of the pole in sagital plane (exercise III. Also, the bilateral oscillation of the pole in frontal plane (exercise II and the unilateral oscillation of the pole in sagital

  13. Efeito do raleio e do anelamento do tronco no crescimento, produção e qualidade da ameixeira japonesa Effect of thinning and of trunk girdling on growth, production and quality of japanese plums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Larruscahim Hamilton Ilha

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Na produção de ameixas (Prunus salicina Lindley para consumo in natura, o tamanho do fruto é um dos aspectos mais valorizados. O raleio de frutos é tradicionalmente utilizado para obter, entre outros efeitos, a melhoria do tamanho dos frutos remanescentes. Uma antiga prática, que está recebendo renovada atenção, é o anelamento, que em muitas situações pode aumentar o tamanho dos frutos e antecipar a colheita. Este trabalho avaliou os efeitos do raleio manual de frutos em intensidades de 0, 25, 50 e 75%, associado ou não ao anelamento do tronco (4 mm de largura, sobre o crescimento, a produção e a qualidade da ameixeira cv. Amarelinha. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EEA/UFRGS no ciclo 1995/96. O raleio foi realizado em 16/10/95, 36 dias após a plena floração, e o anelamento, sete dias após o raleio. O raleio reduziu a produção proporcionalmente à intensidade de raleio aplicada. O anelamento antecipou a colheita, diminuiu a firmeza e a acidez titulável, e aumentou a relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez titulável dos frutos; mas diminuiu o vigor e o crescimento das plantas. Nenhum dos tratamentos alterou significativamente o peso médio dos frutos.In the production of plums (Prunus salicina Lindley for in natura consumption the fruit size is a very important feature. Fruit thinning is traditionally used to increase fruit size. Girdling is a practice which is deserving renewed attention, since in many situations is useful to improve fruit size and to advance harvest. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of manual fruit thinning at intensities of 0, 25, 50, and 75% associated or not to trunk girdling (4 mm wide on the growth, production and quality of plum cv. Amarelinha. The experiment was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Experimental Research Station (Southern Brazil, during the growth season of 1995

  14. Five-Year Results From a Scandinavian Sarcoma Group Study (SSG XIII) of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Combined With Accelerated Radiotherapy in High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremities and Trunk Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jebsen, Nina L. [Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen Faculty of Medicine, Bergen, Norway and Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Bruland, Oyvind S. [Cancer Clinic, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo Faculty Division, Clinical Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Eriksson, Mikael; Engellau, Jacob [Department of Oncology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Turesson, Ingela [Department of Oncology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Folin, Annika [Department of Oncology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Trovik, Clement S. [Departments of Oncology and of Orthopedics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Hall, Kirsten Sundby [Cancer Clinic, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate adjuvant chemotherapy and interpolated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) for adult patients with high-risk soft tissue sarcoma in the extremities or trunk wall. Methods and Materials: High-risk soft tissue sarcoma was defined as high-grade malignancy and at least two of the following criteria: size {>=}8 cm, vascular invasion, or necrosis. Six cycles of doxorubicin and ifosfamide were prescribed for all patients. RT to a total dose of 36 Gy (1.8 Gy twice daily) was inserted between two chemotherapy cycles after marginal margin resection regardless of tumor depth or after wide-margin resection for deep-seated tumors. RT was boosted to 45 Gy in a split-course design in the case of intralesional margin resection. Results: A total of 119 patients were eligible, with a median follow-up of 5 years. The 5-year estimate of the local recurrence, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rate was 12%, 59%, and 68%, respectively. The group receiving RT to 36 Gy had a local recurrence rate of 10%. In contrast, the local recurrence rate was 29% in the group treated with RT to 45 Gy. The presence of vascular invasion and low chemotherapy dose intensity had a negative effect on metastasis-free and overall survival. Toxicity was moderate after both the chemotherapy and the RT. Conclusions: Accelerated RT interposed between chemotherapy cycles in a selected population of patients with high-risk soft tissue sarcoma resulted in good local and distant disease control, with acceptable treatment-related morbidity. The greater radiation dose administered after intralesional surgery was not sufficient to compensate for the poorer surgical margin. Vascular invasion was the most important prognostic factor for metastasis-free and overall survival.

  15. 大型赛事数字集群通信系统的建设方案研究%Research on Construction Scheme of Large-scale Events of Digital Trunking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏静; 赵鸿萍

    2014-01-01

    With the development of science and technology and the help of modern information technology, improving quality and efficiency is an important part of large scale sports events.Because of the dispersed locations and a lot of people involved, we make high demands about command and communication of the organization and coordination.This paper takes the Nanjing Youth Olympic Games as an example, we construct 800MHz digital trunking communication system on the basis of existing Nanjing government radio,ensuring the communication requirements,and playing a greater role in the management of city in the future.%随着科学技术的发展,引用现代化信息技术手段,提高大型体育赛事办赛质量和工作成效,是大型体育赛事的重要组成部分。由于赛事的活动地点分散、涉及人员数量巨大,赛事对活动组织协调中的通信指挥有很高要求。本文以南京青奥会为例,基于现有的南京无线政务专网建设800MHz数字集群通信系统,保障相关组织的通信需求,而且会后在城市运行管理中发挥更大的作用。

  16. Five-Year Results From a Scandinavian Sarcoma Group Study (SSG XIII) of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Combined With Accelerated Radiotherapy in High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremities and Trunk Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate adjuvant chemotherapy and interpolated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) for adult patients with high-risk soft tissue sarcoma in the extremities or trunk wall. Methods and Materials: High-risk soft tissue sarcoma was defined as high-grade malignancy and at least two of the following criteria: size ≥8 cm, vascular invasion, or necrosis. Six cycles of doxorubicin and ifosfamide were prescribed for all patients. RT to a total dose of 36 Gy (1.8 Gy twice daily) was inserted between two chemotherapy cycles after marginal margin resection regardless of tumor depth or after wide-margin resection for deep-seated tumors. RT was boosted to 45 Gy in a split-course design in the case of intralesional margin resection. Results: A total of 119 patients were eligible, with a median follow-up of 5 years. The 5-year estimate of the local recurrence, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rate was 12%, 59%, and 68%, respectively. The group receiving RT to 36 Gy had a local recurrence rate of 10%. In contrast, the local recurrence rate was 29% in the group treated with RT to 45 Gy. The presence of vascular invasion and low chemotherapy dose intensity had a negative effect on metastasis-free and overall survival. Toxicity was moderate after both the chemotherapy and the RT. Conclusions: Accelerated RT interposed between chemotherapy cycles in a selected population of patients with high-risk soft tissue sarcoma resulted in good local and distant disease control, with acceptable treatment-related morbidity. The greater radiation dose administered after intralesional surgery was not sufficient to compensate for the poorer surgical margin. Vascular invasion was the most important prognostic factor for metastasis-free and overall survival.

  17. 小兴安岭红松活立木树干腐朽与立地土壤理化特性的关系%Correlations between standing trees trunk decay degree and soil physical-chemical properties in Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙天用; 王立海; 孙墨珑

    2013-01-01

    Standing trees decay often causes vast loss of timber resources.To investigate the correlations between the standing trees decay and the site conditions is of importance to scientifically and reasonably manage forests and to decrease wood resources loss.By using Resistograph and meter ruler,a measurement was made on the decay degree of the trunk near root and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of 15 mature Korean pine standing trees in a Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing' an Mountains in May,2011.In the meantime,soil samples were collected from the root zones of standing trees and the upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks,respectively.Five physical-chemical properties including moisture content,bulk density,total porosity,pH value,and organic matter content of the soil samples were tested.The regression equations conceming the trunk decay degree of the standing trees,their DBH,and the 5 soil properties were established.The results showed that the trunk decay degree of the mature Korean pine standing trees had higher correlations with the bulk density,total porosity,pH value,and organic matter content (R =0.687),and significant positive correlation with the moisture content (R =0.507) of the soils at the root zones of standing trees,but less correlation with the 5 properties of the soils at both upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks.The trunk decay degree was decreased when the soil moisture content was below 18.4%.No significant correlation was observed between the trunk decay degree of mature Korean pine standing trees and the tree age.%活立木腐朽造成大量木材资源损失.研究活立木腐朽与立地生境之间的关系,对于科学合理地营林管理、减少木材资源损失有着积极的指导意义.2011年5月,使用阻抗仪对小兴安岭林区红松阔叶混交林中15株成熟龄的红松活立木树干根部腐朽状况及胸径进行了检测,同时分别在活立木根部、坡上距根部5

  18. Automatic determination of trunk diameter, crown base and height of scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Based on analysis of 3D point clouds gathered from multi-station terrestrial laser scanning. (Polish Title: Automatyczne okreslanie srednicy pnia, podstawy korony oraz wysokosci sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus Silvestris L.) Na podstawie analiz chmur punktow 3D pochodzacych z wielostanowiskowego naziemnego skanowania laserowego)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, M.; Wężyk, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in recent years resulted in its recognition and implementation in many industries, including forestry and nature conservation. The use of the 3D TLS point clouds in the process of inventory of trees and stands, as well as in the determination of their biometric features (trunk diameter, tree height, crown base, number of trunk shapes), trees and lumber size (volume of trees) is slowly becoming a practice. In addition to the measurement precision, the primary added value of TLS is the ability to automate the processing of the clouds of points 3D in the direction of the extraction of selected features of trees and stands. The paper presents the original software (GNOM) for the automatic measurement of selected features of trees, based on the cloud of points obtained by the ground laser scanner FARO. With the developed algorithms (GNOM), the location of tree trunks on the circular research surface was specified and the measurement was performed; the measurement covered the DBH (l: 1.3m), further diameters of tree trunks at different heights of the tree trunk, base of the tree crown and volume of the tree trunk (the selection measurement method), as well as the tree crown. Research works were performed in the territory of the Niepolomice Forest in an unmixed pine stand (Pinussylvestris L.) on the circular surface with a radius of 18 m, within which there were 16 pine trees (14 of them were cut down). It was characterized by a two-storey and even-aged construction (147 years old) and was devoid of undergrowth. Ground scanning was performed just before harvesting. The DBH of 16 pine trees was specified in a fully automatic way, using the algorithm GNOM with an accuracy of +2.1%, as compared to the reference measurement by the DBH measurement device. The medium, absolute measurement error in the cloud of points - using semi-automatic methods "PIXEL" (between points) and PIPE (fitting the cylinder) in the FARO Scene 5.x

  19. Dermoscopic and clinical features of trunk melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Pelin Cengiz, Fatma; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant melanomas account for 5% of all skin cancers and usually have a fatal clinical course. Additionally, the incidence of melanoma increases more rapidly than in any other cancer, and this has been attributed to the development of highly sensitive diagnostic techniques, mainly dermoscopy, which allows for early diagnosis. The phenotypic manifestations of gene/environment interactions, environmental factor and genetic factors may determine subtypes and anatomic localization ...

  20. Protostars in the Elephant Trunk Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Reach, W T; Young, E; Muzerolle, J; Fajardo-Acosta, S; Hartmann, L; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Allen, L; Carey, S J; Cuillandre, J C; Jarrett, T H; Lowrance, P J; Marston, A; Noriega-Crespo, A; Hurt, R L; Reach, William T.; Rho, Jeonghee; Young, Erick; Muzerolle, James; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Hartmann, Lee; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Allen, Lori; Carey, Sean; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lowrance, Patrick; Marston, Anthony; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Hurt, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    The optically-dark globule IC 1396A is revealed using Spitzer images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, and 24 microns to be infrared-bright and to contain a set of previously unknown protostars. The mid-infrared colors of the 24 microns detected sources indicate several very young (Class I or 0) protostars and a dozen Class II stars. Three of the new sources (IC 1396A: gamma, delta, and epsilon) emit over 90% of their bolometric luminosities at wavelengths greater than 3 microns, and they are located within ~0.02 pc of the ionization front at the edge of the globule. Many of the sources have spectra that are still rising at 24 microns. The two previously-known young stars LkHa 349 a and c are both detected, with component c harboring a massive disk and component a being bare. Of order 5% of the mass of material in the globule is presently in the form of protostars in the 10^5 to 10^6 yr age range. This high star formation rate was likely triggered by radiation from a nearby O star.