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Sample records for brachial artery endothelial

  1. Measurement of brachial artery endothelial function using a standard blood pressure cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F; Tison, Geoffrey H; Olgin, Jeffrey; Alley, Hugh F; Owens, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of endothelial function in major arteries (EFMA) is a powerful independent predictor of heart attack and stroke. Existing ultrasound-based non-invasive assessment methods are technically challenging and suitable only for laboratory settings. EFMA, like blood pressure (BP), is both acutely and chronically affected by factors such as lifestyle and medication. Consequently, laboratory-based measurements cannot fully gauge the effects of medical interventions on EFMA. EFMA and BP have, arguably, comparable (but complementary) value in the assessment of cardiovascular health. Widespread deployment of EFMA assessment is thus a desirable clinical goal. To this end, we propose a device based on modifying the measurement protocol of a standard electronic sphygmomanometer. The protocol involves inflating the cuff to sub-diastolic levels to enable recording of the pulse waveform before and after vasodilatory stimulus. The mechanical unloading of the arterial wall provided by the cuff amplifies the distension that occurs with each pulse, which is measured as a pressure variation in the cuff. We show that the height of the rising edge of each pulse is proportional to the change in lumen area between diastole and systole. This allows the effect of vasodilatory stimuli on the artery to be measured with high sensitivity. We compare the proposed cuff flow-mediated dilation (cFMD) method to ultrasound flow-mediated dilation (uFMD). We find significant correlation (r  =  0.55, p  =0.003, N  =  27) between cFMD- and uFMD-based metrics obtained when the release of a 5 min cuff occlusion is employed to induce endothelial stimulus via reactive hyperemia. cFMD is approximately proportional to the square of uFMD, representing a typical increase in sensitivity to vasodilation of 300–600%. This study illustrates the potential for an individual to conveniently measure his/her EFMA by using a low-cost reprogrammed home sphygmomanometer. (paper)

  2. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of selected parameters of the endothelial function in brachial arteries and IMT measurements in carotid arteries in children with diabetes type 1 using personal insulin pumps--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tołwińska, Joanna; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Urban, Mirosława; Florys, Bozena; Peczyńska, Jadwiga

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a known risk factor for arterial atherosclerosis. The first symptoms can be found even in childhood. The ultrasonographic measurements of intimal plus medial thickness in carotid arteries (IMT) and flow mediated dilatation (FMD) evaluated in brachial arteries, play a known role in the detection in these cases. The diabetes treatment intensification is an important factor in delaying early atherosclerotic changes. Currently, intensive treatment of children's diabetes with use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with personal insulin pumps is gaining more and more popularity. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY was the evaluation of IMT and FMD indexes in children suffering from type 1 diabetes in the context of treatment intensification (multidose insulin injections v. personal insulin pumps). We examined 64 children (29 boys and 35 girls) in the mean age 15.5 years treated with the multidose insulin injections method and 10 children using personal insulin pumps (4 girls and 6 boys) in the mean age 14.5 years. Using high resolution ultrasonography we evaluated IMT values in carotid arteries and FMD parameters in brachial arteries. In our analysis we estimated the blood concentration of lipid parameters, values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the age of diabetes onset, duration time of the illness and the values of HbA1c as a marker of metabolic control. We noticed significantly higher FMD values in patients treated with personal insulin pumps (13.7 vs. 5.5%, p=0.001). IMT values were similar in both groups (0.52 vs. 0.5 mm, p=0. 41). The level of HDL cholesterol was higher and triglycerides lower in the group with treatment intensification. The metabolic control was the same in both groups. In patients treated by the multidose insulin injections IMT correlated with systolic blood pressure values. We didn't notice any correlation between IMT and FMD in any group. 1. Treatment intensification (personal insulin pumps) influences better vascular

  3. Brachial artery approach for outpatient arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jai Kyung; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun; Won, Jae Hwan

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of brachial approach arteriography for outpatients, with particular regard to safety and image quality. The angiographic findings and follow-up medical records of 131 brachial approach arteriographies in 121 outpatients were retrospectively analysed. 5 F pigtail catheters were used in 125 cases and 5-F OCU-A catheters were used in three cases of renal arteriography, and three of upper extremity arteriography without catheter. Except for three cases of brachial artery puncture failure, all procedures were performed successfully. One hundred and fifteen of 119 lower extremity arteriographies were visualized down to the level of the tibioperoneal artery. The non-visualized cases were three in which there was multiple obstruction at the distal common iliac artery and one with insufficient contrast amount due to renal failure In four cases there were complications : two involved arterial thrombosis, one was an intramuscular hematoma, and one an A-V fistula. For outpatients, brachial approach arteriography can replace the femoral approach. Its image quality is excellent, there are time-cost benefits, and the rate of complications is relatively low

  4. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  5. Brachial artery aneurysm and thrombosis secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia

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    Julia Louise Jones, MBBS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibromuscular dysplasia is a pathologic process causing stenosis and dilation of medium-caliber arteries of unknown etiology. It most commonly affects the renal and carotid arteries; however, it has been described in virtually all anatomic areas, including, rarely, the brachial artery. We describe a case of brachial artery aneurysm and thrombosis in a 29-year-old man secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia, treated surgically with excision, embolectomy, interposed vein graft, and anticoagulation.

  6. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

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    Su T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than

  7. Unilateral high bifurcation of brachial artery: a case report | Auwal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Profunda Brachii, Superior Ulnar Collateral and Inferior Ulnar Collateral arteries arose from the relatively short brachial arterial trunk. Although the documented incidence of this anatomical variation is low in Nigeria, its concomitant widespread documentation in other parts of the world makes it a sufficiently important ...

  8. Case report: Iatrogenic brachial artery dissection with complete anterograde occlusion during elective arterial line placement

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    Laurence Weinberg

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: We review our diagnostic pathway and treatment of this rare complication. Recommendations to minimise the risks of complications from brachial arterial line insertion are also overviewed. We recommend the routine utilization of ultrasound-guided technique and regular post-insertion neurovascular monitoring for the prevention and early recognition of complications from brachial artery catheter insertion.

  9. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  10. Delayed presentation of a traumatic brachial artery pseudoaneurysm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Forde, James C

    2009-09-01

    Delayed presentation of a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm following penetrating trauma is infrequently reported. We report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented three months following a penetrating trauma to his antecubital fossa with a sudden exacerbation of swelling and tenderness of his elbow. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography arteriography confirmed the presence of a large pseudoaneurysm. Surgical reconstruction was performed using the long saphenous vein as an interposition vein graft, restoring normal arterial circulation.

  11. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Artery - Its Morphology, Embryogenesis and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    KS, Siddaraju; Venumadhav, Nelluri; Sharma, Ashish; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of variation pattern of the major arteries of upper limb is of considerable practical importance in the conduct of reparative surgery in the arm, forearm and hand however brachial artery and its terminal branches variations are less common. Aim: Accordingly the present study was designed to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial artery and its morphology, embryogenesis and clinical implications. Materials and Methods: In an anatomical study 140 upper limb specimens of 70 cadavers (35 males and 35 females) were used and anatomical variations of the brachial artery have been documented. Results: Accessory brachial artery was noted in eight female cadavers (11.43%). Out of eight cadavers in three cadavers (4.29%) an unusual bilateral accessory brachial artery arising from the axillary artery and it is continuing in the forearm as superficial accessory ulnar artery was noted. Rare unusual variant unilateral accessory brachial artery and its reunion with the main brachial artery in the cubital fossa and its variable course in relation to the musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve were also noted in five cadavers (7.14%). Conclusion: As per our knowledge such anatomical variations of brachial artery and its terminal branches with their relation to the surrounding structures are not reported in the modern medical literature. An awareness of such a presence is valuable for the surgeons and radiologists in evaluation of angiographic images, vascular and re-constructive surgery or appropriate treatment for compressive neuropathies. PMID:25653931

  12. Hand-arm vibration syndrome with distal brachial artery occlusion

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    Vladyslava Bazylevska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract             Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS is a complex disorder of the peripheral extremities that is associated with occupational or recreational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. Digital artery occlusion in HAVS is a common finding; however, proximal involvement is less likely.  We present a case of HAVS with the initial presentation of acute limb ischemia and with thrombus burden extending from the distal brachial artery and into the ulnar and radial arteries. To our knowledge, no case of HAVS syndrome of similar severity has been previously described. This case emphasizes the potential dangers of HAVS and the necessity for proper prophylactic interventions at the workplace.

  13. Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery

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    David Kachlik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the terminal segmentation of the axillary artery and to present four cases of anomalous branching of the axillary artery, the superficial brachial artery (arteria brachialis superficialis, which is defined as the brachial artery that runs superficially to the median nerve. Totally, 130 cadaveric upper arms embalmed by classical formaldehyde technique from collections of the Department of Anatomy, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, were macroscopically dissected with special focus on the branching arrangement of the axillary artery. The most distal part of the axillary artery (infrapectoral part terminated in four cases as a bifurcation into two terminal branches: the superficial brachial artery and profunda brachii artery, denominated according to their relation to the median nerve. The profunda brachii artery primarily gave rise to the main branches of the infrapectoral part of the axillary artery. The superficial brachial artery descended to the cubital fossa where it assumed the usual course of the brachial artery in two cases and in the other two cases its branches (the radial and ulnar arteries passed superficially to the flexors. The incidence of the superficial brachial artery in our study was 5% of cases. The reported incidence is a bit contradictory, from 0.12% to 25% of cases. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is of crucial importance for neurosurgeons and specialists using the radiodiagnostic techniques, particularly in cases involving traumatic injuries. The improved knowledge would allow more accurate diagnostic interpretations and surgical treatment.

  14. INSTRUMENTAL AND DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OF HEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS AND ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION CORRECTION IN PREGNANTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

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    S. M. Heryak

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. It was found that the brachial artery ultrasound measuring and occlusive plethysmography procedure by Dietz is an early and safe method of endothelial dysfunction diagnostic in pregnants with hypertension. Doppler ultrasound of blood flow in uterine, umbilical arteries, and middle cerebral arteries of the fetus allows timely diagnosis of the side effect of antihypertensive drugs on the fetus. The therapy of choice for pregnants with Stage II Arterial Hypertension should be based on methyldopa and calcium channel antagonists or selective beta-blockers combination. Highly selective beta-blockers with vasodilative effect (nebivolol hydrochloride and L-arginine (Tivortin allow to prevent perinatal adverse effects of antihypertensive therapy, to correct hemodynamic disorders and endothelial dysfunction in pregnants with arterial hypertension. KEY WORDS: arterial hypertension, uterine-placental hemodynamics, endothelial dysfunction

  15. Estimation of brachial artery volume flow by duplex ultrasound imaging predicts dialysis access maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sae Hee; Bandyk, Dennis F; Hodgkiss-Harlow, Kelley D; Barleben, Andrew; Lane, John

    2015-06-01

    This study validated duplex ultrasound measurement of brachial artery volume flow (VF) as predictor of dialysis access flow maturation and successful hemodialysis. Duplex ultrasound was used to image upper extremity dialysis access anatomy and estimate access VF within 1 to 2 weeks of the procedure. Correlation of brachial artery VF with dialysis access conduit VF was performed using a standardized duplex testing protocol in 75 patients. The hemodynamic data were used to develop brachial artery flow velocity criteria (peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity) predictive of three VF categories: low (800 mL/min). Brachial artery VF was then measured in 148 patients after a primary (n = 86) or revised (n = 62) upper extremity dialysis access procedure, and the VF category correlated with access maturation or need for revision before hemodialysis usage. Access maturation was conferred when brachial artery VF was >600 mL/min and conduit imaging indicated successful cannulation based on anatomic criteria of conduit diameter >5 mm and skin depth 800 mL/min was predicted when the brachial artery lumen diameter was >4.5 mm, peak systolic velocity was >150 cm/s, and the diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio was >0.4. Brachial artery velocity spectra indicating VF 800 mL/min. Duplex testing to estimate brachial artery VF and assess the conduit for ease of cannulation can be performed in 5 minutes during the initial postoperative vascular clinic evaluation. Estimation of brachial artery VF using the duplex ultrasound, termed the "Fast, 5-min Dialysis Duplex Scan," facilitates patient evaluation after new or revised upper extremity dialysis access procedures. Brachial artery VF correlates with access VF measurements and has the advantage of being easier to perform and applicable for forearm and also arm dialysis access. When brachial artery velocity spectra criteria confirm a VF >800 mL/min, flow maturation and successful hemodialysis are predicted if anatomic criteria

  16. Use of a Collagen-Based Device for Closure of Low Brachial Artery Punctures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belenky, A.; Aranovich, D.; Greif, F.; Bachar, G.; Bartal, G.; Atar, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To report our experience with the Angioseal vascular closure device for hemostasis of distal brachial artery puncture. Methods. Between September 2003 and August 2005, 64 Angioseal vascular closure devices were inserted in 64 patients (40 men, 24 women; mean age 65 years) immediately after diagnostic or therapeutic arterial angiographies performed through a 5 Fr to 7 Fr sheath via the distal brachial artery. Ultrasound examination of the brachial artery preceded the angiography in all cases and only arteries wider than 4 mm were closed by the Angioseal. In cases of a sonographically evident thin subcutaneous space of the cubital fossa, tissue tumescence, using 1% Lidocaine, was performed prior to the arterial closure. Results. The deployment success rate was 100%. No major complications were encountered; only 2 patients developed puncture site hematoma, and these were followed conservatively. Conclusions. Closure of low brachial artery punctures with the Angioseal is simple and safe. No additional manual compression is required. We recommend its use after brachial artery access interventions, through appropriately wide arteries, to improve early patient ambulation and potentially reduce possible puncture site complications

  17. Brachial Artery Aneurysm as a Limb Threatening Condition: a Case Report

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    Farhad Heydari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery aneurysms are rare but potentially limb threatening condition. The presented case here is a 52-year old male referred to the emergency department complaining a sudden onset and progressive pain with coldness of his right upper extremity during brushing. The right upper extremity was pulseless and three-dimensional computed tomography showed an aneurysm of the proximal right brachial artery associated with arterial occlusion in its distal branch. Embolectomy was done, the aneurysm resected, and the artery successfully re-vascularised by interposing a saphenous vein graft. 

  18. Coronary interventionism for dissection of the artery brachial right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde Cerdeira, Hector; Obregon Santos, Angel Gaspar; Aroche Aportela, Ronald; Dominguez Perez, Reyber Jesus

    2007-01-01

    A prospective, no controlled study was conducted from march 1 to December 31 of 2004. 23 patients were enrolled who made outpatients coronariography and were implanted coronary stents (25 lesions) by angioplasty with optimal results. Found 73,9% of male, stable angina 52,2%, mean age 55.1 + 8.9 years. Hypertension associates to smoke habits were most frequent risk factors. 80% receive 300 mg of clopidogrel during or immediately after procedure. Left anterior descending artery was most frequently treated (44%) and B2 type lessons (64%). The mid time procedure was 48 minutes. Reference diameter 2,87 + 0.42 mm, stenosis diameter 71,6 + 15.1 mm; minimal lumen diameter 0,97 + 0.64 mm; length lesson 14,72 + 5.6 mm; stent diameter 2,9 + 0.42 mm; stent length 16,8 + 5.44 mm; insufflation's time 36,4 + 7.3 seconds; atmospheres 13,56 + 1.7; acute gain 1,96 + 0.61 mm. Two patients had minor bleeding at dissection site (8.7%) and one a little haematoma (4,3%). The radial pulse from the arm's dissection was present in all patients event 24 hours after. We conclude brachial dissection ambulatory angioplasty stent in selected patients with optimal angiography results is feasible and safe

  19. Brachial artery protected by wrapped latissimus dorsi muscle flap in high voltage electrical injury

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    Gencel, E.; Eser, C.; Kokacya, O.; Kesiktas, E.; Yavuz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary High voltage electrical injury can disrupt the vascular system and lead to extremity amputations. It is important to protect main vessels from progressive burn necrosis in order to salvage a limb. The brachial artery should be totally isolated from the burned area by a muscle flap to prevent vessel disruption. In this study, we report the use of a wrap-around latissimus dorsi muscle flap to protect a skeletonized brachial artery in a high voltage electrical injury in order to salvage the upper extremity and restore function. The flap wrapped around the exposed brachial artery segment and luminal status of the artery was assessed using magnetic resonance angiography. No vascular intervention was required. The flap survived completely with good elbow function. Extremity amputation was not encountered. This method using a latissimus dorsi flap allows the surgeon to protect the main upper extremity artery and reconstruct arm defects, which contributes to restoring arm function in high voltage electrical injury. PMID:28149236

  20. Association of particulate air pollution and secondhand smoke on endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation in healthy children

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    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the association of particulate matters with endothelial function, measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD of brachial artery, in children with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2011 in Isfahan, which is the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The areas of the city with lowest and highest air pollution were determined, and in each area, 25 prepubescent boys with or without exposure to daily tobacco smoke in home were selected, i.e. 100 children were studied in total. Results: FMD was significantly smaller in those living in high-polluted area and those exposed to secondhand smoke. Multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age and body mass index, showed that both passive smoking status and living area in terms of particulate air pollution were effective determinants of the brachial artery diameter. The standardized coefficient of passive smoking status was –0.36 (SD = 0.09, P < 0.0001 showing negative association with percent increase in FMD. Likewise, the percent increase in brachial artery diameter was lower in passive smoker children. Similar relationship was documented for PM 10 concentration with a regression coefficient of –0.32 (SD = 0.04, P < 0.0001. Without considering passive smoking variable, PM 10 concentration has significant independent effect on FMD level. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the association of environmental factors on endothelial dysfunction from early life. Studying such associations among healthy children may help identify the underlying mechanisms. The clinical implications of environmental factors on early stages of atherosclerosis should be confirmed in longitudinal studies.

  1. Brachial Artery Flow-mediated Dilation Following Exercise with Augmented Oscillatory and Retrograde Shear Rate

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    Johnson Blair D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute doses of elevated retrograde shear rate (SR appear to be detrimental to endothelial function in resting humans. However, retrograde shear increases during moderate intensity exercise which also enhances post-exercise endothelial function. Since SR patterns differ with the modality of exercise, it is important to determine if augmented retrograde SR during exercise influences post-exercise endothelial function. This study tested the hypothesis that (1 increased doses of retrograde SR in the brachial artery during lower body supine cycle ergometer exercise would attenuate post-exercise flow-mediated dilation (FMD in a dose-dependent manner, and (2 antioxidant vitamin C supplementation would prevent the attenuated post-exercise FMD response. Methods Twelve men participated in four randomized exercise sessions (90 W for 20 minutes on separate days. During three of the sessions, one arm was subjected to increased oscillatory and retrograde SR using three different forearm cuff pressures (20, 40, 60 mmHg (contralateral arm served as the control and subjects ingested placebo capsules prior to exercise. A fourth session with 60 mmHg cuff pressure was performed with 1 g of vitamin C ingested prior to the session. Results Post-exercise FMD following the placebo conditions were lower in the cuffed arm versus the control arm (arm main effect: P P > 0.05. Following vitamin C treatment, post-exercise FMD in the cuffed and control arm increased from baseline (P P > 0.05. Conclusions These results indicate that augmented oscillatory and retrograde SR in non-working limbs during lower body exercise attenuates post-exercise FMD without an evident dose–response in the range of cuff pressures evaluated. Vitamin C supplementation prevented the attenuation of FMD following exercise with augmented oscillatory and retrograde SR suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to the adverse effects of oscillatory and

  2. Asociación entre enfermedad periodontal y disfunción endotelial valorada por vasodilatación mediada por flujo en la arteria braquial: Estudio piloto Association between periodontal disease and endothelial dysfunction assessed by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro J Ruiz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar la disfunción endotelial a través de la vasodilatación mediada por flujo (VMF en la arteria braquial en pacientes fumadores con periodontitis crónica avanzada y compararla con pacientes fumadores sin enfermedad periodontal, para determinar si hay diferencias en cuando a disfunción endotelial entre quienes presentan o no periodontitis crónica avanzada. Métodos: se incluyeron 30 pacientes con hábito de tabaquismo, 15 con periodontitis crónica avanzada y 15 sin periodontitis. Se realizó historia clínica completa, exámenes de laboratorio y prueba de vasodilatación mediada por flujo de la arteria braquial. Resultados: el estudio mostró que había diferencias significativas en los diámetros finales, resultantes de vasodilatación mediada por flujo (p=0,0328, con menores valores finales para quienes tenían enfermedad periodontal. Las diferencias en las respuestas porcentuales y en el número de personas con disfunción determinada dicotómicamente, no alcanzaron significación estadística. Conclusión: se observó que el grupo de pacientes con periodontitis crónica avanzada tuvo diámetros resultantes luego de la prueba que fueron significativamente menores que los del grupo de controles. Aunque al evaluar las diferencias en porcentajes no se alcanzó significación estadística, el estudio mostró una respuesta claramente menor en vasodilatación en el grupo con enfermedad periodontal.Objective: To evaluate endothelial dysfunction through flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD in the brachial artery in smokers with advanced chronic periodontitis and compare it with smokers without periodontal disease, to determine whether there are differences in endothelial dysfunction among those with or without advanced chronic periodontitis. Methods: We included 30 patients with smoking habit, 15 with advanced chronic periodontitis and 15 without periodontal disease. We performed a complete medical history, laboratory tests and flow

  3. Right retrograde brachial cerebral angiography with simultaneous compression of the left carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, K.; Mosskin, M.

    1981-01-01

    Right retrograde brachial angiography with simultaneous compression of the left common carotid artery was performed in 12 patients, invariably resulting in filling of the right vertebral and the basilar artery. In all but one patient, the right carotid artery and its branches were also filled. Retrograde filling of the left internal carotid artery occurred in 8 patients. Furthermore, retrograde filling of the intracranial part of the left vertebral artery was obtained in 5 of 12 patients. A complete four-vessel cranial angiography was thus obtained in one third of the patients. The method may be considered as a safe and valuable adjunct to other angiographic techniques. (Auth.)

  4. An anatomical study of variations in termination of brachial artery, with its embryological basis and clinical significance

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    Deepa T. K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial artery is the main artery of the arm. It begins as the continuation of 3rd part of axillary artery, at the level of inferior border of teres major muscle. It ends at the level of the neck of radius by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. In the present study we found higher division of brachial artery at mid arm level into its terminal branches with superficial course of radial artery. The present study was done on 51 cadavers from our dept. of Anatomy. The upper limbs of the cadaver were dissected and observed for any variations in the branching pattern of brachial artery. In the present study, a total number of 51 cadaver’s, 102 upper limbs were studied. In one male cadaver we found bilateral higher division of brachial artery, trifurcation on left side and bifurcation on right side brachial artery, with superficial course of radial artery. The knowledge of variation in origin and course of brachial artery is useful for orthopaedicians, physicians, radiologist, vascular and plastic surgeons.

  5. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-02-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention of endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we examined the effect of black tea consumption on endothelial function and the ability of tea to prevent IR injury. In a randomized, crossover study, 20 healthy subjects underwent 7 days of tea consumption (3 cups per day) or abstinence from tea. We examined brachial artery (BA) endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), using high resolution echo-Doppler, before and 90 min after tea or hot water consumption. Subsequently, we followed a 20-min ischaemia and 20-min reperfusion protocol of the BA after which we measured FMD to examine the potential of tea consumption to protect against IR injury. Tea consumption resulted in an immediate increase in FMD% (pre-consumption: 5.8 ± 2.5; post-consumption: 7.2 ± 3.2; p FMD (p FMD. However, the impact of the IR protocol on FMD was not influenced by tea consumption. Therefore, the cardioprotective association of tea ingestion relates to a direct effect of tea on the endothelium in humans in vivo.

  6. Ultrasound-guided compression repair of pseudoaneurysms of brachial and femoral arteries - 2 cases-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Soo; Choi, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Myung A; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cho, Jae Min

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided compression repair of postcatherization pseudoaneurysm has been reported recently. We successfuly treated two cases of cardiac catherization-related pseudoaneurysms of brachial and femoral arteries with compression repair technique under color Doppler US-guidance. We regard US-guided compression repair as a saft and effective first-line treatment for catherization-related pseudoaneurysm

  7. Association of Aortic Compliance and Brachial Endothelial Function with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: Assessment with High-Resolution MRI

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    Yan Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the possible association of aortic compliance and brachial endothelial function with cerebral small vessel disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 patients by using 3.0 T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods. Sixty-two clinically confirmed DM2 patients (25 women and 37 men; mean age: 56.8±7.5 years were prospectively enrolled for noninvasive MR examinations of the aorta, brachial artery, and brain. Aortic arch pulse wave velocity (PWV, flow-mediated dilation (FMD of brachial artery, lacunar brain infarcts, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities (WMHs were assessed. Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis were performed to analyze the association between PWV and FMD with clinical data and biochemical test results. Univariable logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between PWV and FMD with cerebral small vessel disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to find out the independent predictive factors of cerebral small vessel disease. Results. Mean PWV was 6.73±2.00 m/s and FMD was 16.67±9.11%. After adjustment for compounding factors, PWV was found significantly associated with lacunar brain infarcts (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.14–3.2; P<0.05 and FMD was significantly associated with periventricular WMHs (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71–0.95; P<0.05. Conclusions. Quantitative evaluation of aortic compliance and endothelial function by using high-resolution MRI may be potentially useful to stratify DM2 patients with risk of cerebral small vessel disease.

  8. Asymmetric Bilateral Variations in the Musculocutaneous and Median Nerves with High Branching of Brachial Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial Plexus is formed by the union of the anterior rami of cervical 5, 6, 7, 8 and thoracic 1 nerves. These nerves unite and divide to form the key nerves innervating the upper limb. Variations in the course of these nerves are clinically important to anesthetists, neurologists and orthopedicians. We report bilateral variations in the arterial and neural structures in the upper limb of a 65 year old cadaver. The muscles of the arm on one side were innervated by the median nerve with absence of musculocutaneous. While on the other side the musculocutaneous nerve contributed to the formation of the median nerve. There was a presence of high bifurcation of brachial artery on both sides. Knowledge of such variations in the innervations of muscles and the arterial supply of the limbs are important to remember before performing any reconstructive procedures or interventions on the limb.

  9. Peripheral artery questionnaire improves ankle brachial index screening in symptomatic patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B-H; Cho, K-I; Spertus, J; Park, Y-H; Je, H-G; Shin, M-S; Lee, J-H; Jang, J-S

    2014-12-01

    The peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) is a disease-specific health status measure of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Whether the PAQ scores are associated with a PAD diagnosis among patients with symptoms suspicious for PAD is unknown and could help increase the pretest probability of ankle brachial index (ABI) screening among patients with suspicious symptoms. The PAQ was completed by 567 patients evaluated for potential intermittent claudication at six tertiary centres. Demographics, medical history, physical examination findings and the PAQ domain scores were compared with ABI. A diagnostic threshold PAQ scores. The correlation between the PAQ Summary Score and ABI was also calculated. The PAQ Summary Score was significantly lower in patients with low ABI as compared with those having a normal ABI (37.6 ± 19.0 vs. 70.1 ± 22.7, p PAQ Summary Score and ABI were highly correlated (r = 0.56, p PAQ Summary Score for predicting low ABI was 50.3 (AUC = 0.86, sensitivity 80.3%, specificity 78.3%). The PAQ Summary Score was associated with an increased likelihood of PAD in patients with suspected PAD symptoms, and a low summary score (≤ 50.3) was an optimal threshold for predicting PAD among patients referred for ABI. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Endothelial dysfunction, carotid artery plaque burden, and conventional exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as predictors of coronary artery disease prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishihara Masayuki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While both flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD in the brachial artery (BA, which measures endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and intima-media thickness (IMT in the carotid artery are correlated with the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD, it is not clear which modality is a better predictor of CAD. Furthermore, it has not been fully determined whether either of these modalities is superior to conventional ST-segment depression on exercise stress electrocardiogram (ECG as a predictor. Thus, the goal of the present study was to compare the predictive value of FMD, IMT, and stress ECG for CAD prognosis. Methods and Results A total of 103 consecutive patients (62 ± 9 years old, 79 men with clinically suspected CAD had FMD and nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NTG-D in the BA, carotid artery IMT measurement using high-resolution ultrasound, and exercise treadmill testing. The 73 CAD patients and 30 normal coronary patients were followed for 50 ± 15 months. Fifteen patients had coronary events during this period (1 cardiac death, 2 non-fatal myocardial infarctions, 3 acute heart failures, and 9 unstable anginas. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, only FMD and stress ECG were significant predictors for cardiac events. Conclusion Brachial endothelial function as reflected by FMD and conventional exercise stress testing has comparable prognostic value, whereas carotid artery plaque burden appears to be less powerful for predicting future cardiac events.

  11. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, S J; Keaney , J F; Holbrook, M; Gokce, N; Swerdloff, P L; Frei, B; Vita, J A

    2001-07-10

    Epidemiological studies suggest that tea consumption decreases cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms of benefit remain undefined. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with coronary artery disease and increased oxidative stress. Some antioxidants have been shown to reverse endothelial dysfunction, and tea contains antioxidant flavonoids. Methods and Results-- To test the hypothesis that tea consumption will reverse endothelial dysfunction, we randomized 66 patients with proven coronary artery disease to consume black tea and water in a crossover design. Short-term effects were examined 2 hours after consumption of 450 mL tea or water. Long-term effects were examined after consumption of 900 mL tea or water daily for 4 weeks. Vasomotor function of the brachial artery was examined at baseline and after each intervention with vascular ultrasound. Fifty patients completed the protocol and had technically suitable ultrasound measurements. Both short- and long-term tea consumption improved endothelium- dependent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, whereas consumption of water had no effect (Peffect on endothelium-independent nitroglycerin-induced dilation. An equivalent oral dose of caffeine (200 mg) had no short-term effect on flow-mediated dilation. Plasma flavonoids increased after short- and long-term tea consumption. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. This finding may partly explain the association between tea intake and decreased cardiovascular disease events.

  12. Cardiac tamponade and coronary artery pseudoaneurysm after brachial arterial embolectomy, possible role for an aberrant origin of the right coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Stessman-Lande, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient developed hemopericardium shortly after left brachial arterial embolectomy using an embolectomy catheter. Evaluation disclosed evolving pseudoaneurysm of the right coronary artery that was successfully managed by stenting. Misplacement of the embolectomy catheter within the coronary vessel was facilitated by an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery. This complication highlights the importance of correct insertion of the embolectomy catheter using the markers to avoid maladvancement and damage to central vessels.

  13. The effect of α1 -adrenergic blockade on post-exercise brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation at sea level and high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Michael M; Tremblay, Joshua C; Hansen, Alex B; Howe, Connor A; Willie, Chris K; Stembridge, Mike; Green, Daniel J; Hoiland, Ryan L; Subedi, Prajan; Anholm, James D; Ainslie, Philip N

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to quantify endothelial function (via brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation) at sea level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m) at rest and following both maximal exercise and 30 min of moderate-intensity cycling exercise with and without administration of an α 1 -adrenergic blockade. Brachial endothelial function did not differ between sea level and high altitude at rest, nor following maximal exercise. At sea level, endothelial function decreased following 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and this decrease was abolished with α 1 -adrenergic blockade. At high altitude, endothelial function did not decrease immediately after 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and administration of α 1 -adrenergic blockade resulted in an increase in flow-mediated dilatation. Our data indicate that post-exercise endothelial function is modified at high altitude (i.e. prolonged hypoxaemia). The current study helps to elucidate the physiological mechanisms associated with high-altitude acclimatization, and provides insight into the relationship between sympathetic nervous activity and vascular endothelial function. We examined the hypotheses that (1) at rest, endothelial function would be impaired at high altitude compared to sea level, (2) endothelial function would be reduced to a greater extent at sea level compared to high altitude after maximal exercise, and (3) reductions in endothelial function following moderate-intensity exercise at both sea level and high altitude are mediated via an α 1 -adrenergic pathway. In a double-blinded, counterbalanced, randomized and placebo-controlled design, nine healthy participants performed a maximal-exercise test, and two 30 min sessions of semi-recumbent cycling exercise at 50% peak output following either placebo or α 1 -adrenergic blockade (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg  -1 ). These experiments were completed at both sea-level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m). Blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography

  14. The effect of α1‐adrenergic blockade on post‐exercise brachial artery flow‐mediated dilatation at sea level and high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Joshua C.; Hansen, Alex B.; Howe, Connor A.; Willie, Chris K.; Stembridge, Mike; Green, Daniel J.; Hoiland, Ryan L.; Subedi, Prajan; Anholm, James D.; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Our objective was to quantify endothelial function (via brachial artery flow‐mediated dilatation) at sea level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m) at rest and following both maximal exercise and 30 min of moderate‐intensity cycling exercise with and without administration of an α1‐adrenergic blockade.Brachial endothelial function did not differ between sea level and high altitude at rest, nor following maximal exercise.At sea level, endothelial function decreased following 30 min of moderate‐intensity exercise, and this decrease was abolished with α1‐adrenergic blockade. At high altitude, endothelial function did not decrease immediately after 30 min of moderate‐intensity exercise, and administration of α1‐adrenergic blockade resulted in an increase in flow‐mediated dilatation.Our data indicate that post‐exercise endothelial function is modified at high altitude (i.e. prolonged hypoxaemia). The current study helps to elucidate the physiological mechanisms associated with high‐altitude acclimatization, and provides insight into the relationship between sympathetic nervous activity and vascular endothelial function. Abstract We examined the hypotheses that (1) at rest, endothelial function would be impaired at high altitude compared to sea level, (2) endothelial function would be reduced to a greater extent at sea level compared to high altitude after maximal exercise, and (3) reductions in endothelial function following moderate‐intensity exercise at both sea level and high altitude are mediated via an α1‐adrenergic pathway. In a double‐blinded, counterbalanced, randomized and placebo‐controlled design, nine healthy participants performed a maximal‐exercise test, and two 30 min sessions of semi‐recumbent cycling exercise at 50% peak output following either placebo or α1‐adrenergic blockade (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg −1). These experiments were completed at both sea‐level (344 m) and high altitude (3800

  15. Aortic-Brachial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio: A Measure of Arterial Stiffness Gradient Not Affected by Mean Arterial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Catherine; Desjardins, Marie-Pier; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is used for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. This mini-review describes the nonlinear relationship between cf-PWV and operational blood pressure, presents the proposed methods to adjust for this relationship, and discusses a potential place for aortic-brachial PWV ratio (a measure of arterial stiffness gradient) as a blood pressure-independent measure of vascular aging. PWV is inherently dependent on the operational blood pressure. In cross-sectional studies, PWV adjustment for mean arterial pressure (MAP) is preferred, but still remains a nonoptimal approach, as the relationship between PWV and blood pressure is nonlinear and varies considerably among individuals due to heterogeneity in genetic background, vascular tone, and vascular remodeling. Extrapolations from the blood pressure-independent stiffness parameter β (β 0 ) have led to the creation of stiffness index β, which can be used for local stiffness. A similar approach has been used for cardio-ankle PWV to generate a blood pressure-independent cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). It was recently demonstrated that stiffness index β and CAVI remain slightly blood pressure-dependent, and a more appropriate formula has been proposed to make the proper adjustments. On the other hand, the negative impact of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes is thought to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of the arterial stiffness gradient, which can also be influenced by a reduction in peripheral medium-sized muscular arteries in conditions that predispose to accelerate vascular aging. Arterial stiffness gradient, assessed by aortic-brachial PWV ratio, is emerging to be at least as good as cf-PWV for risk prediction, but has the advantage of not being affected by operating MAP. The negative impacts of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes are proposed to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of arterial stiffness gradient

  16. Hyperspectral imaging and ankle: brachial indices in peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Saraf, Lida; Gordon, Ian L

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the correlation between ankle:brachial indices (ABI) and visible light reflectance spectroscopy hyperspectral imaging (HSI) determinations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHgb and deoxyHgb) levels in the skin of the distal lower extremity. This is a prospective, open, comparator trial which took place at the Vascular laboratory of a Veterans Administration Hospital in Long Beach, USA. Fifty-eight patients (85 limbs) were referred for routine vascular laboratory studies including ABI had concomitant HSI. Limbs with noncompressible pedal signals were excluded from the analysis. ABI was determined with continuous wave Doppler ultrasound and leg blood pressure cuffs. A commercial HSI system (Oxu-Vu(R), Hypermed, Inc.) was used to measure oxyHgb, deoxyHgb, and percent oxygenated hemoglobin (%oxyHgb) in the dorsum of the foot and ankle. HSI measurements of volar forearm skin were also obtained to normalize the lower extremity HSI measurements in a manner comparable with ABI. For purposes of comparison, data sets were divided into 3 groups: ABI > 0.9 (n = 53), 0.45 failed to show a clinically useful correlation between HSI measurements of oxyHgb levels, further evaluation of this novel technology is warranted. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Brachial artery injury due to closed posterior elbow dislocation: case report☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An association between closed posterior elbow dislocation and traumatic brachial artery injury is rare. Absence of radial pulse on palpation is an important warning sign and arteriography is the gold-standard diagnostic test. Early diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment to be provided. This consists of joint reduction and immobilization, along with urgent surgical restoration of arterial flow. Here, a case (novel to the Brazilian literature of an association between these injuries (and the treatment implemented in a 27-year-old male patient is reported. These injuries were sustained through physical assault.

  18. Ankle Brachial Index: simple non-invasive estimation of peripheral artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Marcin; Cieślicki, Krzysztof; Żyliński, Marek; Górski, Piotr; Murgrabia, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Gerard

    2014-11-01

    According to international guidelines, patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) are burdened with high cardiovascular risk. One of the simplest, non-invasive methods for PAD detection is the ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement. The ABI is calculated as the ratio of systolic blood pressure at the ankle (pressure in the posterior tibial artery or the dorsal artery) to the systolic pressure in the arm (in the brachial artery) when the body is in a horizontal position. The physiological value of the ABI is assumed to be between 1 and 1.3; however, these limits vary from study to study. A value less than 0.9 indicates PAD. Some authors propose also measuring the ABI on both sides of the body to highlight possible differences in blood pressure between the opposite arterial segments. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ABI diagnostic criteria used in different publications. Additionally, ABI measurements were performed on 19 healthy patients in age ranged from 20 to 63 years. The results showed a slight dependence between age and the differences between the values obtained from left and right sides of the body.

  19. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyström, Thomas; Gutniak, Mark K; Zhang, Qimin

    2004-01-01

    GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, suppresses glucagon secretion, delays gastric emptying, and inhibits small bowel motility, all actions contributing to the anti-diabetogenic peptide effect. Endothelial dysfunction is strongly associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus...... and may cause the angiopathy typifying this debilitating disease. Therefore, interventions affecting both endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance may prove useful in improving survival in type 2 diabetes patients. We investigated GLP-1's effect on endothelial function and insulin sensitivity (S......(I)) in two groups: 1) 12 type 2 diabetes patients with stable coronary artery disease and 2) 10 healthy subjects with normal endothelial function and S(I). Subjects underwent infusion of recombinant GLP-1 or saline in a random crossover study. Endothelial function was measured by postischemic FMD of brachial...

  20. Sympathetic Innervation Promotes Arterial Fate by Enhancing Endothelial ERK Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardanaud, Luc; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; English, Isabel; Brunet, Isabelle; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-08-19

    Arterial endothelial cells are morphologically, functionally, and molecularly distinct from those found in veins and lymphatic vessels. How arterial fate is acquired during development and maintained in adult vessels is incompletely understood. We set out to identify factors that promote arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. We developed a functional assay, allowing us to monitor and manipulate arterial fate in vivo, using arteries isolated from quails that are grafted into the coelom of chick embryos. Endothelial cells migrate out from the grafted artery, and their colonization of host arteries and veins is quantified. Here we show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. Removal of sympathetic nerves decreases arterial fate and leads to colonization of veins, whereas exposure to sympathetic nerves or norepinephrine imposes arterial fate. Mechanistically, sympathetic nerves increase endothelial ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) activity via adrenergic α1 and α2 receptors. These findings show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial fate and may lead to novel approaches to improve arterialization in human disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Theodore W.; Sultan, Laith R.; Sehgal, Chandra M., E-mail: sehgalc@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Reamer, Courtney B.; Mohler, Emile R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Section of Vascular Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging.

  2. Percutaneous brachial artery catheterization for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions (pci): an encouraging experience of 100 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Z.U.; Maken, G.R.; Saif, M.; Khattak, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the practicability and safety of the percutaneous transbrachial approach (TBA) for diagnostic coronary angiography and therapeutic percutaneous coronary interventions. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology- National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD) from March 2009 to May 2011. Patients and Methods: We collected data of 100 consecutive patients who underwent coronary catheterization by the percutaneous transbrachial approach. Transbrachial catheterization was performed only if the radial access failed or radial pulse was feeble. Study endpoints included successful brachial artery catheterization, vascular and neurological complications at access site and procedure success rate. Results: Mean age of the patients was 54 years (range 33-79 yrs) and 65(65%) were males and 35 (35%) were females. The right brachial artery was used in all of the cases. Procedural success was achieved in 100% of the patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 70 patients and percutaneous coronary interventions were done in 30 cases. Out of these 30 cases, PCI to left coronary arteries (LAD and LCX) were performed in 19 patients while 11 patients had PCI to right coronary artery (RCA). No case of vascular complications such as major access site bleeding, vascular perforation, brachial artery occlusion causing forearm ischemia, compartment syndrome, vascular spasm or failure to catheterize coronary arteries requiring alternate vascular access were observed. Conclusion: Brachial artery is a safe and easily accessible approach for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions. (author)

  3. Acute EGCG supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlansky, Michael E; Hamburg, Naomi M; Anter, Elad; Holbrook, Monika; Kahn, David F; Elliott, James G; Keaney, John F; Vita, Joseph A

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an inverse relation between dietary flavonoid intake and cardiovascular risk. Recent studies with flavonoid-containing beverages suggest that the benefits of these nutrients may relate, in part, to improved endothelial function. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in tea, would improve endothelial function in humans. We examined the effects of EGCG on endothelial function in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by vascular ultrasound at six time points: prior to treatment with EGCG or placebo, two hours after an initial dose of EGCG (300 mg) or placebo, and after two weeks of treatment with EGCG (150 mg twice daily) or placebo. The order of treatments (EGCG or placebo) was randomized and there was a one-week washout period between treatments. A total of 42 subjects completed the study, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation improved from 7.1 +/- 4.1 to 8.6 +/- 4.7% two hours after the first dose of 300 mg of EGCG (P = 0.01), but was similar to baseline (7.8 +/- 4.2%, P = 0.12) after two weeks of treatment with the final measurements made approximately 14 hours after the last dose. Placebo treatment had no significant effect, and there were no changes in reactive hyperemia or the response to sublingual nitroglycerin. The changes in vascular function paralleled plasma EGCG concentrations, which increased from 2.6 +/- 10.9 to 92.8 +/- 78.7 ng/ml after acute EGCG (P effects of flavonoid-rich food on endothelial function.

  4. Changes of brachial arterial doppler waveform during immersion of the hand of young men in ice-cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Goo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of brachial arterial Doppler waveform during immersion of the hand of young men in ice-cold water. Doppler waveforms of brachial arteries in 11 young male patients were recorded before and during immersion of ipsilateral hand in ice-cold water(4-5 .deg. C). The procedure was repeated on separate days. Patterns of waveform during immersion were compared with the changes of pulsatility index. Four men showed high impedance waveforms, and 5 men showed low impedance waveforms during immersion both at the first and at the second study. Two men, however, showed high impedance waveforms at the first study and tow impedance waveforms at the second study. The pulsatility index rose and fell in high and low impedance waveforms, respectively. The changes of brachial arterial Doppler waveforms could be classified into high and low impedance patterns, probably reflecting the acute changes in downstream impedance during immersion of hand in ice-cold water

  5. Differential identification of atypical pneumonia pathogens in aorta and internal mammary artery related to ankle brachial index and walking distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriz, Erkan; Cirak, Meltem Yalinay; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Engin, Doruk; Oktar, Levent; Unal, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    We studied the existence of agents in aorta biopsies, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, that are thought to have a role in atherosclerosis etiopathogenesis role, and their association with peripheral artery disease. We examined aorta wall and internal mammarian artery (IMA) biopsies taken from two different places in 63 patients in whom coronary artery bypass was performed. In these biopsies, we evaluated the deoxyribonuclease (DNA) of these microorganisms using polymerase chain reaction. From the same patients, we recorded the ankle brachial index, road walking distance information, lipid profile, C-reactive proteins, blood parameters such as fibrinogen, and the patient's operation data. In the nine aorta biopsies taken from 63 patients, we isolated C pneumoniae DNA. In IMA biopsies taken from the same patients, we detected no microorganism DNA (P artery disease. In the development of atherosclerosis with C pneumoniae, there may be a determinant pathogen in both the aorta and the peripheral arteries. The nonexistence of C pneumoniae DNA in the IMA biopsies may indicate infectious agents because of the predominant endothelial functions in this artery, and thus its resistance to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Favorable effects of concord grape juice on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in healthy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Kokkou, Eleni; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Kollia, Maria-Eleni; Verveniotis, Aleksis; Gouliopoulos, Nikolaos; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Plastiras, Aris; Maniatis, Konstantinos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is associated with impaired vascular function. Concord grape juice (CGJ), a rich source of flavonoids, can modify cardiovascular risk factors. Endothelial function and arterial stiffness are surrogate markers of arterial health. We examined the impact of CGJ on arterial wall properties in healthy smokers. We studied the effect of a 2-week oral treatment with CGJ in 26 healthy smokers on 3 occasions (day 0 (baseline), day 7, and day 14) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Measurements were taken before (pSm), immediately after (Sm0), and 20 minutes after (Sm20) cigarette smoking. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured as an index of aortic stiffness. Compared with placebo, treatment with CGJ resulted in a significant improvement in pSm values of FMD (P = 0.02) and PWV (P = 0.04). At baseline, smoking decreased FMD in both the CGJ group (P FMD on day 7 (P = 0.02) and day 14 (P < 0.001). Moreover, at baseline, smoking induced a significant elevation in PWV in both the CGJ group (P = 0.02) and the placebo group (P = 0.04). Treatment with CGJ prevented the smoking-induced elevation in PWV on day 7 (P = 0.003) and day 14 (P < 0.001). CGJ consumption improved endothelial function and vascular elastic properties of the arterial tree in healthy smokers and attenuated acute smoking-induced impairment of arterial wall properties.

  7. Impact of acute caffeine ingestion on endothelial function in subjects with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Michael; Shalmon, Guy; Scheinowitz, Mickey; Koren-Morag, Nira; Feinberg, Micha S; Harats, Dror; Sela, Ben Ami; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Chouraqui, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    Although coffee is a widely used, pharmacologically active beverage, its impact on the cardiovascular system is controversial. To explore the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in subjects without coronary artery disease (CAD; controls) and patients with CAD, we prospectively assessed brachial artery FMD in 40 controls and 40 age- and gender-matched patients with documented stable CAD on 2 separate mornings 1 week to 2 weeks apart. After overnight fasting, discontinuation of all medications for ≥12 hours, and absence of caffeine for >48 hours, participants received capsules with caffeine 200 mg or placebo. One hour after drug ingestion, participants underwent brachial artery FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NTG) using high-resolution ultrasound. As expected, patients with CAD were more often diabetic, hypertensive, obese, dyslipidemic, and smoked more than controls (p <0.01 for all comparisons). Aspirin, Clopidogrel, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β blockers, and statins were significantly more common in patients with CAD than in controls (p <0.01 for all comparisons). At baseline, FMD, but not NTG, was significantly lower in patients with CAD compared to controls. Acute caffeine ingestion significantly increased FMD (patients with CAD 5.6 ± 5.0% vs 14.6 ± 5.0%, controls 8.4 ± 2.9% vs 18.6 ± 6.8%, p <0.001 for all comparisons) but not NTG (patients with CAD 13.0 ± 5.2% vs 13.8 ± 6.1%, controls 12.9 ± 3.9% vs 13.9 ± 5.8%, p = NS for all comparisons) and significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (patients with CAD 2.6 ± 1.4 vs 1.4 ± 1.2 mg/L, controls 3.4 ± 3.0 vs 1.2 ± 1.0 mg/L, p <0.001 for all comparisons) in the 2 groups compared to placebo. In conclusion, acute caffeine ingestion significantly improved endothelial function assessed by brachial artery FMD in subjects with and without CAD and was associated with lower plasma markers of inflammation. Copyright

  8. A pilot study of the relationship between Doppler-estimated carotid and brachial artery flow and cardiac index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, U; Glassford, N J; Eastwood, G M; Bellomo, R; Hilton, A K

    2015-10-01

    We measured carotid and brachial artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasound in 11 human volunteers, and related these to cardiac index and to each other. The median (IQR [range]) carotid arterial blood flow was 0.334 (0.223-0.381 [0.052-0.563]) l.min(-1) on the right and 0.315 (0.223-0.369 [0.061-0.690]) l.min(-1) on the left. The brachial arterial blood flow was 0.049 (0.033-0.062 [0.015-0.204]) l.min(-1) on the right and 0.039 (0.027-0.054 [0.011-0.116]) on the left. Cardiac index was 3.2 (2.8-3.5 [1.9-5.4]) l.min(-1) .m(-2) . There was a moderate to good correlation between right-and left-sided flows (brachial: ρ = 0.45; carotid: ρ = 0.567). Brachial and carotid flow had no or a negative correlation with cardiac index (right brachial: ρ = -0.145, left brachial: ρ = -0.349; right carotid: ρ = -0.376, left carotid: ρ = -0.285). In contrast to some previous studies, we found that Doppler-estimated peripheral arterial blood flows only show a weak correlation with cardiac index and cannot be used to provide non-invasive estimates of cardiac index in man. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Avaliação da função endotelial em pacientes com esclerose sistêmica limitada por meio do eco Doppler da artéria braquial Evaluation of endothelial function in patients with limited systemic sclerosis by use of brachial artery Doppler ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Melo Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a resposta dilatadora dependente e independente do endotélio em pacientes portadores de esclerose sistêmica limitada (ESL com aquela de indivíduos sadios de mesmo gênero, idade e cor. MÉTODOS: Vinte mulheres adultas, não obesas, não tabagistas, não diabéticas, não dislipidêmicas, não hipertensas, que preencheram os critérios para esclerose sistêmica (ES segundo o American College of Rheumatology, foram submetidas ao exame de Doppler de artéria braquial do membro superior direito. Foi analisada a resposta dilatadora, dependente do endotélio, após isquemia induzida com esfigmomanômetro por cinco minutos no braço direito, e a resposta dilatadora, independente do endotélio, após administração de 300 mcg de nitroglicerina (NTG sublingual. Esses resultados foram comparados com a resposta obtida em indivíduos sadios. RESULTADOS: O diâmetro longitudinal da artéria braquial (DAB foi significativamente menor na fase basal 1 nos pacientes com ESL (3,57 ± 0,52 mm e 3,93 ± 0,39 mm, respectivamente no grupo paciente (P e grupo-controle (C, P = 0,005. Não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a velocidade das hemácias (VH após isquemia/hiperemia reativa (HR e após NTG (110,2 ± 43,86 cm/s vs. 102,0 ± 25,89 cm/s e 63,80 ± 17,69 cm/s vs. 65,4 ± 12,90 cm/s nos grupos P e C, após HR e NTG, respectivamente. Também não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre o DAB após HR e após NTG (3,77 ± 0,59 mm vs. 4,14 ± 0,49 mm e 4,44 ± 0,64 mm vs. 4,70 ± 0,58 mm nos grupos P e C, após HR e NTG, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Embora o grupo de pacientes com ESL tenha apresentado menor DAB basal, a resposta dilatadora dependente e independente do endotélio se manteve preservada em ambos os grupos.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the brachial artery endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent dilating responses in patients with limited

  10. Brachial artery repair using the basilic vein as a reliable conduit in a 3-year-old child

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    Hyunyoung G. Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A supracondylar fracture of the humerus is the most common upper extremity fracture in children with concurrent neurovascular complications. However, bypass grafting in the management of a pediatric open elbow dislocation with an arterial injury has rarely been reported in the literature. Hence, an adequate conduit for a vessel graft interposition remains questionable when a primary anastomosis is limited in an arterial reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to present a brachial artery reconstruction in a 3-year-old patient with an open supracondylar fracture of the humerus. In the clinical and surgical examination of the patient, an open wound in the left antecubital fossa presented with accompanying brachial artery injury. To repair the artery, a reverse end-to-end anastomosis was conducted using basilic vein graft from the ipsilateral arm under general anesthesia. The patient had palpable radial pulses in the postoperative clinical examination and was discharged without complications. The great saphenous vein (GSV has proven to be the most common and the best conduit for arterial reconstruction of the upper extremity in the adult patients. However, the GSV graft is known to have the propensity for becoming aneurysmal in pediatric patients. Some studies have demonstrated the basilic vein as a suitable conduit in pediatric patients, in that it has durable patency, fewer branches, size compatibility for anastomosis, and proximity to the brachial artery. Our case confirms the safety of using this autogenous vein from within the zone of injury for arterial reconstruction, after a supracondylar humeral fracture. The management of pediatric elbow fractures accompanying vascular injuries can be technically demanding due to relatively small, delicate structures and concurrent neurovascular network. Nonetheless, a vascular injury should be treated with high level of suspicion and immediate intervention to avoid any limb ischemia or loss. In

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene therapy improves nerve regeneration in a model of obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Matthias; Holzbach, Thomas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Schlegel, Jürgen; Giunta, Riccardo E

    2015-03-01

    The treatment of obstetric brachial plexus palsy has been limited to conservative therapies and surgical reconstruction of peripheral nerves. In addition to the damage of the brachial plexus itself, it also leads to a loss of the corresponding motoneurons in the spinal cord, which raises the need for supportive strategies that take the participation of the central nervous system into account. Based on the protective and regenerative effects of VEGF on neural tissue, our aim was to analyse the effect on nerve regeneration by adenoviral gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postpartum nerve injury of the brachial plexus in rats. In the present study, we induced a selective crush injury to the left spinal roots C5 and C6 in 18 rats within 24 hours after birth and examined the effect of VEGF-gene therapy on nerve regeneration. For gene transduction an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF165 (AdCMV.VEGF165) was used. In a period of 11 weeks, starting 3 weeks post-operatively, functional regeneration was assessed weekly by behavioural analysis and force measurement of the upper limb. Morphometric evaluation was carried out 8 months post-operatively and consisted of a histological examination of the deltoid muscle and the brachial plexus according to defined criteria of degeneration. In addition, atrophy of the deltoid muscle was evaluated by weight determination comparing the left with the right side. VEGF expression in the brachial plexus was quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore the motoneurons of the spinal cord segment C5 were counted comparing the left with the right side. On the functional level, VEGF-treated animals showed faster nerve regeneration. It was found less degeneration and smaller mass reduction of the deltoid muscle in VEGF-treated animals. We observed significantly less degeneration of the brachial plexus and a greater number of surviving motoneurons (P reason for these effects. The clinical use

  12. Effects of iodinated contrast media on common carotid and brachial artery blood flow and wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irace, C.; Tamburini, S.; Bertucci, B.; Franceschi, M.S. de; Gnasso, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intravenous contrast media iomeprol on wall shear stress, blood flow and vascular parameters in the common carotid and brachial artery. Thirty outpatients undergoing thoracic or abdominal spiral CT scans were studied. The internal diameter and flow velocity of the common carotid and brachial artery were evaluated by ultrasound, and blood viscosity was measured before and after low osmolality iomeprol (Iomeron 350) injection. The wall shear stress, blood flow and pulsatility index were calculated. To test the differences between groups, the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney U test were applied. Blood viscosity decreased slightly, but significantly after contrast media (4.6±0.7 vs. 4.5±0.7 mPa.s, P=0.02). Contrarily, blood flow and wall shear stress did not change in the common carotid artery, but significantly decreased in the brachial artery (0.9±0.4 vs. 0.6±0.3 ml/s, P<0.0001, and 41.5±13.9 vs. 35.3±11.0 dynes/cm2, P<0.002, respectively), whereas the pulsatility index significantly increased in the brachial artery (5.0±3.3 vs. 7.5±5.3, P<0.001). Iomeprol injection causes blood flow and wall shear stress reduction of the brachial artery; the rise in the pulsatility index suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether these modifications can be clinically relevant. (orig.)

  13. CLINICAL IMPORTANCE OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION AND INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH GOUT ASSOCIATED WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

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    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the endothelium status and determine the correlation between endothelial dysfunction and glucose metabolism in men with gout associated with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Patients (n=175, all are males with gout were enrolled into the study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed in all patients. Endothelial function was studied in tests with reactive hyperemia (endothelium-dependent reaction and nitroglycerin (endothelium independent reaction in brachial artery by ultrasonic Doppler examination. The level of nitrite-nitrate and endothelin-1 in blood serum was determined by ELISA technique. Fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed as well as fasting insulin blood level was determined by immunoenzyme method. Insulin-resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated. Patients with HOMA- IR>2.77 were considered as insulin-resistant.Results. Patients with gout demonstrated endothelial deterioration associated with activation of nitroxid producing function, elevation in endothelin-1 serum level (1.36 fmol/ml [0.91; 2.32 fmol/ml] vs 0.19 fmol/ml [0.16; 0.27 fmol/ml] in controls, p<0.05 and impairments of endothelium-dependent vasodilation (6.4% [3.3; 7.3%] vs 17.8% [12.7; 23.9%] in controls, p<0.05. The revealed changes were the most marked in patients with gout associated with HT. The correlation between some endothelial dysfunction in- dices and glucose metabolism was observed.Conclusion. ABPM, brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation and glucose metabolism status should be studied in patients with gout. Complex treatment of cardiovascular diseases in patients with gout should include ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, angiotensin receptor antagonists should be used for antihypertensive therapy.

  14. The impact of menstrual phase on brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation during handgrip exercise in healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urzo, Katrina A; King, Trevor J; Williams, Jennifer S; Silvester, Morgan D; Pyke, Kyra E

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase on flow-mediated dilatation in response to sustained, exercise-induced increases in shear stress. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed, for the first time, that in healthy, premenopausal women the flow-mediated dilatation stimulated by exercise-induced increases in shear stress did not fluctuate across two phases of the menstrual cycle, despite significant fluctuations in oestrogen. This suggests that endothelial function is not consistently augmented in the high-oestrogen phase. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in response to a sustained shear-stress stimulus (e.g. via handgrip exercise; HGEX) is emerging as a useful tool for assessing endothelial function; however, the impact of menstrual phase on HGEX-FMD is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HGEX-FMD fluctuates with cyclical changes in oestrogen concentrations over two discrete phases (low and high oestrogen) of the menstrual cycle. Brachial artery (BA) diameter and blood velocity were assessed with two-dimesional and Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Shear stress was estimated using shear rate (SR = BA blood velocity/BA diameter). Participants (12 healthy, regularly cycling women, 21 ± 2 years of age) completed two experimental visits: (i) low oestrogen (early follicular, EF); and (ii) high oestrogen (late follicular, LF). Reactive hyperaemia-stimulated FMD (RH-FMD) and HGEX-FMD (6 min of handgrip exercise) were assessed during each visit. Results are mean values ± SD. Oestrogen increased from the EF to LF phase (EF, 33 ± 9 pg ml -1 ; LF, 161 ± 113 pg ml -1 , P = 0.003). However, neither the SR stimuli (HGEX, P = 0.501; RH, P = 0.173) nor the FMD responses differed between phases (EF versus LF: HGEX-FMD, 4.8 ± 2.8 versus 4.6 ± 2.2%, P = 0.601; RH-FMD, 7.9 ± 4.3 versus 6.4 ± 3.1%, P = 0.071). These results extend

  15. Non-invasive assessment of peripheral arterial disease: Automated ankle brachial index measurement and pulse volume analysis compared to duplex scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane Ea; Williams, Paul; Davies, Jane H

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to individually and cumulatively compare sensitivity and specificity of the (1) ankle brachial index and (2) pulse volume waveform analysis recorded by the same automated device, with the presence or absence of peripheral arterial disease being verified by ultrasound duplex scan. Patients (n=205) referred for lower limb arterial assessment underwent ankle brachial index measurement and pulse volume waveform recording using volume plethysmography, followed by ultrasound duplex scan. The presence of peripheral arterial disease was recorded if ankle brachial index 50% was evident with ultrasound duplex scan. Outcome measure was agreement between the measured ankle brachial index and interpretation of pulse volume waveform for peripheral arterial disease diagnosis, using ultrasound duplex scan as the reference standard. Sensitivity of ankle brachial index was 79%, specificity 91% and overall accuracy 88%. Pulse volume waveform sensitivity was 97%, specificity 81% and overall accuracy 85%. The combined sensitivity of ankle brachial index and pulse volume waveform was 100%, specificity 76% and overall accuracy 85%. Combining these two diagnostic modalities within one device provided a highly accurate method of ruling out peripheral arterial disease, which could be utilised in primary care to safely reduce unnecessary secondary care referrals.

  16. Dissociation of endothelial function and arterial stiffness in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussons, Andrea J; Watts, Gerald F; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A

    2009-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with cardiovascular risk but it is not clear if this is independent of obesity and insulin resistance. This study therefore investigates endothelial function and arterial stiffness in nonobese, noninsulin resistant women with PCOS. This is cross-sectional case-control study. A total of 19 young women with PCOS, with body mass index (BMI) PCOS and control subjects when assessing the following clinical and biochemical variables: blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment insulin-resistance index, lipids and oestradiol. Women with PCOS had higher free androgen index scores (5.14 ± 3.47 vs. 3.25 ± 1.42, P = 0.036). The PCOS subjects had significantly lower FMD of the brachial artery compared with the controls (6.5 ± 2.9%vs. 10.5 ± 4.0%, P insulin resistance, have abnormal vascular function, but normal arterial stiffness, when compared with age and weight matched control subjects. Whether this leads to a greater risk of cardiovascular disease requires further investigation. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. [Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare but serious complication in hemodialysis patients with arteriovenous fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Andrea; Castriotta, Giuseppe; Angelini, Pernina; Bozzi, Michele; Giancaspro, Vincenzo; La Raia, Elvira; Nisi, Maria Teresa; Proscia, Anna Rita; Tarantino, Giuseppe; Vitale, Ottavia; Cuzzola, Cristoforo

    2017-06-01

    A pseudoaneurysm or false aneurysm of the brachial artery is an uncommon occurrence in patients receiving hemodialysis with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). We describe the case of a 76-year-old woman presenting with a large, tender, pulsatile mass in the right antecubital region 10 cm from the AVF. B-mode ultrasound examination revealed a saccular hematoma. Color doppler showed a recirculation movement of blood, creating a two colors image called "Korean flag". The patient was transferred to the surgical unit where she first underwent ultrasound-guided compression and then surgical repair of the pseudoaneurysm. Two weeks after surgery the AVF was used again as an access for hemodialysis. Differentiating between a false and a true aneurysm based on ultrasound is not always straightforward. Doppler ultrasound findings can be decisive for the early diagnosis of a pseudoaneurysm to ensure proper treatment planning given the dangerous complications of ruptures. Treatment options include: compression, percutaneous thrombin injection, endovascular exclusion with covered stents, aneurysmectomy and surgical repair. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  18. Brachial artery responses to ambient pollution, temperature, and humidity in people with type 2 diabetes: a repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Horton, Edward S; Cohen, Allison; Coull, Brent A; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schwartz, Joel D; Mittleman, Murray A; Li, Yongsheng; Stone, Peter H; de Souza, Celine; Lamparello, Brooke; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R

    2014-03-01

    Extreme weather and air pollution are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. In a population with diabetes, we conducted a novel assessment of vascular brachial artery responses both to ambient pollution and to weather (temperature and water vapor pressure, a measure of humidity). Sixty-four 49- to 85-year-old Boston residents with type 2 diabetes completed up to five study visits (279 repeated measures). Brachial artery diameter (BAD) was measured by ultrasound before and after brachial artery occlusion [i.e., flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] and before and after nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD). Ambient concentrations of fine particulate mass (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, particle number, and sulfate were measured at our monitoring site; ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were obtained from state monitors. Particle exposure in the home and during each trip to the clinic (home/trip exposure) was measured continuously and as a 5-day integrated sample. We used linear models with fixed effects for participants, adjusting for date, season, temperature, and water vapor pressure on the day of each visit, to estimate associations between our outcomes and interquartile range increases in exposure. Baseline BAD was negatively associated with particle pollution, including home/trip-integrated BC (-0.02 mm; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.003, for a 0.28 μg/m3 increase in BC), OC (-0.08 mm; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.03, for a 1.61 μg/m3 increase) as well as PM2.5, 5-day average ambient PM2.5, and BC. BAD was positively associated with ambient temperature and water vapor pressure. However, exposures were not consistently associated with FMD or NMD. Brachial artery diameter, a predictor of cardiovascular risk, decreased in association with particle pollution and increased in association with ambient temperature in our study population of adults with type 2 diabetes. Zanobetti A, Luttmann

  19. Effect of mechanical behaviour of the brachial artery on blood pressure measurement during both cuff inflation and cuff deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Pan, Fan; Murray, Alan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different mechanical behaviour of the brachial artery on blood pressure (BP) measurements during cuff inflation and deflation. BP measurements were taken from each of 40 participants, with three repeat sessions under three randomized cuff deflation/inflation conditions. Cuff pressure was linearly deflated and inflated at a standard rate of 2-3 mmHg/s and also linearly inflated at a fast rate of 5-6 mmHg/s. Manual auscultatory systolic and diastolic BPs, and pulse pressure (SBP, DBP, PP) were measured. Automated BPs were determined from digitally recorded cuff pressures by fitting a polynomial model to the oscillometric pulse amplitudes. The BPs from cuff deflation and inflation were then compared. Repeatable measurements between sessions and between the sequential order of inflation/deflation conditions (all P > 0.1) indicated stability of arterial mechanical behaviour with repeat measurements. Comparing BPs obtained by standard inflation with those from standard deflation, manual SBP was 2.6 mmHg lower (P deflation suggest different arterial mechanical behaviour between arterial opening and closing during BP measurement. We have shown that the mechanical behaviour of the brachial artery during BP measurement differs between cuff deflation and cuff inflation.

  20. Assessing the perceived quality of brachial artery Flow Mediated Dilation studies for inclusion in meta-analyses and systematic reviews: Description of data employed in the development of a scoring ;tool based on currently accepted guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Greyling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery Flow Mediated Dilation (FMD is widely used as a non-invasive measure of endothelial function. Adherence to expert consensus guidelines on FMD measurement has been found to be of vital importance to obtain reproducible data. This article lists the literature data which was considered in the development of a tool to aid in the objective judgement of the extent to which published studies adhered to expert guidelines for FMD measurement. Application of this tool in a systematic review of FMD studies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.03.011 (Greyling et al., 2016 [1] indicated that adherence to expert consensus guidelines is strongly correlated to the reproducibility of FMD data. Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Atherosclerosis, Endothelial function, Reproducibility, Methodology

  1. Ankle-brachial index as indicator of chronic arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities and renal artery stenosis CT/DS angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.; Chervenkov, L.; Karadon, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The aim is to validate the measurements of ankle -brachial index (ABI), as part of routine examination algorithm in conducting CTA/DSA of the extremities in patients suffering from PAD. Correlations between ABI values and renal artery stenosis. The present study includes 200 patients (138 men and 62 women, aged between 60 and 75 years). 130 of them were examined by a computer- tomography angiography - 95 men and 32 women. 70 patients were examined by digital subtraction angiography - 50 men and 20 women. Measurements of ankle-brachial index (ABI) were performed on all patients by measuring the systolic blood pressure on both brachial arteries and determine the peak pressure in both aa. dorsalis pedis. Statistical data processing. There are no patients in the study with ABI values above 0.7 that have established renal artery stenosis. All patients with severe atherosclerotic changes have values of the ABI below 0.7, and those with the most severe changes below 0.5. This fully corresponds to global data showing that values below 0.9 ABI show mild engagement, below 0.7 average, and below 0.5 severe involvement. According to the results of this survey sensitivity of ABI for renal arteries below 0.7 equals 100% and its specificity = 67.5%. For values of ABI below 0.5: Sensitivity =100%; Specificity = 83.85%. By determining ABI values both symptomatic and asymptomatic form of a PAD can be diagnosed. the method is fast, non-invasive, inexpensive and applicable everywhere. No special preparation of the patient is needed. The method can be used not only to assess the degree of commitment of the vessels of the lower limbs, but also as an indicator for the state of renal arteries in those patients

  2. Improved brachial artery shear patterns and increased flow-mediated dilation after low-volume high-intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshan, Kamran; Mafi, Farnoosh; Biglari, Soheil; Gandomkar Bagheri, Habibalah

    2018-06-22

    What is the central question of this study? Endothelial function is impaired because of increased oscillatory and retrograde shear in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous moderate intensity exercise can modulate oscillatory and retrograde shear, blood flow and flow-mediated arterial dilation in these patients. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that low-volume high-intensity interval training, by increasing anterograde shear and decreasing retrograde shear and oscillatory index, can increase nitric oxide production and consequently result in increased flow-mediated dilation and outward arterial remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes is characterized by endothelial dysfunction associated with impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increases retrograde and oscillatory shear. The present study investigated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and shear rate in patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline and follow-up after 12 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIIT) or continuous moderate intensity training (CMIT). Seventy five sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes and untreated pre- or stage I hypertension were randomly divided into LV-HIIT, CMIT and control groups. The LV-HIIT group intervention was 12 intervals of 1.5 min at 85%-90% HR max and 2 min at 55%-60% HR max . The CMIT group intervention was 42 min of exercise at 70% HR max for 3 sessions per week during 12 weeks. High-resolution Doppler ultrasound was used to measure FMD, arterial diameter, anterograde and retrograde blood flow and shear rate patterns. Brachial artery FMD increased significantly in the LV-HIIT group (3.83 ± 1.13 baseline, 7.39 ± 3.6% follow-up), whereas there were no significant increase in the CMIT group (3.45 ± 0.97 baseline, 4.81 ± 2.36% follow-up) compared to the control group (3.16 ± 0

  3. Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2014-02-01

    The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.

  4. Effect of cocoa/chocolate ingestion on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and its relevance to cardiovascular health and disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin D

    2012-11-15

    Prospective studies indicate that high intake of dietary flavanols, such as those contained in cocoa/chocolate, are associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in humans. Numerous mechanisms may underlie these associations such as favorable effects of flavanols on blood pressure, platelet aggregation, thrombosis, inflammation, and the vascular endothelium. The brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) technique has emerged as a robust method to quantify endothelial function in humans. Collectively, the preponderance of evidence indicates that FMD is a powerful surrogate measure for firm cardiovascular endpoints, such as cardiovascular-related mortality, in humans. Thus, literally thousands of studies have utilized this technique to document group differences in FMD, as well as to assess the effects of various interventions on FMD. In regards to the latter, numerous studies indicate that both acute and chronic ingestion of cocoa/chocolate increases FMD in humans. Increases in FMD after cocoa/chocolate ingestion appear to be dose-dependent such that greater increases in FMD are observed after ingestion of larger quantities. The mechanisms underlying these responses are likely diverse, however most data suggest an effect of increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, positive vascular effects of cocoa/chocolate on the endothelium may underlie (i.e., be linked mechanistically to) reductions in cardiovascular risk in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ITE inhibits growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ling-Pin; Li, Yan; Zou, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Chi; Lei, Wei; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Shi-An

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a deadly disorder is associated with excessive growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial (HPAECs) and smooth muscle (HPASMCs) cells. Current therapies primarily aim at promoting vasodilation, which only ameliorates clinical symptoms without a cure. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, and mediates many cellular function including cell growth. However, the roles of ITE in human lung endothelial cells remain elusive. Herein, we tested a hypothesis that ITE inhibits growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells via AhR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize AhR expression in human lung tissues. The crystal violet method and MTT assay were used to determine ITE's effects on growth of HPAECs. The AhR activation in HPAECs was confirmed using Western blotting and RT-qPCR. The role of AhR in ITE-affected proliferation of HPAECs was assessed using siRNA knockdown method followed by the crystal violet method. Immunohistochemistry revealed that AhR was present in human lung tissues, primarily in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of pulmonary veins and arteries, as well as in bronchial and alveolar sac epithelia. We also found that ITE dose- and time-dependently inhibited proliferation of HPAECs with a maximum inhibition of 83% at 20 µM after 6 days of treatment. ITE rapidly decreased AhR protein levels, while it increased mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP), family 1, member A1 (CYP1A1) and B1 (CYP1B1), indicating activation of the AhR/CYP1A1 and AhR/CYP1B1 pathways in HPAECs. The AhR siRNA significantly suppressed AhR protein expression, whereas it did not significantly alter ITE-inhibited growth of HPAECs. ITE suppresses growth of HPAECs independent of AhR, suggesting that ITE may play an important role in preventing excessive growth of lung endothelial cells.

  6. GPER Mediates Functional Endothelial Aging in Renal Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias R; Rosemann, Thomas; Barton, Matthias; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with impaired renal artery function, which is partly characterized by arterial stiffening and a reduced vasodilatory capacity due to excessive generation of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidases (Nox). The abundance and activity of Nox depends on basal activity of the heptahelical transmembrane receptor GPER; however, whether GPER contributes to age-dependent functional changes in renal arteries is unknown. This study investigated the effect of aging and Nox activity on renal artery tone in wild-type and GPER-deficient (Gper-/-) mice (4 and 24 months old). In wild-type mice, aging markedly impaired endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxations to acetylcholine, which were largely preserved in renal arteries of aged Gper-/- mice. The Nox inhibitor gp91ds-tat abolished this difference by greatly enhancing relaxations in wild-type mice, while having no effect in Gper-/- mice. Contractions to angiotensin II and phenylephrine in wild-type mice were partly sensitive to gp91ds-tat but unaffected by aging. Again, deletion of GPER abolished effects of Nox inhibition on contractile responses. In conclusion, basal activity of GPER is required for the age-dependent impairment of endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated relaxation in the renal artery. Restoration of relaxation by a Nox inhibitor in aged wild-type but not Gper-/- mice strongly supports a role for Nox-derived reactive oxygen species as the underlying cause. Pharmacological blockers of GPER signaling may thus be suitable to inhibit functional endothelial aging of renal arteries by reducing Nox-derived oxidative stress and, possibly, the associated age-dependent deterioration of kidney function. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Endothelial Protein C Receptor and Pediatric Arterial Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR gene A3 haplotype and plasma soluble EPCR (sEPCR levels in Turkish pediatric arterial stroke patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 44 pediatric arterial stroke patients and 75 healthy controls. Following DNA isolation, genotyping of the A3 haplotype was determined via PCR and RFLP. Additionally, fasting sEPCR levels were determined via ELISA. Results: There wasn’t a significant difference in the sEPCR level between the control and patient groups, although the sEPCR level was higher in the patient group. We didn’t observe a difference in the distribution of the CC and CG/GG genotypes between the control and patient groups. Conclusion: Further study on sEPCR levels at the onset of pediatric stroke is needed in order to reach a more definitive conclusion.

  8. The relation between ankle-brachial index (ABI and coronary artery disease severity and risk factors: an angiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study aims to determine the relation between ankle–brachialindex (ABI and angiographic findings and major cardiovascular risk factors in patients withsuspected coronary artery diseases (CAD in Isfahan.METHODS: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research, patients with suspected CADwere studied. Characteristics of studied subjects including demographics, familial history, pastmedical history and atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension,hyperlipidemia and smoking were obtained using a standard questionnaire. ABI was measuredin all studied patients. ABI ≤ 0.9 (ABI+ was considered as peripheral vessel disease and ABI >0.9 (ABI- was considered as normal. Then, all studied patients underwent coronary arteryangiography. The results of the questionnaire and angiographic findings were compared in ABI+and ABI- groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using ANOVA, t-test, Spearman's rankcorrelation coefficient, and discriminant analysis.RESULTS: In this study, 125 patients were investigated. ABI ≤ 0.9 was seen in 25 patients (20%.The prevalence of ABI+ among men and women was 25.9% and 7.5%, respectively (P = 0.01. Theprevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors was significantly higher in ABI+ patients than in ABIones(P < 0.05. ABI+ patients had more significant stenosis than ABI- ones. The mean ofocclusion was significantly higher in ABI+ patients with left main artery (LMA, right coronaryartery (RCA, left anterior descending artery (LAD, diagonal artery 1 (D1 and left circumflexartery (LCX involvements (P < 0.05.CONCLUSION: The findings of this research indicated that ABI could be a useful method inassessing both the atherosclerotic risk factors and the degree of coronary involvements insuspected patients. However, in order to make more accurate decisions for using this method indiagnosing and preventing CAD, we should plan further studies in large sample sizes of generalpopulation

  9. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Gon Je

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in quality of life (QoL is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD. The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ and ankle-brachial index (ABI, and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001. PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p’s < 0.001. As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001. ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15. Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  10. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun; Spertus, John

    2015-05-18

    Improvement in quality of life (QoL) is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) and ankle-brachial index (ABI), and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p's PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  11. Evaluation of Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease by Ankle-brachial Index in Patients with Concomitant Coronary Arterial Disease

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    Hosein Vakili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral arterial disease is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. As such, it is found that screening for peripheral arterial disease (PAD improves risk assessment. Thus, intensive risk factor modification and medical treatment in these patients are necessary. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with concomitant coronary arterial disease. Methods: Asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease was investigated in 400 patients (60% males, 40% females, aged 59.7± 11.3 with a documented coronary arterial disease. Results: Among patients with documented CAD, 12% had asymptomatic PAD with the ABI ratio of less than 0.9. Conclusions: It is advisable to screen for PAD not only as a disease but also as a risk assessment method for atherosclerosis.

  12. Relation of Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution to Brachial Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation and Reactive Hyperemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Elissa H.; Ljungman, Petter L.; Rice, Mary B.; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Gold, Diane R.; Koutrakis, Petros; Vita, Joseph A.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Impaired vascular responses may in part explain these findings, but the association of such long-term exposure with measures of both conduit artery and microvascular function have not been widely reported. We evaluated the association between residential proximity to a major roadway (primary or secondary highway) and spatially resolved average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and baseline brachial artery diameter and mean flow velocity, flow mediated dilation % and hyperemic flow velocity, in the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts. We examined 5,112 participants (2,731 (53%) women, mean age 49±14 years). Spatially resolved average PM2.5 was associated with lower flow mediated dilation% and hyperemic flow velocity. An interquartile range difference in PM2.5 (1.99 μg/m3) was associated with −0.16% (95%CI: −0.27%, −0.05%) lower FMD% and −0.72 (95%CI: −1.38, −0.06) cm/s lower hyperemic flow velocity %. Residential proximity to a major roadway was negatively associated with flow mediated dilation %. Compared to living ≥400 m away, living <50 m from a major roadway was associated with 0.32% lower flow mediated dilation (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.58%, −0.06%), but results for hyperemic flow velocity had wide confidence intervals −0.68 cm/s (95%CI: −2.29, 0.93). In conclusion, residential proximity to a major roadway and higher levels of spatially resolved estimates of PM2.5 at participant residences are associated with impaired conduit artery and microvascular function in this large community-based cohort of middle-aged and elderly adults. PMID:24793676

  13. Short- and long-term influence of diet and simvastatin on brachial artery endothelial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Petersen, Knud Erik

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) has often been studied in patients with hypercholesterolemia without overt coronary atherosclerosis where an improvement after statin treatment has been documented within few weeks. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term effect of diet...

  14. Number of distal limb and brachial pressure measurements required when diagnosing peripheral arterial disease by laser Doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høyer, C; Biurrun Manresa, J A; Petersen, L J

    2013-01-01

    We examine the reliability of single and repeated blood pressure measurements at ankle, toe, and arm levels for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) by laser Doppler flowmetry. Segmental pressures were measured in 200 patients with known or suspected PAD. Segmental indices were calculated using (1) one measurement [M-1], two measurements [M-2], or by a predefined reproducibility criterion (RC) as well as (2) by using one brachial blood-pressure (BBP-one) or correspondent to each segmental pressure (BBP-all) as reference. The agreement in diagnosis of PAD by Cohen's Kappa was κ = 0.930 when comparing RC to M-1, and κ = 0.977 when comparing RC to M-2. The same comparison showed excellent relative reliability for segmental indices (all intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) ≥ 0.980). Diagnostic classification agreement for BBP-all versus BBP-one were κ = 0.831 for RC, κ = 0.804 for M-1, and κ = 0.847 for M-2. The relative reliability analysis showed excellent correlation in segmental indices (all ICC ≥ 0.957). The study shows minimal difference in segmental indices and diagnostic classification when comparing calculations based on the listed strategies. However, the study indicated that it is important to measure BBPs correspondent to each segmental pressure. (paper)

  15. Gender differences in the relationships among obesity, adiponectin and brachial artery distensibility in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, E M; Khoury, P; Martin, L J; D'Alessio, D; Dolan, L M

    2009-10-01

    Obesity-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major cause of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Obesity-related reduction in vascular protective adipose-derived proteins, such as adiponectin (APN), has an important role. We compared brachial artery distensibility (BrachD) with APN, the level of adiposity and other CV risk factors (CVRFs) in 431 post-pubertal subjects (mean 17.9 years). Gender differences in average values were examined by t-tests. Correlations among BrachD, obesity and other CVRFs were examined. Regression analysis was performed to determine whether APN provided an independent contribution to BrachD, while controlling for obesity and other CVRFs. Male subjects had lower BrachD (5.72+/-1.37 vs 6.45+/-1.60% change per mm Hg, Pgender, APN*gender and BMI z-score predicted BrachD (r(2)=0.305). On the basis of gender difference, only BMI z-score was significant for male subjects (r(2)=0.080), whereas APN and BMI z-score contributed for female subjects (r(2)=0.242, all Pobesity in both male and female subjects. In female subjects, APN exerts an additional independent effect even after adjusting for blood pressure (BP), lipid levels and insulin. Differences in the effect of the APN-adiposity relationship on obesity-related vascular disease may be one reason for gender differences in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  16. Study of lipoproteins and arterial intima interaction based on arterial endothelial cells real geometrical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Kirillova, I. V.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Kossovich, E. L.; Zayarsky, D. A.; Fadeev, A. A.

    2013-02-01

    An original methodology is developed for scanning of the arterial intima morphology using the atomic force microscopy. The probing nanolaboratory NTEGRASpectra (NT-MDT, Russia) was itilized. The pictures of the coronary artery intima topology were obtained with the resolution of 1 nm. The 3D model of the `endothelial cell surface - low density lipoprotein (LDL)' complex was constructed. Using the ANSYS software, the deformation of LDL particle was found as well as the stress distribution at the moment of the macromolecule and endothelial surface collision. The largest normal and tangential stresses are found in the area of LDL interaction with the surface. These stresses are 2.173 and 0.053 kPa, respectively. It was shown that the LDL structure is being highly strained, which leads to the molecule compression and crease. Therefore, one can conclude that at the moment of LDL entering the intercellular hiatus the macromolecule will be suffering the overall deformations and large modification of its structure.

  17. A control systems approach to quantify wall shear stress normalization by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C G van Bussel

    Full Text Available Flow-mediated dilation is aimed at normalization of local wall shear stress under varying blood flow conditions. Blood flow velocity and vessel diameter are continuous and opposing influences that modulate wall shear stress. We derived an index FMDv to quantify wall shear stress normalization performance by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery. In 22 fasting presumed healthy men, we first assessed intra- and inter-session reproducibilities of two indices pFMDv and mFMDv, which consider the relative peak and relative mean hyperemic change in flow velocity, respectively. Second, utilizing oral glucose loading, we evaluated the tracking performance of both FMDv indices, in comparison with existing indices [i.e., the relative peak diameter increase (%FMD, the peak to baseline diameter ratio (Dpeak/Dbase, and the relative peak diameter increase normalized to the full area under the curve of blood flow velocity with hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC or with area integrated to peak hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC_peak]. Inter-session and intra-session reproducibilities for pFMDv, mFMDv and %FMD were comparable (intra-class correlation coefficients within 0.521-0.677 range. Both pFMDv and mFMDv showed more clearly a reduction after glucose loading (reduction of ~45%, p≤0.001 than the other indices (% given are relative reductions: %FMD (~11%, p≥0.074; Dpeak/Dbase (~11%, p≥0.074; FMD/shearAUC_peak (~20%, p≥0.016 and FMD/shearAUC (~38%, p≤0.038. Further analysis indicated that wall shear stress normalization under normal (fasting conditions is already far from ideal (FMDv << 1, which (therefore does not materially change with glucose loading. Our approach might be useful in intervention studies to detect intrinsic changes in shear stress normalization performance in conduit arteries.

  18. Relation between respiratory function and arterial stiffness assessed using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in healthy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi, Junko; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] Current studies report that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may also have arteriosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between respiratory function and arterial stiffness in healthy workers using the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). [Subjects and Methods] This study included 104 male Japanese workers without COPD. We collected participant information and measured hemodynamics, body composition, and respiratory function. [Results] In the correlation analysis, baPWV showed a significant positive correlation with age, smoking index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and a significant negative correlation with height, fat free mass, lower limb muscle mass, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). In multiple regression analysis using factors other than baPWV and respiratory function as adjustment variables, both FVC and FEV1 showed a significant negative relationship with baPWV (p=0.009 and p=0.027, respectively). FEV1/FVC was not significantly related to baPWV (p=0.704). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that FEV1/FVC and the proportion of FEV1 predicted, which are indicators of airflow limitation, are not predictors of baPWV in workers without airflow limitation. However, since baPWV showed a significant negative relationship with FVC and FEV 1, the reduction in respiratory function that does not cause airflow limitation, such as FVC or FEV1 decline, may be related to an increase in the risk of arterial stiffness.

  19. Reliability of palpation of the radial artery compared with auscultation of the brachial artery in measuring SBP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, Niels V.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.; van Montfrans, Gert A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Systolic blood pressure contributes more to cardiovascular disease than DBP, especially in elderly persons. Palpation of the radial artery to assess SBP - Riva-Rocci's technique-may be an attractive alternative for auscultatory SBP in these patients. Therefore, we investigated the

  20. Impaired blood rheology is associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hideki; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Tsunekawa, Katsuhiko; Araki, Osamu; Kimura, Takao; Nara, Makoto; Ogiwara, Takayuki; Murakami, Masami

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood rheology and endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors, brachial arterial flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), an index of endothelial function and blood passage time (BPT), an index of blood rheology, and fasting blood cell count, glucose metabolism, and plasma fibrinogen, lipid, C-reactive protein, and whole blood viscosity levels were measured in 95 patients with coronary risk factors and 37 healthy controls. Brachial arterial FMD after reactive hyperemia was assessed by ultrasonography. BPT was assessed using the microchannel method. In healthy controls, BPT significantly correlated with FMD (r = - 0.325, p index (BMI; r = 0.530, p measurement of blood rheology using the microchannel method may be useful in evaluating brachial arterial endothelial function as a marker of atherosclerosis in these patients.

  1. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J H; Keevil, J G; Wiebe, D A; Aeschlimann, S; Folts, J D

    1999-09-07

    In vitro, the flavonoid components of red wine and purple grape juice are powerful antioxidants that induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation of vascular rings derived from rat aortas and human coronary arteries. Although improved endothelial function and inhibition of LDL oxidation may be potential mechanisms by which red wine and flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk, the in vivo effects of grape products on endothelial function and LDL oxidation have not been investigated. This study assessed the effects of ingesting purple grape juice on endothelial function and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen adults with angiographically documented CAD ingested 7.7+/-1.2 mL. kg(-1). d(-1) of purple grape juice for 14 days. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution brachial artery ultrasonography. Susceptibility of LDL particles to oxidation was determined from the rate of conjugated diene formation after exposure to copper chloride. At baseline, FMD was impaired (2.2+/-2. 9%). After ingestion of grape juice, FMD increased to 6.4+/-4.7% (P=0.003). In a linear regression model that included age, artery diameter, lipid values, and use of lipid-lowering and antioxidant therapies, the effect of grape juice on FMD remained significant (mean change 4.2+/-4.4%, PFMD and reduces LDL susceptibility to oxidation in CAD patients. Improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation and prevention of LDL oxidation are potential mechanisms by which flavonoids in purple grape products may prevent cardiovascular events, independent of alcohol content.

  2. Effect of pistachio nut consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Ravi R; Bansal, Manish; Mehrotra, Rahul; Yeptho, Kajal Pandya; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of regular consumption of pistachio nuts on glycemic, lipid, and oxidative stress parameters. The aim of this study was to determine its effect on vascular health, which has not been adequately studied so far. In this open label, randomized parallel-group study, 60 adults with mild dyslipidemia were randomized to lifestyle modification (LSM) alone or LSM with consumption of 80 g (in-shell) pistachios (equivalent to 40 g or 1.5 oz shelled pistachios) daily for 3 mo. Biochemical parameters, brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (BAFMD), and carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and baPWV, respectively) were measured before and after the intervention. At 3 mo, there was no change in any of the clinical or biochemical parameters in the LSM group. However, the patients in the pistachio group had a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 35.7 ± 8.8 mg/dL versus 37.8 ± 10.1 mg/dL; P = 0.04) and a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (137.2 ± 32.6 mg/dL versus 127.6 ± 34.0 mg/dL; P = 0.02), total cholesterol (TC)-to-HDL-C ratio (5.8 ± 1.3 mg/dL versus 5.3 ± 1.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001), and fasting blood sugar (88.8 ± 7.1 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 6.3 mg/dL; P = 0.05). Additionally, whereas LSM alone was associated with no improvement in BAFMD or PWV, individuals in the pistachio group had significant reduction in left baPWV (1261.7 ± 187.5 cm/sec versus 1192.4 ± 152.5 cm/sec; P = 0.02) and statistically nonsignificant improvement in most other parameters, including BAFMD. As a result, at 3 mo the patients in the pistachio group had lower cfPWV (770.9 ± 96.5 cm/sec versus 846.4 ± 162.0 cm/sec; P = 0.08), lower left baPWV (1192.4 ± 152.5 cm/sec versus 1326.3 ± 253.7 cm/sec; P = 0.05), and lower average baPWV (1208.2 ± 118.4 cm/sec versus 1295.8 ± 194.1 cm/sec; P = 0.08) compared

  3. Impaired activity of adherens junctions contributes to endothelial dilator dysfunction in ageing rat arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fumin; Flavahan, Sheila; Flavahan, Nicholas A

    2017-08-01

    Ageing-induced endothelial dysfunction contributes to organ dysfunction and progression of cardiovascular disease. VE-cadherin clustering at adherens junctions promotes protective endothelial functions, including endothelium-dependent dilatation. Ageing increased internalization and degradation of VE-cadherin, resulting in impaired activity of adherens junctions. Inhibition of VE-cadherin clustering at adherens junctions (function-blocking antibody; FBA) reduced endothelial dilatation in young arteries but did not affect the already impaired dilatation in old arteries. After junctional disruption with the FBA, dilatation was similar in young and old arteries. Src tyrosine kinase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin were increased in old arteries. Src inhibition increased VE-cadherin at adherens junctions and increased endothelial dilatation in old, but not young, arteries. Src inhibition did not increase dilatation in old arteries treated with the VE-cadherin FBA. Ageing impairs the activity of adherens junctions, which contributes to endothelial dilator dysfunction. Restoring the activity of adherens junctions could be of therapeutic benefit in vascular ageing. Endothelial dilator dysfunction contributes to pathological vascular ageing. Experiments assessed whether altered activity of endothelial adherens junctions (AJs) might contribute to this dysfunction. Aortas and tail arteries were isolated from young (3-4 months) and old (22-24 months) F344 rats. VE-cadherin immunofluorescent staining at endothelial AJs and AJ width were reduced in old compared to young arteries. A 140 kDa VE-cadherin species was present on the cell surface and in TTX-insoluble fractions, consistent with junctional localization. Levels of the 140 kDa VE-cadherin were decreased, whereas levels of a TTX-soluble 115 kDa VE-cadherin species were increased in old compared to young arteries. Acetylcholine caused endothelium-dependent dilatation that was decreased in old

  4. Vasodilatory effect and endothelial integrity in papaverine- and milrinone-treated human radial arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, P; Wegrzyn, P; Lis, G J; Piatek, J; Konstanty-Kalandyk, J; Nosalski, R; Mikolajczyk, T; Jasinska, M; Pyka-Fosciak, G; Guzik, T; Litwin, J A; Korbut, R; Sadowski, J

    2013-02-01

    Prevention of the vasospasm is an important aspect of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with the use of radial artery (RA) as the conduit. We compared the effect of two phosphodiesterase inhibitors papaverine and milrinone on vasodilation and endothelial integrity of human RA segments harvested from 20 CABG patients. Vasodilatory effect of the drugs were assessed by organ bath technique in RA rings precontracted with KCl and phenylephrine. Endothelial integrity was evaluated by CD34 immunofluorescence in frozen sections. Vasorelaxation induced by papaverine was significantly greater as compared to that induced by milrinone (90.47% ± 10.16% vs. 78.98% ± 19.56%, pmilrinone in the preservation of endothelial integrity (75.3% ± 12.9% vs. 51.8% ± 18.0%, pmilrinone for prevention of vasospasm in radial artery conduits used for CABG.

  5. Arterial Injury and Endothelial Repair: Rapid Recovery of Function after Mechanical Injury in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Tilling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Previous studies suggest a protracted course of recovery after mechanical endothelial injury; confounders may include degree of injury and concomitant endothelial dysfunction. We sought to define the time course of endothelial function recovery using flow-mediated dilation (FMD, after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR and mechanical injury in patients and healthy volunteers. The contribution of circulating CD133+/CD34+/VEGFR2+ “endothelial progenitor” (EPC or repair cells to endothelial repair was also examined. Methods. 28 healthy volunteers aged 18–35 years underwent transient forearm ischaemia induced by cuff inflation around the proximal biceps and radial artery mechanical injury induced by inserting a wire through a cannula. A more severe mechanical injury was induced using an arterial sheath and catheter inserted into the radial artery of 18 patients undergoing angiography. Results. IR and mechanical injury produced immediate impairment of FMD (from 6.5 ± 1.2% to 2.9 ± 2.2% and from 7.4 ± 2.3% to 1.5 ± 1.6% for IR and injury, resp., each P<0.001 but recovered within 6 hours and 2 days, respectively. FMD took up to 4 months to recover in patients. Circulating EPC did not change significantly during the injury/recovery period in all subjects. Conclusions. Recovery of endothelial function after IR and mechanical injury is rapid and not associated with a change in circulating EPC.

  6. Hyperuricemia in Destabilization of Endothelial Function in Adolescents with Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Korenev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the correlation of uric acid level in blood serum and parameters of endothelial function and non-specific inflammation in adolescents with arterial hypertension considering their body weight. In the most of patients with arterial hypertension endothelial dysfunction was detected; endothelium-dependent vasodilation was more altered in the patients with obesity and especially in those with hyperuricemia. An increase in C-reactive protein serum level was mainly associated with obesity; a decrease in systolic-diastolic ratio — with hyperuricemia.

  7. Association between the severity of coronary artery stenosis and the combination of the difference in blood pressure between arms and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyase, Yuiko; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Yano, Masaya; Suematsu, Yasunori; Adachi, Sen; Norimatsu, Kenji; Nakamura, Ayumi; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-01-01

    A difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥10 mmHg between the arms is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality in high-risk patients. Four hundred and fourteen patients were divided into three groups according to the percent most severe luminal narrowing of a coronary artery as diagnosed by coronary computed tomography angiography: no or mild coronary stenosis (0-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (≥70%) groups. The relative difference in SBP between arms in the severe group was significantly lower than those in the no or mild and moderate groups. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) significantly increased as the severity of coronary stenosis increased. We confirmed that severe coronary stenosis was independently associated with both the relative difference in SBP between arms and baPWV, in addition to age, gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and ankle-brachial index by a logistic regression analysis. The group with a relative difference in SBP between arms of difference in SBP between arms and baPWV may be a more effective approach for the non-invasive assessment of the severity of CAD.

  8. Association between temporal mean arterial pressure and brachial noninvasive blood pressure during shoulder surgery in the beach chair position during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplet, Jacob J; Lonetta, Christopher M; Everding, Nathan G; Moor, Molly A; Levy, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of cerebral perfusion pressure during elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position is regularly performed by noninvasive brachial blood pressure (NIBP) measurements. The relationship between brachial mean arterial pressure and estimated temporal mean arterial pressure (eTMAP) is not well established and may vary with patient positioning. Establishing a ratio between eTMAP and NIBP at varying positions may provide a more accurate estimation of cerebral perfusion using noninvasive measurements. This prospective study included 57 patients undergoing elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. All patients received an interscalene block and general anesthesia. After the induction of general anesthesia, values for eTMAP and NIBP were recorded at 0°, 30°, and 70° of incline. A statistically significant, strong, and direct correlation between NIBP and eTMAP was found at 0° (r = 0.909, P ≤ .001), 30° (r = 0.874, P Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial após endocardite infecciosa de valva mitral Infected aneurysm of brachial artery after mitral valve infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Guedis Lobo Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial em paciente com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis. Homem de 49 anos de idade se apresentou com febre, dispnéia e sopro regurgitativo em foco mitral com irradiação para axila. O ecocardiograma demonstrou vegetação em valva mitral nativa. Após troca valvar mitral com implante de prótese biológica, observou-se massa pulsátil de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em fossa antecubital direita. Foi feito o diagnóstico de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial, e o tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado com sucesso. O objetivo desse relato de caso é apresentar uma complicação pouco comum após endocardite infecciosa.We present a case of brachial artery infected aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A 49-year-old man presented with fever dyspnea and a pansystolic murmur with irradiation to axilla. The echocardiogram revealed vegetation in native mitral valve. After mitral valve replacement with bioprosthesis, it was observed pulsatile mass of five centimeters in diameter at antecubital fossa of right upper limb. It was made the diagnosis of infected aneurysm of the brachial artery, and the surgery was performed successfully. The aim of this case report is to show a rare complication after infective endocarditis.

  10. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells do not contribute to regeneration of endothelium after murine arterial injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagensen, Mette; Raarup, Merete Krog; Mortensen, Martin Bødtker

    2012-01-01

    into endothelial cells (ECs). We tested this theory in a murine arterial injury model using carotid artery transplants and fluorescent reporter mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wire-injured carotid artery segments from wild-type mice were transplanted into TIE2-GFP transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein...... (GFP) in ECs. We found that the endothelium regenerated with GFP(+) ECs as a function of time, evolving from the anastomosis sites towards the centre of the transplant. A migration front of ECs at Day 7 was verified by scanning electron microscopy and by bright-field microscopy using recipient TIE2-lac......Z mice with endothelial β-galactosidase expression. These experiments indicated migration of flanking ECs rather than homing of circulating cells as the underlying mechanism. To confirm this, we interposed non-injured wild-type carotid artery segments between the denuded transplant and the TIE2-GFP...

  11. Occluded Brescia-Cimino Hemodialysis Fistulas: Endovascular Treatment with Both Brachial Arterial and Venous Access Using the Pull-Through Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyayama, Shiro; Matsui, Osamu; Taki, Keiichi; Minami, Tetsuya; Shinmura, Rieko; Ito, Chiharu; Takamatsu, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Miki; Ushiogi, Yashuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of both arterial and venous access with the pull-through technique in endovascular treatment of totally occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas. We treated 26 patients (17 men, 9 women; age range 43-82 years, mean age 66 years) with occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas. First, the occluded segment was traversed from the antegrade brachial arterial access using a microcatheter-guidewire system. Second, the vein was retrogradely punctured after confirmation of all diseased segments, and a 0.014- or 0.016-inch guidewire was pulled through the venous access when the occluded segment was long. All interventions including thrombolysis, thromboaspiration, angioplasty, and stent placement were performed via the venous access. The occlusion was successfully crossed via the brachial arterial access in 23 patients (88%). In 2 patients it was done from the venous approach. In the remaining patient it was not possible to traverse the occluded segment. The pull-through technique was successful in all 19 attempts. Clinical success was achieved in 96%, the primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 18 months were 83%, 78%, and 69%, the primary assisted patency rates were 92%, 92%, and 72%, and the secondary patency rates were 92%, 92%, and 92%, respectively. Minor complications in 5 patients included venous perforation in 2 (8%), venous rupture in 1 (4%), and regional hematoma in 2 (8%). Our study suggests that endovascular treatments with both arterial and venous access using the pull-through technique are highly effective in restoring function in totally occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas

  12. Endothelial cell death and intimal foam cell accumulation in the coronary artery of infected hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Saraste, Antti; Hyttel, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) has been suggested to play a role in atherosclerosis. We studied the synergism of hypercholesterolemia with Chlamydia pneumoniae and influenza virus infections on EC morphology and intimal changes in a minipig model. The coronary artery was excised at euthanasia...

  13. PX-18 Protects Human Saphenous Vein Endothelial Cells under Arterial Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupreishvili, Koba; Stooker, Wim; Emmens, Reindert W; Vonk, Alexander B A; Sipkens, Jessica A; van Dijk, Annemieke; Eijsman, Leon; Quax, Paul H; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Krijnen, Paul A J; Niessen, Hans W M

    2017-07-01

    Arterial blood pressure-induced shear stress causes endothelial cell apoptosis and inflammation in vein grafts after coronary artery bypass grafting. As the inflammatory protein type IIA secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 -IIA) has been shown to progress atherosclerosis, we hypothesized a role for sPLA 2 -IIA herein. The effects of PX-18, an inhibitor of both sPLA 2 -IIA and apoptosis, on residual endothelium and the presence of sPLA 2 -IIA were studied in human saphenous vein segments (n = 6) perfused at arterial blood pressure with autologous blood for 6 hrs. The presence of PX-18 in the perfusion blood induced a significant 20% reduction in endothelial cell loss compared to veins perfused without PX18, coinciding with significantly reduced sPLA 2 -IIA levels in the media of the vein graft wall. In addition, PX-18 significantly attenuated caspase-3 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to shear stress via mechanical stretch independent of sPLA 2 -IIA. In conclusion, PX-18 protects saphenous vein endothelial cells from arterial blood pressure-induced death, possibly also independent of sPLA 2 -IIA inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced endothelial thioredoxin-interacting protein protects arteries from damage induced by metabolic stress in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Domingues, Alison; Baron, Stephanie; Ferreira, Chrystophe; Vibert, Francoise; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Paul, Jean-Louis; Escriou, Virginie; Bigey, Pascal; Gaussem, Pascale; Leguillier, Teddy; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2018-06-01

    Although thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is involved in a variety of biologic functions, the contribution of endothelial TXNIP has not been well defined. To investigate the endothelial function of TXNIP, we generated a TXNIP knockout mouse on the Cdh5-cre background (TXNIP fl/fl cdh5 cre ). Control (TXNIP fl/fl ) and TXNIP fl/fl cdh5 cre mice were fed a high protein-low carbohydrate (HP-LC) diet for 3 mo to induce metabolic stress. We found that TXNIP fl/fl and TXNIP fl/fl cdh5 cre mice on an HP-LC diet displayed impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia concretizing the metabolic stress induced. We evaluated the impact of this metabolic stress on mice with reduced endothelial TXNIP expression with regard to arterial structure and function. TXNIP fl/fl cdh5 cre mice on an HP-LC diet exhibited less endothelial dysfunction than littermate mice on an HP-LC diet. These mice were protected from decreased aortic medial cell content, impaired aortic distensibility, and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 secretion. This protective effect came with lower oxidative stress and lower inflammation, with a reduced NLRP3 inflammasome expression, leading to a decrease in cleaved IL-1β. We also show the major role of TXNIP in inflammation with a knockdown model, using a TXNIP-specific, small interfering RNA included in a lipoplex. These findings demonstrate a key role for endothelial TXNIP in arterial impairments induced by metabolic stress, making endothelial TXNIP a potential therapeutic target.-Bedarida, T., Domingues, A., Baron, S., Ferreira, C., Vibert, F., Cottart, C.-H., Paul, J.-L., Escriou, V., Bigey, P., Gaussem, P., Leguillier, T., Nivet-Antoine, V. Reduced endothelial thioredoxin-interacting protein protects arteries from damage induced by metabolic stress in vivo.

  15. ROCK2 mediates the proliferation of pulmonary arterial endothelial cells induced by hypoxia in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    QIAO, FENG; ZOU, ZHITIAN; LIU, CHUNHUI; ZHU, XIAOFENG; WANG, XIAOQIANG; YANG, CHENGPENG; JIANG, TENGJIAO; CHEN, YING

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that RhoA activation and Rho-kinase (ROCK) expression are increased in chronic hypoxic lungs, and the long-term inhibition of ROCK markedly improves the survival of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, whether Rho-kinase α (ROCK2) participates in regulation of the growth of pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the proliferation of PAECs and the role o...

  16. Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enseleit, Frank; Sudano, Isabella; Périat, Daniel; Winnik, Stephan; Wolfrum, Mathias; Flammer, Andreas J; Fröhlich, Georg M; Kaiser, Priska; Hirt, Astrid; Haile, Sarah R; Krasniqi, Nazmi; Matter, Christian M; Uhlenhut, Klaus; Högger, Petra; Neidhart, Michel; Lüscher, Thomas F; Ruschitzka, Frank; Noll, Georg

    2012-07-01

    Extracts from pine tree bark containing a variety of flavonoids have been used in traditional medicine. Pycnogenol is a proprietary bark extract of the French maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica) that exerts antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet effects. However, the effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, remain still elusive. Twenty-three patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Patients received Pycnogenol (200 mg/day) for 8 weeks followed by placebo or vice versa on top of standard cardiovascular therapy. Between the two treatment periods, a 2-week washout period was scheduled. At baseline and after each treatment period, endothelial function, non-invasively assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound, biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, platelet adhesion, and 24 h blood pressure monitoring were evaluated. In CAD patients, Pycnogenol treatment was associated with an improvement of FMD from 5.3 ± 2.6 to 7.0 ± 3.1 (P effect 2.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75, 3.75, P < 0.0001]. 15-F(2t)-Isoprostane, an index of oxidative stress, significantly decreased from 0.71 ± 0.09 to 0.66 ± 0.13 after Pycnogenol treatment, while no change was observed in the placebo group (mean difference 0.06 pg/mL with an associated 95% CI (0.01, 0.11), P = 0.012]. Inflammation markers, platelet adhesion, and blood pressure did not change after treatment with Pycnogenol or placebo. This study provides the first evidence that the antioxidant Pycnogenol improves endothelial function in patients with CAD by reducing oxidative stress.

  17. Ankle Brachial Index <0.9 Underestimates the Prevalence of Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease Assessed with Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikstroem, J.; Hansen, T.; Johansson, L.; Lind, L.; Ahlstroem, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WBMRA) permits noninvasive vascular assessment, which can be utilized in epidemiological studies. Purpose: To assess the relation between a low ankle brachial index (ABI) and high-grade stenoses in the pelvic and leg arteries in the elderly. Material and Methods: WBMRA was performed in a population sample of 306 subjects aged 70 years. The arteries below the aortic bifurcation were graded after the most severe stenosis according to one of three grades: 0-49% stenosis, 50-99% stenosis, or occlusion. ABI was calculated for each side. Results: There were assessable WBMRA and ABI examinations in 268 (right side), 265 (left side), and 258 cases (both sides). At least one ≥50% stenosis was found in 19% (right side), 23% (left side), and 28% (on at least one side) of the cases. The corresponding prevalences for ABI <0.9 were 4.5%, 4.2%, and 6.6%. An ABI cut-off value of 0.9 resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 20%, 99%, 83%, and 84% on the right side, and 15%, 99%, 82%, and 80% on the left side, respectively, for the presence of a ≥ 50% stenosis in the pelvic or leg arteries. Conclusion: An ABI <0.9 underestimates the prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in the general elderly population

  18. Clinical significance of inter-arm pressure difference and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yuko; Chikamori, Taishiro; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Nagao, Tadashi; Yamashina, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Although measuring blood pressure at the bilateral brachia is common in medical practice, its clinical significance in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been fully clarified. The method of this study was to define the significance of inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference in patients with suspected CAD, and to assess the relationship between inter-arm pressure difference and CAD, simultaneous brachial and ankle blood pressure measurements and stress myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 386 consecutive patients with suspected CAD, excluding those with previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization. Subclavian artery stenosis, defined as ≥15 mmHg inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference, was found in 27 patients (7%). Age (65±12 vs 65±11 years), male sex (21/27 vs 244/359), prevalence of hypertension (63% vs 56%), hypercholesterolemia (63% vs 62%), diabetes mellitus (33% vs 38%), cigarette smoking (44% vs 41%) and family history of CAD (15% vs 12%) were similar between patients with subclavian artery stenosis and those without. The incidence of decreased ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) was higher (37% vs 12%, p=0.001), and percentage ischemic myocardium as assessed by SPECT was greater (9.0±8.5% vs 5.6±6.6%, p=0.05) in patients with subclavian artery stenosis than in those without. Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between inter-arm pressure difference and percentage ischemic myocardium (r=0.13; p=0.01), and ABI (r=-0.26, p<0.0001). Among 386 patients, 283 underwent coronary angiography, and 63% of those who had inter-arm blood pressure difference had CAD. Furthermore, 83% of those CAD patients had multi-vessel CAD, which is regarded as a high-risk subset for subsequent cardiac events. Inter-arm pressure difference is often found in patients with suspected CAD, and is associated with significant CAD and peripheral artery disease. Thus, inter

  19. Biomarkers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial function, and inflammation in arterialized venous blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Skov, Jane; Ploug, Thorkil

    2014-01-01

    Effects of venous blood arterialization on cardiovascular risk markers are still unknown. We evaluated biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and endothelial function in arterialized compared with regular venous blood. Cubital venipunctures were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers....... Arterialization was generated by 10 min heating of the contralateral hand. Concentrations of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured by validated assays. Concentrations of albumin......, CRP, and vWF were significantly lower in arterialized than in venous blood (albumin: 43.8 g/l and 44.8 g/l, P = 0.02). Differences in CRP and vWF became insignificant after adjusting for albumin. The endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was significantly higher in arterialized than in venous blood...

  20. Endothelial Dysfunction in Experimental Models of Arterial Hypertension: Cause or Consequence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bernatova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a risk factor for other cardiovascular diseases and endothelial dysfunction was found in humans as well as in various commonly employed animal experimental models of arterial hypertension. Data from the literature indicate that, in general, endothelial dysfunction would not be the cause of experimental hypertension and may rather be secondary, that is, resulting from high blood pressure (BP. The initial mechanism of endothelial dysfunction itself may be associated with a lack of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (mainly nitric oxide and/or accentuation of various endothelium-derived constricting factors. The involvement and role of endothelium-derived factors in the development of endothelial dysfunction in individual experimental models of hypertension may vary, depending on the triggering stimulus, strain, age, and vascular bed investigated. This brief review was focused on the participation of endothelial dysfunction, individual endothelium-derived factors, and their mechanisms of action in the development of high BP in the most frequently used rodent experimental models of arterial hypertension, including nitric oxide deficient models, spontaneous (prehypertension, stress-induced hypertension, and selected pharmacological and diet-induced models.

  1. Elbow dislocation with ipsilateral fracture of the distal radius associated with a brachial artery injury: A new pathological condition of traumatic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo Lahoz, L; Lamas Gomez, C; Sarasquete Reiriz, J; de Caso Rodriguez, J; Proubasta Renart, I

    Elbow dislocation associated with ipsilateral fracture of the distal radius and a brachial artery injury is an uncommon traumatic entity. The two references of this injury combination appeared in 2015, although both authors did not realise that they were the first two cases published in the medical literature. Although mentioned in the text of the articles, no mention was made of the fracture of the distal radius in the titles. The purpose of this paper is to present three cases with this new traumatic pathological entity, explaining its pathogenetic mechanism, the treatment used, and the results obtained. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological adaptation of endothelial function to pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, V.A.L. van; Gansewinkel, T.A.G. van; Haas, S.; Kuijk, S.M.J. van; Drongelen, J. van; Ghossein-Doha, C.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish reference values for flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and brachial artery diameter (BAD) in pregnancy and to provide insight into the physiological and pathological course of endothelial adaptation throughout human singleton pregnancy. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed

  3. Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in resistance arteries from patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanid Luksha

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in the uremic milieu. Subcutaneous resistance arteries from 35 end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients and 28 matched controls were studied ex-vivo. Basal and receptor-dependent effects of endothelium-derived factors, expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, prerequisites for myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJ, and associations between endothelium-dependent responses and plasma levels of endothelial dysfunction markers were assessed. The contribution of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF to endothelium-dependent relaxation was impaired in uremic arteries after stimulation with bradykinin, but not acetylcholine, reflecting the agonist-specific differences. Diminished vasodilator influences of the endothelium on basal tone and enhanced plasma levels of asymmetrical dimethyl L-arginine (ADMA suggest impairment in NO-mediated regulation of uremic arteries. eNOS expression and contribution of MEGJs to EDHF type responses were unaltered. Plasma levels of ADMA were negatively associated with endothelium-dependent responses in uremic arteries. Preserved responses of smooth muscle to pinacidil and NO-donor indicate alterations within the endothelium and tolerance of vasodilator mechanisms to the uremic retention products at the level of smooth muscle. We conclude that both EDHF and NO pathways that control resistance artery tone are impaired in the uremic milieu. For the first time, we validate the alterations in EDHF type responses linked to kinin receptors in ESRD patients. The association between plasma ADMA concentrations and endothelial function in uremic resistance vasculature may have diagnostic and future therapeutic implications.

  4. Relationship between resistant hypertension and arterial stiffness assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the older patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung CM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chang-Min Chung,1,2 Hui-Wen Cheng,2 Jung-Jung Chang,2 Yu-Sheng Lin,2 Ju-Feng Hsiao,2 Shih-Tai Chang,1 Jen-Te Hsu2,31School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 2Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, 3Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan County, TaiwanBackground: Resistant hypertension (RH is a common clinical condition associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in older patients. Several factors and conditions interfering with blood pressure (BP control, such as excess sodium intake, obesity, diabetes, older age, kidney disease, and certain identifiable causes of hypertension are common in patients resistant to antihypertensive treatment. Arterial stiffness, measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, is increasingly recognized as an important prognostic index and potential therapeutic target in hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between RH and arterial stiffness. Methods: This study included 1,620 patients aged ≥65 years who were referred or self-referred to the outpatient hypertension unit located at a single cardiovascular center. They were separated into normotensive, controlled BP, and resistant hypertension groups. Home BP, blood laboratory parameters, echocardiographic studies and baPWV all were measured. Results: The likelihood of diabetes mellitus was significantly greater in the RH group than in the group with controlled BP (odds ratio 2.114, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.194–3.744, P=0.010. Systolic BP was correlated in the RH group significantly more than in the group with controlled BP (odds ratio 1.032, 95% CI 1.012–1.053, P=0.001. baPWV (odds ratio 1.084, 95% CI 1.016–1.156, P=0.015 was significantly correlated with the presence of RH. The other factors were negatively correlated with the existence of RH.Conclusion: In

  5. Effect of Electrocautery on Endothelial Integrity of the Internal Thoracic Artery: Ultrastructural Analysis with Transmission Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Onan, Burak; Yeniterzi, Mehmet; Onan, Ismihan Selen; Ersoy, Burak; Gonca, Suheyla; Gelenli, Elif; Solakoglu, Seyhun; Bakir, Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    The internal thoracic artery (ITA) is typically harvested from the chest wall by means of conventional electrocautery. We investigated the effects of electrocautery on endothelial-cell and vessel-wall morphology at the ultrastructural level during ITA harvesting.

  6. Quercetin Inhibits Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cell Transdifferentiation Possibly by Akt and Erk1/2 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of quercetin on pulmonary arterial endothelial cell (PAEC transdifferentiation into smooth muscle-like cells. TGF-β1-induced PAEC transdifferentiation models were applied to evaluate the pharmacological actions of quercetin. PAEC proliferation was detected with CCK8 method and BurdU immunocytochemistry. Meanwhile, the identification and transdifferentiation of PAECs were determined by FVIII immunofluorescence staining and α-SMA protein expression. The related mechanism was elucidated based on the levels of Akt and Erk1/2 signal pathways. As a result, quercetin effectively inhibited the TGF-β1-induced proliferation and transdifferentiation of the PAECs and activation of Akt/Erk1/2 cascade in the cells. In conclusion, quercetin is demonstrated to be effective for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH probably by inhibiting endothelial transdifferentiation possibly via modulating Akt and Erk1/2 expressions.

  7. Carbon black nanoparticles and vascular dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells and artery segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Mikkelsen, Lone; Folkmann, Janne K

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to small size particulates is regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated effects of exposure to nanosized carbon black (CB) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and segments of arteries from rodents. The CB exposure was associated with increased......, whereas it did not alter the mitochondrial enzyme activity (WST-1) or the nitric oxide level in HUVECs. Incubation of aorta segments with 10µg/ml of CB increased the endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation, induced by acetylcholine, and shifted the endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, induced by sodium...... nitroprusside, towards a decreased sensitivity. In mesenteric arteries, the exposure to 10µg/ml was associated with a reduced pressure-diameter relationship. Incubation with 100µg/ml CB significantly decreased both acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside responses as well as decreased the receptor...

  8. [Echo-tracking technology for evaluating femoral artery endothelial function in patients with Grave's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Jingyuan; Zhao, Qiaoling; Yang, Jinru

    2012-10-01

    To assess the value of echo-tracking technology in evaluating endothelial function of the femoral artery in patients with Grave's disease. Thirty-four patients with Grave's disease patients and 30 normal adults as controls were recruited in this study. The intima-media thickness (IMT), arterial stiffness (β), pressure strain elastic modulus (Ep), arterial compliance (AC), pulse wave conducting velocity (PWVβ) and augmentation index (AI) parameters were examined using echo-tracking technology for evaluating the right femoral arterial elasticity. Compared with the control subjects, the patients with Grave's disease showed significantly increased β, Ep, and PWVβ and significantly decreased AC (P0.05). In patients with Grave's disease, β and Ep were positively correlated with FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, and PWVβ was positively correlated with FT3 and FT4. Echo-tracking technology can provide more accurate quantitative evidences for early diagnosis of femoral artery endothelial dysfunction in patients with Grave's disease, but the influence of procedural factors on the measurement accuracy should be considered in the evaluation.

  9. Endothelial dysfunction and the occurrence of radial artery spasm during transradial coronary procedures: The ACRA-Spasm study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Heijden, D.J. (Dirk J.); M.A.H. van Leeuwen (Maarten); G.N. Janssens (Gladys N.); Hermie, J. (Jailen); M.J. Lenzen (Mattie); M.J.P.F. Ritt; P.M. van de Ven (Peter); F. Kiemeneij (Ferdinand); N. van Royen (Niels)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims: The aim of this study was to analyse the relation between endothelial dysfunction (ED) and the occurrence of radial artery spasm (RAS) during transradial coronary procedures. Methods and results: From May 2014 to June 2015, endothelial function was assessed by EndoPAT and FMD

  10. 2-Chlorohexadecanal and 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid induce COX-2 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Messner, Maria C.; Albert, Carolyn J.; Ford, David A.

    2008-01-01

    2-Chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), a 16-carbon chain chlorinated fatty aldehyde that is produced by reactive chlorinating species attack of plasmalogens, is elevated in atherosclerotic plaques, infarcted myocardium, and activated leukocytes. We tested the hypothesis that 2-ClHDA and its metabolites, 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid (2-ClHA) and 2-chlorohexadecanol (2-ClHOH), induce COX-2 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). COX-2 protein expression increased in response to 2-Cl...

  11. Severe upper extremity polyneuropathy due to inferior brachial plexus compression as a result of left subclavian artery pseudoaneurism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kosmadakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we describe the case of a 76-year-old hemodialysis patient who was admitted with clinical features of neurological thoracic exit syndrome due to subclavian artery pseudoaneurism following the insertion of a dual lumen vascular internal jugular catheter (vascath with excellent outcome after endo-arterial stent placement.

  12. Charge modification of the endothelial surface layer modulates the permeability barrier of isolated rat mesenteric small arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaren, Paul M. A.; VanBavel, Ed; Vink, Hans; Spaan, Jos A. E.

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that modulation of the effective charge density of the endothelial surface layer ( ESL) results in altered arterial barrier properties to transport of anionic solutes. Rat mesenteric small arteries ( diameter similar to 190 mu m) were isolated, cannulated, perfused, and superfused

  13. In Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Reduced BMPR2 Promotes Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition via HMGA1 and Its Target Slug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopper, Rachel K.; Moonen, Jan-Renier A. J.; Diebold, Isabel; Cao, Aiqin; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Tojais, Nancy F.; Hennigs, Jan K.; Gu, Mingxia; Wang, Lingli; Rabinovitch, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Background-We previously reported high-throughput RNA sequencing analyses that identified heightened expression of the chromatin architectural factor High Mobility Group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) from patients who had idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

  14. Flow-associated dilatory capacity of the brachial artery is intact in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Iversen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    [endothelium-independent nitroglycerin-induced dilatation (NID)] were measured by external ultrasound. Plasma concentrations of the stable end products of nitric oxide nitrate/nitrite (NOx) and of the endothelial markers vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E...

  15. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Greyling, A.; Draijer, R.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention

  16. Drinking of chokeberry juice from the ecological farm Dzieciolowo and distensibility of brachial artery in men with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreba, Rafal; Skoczynska, Anna; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata; Jedrychowska, Iwona; Affelska-Jercha, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Wojakowska, Anna; Oszmianski, Jan; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of drinking chokeberry juice on the endothelial function in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. It was shown that chronic treatment with flavonoids improves vascular function and reduces cardiovascular remodelling by increasing NO release from endothelial cells. A group of 35 men diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia (mean age: 53.9 +-5.8 years), with no earlier pharmacological treatment, were enrolled to the study. In all men, assessment of endothelial function, and serum lipids level were carried out at four time points: at the beginning of the studies, after 6 weeks of regular drinking of chokeberry juice, after 6 weeks without drinking the juice, then after repeated 6 weeks of drinking chokeberry juice. During the study, significant decreases in serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed. A statistically significant increase in serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration and in the flow mediated dilatation (FMD) were observed. At the beginning, FMD > or = 7 % was present in 13 of 35 subjects (37.1 %). After 6 weeks of regular chokeberry juice drinking, FMD > or = 7 % was present in 29 of 35 subjects (82.9 %). However, after 6 weeks abstaining from drinking the juice and repeated exposure to 6 weeks drinking of chokeberry juice, FMD > or = 7 % was present in all studied subjects. Regular drinking of chokeberry juice has a beneficial effect on endothelial function and lipid metabolism in men with mild hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Inflammation, Endothelial Dysfunction and Arterial Stiffness as Therapeutic Targets in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, Vittoriano; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Vassallo, Valerio; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, many factors thought to be associated with the atherosclerotic process and cardiovascular events have been studied, and some of these have been shown to correlate with clinical outcome, such as arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and immunoinflammatory markers. Arterial stiffness is an important surrogate marker that describes the capability of an artery to expand and contract in response to pressure changes. It can be assessed with different techniques, such as the evaluation of PWV and AIx. It is related to central systolic pressure and it is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients, type 2 diabetes, end-stage renal disease and in elderly populations. The endothelium has emerged as the key regulator of vascular homeostasis, in fact, it has not merely a barrier function but also acts as an active signal transducer for circulating influences that modify the vessel wall phenotype. When its function is lost, it predisposes the vasculature to vasoconstriction, leukocyte adherence, platelet activation, thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Non-invasive methods were developed to evaluate endothelial function, such as the assesment of FMD, L-FMC and RHI. Moreover in the last years, a large number of studies have clarified the role of inflammation and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to atherogenesis. For clinical purposes, the most promising inflammatory biomarker appears to be CRP and a variety of population-based studies have showed that baseline CRP levels predict future cardiovascular events. Each of the markers listed above has its importance from the pathophysiological and clinical point of view, and those can also be good therapeutic targets. However, it must be stressed that assessments of these vascular markers are not mutually exclusive, but rather complementary and those can offer different views of the same pathology. The purpose of this review is to

  18. Endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation and arterial neointima formation associated with acid sphingomyelinase during hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saisudha Koka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported to be activated by atherogenic factors, whereby endothelial injury and consequent atherosclerotic lesions are triggered in the arterial wall. However, the mechanisms activating and regulating NLRP3 inflammasomes remain poorly understood. The present study tested whether acid sphingomyelinase (ASM and ceramide associated membrane raft (MR signaling platforms contribute to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and atherosclerotic lesions during hypercholesterolemia. We found that 7-ketocholesterol (7-Keto or cholesterol crystal (ChC markedly increased the formation and activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes in mouse carotid arterial endothelial cells (CAECs, as shown by increased colocalization of NLRP3 with ASC or caspase-1, enhanced caspase-1 activity and elevated IL-1β levels, which were markedly attenuated by mouse Asm siRNA, ASM inhibitor- amitriptyline, and deletion of mouse Asm gene. In CAECs with NLRP3 inflammasome formation, membrane raft (MR clustering with NADPH oxidase subunits was found remarkably increased as shown by CTXB (MR marker and gp91phox aggregation indicating the formation of MR redox signaling platforms. This MR clustering was blocked by MR disruptor (MCD, ROS scavenger (Tempol and TXNIP inhibitor (verapamil, accompanied by attenuation of 7-Keto or ChC-induced increase in caspase-1 activity. In animal experiments, Western diet fed mice with partially ligated left carotid artery (PLCA were found to have significantly increased neointimal formation, which was associated with increased NLRP3 inflammasome formation and IL-1β production in the intima of Asm+/+ mice but not in Asm-/- mice. These results suggest that Asm gene and ceramide associated MR clustering are essential to endothelial inflammasome activation and dysfunction in the carotid arteries, ultimately determining the extent of atherosclerotic lesions.

  19. Exercise training improves endothelial function in resistance arteries of young prehypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D T; Martin, J S; Casey, D P; Braith, R W

    2014-05-01

    Prehypertension is associated with reduced conduit artery endothelial function and perturbation of oxidant/antioxidant status. It is unknown whether endothelial dysfunction persists to resistance arteries and whether exercise training affects oxidant/antioxidant balance in young prehypertensives. We examined resistance artery function using venous occlusion plethysmography measurement of forearm (FBF) and calf blood flow (CBF) at rest and during reactive hyperaemia (RH), as well as lipid peroxidation (8-iso-PGF2α) and antioxidant capacity (Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity; TEAC) before and after exercise intervention or time control. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive and 15 matched normotensive time controls met screening requirements and participated in the study (age: 21.1±0.8 years). Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to resistance exercise training (PHRT; n=15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n=13) or time-control groups (PHTC; n=15). Treatment groups exercised 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Peak and total FBF were lower in prehypertensives than normotensives (12.7±1.2 ml min(-1) per100 ml tissue and 89.1±7.7 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue vs 16.3±1.0 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue and 123.3±6.4 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue, respectively; Pendurance training are effective in improving resistance artery endothelial function and oxidant/antioxidant balance in young prehypertensives.

  20. Arterial response to shear stress critically depends on endothelial TRPV4 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Hartmannsgruber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In blood vessels, the endothelium is a crucial signal transduction interface in control of vascular tone and blood pressure to ensure energy and oxygen supply according to the organs' needs. In response to vasoactive factors and to shear stress elicited by blood flow, the endothelium secretes vasodilating or vasocontracting autacoids, which adjust the contractile state of the smooth muscle. In endothelial sensing of shear stress, the osmo- and mechanosensitive Ca(2+-permeable TRPV4 channel has been proposed to be candidate mechanosensor. Using TRPV4(-/- mice, we now investigated whether the absence of endothelial TRPV4 alters shear-stress-induced arterial vasodilation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In TRPV4(-/- mice, loss of the TRPV4 protein was confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and by in situ-patch-clamp techniques in carotid artery endothelial cells (CAEC. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was determined by pressure myography in carotid arteries (CA from TRPV4(-/- mice and wild-type littermates (WT. In WT CAEC, TRPV4 currents could be elicited by TRPV4 activators 4alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (4alphaPDD, arachidonic acid (AA, and by hypotonic cell swelling (HTS. In striking contrast, in TRPV4(-/- mice, 4alphaPDD did not produce currents and currents elicited by AA and HTS were significantly reduced. 4alphaPDD caused a robust and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in WT mice, again conspicuously absent in TRPV4(-/- mice. Shear stress-induced vasodilation could readily be evoked in WT, but was completely eliminated in TRPV4(-/- mice. In addition, flow/reperfusion-induced vasodilation was significantly reduced in TRPV4(-/- vs. WT mice. Vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, vasoconstriction in response to phenylephrine, and passive mechanical compliance did not differ between genotypes, greatly underscoring the specificity of the above trpv4-dependent phenotype for physiologically relevant shear stress

  1. Arterial Response to Shear Stress Critically Depends on Endothelial TRPV4 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacik, Michael; Kaistha, Anuradha; Grgic, Ivica; Harteneck, Christian; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Joachim; Köhler, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Background In blood vessels, the endothelium is a crucial signal transduction interface in control of vascular tone and blood pressure to ensure energy and oxygen supply according to the organs' needs. In response to vasoactive factors and to shear stress elicited by blood flow, the endothelium secretes vasodilating or vasocontracting autacoids, which adjust the contractile state of the smooth muscle. In endothelial sensing of shear stress, the osmo- and mechanosensitive Ca2+-permeable TRPV4 channel has been proposed to be candidate mechanosensor. Using TRPV4−/− mice, we now investigated whether the absence of endothelial TRPV4 alters shear-stress-induced arterial vasodilation. Methodology/Principal Findings In TRPV4−/− mice, loss of the TRPV4 protein was confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and by in situ-patch–clamp techniques in carotid artery endothelial cells (CAEC). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was determined by pressure myography in carotid arteries (CA) from TRPV4−/− mice and wild-type littermates (WT). In WT CAEC, TRPV4 currents could be elicited by TRPV4 activators 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (4αPDD), arachidonic acid (AA), and by hypotonic cell swelling (HTS). In striking contrast, in TRPV4−/− mice, 4αPDD did not produce currents and currents elicited by AA and HTS were significantly reduced. 4αPDD caused a robust and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in WT mice, again conspicuously absent in TRPV4−/− mice. Shear stress-induced vasodilation could readily be evoked in WT, but was completely eliminated in TRPV4−/− mice. In addition, flow/reperfusion-induced vasodilation was significantly reduced in TRPV4−/− vs. WT mice. Vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, vasoconstriction in response to phenylephrine, and passive mechanical compliance did not differ between genotypes, greatly underscoring the specificity of the above trpv4-dependent phenotype for physiologically relevant shear stress. Conclusions

  2. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilizes functional endothelial progenitor cells in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tiffany M; Paul, Jonathan D; Hill, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael; Benjamin, Moshe; Rodrigo, Maria; McCoy, J Philip; Read, Elizabeth J; Khuu, Hanh M; Leitman, Susan F; Finkel, Toren; Cannon, Richard O

    2005-02-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that may repair vascular injury are reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We reasoned that EPC number and function may be increased by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) used to mobilize hematopoietic progenitor cells in healthy donors. Sixteen CAD patients had reduced CD34(+)/CD133(+) (0.0224+/-0.0063% versus 0.121+/-0.038% mononuclear cells [MNCs], P<0.01) and CD133(+)/VEGFR-2(+) cells, consistent with EPC phenotype (0.00033+/-0.00015% versus 0.0017+/-0.0006% MNCs, P<0.01), compared with 7 healthy controls. Patients also had fewer clusters of cells in culture, with out-growth consistent with mature endothelial phenotype (2+/-1/well) compared with 16 healthy subjects at high risk (13+/-4/well, P<0.05) or 14 at low risk (22+/-3/well, P<0.001) for CAD. G-CSF 10 microg/kg per day for 5 days increased CD34(+)/CD133(+) cells from 0.5+/-0.2/microL to 59.5+/-10.6/microL and CD133(+)/ VEGFR-2(+) cells from 0.007+/-0.004/microL to 1.9+/-0.6/microL (both P<0.001). Also increased were CD133(+) cells that coexpressed the homing receptor CXCR4 (30.4+/-8.3/microL, P<0.05). Endothelial cell-forming clusters in 10 patients increased to 27+/-9/well after treatment (P<0.05), with a decline to 9+/-4/well at 2 weeks (P=0.06). Despite reduced EPCs compared with healthy controls, patients with CAD respond to G-CSF with increases in EPC number and homing receptor expression in the circulation and endothelial out-growth in culture. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are reduced in coronary artery disease. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF) administered to patients increased: (1) CD133+/VEGFR-2+ cells consistent with EPC phenotype; (2) CD133+ cells coexpressing the chemokine receptor CXCR4, important for homing of EPCs to ischemic tissue; and (3) endothelial cell-forming clusters in culture. Whether EPCs mobilized into the circulation will be useful for the purpose of initiating vascular growth and myocyte repair

  3. Twenty-four-hour exposure to altered blood flow modifies endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilgers, Rob H P; Janssen, Ger M J; Fazzi, Gregorio E

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that changes in arterial blood flow modify the function of endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels [calcium-activated K+ channel (K(Ca)), small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel (SK3), and intermediate calcium-activated K+ channel (IK1)] before arterial structural...... remodeling. In rats, mesenteric arteries were exposed to increased [+90%, high flow (HF)] or reduced blood flow [-90%, low flow (LF)] and analyzed 24 h later. There were no detectable changes in arterial structure or in expression level of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, SK3, or IK1. Arterial relaxing...... arteries, the balance between the NO/prostanoid versus EDHF response was unaltered. However, the contribution of IK1 to the EDHF response was enhanced, as indicated by a larger effect of TRAM-34 and a larger residual NS309-induced relaxation in the presence of UCL 1684. Reduction of blood flow selectively...

  4. Derivation and validation of REASON: a risk score identifying candidates to screen for peripheral arterial disease using ankle brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rafel; Baena-Díez, Jose Miguel; Quesada, Miquel; Solanas, Pascual; Subirana, Isaac; Sala, Joan; Alzamora, Maite; Forès, Rosa; Masiá, Rafel; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Cordón, Ferran; Pera, Guillem; Rigo, Fernando; Martí, Ruth; Ponjoan, Anna; Cerezo, Carlos; Brugada, Ramon; Marrugat, Jaume

    2011-02-01

    The recommendation of screening with ankle brachial index (ABI) in asymptomatic individuals is controversial. The aims of the present study were to develop and validate a pre-screening test to select candidates for ABI measurement in the Spanish population 50-79 years old, and to compare its predictive capacity to current Inter-Society Consensus (ISC) screening criteria. Two population-based cross-sectional studies were used to develop (n = 4046) and validate (n = 3285) a regression model to predict ABI guidelines, and similar sensitivity. This resulted in fewer patients screened per diagnosis of ABI < 0.9 (10.6 vs. 8.75) and a lower proportion of the population aged 50-79 years candidate to ABI screening (63.3% vs. 55.0%). This model provides accurate ABI < 0.9 risk estimates for ages 50-79, with a better predictive capacity than that of ISC criteria. Its use could reduce possible harms and unnecessary work-ups of ABI screening as a risk stratification strategy in primary prevention of peripheral vascular disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia (Masson’s Tumor) of the Radial Artery: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, Christopher; Olsen, Daniel; Morris, Christopher; Bertges, Daniel; Najarian, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), often referred to as Masson’s tumor, is a benign non-neoplastic vascular lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Although it is rare, knowledge of the existence of IPEH is important as it can mimic other benign and malignant tumors, most notably angiosarcoma. IPEH remains an incompletely understood entity; however, most consider it to be the result of reactive endothelial proliferation following thrombus formation within a vessel, vascular malformation, or adjacent to a vessel. In this article, we report a case of IPEH arising within an arteriovenous malformation of the radial artery and present accompanying multimodality imaging and pathology figures. We will also describe the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, histology, imaging features, and management of IPEH.

  6. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia (Masson’s Tumor) of the Radial Artery: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Christopher, E-mail: Christopher.stark@uvmhealth.org [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology (United States); Morris, Christopher [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Bertges, Daniel [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Surgery (United States); Najarian, Kenneth [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), often referred to as Masson’s tumor, is a benign non-neoplastic vascular lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Although it is rare, knowledge of the existence of IPEH is important as it can mimic other benign and malignant tumors, most notably angiosarcoma. IPEH remains an incompletely understood entity; however, most consider it to be the result of reactive endothelial proliferation following thrombus formation within a vessel, vascular malformation, or adjacent to a vessel. In this article, we report a case of IPEH arising within an arteriovenous malformation of the radial artery and present accompanying multimodality imaging and pathology figures. We will also describe the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, histology, imaging features, and management of IPEH.

  7. Endothelial Mineralocorticoid Receptor Mediates Parenchymal Arteriole and Posterior Cerebral Artery Remodeling During Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Otero, Janice M; Fisher, Courtney; Downs, Kelsey; Moss, M Elizabeth; Jaffe, Iris Z; Jackson, William F; Dorrance, Anne M

    2017-12-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to injury caused by hypertension because the increased blood pressure causes artery remodeling that can limit cerebral perfusion. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents hypertensive cerebral artery remodeling, but the vascular cell types involved have not been defined. In the periphery, the endothelial MR mediates hypertension-induced vascular injury, but cerebral and peripheral arteries are anatomically distinct; thus, these findings cannot be extrapolated to the brain. The parenchymal arterioles determine cerebrovascular resistance. Determining the effects of hypertension and MR signaling on these arterioles could lead to a better understanding of cerebral small vessel disease. We hypothesized that endothelial MR signaling mediates inward cerebral artery remodeling and reduced cerebral perfusion during angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension. The biomechanics of the parenchymal arterioles and posterior cerebral arteries were studied in male C57Bl/6 and endothelial cell-specific MR knockout mice and their appropriate controls using pressure myography. AngII increased plasma aldosterone and decreased cerebral perfusion in C57Bl/6 and MR-intact littermates. Endothelial cell MR deletion improved cerebral perfusion in AngII-treated mice. AngII hypertension resulted in inward hypotrophic remodeling; this was prevented by MR antagonism and endothelial MR deletion. Our studies suggest that endothelial cell MR mediates hypertensive remodeling in the cerebral microcirculation and large pial arteries. AngII-induced inward remodeling of cerebral arteries and arterioles was associated with a reduction in cerebral perfusion that could worsen the outcome of stroke or contribute to vascular dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Domain-Specific Partitioning of Uterine Artery Endothelial Connexin43 and Caveolin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampey, Bryan C; Morschauser, Timothy J; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Magness, Ronald R

    2016-10-01

    Uterine vascular adaptations facilitate rises in uterine blood flow during pregnancy, which are associated with gap junction connexin (Cx) proteins and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. In uterine artery endothelial cells (UAECs), ATP activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase in a pregnancy (P)-specific manner that is dependent on Cx43 function. Caveolar subcellular domain partitioning plays key roles in ATP-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and nitric oxide production. Little is known regarding the partitioning of Cx proteins to caveolar domains or their dynamics with ATP treatment. We observed that Cx43-mediated gap junction function with ATP stimulation is associated with Cx43 repartitioning between the noncaveolar and caveolar domains. Compared with UAECs from nonpregnant (NP) ewes, levels of ATP, PGI2, cAMP, NOx, and cGMP were 2-fold higher (PLucifer yellow dye transfer, a response abrogated by Gap27, but not Gap 26, indicating involvement of Cx43, but not Cx37. Confocal microscopy revealed domain partitioning of Cx43 and caveolin-1. In pregnant UAECs, LC/MS/MS analysis revealed only Cx43 in the caveolar domain. In contrast, Cx37 was located only in the noncaveolar pool. Western analysis revealed that ATP increased Cx43 distribution (1.7-fold; P=0.013) to the caveolar domain, but had no effect on Cx37. These data demonstrate rapid ATP-stimulated repartitioning of Cx43 to the caveolae, where endothelial nitric oxide synthase resides and plays an important role in nitric oxide-mediated increasing uterine blood flow during pregnancy. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Can the measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation be applied to the acute exercise model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Ryan A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The measurement of flow-mediated dilation using high-resolution ultrasound has been utilized extensively in interventional trials evaluating the salutary effect of drugs and lifestyle modifications (i.e. diet or exercise training on endothelial function; however, until recently researchers have not used flow-mediated dilation to examine the role of a single bout of exercise on vascular function. Utilizing the acute exercise model can be advantageous as it allows for an efficient manipulation of exercise variables (i.e. mode, intensity, duration, etc. and permits greater experimental control of confounding variables. Given that the application of flow-mediated dilation in the acute exercise paradigm is expanding, the purpose of this review is to discuss methodological and physiological factors pertinent to flow-mediated dilation in the context of acute exercise. Although the scientific rationale for evaluating endothelial function in response to acute exercise is sound, few concerns warrant attention when interpreting flow-mediated dilation data following acute exercise. The following questions will be addressed in the present review: Does the measurement of flow-mediated dilation influence subsequent serial measures of flow-mediated dilation? Do we need to account for diurnal variation? Is there an optimal time to measure post-exercise flow-mediated dilation? Is the post-exercise flow-mediated dilation reproducible? How is flow-mediated dilation interpreted considering the hemodynamic and sympathetic changes associated with acute exercise? Can the measurement of endothelial-independent dilation affect the exercise? Evidence exists to support the methodological appropriateness for employing flow-mediated dilation in the acute exercise model; however, further research is warranted to clarify its interpretation following acute exercise.

  10. Biological Atomic Force Microscopy for Imaging Gold-Labeled Liposomes on Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María Zaske

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although atomic force microscopy (AFM has been used extensively to characterize cell membrane structure and cellular processes such as endocytosis and exocytosis, the corrugated surface of the cell membrane hinders the visualization of extracellular entities, such as liposomes, that may interact with the cell. To overcome this barrier, we used 90 nm nanogold particles to label FITC liposomes and monitor their endocytosis on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs in vitro. We were able to study the internalization process of gold-coupled liposomes on endothelial cells, by using AFM. We found that the gold-liposomes attached to the HCAEC cell membrane during the first 15–30 min of incubation, liposome cell internalization occurred from 30 to 60 min, and most of the gold-labeled liposomes had invaginated after 2 hr of incubation. Liposomal uptake took place most commonly at the periphery of the nuclear zone. Dynasore monohydrate, an inhibitor of endocytosis, obstructed the internalization of the gold-liposomes. This study showed the versatility of the AFM technique, combined with fluorescent microscopy, for investigating liposome uptake by endothelial cells. The 90 nm colloidal gold nanoparticles proved to be a noninvasive contrast agent that efficiently improves AFM imaging during the investigation of biological nanoprocesses.

  11. Perturbation of human coronary artery endothelial cell redox state and NADPH generation by methylglyoxal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E Morgan

    Full Text Available Diabetes is associated with elevated plasma glucose, increased reactive aldehyde formation, oxidative damage, and glycation/glycoxidation of biomolecules. Cellular detoxification of, or protection against, such modifications commonly requires NADPH-dependent reducing equivalents (e.g. GSH. We hypothesised that reactive aldehydes may modulate cellular redox status via the inhibition of NADPH-generating enzymes, resulting in decreased thiol and NADPH levels. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC were incubated with high glucose (25 mM, 24 h, 37°C, or methylglyoxal (MGO, glyoxal, or glycolaldehyde (100-500 µM, 1 h, 37°C, before quantification of intracellular thiols and NADPH-generating enzyme activities. Exposure to MGO, but not the other species examined, significantly (P<0.05 decreased total thiols (∼35%, further experiments with MGO showed significant losses of GSH (∼40% and NADPH (∼10%; these changes did not result in an immediate loss of cell viability. Significantly decreased (∼10% NADPH-producing enzyme activity was observed for HCAEC when glucose-6-phosphate or 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate were used as substrates. Cell lysate experiments showed significant MGO-dose dependent inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate-dependent enzymes and isocitrate dehydrogenase, but not malic enzyme. Analysis of intact cell or lysate proteins showed that arginine-derived hydroimidazolones were the predominant advanced glycation end-product (AGE formed; lower levels of N(ε-(carboxyethyllysine (CEL and N(ε-(carboxymethyllysine (CML were also detected. These data support a novel mechanism by which MGO exposure results in changes in redox status in human coronary artery endothelial cells, via inhibition of NADPH-generating enzymes, with resultant changes in reduced protein thiol and GSH levels. These changes may contribute to the endothelial cell dysfunction observed in diabetes-associated atherosclerosis.

  12. Femoral Artery Atherosclerosis Is Associated With Physical Function Across the Spectrum of the Ankle-Brachial Index: The San Diego Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassel, Christina L; Ellis, Alicia M; Suder, Natalie C; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Rifkin, Dena E; Forbang, Nketi I; Denenberg, Julie O; Marasco, Antoinette M; McQuaide, Belinda J; Jenny, Nancy S; Allison, Matthew A; Ix, Joachim H; Criqui, Michael H

    2017-07-20

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is inadequate to detect early-stage atherosclerotic disease, when interventions to prevent functional decline may be the most effective. We determined associations of femoral artery atherosclerosis with physical functioning, across the spectrum of the ABI, and within the normal ABI range. In 2007-2011, 1103 multiethnic men and women participated in the San Diego Population Study, and completed all components of the summary performance score. Using Doppler ultrasound, superficial and common femoral intima media thickness and plaques were ascertained. Logistic regression was used to assess associations of femoral atherosclerosis with the summary performance score and its individual components. Models were adjusted for demographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, lipids, and kidney function. In adjusted models, among participants with a normal-range ABI (1.00-1.30), the highest tertile of superficial intima media thickness was associated with lower odds of a perfect summary performance score of 12 (odds ratio=0.56 [0.36, 0.87], P =0.009), and lower odds of a 4-m walk score of 4 (0.34 [0.16, 0.73], P =0.006) and chair rise score of 4 (0.56 [0.34, 0.94], P =0.03). Plaque presence (0.53 [0.29, 0.99], P =0.04) and greater total plaque burden (0.61 [0.43, 0.87], P =0.006) were associated with worse 4-m walk performance in the normal-range ABI group. Higher superficial intima media thickness was associated with lower summary performance score in all individuals ( P =0.02). Findings suggest that use of femoral artery atherosclerosis measures may be effective in individuals with a normal-range ABI, especially, for example, those with diabetes mellitus or a family history of peripheral artery disease, when detection can lead to earlier intervention to prevent functional declines and improve quality of life. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  13. Endothelial Injury Associated with Cold or Warm Blood Cardioplegia during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar W. Kuhn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to analyze the impact of intermittent cold blood cardioplegia (ICC and intermittent warm blood cardioplegia (IWC on endothelial injury in patients referred to elective on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Patients undergoing CABG procedures were randomized to either ICC or IWC. Myocardial injury was assessed by CK-MB and cardiac troponin T (cTnT. Endothelial injury was quantified by circulating endothelial cells (CECs, von Willebrand factor (vWF, and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM. Perioperative myocardial injury (PMI and major adverse cardiac events (MACE were recorded. Demographic data and preoperative risk profile of included patients (ICC: n=32, IWC: n=36 were comparable. No deaths, PMI, or MACE were observed. Levels of CK-MB and cTnT did not show intergroup differences. Concentrations of CECs peaked at 6 h postoperatively with significantly higher values for IWC-patients at 1 h (ICC: 10.1 ± 3.9/mL; IWC: 18.4 ± 4.1/mL; P=0.012 and 6 h (ICC: 19.3 ± 6.2/mL; IWC: 29.2 ± 6.7/mL; P<0.001. Concentrations of vWF (ICC: 178.4 ± 73.2 U/dL; IWC: 258.2 ± 89.7 U/dL; P<0.001 and sTM (ICC: 3.2 ± 2.1 ng/mL; IWC: 5.2 ± 2.4 ng/mL; P=0.011 were significantly elevated in IWC-group at 1 h postoperatively. This study shows that the use of IWC is associated with a higher extent of endothelial injury compared to ICC without differences in clinical endpoints.

  14. Obesity-induced vascular dysfunction and arterial stiffening requires endothelial cell arginase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Anil; Yao, Lin; Xu, Zhimin; Toque, Haroldo A; Chen, Jijun; Atawia, Reem T; Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Bagi, Zsolt; Lucas, Rudolf; Caldwell, Ruth B; Caldwell, Robert W

    2017-11-01

    Elevation of arginase activity has been linked to vascular dysfunction in diabetes and hypertension by a mechanism involving decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability due to L-arginine depletion. Excessive arginase activity also can drive L-arginine metabolism towards the production of ornithine, polyamines, and proline, promoting proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen formation, leading to perivascular fibrosis. We hypothesized that there is a specific involvement of arginase 1 expression within the vascular endothelial cells in this pathology. To test this proposition, we used models of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Studies were performed using wild type (WT), endothelial-specific arginase 1 knockout (EC-A1-/-) and littermate controls(A1con) mice fed high fat-high sucrose (HFHS) or normal diet (ND) for 6 months and isolated vessels exposed to palmitate-high glucose (PA/HG) media. Some WT mice or isolated vessels were treated with an arginase inhibitor, ABH [2-(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid. In WT mice, the HFHS diet promoted increases in body weight, fasting blood glucose, and post-prandial insulin levels along with arterial stiffening and fibrosis, elevated blood pressure, decreased plasma levels of L-arginine, and elevated L-ornithine. The HFHS diet or PA/HG treatment also induced increases in vascular arginase activity along with oxidative stress, reduced vascular NO levels, and impaired endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation. All of these effects except obesity and hypercholesterolemia were prevented or significantly reduced by endothelial-specific deletion of arginase 1 or ABH treatment. Vascular dysfunctions in diet-induced obesity are prevented by deletion of arginase 1 in vascular endothelial cells or arginase inhibition. These findings indicate that upregulation of arginase 1 expression/activity in vascular endothelial cells has an integral role in diet-induced cardiovascular dysfunction and metabolic syndrome. Published

  15. Flow-mediated dilation and peripheral arterial tonometry are disturbed in preeclampsia and reflect different aspects of endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaerts, Dominique; Faes, Ellen; Goovaerts, Inge; Stoop, Tibor; Cornette, Jerome; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Spaanderman, Marc; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Jacquemyn, Yves

    2017-11-01

    Endothelial function and arterial stiffness are known to be altered in preeclamptic pregnancies. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding the best technique for assessing vascular function in pregnancy. In this study, we made a comprehensive evaluation of in vivo vascular function [including flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and arterial stiffness] in preeclamptic patients and compared them with normal pregnancies. In addition, we assessed the relation between vascular function and systemic inflammation. Fourteen patients with preeclampsia (PE) and 14 healthy pregnant controls were included. Endothelial function was determined by FMD and PAT and arterial stiffness by carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity and augmentation index. Systemic inflammation was assessed using mean platelet volume (MPV) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The reactive hyperemia index, assessed using PAT, is decreased at the third trimester compared with the first trimester in a normal, uncomplicated pregnancy ( P = 0.001). Arterial stiffness is significantly higher in PE versus normal pregnancy ( P function, obtained by FMD, is deteriorated in PE versus normal pregnancy ( P = 0.015), whereas endothelial function assessment by PAT is improved in PE versus normal pregnancy ( P = 0.001). Systemic inflammation (MPV and NLR) increases during normal pregnancy. FMD and PAT are disturbed in PE. Endothelial function, assessed by FMD and PAT, shows distinct results. This may indicate that measurements with FMD and PAT reflect different aspects of endothelial function and that PAT should not be used as a substitute for FMD as a measure of endothelial function in pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. The role of tissue renin angiotensin aldosterone system in the development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness

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    Annayya R Aroor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies support the notion that arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events contributing significantly to systolic hypertension, impaired ventricular-arterial coupling and diastolic dysfunction, impairment in myocardial oxygen supply and demand, and progression of kidney disease. Although arterial stiffness is associated with aging, it is accelerated in the presence of obesity and diabetes. The prevalence of arterial stiffness parallels the increase of obesity that is occurring in epidemic proportions and is partly driven by a sedentary life style and consumption of a high fructose, high salt and high fat western diet. Although the underlying mechanisms and mediators of arterial stiffness are not well understood, accumulating evidence supports the role of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. The local tissue renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS in the vascular tissue and immune cells and perivascular adipose tissue is recognized as an important element involved in endothelial dysfunction which contributes significantly to arterial stiffness. Activation of vascular RAAS is seen in humans and animal models of obesity and diabetes, and associated with enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation in the vascular tissue. The cross talk between angiotensin and aldosterone underscores the importance of mineralocorticoid receptors in modulation of insulin resistance, decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide, endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. In addition, both innate and adaptive immunity are involved in this local tissue activation of RAAS. In this review we will attempt to present a unifying mechanism of how environmental and immunological factors are involved in this local tissue RAAS activation, and the role of this process in the development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness and targeting tissue RAAS activation.

  17. Association of Far-Infrared Radiation Therapy and Ankle-Brachial Index of Patients on Hemodialysis with Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Kuo, I-Ching; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recognized to be a good marker for atherosclerosis, and is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) which is prevalent among patients on hemodialysis (HD). Methods: This randomized trial aimed to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation (FIR) therapy on ABI in HD patients with PAOD. PAOD was defined as patients with ABI < 0.95. One hundred and eight HD patients were enrolled, including 50 in the control group and 58 in the FIR group. A WS TY101 FIR emitter was applied for 40 minutes during each HD session, three times per week for six months. The ABI was measured before and after the FIR therapy. Results: Regardless of FIR therapy, the bilateral ABI decreased (in the FIR group, left: 0.88±0.22 to 0.85±0.24, p = 0.188; right: 0.92±0.20 to 0.90±0.23, p = 0.372; in control group, left: 0.91±0.23 to 0.88±0.21, p = 0144; right: 0.93±0.17 to 0.89±0.21, p = 0.082). Multivariate logistic analysis of the FIR group revealed that high uric acid (odds ratio [OR]: 2.335; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-4.882; p =0.024) and aspirin use (OR: 16.463; 95% CI: 1.787-151.638; p =0.013) were independently associated with increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ABI is not increased after FIR therapy in HD patients with PAOD. However, in the FIR group, patients with higher uric acid level or those who used aspirin have increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy.

  18. High Central Aortic Rather than Brachial Blood Pressure is Associated with Carotid Wall Remodeling and Increased Arterial Stiffness in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Gonzalo; García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Marota, Marco; Castro, Juan; Chiesa, Pedro; Giachetto, Gustavo; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina

    2017-03-01

    In adults, central blood pressure (cBP) is reported to associate target organ damages (TODs) rather than peripheral blood pressure (pBP). However, data regarding the association of pre-clinical TODs with cBP and pBP in pediatric populations are scarce. To evaluate in children and adolescents the importance of cBP and pBP levels, in terms of their association with hemodynamic and vascular changes. 315 subjects [age (mean/range) 12/8-18 years] were included. pBP (oscillometry, Omron-HEM433INT and Mobil-O-Graph), cBP levels and waveforms (oscillometry, Mobil-O-Graph; applanation tonometry, SphygmoCor), aortic wave reflection-related parameters, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid (elastic modulus, stiffness-index) and aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, PWV). Four groups were defined considering pBP and cBP percentiles (th): cBP ≥90th, cBP th, pBP ≥90th, pBP th. In each group, haemodynamic and vascular parameters were compared for subgroups defined considering the level of the remaining blood pressure (cBP or pBP). Subgroups were matched for anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors (propensity matching-score). Subjects with high cBP showed a worse cardiovascular risk profile in addition to worse peripheral hemodynamic conditions. The CIMT, carotid and aortic stiffness levels were also higher in those subjects. CIMT and carotid stiffness remained statistically higher when subjects were matched for pBP and other cardiovascular risk factors. There were no differences in arterial properties when subjects were analyzed (compared) considering similar pBP levels, during normal and high cBP conditions. Compared with pBP, the cBP levels show a greater association with vascular alterations (high CIMT and arterial stiffness), in children and adolescents.

  19. Dual NEP/ECE inhibition improves endothelial function in mesenteric resistance arteries of 32-week-old SHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemkens, Pieter; Spijkers, Leon Ja; Meens, Merlijn J

    2017-01-01

    Endothelin 1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, pro-mitogenic and pro-inflammatory peptide, may promote development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling. ET-1 can be formed through cleavage of big-ET-1 by endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) or neutral endopeptidase (NEP). We investiga...

  20. Carotid artery stiffness, digital endothelial function, and coronary calcium in patients with essential thrombocytosis, free of overt atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrtovec Matjaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. Our aim was to determine if patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET, a subtype of MPNs, free of symptomatic atherosclerosis, have greater carotid artery stiffness, worse endothelial function, greater coronary calcium and carotid plaque burden than control subjects.

  1. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brachial Plexus Injuries Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, ...

  2. Chronic hypoxia promotes pulmonary artery endothelial cell proliferation through H2O2-induced 5-lipoxygenase.

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    Kristi M Porter

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Hypertension (PH is a progressive disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction and proliferation. Hypoxia induces PH by increasing vascular remodeling. A potential mediator in hypoxia-induced PH development is arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (ALOX5. While ALOX5 metabolites have been shown to promote pulmonary vasoconstriction and endothelial cell proliferation, the contribution of ALOX5 to hypoxia-induced proliferation remains unknown. We hypothesize that hypoxia exposure stimulates HPAEC proliferation by increasing ALOX5 expression and activity. To test this, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC were cultured under normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions for 24-, 48-, or 72 hours. In a subset of cells, the ALOX5 inhibitor, zileuton, or the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor, MK-886, was administered during hypoxia exposure. ALOX5 expression was measured by qRT-PCR and western blot and HPAEC proliferation was assessed. Our results demonstrate that 24 and 48 hours of hypoxia exposure have no effect on HPAEC proliferation or ALOX5 expression. Seventy two hours of hypoxia significantly increases HPAEC ALOX5 expression, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 release, and HPAEC proliferation. We also demonstrate that targeted ALOX5 gene silencing or inhibition of the ALOX5 pathway by pharmacological blockade attenuates hypoxia-induced HPAEC proliferation. Furthermore, our findings indicate that hypoxia-induced increases in cell proliferation and ALOX5 expression are dependent on H2O2 production, as administration of the antioxidant PEG-catalase blocks these effects and addition of H2O2 to HPAEC promotes proliferation. Overall, these studies indicate that hypoxia exposure induces HPAEC proliferation by activating the ALOX5 pathway via the generation of H2O2.

  3. Mechanisms of pertussis toxin-induced barrier dysfunction in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C E; Stasek, J E; Schaphorst, K L; Davis, H W; Garcia, J G

    1995-06-01

    We have previously characterized several G proteins in endothelial cells (EC) as substrates for the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of both pertussis (PT) and cholera toxin and described the modulation of key EC physiological responses, including gap formation and barrier function, by these toxins. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in PT-mediated regulation of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells barrier function. PT caused a dose-dependent increase in albumin transfer, dependent upon action of the holotoxin, since neither the heat-inactivated PT, the isolated oligomer, nor the protomer induced EC permeability. PT-induced gap formation and barrier dysfunction were additive to either thrombin- or thrombin receptor-activating peptide-induced permeability, suggesting that thrombin and PT utilize distinct mechanisms. PT did not result in Ca2+ mobilization or alter either basal or thrombin-induced myosin light chain phosphorylation. However, PT stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and both PKC downregulation and PKC inhibition attenuated PT-induced permeability, indicating that PKC activity is involved in PT-induced barrier dysfunction. Like thrombin-induced permeability, the PT effect was blocked by prior increases in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. Thus PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of a G protein (possibly other than Gi) may regulate cytoskeletal protein interactions, leading to EC barrier dysfunction.

  4. Mutant LRP6 Impairs Endothelial Cell Functions Associated with Familial Normolipidemic Coronary Artery Disease

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    Jian Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the genes low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor-related protein-6 (LRP6 and myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A were reported in families with coronary artery disease (CAD. We intend to determine the mutational spectrum of these genes among hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic CAD families. Forty probands with early-onset CAD were recruited from 19 hyperlipidemic and 21 normolipidemic Chinese families. We sequenced all exons and intron-exon boundaries of LRP6 and MEF2A, and found a novel heterozygous variant in LRP6 from a proband with normolipidemic CAD. This variant led to a substitution of histidine to tyrosine (Y418H in an evolutionarily conserved domain YWTD in exon 6 and was not found in 1025 unrelated healthy individuals. Co-segregated with CAD in the affected family, LRP6Y418H significantly debilitated the Wnt3a-associated signaling pathway, suppressed endothelial cell proliferation and migration, and decreased anti-apoptotic ability. However, it exhibited no influences on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol uptake. Thus, mutation Y418H in LRP6 likely contributes to normolipidemic familial CAD via impairing endothelial cell functions and weakening the Wnt3a signaling pathway.

  5. Cuff-Based Oscillometric Central and Brachial Blood Pressures Obtained Through ABPM are Similarly Associated with Renal Organ Damage in Arterial Hypertension

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    Patricia Fernández-Llama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Central blood pressure (BP has been suggested to be a better estimator of hypertension-associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-hour central BP, in comparison with 24-hour peripheral BP, with the presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. Methods: Brachial and central (calculated by an oscillometric system through brachial pulse wave analysis office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM data and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV were measured in 208 hypertensive patients. Renal organ damage was evaluated by means of the albumin to creatinine ratio and the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results: Fifty-four patients (25.9% were affected by renal organ damage, displaying either microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion ≥30 mg/g creatinine or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Compared to those without renal abnormalities, hypertensive patients with kidney damage had higher values of office brachial systolic BP (SBP and pulse pressure (PP, and 24-h, daytime, and nighttime central and brachial SBP and PP. They also had a blunted nocturnal decrease in both central and brachial BP, and higher values of aortic PWV. After adjustment for age, gender, and antihypertensive treatment, only ABPM-derived BP estimates (both central and brachial showed significant associations with the presence of renal damage. Odds ratios for central BP estimates were not significantly higher than those obtained for brachial BP. Conclusion: Compared with peripheral ABPM, cuff-based oscillometric central ABPM does not show a closer association with presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. More studies, however, need to be done to better identify the role of central BP in clinical practice.

  6. Cuff-Based Oscillometric Central and Brachial Blood Pressures Obtained Through ABPM are Similarly Associated with Renal Organ Damage in Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Pareja, Júlia; Yun, Sergi; Vázquez, Susana; Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Blanch, Pedro; Calero, Francesca; Sierra, Cristina; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) has been suggested to be a better estimator of hypertension-associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-hour central BP, in comparison with 24-hour peripheral BP, with the presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. Brachial and central (calculated by an oscillometric system through brachial pulse wave analysis) office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) data and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured in 208 hypertensive patients. Renal organ damage was evaluated by means of the albumin to creatinine ratio and the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Fifty-four patients (25.9%) were affected by renal organ damage, displaying either microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion ≥30 mg/g creatinine) or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Compared to those without renal abnormalities, hypertensive patients with kidney damage had higher values of office brachial systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP), and 24-h, daytime, and nighttime central and brachial SBP and PP. They also had a blunted nocturnal decrease in both central and brachial BP, and higher values of aortic PWV. After adjustment for age, gender, and antihypertensive treatment, only ABPM-derived BP estimates (both central and brachial) showed significant associations with the presence of renal damage. Odds ratios for central BP estimates were not significantly higher than those obtained for brachial BP. Compared with peripheral ABPM, cuff-based oscillometric central ABPM does not show a closer association with presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. More studies, however, need to be done to better identify the role of central BP in clinical practice. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Kinetics of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients undergoing carotid artery surgery

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    Kalender G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available G Kalender,1 A Kornberger,2 M Lisy,1 Andres Beiras-Fernandez,2 UA Stock2 1Deparment of General, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Hoechst Hospital, 2Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Aim: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are primitive cells found in the bone marrow and peripheral blood (PB. In particular, the potential of EPCs to differentiate into mature endothelial cells remains of high interest for clinical applications such as bio-functionalized patches for autologous seeding after implantation. The objective of this study was to determine EPCs’ kinetics in patients undergoing carotid artery thromboendarterectomy (CTEA and patch angioplasty. Methods: Twenty CTEA patients were included (15 male, mean age 76 years. PB samples were taken at 1 day preoperatively, and at 1, 3, and 5 days postoperatively. Flow cytometric analysis was performed for CD34, CD133, KDR, and CD45. Expression of KDR, SDF-1α, and G-CSF was analyzed by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed 0.031%±0.016% (% of PB mononuclear cells KDR+ cells and 0.052%±0.022% CD45-/CD34+/CD133+ cells, preoperatively. A 33% decrease of CD45–/CD34+/CD133+ cells was observed at day 1 after surgery. However, a relative number (compared to initial preoperative values of CD45-/CD34+/CD133+ cells was found on day 3 (82% and on day 5 (94% postoperatively. More profound upregulated levels of CD45–CD34+/CD133+ cells were observed for diabetic (+47% compared to nondiabetic and male (+38% compared to female patients. No significant postoperative time-dependent differences were found in numbers of KDR+ cells and the concentrations of the cytokines KDR and G-CSF. However, the SDF-1α levels decreased significantly on day 1 postoperatively but returned to preoperative levels by day 3. Conclusion: CTEA results in short-term downregulation of circulating

  8. Models of brachial to finger pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizdulich, P.; Prentza, A.; Wesseling, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To model the pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement occurring between brachial and finger arteries. Distortion reversion and decrement correction were also our aims. Methods: Brachial artery pressure was recorded intra-arterially and finger pressure was recorded non-invasively by

  9. Endothelial function in postmenopausal women with nighttime systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Faye S; Hinderliter, Alan L; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith; Blumenthal, James A; Paine, Nicola J; Sherwood, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension becomes more prevalent in women during their postmenopausal years. Nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP) is especially predictive of adverse cardiac events, and the relationship between rising nighttime SBP and cardiovascular risk increases more rapidly in women compared with men. The reasons for the prognostic significance of nighttime SBP are not completely known but may involve vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between nighttime SBP and endothelial function, as assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and to determine whether postmenopausal women with nighttime hypertension (SBP ≥120 mm Hg) evidenced greater endothelial dysfunction compared with women with normal nighttime SBP. One hundred postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 65.8 [7.5] y; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [4.7] kg/m; hypertension, 47%; coronary artery disease, 51%; mean [SD] clinic SBP, 137 [17] mm Hg; mean [SD] clinic diastolic blood pressure, 67 [11] mm Hg; nighttime hypertension, 34 women) underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, actigraphy, and brachial artery FMD assessment. Multivariate regression models showed that higher nighttime SBP and larger baseline artery diameter were inversely related to FMD. Nighttime SBP and baseline artery diameter accounted for 23% of the variance in FMD. After adjustment for baseline artery diameter, women with nighttime hypertension had lower mean (SD) FMD than women with normal nighttime SBP (2.95% [0.65%] vs 5.52% [0.46%], P = 0.002). Nighttime hypertension is associated with reduced endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Research examining the therapeutic benefits of nighttime hypertension treatment on endothelial function and future cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women is warranted.

  10. Right brachial angiography with compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, G.; Dalbuono, S.; Tampieri, D.

    1982-01-01

    A technique for performing right brachial anigography by compressing the right anterior-inferior part of the neck is proposed, as a result of studying the left carotid circulation without puncturing the left carotid artery. A success was obtained in about 75% of cases. The success of the technique depends mainly on the anatomical nature of the innominate artery. When the technique is successful both left carotid arteries in the neck and their intracranial branches can be satisfactorily visualized. In some cases visualization of the left vertebral artery was also otbained. Attention is drawn also on the increased diagnostic possibilities of studying the vessels in the neck with a greater dilution of the contrast medium. (orig.)

  11. Effect of electrocautery on endothelial integrity of the internal thoracic artery: ultrastructural analysis with transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onan, Burak; Yeniterzi, Mehmet; Onan, Ismihan Selen; Ersoy, Burak; Gonca, Suheyla; Gelenli, Elif; Solakoglu, Seyhun; Bakir, Ihsan

    2014-10-01

    The internal thoracic artery (ITA) is typically harvested from the chest wall by means of conventional electrocautery. We investigated the effects of electrocautery on endothelial-cell and vessel-wall morphology at the ultrastructural level during ITA harvesting. Internal thoracic artery specimens from 20 patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting were investigated in 2 groups. The ITA grafts were sharply dissected with use of a scalpel and clips in the control group (n=10) and were harvested by means of electrocautery in the study group (n=10). Each sample was evaluated for intimal, elastic-tissue, muscular-layer, and adventitial changes. Free flow was measured intraoperatively. Light microscopic examinations were performed after hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate ultrastructural changes in the endothelial cells and vessel walls of each ITA. In the sharp-dissection group, the endothelial surfaces were lined with normal amounts of original endothelium, endothelial cells were distinctly attached to the basal lamina, cytoplasmic organelles were evident, and intercellular junctional complexes were intact. Conversely, in the electrocautery group, the morphologic integrity of endothelial cells was distorted, with some cell separations and splits, contracted cells, numerous large cytoplasmic vacuoles, and no visible cytoplasmic organelles. The subendothelial layer exhibited disintegration. Free ITA flow was higher in the sharp-dissection group (P=0.04). The integrity of endothelial cells can be better preserved when the ITA is mobilized by means of sharp dissection, rather than solely by electrocautery; we recommend a combined approach.

  12. Paracrine effects of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells: cyclooxygenase-2/prostacyclin pathway in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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    Dong-Mei Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is the pathophysiological characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Some paracrine factors secreted by bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMEPCs have the potential to strengthen endothelial integrity and function. This study investigated whether BMEPCs have the therapeutic potential to improve monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH via producing vasoprotective substances in a paracrine fashion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells were cultured for 7 days to yield BMEPCs. 24 hours or 3 weeks after exposure to BMEPCs in vitro or in vivo, the vascular reactivity, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, prostacyclin (PGI2 and cAMP release in isolated pulmonary arteries were examined respectively. Treatment with BMEPCs could improve the relaxation of pulmonary arteries in MCT-induced PAH and BMEPCs were grafted into the pulmonary bed. The COX-2/prostacyclin synthase (PGIS and its progenies PGI2/cAMP were found to be significantly increased in BMEPCs treated pulmonary arteries, and this action was reversed by a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS398. Moreover, the same effect was also observed in conditioned medium obtained from BMEPCs culture. CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of BMEPCs effectively ameliorates MCT-induced PAH. Factors secreted in a paracrine fashion from BMEPCs promote vasoprotection by increasing the release of PGI2 and level of cAMP.

  13. Association Between the Female Athlete Triad and Endothelial Dysfunction in Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Anne Z.; Papanek, Paula; Szabo, Aniko; Widlansky, Michael E.; Schimke, Jane E.; Gutterman, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the 3 components of the female athlete triad [disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, low bone mineral density (BMD)] and their relationships with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in professional dancers. Design Prospective study. Setting Academic institution in the Midwest. Participants Twenty-two professional ballet dancers volunteered for this study. Interventions The prevalence of the female athlete triad and its relationship to endothelial dysfunction. Main Outcome Measures Subjects completed questionnaires to assess disordered eating and menstrual status/history. They also completed a 3-day food record and wore an accelerometer for 3 days to determine energy availability. Serum baseline thyrotropin, prolactin, and hormonal concentrations were obtained. Bone mineral density and body composition were measured with a GE Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Endothelial function was determined as flow-mediated vasodilation measured by high-frequency ultrasound in the brachial artery. An increase in brachial diameter <5% to hyperemic flow stimulus was defined a priori as endothelial dysfunction. Results Seventeen dancers (77%) had evidence of low/negative energy availability. Thirty-two percent had disordered eating (EDE-Q score). Thirty-six percent had menstrual dysfunction and 14% were currently using hormone contraception. Twenty-three percent had evidence of low bone density (Z-score < −1.0). Sixty-four percent had abnormal brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (<5%). Flow-mediated dilation values were significantly correlated with serum estrogen and whole-body and lumbar BMD. All the 3 components of the triad plus endothelial dysfunction were present in 14% of the subjects. Conclusions Endothelial dysfunction was correlated with reduced BMD, menstrual dysfunction, and low serum estrogen. These findings may have profound implications for cardiovascular and bone health in professional women dancers

  14. Peripheral Endothelial Function and Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve Are Not Associated in Women with Angina and No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flintholm Raft, Kristoffer; Frestad, Daria; Michelsen, Marie Mide

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated whether impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma biomarkers reflecting endothelial dysfunction are associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in women with angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Patients (n = 194) were rand...

  15. Effects of a 12-week alpine skiing intervention on endothelial progenitor cells, peripheral arterial tone and endothelial biomarkers in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niederseer, David; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Mayr, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    : +0.18±0.76) and CG (-0.39±0.85; p=0.045), as did homocysteine (IG: -1.3±1.3μmol/l; CG: -0.4±1.4μmol/l; p=0.037) while other endothelial biomarkers remained essentially unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that skiing induces several beneficial effects on markers of atherogenesis including EPCs......, peripheral arterial tone and homocysteine. Our findings suggest that recreational alpine skiing may serve as a further mode of preventive exercise training, which might result in improved compliance with current recommendations....

  16. Nicorandil attenuates monocrotaline-induced vascular endothelial damage and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An antianginal K(ATP channel opener nicorandil has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems; however, its effects on pulmonary vasculature under pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether nicorandil can attenuate monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg MCT were randomized to receive either vehicle; nicorandil (5.0 mg·kg(-1·day(-1 alone; or nicorandil as well as either a K(ATP channel blocker glibenclamide or a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, from immediately or 21 days after MCT injection. Four or five weeks later, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was measured, and lung tissue was harvested. Also, we evaluated the nicorandil-induced anti-apoptotic effects and activation status of several molecules in cell survival signaling pathway in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Four weeks after MCT injection, RVSP was significantly increased in the vehicle-treated group (51.0±4.7 mm Hg, whereas it was attenuated by nicorandil treatment (33.2±3.9 mm Hg; P<0.01. Nicorandil protected pulmonary endothelium from the MCT-induced thromboemboli formation and induction of apoptosis, accompanied with both upregulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS expression and downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 expression. Late treatment with nicorandil for the established PAH was also effective in suppressing the additional progression of PAH. These beneficial effects of nicorandil were blocked similarly by glibenclamide and l-NAME. Next, HUVECs were incubated in serum-free medium and then exhibited apoptotic morphology, while these changes were significantly attenuated by nicorandil administration. Nicorandil activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  17. Characteristics of endothelial dysfunction in patients with gout comorbid with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Zolotariova

    2016-06-01

      Abstract Currently there is scarce data on endothelial dysfunction (ED in patients with gout (GA, moreover there are no current studies of ED in gout comorbid with arterial hypertension (AH. The purpose of this study is to describe specific features of biochemical and instrumental markers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with GA comorbid with AH. We measured and compared the level of Von Willebrand factor (vWF, interleukin-1beta (IL-1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, plasma nitrites (NO2- and nitrates (NO3-, the total activity of NO-synthase, endothelium-dependent (FMD and endothelium-independent vasodilatation (NMD in 26 patients with GA, 26 patients with AH and in 86 patients with GA+AH. The study showed that vWF concentration was highest in comorbidity group (92,9±29,0% showing no significant difference from GA and AH (79,2% and   86,5% respectively. IL-1 was highest in GA+AH group (2,0 pg/ml being significantly higher than in AH (p=0,01 but showing no difference from GA (p=1,0. ET-1 concentration was highest in the comorbid pathology group (3,07 fmol/ml versus 1,58 fmol/ml in GA (p<0,0001 and 2,77 fmol/ml in AH (p=1,0. NO-synthase activity was greatest in GA and in comorbid pathology groups showing no significant intergroup difference; NO2- and NO3- concentrations, being similar in these two groups, were statistically higher that in AH. Greatest reduction of FMD and NMD was found in comorbid pathology group (5,80% and 10,35% respectively and it was not significantly different from AH group (6,18%; p=0,83 for FMD and 13,59%; p=0,079 for NMD. FMD and NMD in gout (10,03% and 15,35% respectively were similar to normal, being significantly different compared to GA+AH group (p=0,045 for FMD and p=0,018 for NMD. This study shows that ED in gout is characterized by significantly higher concentration of IL-1, nitric oxide metabolites and intact FMD compared to hypertension. Hypertension is characterized by significantly higher concentrations of endothelin-1, more

  18. Human trophoblast-derived hydrogen sulfide stimulates placental artery endothelial cell angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Bao; Feng, Lin; Hodges, Jennifer K; Lechuga, Thomas J; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly synthesized by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH), has been implicated in regulating placental angiogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study was to test a hypothesis that trophoblasts synthesize H2S to promote placental angiogenesis. Human choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells expressed both CBS and CTH proteins, while the first trimester villous trophoblast-originated HTR-8/SVneo cells expressed CTH protein only. The H2S producing ability of BeWo cells was significantly inhibited by either inhibitors of CBS (carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride, CHH) or CTH (β-cyano-L-alanine, BCA) and that in HTR-8/SVneo cells was inhibited by CHH only. H2S donors stimulated cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in ovine placental artery endothelial cells (oFPAECs) as effectively as vascular endothelial growth factor. Co-culture with BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo cells stimulated oFPAEC migration, which was inhibited by CHH or BCA in BeWo but CHH only in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Primary human villous trophoblasts (HVT) were more potent than trophoblast cell lines in stimulating oFPAEC migration that was inhibited by CHH and CHH/BCA combination in accordance with its H2S synthesizing activity linked to CBS and CTH expression patterns. H2S donors activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), and extracellular signal-activated kinase 1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1, MAPK3/1) in oFPAECs. H2S donor-induced NOS3 activation was blocked by AKT1 but not MAPK3/1 inhibition. In keeping with our previous studies showing a crucial role of AKT1, MAPK3/1, and NOS3/NO in placental angiogenesis, these data show that trophoblast-derived endogenous H2S stimulates placental angiogenesis, involving activation of AKT1, NOS3/NO, and MAPK3/1. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study

  19. Positive Feedback Regulation of Agonist-Stimulated Endothelial Ca2+ Dynamics by KCa3.1 Channels in Mouse Mesenteric Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Xun; Francis, Michael; Köhler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Intermediate and small conductance KCa channels IK1 (KCa3.1) and SK3 (KCa2.3) are primary targets of endothelial Ca(2+) signals in the arterial vasculature, and their ablation results in increased arterial tone and hypertension. Activation of IK1 channels by local Ca(2+) transients from internal ...... stores or plasma membrane channels promotes arterial hyperpolarization and vasodilation. Here, we assess arteries from genetically altered IK1 knockout mice (IK1(-/-)) to determine whether IK1 channels exert a positive feedback influence on endothelial Ca(2+) dynamics....

  20. Effect of dietary intervention and lipid-lowering treatment on brachial vasoreactivity in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Møller, Jacob E; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The "Mediterranean" diet and statin treatment have both independently been shown to improve survival and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but no studies have evaluated the effect of this combination on endothelial function. We...... factors and vessel size (P =.02; beta = -2.66 [-4.91; -0.41]). CONCLUSION: Dietary intervention with the Mediterranean diet and statin treatment improve FMD in the brachial artery in patients with IHD and hypercholesterolemia to a greater degree than statin treatment alone....... therefore sought to evaluate the effect of the combination dietary intervention and lipid-lowering treatment on brachial vasoreactivity. METHODS: A total of 131 consecutive patients with documented IHD and a serum cholesterol level > or =5 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) were randomized to receive Mediterranean dietary...

  1. Differential effect of amylin on endothelial-dependent vasodilation in mesenteric arteries from control and insulin resistant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam El Assar

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is frequently associated with endothelial dysfunction and has been proposed to play a major role in cardiovascular disease (CVD. On the other hand, amylin has long been related to IR. However the role of amylin in the vascular dysfunction associated to IR is not well addressed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of acute treatment with amylin on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of isolated mesenteric arteries from control (CR and insulin resistant (IRR rats and to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved. Five week-old male Wistar rats received 20% D-fructose dissolved in drinking water for 8 weeks and were compared with age-matched CR. Plasmatic levels of glucose, insulin and amylin were measured. Mesenteric microvessels were dissected and mounted in wire myographs to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine. IRR displayed a significant increase in plasmatic levels of glucose, insulin and amylin and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation when compared to CR. Acute treatment of mesenteric arteries with r-amylin (40 pM deteriorated endothelium-dependent responses in CR. Amylin-induced reduction of endothelial responses was unaffected by the H2O2 scavenger, catalase, but was prevented by the extracellular superoxide scavenger, superoxide dismutase (SOD or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor (VAS2870. By opposite, amylin failed to further inhibit the impaired relaxation in mesenteric arteries of IRR. SOD, or VAS2870, but not catalase, ameliorated the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in IRR. At concentrations present in insulin resistance conditions, amylin impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation in mircrovessels from rats with preserved vascular function and low levels of endogenous amylin. In IRR with established endothelial dysfunction and elevated levels of amylin, additional exposure to this peptide has no effect on endothelial vasodilation. Increased superoxide

  2. Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Affara, Nada; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Pennings, Sebastiaan W C; Takens, Janny; Berger, Rolf M F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). METHODS: Rats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO in the pre...

  3. Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.; Affara, Nada; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Pennings, Sebastiaan W. C.; Takens, Janny; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Methods Rats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO i...

  4. Passive heat therapy improves endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure in sedentary humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Vienna E; Howard, Matthew J; Francisco, Michael A; Ely, Brett R; Minson, Christopher T

    2016-09-15

    A recent 30 year prospective study showed that lifelong sauna use reduces cardiovascular-related and all-cause mortality; however, the specific cardiovascular adaptations that cause this chronic protection are currently unknown. We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of repeated hot water immersion ('heat therapy') on various biomarkers of cardiovascular health in young, sedentary humans. We showed that, relative to a sham group which participated in thermoneutral water immersion, heat therapy increased flow-mediated dilatation, reduced arterial stiffness, reduced mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure, and reduced carotid intima media thickness, with changes all on par or greater than what is typically observed in sedentary subjects with exercise training. Our results show for the first time that heat therapy has widespread and robust effects on vascular function, and as such, could be a viable treatment option for improving cardiovascular health in a variety of patient populations, particularly those with limited exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. The majority of cardiovascular diseases are characterized by disorders of the arteries, predominantly caused by endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. Intermittent hot water immersion ('heat therapy') results in elevations in core temperature and changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics, such as cardiac output and vascular shear stress, that are similar to exercise, and thus may provide an alternative means of improving health which could be utilized by patients with low exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. We sought to comprehensively assess the effects of 8 weeks of heat therapy on biomarkers of vascular function in young, sedentary subjects. Twenty young, sedentary subjects were assigned to participate in 8 weeks (4-5 times per week) of heat therapy (n = 10; immersion in a 40.5°C bath sufficient to maintain rectal temperature ≥ 38.5°C for 60 min per session) or thermoneutral water

  5. Analysis of Drug Effects on Primary Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells Activated by Serum Amyloid A

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    K. Lakota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. RA patients have a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases compared to the general population. Serum amyloid A (SAA is an acute-phase protein, upregulated in sera of RA patients. Aim. To determine the effects of medications on SAA-stimulated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC. Methods. HCAEC were preincubated for 2 h with medications from sterile ampules (dexamethasone, methotrexate, certolizumab pegol, and etanercept, dissolved in medium (captopril or DMSO (etoricoxib, rosiglitazone, meloxicam, fluvastatin, and diclofenac. Human recombinant apo-SAA was used to stimulate HCAEC at a final 1000 nM concentration for 24 hours. IL-6, IL-8, sVCAM-1, and PAI-1 were measured by ELISA. The number of viable cells was determined colorimetrically. Results. SAA-stimulated levels of released IL-6, IL-8, and sVCAM-1 from HCAEC were significantly attenuated by methotrexate, fluvastatin, and etoricoxib. Both certolizumab pegol and etanercept significantly decreased PAI-1 by an average of 43%. Rosiglitazone significantly inhibited sVCAM-1 by 58%. Conclusion. We observed marked influence of fluvastatin on lowering cytokine production in SAA-activated HCAEC. Methotrexate showed strong beneficial effects for lowering released Il-6, IL-8, and sVCAM-1. Interesting duality was observed for NSAIDs, with meloxicam exhibiting opposite-trend effects from diclofenac and etoricoxib. This represents unique insight into specific responsiveness of inflammatory-driven HCAEC relevant to atherosclerosis.

  6. Endotoxin induction of an inhibitor of plasminogen activator in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-05

    The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) on the fibrinolytic activity of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were examined. Endotoxin suppressed the net fibrinolytic activity of cell extracts and conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of endotoxin required at least 6 h for expression. Cell extracts and conditioned media contained a 44-kDa urokinase-like plasminogen activator. Media also contained multiple plasminogen activators with molecular masses of 65-75 and 80-100 kDa. Plasminogen activators in extracts and media were unchanged by treatment of cells with endotoxin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-abolished fibrinolytic activity of extracts and conditioned media. DFP-treated samples from endotoxin-treated but not untreated cells inhibited urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator, but not plasmin. Inhibitory activity was lost by incubation at pH 3 or heating to 56/sup 0/C for 10 min. These treatments did not affect inhibitory activity of fetal bovine serum. Incubation of /sup 125/I-urokinase with DFP-treated medium from endotoxin-treated cells produced an inactive complex with an apparent molecular mass of 80-85 kDa.

  7. MicroRNA-143 Activation Regulates Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Cell Crosstalk in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin; Blanco, Francisco J; Stevens, Hannah; Lu, Ruifang; Caudrillier, Axelle; McBride, Martin; McClure, John D; Grant, Jenny; Thomas, Matthew; Frid, Maria; Stenmark, Kurt; White, Kevin; Seto, Anita G; Morrell, Nicholas W; Bradshaw, Angela C; MacLean, Margaret R; Baker, Andrew H

    2015-10-23

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unclear. The 4 microRNAs representing the miR-143 and miR-145 stem loops are genomically clustered. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of the miR-143/145 cluster and the role of miR-143 in PAH. We identified the promoter region that regulates miR-143/145 microRNA expression in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). We mapped PAH-related signaling pathways, including estrogen receptor, liver X factor/retinoic X receptor, transforming growth factor-β (Smads), and hypoxia (hypoxia response element), that regulated levels of all pri-miR stem loop transcription and resulting microRNA expression. We observed that miR-143-3p is selectively upregulated compared with miR-143-5p during PASMC migration. Modulation of miR-143 in PASMCs significantly altered cell migration and apoptosis. In addition, we found high abundance of miR-143-3p in PASMC-derived exosomes. Using assays with pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, we demonstrated a paracrine promigratory and proangiogenic effect of miR-143-3p-enriched exosomes from PASMC. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization showed elevated expression of miR-143 in calf models of PAH and in samples from PAH patients. Moreover, in contrast to our previous findings that had not supported a therapeutic role in vivo, we now demonstrate a protective role of miR-143 in experimental pulmonary hypertension in vivo in miR-143-/- and anti-miR-143-3p-treated mice exposed to chronic hypoxia in both preventative and reversal settings. MiR-143-3p modulated both cellular and exosome-mediated responses in pulmonary vascular cells, whereas inhibition of miR-143-3p blocked experimental pulmonary hypertension. Taken together, these findings confirm an important role for the miR-143/145 cluster in PAH pathobiology. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Endothelial and Neuronal Nitric Oxide Activate Distinct Pathways on Sympathetic Neurotransmission in Rat Tail and Mesenteric Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Beatriz Sousa

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO seems to contribute to vascular homeostasis regulating neurotransmission. This work aimed at assessing the influence of NO from different sources and respective intracellular pathways on sympathetic neurotransmission, in two vascular beds. Electrically-evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release was assessed in rat mesenteric and tail arteries in the presence of NO donors or endothelial/neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors. The influence of NO on adenosine-mediated effects was also studied using selective antagonists for adenosine receptors subtypes. Location of neuronal NOS (nNOS was investigated by immunohistochemistry (with specific antibodies for nNOS and for Schwann cells and Confocal Microscopy. Results indicated that: 1 in mesenteric arteries, noradrenaline release was reduced by NO donors and it was increased by nNOS inhibitors; the effect of NO donors was only abolished by the adenosine A1 receptors antagonist; 2 in tail arteries, noradrenaline release was increased by NO donors and it was reduced by eNOS inhibitors; adenosine receptors antagonists were devoid of effect; 3 confocal microscopy showed nNOS staining in adventitial cells, some co-localized with Schwann cells. nNOS staining and its co-localization with Schwann cells were significantly lower in tail compared to mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, in mesenteric arteries, nNOS, mainly located in Schwann cells, seems to be the main source of NO influencing perivascular sympathetic neurotransmission with an inhibitory effect, mediated by adenosine A1 receptors activation. Instead, in tail arteries endothelial NO seems to play a more relevant role and has a facilitatory effect, independent of adenosine receptors activation.

  9. Endothelial epithelial sodium channel inhibition activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt in small-diameter mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco R; Venegas, Fabiola; González, Magdalena; Andrés, Sergio; Vallejos, Catalina; Riquelme, Gloria; Sierralta, Jimena; Michea, Luis

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in vascular tissue. However, the role that ENaC may play in the responses to vasoconstrictors and NO production has yet to be addressed. In this study, the contractile responses of perfused pressurized small-diameter rat mesenteric arteries to phenylephrine and serotonin were reduced by ENaC blockade with amiloride (75.1+/-3.2% and 16.9+/-2.3% of control values, respectively; P<0.01) that was dose dependent (EC(50)=88.9+/-1.6 nmol/L). Incubation with benzamil, another ENaC blocker, had similar effects. alpha, beta, and gamma ENaC were identified in small-diameter rat mesenteric arteries using RT-PCR and Western blot with specific antibodies. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry localized ENaC expression to the tunica media and endothelium of small-diameter rat mesenteric arteries. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that primary cultures of mesenteric artery endothelial cells expressed amiloride-sensitive sodium currents. Mechanical ablation of the endothelium or inhibition of eNOS with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine inhibited the reduction in contractility caused by ENaC blockers. ENaC inhibitors increased eNOS phosphorylation (Ser 1177) and Akt phosphorylation (Ser 473). The presence of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 blunted Akt phosphorylation and eNOS phosphorylation and the decrease in the response to phenylephrine caused by blockers of ENaC, indicating that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was activated after ENaC inhibition. Finally, we observed that the effects of blockers of ENaC were flow dependent and that the vasodilatory response to shear stress was enhanced by ENaC blockade. Our results identify a previously unappreciated role for ENaC as a negative modulator of eNOS and NO production in resistance arteries.

  10. miR-143 Activation Regulates Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Cell Crosstalk in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Hannah; Lu, Ruifang; Caudrillier, Axelle; McBride, Martin; McClure, John D; Grant, Jenny; Thomas, Matthew; Frid, Maria; Stenmark, Kurt; White, Kevin; Seto, Anita G.; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Bradshaw, Angela C; MacLean, Margaret R.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The pathogenesis of PAH remains unclear. The four microRNAs representing the miR-143 and miR-145 stem loops are genomically clustered. Objective To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of the miR-143/145 cluster, and the role of miR-143 in PAH. Methods and Results We identified the promoter region that regulates miR-143/145 miRNA expression in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). We mapped PAH-related signalling pathways, including estrogens receptor (ER), liver X factor/retinoic X receptor (LXR/RXR), TGF-β (Smads), and hypoxia (HRE) that regulated levels of all pri-miR stem loop transcription and resulting miRNA expression. We observed that miR-143-3p is selectively upregulated compared to miR-143-5p during PASMC migration. Modulation of miR-143 in PASMCs significantly altered cell migration and apoptosis. In addition, we found high abundance of miR-143-3p in PASMCs-derived exosomes. Using assays with pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) we demonstrated a paracrine pro-migratory and pro-angiogenic effect of miR-143-3p enriched exosomes from PASMC. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridisation showed elevated expression of miR-143 in calf models of PAH as well as in samples from PAH patients. Moreover, in contrast to our previous findings that had not supported a therapeutic role in vivo, we now demonstrate a protective role for miR-143 in experimental PH in vivo in miR-143−/− and antimiR143-3p-treated mice exposed to chronic hypoxia in both preventative and reversal settings. Conclusions miR-143-3p modulated both cellular and exosome-mediated responses in pulmonary vascular cells, while inhibition of miR-143-3p blocked experimental PH. Taken together these findings confirm an important role for the miR-143/145 cluster in PAH pathobiology. PMID:26311719

  11. Glycated hemoglobin correlates with arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in patients with resistant hypertension and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Beatriz; de Faria, Ana Paula; Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Yugar, Lara Buonalumi Tacito; Ferreira-Melo, Silvia Elaine; Amorim, Rivadavio; Modolo, Rodrigo; Fattori, André; Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Coca, Antonio; Moreno, Heitor

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) on flow-mediated dilation, intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, and left ventricular mass index in patients with resistant hypertension (RHTN) comparing RHTN-controlled diabetes mellitus and RHTN-uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Two groups were formed: HbA 1c diabetes mellitus: n = 98) and HbA 1c ≥7.0% (RHTN-uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: n = 122). Intima-media thickness and flow-mediated dilation were measured by high-resolution ultrasound, left ventricular mass index by echocardiography, and arterial stiffness by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. No differences in blood pressure levels were found between the groups but body mass index was higher in patients with RHTN-uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness were worse in patients with RHTN-uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Intima-media thickness and left ventricular mass index measurements were similar between the groups. After adjustments, multiple linear regression analyses showed that HbA 1c was an independent predictor of flow-mediated dilation and pulse wave velocity in all patients with RHTN. In conclusion, HbA 1c may predict the grade of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in patients with RHTN, and superimposed uncontrolled diabetes mellitus implicates further impairment of vascular function. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Obesity and overweight associated with increased carotid diameter and decreased arterial function in young otherwise healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Fahs, Christopher A; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Agiovlasitis, Stomatis; Rossow, Lindy; Jae, Sae Y; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease, stroke, increased mortality and vascular remodeling. Although increased arterial diameter is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and obesity, it is unknown whether lumen enlargement is accompanied by unfavorable vascular changes in young and otherwise healthy obese individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare carotid and brachial artery diameter, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function in young, apparently healthy, normal-weight, overweight, and obese male subjects. One hundred sixty-five male subjects (27.39±0.59 years) were divided into 3 groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese) according to body mass index. Subjects underwent cardiovascular measurements to determine arterial diameter, function, and stiffness. After adjusting for age, the obese group had significantly greater brachial, carotid, and aortic pressures, brachial pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness, and carotid arterial diameter compared with both the overweight and normal-weight groups. Obesity is associated with a much worse arterial profile, as an increased carotid lumen size was accompanied by higher blood pressure, greater arterial stiffness, and greater carotid intima media thickness in obese compared with overweight or normal-weight individuals. These data suggest that although obesity may be a factor in arterial remodeling, such remodeling is also accompanied by other hemodynamic and arterial changes consistent with reduced arterial function and increased cardiovascular risk.

  13. Endothelial function in highly endurance-trained and sedentary, healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Ingvild T; Hoven, Heidi; Hetland, Eva V; Rognmo, Oivind; Slørdahl, Stig A

    2005-05-01

    Endothelial function is reduced by age, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension or type 2 diabetes, and it is shown that aerobic exercise may reverse this trend. The effect of a high aerobic training status on endothelial function in young, healthy subjects is however less clear. The present study was designed to determine whether endothelial function is improved in highly endurance-trained young women compared to sedentary, healthy controls. Brachial artery diameter was measured in 16 endurance-trained (age: 23.7 +/- 2.5 years, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 60.6 +/- 4.5 ml/kg per min) and 14 sedentary females (age: 23.7 +/- 2.1 years, VO2max: 40.5 +/- 5.6 ml/kg per min) at rest, during flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and after sublingual glycerol trinitrate administration, using high-resolution ultrasound. FMD did not differ between the endurance-trained and the sedentary females (14.8% vs 16.4%, p = NS), despite a substantial difference in VO2max of 50% (p endurance-trained group possessed however, a 9% larger resting brachial artery diameter when adjusted for body surface area. The results of the present study suggest that endothelial function is well preserved in young, healthy women, and that a high aerobic training status due to long term aerobic training does not improve the dilating capacity any further.

  14. Non-invasive detection of coronary endothelial response to sequential handgrip exercise in coronary artery disease patients and healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison G Hays

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our objective is to test the hypothesis that coronary endothelial function (CorEndoFx does not change with repeated isometric handgrip (IHG stress in CAD patients or healthy subjects. BACKGROUND: Coronary responses to endothelial-dependent stressors are important measures of vascular risk that can change in response to environmental stimuli or pharmacologic interventions. The evaluation of the effect of an acute intervention on endothelial response is only valid if the measurement does not change significantly in the short term under normal conditions. Using 3.0 Tesla (T MRI, we non-invasively compared two coronary artery endothelial function measurements separated by a ten minute interval in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. METHODS: Twenty healthy adult subjects and 12 CAD patients were studied on a commercial 3.0 T whole-body MR imaging system. Coronary cross-sectional area (CSA, peak diastolic coronary flow velocity (PDFV and blood-flow were quantified before and during continuous IHG stress, an endothelial-dependent stressor. The IHG exercise with imaging was repeated after a 10 minute recovery period. RESULTS: In healthy adults, coronary artery CSA changes and blood-flow increases did not differ between the first and second stresses (mean % change ±SEM, first vs. second stress CSA: 14.8%±3.3% vs. 17.8%±3.6%, p = 0.24; PDFV: 27.5%±4.9% vs. 24.2%±4.5%, p = 0.54; blood-flow: 44.3%±8.3 vs. 44.8%±8.1, p = 0.84. The coronary vasoreactive responses in the CAD patients also did not differ between the first and second stresses (mean % change ±SEM, first stress vs. second stress: CSA: -6.4%±2.0% vs. -5.0%±2.4%, p = 0.22; PDFV: -4.0%±4.6% vs. -4.2%±5.3%, p = 0.83; blood-flow: -9.7%±5.1% vs. -8.7%±6.3%, p = 0.38. CONCLUSION: MRI measures of CorEndoFx are unchanged during repeated isometric handgrip exercise tests in CAD patients and healthy adults. These findings

  15. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Economou, Emmanuel; Andreadou, Ioanna; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that high flavonoid intake confers a benefit on cardiovascular outcome. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections are important determinants of cardiovascular performance and are predictors of cardiovascular risk. The effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (100 g) on endothelial function, aortic stiffness, wave reflections, and oxidant status were studied for 3 h in 17 young healthy volunteers according to a randomized, single-blind, sham procedure-controlled, cross-over protocol. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, aortic augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were used as measures of endothelial function, wave reflections, and aortic stiffness, respectively. Plasma oxidant status was evaluated with measurement of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Chocolate led to a significant increase in resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter throughout the study (maximum increase by 0.15 mm and 0.18 mm, respectively, P chocolate throughout the study (maximum absolute decrease 7.8%, P chocolate, indicating no alterations in plasma oxidant status. Our study shows for the first time that consumption of dark chocolate acutely decreases wave reflections, that it does not affect aortic stiffness, and that it may exert a beneficial effect on endothelial function in healthy adults. Chocolate consumption may exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; further studies are warranted to assess any long-term effects.

  16. Tissue expander stimulated lengthening of arteries (TESLA) induces early endothelial cell proliferation in a novel rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potanos, Kristina; Fullington, Nora; Cauley, Ryan; Purcell, Patricia; Zurakowski, David; Fishman, Steven; Vakili, Khashayar; Kim, Heung Bae

    2016-04-01

    We examine the mechanism of aortic lengthening in a novel rodent model of tissue expander stimulated lengthening of arteries (TESLA). A rat model of TESLA was examined with a single stretch stimulus applied at the time of tissue expander insertion with evaluation of the aorta at 2, 4 and 7day time points. Measurements as well as histology and proliferation assays were performed and compared to sham controls. The aortic length was increased at all time points without histologic signs of tissue injury. Nuclear density remained unchanged despite the increase in length suggesting cellular hyperplasia. Cellular proliferation was confirmed in endothelial cell layer by Ki-67 stain. Aortic lengthening may be achieved using TESLA. The increase in aortic length can be achieved without tissue injury and results at least partially from cellular hyperplasia. Further studies are required to define the mechanisms involved in the growth of arteries under increased longitudinal stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hashemi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

  18. The effect of an apple polyphenol extract rich in epicatechin and flavan-3-ol oligomers on brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatory function in volunteers with elevated blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarenhovi, Maria; Salo, Pia; Scheinin, Mika; Lehto, Jussi; Lovró, Zsófia; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Lehtinen, Markus J; Junnila, Jouni; Hasselwander, Oliver; Tarpila, Anneli; Raitakari, Olli T

    2017-10-27

    The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an orally ingested apple polyphenol extract rich in epicatechin and flavan-3-ol oligomers improves endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) in volunteers with borderline hypertension. The secondary aim of the study was to test whether the investigational product would improve endothelium-independent nitrate-mediated vasodilatation (NMD). This was a single centre, repeated-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 60 otherwise healthy subjects (26 men, 34 women; aged 40-65 years) with borderline hypertension (blood pressure 130-139/85-89 mmHg) or unmedicated mild hypertension (blood pressure 140-165/90-95 mmHg). The subjects were randomised to receive placebo or the apple polyphenol extract to provide a daily dose of 100 mg epicatechin for 4 weeks, followed by a four to five-week wash-out period, and then 4 weeks intake of the product that they did not receive during the first treatment period. FMD and NMD of the left brachial artery were investigated with ultrasonography at the start and end of both treatment periods, and the per cent increase of the arterial diameter (FMD% and NMD%) was calculated. With the apple extract treatment, a significant acute improvement was detected in the mean change of maximum FMD% at the first visit 1.16 (p = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.04; 2.28), last visit 1.37 (p = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.22; 2.52) and for both visits combined 1.29 (p effect of apple extract on FMD% was not different from placebo. No statistically significant differences between the apple extract and placebo treatments were observed for endothelium-independent NMD. A significant acute improvement in maximum FMD% with apple extract administration was found. However, superiority of apple extract over placebo was not statistically significant in our study subjects with borderline hypertension or mild hypertension. The study raised no safety concerns regarding the

  19. Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Emi; Taketani, Yutaka; Tanaka, Rieko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Isshiki, Masashi; Sato, Minako; Nashiki, Kunitaka; Amo, Kikuko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Higashi, Yukihito; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus may increase cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are not completely understood. To determine whether postprandial hyperphosphatemia may promote endothelial dysfunction, we investigated the acute effect of phosphorus loading on endothelial function in vitro and in vivo. Exposing bovine aortic endothelial cells to a phosphorus load increased production of reactive oxygen species, which depended on phosphorus influx via sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, and decreased nitric oxide production via inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Phosphorus loading inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat aortic rings. In 11 healthy men, we alternately served meals containing 400 mg or 1200 mg of phosphorus in a double-blind crossover study and measured flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery before and 2 h after the meals. The high dietary phosphorus load increased serum phosphorus at 2 h and significantly decreased flow-mediated dilation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated inversely with serum phosphorus. Taken together, these findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction mediated by acute postprandial hyperphosphatemia may contribute to the relationship between serum phosphorus level and the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  20. Endothelial shear stress estimation in the human carotid artery based on Womersley versus Poiseuille flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, Janina C. V.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Nederveen, Aart J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; VanBavel, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial shear stress (ESS) dynamics are a major determinant of atherosclerosis development. The frequently used Poiseuille method to estimate ESS dynamics has important limitations. Therefore, we investigated whether Womersley flow may provide a better alternative for estimation of ESS while

  1. Progesterone amplifies oxidative stress signal and promotes NO production via H2O2 in mouse kidney arterial endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Fan, Yang-Yang; Yang, Chun-Rong; Gao, Xiao-Rui; Zhang, Li-Li; Hu, Ying; Wang, Ya-Qin; Jun, Hu

    2016-01-01

    The role of progesterone on the cardiovascular system is controversial. Our present research is to specify the effect of progesterone on arterial endothelial cells in response to oxidative stress. Our result showed that H2O2 (150 μM and 300 μM) induced cellular antioxidant response. Glutathione (GSH) production and the activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in H2O2-treated group. The expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) was induced in response to H2O2. However, progesterone absolutely abolished the antioxidant response through increasing ROS level, inhibiting the activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), decreasing GSH level and reducing expression of GClC and GCLM. In our study, H2O2 induced nitrogen monoxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, and progesterone promoted H2O2-induced NO production. Progesterone increased H2O2-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIFα) which in turn regulated eNOS expression and NO synthesis. Further study demonstrated that progesterone increased H2O2 concentration of culture medium which may contribute to NO synthesis. Exogenous GSH decreased the content of H2O2 of culture medium pretreated by progesterone combined with H2O2 or progesterone alone. GSH also inhibited expression of HIFα and eNOS, and abolished NO synthesis. Collectively, our study demonstrated for the first time that progesterone inhibited cellular antioxidant effect and increased oxidative stress, promoted NO production of arterial endothelial cells, which may be due to the increasing H2O2 concentration and amplified oxidative stress signal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Insomnia and endothelial function - the HUNT 3 fitness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn B Strand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insomnia is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined insomnia in relation to endothelial function, an indicator of preclinical atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the association of insomnia with endothelial function in a large population based study of healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 4 739 participants free from known cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, cancer, and sarcoidosis, and who were not using antihypertensive medication were included in the study. They reported how often they had experienced difficulties falling asleep at night, repeated awakenings during the night, early awakenings without being able to go back to sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Endothelial function was measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD derived from the brachial artery. RESULTS: We found no consistent association between the insomnia symptoms and endothelial function in multiadjusted models, but individual insomnia symptoms may be related to endothelial function. Among women who reported early awakenings, endothelial function may be lower than in women without this symptom (p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided no evidence that endothelial function, an early indicator of atherosclerosis, is an important linking factor between insomnia and CHD. Further studies are needed to explore the complex interrelation between sleep and cardiovascular pathology.

  3. A Unique Branching Pattern of the Axillary Artery: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bagoji, Ishwar B.; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A.; Bannur, Balappa M.; Patil, B.G.; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in t...

  4. Oxidation modifies the structure and function of the extracellular matrix generated by human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Christine Y; Degendorfer, Georg; Hammer, Astrid; Whitelock, John M; Malle, Ernst; Davies, Michael J

    2014-04-15

    ECM (extracellular matrix) materials, such as laminin, perlecan, type IV collagen and fibronectin, play a key role in determining the structure of the arterial wall and the properties of cells that interact with the ECM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxynitrous acid, an oxidant generated by activated macrophages, on the structure and function of the ECM laid down by HCAECs (human coronary artery endothelial cells) in vitro and in vivo. We show that exposure of HCAEC-derived native matrix components to peroxynitrous acid (but not decomposed oxidant) at concentrations >1 μM results in a loss of antibody recognition of perlecan, collagen IV, and cell-binding sites on laminin and fibronectin. Loss of recognition was accompanied by decreased HCAEC adhesion. Real-time PCR showed up-regulation of inflammation-associated genes, including MMP7 (matrix metalloproteinase 7) and MMP13, as well as down-regulation of the laminin α2 chain, in HCAECs cultured on peroxynitrous acid-treated matrix compared with native matrix. Immunohistochemical studies provided evidence of co-localization of laminin with 3-nitrotyrosine, a biomarker of peroxynitrous acid damage, in type II-III/IV human atherosclerotic lesions, consistent with matrix damage occurring during disease development in vivo. The results of the present study suggest a mechanism through which peroxynitrous acid modifies endothelial cell-derived native ECM proteins of the arterial basement membrane in atherosclerotic lesions. These changes to ECM and particularly perlecan and laminin may be important in inducing cellular dysfunction and contribute to atherogenesis.

  5. Accuracy of Physical Examination, Ankle-Brachial Index, and Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Arterial Injury in Patients With Penetrating Extremity Trauma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deSouza, Ian S; Benabbas, Roshanak; McKee, Sean; Zangbar, Bardiya; Jain, Ashika; Paladino, Lorenzo; Boudourakis, Leon; Sinert, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Penetrating Extremity Trauma (PET) may result in arterial injury, a rare but limb- and life-threatening surgical emergency. Timely, accurate diagnosis is essential for potential intervention in order to prevent significant morbidity. Using a systematic review/meta-analytic approach, we determined the utility of physical examination, Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), and Ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of arterial injury in emergency department (ED) patients who have sustained PET. We applied a test-treatment threshold model to determine which evaluations may obviate CT Angiography (CTA). We searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus from inception to November 2016 for studies of ED patients with PET. We included studies on adult and pediatric subjects. We defined the reference standard to include CTA, catheter angiography, or surgical exploration. When low-risk patients did not undergo the reference standard, trials must have specified that patients were observed for at least 24 hours. We used the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) to evaluate bias and applicability of the included studies. We calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) of physical examination ("hard signs" of vascular injury), US, and ABI. Using established CTA test characteristics (sensitivity = 96.2%, specificity = 99.2%) and applying the Pauker-Kassirer method, we developed a test-treatment threshold model (testing threshold = 0.14%, treatment threshold = 72.9%). We included eight studies (n = 2,161, arterial injury prevalence = 15.5%). Studies had variable quality with most at high risk for partial and double verification bias. Some studies investigated multiple index tests: physical examination (hard signs) in three studies (n = 1,170), ABI in five studies (n = 1,040), and US in four studies (n = 173). Due to high heterogeneity (I 2  > 75%) of the results, we could not calculate LR+ or LR- for hard signs or LR+ for ABI. The weighted

  6. Endothelial dysfunction: a comprehensive appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilariño Jorge O

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endothelium is a thin monocelular layer that covers all the inner surface of the blood vessels, separating the circulating blood from the tissues. It is not an inactive organ, quite the opposite. It works as a receptor-efector organ and responds to each physical or chemical stimulus with the release of the correct substance with which it may maintain vasomotor balance and vascular-tissue homeostasis. It has the property of producing, independently, both agonistic and antagonistic substances that help to keep homeostasis and its function is not only autocrine, but also paracrine and endocrine. In this way it modulates the vascular smooth muscle cells producing relaxation or contraction, and therefore vasodilatation or vasoconstriction. The endothelium regulating homeostasis by controlling the production of prothrombotic and antithrombotic components, and fibrynolitics and antifibrynolitics. Also intervenes in cell proliferation and migration, in leukocyte adhesion and activation and in immunological and inflammatory processes. Cardiovascular risk factors cause oxidative stress that alters the endothelial cells capacity and leads to the so called endothelial "dysfunction" reducing its capacity to maintain homeostasis and leads to the development of pathological inflammatory processes and vascular disease. There are different techniques to evaluate the endothelium functional capacity, that depend on the amount of NO produced and the vasodilatation effect. The percentage of vasodilatation with respect to the basal value represents the endothelial functional capacity. Taking into account that shear stress is one of the most important stimulants for the synthesis and release of NO, the non-invasive technique most often used is the transient flow-modulate "endothelium-dependent" post-ischemic vasodilatation, performed on conductance arteries such as the brachial, radial or femoral arteries. This vasodilatation is compared with the

  7. Central aortic systolic blood pressure can predict prolonged QTc duration better than brachial artery systolic blood pressure in rural community residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Tang, Songtao; Chen, Ji-Yan; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jie; Cai, An-Ping; Feng, Yingqing

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that prolonged electrocardiogram QTc duration was independent risk factor for both increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but there was no dating about the relationship between central aortic systolic blood pressure (CASP) and QTc duration. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between CASP and QTc duration, and assess whether CASP can predict prolonged QTc duration more than BSBP. A total of 500 patients were enrolled in this study, central and brachial aortic blood pressure and electrocardiogram QTc duration were measured. Pearson correlation was assessed for determining the associations of QTc duration with clinical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent predictor of prolonged QTc duration. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the utility of blood pressure for prolonged QTc duration. We found QTc durations were significantly positive with CASP (r = 0.308, p AUC: 0.771 vs. 0.646, p < 0.001) BSBP. Our results suggested that the non-invasive CASP is independently correlated with QTc duration, and CASP can predict prolonged QTc duration more than BSBP.

  8. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Type 1 diabetics have a well-recognised risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of clinical signs there are detectable abnormalities of conduit vessel function. Our group has previously reported reversal of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics with pravastatin. In young asymptomatic smokers, taurine supplementation has a beneficial impact on macrovascular function, assessed by FMD, and shows an up-regulation of nitric oxide from monocyte-endothelial cell interactions. We hypothesise that taurine supplementation reverses early endothelial abnormalities in young male type 1 diabetics, as assessed by applanation tonometry, brachial artery ultrasound and laser Doppler fluximetry. Asymptomatic, male diabetics (n=9) were scanned prior to treatment and then randomised in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive either 2 weeks placebo or taurine. Control patients (n=10) underwent a baseline scan. Assessed diabetics had detectable, statistically significant abnormalities when compared with controls, in both arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). Both of these parameters were returned to control levels with 2 weeks taurine supplementation. In conclusion, 2 weeks taurine supplementation reverses early, detectable conduit vessel abnormalities in young male diabetics. This may have important implications in the long-term treatment of diabetic patients and their subsequent progression towards atherosclerotic disease.

  9. Short-term tibolone does not interfere with endothelial function: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celani, M F S; Hurtado, R; Brandão, A H F; Maciel da Fonseca, A M R; Geber, S

    2016-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with tibolone 2.5 mg daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A total of 100 healthy postmenopausal women were randomly allocated to receive tibolone (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50) for 28 days. Measurement of the FMD of the brachial artery was performed before and after the use of tibolone and placebo. Results A total of 31 women completed the study in the tibolone group, and 32 women completed the study in the control group. The results of the FMD measurements obtained from the women in the two groups before treatment were similar (0.018 and 0.091, for tibolone and placebo, p = 0.57). The values of the FMD in women who used tibolone and placebo, before and after the treatment, were similar in both groups. The numbers of women who presented an increase in the values of the FMD in both groups were also similar. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the administration of 2.5 mg tibolone to healthy postmenopausal women for 28 days does not promote endothelial-dependent vasodilation, measured by FMD of the brachial artery.

  10. Impaired microvascular reactivity and endothelial function in patients with Cushing's syndrome: Influence of arterial hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prázný, M.; Ježková, J.; Horová, E.; Lazárová, V.; Hána, V.; Kvasnička, J.; Pecen, Ladislav; Marek, J.; Škrha, J.; Kršek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2008), s. 13-22 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Cushing’s syndrome * vascular reactivity * endothelial function * oxidative stress * laser Doppler flowmetry Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  11. Influence of radiographic contrast media (Iodixanol and Iomeprol) on the endothelin-1 release from human arterial and venous endothelial cells cultured on an extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, R P; Fuhrmann, R; Hiebl, B; Jung, F

    2012-01-01

    Various radiographic contrast media (RCM) are available for visualization of blood vessels in interventional cardiology which can vary widely in their physicochemical properties thereby influencing different functions of blood cells. In the in vitro study described here the influence of two RCMs on arterial as well as on venous endothelial cells was compared to control cultures and examined under statical culture conditions, thus eliminating the influence of RCM viscosity almost completely. The supplementation of the culture medium with RCM (30% v/v) resulted in clearly different reactions of the endothelial cells exposed. Exposition to Iodixanol supplemented culture medium was followed by endothelin-1 release from venous endothelial cells which was equivalent to the endothelin-1 release from venous control cultures. Compared to control cultures, venous endothelial cells exposed to culture medium supplemented with Iomeprol displayed a completely different reaction, the increase in endothelin-1 secretion was missing completely after a 12 hours exposure. Following a 12 hours exposure to both RCMs there were no longer endothelial cells adherent, neither in venous nor in arterial endothelial cell cultures. The study showed that not the wall shear stress was responsible for the differing effects visible after 1.5 min, 5 min, and 12 hours exposure to culture media supplemented with RCM but differences in chemotoxicity of the RCM applied.

  12. Use of a Novel Abdominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet to Reduce or Eliminate Flow in the Brachial and Popliteal Arteries in Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Matthew; Johnson, Daniel; Gordon, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating injuries of the proximal large arteries are a common cause of death on the battlefield due to rapid exsanguination. Applying an effective tourniquet to stop bleeding at the axillary and proximal femoral arteries (junctional sites) is difficult. Prior studies have shown that the Abdominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet (AAJT) effectively reduced blood flow in the common femoral artery with application of the device around the lower abdomen. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of the AAJT to stop blood flow in the proximal femoral artery (PFA), and the axillary artery (AA). This was a prospective observational trial using human volunteers. The AAJT consists of a wedge-shaped bladder and integrated strap. The bladder has an integrated manometer, which is used to measure the pressure in the bladder. For the AA, the AAJT was placed over the axillary junction at the anterior axillary line with the strap placed across the contralateral shoulder. For the PFA, the AAJT bladder was placed over the right groin with the strap positioned across both femoral trochanters. Spectral Doppler measurements were taken of the PFA and AA at baseline and as the bladder was inflated. Collected data included pressure of the AAJT.

  13. An elevated serum level of endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II in patients with arterial hypertension with and without type 2 diabetes and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Mogylnytska

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The revealed changes could reflect an endothelial dysfunction mostly pronounced in patients with arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity appear to be significant contributing factors leading to the elevation of EMAP-II.

  14. Body mass index is associated with microvascular endothelial dysfunction in patients with treated metabolic risk factors and suspected coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Van Der Heijden (Dirk J.); M.A.H. van Leeuwen (Maarten); G.N. Janssens (Gladys N.); M.J. Lenzen (Mattie); P.M. van de Ven (Peter); E.C. Eringa (Etto ); N. van Royen (Niels)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground--Obesity is key feature of the metabolic syndrome and is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity is associated with macrovascular endothelial dysfunction, a determinant of outcome in patients with coronary artery disease. Here, we compared the

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with better endothelial function: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tullio Marco R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moderate alcohol consumption is protective against coronary artery disease. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to atherosclerosis and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The effects of alcohol consumption on endothelial function may be relevant to these cardiovascular outcomes, but very few studies have examined the effect of alcohol consumption on endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery in humans. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of lifetime alcohol intake and brachial artery FMD during reactive hyperemia using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images among 884 stroke-free participants (mean age 66.8 years, women 56.6%, Hispanic 67.4%, black 17.4%, and white 15.2%. Results The mean brachial FMD was 5.7% and the median was 5.5%. Compared to non-drinkers, those who drank >1 drink/month to 2 drinks/day were more likely to have FMD above the median FMD (5.5% (unadjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.4, p = 0.005. In multivariate analysis, the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and FMD remained significant after adjusting for multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including sex, race-ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, Framingham risk score, medication use (adjusted OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1–3.0, p = 0.03. No beneficial effect on FMD was seen for those who drank more than 2 drinks/day. Conclusion In conclusion, consumption of up to 2 alcoholic beverages per day was independently associated with better FMD compared to no alcohol consumption in this multiethnic population. This effect on FMD may represent an important mechanism in explaining the protective effect of alcohol intake on cardiovascular disease.

  16. Reduced endothelial activation after exercise is associated with improved HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrkjeland, Rune; Njerve, Ida U; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Solheim, Svein

    2017-03-01

    We have previously reported insignificant changes in HbA 1c after exercise in patients with both type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of exercise on endothelial function and possible associations between changes in endothelial function and HbA 1c . Patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease ( n = 137) were randomised to 12 months exercise or standard follow-up. Endothelial function was assessed by circulating biomarkers (E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, von Willebrand factor, tissue plasminogen activator antigen, asymmetric dimethylarginine and L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio). Differences between the randomised groups were analysed by analysis of covariance and correlations by Spearman's rho or Pearson's correlation. No effect of exercise on endothelial function was demonstrated. The changes in HbA 1c in the exercise group correlated with changes in E-selectin ( r = 0.56, p < 0.001), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ( r = 0.27, p = 0.052), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 ( r = 0.32, p = 0.022) and tissue plasminogen activator antigen ( r = 0.35, p =  0.011). HbA 1c decreased significantly more in patients with versus without a concomitant reduction in E-selectin ( p =  0.002), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ( p =  0.011), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 ( p =  0.028) and tissue plasminogen activator antigen ( p =  0.009). Exercise did not affect biomarkers of endothelial function in patients with both type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. However, changes in biomarkers of endothelial activation correlated with changes in HbA 1c , and reduced endothelial activation was associated with improved HbA 1c after exercise.

  17. Beta Blockers Suppress Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Kurban, William; Shah, Harshit; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Beta blockers are known to have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. To determine whether beta blockers can also prevent dextrose-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human coronary artery endothelial cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose for 24 hours in the presence of carvedilol (a lipophilic beta blockers with alpha blocking activity), propranolol (a lipophilic nonselective beta blockers), and atenolol (a water-soluble selective beta blockers), and ER stress, oxidative, stress and cell death were measured. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α (eIF2α), and phospho-eIF2α and measurement of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining method. The ER stress, SO production, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by all 3 beta blockers tested. The antioxidative and ER stress reducing effects of beta blockers were also observed in HepG2 cells. The salutary effects of beta blockers on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of these agents.

  18. Late gestational hypoxia and a postnatal high salt diet programs endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sarah L; Singh, Reetu R; Tan, Tiffany; Paravicini, Tamara M; Moritz, Karen M

    2016-03-01

    Gestational hypoxia and high dietary salt intake have both been associated with impaired vascular function in adulthood. Using a mouse model of prenatal hypoxia, we examined whether a chronic high salt diet had an additive effect in promoting vascular dysfunction in offspring. Pregnant CD1 dams were placed in a hypoxic chamber (12% O2) or housed under normal conditions (21% O2) from embryonic day 14.5 until birth. Gestational hypoxia resulted in a reduced body weight for both male and female offspring at birth. This restriction in body weight persisted until weaning, after which the animals underwent catch-up growth. At 10 weeks of age, a subset of offspring was placed on a high salt diet (5% NaCl). Pressurized myography of mesenteric resistance arteries at 12 months of age showed that both male and female offspring exposed to maternal hypoxia had significantly impaired endothelial function, as demonstrated by impaired vasodilatation to ACh but not sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial dysfunction caused by prenatal hypoxia was not exacerbated by postnatal consumption of a high salt diet. Prenatal hypoxia increased microvascular stiffness in male offspring. The combination of prenatal hypoxia and a postnatal high salt diet caused a leftward shift in the stress-strain relationship in both sexes. Histopathological analysis of aortic sections revealed a loss of elastin integrity and increased collagen, consistent with increased vascular stiffness. These results demonstrate that prenatal hypoxia programs endothelial dysfunction in both sexes. A chronic high salt diet in postnatal life had an additive deleterious effect on vascular mechanics and structural characteristics in both sexes. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  19. Bipolar disorder and related mood states are not associated with endothelial function of small arteries in adults without heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Brian; Abosi, Oluchi; Schmitz, Samantha; Myers, Janie; Pierce, Gary L; Fiedorowicz, Jess G

    Individuals with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. This study aimed to assess endothelial function and wave reflection, a risk factor for CVD, as measured by finger plethysmography in bipolar disorder to investigate whether CVD risk was higher in bipolar disorder and altered during acute mood episodes. We hypothesized that EndoPAT would detect a lower reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and higher augmentation index (AIX) in individuals with bipolar disorder compared with controls. Second, we predicted lower RHI and higher AIX during acute mood episodes. Reactive hyperemia index and augmentation index, measures of microvascular endothelial function and arterial pressure wave reflection respectively, were assessed using the EndoPAT 2000 device in a sample of 56 participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder with 82 measures spanning different mood states (mania, depression, euthymia) and cross-sectionally in 26 healthy controls. RHI and AIX were not different between adults with and without bipolar disorder (mean age 40.3 vs. 41.2years; RHI: 2.04±0.67 vs. 2.05±0.51; AIX@75 (AIX adjusted for heart rate of 75): 1.4±19.7 vs. 0.8±22.4). When modeled in linear mixed models with a random intercept (to account for repeated observations of persons with bipolar disorder) and adjusting for age and sex, there were no significant differences between those with bipolar disorder and controls (p=0.89 for RHI; p=0.85 for AIX@75). Microvascular endothelial function and wave reflection estimated by finger plethysmography were unable to detect differences between adults with and without bipolar disorder or changes with mood states. Future research is necessary to identify more proximal and sensitive, yet relevant, biomarkers of abnormal mood-related influences on CVD risk or must target higher risk samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Release of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1 during coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsel Isabelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to follow plasma concentrations of sFlt-1 and sKDR, two soluble forms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC. Methods Plasma samples were obtained before, during and after surgery in 15 patients scheduled to undergo CABG. Levels of sFlt-1 and KDR levels were investigated using specific ELISA. Results A 75-fold increase of sFlt-1 was found during cardiac surgery, sFlt-1 levels returning to pre-operative values at the 6th post-operative hour. In contrast sKDR levels did not change during surgery. The ECC-derived sFlt-1 was functional as judge by its inhibitory effect on the VEGF mitogenic response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Kinetic experiments revealed sFlt-1 release immediately after the beginning of ECC suggesting a proteolysis of its membrane form (mFlt-1 rather than an elevated transcription/translation process. Flow cytometry analysis highlighted no effect of ECC on the shedding of mFlt-1 on platelets and leukocytes suggesting vascular endothelial cell as a putative cell source for the ECC-derived sFlt-1. Conclusion sFlt-1 is released during CABG with ECC. It might be suggested that sFlt-1 production, by neutralizing VEGF and/or by inactivating membrane-bound Flt-1 and KDR receptors, might play a role in the occurrence of post-CABG complication.

  1. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lihui; Yu, Lei; Wang, Yanli; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Qianlong; Lu, Ping; Yu, Xiufeng; Zhong, Weiwei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Cui, Ningren; Jiang, Chun; Zhu, Daling

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir) play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  2. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Qu

    Full Text Available Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  3. Effects of carbon dioxide level (PCO2) on the fibrinolytic activity (FA) of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langleben, D.; Moroz, L.A.; Danes, D.

    1990-01-01

    Recovery from pulmonary thromboembolism depends on the rapidity and completeness of clot lysis. This involves endogenous fibrinolytic mechanisms, particularly the balance between plasminogen activators and inhibitors produced by endothelial cells. Hypocapnia is common in pulmonary embolism, however it is not known if endothelial fibrinolytic function is affected by PCO 2 . The authors therefore measured the FA in medium (MCDB-131, 0.5% albumin) conditioned for 20 hours in-vitro by exposure to confluent cultures of bovine proximal PAEC. During conditioning, cells were exposed to 5% CO 2 in air (PCO 2 - 36-40mm Hg, CONTROL), or various PCO 2 levels (30-55 mmHg, in air). FA of conditioned medium was determined by 125 I-fibrin solid phase assay, with addition of plasminogen (10 ug/ml). With PCO 2 levels ≤ 35 mmHg, FA in the conditioned medium was 5 to 18% higher than CONTROL FA. When PCO 2 was ≥ 45 mmHg, FA decreased 5 to 60% as compared to CONTROL FA. There was a significant negative linear relationship between PCO 2 and FA. Thus, PCO 2 level can affect PAEC mediated plasminogen activation. This finding may be relevant to in-vivo clearance of clots from pulmonary arteries

  4. Role of integrin-linked kinase for functional capacity of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Christian; Boehm, Michael; Friedrich, Erik B.

    2008-01-01

    Number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are down-regulated in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a signal and adaptor protein that regulates survival of mature endothelial cells and vascular development. Here we show that EPC dysfunction in patients with CAD is paralleled by down-regulation of ILK while restoration of ILK expression rescues the migratory defect of CAD-EPCs. Human EPCs transduced with dominant-negative ILK (DN-ILK) display significantly reduced expression of CD34 + /VEGFR-2 + , DiI-Ac-LDL uptake, and Ulex europaeus lectin binding. Mechanistically, DN-ILK-transfected EPCs are characterized by decreased proliferation, while proliferation is increased in wild-type ILK-transfected EPCs. These effects are paralleled by changes in cyclin D1 expression, colony forming units, and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Functionally, ILK is necessary and sufficient for SDF-1-triggered migration and adhesion in EPCs. These data extend current knowledge about the role of ILK in EPC biology and implicate ILK as a therapeutic target in CAD.

  5. Endothelial Function as a Possible Significant Determinant of Cardiac Function during Exercise in Patients with Structural Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonpei Takase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was investigated the role that endothelial function and systemic vascular resistance (SVR play in determining cardiac function reserve during exercise by a new ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system (VEST in patients with heart disease. The study population consisted of 32 patients. The patients had cardiopulmonary stress testing using the treadmill Ramp protocol and the VEST. The anaerobic threshold (AT was autodetermined using the V-slope method. The SVR was calculated by determining the mean blood pressure/cardiac output. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD was measured in the brachial artery to evaluate endotheilial function. FMD and the percent change f'rom rest to AT in SVR correlated with those from rest to AT in ejection fraction and peak ejection ratio by VEST, respectively. Our findings suggest that FMD in the brachial artery and the SVR determined by VEST in patients with heart disease can possibly reflect cardiac function reserve during aerobic exercise.

  6. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; van Lotringen, Jaap H; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-09-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact of endothelin receptor blockade (bosentan) on exercise-induced blood flow in the brachial artery and on pre- and postexercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients (n = 9, 60 ± 7 years old) and control subjects (n = 10, 60 ± 5 years old). Subjects reported twice to the laboratory to perform hand-grip exercise in the presence of endothelin receptor blockade or placebo. We examined brachial artery endothelial function (via flow-mediated dilatation) before and after exercise, as well as blood flow during exercise. Endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.046), but not in control subjects (P = 0.309). Exercise increased shear rate across the exercise protocol, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Exercise did not alter brachial artery diameter in either group, but endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger brachial artery diameter in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.033). Exercise significantly increased brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in both groups, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Endothelin receptor blockade increased exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow in type 2 diabetes patients, but not in control subjects. Despite this effect of endothelin receptor blockade on blood flow, we found no impact on baseline or post-exercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients or control subjects, possibly related to normalization of the shear stimulus during exercise. The successful increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients through endothelin receptor blockade may have beneficial effects in

  7. Genetic engineering with endothelial nitric oxide synthase improves functional properties of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with coronary artery disease: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Savneet; Kumar, T R Santhosh; Uruno, Akira; Sugawara, Akira; Jayakumar, Karunakaran; Kartha, Chandrasekharan Cheranellore

    2009-11-01

    Recent studies have reported a marked impairment in the number and functions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In view of an important role of eNOS in angiogenesis, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of eNOS gene transfer in ex vivo expanded EPCs isolated from patients with CAD. The expanded EPCs were transfected with mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1-eNOS containing the full-length human eNOS gene using lipofectamine. About 35-40% of the eNOS-EPCs had higher expression of eNOS as compared to untransfected EPCs. EPCs transfected with pcDNA3.0-EGFP, the plasmid vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used as control. The untransfected, GFP-transfected and eNOS-transfected EPCs were compared in terms of important functional attributes of angiogenesis such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and adhesion/integration into tube-like structures in vitro. Functional studies revealed that in the presence of defined growth conditions, compared to the untransfected and GFP-transfected cells, eNOS-EPCs from patients with CAD have a significant increase in [3H] thymidine-labeled DNA (P < 0.01), migration (14.6 +/- 1.8 and 16.5 +/- 1.9 vs. 23.5 +/- 3.4 cells/field, P < 0.01), ability to differentiate into endothelial-like spindle-shaped cells (46 +/- 4.5 and 56.5 +/- 2.1 vs. 93.2 +/- 6.6 cells/field, P < 0.001) and also incorporation into tube-like structures on the matrigel (GFP-EPCs: 21.25 +/- 2.9 vs. GFP-eNOS-EPCs: 34.5 +/- 5.5 cells/field, P < 0.05). We conclude that eNOS gene transfection is a valuable approach to augment angiogenic properties of ex vivo expanded EPCs and eNOS-modified EPCs may offer significant advantages than EPCs alone in terms of their clinical use in patients with myocardial ischemia.

  8. Poly(ethylmethacrylate-co-diethylaminoethyl acrylate) coating improves endothelial re-population, bio-mechanical and anti-thrombogenic properties of decellularized carotid arteries for blood vessel replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, Elena; Venkateswaran, Seshasailam; Perán, Macarena; Jiménez, Gema; Pernagallo, Salvatore; Díaz-Mochón, Juan J; Tura-Ceide, Olga; Arrebola, Francisco; Melchor, Juan; Soto, Juan; Rus, Guillermo; Real, Pedro J; Diaz-Ricart, María; Conde-González, Antonio; Bradley, Mark; Marchal, Juan A

    2017-03-24

    Decellularized vascular scaffolds are promising materials for vessel replacements. However, despite the natural origin of decellularized vessels, issues such as biomechanical incompatibility, immunogenicity risks and the hazards of thrombus formation, still need to be addressed. In this study, we coated decellularized vessels obtained from porcine carotid arteries with poly (ethylmethacrylate-co-diethylaminoethylacrylate) (8g7) with the purpose of improving endothelial coverage and minimizing platelet attachment while enhancing the mechanical properties of the decellularized vascular scaffolds. The polymer facilitated binding of endothelial cells (ECs) with high affinity and also induced endothelial cell capillary tube formation. In addition, platelets showed reduced adhesion on the polymer under flow conditions. Moreover, the coating of the decellularized arteries improved biomechanical properties by increasing its tensile strength and load. In addition, after 5 days in culture, ECs seeded on the luminal surface of 8g7-coated decellularized arteries showed good regeneration of the endothelium. Overall, this study shows that polymer coating of decellularized vessels provides a new strategy to improve re-endothelialization of vascular grafts, maintaining or enhancing mechanical properties while reducing the risk of thrombogenesis. These results could have potential applications in improving tissue-engineered vascular grafts for cardiovascular therapies with small caliber vessels.

  9. Nuclear IL-33 regulates soluble ST2 receptor and IL-6 expression in primary human arterial endothelial cells and is decreased in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Dongmin [Section of Vascular Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Perros, Frédéric [Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Paris, Clamart (France); Caramori, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Sezione di Medicina Interna e Cardiorespiratoria, Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Malattie Infiammatorie delle Vie Aeree e Patologie Fumo-Correlate, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Meng, Chao [Section of Vascular Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Geriatrics, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Dormuller, Peter [Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Paris, Clamart (France); Chou, Pai-Chien [Airways Disease, National Heart and Lung Institute (United Kingdom); Church, Colin [Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Papi, Alberto; Casolari, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Sezione di Medicina Interna e Cardiorespiratoria, Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Malattie Infiammatorie delle Vie Aeree e Patologie Fumo-Correlate, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Welsh, David; Peacock, Andrew [Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Humbert, Marc [Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Paris, Clamart (France); Adcock, Ian M. [Airways Disease, National Heart and Lung Institute (United Kingdom); Wort, Stephen J., E-mail: s.wort@imperial.ac.uk [Section of Vascular Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear IL-33 expression is reduced in vascular endothelial cells from PAH patients. • Knockdown of IL-33 leads to increased IL-6 and sST2 mRNA expression. • IL-33 binds homeobox motifs in target gene promoters and recruits repressor proteins. - Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is an incurable condition leading to right ventricular failure and death and inflammation is postulated to be associated with vascular remodelling. Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the “alarmin” family can either act on the membrane ST2 receptor or as a nuclear repressor, to regulate inflammation. We show, using immunohistochemistry, that IL-33 expression is nuclear in the vessels of healthy subjects whereas nuclear IL-33 is markedly diminished in the vessels of IPAH patients. This correlates with reduced IL-33 mRNA expression in their lung. In contrast, serum levels of IL-33 are unchanged in IPAH. However, the expression of the soluble form of ST2, sST2, is enhanced in the serum of IPAH patients. Knock-down of IL-33 in human endothelial cells (ECs) using siRNA is associated with selective modulation of inflammatory genes involved in vascular remodelling including IL-6. Additionally, IL-33 knock-down significantly increased sST2 release from ECs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that IL-33 bound multiple putative homeodomain protein binding motifs in the proximal and distal promoters of ST2 genes. IL-33 formed a complex with the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1, a transcriptional repressor. In conclusion, IL-33 regulates the expression of IL-6 and sST2, an endogenous IL-33 inhibitor, in primary human ECs and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PAH through recruitment of transcriptional repressor proteins.

  10. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Lopes; Olivier Goupille; Cécile Saint Cloment; Benoît Robert

    2012-01-01

    Summary Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1lacZ is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and pericytes, and that Msx2lacZ is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs). The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the ret...

  11. TRAIL death receptor 4 signaling via lysosome fusion and membrane raft clustering in coronary arterial endothelial cells: evidence from ASM knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Han, Wei-Qing; Boini, Krishna M; Xia, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4), have been implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the signaling mechanism mediating DR4 activation leading to endothelial injury remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that ceramide production via hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) results in membrane raft (MR) clustering and the formation of important redox signaling platforms, which play a crucial role in amplifying redox signaling in endothelial cells leading to endothelial dysfunction. The present study aims to investigate whether TRAIL triggers MR clustering via lysosome fusion and ASM activation, thereby conducting transmembrane redox signaling and changing endothelial function. Using confocal microscopy, we found that TRAIL induced MR clustering and co-localized with DR4 in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) isolated from wild-type (Smpd1 (+/+)) mice. Furthermore, TRAIL triggered ASM translocation, ceramide production, and NADPH oxidase aggregation in MR clusters in Smpd1 ( +/+ ) CAECs, whereas these observations were not found in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Moreover, ASM deficiency reduced TRAIL-induced O(2) (-[Symbol: see text]) production in CAECs and abolished TRAIL-induced impairment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in small resistance arteries. By measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that Lamp-1 (lysosome membrane marker protein) and ganglioside G(M1) (MR marker) were trafficking together in Smpd1 (+/+) CAECs, which was absent in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Consistently, fluorescence imaging of living cells with specific lysosome probes demonstrated that TRAIL-induced lysosome fusion with membrane was also absent in Smpd1 (-/-) CAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that ASM is essential for TRAIL-induced lysosomal trafficking, membrane fusion and formation of MR redox signaling platforms

  12. Variação do diâmetro da artéria braquial em crianças obesas: presente e futuro Variación del diámetro de la arteria braquial en niños obesos: presente y futuro Variation of the brachial artery diameter in obese children: present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Cristina M. Costa

    2012-09-01

    como predictor de riesgo para enfermedades cardiovasculares, tales como aterosclerosis y enfermedad cardíaca coronariana, puesto que la lesión endotelial es un importante evento en la fisiopatología de tales enfermedades. CONCLUSIONES: La dilatación de la arteria braquial mediada por flujo se muestra importante como herramienta diagnóstica y pronóstica en la evaluación de la función endotelial de niños y adolescentes con exceso de peso, por ser un método no invasivo, con buena aplicabilidad respecto al costo, a la inclusión y al beneficio.OBJECTIVE: Literature review on the use of the variation measure of the brachial artery diameter by high-resolution ultrasound (flow-mediated dilation as a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Survey of studies indexed in Medline/Pubmed, which were published between 2002 and 2011 using the following keywords in various combinations:"endothelium," "child", "ultrasonography" and "obesity", as well as classic texts on the subject. We found 54 publications and 32 were included in this review. SYNTHESIS OF DATA: The study of endothelial dysfunction has been used as a predictor of risk for cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, since endothelial injury is an important event in the physiopathology of these diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery seems to be important as a diagnostic and prognostic tool to assess endothelial function in children and adolescents who are overweight, because it is a noninvasive method with good profile regarding cost, safety, and benefits.

  13. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus....

  14. Endothelial dysfunction assessment by flow-mediated dilation in a high-altitude population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Gerstein, Walter S; López-Peña, Antonio; Macha-Ramírez, Raúl; Bruno-Huamán, Astrid; Espejo-Ramos, Roxana; Vílchez-Bravo, Stephany; Ramírez-Breña, María; Damián-Mucha, Milagros; Matos-Mucha, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial function at high altitude has been measured only in populations that are genetically adapted to chronic hypoxia. The objective of this study was to evaluate endothelial dysfunction (ED) in a nongenetically adapted high-altitude population of the Andes mountains, in Huancayo, Peru (3,250 meters above sea level). Participants included 61 patients: 28 cases and 33 controls. The cases were subjects with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, or a history of stroke or coronary artery disease. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured in the supine position, at noon, after 5 minutes of resting. The brachial artery was identified above the elbow. Its basal diameter was measured during diastole, and FMD was tested after 5 minutes of forearm ischemia. Intima-media complex in the right carotid artery was also determined. An increase in the artery's baseline diameter diabetics had ED; ED was also found in 68.8% of obese individuals, 55% of hypertensive patients, and 46.5% of controls. Age, height, body mass index, and waist diameter were higher in the cases as compared with the controls. A total of 57.9% (n=11) of the cases and 45.2% (n=19) of the controls presented ED. Patients without ED had a mean increase in brachial artery diameter of 23.16%, while in those with ED it was only 3.84%. Individuals with diabetes or hypertension had a greater thickness of the carotid artery intima media layer (1.092 versus 0.664 cm) ( p =0.037). A positive test for ED was associated with a greater basal diameter of the brachial artery (4.66±0.62 versus 4.23±0.59 cm) ( p =0.02). A total of 7 patients presented paradoxical response, developing posthyperemia vasoconstriction. The proportion of ED was high among controls and among patients with risk factors. Controls showed better FMD profiles than subjects studied in Tibet and the Himalayas.

  15. Different transcriptional profiling between senescent and non-senescent human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) by Omeprazole and Lansoprazole treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Malavolta, Marco; Basso, Andrea; Piacenza, Francesco; Provinciali, Mauro; Maggio, Marcello G; Corsonello, Andrea; Lattanzio, Fabrizia

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that high dose and/or long term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in older patients, but mechanisms underlying these detrimental effects are not known. Taking into account that the senescent endothelial cells have been implicated in the genesis or promotion of age-related cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized an active role of PPIs in senescent cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in gene expression occurring in senescent and non-senescent human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) following Omeprazole (OPZ) or Lansoprazole (LPZ) treatment. Here, we show that atherogenic response is among the most regulated processes in PPI-treated HCAECs. PPIs induced down-regulation of anti-atherogenic chemokines (CXCL11, CXCL12 and CX3CL1) in senescent but not in non-senescent cells, while the same chemokines were up-regulated in untreated senescent cells. These findings support the hypothesis that up-regulated anti-atherogenic chemokines may represent a defensive mechanism against atherosclerosis during cellular senescence, and suggest that PPIs could activate pro-atherogenic pathways by changing the secretory phenotype of senescent HCAECs. Moreover, the genes coding for fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (PIEZO2) were modulated by PPIs treatment with respect to untreated cells. In conclusions, our results show that long-term and high dose use of PPI could change the secretory phenotype of senescent cells, suggesting one of the potential mechanisms by which use of PPI can increase adverse outcomes in older subjects.

  16. Peripheral artery disease assessed by ankle-brachial index in patients with established cardiovascular disease or at least one risk factor for atherothrombosis - CAREFUL Study: A national, multi-center, cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabak Omur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD via the ankle brachial index (ABI in patients with known cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular diseases or with at least one risk factor for atherothrombosis. Methods Patients with a history of atherothrombotic events, or aged 50-69 years with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, or > = 70 years of age were included in this multicenter, cross-sectional, non-interventional study (DIREGL04074. Demographics, medical history, physical examination findings, and physician awareness of PAD were analyzed. The number of patients with low ABI ( Results A total of 530 patients (mean age, 63.4 ± 8.7 years; 50.2% female were enrolled. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were present in 88.7% and 65.5% of patients, respectively. PAD-related symptoms were evident in about one-third of the patients, and at least one of the pedal pulses was negative in 6.5% of patients. The frequency of low ABI was 20.0% in the whole study population and 30% for patients older than 70 years. Older age, greater number of total risk factors, and presence of PAD-related physical findings were associated with increased likelihood of low ABI (p Conclusion Our results indicate that advanced age, greater number of total risk factors and presence of PAD-related physical findings were associated with increased likelihood of low ABI. These findings are similar to those reported in similar studies of different populations, and document a fairly high prevalence of PAD in a Mediterranean country.

  17. LPS, but not Angiotensin ll, lnduces Direct Pro-lnflammatory Effects in Cultured Mouse Arteries and Human Endothelial and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Emilie M; Zaki, Marina; Mehryar, Rahila

    2017-01-01

    resistance-sized arteries (MRA) supported by experiments in cultured human primary endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Results showed that 24-hr organ culture of mouse MRA with 10 nM Ang II had, unlike 100 ng/mL LPS, no effects on IL-6 or MCP-1 secretion, VCAM1 mRNA expression or endothelial......]-Ang II had no concentration- or time-dependent effects on IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). AGTR1 or AGTR2 mRNA expression were undetectable in HUVEC, whereas HASMC expressed only AGTR1 mRNA. In summary, contrary...... rights reserved....

  18. Differential Effects of Long Term FTY720 Treatment on Endothelial versus Smooth Muscle Cell Signaling to S1P in Rat Mesenteric Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi Shishavan, Mahdi; Bidadkosh, Arash; Yazdani, Saleh; Lambooy, Sebastiaan; van den Born, Jacob; Buikema, Hendrik; Henning, Robert H; Deelman, Leo E

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) analog FTY720 exerts pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system and causes down-regulation of S1P receptors. Myogenic constriction is an important mechanism regulating resistance vessel function and is known to be modulated by S1P. Here we investigated myogenic constriction and vascular function of mesenteric arteries of rats chronically treated with FTY720. Wistar rats received FTY720 1mg/kg/daily for six weeks. At termination, blood pressure was recorded and small mesenteric arteries collected for vascular studies in a perfusion set up. Myogenic constriction to increased intraluminal pressure was low, but a sub-threshold dose of S1P profoundly augmented myogenic constriction in arteries of both controls and animals chronically treated with FTY720. Interestingly, endothelial denudation blocked the response to S1P in arteries of FTY720-treated animals, but not in control rats. In acute experiments, presence of FTY720 significantly augmented the contractile response to S1P, an effect that was partially abolished after the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-)-derived prostaglandins. FTY720 down regulated S1P1 but not S1P2 in renal resistance arteries and in cultured human endothelial cells. This study therefore demonstrates the endothelium is able to compensate for the complete loss of responsiveness of the smooth muscle layer to S1P after long term FTY720 treatment through a mechanism that most likely involves enhanced production of contractile prostaglandins by the endothelium.

  19. VASOMOTOR ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND MICROCIRCULATION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH ISOLATED SYSTOLIC ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: INFLUENCE OF "DRY" CARBONIC BATHS AND GENERAL LOW-FREQUENCY MAGNETOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Alypova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The comparative estimation of influence of the general low-frequency magnetotherapy (GLMT) and "dry" carbonic baths (DCB) on indicators of vasomotor endothelial function and microcirculation in elderly patients with isolated systolic (ISAH) arterial hypertension has been studied. The efficiency of application the combined use of the GLMT and "dry" carbonic baths DCB for correction of revealed disorders in comparing to the monovariant use of thees medical physical factors is establis...

  20. Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    OpenAIRE

    Enseleit, Frank; Sudano, Isabella; Périat, Daniel; Winnik, Stephan; Wolfrum, Mathias; Flammer, Andreas J; Fröhlich, Georg M; Kaiser, Priska; Hirt, Astrid; Haile, Sarah R; Krasniqi, Nazmi; Matter, Christian M; Uhlenhut, Klaus; Högger, Petra; Neidhart, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Aims Extracts from pine tree bark containing a variety of flavonoids have been used in traditional medicine. Pycnogenol is a proprietary bark extract of the French maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica) that exerts antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet effects. However, the effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, remain still elusive. Methods and results Twenty-three patients with coronary artery dis...

  1. Pitfalls in the ankle-brachial index and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ato D

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dai Ato Gakujutsu Shien Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan Background: The ankle-brachial index (ABI and pulse wave velocity (PWV are indices of atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. The Japan-made measuring devices of those indices have spread widely because of their convenience and the significance of the parameters. However, studies that comprehensively discuss the various pitfalls in using these indices are not available.Methods: This study presents several representative pitfalls in using the ABI and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV by showing the result sheets of the device, “the Vascular Profiler”. Furthermore, some considerations when utilizing these indices in the future are also discussed.Results: Several diseases such as arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO, arterial calcification in the lower limb, arterial stenosis in the right upper-limb, aortic valve diseases, arterial stenosis in the upper-limb of the contralateral side of the hemodialysis access, are the representative pitfalls when evaluating ABI and baPWV. Moreover, a measurement error is found to actually exist. Furthermore, same phenomena are considered most likely to occur when using other similar indices and devices.Conclusion: The ABI and baPWV are the useful and significant biomarkers. Nevertheless, caution is sometimes necessary when interpreting them. Moreover, rigorous patient exclusion criteria should be considered when using those indices in the severely conditioned patient population. And the results of this study can be applied to enhance the literacy using other indices, such as the cardio-ankle vascular index and other similar devices. Keywords: ankle-brachial index, pulse wave velocity, peripheral arterial disease, aortic valve disease, hemodialysis

  2. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome on Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffening, and Serum Inflammatory Markers: An Updated Meta-analysis and Metaregression of 18 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayang; Yu, Wenyuan; Gao, Mingxin; Zhang, Fan; Gu, Chengxiong; Yu, Yang; Wei, Yongxiang

    2015-11-13

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been indicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that OSAS may be associated with cardiovascular disease by elevating serum levels of inflammatory markers and causing arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. Related scientific reports published from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2015, were searched in the following electronic literature databases: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, ISI Web of Science, Directory of Open Access Journals, and the Cochrane Library. The association of OSAS with serum levels of inflammatory markers, endothelial dysfunction, and arterial stiffening were investigated. Overall, 18 eligible articles containing 736 patients with OSAS and 424 healthy persons were included in this meta-analysis. Flow-mediated dilation in patients with moderate-severe OSAS was significantly lower than that in controls (standardized mean difference -1.02, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.73, Preactive protein and C-reactive protein (standardized mean difference 0.58, 95% CI 0.42-0.73, P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with OSAS than in controls. OSAS, particularly moderate-severe OSAS, appeared to reduce endothelial function, increase arterial stiffness, and cause chronic inflammation, leading to the development of cardiovascular disease. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. ITE Suppresses Angiogenic Responses in Human Artery and Vein Endothelial Cells: Differential Roles of AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Zou, Qing-Yun; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Zhou, Chi; Zheng, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor is involved in regulation of many essential biological processes including vascular development and angiogenesis. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is an AhR ligand, which regulates immune responses and cancer cell growth. However, the roles of the ITE/AhR pathway in mediating placental angiogenesis remains elusive. Here, we determined if ITE affected placental angiogenic responses via AhR in human umbilical vein (HUVECs) and artery endothelial (HUAECs) cells in vitro. We observed that ITE dose- and time-dependently inhibited proliferation and viability of HUAECs and HUVECs, whereas it inhibited migration of HUAECs, but not HUVECs. While AhR siRNA significantly suppressed AhR protein expression in HUVECs and HUAECs, it attenuated the ITE-inhibited angiogenic responses of HUAECs, but not HUVECs. Collectively, ITE suppressed angiogenic responses of HUAECs and HUVECs, dependent and independent of AhR, respectively. These data suggest that ITE may regulate placental angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joanna M; Shand, Brett I; McGregor, Patrice M; Scott, Russell S; Frampton, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, with oxidative stress contributing to both these processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined antioxidant treatment with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract from the bark of Pinus radiata and vitamin C, over and above vitamin C alone, on endothelial function, plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics. Forty-four chronic smokers without established cardiovascular disease were assigned randomly to receive either 480 mg Enzogenol and 60 mg vitamin C, or 60 mg vitamin C alone daily for 12 weeks. Endothelial function in the brachial artery was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). FMD improved in both treatment groups (p effect on macrovascular endothelial function over and above that seen in the vitamin C alone group. However, Enzogenol did demonstrate additional favourable effects on protein oxidative damage and fibrinogen levels.

  5. Telmisartan enhances mitochondrial activity and alters cellular functions in human coronary artery endothelial cells via AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Sugiyama, Seigo; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Sugamura, Koichi; Toyama, Kensuke; Matsubara, Junichi; Fujisue, Koichiro; Ohba, Keisuke; Maeda, Hirofumi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Sumida, Hitoshi; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in cellular senescence and impaired function of vascular endothelium, resulted in cardiovascular diseases. Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin II type I receptor blocker that has been shown to prevent cardiovascular events in high risk patients. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in mitochondrial biogenesis and endothelial function. This study assessed whether telmisartan enhances mitochondrial function and alters cellular functions via AMPK in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). In cultured HCAECs, telmisartan significantly enhanced mitochondrial activity assessed by mitochondrial reductase activity and intracellular ATP production and increased the expression of mitochondria related genes. Telmisartan prevented cellular senescence and exhibited the anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic properties. The expression of genes related anti-oxidant and pro-angiogenic properties were increased by telmisartan. Telmisartan increased endothelial NO synthase and AMPK phosphorylation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling was not involved in telmisartan-induced improvement of mitochondrial function. All of these effects were abolished by inhibition of AMPK. Telmisartan enhanced mitochondrial activity and exhibited anti-senescence effects and improving endothelial function through AMPK in HCAECs. Telmisartan could provide beneficial effects on vascular diseases via enhancement of mitochondrial activity and modulating endothelial function through AMPK activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of Heat Shock Protein 70 in Induction of Stress Fiber Formation in Rat Arterial Endothelial Cells in Response to Stretch Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Shan-Shun; Sugimoto, Keiji; Fujii, Sachiko; Takemasa, Tohru; Fu, Song-Bin; Yamashita, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism by which endothelial cells (ECs) resist various forms of physical stress using an experimental system consisting of rat arterial EC sheets. Formation of actin stress fibers (SFs) and expression of endothelial heat-shock stress proteins (HSPs) in response to mechanical stretch stress were assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Stretch stimulation increased expression of HSPs 25 and 70, but not that of HSP 90. Treatment with SB203580, a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor that acts upstream of the HSP 25 activation cascade, or with geldanamycin, an inhibitor of HSP 90, had no effect on the SF formation response to mechanical stretch stress. In contrast, treatment with quercetin, an HSP 70 inhibitor, inhibited both upregulation of endothelial HSP 70 and formation of SFs in response to tensile stress. In addition, treatment of stretched ECs with cytochalasin D, which disrupts SF formation, did not adversely affect stretch-induced upregulation of endothelial HSP 70. Our data suggest that endothelial HSP 70 plays an important role in inducing SF formation in response to tensile stress

  7. Polyphenol-Rich Blackcurrant Juice Prevents Endothelial Dysfunction in the Mesenteric Artery of Cirrhotic Rats with Portal Hypertension: Role of Oxidative Stress and the Angiotensin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sherzad; Idris-Khodja, Noureddine; Auger, Cyril; Kevers, Claire; Pincemail, Joël; Alhosin, Mahmoud; Boehm, Nelly; Oswald-Mammosser, Monique; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2018-04-01

    Chronic liver diseases with portal hypertension are characterized by a progressive vasodilatation, endothelial dysfunction, and NADPH oxidase-derived vascular oxidative stress, which have been suggested to involve the angiotensin system. This study evaluated the possibility that oral intake of polyphenol-rich blackcurrant juice (PRBJ), a rich natural source of antioxidants, prevents endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of cirrhosis induced by chronic bile duct ligation (CBDL), and, if so, determined the underlying mechanism. Male Wistar rats received either control drinking water or water containing 60 mg/kg gallic acid equivalents of PRBJ for 3 weeks before undergoing surgery with CBDL or sham surgery. After 4 weeks, vascular reactivity was assessed in mesenteric artery rings using organ chambers. Both the acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (NO)- and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated relaxations in mesenteric artery rings were significantly reduced in CBDL rats compared to sham rats. An increased level of oxidative stress and expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, COX-2, NOS, and of the vascular angiotensin system are observed in arterial sections in the CBDL group. Chronic intake of PRBJ prevented the CBDL-induced impaired EDH-mediated relaxation, oxidative stress, and expression of the different target proteins in the arterial wall. In addition, PRBJ prevented the CBDL-induced increase in the plasma level of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor α) and the decrease of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-4. Altogether, these observations indicate that regular ingestion of PRBJ prevents the CBDL-induced endothelial dysfunction in the mesenteric artery most likely by normalizing the level of vascular oxidative stress and the angiotensin system.

  8. Adult traumatic brachial plexus injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Injury to the brachial plexus in the adult is usually a closed injury and the result of considerable traction to the shoulder. Brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques have improved the outlook for patients with brachial plexus injuries. The choice of surgical procedure depends on the level of the injury and the radiologist has an important role in guiding the surgeon to the site of injury. This article will describe the anatomy and pathophysiology of traction brachial plexus injury in the adult. The neurosurgical options available will be described with emphasis on the information that the surgeon wants from imaging studies of the brachial plexus. The relative merits of MRI and CT myelography are discussed

  9. Brachial index does not reflect upper extremity functionality following surgery for vascular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Simsek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Vascular injuries to the upper extremities requiring surgical repair are common after accidents. However, neither postoperative functionality nor hemodynamic status of the extremity are routinely described. We evaluated the postoperative functional and hemodynamic status of patients with vascular traumas in the upper extremities. METHODS: 26 patients who suffered penetrating vascular traumas in the upper extremities from November 2008 to December 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. Data on first approach, surgical technique employed and early postoperative outcomes were recorded. Further data on the post-discharge period, including clinical functional status of the arm, Doppler ultrasonography and brachial-brachial index were also evaluated. RESULTS: Average follow up was 33.5±10.8 months. Right (1.05±0.09 and left (1.04±0.08 brachial indexes were measured during follow up,. Doppler ultrasonography showed arterial occlusion in 4 patients (15%. Near-normal brachial-brachial indexes was observed in all four of these patients with occlusion of one of the upper extremity arteries, even though they exhibited limited arm function for daily work. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of the postoperative outcomes of this small series of patients with penetrating vascular traumas in the upper extremity revealed that 15% of them suffered occlusion of one artery of the upper extremity. Artery occlusion did not correlate with brachial-brachial Doppler index, probably due to rich collateral circulation, but occlusion was associated with an extremity that was dysfunctional for the purposes of daily work. The result of the brachial-brachial index does not therefore correlate with functionality.

  10. Endothelial Dysfunction in Human Diabetes Is Mediated by Wnt5a-JNK Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Feng, Bihua; Holbrook, Monika; Farb, Melissa G; Fetterman, Jessica L; Linder, Erika A; Berk, Brittany D; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Weisbrod, Robert M; Inagaki, Elica; Gokce, Noyan; Fuster, Jose J; Walsh, Kenneth; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is linked to insulin resistance, inflammatory activation, and increased cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus; however, the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Recent studies have identified proinflammatory signaling of wingless-type family member (Wnt) 5a through c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as a regulator of metabolic dysfunction with potential relevance to vascular function. We sought to gain evidence that increased activation of Wnt5a-JNK signaling contributes to impaired endothelial function in patients with diabetes mellitus. We measured flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery and characterized freshly isolated endothelial cells by protein expression, eNOS activation, and nitric oxide production in 85 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=42) and age- and sex-matched nondiabetic controls (n=43) and in human aortic endothelial cells treated with Wnt5a. Endothelial cells from patients with diabetes mellitus displayed 1.3-fold higher Wnt5a levels (P=0.01) along with 1.4-fold higher JNK activation (P<0.01) without a difference in total JNK levels. Higher JNK activation was associated with lower flow-mediated dilation, consistent with endothelial dysfunction (r=0.53, P=0.02). Inhibition of Wnt5a and JNK signaling restored insulin and A23187-mediated eNOS activation and improved nitric oxide production in endothelial cells from patients with diabetes mellitus. In endothelial cells from nondiabetic controls, rWnt5a treatment inhibited eNOS activation replicating the diabetic endothelial phenotype. In human aortic endothelial cells, Wnt5a-induced impairment of eNOS activation and nitric oxide production was reversed by Wnt5a and JNK inhibition. Our findings demonstrate that noncanonical Wnt5a signaling and JNK activity contribute to vascular insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction and may represent a novel therapeutic opportunity to protect the vasculature in patients with diabetes mellitus. © 2016 American Heart

  11. Relationship between arterial vascular calcifications seen on screening mammograms and biochemical markers of endothelial injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidal, Diego [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: dpidal@hotmail.com; Sanchez Vidal, M Teresa [Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: medicinainterna@hospitaldejove.com; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain); Servicio de Cirugia General, Hospital de Jove (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: investigacion@hospitaldejove.com; Corte, M Daniela [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: mdanielac@hotmail.com; Pravia, Paz [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: radiologia@hospitaldejove.com; Guinea, Oscar [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: oscarfguinea@seram.org; Pidal, Ivan [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: ivanpida@hotmail.com; Bongera, Miguel [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: mbchoppy@hotmail.com; Escribano, Damaso [Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: medicinainterna@hospitaldejove.com; Gonzalez, Luis O. [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain)], E-mail: lovidiog@telefonica.net; Diez, M Cruz [Servicio de Cirugia General, Hospital de Jove (Spain)], E-mail: cirugiageneral@hospitaldejove.com; Venta, Rafael [Servicio de Analisis Clinicos, Hospital de San Agustin, Aviles (Spain); Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: rafael.venta@sespa.princast.es; Vizoso, Francisco J. [Unidad de Investigacion del, Hospital de Jove, Gijon (Spain); Servicio de Cirugia General, Hospital de Jove (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: fjvizoso@telefonica.net

    2009-01-15

    To assess whether breast arterial calcifications (BAC) are associated with altered serum markers of cardiovascular risk, mammograms and records from 1759 women (age range: 45-65 years) screened for breast cancer were revised. One hundred and forty seven (8.36%) women showed BAC. A total of 136 women with BAC and controls (mean age: 57 and 55 years, respectively) accepted entering the study. There were no significant differences in serum levels of urea, glucose, uric acid, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, folic acid, vitamin B{sub 12}, TSH or cysteine, between both groups of patients. However, women with BAC showed higher serum levels of triglycerides (p = 0.006), homocysteine (p = 0.002) and hs-CRP (p = 0.003) than women without BAC. Likewise, we found a significantly higher percentage of cases with an elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (coronary risk index >2) amongst women with BAC than in women without BAC (56.7 and 38.2%, respectively; p = 0.04). Our results indicate that the finding of BAC identify women showing altered serum markers of cardiovascular risk.

  12. Relationship between arterial vascular calcifications seen on screening mammograms and biochemical markers of endothelial injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pidal, Diego; Sanchez Vidal, M Teresa; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; Corte, M Daniela; Pravia, Paz; Guinea, Oscar; Pidal, Ivan; Bongera, Miguel; Escribano, Damaso; Gonzalez, Luis O.; Diez, M Cruz; Venta, Rafael; Vizoso, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    To assess whether breast arterial calcifications (BAC) are associated with altered serum markers of cardiovascular risk, mammograms and records from 1759 women (age range: 45-65 years) screened for breast cancer were revised. One hundred and forty seven (8.36%) women showed BAC. A total of 136 women with BAC and controls (mean age: 57 and 55 years, respectively) accepted entering the study. There were no significant differences in serum levels of urea, glucose, uric acid, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, folic acid, vitamin B 12 , TSH or cysteine, between both groups of patients. However, women with BAC showed higher serum levels of triglycerides (p = 0.006), homocysteine (p = 0.002) and hs-CRP (p = 0.003) than women without BAC. Likewise, we found a significantly higher percentage of cases with an elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (coronary risk index >2) amongst women with BAC than in women without BAC (56.7 and 38.2%, respectively; p = 0.04). Our results indicate that the finding of BAC identify women showing altered serum markers of cardiovascular risk

  13. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lopes

    2012-02-01

    Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1lacZ is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and pericytes, and that Msx2lacZ is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs. The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the retina has been intensely used for angiogenesis studies, whereas the choroid has been much less investigated. Using the Msx1lacZ and Msx2lacZ reporter alleles, we observed that Msx2 is not expressed in the eye vascular tree in contrast to Msx1, for which we establish the spatial and temporal expression pattern in these tissues. In the retina, expression of Msx1 takes place from P3, and by P10, it becomes confined to a subpopulation of ECs at branching points of superficial arterioles. These branching sites are characterized by a subpopulation of mural cells that also show specific expression programs. Specific Msx gene inactivation in the endothelium, using Msx1 and Msx2 conditional mutant alleles together with a Tie2-Cre transgene, did not lead to conspicuous structural defects in the retinal vascular network. Expression of Msx1 at branching sites might therefore be linked to vessel physiology. The retinal blood flow is autonomously regulated and perfusion of capillaries has been proposed to depend on arteriolar precapillary structures that might be the sites for Msx1 expression. On the other hand, branching sites are subject to shear stress that might induce Msx1 expression. In the choroid vascular layer Msx1lacZ is expressed more broadly and dynamically. At birth Msx1lacZ expression takes place in the endothelium but at P21 its expression has shifted towards the mural layer. We discuss the possible functions of Msx1 in the eye vasculature.

  14. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Robert, Benoît

    2012-04-15

    Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1(lacZ) is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and pericytes, and that Msx2(lacZ) is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs). The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the retina has been intensely used for angiogenesis studies, whereas the choroid has been much less investigated. Using the Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) reporter alleles, we observed that Msx2 is not expressed in the eye vascular tree in contrast to Msx1, for which we establish the spatial and temporal expression pattern in these tissues. In the retina, expression of Msx1 takes place from P3, and by P10, it becomes confined to a subpopulation of ECs at branching points of superficial arterioles. These branching sites are characterized by a subpopulation of mural cells that also show specific expression programs. Specific Msx gene inactivation in the endothelium, using Msx1 and Msx2 conditional mutant alleles together with a Tie2-Cre transgene, did not lead to conspicuous structural defects in the retinal vascular network. Expression of Msx1 at branching sites might therefore be linked to vessel physiology. The retinal blood flow is autonomously regulated and perfusion of capillaries has been proposed to depend on arteriolar precapillary structures that might be the sites for Msx1 expression. On the other hand, branching sites are subject to shear stress that might induce Msx1 expression. In the choroid vascular layer Msx1(lacZ) is expressed more broadly and dynamically. At birth Msx1(lacZ) expression takes place in the endothelium but at P21 its expression has shifted towards the mural layer. We discuss the possible functions of Msx1 in the eye vasculature.

  15. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with carotid plaque: a cross-sectional study from the population based Northern Manhattan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden-Albala Bernadette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired vascular function occurs early in atherogenesis. Brachial flow mediated dilatation (FMD is a non-invasive measure of vascular function and may be an important marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. Data on the association between FMD and carotid plaque in multi-ethnic populations are limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether endothelial dysfunction is independently associated with carotid plaque in a community of northern Manhattan. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS, high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of the brachial and carotid arteries were obtained in 643 stroke-free subjects (mean age 66 years; 55% women; 65% Caribbean-Hispanic, 17% African-American, 16% Caucasian. Brachial FMD was measured during reactive hyperemia. Maximum carotid plaque thickness (MCPT was measured at the peak plaque prominence. Results The mean brachial FMD was 5.78 ± 3.83 %. Carotid plaque was present in 339 (53% subjects. The mean MCPT was 1.68 ± 0.82 mm, and the 75th percentile was 2.0 mm. Reduced FMD was significantly associated with increased MCPT. After adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, and education, each percent of FMD decrease was associated with a significant 0.02 mm increase in MCPT (p = 0.028. In a dichotomous adjusted model, blunted FMD was associated with an increased risk of MCPT ≥ 2.0 mm (OR, 1.11 for every 1% decrease in FMD; 95% CI, 1.03–1.19. Conclusion Decreased brachial FMD is independently associated with carotid plaque. Non-invasive evaluation of endothelial dysfunction may be a useful marker of preclinical atherosclerosis and help to individualize cardiovascular risk assessment beyond traditional risk factors.

  16. Effects of oat and wheat bread consumption on lipid profile, blood sugar, and endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic patients: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Momenizadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased lipid profile after each meal can disturb the endothelial function. The present study assessed the effects of bread supplemented with oat bran on serum lipids and endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: This clinical trial was conducted on 60 isolated hypercholesterolemic patients. The subjects were randomly allocated to either intervention (consuming at least five daily servings of oat bread with 6 g beta-glucan or control (receiving at least five servings of wheat bread. Anthropometric indicators, fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles ere measured at baseline and after 6 weeks (in the end of the intervention. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Within the group and between group differences were investigated using paired t-test and Student’s t-test, respectively. RESULTS: Oat bread consumption could significantly reduce total cholesterol (P = 0.029. A significant increase in baseline and after ischemia brachial artery diameters at the end of the study was seen. However, it did not have a significant effect on FMD (P = 0.825. In the control group, none of the measured indices had changed significantly at the end of the study. Finally, only the mean change of brachial artery diameter after ischemia and baseline brachial artery diameter were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012 respectively. CONCLUSION: Oat bread with beta-glucan could successfully reduce cholesterol levels. Furthermore, in this study oat bread did not reduce FMD more than wheat bread. Since hypercholesterolemia is a proven risk factor for endothelial dysfunction, hypercholesterolemic patients can hence be advised to eat oat bread.   Keywords: Bread, Diet, Flow-Mediated Dilation, Hypercholesterolemia 

  17. Effects of oat and wheat bread consumption on lipid profile, blood sugar, and endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic patients: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenizadeh, Amir; Heidari, Ramin; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Tabesh, Faezeh; Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Haghighatian, Zahra; Golshahi, Jafar; Baseri, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Increased lipid profile after each meal can disturb the endothelial function. The present study assessed the effects of bread supplemented with oat bran on serum lipids and endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypercholesterolemia. This clinical trial was conducted on 60 isolated hypercholesterolemic patients. The subjects were randomly allocated to either intervention (consuming at least five daily servings of oat bread with 6 g beta-glucan) or control (receiving at least five servings of wheat bread). Anthropometric indicators, fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles ere measured at baseline and after 6 weeks (in the end of the intervention). Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Within the group and between group differences were investigated using paired t-test and Student's t-test, respectively. Oat bread consumption could significantly reduce total cholesterol (P = 0.029). A significant increase in baseline and after ischemia brachial artery diameters at the end of the study was seen. However, it did not have a significant effect on FMD (P = 0.825). In the control group, none of the measured indices had changed significantly at the end of the study. Finally, only the mean change of brachial artery diameter after ischemia and baseline brachial artery diameter were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012 respectively). Oat bread with beta-glucan could successfully reduce cholesterol levels. Furthermore, in this study oat bread did not reduce FMD more than wheat bread. Since hypercholesterolemia is a proven risk factor for endothelial dysfunction, hypercholesterolemic patients can hence be advised to eat oat bread.

  18. Quantitative optical measurement of mitochondrial superoxide dynamics in pulmonary artery endothelial cells

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    Zahra Ghanian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a vital role in cell signaling and redox regulation, but when present in excess, lead to numerous pathologies. Detailed quantitative characterization of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2•− production in fetal pulmonary artery endothelia cells (PAECs has never been reported. The aim of this study is to assess mitochondrial O2•− production in cultured PAECs over time using a novel quantitative optical approach. The rate, the sources, and the dynamics of O2•− production were assessed using targeted metabolic modulators of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC complexes, specifically an uncoupler and inhibitors of the various ETC complexes, and inhibitors of extra-mitochondrial sources of O2•−. After stabilization, the cells were loaded with nanomolar mitochondrial-targeted hydroethidine (Mito-HE, MitoSOX online during the experiment without washout of the residual dye. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy was used to monitor the dynamic changes in O2•− fluorescence intensity over time in PAECs. The transient behaviors of the fluorescence time course showed exponential increases in the rate of O2•− production in the presence of the ETC uncoupler or inhibitors. The most dramatic and the fastest increase in O2•− production was observed when the cells were treated with the uncoupling agent, PCP. We also showed that only the complex IV inhibitor, KCN, attenuated the marked surge in O2•− production induced by PCP. The results showed that mitochondrial respiratory complexes I, III and IV are sources of O2•− production in PAECs, and a new observation that ROS production during uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration is mediated in part via complex IV. This novel method can be applied in other studies that examine ROS production under stress condition and during ROS-mediated injuries in vitro.

  19. Prostacyclin production in rabbit arteries in situ: inhibition by arachidonic acid-induced endothelial cell damage or by low-dose aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerman-Wojenski, C; Silver, M J; Smith, J B; Nissenbaum, M; Sedar, A W

    1981-04-01

    The central artery of the rabbit ear was perfused in situ and effluent fractions from the artery were assayed for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-K-PGF1 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2), the stable metabolites of prostacyclin (PGI2) and TxA2, using specific radioimmunoassays. These metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) were not detected in the effluent during infusion of Tyrode's solution but both metabolites were detected when small amounts of AA were infused into the artery. Examination of the arteries by scanning electron microscopy revealed that high concentrations of AA which caused a short burst of 6-K-PGF1 alpha and TxB2 production damaged the endothelial cells while lower concentrations which stimulated continuous production did not cause damage. When a non-damaging concentration of AA was infused into an artery that had previously received a damaging concentration, PG production was greatly reduced. Pretreatment of the rabbits with 4 mg/kg acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited 6-K-PGF1 alpha production by the rabbit ear artery in response to AA and 70% inhibition was still evident 18 hours after ASA.

  20. Pregnancy Augments VEGF-Stimulated In Vitro Angiogenesis and Vasodilator (NO and H2S) Production in Human Uterine Artery Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Hai; Chen, Jennifer C; Sheibani, Lili; Lechuga, Thomas J; Chen, Dong-Bao

    2017-07-01

    Augmented uterine artery (UA) production of vasodilators, including nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), has been implicated in pregnancy-associated and agonist-stimulated rise in uterine blood flow that is rate-limiting to pregnancy health. Developing a human UA endothelial cell (hUAEC) culture model from main UAs of nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant (P) women for testing a hypothesis that pregnancy augments endothelial NO and H2S production and endothelial reactivity to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Main UAs from NP and P women were used for developing hUAEC culture models. Comparisons were made between NP- and P-hUAECs in in vitro angiogenesis, activation of cell signaling, expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase, and NO/H2S production upon VEGF stimulation. NP- and P-hUAECs displayed a typical cobblestone-like shape in culture and acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake, stained positively for endothelial and negatively for smooth muscle markers, maintained key signaling proteins during passage, and had statistically significant greater eNOS and CBS proteins in P- vs NP-hUAECs. Treatment with VEGF stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and eNOS protein and NO production only in P-hUEACs and more robust cell signaling in P- vs NP-hUAECs. VEGF stimulated CBS protein expression, accounting for VEGF-stimulated H2S production in hUAECs. Comparisons between NP- and P-hUAECs reveal that pregnancy augments VEGF-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and NO/H2S production in hUAECs, showing that the newly established hUAEC model provides a critical in vitro tool for understanding human uterine hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  1. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids on [3H]-vitamin E incorporation into pulmonary artery endothelial cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharam, K.M.; Patel, J.M.; Block, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vitamin E, a dietary antioxidant, is presumed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer of biological membranes to an extent proportional to the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipids in the membrane. In the present study we evaluated the distribution of incorporated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in various membranes of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We also studied whether incorporation of PUFA or PE is responsible for increased incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into the membranes of these cells. Following a 24-hr incubation with linoleic acid (18:2), 18:2 was increased by 6.9-, 9.2-, and 13.2-fold in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. Incorporation of 18:2 caused significant increases in the unsaturation indexes of mitochondrial and microsomal polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Incubation with arachidonic acid (20:4) for 24 hr resulted in 1.5-, 2.3-, and 2.4-fold increases in 20:4 in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. The unsaturation indexes of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes also increased (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Although incubations with 18:2 or 20:4 resulted in several-fold increases in membrane 18:2 or 20:4 fatty acids, incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into these membranes was similar to that in controls. Following a 24-hr incubation with PE, membrane PE content was significantly increased, and [3H]-vitamin E incorporation was also increased to a comparable degree, i.e., plasma membrane greater than mitochondria greater than microsomes. Endogenous vitamin E content of the cells was not altered because of increased incorporation of PE and [3H]-vitamin E

  2. Association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms with coronary artery disease: an updated meta-analysis and systematic review.

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    Himanshu Rai

    Full Text Available Several association studies of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3 gene polymorphisms with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD have been published in the past two decades. However, their association with the disease, especially among different ethnic subgroups, still remains controversial. This prompted us to conduct a systematic review and an updated structured meta-analysis, which is the largest so far (89 articles, 132 separate studies, and a sample size of 69,235, examining association of three polymorphic forms of the NOS3 gene (i.e. Glu298Asp, T786-C and 27 bp VNTR b/a with CAD. In a subgroup analysis, we tested their association separately among published studies originating predominantly from European, Middle Eastern, Asian, Asian-Indian and African ancestries. The pooled analysis confirmed the association of all the three selected SNP with CAD in three different genetic models transcending all ancestries worldwide. The Glu298Asp polymorphism showed strongest association (OR range = 1.28-1.52, and P<0.00001 for all comparisons, followed by T786-C (OR range = 1.34-1.42, and P<0.00001 for all comparisons and 4b/a, (OR range = 1.19-1.41, and P ≤ 0.002 for all comparisons in our pooled analysis. Subgroup analysis revealed that Glu298Asp (OR range = 1.54-1.87, and P<0.004 for all comparisons and 4b/a (OR range = 1.71-3.02, and P<0.00001 for all comparisons have highest degree of association amongst the Middle Easterners. On the other hand, T786-C and its minor allele seem to carry a highest risk for CAD among subjects of Asian ancestry (OR range = 1.61-1.90, and P ≤ 0.01 for all comparisons.

  3. Effects of endothelial removal and regeneration on smooth muscle glycosaminoglycan synthesis and growth in rat carotid artery in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrilees, M.J.; Scott, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Segments of rat carotid artery were maintained in serum-free and serum-supplemented media with endothelium both present and substantially removed by air drying. At intervals of 3, 7, and 14 days the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan across the vessel walls was determined by autoradiographic detection of incorporated [ 3 H]glucosamine. In control carotids the typical pattern of incorporation was 40% of label in the intima, consisting of endothelium and subendothelial matrix, 23, 13, and 15% in the three medial layers (M1, M2, M3, respectively), and 9% in the adventitia. During the first week in culture the proportion, and often the amount, of label in M1 increased significantly. Following air drying labeling decreased markedly in M1 but often increased in M2 and M3. By 14 days residual endothelial cells had regenerated, and the pattern of incorporation in the medial layers beneath this new endothelium was the same as for the controls with a high level of labeling in M1. In areas free of endothelium incorporation in M1 remained at a low level. Digestion with chondroitinase ABC and Streptomyces hyaluronidase showed that the changes in M1-labeling levels were due to changes in the amounts of both hyaluronic acid and sulfated glycosaminoglycan, whereas pulse and continuous labeling studies showed that the different labeling levels for the various layers and conditions were due to different rates of synthesis and not degradation. Carotids were also labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine. Control and regenerating endothelia were active in serum- free and serum-supplemented media and had similar mitotic indices. Indices for smooth muscle cells in M1, however, were generally very low and were not affected by the presence or absence of endothelium

  4. Carotid Artery Stiffness, Digital Endothelial Function, and Coronary Calcium in Patients with Essential Thrombocytosis, Free of Overt Atherosclerotic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtovec, Matjaz; Anzic, Ajda; Zupan, Irena Preloznik; Zaletel, Katja; Blinc, Ales

    2017-06-01

    Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. Our aim was to determine if patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET), a subtype of MPNs, free of symptomatic atherosclerosis, have greater carotid artery stiffness, worse endothelial function, greater coronary calcium and carotid plaque burden than control subjects. 40 ET patients without overt vascular disease, and 42 apparently healthy, age and sex-matched control subjects with comparable classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and Framingham risk of coronary disease were enrolled. All subjects were examined by physical and laboratory testing, carotid echo-tracking ultrasound, digital EndoPat pletysmography and CT coronary calcium scoring. No significant differences were found between ET patients and controls in carotid plaque score [1 (0-1.25) vs. 0 (0-2), p=0.30], β- index of carotid stiffness [7.75 (2.33) vs. 8.44 (2,81), p=0.23], pulse wave velocity [6,21 (1,00) vs. 6.45 (1.04) m/s; p=0.46], digital reactive hyperemia index [2.10 (0.57) vs. 2.35 (0.62), p=0.07], or augmentation index [19 (3-30) vs. 13 (5-22) %, p=0.38]. Overall coronary calcium burden did not differ between groups [Agatston score 0.1 (0-16.85) vs. 0 (0-8.55), p=0.26]. However, significantly more ET patients had an elevated coronary calcium score of >160 [6/40 vs. 0/42, p 160, indicating high cardiovascular risk, not predicted by the Framingham equation.

  5. Carotid Artery Stiffness, Digital Endothelial Function, and Coronary Calcium in Patients with Essential Thrombocytosis, Free of Overt Atherosclerotic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtovec, Matjaz; Anzic, Ajda; Zupan, Irena Preloznik; Zaletel, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. Our aim was to determine if patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET), a subtype of MPNs, free of symptomatic atherosclerosis, have greater carotid artery stiffness, worse endothelial function, greater coronary calcium and carotid plaque burden than control subjects. Patients and methods 40 ET patients without overt vascular disease, and 42 apparently healthy, age and sex-matched control subjects with comparable classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and Framingham risk of coronary disease were enrolled. All subjects were examined by physical and laboratory testing, carotid echo-tracking ultrasound, digital EndoPat pletysmography and CT coronary calcium scoring. Results No significant differences were found between ET patients and controls in carotid plaque score [1 (0-1.25) vs. 0 (0-2), p=0.30], β- index of carotid stiffness [7.75 (2.33) vs. 8.44 (2,81), p=0.23], pulse wave velocity [6,21 (1,00) vs. 6.45 (1.04) m/s; p=0.46], digital reactive hyperemia index [2.10 (0.57) vs. 2.35 (0.62), p=0.07], or augmentation index [19 (3-30) vs. 13 (5-22) %, p=0.38]. Overall coronary calcium burden did not differ between groups [Agatston score 0.1 (0-16.85) vs. 0 (0-8.55), p=0.26]. However, significantly more ET patients had an elevated coronary calcium score of >160 [6/40 vs. 0/42, p 160, indicating high cardiovascular risk, not predicted by the Framingham equation. PMID:28740456

  6. Endothelial function in children with white-coat hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Jurko, Tomas; Minarik, Milan; Mestanik, Michal; Mestanikova, Andrea; Micieta, Vladimir; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2018-01-29

    Several studies have demonstrated endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension. However, the presence of endothelial dysfunction in children with white-coat hypertension has not been studied. We evaluated the endothelial function in children with white-coat hypertension and essential hypertension using a novel method based on the assessment of flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Study involved 106 children: 30 white-coat hypertensives (age 16.3 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SD), 30 essential hypertensives (age 16.4 ± 1.3 years), and 46 healthy controls (age 16.2 ± 1.4 years). Ultrasound scans of the right brachial artery were performed using Prosound F75 Aloka system during protocol: baseline (1 min), forearm ischemia (5 min), and post-occlusion phase (3 min). FMD (%) was expressed as a change of the arterial diameter from baseline to maximum post-occlusion value and the values coat hypertension compared to control group (p coat hypertensives compared to controls (p coat hypertension could help to elucidate the mechanisms of the increased cardiovascular risk that could be similar as found in essential hypertension; therefore, white-coat hypertension should not be considered a benign phenomenon.

  7. Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Strahler, Talia R; Bassett, Candace J; Bispham, Nina Z; Chonchol, Michel B; Seals, Douglas R

    2017-01-03

    We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBF ACh ; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0.03), but not placebo (P=0.2). Curcumin treatment augmented the acute reduction in FBF ACh induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; P=0.03), and reduced the acute increase in FBF ACh to the antioxidant vitamin C (P=0.02), whereas placebo had no effect (both P>0.6). Similarly, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (conduit artery endothelial function) increased 36% in the curcumin group (5.7±0.4 vs. 4.4±0.4% at baseline, P=0.001), with no change in placebo (P=0.1). Neither curcumin nor placebo influenced large elastic artery stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity or carotid artery compliance) or circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation (all P>0.1). In healthy middle-aged and older adults, 12 weeks of curcumin supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function by increasing vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress, while also improving conduit artery endothelial function.

  8. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus. Using action-research techniques, with this simulator it was possible to validate that the human nerve response can be replicated, which will aid the training of health professionals, reducing possible risks in a surgical environment.

  9. Comparison of the effects of linagliptin and voglibose on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease: a prospective, randomized, pilot study (EFFORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Taku; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hisako; Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Toyoda, Shigeru; Sakuma, Masashi; Inoue, Teruo; Otsuka, Yoritaka; Node, Koichi

    2018-02-09

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to poor cardiovascular prognosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on endothelial function remains controversial. We sought to compare the effects of linagliptin and voglibose on endothelial function, as assessed by reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT). Sixteen patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and CAD were randomized 1:1 to linagliptin (5 mg, once-daily) or voglibose (0.9 mg, thrice-daily). The RH-PAT and laboratory parameters, including 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, were measured at baseline and 3 months. Linagliptin increased serum levels of active glucagon-like peptide-1 and high-molecular-weight adiponectin. Age-, sex-, and baseline-adjusted changes in logarithmic RH-PAT index (LnRHI) after 3 months were significant between groups (linagliptin, 0.135 ± 0.097; voglibose, - 0.124 ± 0.091; P = 0.047). In the linagliptin group, change in LnRHI was positively correlated with change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and negatively correlated with changes in both urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Furthermore, linagliptin treatment for 3 months reduced serum levels of both glucose and insulin at 2 h, relative to voglibose, in the age-, sex-, and baseline-adjusted model. Linagliptin improved endothelial function relative to voglibose, accompanied by amelioration of glycemic, renal, and cardiometabolic parameters, in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and CAD.Trial registration Unique Trial Number, UMIN 000029169 ( https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000012442 ).

  10. Montelukast prevents vascular endothelial dysfunction from internal combustion exhaust inhalation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Steigerwald, Michelle D; Fisk, Michelle Z

    2010-08-01

    Associations between high particulate matter (PM) pollution and increased morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease have been identified. This study assessed leukotriene (LT) participation in PM-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction. Ten healthy males exercised 4 times for 30 min in both high PM (550,286 +/- 42,004 particles x cm(-3)) and low PM (4571 +/- 1922 particles x cm(-3)) after ingesting placebo (PL) or 10 mg montelukast (MK; half-life 3-6 h), a leukotriene receptor antagonist. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured pre- and 30 min, 4 h, 24 h post-exercise. No basal brachial artery vascoconstriction was evident from high PM exercise. High PM blunted FMD, whereas high PM MK, low PM PL, and low PM MK demonstrated normal FMD (p < .003). Change in FMD (pre- to post-exercise) for high PM PL was different than for high PM MK, low PM PL, and low PM MK at 30 min post-exercise (p < .007). At 4 h, high PM MK FMD blunting increased (p = .1). At 24 h, high PM FMD blunting persisted (p < .05); no difference was observed between high PM PL or MK treatment, but was different that low PM PL/MK treatments (p < .05). MK blocked high PM post-exercise FMD blunting and maintained normal response, suggesting that leukotrienes are involved in PM-initiated vascular endothelial dysfunction.

  11. Double profunda brachii artery

    OpenAIRE

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani; Jyoti V Hadimani; Ishwar B Bagoji; Shardha Bai Rathod; Balappa M Bannur

    2016-01-01

    Brachial artery (BA) is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii...

  12. Endothelial cell senescence with aging in healthy humans: prevention by habitual exercise and relation to vascular endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Hill, Sierra D; McNamara, Molly N; Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R; Donato, Anthony J

    2017-11-01

    Cellular senescence is emerging as a key mechanism of age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction, but evidence in healthy humans is lacking. Moreover, the influence of lifestyle factors such as habitual exercise on endothelial cell (EC) senescence is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EC senescence increases with sedentary, but not physically active, aging and is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. Protein expression (quantitative immunofluorescence) of p53, a transcription factor related to increased cellular senescence, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 were 116%, 119%, and 128% greater (all P age-related differences were not present (all P > 0.05) in venous ECs from older exercising adults (57 ± 1 yr, n = 13). Furthermore, venous EC protein levels of p53 ( r  = -0.49, P = 0.003), p21 ( r  = -0.38, P = 0.03), and p16 ( r  = -0.58, P = 0.002) were inversely associated with vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation). Similarly, protein expression of p53 and p21 was 26% and 23% higher (both P healthy older sedentary (63 ± 1 yr, n = 18) versus young sedentary (25 ± 1 yr, n = 9) adults; age-related changes in arterial EC p53 and p21 expression were not observed ( P > 0.05) in older habitually exercising adults (59 ± 1 yr, n = 14). These data indicate that EC senescence is associated with sedentary aging and is linked to endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, these data suggest that prevention of EC senescence may be one mechanism by which aerobic exercise protects against endothelial dysfunction with age. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study provides novel evidence in humans of increased endothelial cell senescence with sedentary aging, which is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function. Furthermore, our data suggest an absence of age-related increases in endothelial cell senescence in older exercising adults, which is linked with preserved vascular endothelial function

  13. MR imaging of brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriero, A.; Ciccotosto, C.; Dragani, M.; Manes, L.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The brachial plexus is a difficult region to evaluate with radiological techniques. MR imaging has great potentials for the depiction of the various anatomical structures of the branchial plexus - i.e., spinal ganglion, ventral nerve rami root exit of the neural foramina, trunks an cordes. Moreover, MR imaging, thanks to its direct multiplanarity, to its excellent soft-tissue contrast, and to its lack of motion artifacts, allows good evaluation of pathologic conditions in the branchial plexus, especially traumas and cancers. On the contrary CT, in spite of its high spatial resolution and good contrast, cannot demonstrate the anatomical structures of the brachial plexus. US detects superficials structures, and conventional radiographs depict only indirect changes in the adjacent lung apex and skeletal structures. From November 1989 to May 1990, 20 normal volunteers (15 males and 5 females; average age: 35 years) were studied with MR imaging. Multisection technique was employed with a dedicated coil and a primary coil. The anatomical structures of the brachial plexus were clearly demonstrated by T1-weighted sequences on the sagittal and axial planes. T2-weighted pulse sequences on the coronal plane were useful for the anatomical definition of the brachial plexus and for eventual tissue characterization. The correct representation of the anatomical structures of the brachial plexus allowed by MR imaging with author's standard technique makes MR imaging the most appropriate exam for the diagnosis of pathologic conditions in the brachial plexus, although its use must be suggested by specific clinical questions

  14. Heterozygous Null Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutations Promote SRC Kinase-dependent Caveolar Trafficking Defects and Endothelial Dysfunction in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Allison R.; Ghose, Sampa; Frump, Andrea L.; Datta, Arumima; Austin, Eric D.; Kenworthy, Anne K.; de Caestecker, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) is a rare, fatal disease of the pulmonary vasculature. The majority of HPAH patients inherit mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor gene (BMPR2), but how these promote pulmonary vascular disease is unclear. HPAH patients have features of pulmonary endothelial cell (PEC) dysfunction including increased vascular permeability and perivascular inflammation associated with decreased PEC barrier function. Recently, frameshift mutations in the caveolar structural protein gene Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) were identified in two patients with non-BMPR2-associated HPAH. Because caveolae regulate endothelial function and vascular permeability, we hypothesized that defects in caveolar function might be a common mechanism by which BMPR2 mutations promote pulmonary vascular disease. To explore this, we isolated PECs from mice carrying heterozygous null Bmpr2 mutations (Bmpr2+/−) similar to those found in the majority of HPAH patients. We show that Bmpr2+/− PECs have increased numbers and intracellular localization of caveolae and caveolar structural proteins CAV-1 and Cavin-1 and that these defects are reversed after blocking endocytosis with dynasore. SRC kinase is also constitutively activated in Bmpr2+/− PECs, and localization of CAV-1 to the plasma membrane is restored after treating Bmpr2+/− PECs with the SRC kinase inhibitor 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-amine (PP2). Late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells isolated from HPAH patients show similar increased activation of SRC kinase. Moreover, Bmpr2+/− PECs have impaired endothelial barrier function, and barrier function is restored after treatment with PP2. These data suggest that heterozygous null BMPR2 mutations promote SRC-dependent caveolar trafficking defects in PECs and that this may contribute to pulmonary endothelial barrier dysfunction in HPAH patients. PMID:25411245

  15. Endothelial dysfunction in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Xiang, Lin; Zhang, Bilin; Cheng, Yangyang

    2017-03-01

    To reveal the effect of hyperuricaemia on endothelial function in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperuricaemia, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with normouricaemia and 35 healthy subjects without diabetic family history were recruited in this study. Anthropometric parameters as well as blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with homoeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance index. To assess endothelial function, high-resolution ultrasonography was used for measuring flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated brachial artery vasodilation. When compared with control, flow-mediated dilation was lower in first-degree relatives with or without hyperuricaemia (both p type 2 diabetes mellitus (β = -0.677, p type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

  16. Effects of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Endothelial Function and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor McClean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure endothelial function and oxidative stress immediately, 90 minutes, and three hours after exercise of varying intensities. Methods. Sixteen apparently healthy men completed three exercise bouts of treadmill running for 30 minutes at 55% V˙O2max (mild; 20 minutes at 75% V˙O2max (moderate; or 5 minutes at 100% V˙O2max (maximal in random order. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed with venous blood samples drawn for measurement of endothelin-1 (ET-1, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs, and lipid soluble antioxidants. Results. LOOH increased immediately following moderate exercise (P0.05. Conclusions. Acute exercise at different intensities elicits varied effects on oxidative stress, shear rate, and ET-1 that do not appear to mediate changes in endothelial function measured by FMD.

  17. Normal endothelial function in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter R; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    -dependent and technically demanding ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we decided to measure endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) using a newer and relatively operator......Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator...... blood pressures, and plasma levels of triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycated glucose, compared with controls. This indicates that even mild-to-moderate psoriasis may be regarded as a systemic inflammatory disease, and that an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity may...

  18. Changes in endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure in pregnant women after consumption of high-flavanol and high-theobromine chocolate: a double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Asma; Bujold, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Vicky; Lavoie-Lebel, Élise; Paquette, Joalee; Bazinet, Laurent; Lemieux, Simone; Marc, Isabelle; Abdous, Belkacem; Dodin, Sylvie

    2018-04-16

    The aim of this 2-group, parallel, double blind single-centre RCT was to evaluate the acute and chronic impacts of high flavanol high theobromine (HFHT) chocolate consumption on endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) in women at risk of preeclampsia. 131 pregnant women considered at risk of preeclampsia based on uterine artery Doppler ultrasound were divided into two groups (HFHT or low flavanol and theobromine chocolate (LFLT). Acute changes in plasma flavanol and theobromine, peripheral arterial tonometry and BP were evaluated at randomization (0, 60 and 120 min after a single 40-g dose of chocolate) and again 6 and 12 weeks after daily 30-g chocolate intake. The EndoPAT 2000 provided reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and adjusted augmentation index (AIx) as markers for endothelial function and arterial stiffness, respectively. Compared with LFLT, acute HFHT intake significantly increased plasma epicatechin and theobromine (p theobromine (p theobromine concentrations and decreased arterial stiffness, with no effect on endothelial function and a marginal increase in diastolic BP. Chronic HFHT intake increased plasma theobromine, though it did not have positive impacts on endothelial function, arterial stiffness or BP when compared to LFLT in pregnant women at risk of PE.

  19. Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade Associated with Statin Improves Endothelial Function in Diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Altenburg Gismondi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Studies suggest that statins have pleiotropic effects, such as reduction in blood pressure, and improvement in endothelial function and vascular stiffness.Objective:To analyze if prior statin use influences the effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors on blood pressure, endothelial function, and vascular stiffness.Methods:Patients with diabetes and hypertension with office systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80 mmHg had their antihypertensive medications replaced by amlodipine during 6 weeks. They were then randomized to either benazepril or losartan for 12 additional weeks while continuing on amlodipine. Blood pressure (assessed with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, and vascular stiffness (pulse wave velocity were evaluated before and after the combined treatment. In this study, a post hoc analysis was performed to compare patients who were or were not on statins (SU and NSU groups, respectively.Results:The SU group presented a greater reduction in the 24-hour systolic blood pressure (from 134 to 122 mmHg, p = 0.007, and in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (from 6.5 to 10.9%, p = 0.003 when compared with the NSU group (from 137 to 128 mmHg, p = 0.362, and from 7.5 to 8.3%, p = 0.820. There was no statistically significant difference in pulse wave velocity (SU group: from 9.95 to 9.90 m/s, p = 0.650; NSU group: from 10.65 to 11.05 m/s, p = 0.586.Conclusion:Combined use of statins, amlodipine, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors improves the antihypertensive response and endothelial function in patients with hypertension and diabetes.

  20. The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Natale, Francesco; Torino, Annarita; Capasso, Rosanna; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Pironti, Erica; Santoro, Elena; Calabrò, Raffaele; Verrotti, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function of the big vessels of the neck and on cardiac diastolic function, in a cohort of epileptic children and young adults treated with the ketogenic diet. Patients were recruited based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) patients who were or had been on the ketogenic diet for a time period of at least six months. Each patient underwent measurement of carotid intima media thickness, carotid artery stiffness, echocardiography, and diastolic function assessment. Patients with drug resistant epilepsy, matched for number, age and sex and never treated with ketogenic diet, were recruited as controls. The population study was composed by 43 epilepsy patients (23 males), aged between 19 months and 31 years (mean 11 years). Twenty-three patients were or had been treated with ketogenic diet, and 20 had never been on it (control group). Subjects treated with the ketogenic diet had higher arterial stiffness parameters, including AIx and β-index and higher serum levels of cholesterol or triglycerides compared to those who had never been on the diet (control group) (pketogenic diet, before the increase of the intima media thickness. This supports that arterial stiffness is an early marker of vascular damage. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impaired autonomic regulation of resistance arteries in mice with low vascular endothelial growth factor or upon vascular endothelial growth factor trap delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storkebaum, Erik; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Meens, Merlijn

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Control of peripheral resistance arteries by autonomic nerves is essential for the regulation of blood flow. The signals responsible for the maintenance of vascular neuroeffector mechanisms in the adult, however, remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report that VEGF( ...

  2. Effect of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy on the risk of arterial thromboembolic events: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Wei Cheng

    Full Text Available Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibodies are used in ocular neovascular diseases. A consensus has emerged that intravenous anti-VEGF can increase the risk of arterial thromboembolic events. However, the role of intravitreal anti-VEGF in arterial thromboembolism is controversial. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effects of intravitreal anti-VEGF on the risk of arterial thromboembolic events.Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant randomized clinical trials comparing intravitreal anti-VEGF with controls. Criteria for inclusion in our meta-analysis included a study duration of no less than 12 months, the use of a randomized control group not receiving any intravitreal active agent, and the availability of outcome data for arterial thromboembolic events, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, and vascular death. The risk ratios and 95% CIs were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies.A total of 4942 patients with a variety of ocular neovascular diseases from 13 randomized controlled trials were identified and included for analysis. There was no significant difference between intravitreal anti-VEGF and control in the risk of all events, with risk ratios of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.64 to 1.19 for arterial thromboembolic events, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.55-1.68 for cerebrovascular accidents, 0.69 (95% CI 0.40-1.21 for myocardial infarctions, and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.37-1.27 for vascular death.The strength evidence suggests that the intravitreal use of anti-VEGF antibodies is not associated with an increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events.

  3. Double profunda brachii artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery (BA is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii artery 2 arises distal to the profunda brachii artery 1. Both the arteries run inferolaterally in the spiral groove along with radial nerve. Variations of profunda brachii artery are important during harvesting of the lateral arm flaps and may lead to inadvertent injury during percutaneous arterial catheterization or injection of drugs.

  4. Reversible alterations in cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayer morphology and albumin permeability induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.; Ryan, U.S.; Davenport, W.C.; Chaney, E.L.; Strickland, D.L.; Kwock, L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of ionizing irradiation (0, 600, 1500, or 3000 rads) on the permeability of pulmonary endothelial monolayers to albumin were studied. Pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to confluence on gelatin-coated polycarbonate filters, placed in serum-free medium, and exposed to a 60 Co source. The monolayers were placed in modified flux chambers 24 hours after irradiation; 125 I-albumin was added to the upper well, and both the upper and lower wells were serially sampled over 4 hours. The amount of albumin transferred from the upper well/hour over the period of steady-state clearance (90-240 min after addition of 125 I-albumin) was 2.8 +/- 0.2% in control monolayers and was increased in monolayers exposed to 1500 or 3000 rads (increase of 63 +/- 10% and 61 +/- 10%, respectively, P less than 0.01). No increase was found in monolayers exposed to 600 rads. The increases in endothelial albumin transfer rates were associated with morphologic evidence of monolayer disruption and endothelial injury which paralleled the changes in albumin permeability. Dose-dependent alterations in endothelial actin filament organization were also found. Incubation of the monolayers exposed to 3000 rads with medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum for 24 hours resulted in normalization of albumin permeability, improvement in morphologic appearance of the monolayers, and reorganization of the actin filament structure. These studies demonstrate that ionizing radiation is an active principle in the reversible disorganization of cultured pulmonary endothelial cell monolayers without the need of other cell types or serum components

  5. Effects of Acute Active Video Games on Endothelial Function Following a High-Fat Meal in Overweight Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Eun Sun; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chul-Ho; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernall, Bo; Jae, Sae Young

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an active video game following a high-fat meal would partially prevent the unfavorable effect of a high-fat meal on vascular function in overweight adolescents. Twenty-four overweight adolescents were randomized to either a 60-minute active video game (AVG) group (n = 12) or seated rest (SR) as a control group (n = 12) after a high-fat meal. Blood parameters were measured, and vascular function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at baseline and 3 hours after a high-fat meal. No significant interaction was found in any blood parameter. A high-fat meal significantly increased blood triglyceride and glucose concentrations in both groups in a similar manner. Brachial artery FMD significantly decreased in the SR group (13.8 ± 3.2% to 11.8 ± 2.5), but increased in the AVG group (11.4 ± 4.0% to 13.3 ± 3.5), with a significant interaction (P = .034). These findings show that an active video game attenuated high-fat meal-induced endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that an active video game may have a cardioprotective effect on endothelial function in overweight adolescents when exposed to a high-fat meal.

  6. Alterations in triglyceride rich lipoproteins are related to endothelial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Diego; López, Graciela I; Gorzalczany, Susana; Duarte, Mariano; González Ballerga, Esteban; Sordá, Juan; Schreier, Laura; Zago, Valeria

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to analyze the effect of circulating triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL) on endothelial function in metabolic syndrome (MetS). We studied 40 patients with MetS (ATPIII), divided into those presenting normal endothelial function (n=19) and those with endothelial dysfunction (n=21) by means of the evaluation of pulse wave velocity, before and after brachial artery ischemia. In fasting serum we measured lipid and lipoprotein profile, insulin and glucose (HOMA-IR). Moreover, isolated TRL (d<1006g/l) were chemically characterized. In parallel, using randomly selected TRL from MetS patients with endothelial dysfunction (n=6) and MetS patients with normal endothelial function (n=6), the ability of TRL to inhibit ACh-induced vasorelaxation (10(-9)-10(-5)mM) on aortic rings previously pre-contracted by noradrenaline (10(-8)mM) was evaluated. Interestingly, TRL isolated from MetS patients presenting endothelial dysfunction showed triglyceride over-enrichment (59.1±4.8 vs. 54.1±4.7%; p=0.04), even after adjusting by potential confounders (p=0.05). In addition, while TRL resulting from both MetS groups significantly inhibited endothelium dependent vasorelaxation (p<0.001), TRL from MetS patients with endothelial dysfunction showed a strong tendency to a greater inhibition of vasorelaxation (p=0.06). Moreover, TRL-triglyceride (%) showed a strong tendency to correlate with the grade of vasorelaxation inhibition exerted by TRL (r=0.60; p=0.05). These results, taken together, would allow inferring for the first time that the predominance of triglyceride over-enriched TRL in circulation in MetS would induce endothelial dysfunction, contributing to the inherent cardiovascular risk of MetS. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intrauterine growth restriction decreases pulmonary alveolar and vessel growth and causes pulmonary artery endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro in fetal sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedorf, Gregory J.; Brown, Alicia; Roe, Gates; O'Meara, Meghan C.; Gien, Jason; Tang, Jen-Ruey; Abman, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Abnormal lung structure has been noted in animal models of IUGR, but whether IUGR adversely impacts fetal pulmonary vascular development and pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) function is unknown. We hypothesized that IUGR would decrease fetal pulmonary alveolarization, vascular growth, and in vitro PAEC function. Studies were performed in an established model of severe placental insufficiency and IUGR induced by exposing pregnant sheep to elevated temperatures. Alveolarization, quantified by radial alveolar counts, was decreased 20% (P growth by 68% (P growth was reduced in IUGR PAECs by 29% at baseline (P growth and PAEC dysfunction in vitro. This may contribute to the increased risk for adverse respiratory outcomes and BPD in infants with IUGR. PMID:21873446

  8. Expression of human olfactory receptor 10J5 in heart aorta, coronary artery, and endothelial cells and its functional role in angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Yoon, Yeo Cho; Lee, Ae Sin; Kang, NaNa; Koo, JaeHyung; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-05-01

    ORs are ectopically expressed in non-chemosensory tissues including muscle, kidney, and keratinocytes; however, their physiological roles are largely unknown. We found that human olfactory receptor 10J5 (OR10J5) is expressed in the human aorta, coronary artery, and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Lyral induces Ca(2+) and phosphorylation of AKT in HUVEC. A knockdown study showed the inhibition of the lyral-induced Ca(2+) and the phosphorylation AKT and implied that these processes are mediated by OR10J5. In addition, lyral enhanced migration of HUVEC, which were also inhibited by RNAi in a migration assay. In addition, matrigel plug assay showed that lyral enhanced angiogenesis in vivo. Together these data demonstrate the physiological role of OR10J5 in angiogenesis and represent roles of ORs in HUVEC cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiologically assessed hot flashes and endothelial function among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Jennings, J Richard; von Känel, Roland; Landsittel, Doug P; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-08-01

    Hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women. Emerging data indicate that they may be associated with endothelial dysfunction. No studies have tested whether hot flashes are associated with endothelial function using physiologic measures of hot flashes. We tested whether physiologically assessed hot flashes were associated with poorer endothelial function. We also considered whether age modified associations. Two hundred seventy-two nonsmoking women reporting either daily hot flashes or no hot flashes, aged 40 to 60 years, and free of clinical cardiovascular disease, underwent ambulatory physiologic hot flash and diary hot flash monitoring; a blood draw; and ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation to assess endothelial function. Associations between hot flashes and flow-mediated dilation were tested in linear regression models controlling for lumen diameter, demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and estradiol. In multivariable models incorporating cardiovascular disease risk factors, significant interactions by age (P hot flashes (beta [standard error] = -2.07 [0.79], P = 0.01), and more frequent physiologic hot flashes (for each hot flash: beta [standard error] = -0.10 [0.05], P = 0.03, multivariable) were associated with lower flow-mediated dilation. Associations were not accounted for by estradiol. Associations were not observed among the older women (age 54-60 years) or for self-reported hot flash frequency, severity, or bother. Among the younger women, hot flashes explained more variance in flow-mediated dilation than standard cardiovascular disease risk factors or estradiol. Among younger midlife women, frequent hot flashes were associated with poorer endothelial function and may provide information about women's vascular status beyond cardiovascular disease risk factors and estradiol.

  10. Biomarkers of coronary endothelial health: correlation with invasive measures of collateral function, flow and resistance in chronically occluded coronary arteries and the effect of recanalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwiniec, Andrew; Ettelaie, Camille; Cunnington, Michael S; Rossington, Jennifer; Thackray, Simon; Alamgir, Farquad; Hoye, Angela

    2016-06-01

    In the presence of a chronically occluded coronary artery, the collateral circulation matures by a process of arteriogenesis; however, there is considerable variation between individuals in the functional capacity of that collateral network. This could be explained by differences in endothelial health and function. We aimed to examine the relationship between the functional extent of collateralization and levels of biomarkers that have been shown to relate to endothelial health. We measured four potential biomarkers of endothelial health in 34 patients with mature collateral networks who underwent a successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for a chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) before PCI and 6-8 weeks after PCI, and examined the relationship of biomarker levels with physiological measures of collateralization. We did not find a significant change in the systemic levels of sICAM-1, sE-selectin, microparticles or tissue factor 6-8 weeks after PCI. We did find an association between estimated retrograde collateral flow before CTO recanalization and lower levels of sICAM-1 (r=0.39, P=0.026), sE-selectin (r=0.48, P=0.005) and microparticles (r=0.38, P=0.03). Recanalization of a CTO and resultant regression of a mature collateral circulation do not alter systemic levels of sICAM-1, sE-selectin, microparticles or tissue factor. The identified relationship of retrograde collateral flow with sICAM-1, sE-selectin and microparticles is likely to represent an association with an ability to develop collaterals rather than their presence and extent.

  11. Effects of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy on arterial elasticity, endothelial glycocalyx and oxidative stress during a 3-month smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Marinou, Margarita; Vlastos, Dimitrios; Kourea, Kallirhoe; Andreadou, Ioanna; Liarakos, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidi, Helen; Pavlidis, George; Tsougos, Elias; Parissis, John; Lekakis, John

    2017-07-01

    The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. After 3 months of treatment, CO, MDA, PC and Aix were decreased in all subjects (median CO: 25 vs. 6 ppm, MDA: 0.81 vs. 0.63 nmol/L, PC: 0.102, vs. 0.093 nmol/mg protein, Aix: 13% vs. 9%, p smoking (n = 84 out of 188), while the above markers and PWV deteriorated in relapsed smokers (p smoking cessation program using varenicline or NRT for 3 months resulted in a decrease of CO, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and restored endothelial glycocalyx. These effects were more evident after varenicline treatment, likely because of a greater CO reduction, and were maintained after 1 year only in subjects who abstained from smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stenting-plasty with brachial puncture in the treatment of subclavian steal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Jing Zaiping; Zhao Zhiqing; Feng Xiang; Lu Qingsheng; Mei Zhijun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical effect of stenting-plasty with retrograde brachial puncture for subclavian steal syndrome patients. Methods: To analyze the clinical results of stenting-plasty with retrograde brachial puncture in 15 patients with subclavian steal syndrome. Results: MRA or DSA showed the subclavian arteries with different degrees of stenosis (80%-100%) in all patients. Stenting-plasty with retrograde brachia] puncture was used in all patients. After placement of wall or polmaz stent, the pulse recovered and the syndrome disappeared. Postoperative angiography showed patency of the artery and stent. The patients were followed up for 3-30 months without recurrence of symptoms. Conclusions: Stenting-plasty with retrograde brachial puncture is a rather proper method to treat subclavian steal syndrome with more coincidence to the vascular anatomy, decrease the maneuver trouble and increase the successful rate. (authors)

  13. Change in endothelial function state under the influence of antihypertensive therapy in patients with arterial hypertension and high cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turlyun T.S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the indicators characterizing endothelial function in patients of distinguished groups at the initial stage of the study (visit 1 and during the treatment (visit 2. At baseline levels of endothelin-1 in the blood of patients of all groups did not differ significantly between the groups distinguished. After treatment, the dynamics of the indicator in all groups was positive and statistically significant (p0,60.

  14. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  15. Impact of Age and Aerobic Exercise Training on Conduit Artery Wall Thickness: Role of the Shear Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kosaki, Keisei; Sawano, Yuriko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tagawa, Kaname; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Maeda, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamic shear stress is the frictional force of blood on the arterial wall. The shear pattern in the conduit artery affects the endothelium and may participate in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the role of the shear pattern in age- and aerobic exercise-induced changes in conduit artery wall thickness via cross-sectional and interventional studies. In a cross-sectional study, we found that brachial shear rate patterns and brachial artery intima-media thickness (IMT) correlated with age. Additionally, brachial artery shear rate patterns were associated with brachial artery IMT in 102 middle-aged and older individuals. In an interventional study, 39 middle-aged and older subjects were divided into 2 groups: control and exercise. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Aerobic exercise training significantly increased the antegrade shear rate and decreased the retrograde shear rate and brachial artery IMT. Moreover, changes in the brachial artery antegrade shear rate and the retrograde shear rate correlated with the change in brachial artery IMT. The results of the present study indicate that changes in brachial artery shear rate patterns may contribute to age- and aerobic exercise training-induced changes in brachial artery wall thickness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Flavonoid-Rich Apple Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Nicola P; Bondonno, Catherine P; Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Considine, Michael J; Maghzal, Ghassan; Stocker, Roland; Woodman, Richard J; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2018-02-01

    The cardioprotective effects of apples are primarily attributed to flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin. This study aimed to determine if acute and/or chronic (4 weeks) ingestion of flavonoid-rich apples improves endothelial function, blood pressure (BP), and arterial stiffness in individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this randomized, controlled cross-over trial, acute and 4 week intake of apple with skin (high flavonoid apple, HFA) is compared to intake of apple flesh only (low flavonoid apple, LFA) in 30 participants. The primary outcome is endothelial function assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, while main secondary outcomes are 24 h ambulatory BP and arterial stiffness. Other outcomes include fasting serum glucose and lipoprotein profile, plasma heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1), F 2 -isoprostanes, flavonoid metabolites, and plasma and salivary nitrate (NO 3 - ) and nitrite (NO 2 - ) concentrations. Compared to LFA control, the HFA results in a significant increase in FMD acutely (0.8%, p flavonoid metabolites (p effect of apple skin on endothelial function, both acutely and chronically. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Models of brachial to finger pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizdulich, P; Prentza, A; Wesseling, K H

    1997-03-01

    To model the pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement occurring between brachial and finger arteries. Distortion reversion and decrement correction were also our aims. Brachial artery pressure was recorded intra-arterially and finger pressure was recorded non-invasively by the Finapres technique in 53 adult human subjects. Mean pressure was subtracted from each pressure waveform and Fourier analysis applied to the pulsations. A distortion model was estimated for each subject and averaged over the group. The average inverse model was applied to the full finger pressure waveform. The pressure decrement was modelled by multiple regression on finger systolic and diastolic levels. Waveform distortion could be described by a general, frequency dependent model having a resonance at 7.3 Hz. The general inverse model has an anti-resonance at this frequency. It converts finger to brachial pulsations thereby reducing average waveform distortion from 9.7 (s.d. 3.2) mmHg per sample for the finger pulse to 3.7 (1.7) mmHg for the converted pulse. Systolic and diastolic level differences between finger and brachial arterial pressures changed from -4 (15) and -8 (11) to +8 (14) and +8 (12) mmHg, respectively, after inverse modelling, with pulse pressures correct on average. The pressure decrement model reduced both the mean and the standard deviation of systolic and diastolic level differences to 0 (13) and 0 (8) mmHg. Diastolic differences were thus reduced most. Brachial to finger pulse wave distortion due to wave reflection in arteries is almost identical in all subjects and can be modelled by a single resonance. The pressure decrement due to flow in arteries is greatest for high pulse pressures superimposed on low means.

  18. Northern contaminant mixtures induced morphological and functional changes in human coronary artery endothelial cells under culture conditions typifying high fat/sugar diet and ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Maria; Yan, Jin; Ulhaq, Saad; Coughlan, Melanie; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Willmore, William; Jin, Xiaolei

    2013-11-16

    It has been reported that Northern populations are exposed to mixtures of various environmental contaminants unique to the Arctic (Northern contaminant mixtures - NCM) at a large range of concentrations, depending on their geological location, age, lifestyle and dietary habits. To determine if these contaminants may contribute to a cardiovascular health risk, especially when combined with a high fat and sugar diet and ethanol exposure, we treated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with two mixtures of 4 organic (NCM1) or 22 organic and inorganic (NCM2) chemicals detected in Northerners' blood during 2004-2005 in the presence or absence of low-density lipoprotein (1.5mg/ml), very-low-density lipoprotein (1.0mg/ml) and glucose (10mmol/L) (LVG), and in the absence or presence of 0.1% ethanol. After 24h of exposure, cell morphology and markers of cytotoxicity and endothelial function were examined. NCM1 treatment did not affect cell viability, but increased cell size, disrupted cell membrane integrity, and decreased cell density, uptake of small peptides, release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), while causing no changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) release. In contrast, NCM2 decreased cell viability, total protein yield, uptake of small peptides, eNOS protein expression, and NO release and caused membrane damage, but caused no changes in the secretion of ET-1, prostacyclin and PAI. The presence of LVG and/or alcohol did or did not influence the effects of NCM1 or NCM2 depending on the endpoint and the mixture examined. These results suggested that the effects of one or one group of contaminants may be altered by the presence of other contaminants, and that with or without the interaction of high fat and sugar diet and/or ethanol exposure, NCMs at the concentrations used caused endothelial dysfunction in vitro. It remains to be investigated if these effects of NCMs also

  19. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) inhibits vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and interleukin-8 production in human coronary arterial endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Keiko; Hasegawa, Shunji; Suzuki, Yasuo; Hirano, Reiji; Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kittaka, Setsuaki; Ichiyama, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile vasculitis of childhood that is associated with elevated production of inflammatory cytokines, causing damage to the coronary arteries. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules in human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) is regulated by nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. We have previously reported that the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activation. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) on TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression (vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)) and cytokine production (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8) in HCAECs. Pretreatment with 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression and IL-8 production in HCAECs. Our results suggest that adjunctive 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) therapy may modulate the inflammatory response during Kawasaki disease vasculitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alterations in plasma soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1 concentrations during coronary artery bypass graft surgery: relationships with post-operative complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsel Isabelle

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma concentrations of sFlt-1, the soluble form of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF, markedly increase during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC. We investigated if plasma sFlt-1 values might be related to the occurrence of surgical complications after CABG. Methods Plasma samples were collected from the radial artery catheter before vascular cannulation and after opening the chest, at the end of ECC just before clamp release, after cross release, after weaning from ECC, at the 6th and 24th post-operative hour. Thirty one patients were investigated. The presence of cardiovascular, haematological and respiratory dysfunctions was prospectively assessed. Plasma sFlt-1 levels were measured with commercially ELISA kits. Results Among the 31 investigated patients, 15 had uneventful surgery. Patients with and without complications had similar pre-operative plasma sFlt-1 levels. Lowered plasma sFlt-1 levels were observed at the end of ECC in patients with haematological (p = 0.001, ANOVA or cardiovascular (p = 0.006 impairments, but not with respiratory ones (p = 0.053, as compared to patients with uneventful surgery. Conclusion These results identify an association between specific post-CABG complication and the lower release of sFlt-1 during ECC. sFlt-1-induced VEGF neutralisation might, thus, be beneficial to reduce the development of post-operative adverse effects after CABG.

  1. Obesity, arterial function and arterial structure – a systematic review and meta‐analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne, J. Y. A.; Cai, T. Y.; Celermajer, D. S.; Caterson, I. D.; Gill, T.; Lee, C. M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms by which obesity affects cardiovascular risk have not been fully elucidated. This paper reports a comprehensive systematic review and meta‐analysis on obesity and two key aspects of vascular health using gold‐standard non‐invasive measures – arterial endothelial function (brachial flow‐mediated dilatation) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima‐media thickness). Methods Electronic searches for ‘Obesity and flow‐mediated dilatation’ and ‘Obesity and intima‐media thickness’ were performed using Ovid Medline and Embase databases. A meta‐analysis was undertaken for brachial flow‐mediated dilatation and carotid intima‐media thickness to obtain pooled estimates for adults with obesity and those with healthy weight. Results Of the 5,810 articles retrieved, 19 studies on flow‐mediated dilatation and 19 studies on intima‐media thickness were included. Meta‐analysis demonstrated that obesity was associated with lower flow‐mediated dilatation (−1.92 % [95% CI −2.92, −0.92], P = 0.0002) and greater carotid intima‐media thickness (0.07 mm [95% CI 0.05, 0.08], P Obesity is associated with poorer arterial endothelial function and increased subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with these aspects of vascular health at least partially contributing to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in adults with obesity. These estimated effect sizes will enable vascular health benefits in response to weight loss treatment to be put in greater perspective, both in the research setting and potentially also clinical practice. PMID:28702212

  2. The pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine after four different techniques of brachial plexus blockade.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettig, H.C.; Lerou, J.G.C.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Boersma, E.; Burm, A.G.L.

    2007-01-01

    Arterial plasma concentrations of ropivacaine were measured after brachial plexus blockade using four different approaches: lateral interscalene (Winnie), posterior interscalene (Pippa), axillary and vertical infraclavicular. Four groups of 10 patients were given a single 3.75 mg.kg(-1) injection of

  3. Brachial and Cerebrovascular Functions Are Enhanced in Postmenopausal Women after Ingestion of Chocolate with a High Concentration of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Carter, Howard H; Guelfi, Kym J; Smith, Kurt J; Pike, Kerryn E; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    Background: Cocoa contains polyphenols that are thought to be beneficial for vascular health. Objective: We assessed the impact of chocolate containing distinct concentrations of cocoa on cerebrovascular function and cognition. Methods: Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, we compared the acute impact of consumption of energy-matched chocolate containing 80%, 35%, and 0% single-origin cacao on vascular endothelial function, cognition, and cerebrovascular function in 12 healthy postmenopausal women (mean ± SD age: 57.3 ± 5.3 y). Participants attended a familiarization session, followed by 3 experimental trials, each separated by 1 wk. Outcome measures included cerebral blood flow velocity (CBF v ) responses, recorded before and during completion of a computerized cognitive assessment battery (CogState); brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD); and hemodynamic responses (heart rate and blood pressure). Results: When CBF v data before and after chocolate intake were compared between conditions through the use of 2-factor ANOVA, an interaction effect ( P = 0.003) and main effects for chocolate ( P = 0.043) and time ( P = 0.001) were evident. Post hoc analysis revealed that both milk chocolate (MC; 35% cocoa; P = 0.02) and dark chocolate (DC; 80% cocoa; P = 0.003) induced significantly lower cerebral blood flow responses during the cognitive tasks, after normalizing for changes in arterial pressure. DC consumption also increased brachial FMD compared with the baseline value before chocolate consumption ( P = 0.002), whereas MC and white chocolate (0% cocoa) caused no change ( P- interaction between conditions = 0.034). Conclusions: Consumption of chocolate containing high concentrations of cocoa enhanced vascular endothelial function, which was reflected by improvements in FMD. Cognitive function outcomes did not differ between conditions; however, cerebral blood flow responses during these cognitive tasks were lower in those consuming MC and DC. These

  4. Endurance Capacity Is Not Correlated with Endothelial Function in Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Su, Chen; Fan, Zhen-guo; Zhu, Zhu; Tao, Jun; Huang, Yi-jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Endurance capacity, assessed by 1000-meter (1000 m) run of male university students, is an indicator of cardiovascular fitness in Chinese students physical fitness surveillance. Although cardiovascular fitness is related to endothelial function closely in patients with cardiovascular diseases, it remains unclear whether endurance capacity correlates with endothelial function, especially with circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs), a new sensitive marker of endothelial dysfunction in young students. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between endurance capacity and endothelial function in male university students. Methods Forty-seven healthy male university students (mean age, 20.1±0.6 years; mean height, 172.4±6.3 cm; and mean weight, 60.0±8.2 kg) were recruited in this study. The measurement procedure of 1000 m run time was followed to Chinese national students Constitutional Health Criterion. Endothelium function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery measured by ultrasonic imaging, and the level of circulating EMPs was measured by flow cytometry. Cardiovascular fitness indicator - maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) - was also measured on a cycle ergometer using a portable gas analyzer. Results 1000 m run time was correlated with VO2max (r = −0.399, p0.05). Conclusion The correlations between endurance capacity or cardiovascular fitness and endothelial function were not found in healthy Chinese male university students. These results suggest that endurance capacity may not reflect endothelial function in healthy young adults with well preserved FMD and low level of circulating CD31+/CD42-EMPs. PMID:25101975

  5. Normal endothelial function in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter R; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator-dependen......Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator......-dependent and technically demanding ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we decided to measure endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) using a newer and relatively operator......-independent technique. No difference was detected between the groups with regards to endothelial function. However, despite the patients experiencing rather mild psoriasis they did exhibit higher levels of certain cardiovascular risk factors, including waist circumference, resting heart rate, systolic and diastolic...

  6. The prognostic value of coronary endothelial and microvascular dysfunction in subjects with normal or non-obstructive coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brainin, Philip; Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Coronary vascular dysfunction is linked with poor cardiovascular prognosis in patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) but a critical appraisal of the literature is lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify...

  7. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Than, Khoi D.; Mummaneni, Praveen V.; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. Methods: A retrospective case-series study of 12?903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy....

  8. The impact of major depression on heart rate variability and endothelial dysfunction in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin Sunbul, Esra; Sunbul, Murat; Gulec, Huseyin

    Depression is an independent risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the cardiac autonomic functions and pro-inflammatory processes are potential biological factors. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of major depression on heart rate variability and endothelial dysfunction in patients with stable CAD. The study group included 65 CAD patients with a diagnosis of major depression and 54 CAD patients without major depression. All study population underwent transthoracic echocardiography, measurement of flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and 24-h holter recording for heart rate variability (HRV). Blood samples were drawn to determine the inflammatory parameters. Severity of depressive episode was assessed by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS). The distribution of age and sex was similar in the patient and control groups (P=0.715, 0.354, respectively). There was no significant difference in medications used between the groups. Echocardiographic parameters were similar between the groups. Inflammatory parameters were also similar between the groups. HRV parameters were significantly lower in the patient group than controls. The absolute FMD value and percentage FMD were significantly lower in the patient group than controls (Pgender (Pgender. Clinician should pay more attention for evaluation of depressive patients with CAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Citrus Polyphenol Hesperidin Stimulates Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells while Improving Endothelial Function and Reducing Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Stefano; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Iantorno, Micaela; Kim, Jeong-a; Chen, Hui; Pullikotil, Philomena; Senese, Nicoletta; Tesauro, Manfredi; Lauro, Davide; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Context: Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, and its metabolite hesperetin may have vascular actions relevant to their health benefits. Molecular and physiological mechanisms of hesperetin actions are unknown. Objective: We tested whether hesperetin stimulates production of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium and evaluated endothelial function in subjects with metabolic syndrome on oral hesperidin therapy. Design, Setting, and Interventions: Cellular mechanisms of action of hesperetin were evaluated in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in primary culture. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial examined whether oral hesperidin administration (500 mg once daily for 3 wk) improves endothelial function in individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 24). Main Outcome Measure: We measured the difference in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation between placebo and hesperidin treatment periods. Results: Treatment of BAEC with hesperetin acutely stimulated phosphorylation of Src, Akt, AMP kinase, and endothelial NO synthase to produce NO; this required generation of H2O2. Increased adhesion of monocytes to BAEC and expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in response to TNF-α treatment was reduced by pretreatment with hesperetin. In the clinical study, when compared with placebo, hesperidin treatment increased flow-mediated dilation (10.26 ± 1.19 vs. 7.78 ± 0.76%; P = 0.02) and reduced concentrations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, soluble E-selectin). Conclusions: Novel mechanisms for hesperetin action in endothelial cells inform effects of oral hesperidin treatment to improve endothelial dysfunction and reduce circulating markers of inflammation in our exploratory clinical trial. Hesperetin has vasculoprotective actions that may explain beneficial cardiovascular effects of citrus consumption. PMID:21346065

  10. Angiotensin II receptor one (AT1) mediates dextrose induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and superoxide production in human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Lee, Tracey; Torfah, Maisoon; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2016-10-01

    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in diabetes-related vascular complications partly through oxidative stress. To determine the role of angiotensin II receptor subtype one (AT1) in dextrose induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, another cellular stress implicated in vascular disease. Human coronary artery endothelial cells with or without AT1 receptor knock down were treated with 27.5mM dextrose for 24h in the presence of various pharmacologic blockers of RAAS and ER stress and superoxide (SO) production were measured. Transfection of cells with AT1 antisense RNA knocked down cellular AT1 by approximately 80%. The ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase (ES-TRAP) assay and western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), c-jun-N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), phospho-JNK1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and phospho-eIF2α measurements. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. In cells with AT1 knock down, dextrose induced ER stress was significantly blunted and treatment with 27.5mM dextrose resulted in significantly smaller increase in SO production compared to 27.5mM dextrose treated and sham transfected cells. Dextrose induced ER stress was reduced with pharmacologic blockers of AT1 (losartan and candesartan) and mineralocorticoid receptor blocker (spironolactone) but not with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (captopril and lisinopril). The dextrose induced SO generation was inhibited by all pharmacologic blockers of RAAS tested. The results indicate that dextrose induced ER stress and SO production in endothelial cells are mediated at least partly through AT1 receptor activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFECT OF HIGH-INTENSITY EXERCISE ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disease worldwide. Endothelial dysfunction characteristic of these patients is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis of endothelial dysfunction is essential for the treatment especially of non-invasive manner, such as flow mediated dilation. Physical exercise is capable of generating beneficial adaptations may improve endothelial function. Objective: Identify the effect of physical exercise, using the clinical technique of ultrasound in the assessment of the endothelial function of patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Thirty-one patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome were studied, with a mean age (± SD of 58±6 years, randomized into three groups. The training was performed for 50 minutes, four times a week. Before and after six weeks of training, subjects performed the endurance test and a study of the endothelial function of the brachial artery by high-resolution ultrasound. Results: After hyperemia, the percentage of arterial diameter was significantly higher for the high-intensity group (HI before = 2.52±2.85mm and after = 31.81±12.21mm; LI before = 3.23±3.52mm and after = 20.61±7.76mm; controls before = 3.56±2.33mm and after = 2.43±2.14mm; p<0.05. Conclusions: The high-intensity aerobic training improved the vasodilatation response-dependent endothelium, recorded by ultrasound, in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

  12. Ankle-brachial index and inter-artery blood pressure differences as predictors of cognitive function in overweight and obese older adults with diabetes: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes movement and memory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A; Beavers, Kristen M; Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Johnson, Karen C; Hughes, Timothy M; Baker, Laura D; Jakicic, John; Korytkowski, Mary; Miller, Marsha; Bray, George A

    2015-10-01

    Ankle-brachial index (ABI) and interartery systolic blood pressure differences, as markers of vascular disease, are plausible risk factors for deficits in cognitive function among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. The ABI and maximum interartery differences (MIAD) in systolic blood pressures were assessed annually for five years among 479 participants assigned to the control condition in a randomized clinical trial of a behavioral weight loss intervention. A battery of standardized cognitive function tests was administered 4 to 5 years later. Analyses of covariance were used to assess relationships that ABI, MIAD, and progression of ABI and MIAD had with cognitive function. There was a curvilinear relationship between ABI and a composite index of cognitive function (p = 0.03), with lower ABI being associated with poorer function. In graded fashions, both greater MIAD and increases in MIAD over time also had modest relationships with poorer verbal memory (both p ≤ 0.05), processing speed (both p ≤ 0.05), and composite cognitive function (both p cognitive function 4-5 years later. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Habitual aerobic exercise does not protect against micro- or macrovascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Strahler, Talia R; Vorwald, Victoria M; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R

    2017-01-01

    Aging causes micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction, as assessed by endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD), which can be prevented and reversed by habitual aerobic exercise (AE) in men. However, in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, whole forearm microvascular EDD has not been studied, and a beneficial effect of AE on macrovascular EDD has not been consistently shown. We assessed forearm blood flow in response to brachial artery infusions of acetylcholine (FBF ACh ), a measure of whole forearm microvascular EDD, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of macrovascular EDD, in 12 premenopausal sedentary women (Pre-S; 24 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 37.5 ± 1.6 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ), 25 estrogen-deficient postmenopausal sedentary women (Post-S; 62 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 24.7 ± 0.9 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ), and 16 estrogen-deficient postmenopausal AE-trained women (Post-AE; 59 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 40.4 ± 1.4 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ). FBF ACh was lower in Post-S and Post-AE compared with Pre-S women (135 ± 9 and 116 ± 17 vs. 193 ± 21 AUC, respectively, both P stress. This is the first study to demonstrate that habitual aerobic exercise may not protect against age/menopause-related whole forearm microvascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy nonobese estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, consistent with recent findings regarding macrovascular endothelial function. This is in contrast to what is observed in healthy middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained men. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Dietary sodium restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We determined the efficacy of dietary sodium restriction (DSR) for improving vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP; 130–159 mmHg) and the associated physiological mechanisms. Background Vascular endothelial dysfunction develops with advancing age and elevated SBP, contributing to increased cardiovascular risk. DSR lowers BP, but its effect on vascular endothelial function and mechanisms involved are unknown. Methods Seventeen subjects (11M/6F; 62±7 yrs, mean±S.D.) completed a randomized, crossover study of 4 weeks of both low and normal sodium intake. Vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation; EDD), nitric oxide (NO)/tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) bioavailability and oxidative stress-associated mechanisms were assessed following each condition. Results Urinary sodium excretion was reduced by ~50% (to 70±30 mmol/day), and conduit (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMDBA]) and resistance (forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine [FBFACh]) artery EDD were 68% and 42% (peak FBFACh) higher following the low sodium diet (psodium markedly enhanced NO- mediated EDD (greater ΔFBFACh with endothelial NO synthase [eNOS] inhibition) without changing eNOS expression/activation (Ser1177 phosphorylation), restored BH4 bioactivity (less ΔFMDBA with acute BH4), abolished tonic superoxide suppression of EDD (less ΔFMDBA and ΔFBFACh with ascorbic acid infusion), and increased circulating superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). These effects were independent of ΔSBP. Other subject characteristics/dietary factors and endothelium-independent dilation were unchanged. Conclusions DSR largely reverses both macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction by enhancing NO and BH4 bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Our findings support the emerging concept that DSR induces “vascular protection” beyond that attributable to its BP-lowering effects. PMID

  15. Preserved microvascular endothelial function in young, obese adults with functional loss of nitric oxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHarrell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and cyclooxygenase (COX toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh in younger (27±1 yr obese (n=29 and lean (n=46 humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of L-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC. Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. ΔFVC to ACh was similar between groups. After L-NMMA, ΔFVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p<0.05. There were no group differences in ΔFVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ΔFVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction.

  16. Flow Cytometric Quantification of Peripheral Blood Cell β-Adrenergic Receptor Density and Urinary Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rose

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a heterogeneous disease characterized by severe angiogenic remodeling of the pulmonary artery wall and right ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, there is an increasing need for novel biomarkers to dissect disease heterogeneity, and predict treatment response. Although β-adrenergic receptor (βAR dysfunction is well documented in left heart disease while endothelial cell-derived microparticles (Ec-MPs are established biomarkers of angiogenic remodeling, methods for easy large clinical cohort analysis of these biomarkers are currently absent. Here we describe flow cytometric methods for quantification of βAR density on circulating white blood cells (WBC and Ec-MPs in urine samples that can be used as potential biomarkers of right heart failure in PAH. Biotinylated β-blocker alprenolol was synthesized and validated as a βAR specific probe that was combined with immunophenotyping to quantify βAR density in circulating WBC subsets. Ec-MPs obtained from urine samples were stained for annexin-V and CD144, and analyzed by a micro flow cytometer. Flow cytometric detection of alprenolol showed that βAR density was decreased in most WBC subsets in PAH samples compared to healthy controls. Ec-MPs in urine was increased in PAH compared to controls. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between Ec-MPs and Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE in PAH patients. Therefore, flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood cell βAR density and urinary Ec-MPs may be useful as potential biomarkers of right ventricular function in PAH.

  17. Flow Cytometric Quantification of Peripheral Blood Cell β-Adrenergic Receptor Density and Urinary Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonathan A; Wanner, Nicholas; Cheong, Hoi I; Queisser, Kimberly; Barrett, Patrick; Park, Margaret; Hite, Corrine; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by severe angiogenic remodeling of the pulmonary artery wall and right ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, there is an increasing need for novel biomarkers to dissect disease heterogeneity, and predict treatment response. Although β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) dysfunction is well documented in left heart disease while endothelial cell-derived microparticles (Ec-MPs) are established biomarkers of angiogenic remodeling, methods for easy large clinical cohort analysis of these biomarkers are currently absent. Here we describe flow cytometric methods for quantification of βAR density on circulating white blood cells (WBC) and Ec-MPs in urine samples that can be used as potential biomarkers of right heart failure in PAH. Biotinylated β-blocker alprenolol was synthesized and validated as a βAR specific probe that was combined with immunophenotyping to quantify βAR density in circulating WBC subsets. Ec-MPs obtained from urine samples were stained for annexin-V and CD144, and analyzed by a micro flow cytometer. Flow cytometric detection of alprenolol showed that βAR density was decreased in most WBC subsets in PAH samples compared to healthy controls. Ec-MPs in urine was increased in PAH compared to controls. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between Ec-MPs and Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in PAH patients. Therefore, flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood cell βAR density and urinary Ec-MPs may be useful as potential biomarkers of right ventricular function in PAH.

  18. The artery blood supply variant of the upper limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Variations of arterial patterns in the upper limb have represented the most common subject of vascular anatomy. Different types of artery branching pattern of the upper limb are very important for orthopedists in angiographic and microvascular surgical practice. The brachial artery (BA) is the most important vessel in the normal vascular anatomy of the upper limb. The classical pattern of the palmar hand region distribution shows the superficial palmar arch. Normally this arch is formed by the superficial branch of the ulnar artery and completed on the lateral side by one of these arteries: the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery, the princeps pollicis artery, the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery or the median artery. After the routine dissection of the right upper limb of an adult male cadaver, we found a very rare variant of the superficial arch artery – a division in a higher level brachial artery. We found this division at 10.4 cm from the beginning of the brachial artery. This superficial brachial artery became a radial artery and was not involved in the formation of the palm arch. In the forearm region, the artery variant was present with the median artery and the ulnar artery, which form the superficial palm arch. PMID:26733754

  19. Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair in Mitral Regurgitation Reduces Cell-Free Hemoglobin and Improves Endothelial Function.

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    Christos Rammos

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is predictive for cardiovascular events and may be caused by decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO. NO is scavenged by cell-free hemoglobin with reduction of bioavailable NO up to 70% subsequently deteriorating vascular function. While patients with mitral regurgitation (MR suffer from an impaired prognosis, mechanisms relating to coexistent vascular dysfunctions have not been described yet. Therapy of MR using a percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR approach has been shown to lead to significant clinical benefits. We here sought to investigate the role of endothelial function in MR and the potential impact of PMVR.Twenty-seven patients with moderate-to-severe MR treated with the MitraClip® device were enrolled in an open-label single-center observational study. Patients underwent clinical assessment, conventional echocardiography, and determination of endothelial function by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Patients with MR demonstrated decompartmentalized hemoglobin and reduced endothelial function (cell-free plasma hemoglobin in heme 28.9±3.8 μM, FMD 3.9±0.9%. Three months post-procedure, PMVR improved ejection fraction (from 41±3% to 46±3%, p = 0.03 and NYHA functional class (from 3.0±0.1 to 1.9±1.7, p<0.001. PMVR was associated with a decrease in cell free plasma hemoglobin (22.3±2.4 μM, p = 0.02 and improved endothelial functions (FMD 4.8±1.0%, p<0.0001.We demonstrate here that plasma from patients with MR contains significant amounts of cell-free hemoglobin, which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. PMVR therapy is associated with an improved hemoglobin decompartmentalization and vascular function.

  20. Habitually exercising older men do not demonstrate age-associated vascular endothelial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Gary L; Donato, Anthony J; LaRocca, Thomas J; Eskurza, Iratxe; Silver, Annemarie E; Seals, Douglas R

    2011-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that older men who perform habitual aerobic exercise do not demonstrate age-associated vascular endothelial oxidative stress compared with their sedentary peers. Older exercising men (n=13, 62±2 years) had higher (Pexercise oxygen consumption (42±1 vs. 29±1 mL kg(-1) per minute) vs. sedentary men (n=28, 63±1 years). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of vascular endothelial function, was greater (Pexercising vs. sedentary older men (6.3±0.5 vs. 4.9±0.4%Δ) and not different than young controls (n=20, 25±1 years, 7.1±0.5%Δ). In vascular endothelial cells sampled from the brachial artery, nitrotyrosine, a marker of oxidative stress, was 51% lower in the exercising vs. sedentary older men (0.38±0.06 vs. 0.77±0.10 AU). This was associated with lower endothelial expression of the oxidant enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (p47(phox) subunit, 0.33±0.05 vs. 0.61±0.09 AU) and the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) (p65 subunit, 0.36±0.05 vs. 0.72±0.09 AU). Expression of the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) (0.57±0.13 vs. 0.30±0.04 AU) and activity of endothelium-bound extracellular SOD were greater (6.4±0.5 vs. 5.0±0.6 U mL(-1) per minute) in the exercising men (both Pexercising older men. Older men who exercise regularly do not demonstrate vascular endothelial oxidative stress, and this may be a key molecular mechanism underlying their reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP3 is a lysophosphatidic acid-binding protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells

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    Ryoko Tsukahara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty-acid-binding protein 3, muscle and heart (FABP3, also known as heart-type FABP, is a member of the family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins. It is a small cytoplasmic protein with a molecular mass of about 15 kDa. FABPs are known to be carrier proteins for transporting fatty acids and other lipophilic substances from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where these lipids are released to a group of nuclear receptors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. In this study, using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA-coated agarose beads, we have identified FABP3 as an LPA carrier protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs. Administration of LPA to HCAECs resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PPARγ activation. Furthermore, the LPA-induced PPARγ activation was abolished when the FABP3 expression was reduced using small interfering RNA (siRNA. We further show that the nuclear fraction of control HCAECs contained a significant amount of exogenously added LPA, whereas FABP3 siRNA-transfected HCAECs had a decreased level of LPA in the nucleus. Taken together, these results suggest that FABP3 governs the transcriptional activities of LPA by targeting them to cognate PPARγ in the nucleus.

  2. Identification of MicroRNA-124 as a Major Regulator of Enhanced Endothelial Cell Glycolysis in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension via PTBP1 (Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein) and Pyruvate Kinase M2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Paola; Dunmore, Benjamin J; Schlosser, Kenny; Schoors, Sandra; Dos Santos, Claudia; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Lavoie, Jessie R; Zhang, Hui; Long, Lu; Flockton, Amanda R; Frid, Maria G; Upton, Paul D; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Hadinnapola, Charaka; Kiskin, Fedir N; Taha, Mohamad; Hurst, Liam A; Ormiston, Mark L; Hata, Akiko; Stenmark, Kurt R; Carmeliet, Peter; Stewart, Duncan J; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2017-12-19

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by abnormal growth and enhanced glycolysis of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying alterations in energy production have not been identified. Here, we examined the miRNA and proteomic profiles of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) from patients with heritable PAH caused by mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 ( BMPR2 ) gene and patients with idiopathic PAH to determine mechanisms underlying abnormal endothelial glycolysis. We hypothesized that in BOECs from patients with PAH, the downregulation of microRNA-124 (miR-124), determined with a tiered systems biology approach, is responsible for increased expression of the splicing factor PTBP1 (polypyrimidine tract binding protein), resulting in alternative splicing of pyruvate kinase muscle isoforms 1 and 2 (PKM1 and 2) and consequently increased PKM2 expression. We questioned whether this alternative regulation plays a critical role in the hyperglycolytic phenotype of PAH endothelial cells. Heritable PAH and idiopathic PAH BOECs recapitulated the metabolic abnormalities observed in pulmonary artery endothelial cells from patients with idiopathic PAH, confirming a switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. Overexpression of miR-124 or siRNA silencing of PTPB1 restored normal proliferation and glycolysis in heritable PAH BOECs, corrected the dysregulation of glycolytic genes and lactate production, and partially restored mitochondrial respiration. BMPR2 knockdown in control BOECs reduced the expression of miR-124, increased PTPB1 , and enhanced glycolysis. Moreover, we observed reduced miR-124, increased PTPB1 and PKM2 expression, and significant dysregulation of glycolytic genes in the rat SUGEN-hypoxia model of severe PAH, characterized by reduced BMPR2 expression and endothelial hyperproliferation, supporting the relevance of this mechanism in vivo. Pulmonary vascular and

  3. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  4. Value of carotid intimal–medial thickness as independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction in uremic patients

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    Hosni A. Younis

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: (1 The study confirmed that carotid IMT and brachial artery FMD can be used in interventional studies in which cardiovascular risk is modified and increased in the uremic patients. (2 There was negative correlation between brachial FMD and C-IMT in the uremic patients.

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development

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    Kim, Se-Hee [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Schmitt, Christopher E.; Woolls, Melissa J. [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Holland, Melinda B. [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kim, Jun-Dae [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Jin, Suk-Won, E-mail: suk-won.jin@yale.edu [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ► VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ► Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process.

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se-Hee; Schmitt, Christopher E.; Woolls, Melissa J.; Holland, Melinda B.; Kim, Jun-Dae; Jin, Suk-Won

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ► VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ► Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process

  7. OCT/PS-OCT imaging of brachial plexus neurovascular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, David T.; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoping; Chen, Zhongping; Miller, Carol; Zhou, Li

    2004-07-01

    Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows high-resolution imaging (less than 10 microns) of tissue structures. A pilot study with OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) was undertaken to image ex-vivo neurovascular structures (vessels, nerves) of the canine brachial plexus. Methods: OCT is an interferometry-based optical analog of B-mode ultrasound, which can image through non-transparent biological tissues. With approval of the USC Animal Care and Use Committee, segments of the supra- and infraclavicular brachial plexus were excised from euthanized adult dogs, and the ex-vivo specimens were placed in cold pH-buffered physiologic solution. An OCT beam, in micrometer translational steps, scanned the fixed-position bisected specimens in transverse and longitudinal views. Two-dimensional images were obtained from identified arteries and nerves, with specific sections of interest stained with hematoxylin-eosin for later imaging through a surgical microscope. Results: with the beam scan direction transverse to arteries, the resulting OCT images showed an identifiable arterial lumen and arterial wall tissue layers. By comparison, transverse beam OCT images of nerves revealed a multitude of smaller nerve bundles contained within larger circular-shaped fascicles. PS-OCT imaging was helpful in showing the characteristic birefringence exhibited by arrayed neural structures. Discussion: High-resolution OCT imaging may be useful in the optical identification of neurovascular structures during attempted regional nerve blockade. If incorporated into a needle-shaped catheter endoscope, such a technology could prevent intraneural and intravascular injections immediately prior to local anesthetic injection. The major limitation of OCT is that it can form a coherent image of tissue structures only to a depth of 1.5 - 2 mm.

  8. Urinary Leukotriene E4 Is Associated with Renal Function but Not with Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnar Rafnsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukotrienes are inflammatory and vasoactive mediators implicated in endothelium-dependent relaxations and atherosclerosis. Urinary leukotriene E4 (U-LTE4 is a validated disease marker of asthma and increases also in diabetes and acute coronary syndromes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of U-LTE4 and CRP with endothelial function. Urine samples were obtained from 30 subjects (80% males; median age 65 with type 2 diabetes of at least two years duration and a median glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of 71 (14–129 mL/min. Reactive hyperemia index (RHI was used as a measure of microvascular endothelial function, whereas macrovascular endothelial function was determined be means of flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery (FMD. Decreased renal function was associated with lower concentrations of U-LTE4. In addition, U-LTE4 was correlated with serum creatinine (R=−0.572; P=0.001 and eGFR (R=0.517; P=0.0036. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified eGFR as an independent predictor of U-LTE4 concentrations. In conclusion, the present results did not establish an association of U-LTE4 with endothelial dysfunction. However, eGFR was an independent predictor of U-LTE4, but not CRP, in this cohort, suggesting that GFR should be considered in biomarker studies of U-LTE4.

  9. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Khoi D; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. A retrospective case-series study of 12 903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy. A literature review of the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health (PubMed) database was conducted to identify articles pertaining to brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery. In our total population of 12 903 patients, only 1 suffered from postoperative brachial plexopathy. The overall prevalence rate was thus 0.01%, but the prevalence rate at the site where this complication occurred was 0.07%. Previously reported risk factors for postoperative brachial plexopathy include age, anterior surgical procedures, and a diagnosis of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The condition can also be due to patient positioning during surgery, which can generally be detected via the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring. Brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery is rare and merits further study.

  10. Aromatherapy alleviates endothelial dysfunction of medical staff after night-shift work: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenei; Fukuda, Shota; Maeda, Kumiko; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Kono, Yasushi; Jissho, Satoshi; Taguchi, Haruyuki; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2011-02-01

    Night-shift work causes mental stress and lifestyle changes, and is recognized as a risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with impaired endothelial function. Aromatherapy is becoming popular as a complementary therapy that is beneficial for mental relaxation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy on the endothelial function of medical staff after night-shift work. This study consisted of 19 healthy medical personnel (19 men, mean age 32 ± 7 years), including 11 physicians and 8 technicians. Aromatherapy was performed for 30 min by inhalation of the essential oil of lavender. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured three times in each subject: on a regular workday, and after night-shift work before and immediately after aromatherapy. A control study was performed to assess the effect of a 30-min rest without aromatherapy. The mean value of sleep time during night-shift work was 3.3 ± 1.3 h. FMD after night-shift work was lower than on a regular workday (10.4 ± 1.8 vs. 12.5 ± 1.7%, Pnight-shift work impaired endothelial function in medical staff, an effect that was alleviated by short-term aromatherapy.

  11. The Relationship between Proliferative Scars and Endothelial Function in Surgically Revascularized Patients

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    Murat Ziyrek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proliferative scars are benign fibrotic proliferations which demonstrate abnormal wound healing in response to skin injuries. As postulated in the “response to injury hypothesis”, atherosclerosis is also triggered by an endothelial injury. Keloid and atherosclerotic processes have many pathophysiological and cytological features in common. Aims: In this study, we investigated the relationship between proliferative scars and endothelial function in surgically revascularized patients. We aimed to test the hypothesis that atherosclerosis is a wound healing abnormality. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Consecutive patients who were admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinic with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting operation were evaluated. Thirty-three patients with proliferative scars at the median sternotomy site formed the keloid group, and 36 age- and sex-matched patients with no proliferative scar at the median sternotomy site formed the control group. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery via ultrasonograhic examination. Results: There is no signicant difference according to the demographic data, biochemical parameters, clinical parameters and number of grafts between keloid and control groups. Endothelial-dependent vasodilatory response was lower in the keloid group than the control group (9.30±3.5 and 18.68±8.2, respectively; p=0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that endothalial dysfunction, which is strongly correlated with atherosclerosis, was more prominent in patients with proliferative scars. As proliferative scars and atherosclerosis have many features in common, we might conclude that atherosclerosis is a wound healing abnormality.

  12. Transcutaneous oximetry compared to ankle-brachial-index measurement in the evaluation of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgruber, Moritz; Wolf, Oliver; Weiss, Wolfgang; Berger, Hermann; Lutzenberger, Werner; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Heider, Peter

    2007-01-01

    reflect endothelial dysfunction caused by contrast material. The recovery of transcutaneous oximetry levels following angioplasty is counterbalanced by the adverse effects of the contrast material. Ankle-brachial-indices remains the most favourable parameter in evaluating the success of angioplasty procedures while transcutaneous oximetry serves as an indirect method in assessing endothelial dysfunction caused by contrast material

  13. Effects of Clopidogrel Therapy on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Vascular Function and Progenitor Cells in Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ronnie; Dhawan, Saurabh S.; Syed, Hamid; Pohlel, F. Khan; Binongo, Jose Nilo G.; Ghazzal, Ziyad B.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional cardiovascular risk factors lead to endothelial injury and activation of leucocytes and platelets that initiate and propagate atherosclerosis. We proposed that clopidogrel therapy in patients with stable CAD imparts a pleiotropic effect that extends beyond anti-platelet aggregation to other athero-protective processes. Methods Forty-one subjects were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to either clopidogrel 75 mg daily or placebo for 6-weeks, and then transitioned immediately to the other treatment for an additional 6 weeks. We assessed 1) endothelial function as flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, 2) arterial stiffness and central augmentation index using applanation tonometry, 3) vascular function as fingertip reactive hyperemia index, 4) inflammation by measuring plasma CD40 ligand and serum high-sensitivity c-reactive protein levels, 5) oxidative stress by measuring plasma aminothiols, and 6) circulating progenitor cells, at baseline and at the end of each 6-week treatment period. Results Clopidogrel therapy resulted in a significant reduction in soluble CD40 ligand (p=0.03), a pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory molecule derived mainly from activated platelets. However, clopidogrel therapy had no effect on endothelial function, arterial stiffness, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, or progenitor cells. Conclusions Our findings suggest a solitary anti-platelet effect of clopidogrel therapy in patients with stable CAD, with no effect on other sub-clinical markers of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:24336012

  14. Oxidative stress mediated arterial dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment

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    Del Ben Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies suggest an increase of oxidative stress and a reduction of endothelial function in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS. We assessed the association between OSAS, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Further aim was to evaluate the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP on oxidative stress and arterial dysfunction. Methods We studied 138 consecutive patients with heavy snoring and possible OSAS. Patients underwent unattended overnight home polysomnography. Ten patients with severe OSAS were revaluated after 6 months of nCPAP therapy. To assess oxidative stress in vivo, we measured urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and serum levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp. Serum levels of nitrite/nitrate (NOx were also determined. Flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (FMD was measured to asses endothelial function. Results Patients with severe OSAS had higher urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (p Conclusions The results of our study indicate that patients with OSAS and cardiometabolic comorbidities have increased oxidative stress and arterial dysfunction that are partially reversed by nCPAP treatment.

  15. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells, Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Eli; Feldman, Arie; Cohen, Ziona; Alon, Dora Ben; Minz, Evegeny; Chernyavsky, Alexey; Linov, Lina; Mishal, Joseph; Schlezinger, Menacham; Sthoeger, Zev

    2010-02-01

    A possible link between chronic vascular inflammation and arterial hypertension is now an object of intensive studies. To compare Th1/Th2/Th17 cells-related cytokines, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), and endothelial function in subjects with resistant arterial hypertension (RAH) and controlled arterial hypertension (CAH). Blood pressure was measured by electronic sphygmomanometer. EPC were identified as CD34+/CD133+/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)+ cells by flow cytometry. Th1/Th2/Th17 cells-related cytokines were identified using the Human Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokines MultiAnalyte ELISArray Kit. Endothelium-dependent (FMD) vasodilatation of brachial artery was measured by Doppler ultrasound scanning. RAH group (n = 20) and CAH group (n = 20) and 17 healthy individuals (control group) were recruited. In the RAH group, lower blood levels of EPC number (42.4 +/- 16.7 cells/mL) and EPC% (0.19 +/- 0.08%) were observed than in the CAH group (93.1 +/- 88.7 cells/mL; P = 0.017; 0.27 +/- 0.17; P = 0.036) and control group (68.5 +/- 63.6 cells/mL; P < 0.001; 0.28 +/- 0.17%; P = 0.003), respectively. Plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 levels were significantly higher in the RAH group (1767 +/- 364 pg/mL) than in the CAH group (1292 +/- 349; P < 0.001) and in control group (1203 +/- 419 pg/mL; P < 0.001). In the RAH group, statistically significant negative correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and EPC% (r = -0.72, P < 0.01). FMD in the RAH group was significantly lower (5.5 +/- 0.8%) than in the CAH group (9.2 +/- 1.4; P < 0.001) and in healthy controls (10.1 +/- 1.1%; P < 0.001). RAH is characterized by reduced circulating EPC, substantial endothelial dysfunction, and increased plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 levels.

  16. Treatment with a JNK inhibitor increases, whereas treatment with a p38 inhibitor decreases, H2O2-induced calf pulmonary arterial endothelial cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative stress induces apoptosis in endothelial cells (ECs). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote cell death by regulating the activity of various mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in ECs. The present study investigated the effects of MAPK inhibitors on cell survival and glutathione (GSH) levels upon H 2 O 2 treatment in calf pulmonary artery ECs (CPAECs). H 2 O 2 treatment inhibited the growth and induced the death of CPAECs, as well as causing GSH depletion and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). While treatment with the MEK or JNK inhibitor impaired the growth of H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs, treatment with the p38 inhibitor attenuated this inhibition of growth. Additionally, JNK inhibitor treatment increased the proportion of sub-G 1 phase cells in H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs and further decreased the MMP. However, treatment with a p38 inhibitor reversed the effects of H 2 O 2 treatment on cell growth and the MMP. Similarly, JNK inhibitor treatment further increased, whereas p38 inhibitor treatment decreased, the proportion of GSH-depleted cells in H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs. Each of the MAPK inhibitors affected cell survival, and ROS or GSH levels differently in H 2 O 2 -untreated, control CPAECs. The data suggest that the exposure of CPAECs to H 2 O 2 caused the cell growth inhibition and cell death through GSH depletion. Furthermore, JNK inhibitor treatment further enhanced, whereas p38 inhibitors attenuated, these effects. Thus, the results of the present study suggest a specific protective role for the p38 inhibitor, and not the JNK inhibitor, against H 2 O 2 -induced cell growth inhibition and cell death.

  17. The effect of angiotensin-2 receptor blocker valsartan on circulating level of endothelial progenitor cells in diabetic patients with asymptomatic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander E; Kremzer, Alexander A; Martovitskaya, Yulia V; Samura, Tatyana A

    2015-01-01

    Decreased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are considered as strong and robust biomarkers for the prediction of cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic populations. The perspectives for modulating EPCs levels in T2DM with known coronary artery disease (CAD) with different drugs, affected mechanisms of improving mobilization of EPCs from tissue, are not still understood. To evaluate an effect of angiotensin-2 receptor blocker valsartan on circulating level of EPCs in diabetic patients with asymptomatic CAD. The study population was structured retrospectively after determining the CAD by contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography angiography in 126 asymptomatic subjects. All subjects were distributed into two cohorts depending on daily doses of valsartan given. Low (80-160 mg daily orally) and high doses (240-320 mg daily orally) of valsartan were used and they were adjusted depending on achieving BP level less than 140/80 mmHg. The change from baseline in CD34(+) subset cells (frequencies and absolute values) was not significantly different between treatment cohorts. We found a significant increase of circulating level of CD14(+)CD309(+) cells in two patient cohorts. But more prominent change of CD14(+)CD309(+) cells was verified in subjects who were given valsartan in high daily doses when compared with persons who were included into cohort with low daily doses of the drug (1.96% versus 2.59%, respectively; Pvalsartan only. We found positive influence of angiotensin-2 receptor blocker valsartan in escalation doses on bone marrow-derived EPCs phenotyped as CD14(+)CD309(+) and CD14(+)CD309(+)Tie(2+) in T2DM patients with known asymptomatic CAD. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610

  19. Endothelial function after 10 days of bed rest in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mette Paulii; Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Physical inactivity is considered to be deleterious to vascular health, and in particular first degree relatives to patients with type 2 diabetes (FDR) and persons born with low birth weight (LBW) who may later in life develop cardiovascular disease. A period of imposed physical inactivity...... could unmask this risk. We hypothesized that the impact of physical inactivity on endothelial function would be more marked in subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, (LBW and FDR) compared with a matched control group (CON); all recruited via advertisements and via...... the Danish Birth Registry.Methods and Results: Twenty LBW and twenty CON and thirteen FDR were studied before and after ten days of bed rest. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography during brachial intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and adenosine at baseline...

  20. EFFECT OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME ON ARTERIAL STIFFNESS IN PATIENTS AT HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Oleynikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the impact of metabolic abnormalities in combination with obstructive sleep apnea on endothelial function and vascular stiffness parameters in patients with arterial hypertension 1-2 degrees. Material and methods. Patients (n=74 with metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea were included into the study. All patients underwent cardiorespiratory monitoring of sleep using SomnoCheck2 device (Wiennmann, Germany and were divided into two groups based on its results. Patients with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI <30 episodes per hour were included into group 1 and patients with AHI >30 episodes per hour – into group 2. Monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure (BP and arterial stiffness was performed by the device BPLab ("Peter Telegin", Russia. Endothelial function was assessed in a probe of flow-mediated dilation by the ultrasound device MyLab 90 (Esaote, Italy. Diameter of the common carotid artery (DCCA and the intima-media thickness (IMT were determined. Results. Patients with AHI >30 episodes per hour had higher mean daily and night systolic BP and pulse BP in aorta and brachial artery. Pulse wave velocity in aorta in per day averaged was also higher in these patients (8.2±0.8 vs 9.1±1.1 m/sec; p<0.05. Mean level of flow-mediated dilation was significantly lower in patients with severe sleep apnea> (8.8% (5.6; 13.1 vs 4.5% (2.2; 8.0; p<0.05. Prevalence of negative index of reactivity in group 2 was 2 times higher than this in group 1. An increase in IMT and DCCA in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea was also revealed. Conclusion. Severe sleep apnea in patients with metabolic syndrome in combination with hypertension aggravates structural changes and endothelial dysfunction of the main arteries, as well as contributes to the progression of atherosclerosis.

  1. Effect of short-term estrogen therapy on endothelial function: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, R; Celani, M; Geber, S

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial over 3 years. Randomization was performed using computer-generated sorting. All participants were blinded to the use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo and FMD was assessed by a blinded examiner, before and after 28 days of medication. A total of 64 healthy postmenopausal women were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of treatment: 0.625 mg of CEE or placebo. FMD values were statistically different between the groups (p = 0.025): the group receiving CEE showed a FMD value of 0.011 compared to the placebo group (FMD = -0.082). The two groups were additionally evaluated for homogeneity through the Shapiro-Wilk test in respect to variables that could interfere with endothelial function such as age (p = 0.729), body mass index (p = 0.891), and time since menopause (p = 0.724). Other variables were excluded during selection of the participants such as chronic vascular conditions, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Our results demonstrate that the administration of 0.625 mg CEE for 28 days is effective in improving vascular nitric oxide-dependent dilation assessed by FMD of the brachial artery in postmenopausal women. NCT01482416.

  2. Dermatoglyphs and brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovina, Svetislav; Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Milicić, Jasna; Proloscić, Tajana Polovina

    2006-09-01

    Perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is a handicap quite commonly encountered in daily routine. Although birth trauma is considered to be the major cause of the defect, it has been observed that PBPP occurs only in some infants born under identical or nearly identical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of genetic predisposition for PBPP. It is well known that digito-palmar dermatoglyphs can be used to determine hereditary roots of some diseases. Thus, we found it meaningful to do a study analysis of digito-palmar dermatoglyphs in this disease as well, conducting it on 140 subjects (70 males and 70 females) diagnosed with PBPP. The control group was composed of fingerprints obtained from 400 adult and phenotypically healthy subjects (200 males and 200 females) from the Zagreb area. The results of multivariate and univariate analysis of variance have shown statistically significant differences between the groups observed. In spite of lower percentage of accurately classified female subjects by discriminant analysis, the results of quantitative analysis of digito-palmar dermatoglyphs appeared to suggest a genetic predisposition for the occurrence of PBPP.

  3. Central hemodynamics in risk assessment strategies: additive value over and above brachial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannoutsos, Alexandra; Rinaldi, Elisa R; Zhang, Yi; Protogerou, Athanassios D; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Although the clinical relevance of brachial blood pressure (BP) measurement for cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is nowadays widely accepted, this approach can nevertheless present several limitations. Pulse pressure (PP) amplification accounts for the notable increase in PP from central to peripheral arterial sites. Target organs are more greatly exposed to central hemodynamic changes than peripheral organs. The pathophysiological significance of local BP pulsatility, which has a role in the pathogenesis of target organ damage in both the macro- and the microcirculation, may therefore not be accurately captured by brachial BP as traditionally evaluated with cuff measurements. The predictive value of central systolic BP and PP over brachial BP for major clinical outcomes has been demonstrated in the general population, in elderly adults and in patients at high CV risk, irrespective of the invasive or non-invasive methods used to assess central BP. Aortic stiffness, timing and intensity of wave reflections, and cardiac performance appear as major factors influencing central PP. Great emphasis has been placed on the role of aortic stiffness, disturbed arterial wave reflections and their intercorrelation in the pathophysiological mechanisms of CV diseases as well as on their capacity to predict target organ damage and clinical events. Comorbidities and age-related changes, together with gender-related specificities of arterial and cardiac parameters, are known to affect the predictive ability of central hemodynamics on individual CV risk.

  4. Endothelial function and its relationship to leptin, homocysteine, and insulin resistance in lean and overweight eumenorrheic women and PCOS patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Fulvia; Cianciosi, Arianna; Reggiani, Giulio Marchesini; Facchinetti, Fabio; Battaglia, Cesare; de Aloysio, Domenico

    2009-06-01

    To verify if patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), have an increased cardiovascular risk compared with healthy controls. Prospective case-control study. University-based practice. Twenty eumenorrheic controls (ten lean [group A] and ten overweight [group B]) and 24 PCOS women (14 lean [group C] and ten overweight [group D]). Cardiovascular risk markers and hormonal parameters were assessed. Androgens, fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, fibrinogen, homocysteine, endothelin-1 and flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery were measured to investigate their relationship to weight and to PCOS. The brachial artery diameter and the pulsatility index, after the reactive hyperemia, showed in group A the most intense vasodilatation compared with the other groups. Homocysteine levels did not differ among the groups. Endothelin-1 was significantly higher in group A compared with groups B and D. Leptin was significantly lower in groups A and C compared with groups B and D. Insulin resistance was higher in groups B and D. Group A had significantly higher glucose-insulin ratio compared with all of the other groups; group C had significantly higher glucose-insulin ratio only compared with group D. Weight and PCOS are two independent variables affecting the endothelial function.

  5. Combined use of intraarterial digital subtraction angiography with conventional retrograde brachial vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Ogawa, Toshihide; Inugami, Atsushi; Kawata, Yasushi; Shishido, Fumio; Uemura, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    For 102 patients who had the examination of conventional bilaterally retrograde brachial vertebral angiography (retrograde VAG), intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was successively performed to investigate steno-occlusive lesions of proximal vertebral and subclavian arteries. All the patients had no complication due to the DSA procedure. In 50% of 72 ischemic stroke cases, positive findings were found either in the origin of the vertebral artery or in the subclavian artery. Stenosis of more than 50% of the lumen of the vertebral artery were found in 14% of the cases at the origin of the right one and also in 14% in the left one. Occlusion of the vertebral artery was found in 4% in the left side only. In 30 cases with non-ischemic brain diseases, positive findings were noted in 10%. Intraarterial DSA combined with retrograde VAG was thought to be useful, especially in the examination for ischemic stroke. (author)

  6. A comparative study on inhibition of total astragalus saponins and astragaloside IV on TNFR1-mediated signaling pathways in arterial endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-she Liu

    Full Text Available Both total astragalus saponins (AST and it's main component astragaloside IV (ASIV have been used in China as cardiovascular protective medicines. However, the anti-inflammatory activities that are beneficial for cardiovascular health have never been compared directly and the molecular mechanisms remain unresolved. This study was conducted to compare the inhibitory effects of these drugs on TNFα-induced cell responses, related signaling pathways, and the underlying mechanisms in mouse arterial endothelial cells.Real-time qRT-PCR was performed to determine the expression of cell adhesion molecule (CAM genes. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the nuclear translocation of transcription factor NF-κB-p65. Western Blot analysis was used to identify TNFα-induced NF-κB-p65 phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and caspase-3 cleavage. Cell surface proteins were isolated and TNFα receptor-1(TNFR1 expression was determined. The results suggest that both AST and ASIV attenuate TNFα-induced up-regulation of CAMs mRNA and upstream nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65. However, TNFR1-mediated IκBα degradation, cleavage of caspase-3 and apoptosis were inhibited only by AST. These differences in the actions of AST and ASIV could be explained by the presence of other components in AST, such as ASII and ASIII, which also had an inhibitory effect on TNFR1-induced IκBα degradation. Moreover, AST, but not ASIV, was able to reduce TNFR1 protein level on the cell surface. Furthermore, mechanistic investigation demonstrated that TNFR1-mediated IκBα degradation was reversed by the use of TAPI-0, an inhibitor of TNFα converting enzyme (TACE, suggesting the involvement of TACE in the modulation of surface TNFR1 level by AST.ASIV was not a better inhibitor than AST, at least on the inhibition of TNFα-induced inflammatory responses and TNFR1-mediated signaling pathways in AECs. The inhibitory effect of AST was caused by the

  7. Role of dexamethasone in brachial plexus block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to (lignocaine) on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from September 2009 to March 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients, who were scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were randomly allocated to group A in which patients received 40 ml 1.5% lidocaine with 2 ml of isotonic saline (0.9%) and group B in which patients received 40 ml 1.5% lidocaine with 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg). Nerve stimulator with insulated needle for multiple stimulations technique was used to locate the brachial plexus nerves. After the injection onset of action and duration of sensory blockade of brachial plexus were recorded at 5 minutes and 15 minutes interval. Results: Group A showed the onset of action of 21.64 ± 2.30 min and in group B it was 15.42 ± 1.44 min (p< 0.001). Duration of nerve block was 115.08 ± 10.92 min in group A and 265.42 ± 16.56 min in group B (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lignocaine solution in axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of sensory blockade significantly. (author)

  8. Single Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis Does Not Improve Vascular Endothelial Function in Chronically Treated Hypercholesterolemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Ballard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate vascular endothelial function (VEF responses to a single low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis session in hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing chronic treatment. Methods. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD, plasma lipids, vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol, markers of oxidative/nitrative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA and nitro-γ-tocopherol (NGT, and regulators of NO metabolism (arginine (ARG and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA prior to (Pre and immediately following (Post LDL apheresis and at 1, 3, 7, and 14 d Post in 5 hypercholesterolemic patients (52 ± 11 y. Results. Relative to Pre, total cholesterol (7.8±1.5 mmol/L and LDL-cholesterol (6.2±1.2 mmol/L were 61% and 70% lower (P<0.01, respectively, at Post and returned to Pre levels at 14 d. Brachial FMD responses (6.9 ± 3.6% and plasma MDA, ARG, and ADMA concentrations were unaffected by LDL apheresis. Plasma α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and NGT concentrations were 52–69% lower at Post (P<0.01, and α-tocopherol remained 36% lower at 1 d whereas NGT remained 41% lower at d 3. Conclusions. Acute cholesterol reduction by LDL apheresis does not alter VEF, oxidative stress, or NO homeostasis in patients treated chronically for hypercholesterolemia.

  9. Severe brachial plexus injuries in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, F; Mannan, K; Bharania, P; Sewell, M D; Di Mascio, L; Sinisi, M

    2012-03-01

    We describe the mechanisms, pattern of injuries, management and outcomes of severe injuries to the brachial plexus sustained during the play of rugby. Thirteen cases of severe injury to the brachial plexus caused by tackles in rugby had detailed clinical assessment, and operative exploration of the brachial plexus. Seventeen spinal nerves were avulsed, two were ruptured and there were traction lesions in continuity of 24 spinal nerves. The pattern of nerve lesion was related to the posture of the neck and the forequarter at the moment of impact. Early repair by nerve transfer enabled some functional recovery, and decompression of lesions in continuity was followed by recovery of nerve function and relief of pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrosylated hemoglobin levels in human venous erythrocytes correlate with vascular endothelial function measured by digital reactive hyperemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina I Lobysheva

    Full Text Available Impaired nitric oxide (NO-dependent endothelial function is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that erythrocyte levels of nitrosylated hemoglobin (HbNO-heme may reflect vascular endothelial function in vivo. We developed a modified subtraction method using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR spectroscopy to identify the 5-coordinate α-HbNO (HbNO concentration in human erythrocytes and examined its correlation with endothelial function assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT. Changes in digital pulse amplitude were measured by PAT during reactive hyperemia following brachial arterial occlusion in a group of healthy volunteers (50 subjects. Erythrocyte HbNO levels were measured at baseline and at the peak of hyperemia. We digitally subtracted an individual model EPR signal of erythrocyte free radicals from the whole EPR spectrum to unmask and quantitate the HbNO EPR signals.Mean erythrocyte HbNO concentration at baseline was 219+/-12 nmol/L (n = 50. HbNO levels and reactive hyperemia (RH indexes were higher in female (free of contraceptive pills than male subjects. We observed a dynamic increase of HbNO levels in erythrocytes isolated at 1-2 min of post-occlusion hyperemia (120+/-8% of basal levels; post-occlusion HbNO levels were correlated with basal levels. Both basal and post-occlusion HbNO levels were significantly correlated with reactive hyperemia (RH indexes (r = 0.58; P<0.0001 for basal HbNO.The study demonstrates quantitative measurements of 5-coordinate α-HbNO in human venous erythrocytes, its dynamic physiologic regulation and correlation with endothelial function measured by tonometry during hyperemia. This opens the way to further understanding of in vivo determinants of NO bioavailability in human circulation.

  11. Coronary and peripheral endothelial function in HIV patients studied with positron emission tomography and flow-mediated dilation: relation to hypercholesterolemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Hvidovre (Denmark); Hvidovre University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Hvidovre (Denmark); Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Kjaer, Andreas [Rigshospitalet University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wiinberg, Niels; Petersen, Claus Leth [Frederiksberg University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Kofoed, Kristian; Andersen, Ove [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Hvidovre (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital, Clinical Research Unit, Hvidovre (Denmark); Hesse, Birger [Rigshospitalet University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gerstoft, Jan [Rigshospitalet University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-11-15

    The mechanisms underlying increased cardiovascular risk in HIV patients in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not known. Our aim was to study the endothelial function of the coronary arteries by cardiac perfusion positron emission tomography (PET), in HIV patients with normal or high cholesterol levels. Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and circulating endothelial markers were also assessed. HIV patients in ART with total cholesterol {<=} 5.5 mmol/L (215 mg/dL; n = 13) or total cholesterol {>=} 6.5 mmol/L (254 mg/dL; n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 14) were included. {sup 13}NH{sub 3} perfusion PET, FMD, and measurement of plasma levels of E-Selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, tPAI-1, and hs-CRP were performed. Baseline myocardial perfusion and the coronary flow reserve measured by PET (3.2 {+-} 0.3, 3.2 {+-} 0.3 and 3.0 {+-} 0.3; ns) was similar in HIV patients with normal or high total cholesterol and controls. FMD did not differ between the groups and was 4.6 {+-} 1.1%, 5.1 {+-} 1.2%, and 4.6 {+-} 0.8%, respectively. Increased levels of plasma E-Selectin, ICAM-1, tPAI-1, and hs-CRP were found in HIV patients when compared to controls (p < 0.05). E-Selectin and ICAM-1 levels were higher in HIV patients receiving protease inhibitors (PI) compared to those not receiving PI (p < 0.05). None of the measured endothelial biomarkers differed between the normal and high cholesterol HIV groups. In ART-treated HIV patients with a low overall cardiovascular risk, no sign of endothelial dysfunction was found not even in hypercholesterolemic patients. Also, the increased level of plasma endothelial markers found in HIV patients was not related to hypercholesterolemia. (orig.)

  12. Metformin, but not glimepiride, improves carotid artery diameter and blood flow in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Atroch Machado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of glimepiride and metformin on vascular reactivity, hemostatic factors and glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in 16 uncontrolled patients with diabetes previously treated with dietary intervention. The participants were randomized into metformin or glimepiride therapy groups. After four months, the patients were crossed over with no washout period to the alternative treatment for an additional four-month period on similar dosage schedules. The following variables were assessed before and after four months of each treatment: 1 fasting glycemia, insulin, catecholamines, lipid profiles and HbA1 levels; 2 t-PA and PAI-1 (antigen and activity, platelet aggregation and fibrinogen and plasminogen levels; and 3 the flow indices of the carotid and brachial arteries. In addition, at the end of each period, a 12-hour metabolic profile was obtained after fasting and every 2 hours thereafter. RESULTS: Both therapies resulted in similar decreases in fasting glucose, triglyceride and norepinephrine levels, and they increased the fibrinolytic factor plasminogen but decreased t-PA activity. Metformin caused lower insulin and pro-insulin levels and higher glucagon levels and increased systolic carotid diameter and blood flow. Neither metformin nor glimepiride affected endothelial-dependent or endothelial-independent vasodilation of the brachial artery. CONCLUSIONS: Glimepiride and metformin were effective in improving glucose and lipid profiles and norepinephrine levels. Metformin afforded more protection against macrovascular diabetes complications, increased systolic carotid artery diameter and total and systolic blood flow, and decreased insulin levels. As both therapies increased plasminogen levels but reduced t-PA activity, a coagulation process was likely still ongoing.

  13. The relationship of vascular endothelial marker and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongjian; Zhou Yonglie; Hu Qingfeng; Qiu Liannv

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship of vascular endothelial marker and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with essential hypertension (EH). Methods: Plasma endothlium (ET-1) (with RIA) and von Willber factor (vWF)(with ELISA) levels were measured both before and after 12 wks' treatment in 56 patients with essential hypertension and 32 controls. The brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function was examined with high resolving color doppler ultra-sonography. The 56 patients with EH were of two groups A. high and very high risk, n=26 B. low and moderate risk, n=30. Results: Plasma levels of ET-1, vWF in patients with EH as a whole were significantly higher than those in controls group [(53.3±16.2)pg/ml vs(42.5±8.5)pg/ml, (158.2±28.6)% vs(130.6±35.2)%], endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function wasmuch reduced in patients with EH(7.5±4.2)% vs controls(12.3±4.3)%. Among the patients, values in Group A were significantly different from those in Group B. After treatment for 12 weeks, plasma ET-1 and vWF and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function were significantly improved. There was negative correlation between vascular endothelial marker levels and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function. Conclusion: The endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function was impaired and plasma ET-1 and vWF levels were increased in patients with EH, the endothelial dysfunction was closely associated with the risk level of EH. Vascular endothelial markers were useful indicators for evaluation of the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function. (authors)

  14. Influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, exercise and other risk factors on endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Catherine H; Wilson, John F; Ashfield-Watt, Pauline A L; Clark, Zoë E; Whiting, Jenny M; Lewis, Malcolm J; McDowell, Ian F W

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the pathogenesis of vascular disease that occurs before structural vascular changes or clinical symptoms are evident. Conventional risk factors, for example hypertension and diabetes mellitus, are associated with endothelial dysfunction, but the influence of other putative risk factors is not clear. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, a common polymorphism that induces hyperhomocysteinaemia, has been proposed as being a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A total of 126 healthy adults recruited by MTHFR C677T genotype (42 of each genotype, i.e. CC, CT and TT) underwent assessment of endothelial function. Brachial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution ultrasonic vessel "wall-tracking". Using multiple regression analysis, MTHFR genotype and 21 other subject and subject-lifestyle variables were investigated as potential predictors of endothelial function. FMD was influenced positively by frequency of aerobic exercise and by hormone replacement therapy, and negatively by increases in systolic blood pressure. MTHFR C677T genotype and the associated variation in plasma homocysteine levels did not influence FMD. Additionally, other factors, including plasma cholesterol and self-supplementation with either antioxidant vitamins or cod liver oil, showed no significant relationship with FMD, although these findings are compromised by the narrow range studied for cholesterol and the small number of subjects taking supplements. These observations have implications for risk factor management in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in healthy individuals.

  15. Is reversal of endothelial dysfunction by tea related to flavonoid metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Puddey, Ian B; Burke, Valerie; Croft, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids can improve endothelial function, but the response varies between individuals. Wide variability is also seen in flavonoid O-methylation, a major pathway of flavonoid metabolism. The O-methylation of flavonoids could alter activity, and thus influence any effect on endothelial function. The objective of the current analysis was to investigate whether variability in the endothelial function response to ingestion of tea, a rich source of flavonoids, is related to the degree of O-methylation of flavonoids. This relationship was investigated in two studies in which endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed and urinary 4-O-methylgallic acid (4OMGA) excretion was used as a marker of the O-methylation of tea-derived flavonoids. In the first study, amongst participants consuming five cups of tea per day for 4 weeks, the degree of increase in 4OMGA excretion was inversely associated with the change in FMD responses (r -078, P=0.008). In the second study, there was a significant difference in the FMD responses to acute ingestion of three cups of tea between individuals with a low (median) 4OMGA response (1.94 (sem 0.79) % and -0.25 (sem 0.53) %, respectively; P=0.03). That is, any improvement in FMD following ingestion of tea may be enhanced in individuals who O-methylate less of the absorbed flavonoids. The present results are consistent with the suggestion that differences in flavonoid metabolism may influence their effect on endothelial function. Thus, differences in flavonoid metabolism could be related to the level of benefit of dietary flavonoids on the risk of CVD.

  16. Rare high origin of the radial artery: a bilateral, symmetrical case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arterial variations in the upper limb can occur at the level of the axillary, brachial, radial and ulnar arteries as well as the palmar arches. This is a report of bilateral, symmetrical high origin of the radial artery from the axillary artery. Knowledge of such variations is important in vascular and reconstructive surgery. (Nig J Surg ...

  17. Pentoxifylline, inflammation, and endothelial function in HIV-infected persons: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir K Gupta

    Full Text Available Untreated HIV may increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Our preliminary in vitro and in vivo research suggests that pentoxifylline (PTX reduces vascular inflammation and improves endothelial function in HIV-infected persons not requiring antiretroviral therapy.We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PTX 400 mg orally thrice daily for 8 weeks in 26 participants. The primary endpoint was change in flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery after 8 weeks. Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NTGMD and circulating markers of inflammation, cellular immune activation, coagulation, and metabolism were also assessed.The difference in mean absolute change (SD in FMD after 8 weeks between the placebo [-1.06 (1.45%] and PTX [-1.93 (3.03%] groups was not significant (P = 0.44. No differences in NTGMD were observed. The only significant between-group difference in the changes in biomarkers from baseline to week 8 was in soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFRI [-83.2 pg/mL in the placebo group vs. +65.9 pg/mL in the PTX group; P = 0.03]. PTX was generally well-tolerated.PTX did not improve endothelial function and unexpectedly increased the inflammatory biomarker sTNFRI in HIV-infected participants not requiring antiretroviral therapy. Additional interventional research is needed to reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00796822.

  18. The acute effect of coffee on endothelial function and glucose metabolism following a glucose load in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Evan A J; Croft, Kevin D; Shinde, Sujata; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Ward, Natalie C

    2017-09-20

    A diet rich in plant polyphenols has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in part, via improvements in endothelial function. Coffee is a rich source of phenolic compounds including the phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid (CGA). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of coffee as a whole beverage on endothelial function, blood pressure and blood glucose concentration. Twelve healthy men and women were recruited to a randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, with three treatments tested: (i) 18 g of ground caffeinated coffee containing 300 mg CGA in 200 mL of hot water, (ii) 18 g of decaffeinated coffee containing 287 mg CGA in 200 mL of hot water, and (iii) 200 mL of hot water (control). Treatment beverages were consumed twice, two hours apart, with the second beverage consumed simultaneously with a 75 g glucose load. Blood pressure was recorded and the finger prick glucose test was performed at time = 0 and then every 30 minutes up to 2 hours. Endothelial function, assessed using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, was measured at 1 hour and a blood sample taken at 2 hours to measure plasma nitrate/nitrite and 5-CGA concentrations. The FMD response was significantly higher in the caffeinated coffee group compared to both decaffeinated coffee and water groups (P coffee and water. Blood glucose concentrations and blood pressure were not different between the three treatment groups. In conclusion, the consumption of caffeinated coffee resulted in a significant improvement in endothelial function, but there was no evidence for benefit regarding glucose metabolism or blood pressure. Although the mechanism has yet to be elucidated the results suggest that coffee as a whole beverage may improve endothelial function, or that caffeine is the component of coffee responsible for improving FMD.

  19. Effects of N-acetyl-cysteine on endothelial function and inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Cohen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with premature vascular disease. There is increasing data that N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC may prevent or improve endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of NAC on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a population at high risk for endothelial dysfunction. Twenty-four patients with diabetes mellitus were assigned randomly to initial therapy with either 900 mg NAC or placebo twice daily in a double-blind, cross-over study design. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD of the brachial artery was assessed at baseline, after four weeks of therapy, after a four-week wash-out period, and after another four weeks on the opposite treatment. Plasma and red blood cell glutathione levels and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP were measured at all four visits. At baseline, FMD was moderately impaired (3.7±2.9%. There was no significant change in FMD after four weeks of NAC therapy as compared to placebo (0.1±3.6% vs. 1.2±4.2%. Similarly, there was no significant change in glutathione levels. However, median CRP decreased from 2.35 to 2.14 mg/L during NAC therapy (p=0.04, while it increased from 2.24 to 2.65 mg/L with placebo. No side effects were noted during the treatment period. In this double-blind, randomized cross-over study, four weeks of oral NAC therapy failed to improve endothelial dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, NAC therapy decreased CRP levels, suggesting that this compound may have some efficacy in reducing systemic inflammation.

  20. Propionyl-L-carnitine improves endothelial function, microcirculation and pain management in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, S; Zecchetto, S; Rigoni, A; Prior, M; Fondrieschi, L; Scuro, A; Rulfo, F; Arosio, E

    2012-10-01

    Chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe condition of hypo-perfusion of lower limbs, which is associated with inflammation and a pro-coagulative state. It is a disease at high risk of amputation and cardiovascular death. Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is efficacious in improving pain free walking distance in peripheral arterial disease with claudication; it also exerts favorable effects on the arterial wall and on endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PLC on microcirculation, endothelial function and pain relief in patients affected by CLI not suitable for surgical intervention. We enrolled 48 patients with CLI. Patients were randomized into two groups: the first group was treated with PLC, the second was treated with saline solution. All of them underwent the following tests: laser Doppler flowmetry at the forefoot at rest and after ischemia, trans cutaneous oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure at the forefoot at rest and after ischemia, endothelium dependent dilation of the brachial artery. All tests were repeated after treatments. Pain was assessed by visual analog pain scale. Endothelium dependent dilation increased after PLC (9.5 ± 3.2 vs 4.9 ± 1.4 %; p < 0.05). Post-ischemic peak flow with laser-Doppler flow increased after PLC. TcPO2 increased, while TcPCO2 decreased after PLC; CO2 production decreased after PLC. VAS showed a significant reduction in pain perception after active treatment. In CLI patients, PLC can improve microcirculation (post ischemic hyperemia, TcPO2 and TcPCO2 production). PLC also enhances endothelium dependent dilation and reduces analgesic consumption and pain perception.

  1. MR evaluation of brachial plexus injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Jain, R.K.; Mehta, V.S.; Banerji, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Ten cases of brachial plexus injury were subjected to magnetic resonance (MR) to demonstrate the roots, trunks, divisions or cord abnormalities. Both normal and abnormal brachial plexuses were imaged in sagittal, axial, coronal and axial oblique planes. Myelography, using water soluble contrast agents, was performed in seven cases. MR demonstrated one traumatic meningocele, one extradural cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection, trunk and/or root neuromas in four, focal root fibrosis in two and diffuse fibrosis in the remaining two cases. Results of MR were confirmed at surgery in four cases with neuromas, while myelography was normal in two and was not carried out in the remaining two. In two cases, where MR demonstrated diffuse fibrosis of the brachial plexus, myelography showed C7 and T1 traumatic meningocele in one and was normal in the other. Both these patients showed excellent clinical and electrophysiological correlation with MR findings and in one of them surgical confirmation was also obtained. In the other two cases with focal nerve root fibrosis, myelography was normal in one and showed a traumatic meningocele in another. Operative findings in these cases confirmed focal root fibrosis but no root avulsion was observed although seen on one myelogram. Focal fibrosis, however, was noted at operation in more roots than was observed with MR. Initial experience suggests that MR may be the diagnostic procedure of choice for complete evaluation of brachial plexus injuries. (orig.)

  2. Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Liao, Yihua [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); McDermott, Mary M. [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)

  3. Arterial alterations in severely obese children with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubern, Beatrice; Aggoun, Yacine; Boulé, Michèle; Fauroux, Brigitte; Bonnet, Damien; Tounian, Patrick

    2010-05-03

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in obese adults is associated with cardiovascular disease independently of obesity. Vascular alterations exist in children with obesity and may constitute the first stage in the development of adulthood cardiovascular disease. To investigate the relationship between OSA and early arterial alterations in obese children. Cross-sectional study of a prospective cohort. A total of 51 children with severe obesity managed at a teaching hospital outpatient clinic. Polysomnography was performed. We measured the intima-media thickness and incremental elastic modulus (Einc) to assess the mechanical characteristics of the common carotid artery. Arterial endothelial function was evaluated by measuring flow-mediated dilation and glyceryl trinitrate-mediated dilation (GTNMD) of the brachial artery. A total of 24 (47%) children had a desaturation index (DI) >10/h and 7 (14%) had a respiratory event index >10/h. DI >10/h was associated with significantly higher values of Einc (4.0 + or - 0.5 vs. 2.4 + or - 0.4 mm Hg(-1) x 10(3), p=0.003) and GTNMD (18.0 + or - 1.1 vs. 14.1 + or - 1.0 %, p=0.02) after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, fasting insulin, and leptin. In the univariate analysis, GTNMD correlated positively with DI (r=0.14, p=0.02) after adjustment for age, sex, fasting insulin and leptin. By multivariate analysis with BMI as an additional independent variable, both GTNMD and Einc correlated significantly with DI (beta=0.4, p=0.02 and beta=0.27, p=0.04, respectively). OSA in children is associated with arterial alterations independently from obesity. The increased vasodilation in response to glyceryl trinitrate reflects pre-existing vasoconstriction probably induced by intermittent hypoxia. OSA should be detected early in children with severe obesity.

  4. Dual neural endopeptidase/endothelin-converting [corrected] enzyme inhibition improves endothelial function in mesenteric resistance arteries of young spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemkens, Pieter; Nelissen, Jelly; Meens, Merlijn J P M T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide with pro-mitogenic and pro-inflammatory properties and is therefore of interest in the development of endothelial dysfunction, endothelium-dependent flow-related remodeling, and hypertension-related remodeling. ET1 can be formed t...

  5. Long-term effects of bariatric surgery on peripheral endothelial function and coronary microvascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, Pierpaolo; Lanza, Gaetano A; Sestito, Alfonso; Villano, Angelo; Russo, Giulio; Figliozzi, Stefano; Lamendola, Priscilla; De Vita, Antonio; Crea, Filippo

    We previously demonstrated that bariatric surgery (BS) leads to a short-term significant improvement of endothelial function and coronary microvascular function. In this study we assessed whether BS maintains its beneficial effect at long-term follow up. We studied 19 morbidly obese patients (age 43±9years, 12 women) without any evidence of cardiovascular disease who underwent BS. Patients were studied before BS, at 3 months and at 4.0±1.5years follow up. Peripheral vascular function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitrate-mediated dilation (NMD), i.e., brachial artery diameter changes in response to post-ischemic forearm hyperhaemia and to nitroglycerin administration, respectively. Coronary microvascular function was assessed by measuring coronary blood flow (CBF) response to intravenous adenosine and to cold pressor test (CPT) in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Together with improvement of anthropometric and metabolic profile, at long-term follow-up patients showed a significant improvement of FMD (6.43±2.88 vs. 8.21±1.73%, p=0.018), and CBF response to both adenosine (1.73±0.48 vs. 2.58±0.54; pfunction and on coronary microvascular dilator function. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accessory brachialis muscle associated with high division of brachial artery

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy A; David S; Bagoji IB; Nayak SR; Pai MM; Murlimanju BV; Kumar GC

    2010-01-01

    During routine dissection for the undergraduate students in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, of a male cadaver aged 73 years, we encountered an additional slip of brachialis muscle taking origin in the flexor compartment of left arm and inserting into the forearm. The origin of the additional muscle belly was from the anteromedial surface of shaft and medial supracondylar ridge of lower end of humerus. The additional muscle slip merged with the tendon of pronato...

  7. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Holbrook, Monika; Hamburg, Naomi M; Shenouda, Sherene M; Chung, William B; Titas, Megan; Kluge, Matthew A; Wang, Na; Palmisano, Joseph; Milbury, Paul E; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Vita, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cranberry juice contains polyphenolic compounds that could improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. Design: We completed an acute pilot study with no placebo (n = 15) and a chronic placebo-controlled crossover study (n = 44) that examined the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. Results: In the chronic crossover study, subjects with coronary heart disease consumed a research preparation of double-strength cranberry juice (54% juice, 835 mg total polyphenols, and 94 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo beverage (480 mL/d) for 4 wk each with a 2-wk rest period between beverages. Beverage order was randomly assigned, and participants refrained from consuming other flavonoid-containing beverages during the study. Vascular function was measured before and after each beverage, with follow-up testing ≥12 h after consumption of the last beverage. Mean (±SD) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a measure of central aortic stiffness, decreased after cranberry juice (8.3 ± 2.3 to 7.8 ± 2.2 m/s) in contrast with an increase after placebo (8.0 ± 2.0 to 8.4 ± 2.8 m/s) (P = 0.003). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, digital pulse amplitude tonometry, blood pressure, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity did not change. In the uncontrolled pilot study, we observed improved brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (7.7 ± 2.9% to 8.7 ± 3.1%, P = 0.01) and digital pulse amplitude tonometry ratio (0.10 ± 0.12 to 0.23 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) 4 h after consumption of a single 480-mL portion of cranberry juice. Conclusions: Chronic cranberry juice consumption reduced carotid femoral pulse wave velocity—a clinically relevant measure of arterial stiffness. The uncontrolled pilot study suggested an acute benefit; however, no chronic effect on measures of

  8. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Holbrook, Monika; Hamburg, Naomi M; Shenouda, Sherene M; Chung, William B; Titas, Megan; Kluge, Matthew A; Wang, Na; Palmisano, Joseph; Milbury, Paul E; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Vita, Joseph A

    2011-05-01

    Cranberry juice contains polyphenolic compounds that could improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The objective was to examine the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. We completed an acute pilot study with no placebo (n = 15) and a chronic placebo-controlled crossover study (n = 44) that examined the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. In the chronic crossover study, subjects with coronary heart disease consumed a research preparation of double-strength cranberry juice (54% juice, 835 mg total polyphenols, and 94 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo beverage (480 mL/d) for 4 wk each with a 2-wk rest period between beverages. Beverage order was randomly assigned, and participants refrained from consuming other flavonoid-containing beverages during the study. Vascular function was measured before and after each beverage, with follow-up testing ≥12 h after consumption of the last beverage. Mean (±SD) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a measure of central aortic stiffness, decreased after cranberry juice (8.3 ± 2.3 to 7.8 ± 2.2 m/s) in contrast with an increase after placebo (8.0 ± 2.0 to 8.4 ± 2.8 m/s) (P = 0.003). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, digital pulse amplitude tonometry, blood pressure, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity did not change. In the uncontrolled pilot study, we observed improved brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (7.7 ± 2.9% to 8.7 ± 3.1%, P = 0.01) and digital pulse amplitude tonometry ratio (0.10 ± 0.12 to 0.23 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) 4 h after consumption of a single 480-mL portion of cranberry juice. Chronic cranberry juice consumption reduced carotid femoral pulse wave velocity-a clinically relevant measure of arterial stiffness. The uncontrolled pilot study suggested an acute benefit; however, no chronic effect on measures of endothelial vasodilator function was found. This trial

  9. Peripheral and central arterial pressure and its relationship to vascular target organ damage in carotid artery, retina and arterial stiffness. Development and validation of a tool. The Vaso risk study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patino-Alonso Maria C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM shows a better correlation to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality than office blood pressure. A loss of arterial elasticity and an increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity-mortality. Tools have been developed that allow estimation of the retinal arteriovenous index but not all studies coincide and there are contradictory results in relation to the evolution of the arteriosclerotic lesions and the caliber of the retinal vessels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between peripheral and central arterial pressure (clinic and ambulatory and vascular structure and function as evaluated by the carotid artery intima-media thickness, retina arteriovenous index, pulse wave velocity (PWV and ankle-brachial index in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. In turn, software is developed and validated for measuring retinal vessel thickness and automatically estimating the arteriovenous index. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study involving a control group will be made, with a posterior 4-year follow-up period in primary care. The study patients will be type 2 diabetics, with a control group of non-diabetic individuals. Consecutive sampling will be used to include 300 patients between 34-75 years of age and no previous cardiovascular disease, one-half being assigned to each group. Main measurements: age, gender, height, weight and abdominal circumference. Lipids, creatinine, microalbuminuria, blood glucose, HbA1c, blood insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and endothelial dysfunction markers. Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Carotid ultrasound to evaluate IMT, and retinography to evaluate the arteriovenous index. ECG to assess left ventricle hypertrophy, ankle-brachial index, and pulse wave analysis (PWA and pulse wave velocity (PWV with the Sphigmocor

  10. Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease: the value of a validated questionnaire and a clinical decision rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bendermacher, Bianca L. W.; Teijink, Joep A. W.; Willigendael, Edith M.; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; Büller, Harry R.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Boiten, Jelis; Langenberg, Machteld; Prins, Martin H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If a validated questionnaire, when applied to patients reporting with symptoms of intermittent claudication, could adequately discriminate between those with and without peripheral arterial disease, GPs could avoid the diagnostic measurement of the ankle brachial index. AIM: To

  11. Association Between Chromosome 9p21 Variants and the Ankle-Brachial Index Identified by a Meta-Analysis of 21 Genome-Wide Association Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murabito, Joanne M.; White, Charles C.; Kavousi, Maryam; Sun, Yan V.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Nambi, Vijay; Lamina, Claudia; Schillert, Arne; Coassin, Stefan; Bis, Joshua C.; Broer, Linda; Crawford, Dana C.; Franceschini, Nora; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Haun, Margot; Holewijn, Suzanne; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Kiechl, Stefan; Kollerits, Barbara; Montasser, May E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Rudock, Megan E.; Senft, Andrea; Teumer, Alexander; van der Harst, Pim; Vitart, Veronique; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wood, Andrew R.; Wassel, Christina L.; Absher, Devin M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Amin, Najaf; Arnold, Alice; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barbalic, Maja; Boban, Mladen; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Couper, David J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Dehghan, Abbas; den Heijer, Martin; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Ding, Jingzhong; Doerr, Marcus; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Fraedrich, Gustav; Gibson, Quince; Goodloe, Robert; Gunjaca, Grgo; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Heiss, Gerardo; Hofman, Albert; Kieback, Arne; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Lackner, Karl J.; Li, Xiaohui; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lohman, Kurt; Meisinger, Christa; Melzer, David; Mohler, Emile R.; Mudnic, Ivana; Mueller, Thomas; Navis, Gerjan; Oberhollenzer, Friedrich; Olin, Jeffrey W.; O'Connell, Jeff; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmas, Walter; Penninx, Brenda W.; Petersmann, Astrid; Polasek, Ozren; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rantner, Barbara; Rice, Ken; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Stadler, Marietta; Summerer, Monika; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Wild, Sarah H.; Wild, Philipp S.; Willeit, Johann; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Campbell, Harry; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cooke, John P.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Herrington, David; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Anna; Muenzel, Thomas; Newman, Anne B.; Oostra, Ben A.; Rudan, Igor; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Snieder, Harold; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Voelker, Uwe; Wright, Alan F.; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Liu, Yongmei; Hayward, Caroline; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Ziegler, Andreas; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kronenberg, Florian; Dorr, M.; Munzel, T.; Volker, U.

    Background-Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population-based cohorts.

  12. Association Between Chromosome 9p21 Variants and the Ankle-Brachial Index Identified by a Meta-Analysis of 21 Genome-Wide Association Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murabito, Joanne M; White, Charles C; Kavousi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population-based coh...

  13. Ankle brachial index values, leg symptoms, and functional performance among community-dwelling older men and women in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence and significance of low normal and abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) values in a community dwelling population of sedentary, older individuals is unknown. We describe the prevalence of categories of definite peripheral artery disease (PAD), borderline ABI, low-normal ABI and no PAD...

  14. Brachial Plexus Neuropraxia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Kelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuropraxia develops as a result of localized nerve compression. The anatomical structure of the nerve is protected. Motor loss and paresthesias may occur, pain sensation is rarely affected. The distal portion of the extremities are affected more often. Clinical symptoms respond well to treatments. In this case was presented brachial plexus neuropraxia which is a very rare situation und the literature was reviewed. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(4.000: 247-250

  15. Analysis of Arterial Mechanics During Head-Down-Tilt Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Morgan B.; Martin, David S.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Carotid, brachial, and tibial arteries reacted differently to HDTBR. Previous studies have not analyzed the mechanical properties of the human brachial or anterior tibial arteries. After slight variations during bed-rest, arterial mechanical properties and IMT returned to pre-bed rest values, with the exception of tibial stiffness and PSE, which continued to be reduced post-bed rest while the DC remained elevated. The tibial artery remodeling was probably due to decreased pressure and volume. Resulting implications for longer duration spaceflight are unclear. Arterial health may be affected by microgravity, as shown by increased thoracic aorta stiffness in other ground based simulations (Aubert).

  16. Gender, exercise training, and eNOS expression in porcine skeletal muscle arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M Harold; Welshons, Wade V; Sturek, Michael; Rush, James W E; Turk, James R; Taylor, Julia A; Judy, Barbara M; Henderson, Kyle K; Ganjam, V K

    2003-07-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effects of gender and exercise training on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein content of porcine skeletal muscle arteries and to evaluate the role of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in these effects. We measured eNOS and SOD content with immunoblots and immunohistochemistry in femoral and brachial arteries of trained and sedentary male and female pigs and measured estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA and alpha-ER and beta-ER protein in aortas of male and female pigs. Results indicate that female arteries contain more eNOS than male arteries and that exercise training increases eNOS content independent of gender. Male and female pigs expressed similar levels of alpha-ER mRNA and protein and similar amounts beta-ER protein in their arteries. E2 concentrations as measured by RIA were 180 +/- 34 pg/ml in male sera and approximately 5 pg/ml in female sera, and neither was changed by training. However, bioassay indicated that biologically active estrogen equivalent to only 35 +/- 5 pg/ml was present in male sera. E2 in female pigs, whether measured by RIA or bioassay, was approximately 24 pg/ml at peak estrous and 2 pg/ml on day 5 diestrus. The free fraction of E2 in sera did not explain the low measurements, relative to RIA, of E2. We conclude that 1). gender has significant influence on eNOS and SOD content of porcine skeletal muscle arteries; 2). the effects of gender and exercise training vary among arteries of different anatomic origin; 3). male sera contains compounds that cause RIA to overestimate circulating estrogenic activity; and 4). relative to human men, the male pig is not biologically estrogenized by high levels of E2 reported by RIA, whereas in female pigs E2 levels are lower than in the blood of human women.

  17. Wine and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R

    2003-01-01

    In recent years many studies have focused on the well-known relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk. Wine exerts its protective effects through various changes in lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, platelet aggregation, oxidative mechanisms and endothelial function. The last has earned more attention for its implications in atherogenesis. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by a delicate balancing among vasorelaxing (nitric oxide [NO]) and vasoconstrincting (endothelins) factors produced by endothelium in response to various stimuli. In rat models, wine and other grape derivatives exerted an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing capacity especially associated with the NO-stimulating activity of their polyphenol components. In experimental conditions, reservatrol (a stilbene polyphenol) protected hearts and kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury through antioxidant activity and upregulation of NO production. Wine polyphenols are also able to induce the expression of genes involved in the NO pathway within the arterial wall. The effects of wine on endothelial function in humans are not yet clearly understood. A favorable action of red wine or dealcoholized wine extract or purple grape juice on endothelial function has been observed by several authors, but discrimination between ethanol and polyphenol effects is controversial. It is, however likely that regular and prolonged moderate wine drinking positively affects endothelial function. The beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular health are greater if wine is associated with a healthy diet. The most recent nutritional and epidemiologic studies show that the ideal diet closely resembles the Mediterranean diet.

  18. The natural history and management of brachial plexus birth palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Buterbaugh, Kristin L.; Shah, Apurva S.

    2016-01-01

    Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is an upper extremity paralysis that occurs due to traction injury of the brachial plexus during childbirth. Approximately 20 % of children with brachial plexus birth palsy will have residual neurologic deficits. These permanent and significant impacts on upper limb function continue to spur interest in optimizing the management of a problem with a highly variable natural history. BPBP is generally diagnosed on clinical examination and does not typically req...

  19. Blood urea level and diabetes duration are independently associated with ankle-brachial index in type 2 diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosevski, M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors of ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.

    Material and methods

    370 patients (mean age 60.3 ± 8.3 years and diabetes duration 8.6 ± 6.2 years) with type 2

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Is Associated With Worse Endothelial Function Among Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, S Marlene; Owens, Christopher D; Alley, Hugh; Perez, Sandra; Whooley, Mary A; Neylan, Thomas C; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Gasper, Warren J; Hilton, Joan F; Cohen, Beth E

    2016-03-23

    Current research in behavioral cardiology reveals a significant association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and increased risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that patients with PTSD would exhibit endothelial dysfunction, a potential mechanism involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. A total of 214 outpatients treated at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center underwent tests of endothelial function and evaluation for PTSD. Flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery was performed to assess endothelial function, and current PTSD status was defined by the PTSD Checklist, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition), with a score ≥40. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the association between PTSD status and endothelial function. Patients with PTSD (n=67) were more likely to be male (99% versus 91%, P=0.04) and to have depression (58% versus 8%, P<0.0001) and were less likely to be on an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (17% versus 36%, P=0.007) or β-blocker treatment (25% versus 41%, P=0.03). Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients with PTSD had significantly lower flow-mediated vasodilation (5.8±3.4% versus 7.5±3.7%; P=0.003); furthermore, lower flow-mediated vasodilation was associated with increasing age (P=0.008), decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.003), hypertension (P=0.002), aspirin (P=0.03), and β-blocker treatments (P=0.01). In multivariable analysis, PTSD remained independently associated with lower flow-mediated vasodilation (P=0.0005). After adjusting for demographic, comorbidity, and treatment characteristics, PTSD remained associated with worse endothelial function in an outpatient population. Whether poor endothelial function contributes to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with PTSD

  1. Normal endothelial function after meals rich in olive or safflower oil previously used for deep frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M J; Sutherland, W H; McCormick, M P; Yeoman, D; de Jong, S A; Walker, R J

    2001-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fats are more susceptible to oxidation during heating than monounsaturated fats but their effects on endothelial function when heated are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of meals rich in heat-modified safflower and olive oils on postprandial flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) in healthy men. Flow-mediated EDD and glyceryltrinitrate-induced endothelium-independent dilation of the brachial artery were investigated in 14 subjects before and 4 hours after meals rich in olive oil and safflower oil used hourly for deep-frying for 8 hours in a double-blind crossover study design. There were high levels of lipid oxidation products (peroxides and carbonyls) in both heated oils. Plasma triglycerides were markedly increased at 4 hours after heated olive oil (1.26 +/- 0.43 vs 2.06 +/- 0.97 mmol/L) and heated safflower oil (1.44 +/- 0.63 vs 1.99 +/- 0.88 mmol/L). There was no change in EDD between fasting and postprandial studies and the response during the postprandial period was not significantly (p = 0.51) different between the meals (heated olive oil: 4.9 +/- 2.2% vs 4.9 +/- 2.5%; heated safflower oil: 5.1 +/- 3.1% vs 5.6 +/- 3.4%). Meals rich in olive and safflower oils previously used for deep frying and containing high levels of lipid oxidation products increase postprandial serum triglycerides without affecting endothelial function. These findings suggest that relatively short-term use of these vegetable oils for frying may not adversely affect postprandial endothelial function when foods containing the heat-modified oils are consumed.

  2. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p < or = 0.001) but not in the low-flavonoid group (17.5 +/- 9 nmol/L, p = 0.99). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  3. Endothelial function in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Implications of body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kannishy, Ghada; Kamal, Shaheer; Mousa, Amany; Saleh, Omayma; Badrawy, Adel El; Farahaty, Reham El; Shokeir, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    Evidence regarding endothelial function in both obese and nonobese women with PCOS is contradictory. It is unknown whether obese women with PCOS carry an increased risk related to body mass index (BMI). To identify endothelial function and investigate its relationship to body mass index and insulin resistance in young women with PCOS. Twenty-two obese women with PCOS (BMI 35.2 ± 3.2) as well as fourteen lean women (BMI 22.8 ± 2.1)with PCOS were included in the study. Fasting serum insulin, blood glucose were estimated and HOMA and Quicki index were calculated. All patients were subjected to ultrasound recording of brachial artery diameter at rest and after reactive hyperemia (FMD) for assessment of endothelial function. Ten age matched healthy females with normal BMI were chosen as a control group. There were higher basal insulin levels with lower Quicki index and higher HOMA index in women with PCOS than normal group, but the differences were significant only between obese PCOS subgroup and control. On the other hand, FMD was significantly and equally decreased in both groups of women with PCOS, compared with control subjects (3.7 ± 3.2% in the nonobese subgroup and 3.5 ± 2.8% in the obese one vs. 10.6 ± 4.1% in control subjects, P, 0.001). FMD was not correlated with BMI nor insulin resistance indices. Endothelial dysfunction is already present in young women with PCOS. In this patient group, it cannot be attributed to insulin resistance or obesity. © 2010 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia treated with atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawi, H; Osman, N S; Annuar, R; Khalid, B A K; Yusoff, K

    2003-08-01

    Adhesion molecules and cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of intimal injury in atherosclerosis but their relationship with endothelial function remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of atorvastatin on soluble adhesion molecules, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients with familial (FH) and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia (NFH). A total of 74 patients (27 FH and 47 NFH) were recruited. Fasting lipid profiles, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin, IL-6 and FMD were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 and 9 months post-atorvastatin treatment (FH--80 mg/day, NFH--10 mg/day). In both groups, compared to baseline, sICAM-1 levels were significantly reduced at 2 weeks, further reduced at 3 months and maintained at 9 months (P<0.0001). The IL-6 levels were significantly reduced at 3 months and 9 months compared to baseline for FH (P<0.005) and NFH (P<0.0001). In both groups, the FMD at 2 weeks was higher than baseline (P<0.005), with progressive improvement up to 9 months. FMD was negatively correlated with sICAM-1 and IL-6. In conclusion, both low and high doses of atorvastatin lead to early progressive improvement in endothelial function in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. sICAM-1 and IL-6 levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in these patients.

  5. Brachial blood flow under relative levels of blood flow restriction is decreased in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, J Grant; Ade, Carl J; Black, Christopher D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2018-05-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR), the application of external pressure to occlude venous return and restrict arterial inflow, has been shown to increase muscular size and strength when combined with low-load resistance exercise. BFR in the research setting uses a wide range of pressures, applying a pressure based upon an individual's systolic pressure or a percentage of occlusion pressure; not a directly determined reduction in blood flow. The relationship between relative pressure and blood flow has not been established. To measure blood flow in the arm under relative levels of BFR. Forty-five people (18-40 years old) participated. Arterial occlusion pressure in the right arm was measured using a 5-cm pneumatic cuff. Blood flow in the brachial artery was measured at rest and at pressures between 10% and 90% of occlusion using ultrasound. Blood flow decreased in a nonlinear, stepped fashion. Blood flow decreased at 10% of occlusion and remained constant until decreasing again at 40%, where it remained until 90% of occlusion. The decrease in brachial blood flow is not proportional to the applied relative pressure. The prescription of blood flow restriction should take into account the stimulus provided at each relative level of blood flow. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Brachial edema after treatment of mammary carcinoma. Significance of phlebography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsch, H; Soerensen, R [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Physikalische Therapie

    1977-01-01

    The frequency of thromboses or of obstacles to the venous flow in brachial or axillary regions has been examined by a phlebographic survey of 102 patients who were treated surgically and radiotherapeutically because of cancers of the breast. Thromboses or venous obstruction were found in the 86 patients with brachial edema. Ten of the patients with brachial edema had thromboses. Further 15 suffered from an obstruction to the venous flow. The results are discussed in detail, and compared with the rather contradictory data in literature. As a consequence of this study an indication for brachial phlebography would be justified on a larger scale with patients having been treated surgically because of mammary carcinoma.

  7. Accurate and reproducible reconstruction of coronary arteries and endothelial shear stress calculation using 3D OCT: comparative study to 3D IVUS and 3D QCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Riga, Maria; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Tu, Shengxian; Fujino, Yusuke; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Doulaverakis, Charalampos; Tsampoulatidis, Ioannis; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Bouki, Konstantina; Li, Yingguang; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Cheimariotis, Grigorios; Maglaveras, Nicos; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Nakamura, Sunao; Reiber, Johan H C; Rybicki, Frank; Karvounis, Haralambos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Giannoglou, George D

    2015-06-01

    Geometrically-correct 3D OCT is a new imaging modality with the potential to investigate the association of local hemodynamic microenvironment with OCT-derived high-risk features. We aimed to describe the methodology of 3D OCT and investigate the accuracy, inter- and intra-observer agreement of 3D OCT in reconstructing coronary arteries and calculating ESS, using 3D IVUS and 3D QCA as references. 35 coronary artery segments derived from 30 patients were reconstructed in 3D space using 3D OCT. 3D OCT was validated against 3D IVUS and 3D QCA. The agreement in artery reconstruction among 3D OCT, 3D IVUS and 3D QCA was assessed in 3-mm-long subsegments using lumen morphometry and ESS parameters. The inter- and intra-observer agreement of 3D OCT, 3D IVUS and 3D QCA were assessed in a representative sample of 61 subsegments (n = 5 arteries). The data processing times for each reconstruction methodology were also calculated. There was a very high agreement between 3D OCT vs. 3D IVUS and 3D OCT vs. 3D QCA in terms of total reconstructed artery length and volume, as well as in terms of segmental morphometric and ESS metrics with mean differences close to zero and narrow limits of agreement (Bland-Altman analysis). 3D OCT exhibited excellent inter- and intra-observer agreement. The analysis time with 3D OCT was significantly lower compared to 3D IVUS. Geometrically-correct 3D OCT is a feasible, accurate and reproducible 3D reconstruction technique that can perform reliable ESS calculations in coronary arteries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effects of a smoking cessation education on smoking cessation, endothelial function, and serum carboxyhemoglobin in male patients with variant angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sook Hee

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a smoking cessation education on endothelial function and carboxyhemoglobin levels in smokers with variant angina. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were 60 male smokers with variant angina admitted to one hospital: the control group (30) between September and December, 2009, and the experimental group (30) between February and May, 2010. Endothelial function, as defined by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and serum carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) were determined at baseline and at 3 months after the initiation of education in both groups. Three months after the program, smoking cessation was successful in 22 of the 30 smokers in the experimental group, but only in 4 of 30 smokers in the control group (p<.001). After the education, the experimental group showed a significant increase in FMD, and a significant decreased in serum COHb compared with the control group. The findings indicate that this smoking cessation education program is effective for hospitalized smokers with variant angina.

  9. Flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augment nitric oxide status and improve endothelial function in healthy men and women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Yang, Xingbin; Croft, Kevin D; Considine, Michael J; Ward, Natalie C; Rich, Lisa; Puddey, Ian B; Swinny, Ewald; Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids and nitrates in fruits and vegetables may protect against cardiovascular disease. Dietary flavonoids and nitrates can augment nitric oxide status via distinct pathways, which may improve endothelial function and lower blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that the combination of flavonoids and nitrates can enhance nitric oxide production in the stomach. Their combined effect in the circulation is unclear. Here, our objective was to investigate the independent and additive effects of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, and blood pressure. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial with healthy men and women (n=30) was conducted. The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach, and apple+spinach), administered in random order, were compared. Measurements included plasma nitric oxide status, assessed by measuring S-nitrosothiols+other nitrosylated species (RXNO) and nitrite, blood pressure, and endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery. Results are means and 95% CI. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher RXNO (control, 33 nmol/L, 26, 42; apple, 51 nmol/L, 40, 65; spinach, 86 nmol/L, 68, 110; apple+spinach, 69 nmol/L, 54, 88; Pflow-mediated dilatation (Peffect was observed on diastolic blood pressure. The combination of apple and spinach did not result in additive effects on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, or blood pressure. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach can independently augment nitric oxide status, enhance endothelial function, and lower blood pressure acutely, outcomes that may benefit cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasound-guided approach for axillary brachial plexus, femoral nerve, and sciatic nerve blocks in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Luis; Bezuidenhout, Abraham J; Gleed, Robin D; Martin-Flores, Manuel; Raw, Robert M; Santare, Carrie L; Jay, Ariane R; Wang, Annie L

    2010-03-01

    To describe an ultrasound-guided technique and the anatomical basis for three clinically useful nerve blocks in dogs. Prospective experimental trial. Four hound-cross dogs aged 2 +/- 0 years (mean +/- SD) weighing 30 +/- 5 kg and four Beagles aged 2 +/- 0 years and weighing 8.5 +/- 0.5 kg. Axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic combined ultrasound/electrolocation-guided nerve blocks were performed sequentially and bilaterally using a lidocaine solution mixed with methylene blue. Sciatic nerve blocks were not performed in the hounds. After the blocks, the dogs were euthanatized and each relevant site dissected. Axillary brachial plexus block Landmark blood vessels and the roots of the brachial plexus were identified by ultrasound in all eight dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the four ventral nerve roots (C6, C7, C8, and T1) and the axillary vessels. Three roots (C7, C8, and T1) were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Femoral nerve block Landmark blood vessels (femoral artery and femoral vein), the femoral and saphenous nerves and the medial portion of the rectus femoris muscle were identified by ultrasound in all dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the femoral vessels, femoral nerve, and the rectus femoris muscle. The femoral nerves were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Sciatic nerve block. Ultrasound landmarks (semimembranosus muscle, the fascia of the biceps femoris muscle and the sciatic nerve) could be identified in all of the dogs. In the four Beagles, anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the biceps femoris muscle, the semimembranosus muscle, and the sciatic nerve. In the Beagles, all but one of the sciatic nerves were stained adequately. Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is an accurate method for depositing local anesthetic for axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic nerve blocks.

  11. Activation of endothelial and epithelial K(Ca) 2.3 calcium-activated potassium channels by NS309 relaxes human small pulmonary arteries and bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small (K(Ca) 2) and intermediate (K(Ca) 3.1) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca) ) may contribute to both epithelium- and endothelium-dependent relaxations, but this has not been established in human pulmonary arteries and bronchioles. Therefore, we inv...... targets for treatment of pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease....

  12. A unique branching pattern of the axillary artery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagoji, Ishwar B; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A; Bannur, Balappa M; Patil, B G; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-12-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in the arm gave anterior circumflex humeral artery at the surgical neck of humerus, which terminated in the cubital fossa by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. The superficial brachial artery gave two profunda brachii arteries, both of which passed through spiral groove, along with radial nerve and three muscular branches, to brachialis muscle. This variation is very rare. As per our knowledge, we did not find any literature which explained variations which were similar to this. The normal and abnormal anatomy of the axillary region has practical importance among vascular radiologists and surgeons and it should be known for making an accurate diagnostic interpretation.

  13. Comparison of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and arterial stiffness between incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients – an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratanjee Sharad

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients on peritoneal and hemodialysis have accelerated atherosclerosis associated with an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The atherosclerosis is associated with increased arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and elevated oxidative stress and inflammation. The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of peritoneal and hemodialysis on arterial stiffness, vascular function, myocardial structure and function, oxidative stress and inflammation in incident patients with end stage kidney disease. Methods This is an observational study. Eighty stage five CKD patients will be enrolled and followed for one-year. Primary outcome measures will be changes in 1 arterial stiffness measured by aortic pulse wave velocity, 2 oxidative stress assessed by plasma F2 isoprostanes and 3 inflammation measured by plasma pentraxin-3. Secondary outcomes will include additional measures of oxidative stress and inflammation, changes in vascular function assessed using the brachial artery reactivity technique, carotid artery intimal medial thickness, augmentation index and trans thoracic echocardiography to assess left ventricular geometry, and systolic and diastolic function. Patients will undergo these measures at baseline (6–8 weeks prior to starting dialysis therapy, then at six and 12 months after starting dialysis. Discussion The results of this study may guide the choice of dialysis modality in the first year of treatment. It may also lead to a larger study prospectively assessing the effect of dialysis modality on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Trial Registration ACTRN12609000049279

  14. Dark chocolate and vascular function in patients with peripheral artery disease: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Alexandra; Koppensteiner, Renate; Steiner, Sabine; Niessner, Alexander; Goliasch, Georg; Gschwandtner, Michael; Hoke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate has positive effects on vascular function in healthy subjects and in patients at risk of atherosclerosis. The impact of dark chocolate on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) has not been investigated so far. In an investigator blinded, randomized, controlled, cross-over trial we assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and cocoa-free control chocolate on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and on microvascular function (assessed by Laser Doppler fluxmetry) in 21 patients with symptomatic (Fontaine stage II) PAD. Measurements were done in each patient on 2 single days, with an interval of 7 days, at baseline and at 2 hours after ingestion of 50 g dark chocolate or 50 g white chocolate, respectively. FMD remained unchanged after intake of dark chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 5.1 [IQR 4.4 to 7.3] and 5.5 [IQR 3.9 to 10.4]; p = 0.57, and after intake of white chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 6.4 [IQR 4.5 to 11.4] and 4.4 [IQR 2.6 to 8.7]; p = 0.14. Similarly, microcirculatory parameters were not significantly altered after intake of any chocolate compared with the respective baseline values. In conclusion, a single consumption of 50 g dark chocolate has no effect on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic PAD.

  15. [The ankle brachial index in type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumerová, B; Rosolová, H; Ferda, J; Sifalda, P; Sípová, I; Sefrna, F

    2011-03-01

    The ankle brachial index (ABI), i.e. the ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) on the ankle and on the arm, is diagnostic for peripheral occlusive artery disease and a marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk. The association between the low ABI 101) or according to the global CV Risk Score > or = 5% (SCORE). Wilcoxon's unpaired test, chi2 test, multiple logistic regression. The ABI homocystein (17.2 +/- 7.1 micromol/L) (p or = 0.9 (age 66 +/- 9 years, CAC 234 +/- 458, total cholesterol 5.0 +/- 0.9, total homocystein 14.3 +/- 78). Many CV risk factors correlated positively with the low ABI homocystein and CAC (p < 0.05). Low ABI < 0.9 predicted ischemic stroke in subjects with T2DM and manifest CV diseases in the further 3 years. There was no correlation between the ABI and the ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. Low ABI < 0.9 was in a strong association with the CV risk. The ABI measurement is a simple, noninvasive, time-nonconsuming and inexpensive method for subclinical atherosclerosis detection; the ABI can supply standard methods for the CV risk prediction.

  16. Ankle-brachial index by automated method and renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The Ankle-brachial index (ABI is a non-invasive method used for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD. Aims To determine the clinical features of patients submitted to ABI measurement by automatic method. To investigate association between ABI and renal function. Methods The present is a cross-sectional study. The study was performed in a private clinic in the city of Fortaleza (Ce- Brazil. For ABI analysis, we utilized automatic methodology using a Microlife device. Data collection took place from March 2012 to January 2016. During this period, ABI was measured in 375 patients aged >50 years, who had a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes or vascular disease. Results Of the 375 patients, 18 were categorized as having abnormal ABI (4.8 per cent and 357 were normal ABI (95.2 per cent. Patients with abnormal ABI showed older mean age when compared to patients with normal ABI. Among patients with normal renal function, only 0.95 per cent showed abnormal ABI; among patients with abnormal renal function, 6 per cent showed abnormal ABI. Conclusion 1 No differences were observed when comparing the groups regarding gender or the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or CAD. 2 Group with abnormal ABI had renal function greater impairment.

  17. Chronic treatment with tadalafil improves endothelial function in men with increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Aversa, Antonio; Vitale, Cristiana; Fabbri, Andrea; Fini, Massimo; Spera, Giovanni

    2005-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with a cluster of risk factors for coronary artery disease and reduced endothelial function. Acute and chronic administration of oral sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, improves endothelial function in patients with ED. Tadalafil (TAD) is a new PDE5 inhibitor with a long half life that allows alternate day administration. Aim of the study was to evaluate whether chronic therapy (4 weeks) with TAD improves endothelial function in patients with increased cardiovascular risk and whether this effect is sustained after discontinuation of therapy. We randomized 32 patients with increased cardiovascular risk to receive either TAD 20 mg on alternate days or matching placebo (PLB) for 4 weeks. Patients underwent evaluation of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitrite/nitrate and endothelin-1 plasma levels at baseline, at the end of treatment period and after two-weeks follow-up. At 4 weeks, FMD was significantly improved by TAD (from 4.2+/-3.2 to 9.3+/-3.7%, p<0.01 vs. baseline), but was not modified by PLB (from 4.1+/-2.8 to 4.0+/-3.4%, p=NS). At 6 weeks the benefit in FMD was sustained in patients that received TAD (9.1+/-3.9% vs. 4.2+/-3.2%, p=0.01 vs. baseline; 9.1+/-3.9% vs. 9.3+/-3.7%, vs. 4 weeks, p=NS) while no changes in FMD were observed in patients randomized to PLB. Also, compared to baseline, a net increase in nitrite/nitrate levels (38.2+/-12.3 vs. 52.6+/-11.7 and 51.1+/-3.1, p<0.05) and a decrease in endothelin-1 levels (3.3+/-0.9 vs. 2.9.+/-0.7 and 2.9+/-0.9, p<0.05) was found both at four and six-weeks after TAD; these changes were inversely correlated as shown by regression analysis (adjusted R2=0.81, p<0.0001). Chronic therapy with TAD improves endothelial function in patients with increased cardiovascular risk regardless their degree of ED. The benefit of this therapy is sustained for at least two weeks after the discontinuation of therapy. Larger studies are needed in order

  18. Endothelial dysfunction, vascular disease and stroke: the ARTICO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquer, J; Segura, T; Serena, J; Castillo, J

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a fundamental step in the atherosclerotic disease process. Its presence is a risk factor for the development of clinical events, and may represent a marker of atherothrombotic burden. Also, endothelial dysfunction contributes to enhanced plaque vulnerability, may trigger plaque rupture, and favors thrombus formation. The assessment of endothelial vasomotion is a useful marker of atherosclerotic vascular disease. There are different methods to assess endothelial function: endothelium-dependent vasodilatation brachial flow-mediated dilation, cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine, and the determination of some biomarkers such as microalbuminuria, platelet function, and C-reactive protein. Endothelial dysfunction has been observed in stroke patients and has been related to stroke physiopathology, stroke subtypes, clinical severity and outcome. Resting ankle-brachial index (ABI) is also considered an indicator of generalized atherosclerosis, and a low ABI is associated with an increase in stroke incidence in the elderly. Despite all these data, there are no studies analyzing the predictive value of ABI for new cardiovascular events in patients after suffering an acute ischemic stroke. ARTICO is an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study being performed in 50 Spanish hospitals. The aim of the ARTICO study is to evaluate the prognostic value of a pathological ABI (ARTICO study will increase the knowledge of patient outcome after ischemic stroke and may help to improve our ability to detect patients at high risk of stroke recurrence or major cardiovascular events. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. MicroRNA-1185 Promotes Arterial Stiffness though Modulating VCAM-1 and E-Selectin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyuan Deng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of cardiovascular ischaemic events; arterial stiffness is a characteristic of the atherosclerotic process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been revealed as crucial modulators of atherosclerosis. However, the role of arterial stiffness-related miRNAs in the atherosclerotic process is still unclear. Methods: Four hundred six participants from Northern China were enrolled in this study. Circulating miR-1185 and adhesion molecule levels were measured. Multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the association of miR-1185 levels with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and adhesion molecule levels. A mediation analysis was also performed to examine the mediating effect. Cell adhesion molecule levels were measured in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (pHUVECs and human umbilical vein smooth cells (HUVSMCs transfected with miR-1185 or co-transfected with a miR-1185 inhibitor. Results: miR-1185 was independently correlated with arterial stiffness. A positive relationship between miR-1185 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and E-selectin levels was observed. VCAM- 1 and E-selectin partially mediated the correlation between miR-1185 and arterial stiffness. miR-1185 induced a significant increase in the VCAM-1 and E-selectin levels in pHUVECs and HUVSMCs in vitro. According to our mechanistic analysis, VCAM-1 and E-selectin mediated miR-1185-induced arterial stiffening. Conclusions: miR-1185 modulated the expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin to promote arterial stiffening, suggesting that miR-1185 plays a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis and may serve as a novel therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.

  20. Anomalous patterns of formation and distribution of the brachial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    block Background: Structural variations in the patterns of formation and distribution of the brachial plexus have drawn attentions both in anatomy and anaesthesia. Method: An observational study. Results: The brachial plexus was carefully inspected in both the right and left arms in 90 Nigerian cadavers, comprising of 74 ...

  1. Muscle and joint sequelae in brachial plexus injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnisveld, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury is caused by traction on the brachial plexus during delivery or due to a high-energy road traffic accident in young adults. Muscle denervation and subsequent muscle degeneration results in functional limitations of the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand including contractures

  2. Brachial plexopathy: recurrent cancer or radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, R.J.; Wilbourn, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed clinical and electrodiagnostic features of 16 patients with neoplastic brachial plexopathy (NBP) and 17 patients with radiation-induced plexopathy (RBP). The groups were similar in symptom-free interval after cancer diagnosis and location of the plexus lesions. NBP patients had pain and Horner's syndrome; RBP patients had paresthesias, but rarely Horner's. NBP patients presented earlier after symptom onset and had a shorter course. RBP patients more frequently had abnormal sensory and normal motor nerve conduction studies and characteristically had fasciculations or myokymia on EMG

  3. Assessment of Nephroprotective Potential of Histochrome during Induced Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, I G; Bogdanovich, R N; Kolosova, N G

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance tomography was employed to verify endothelial dysfunction of renal arteries in Wistar and OXYS rats under conditions of induced arterial hypertension. Angiography revealed changes in the size and form of renal arteries of hypertensive animals. In hypertensive rats, histochrome exerted a benevolent therapeutic effect in renal arteries: it decreased BP, diminished thrombus formation in fi ne capillaries and arterioles, demonstrated the anticoagulant properties, partially improved endothelial dysfunction of small renal arteries, and up-regulated the glomerular filtration.

  4. Specific cell-derived microvesicles: Linking endothelial function to carotid artery intima-media thickness in low cardiovascular risk menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Hodis, Howard N; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-03-01

    Decreases in endothelial function measured by reactive hyperemic index (RHI) correlated with increases in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in recently menopausal women with a low risk cardiovascular profile. Factors linking this association are unknown. Assess, longitudinally, markers of platelet activation and cell-derived, blood-borne microvesicles (MV) in relationship to RHI and CIMT in asymptomatic, low risk menopausal women. RHI by digital pulse tonometry (n = 93), CIMT by ultrasound (n = 113), measures of platelet activation and specific cell-derived, blood-borne MV were evaluated in women throughout the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic. CIMT, but not RHI, increased significantly over 4 years. The average change in CIMT correlated significantly with the average follow-up values of MV positive for common leukocyte antigen [CD45; ρ = 0.285 (P = 0.002)] and VCAM-1 [ρ = 0.270 (P = 0.0040)]. Using principal components analysis (PC) on the aggregate set of average follow-up measures, the first derived PC representing numbers of MV positive for markers of vascular endothelium, inflammatory cells (leukocyte and monocytes), pro-coagulant (tissue factor), and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) associated with changes in RHI and CIMT. Changes in RHI associated with another PC defined by measures of platelet activation (dense granular ATP secretion, surface expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen receptors). MV derived from activated endothelial and inflammatory cells, and those expressing cell adhesion and pro-coagulant molecules may reflect early vascular dysfunction in low risk menopausal women. Assays of MV as non-conventional measures to assess cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic women remain to be developed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison between brachial and echocardiographic systolic time intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Su

    Full Text Available Systolic time interval (STI is an established noninvasive technique for the assessment of cardiac function. Brachial STIs can be automatically determined by an ankle-brachial index (ABI-form device. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether the STIs measured from ABI-form device can represent those measured from echocardiography and to compare the diagnostic values of brachial and echocardiographic STIs in the prediction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF <50%. A total of 849 patients were included in the study. Brachial pre-ejection period (bPEP and brachial ejection time (bET were measured using an ABI-form device and pre-ejection period (PEP and ejection time (ET were measured from echocardiography. Agreement was assessed by correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot. Brachial STIs had a significant correlation with echocardiographic STIs (r = 0.644, P<0.001 for bPEP and PEP; r  = 0.850, P<0.001 for bET and ET; r = 0.708, P<0.001 for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET. The disagreement between brachial and echocardiographic STIs (brachial STIs minus echocardiographic STIs was 28.55 ms for bPEP and PEP, -4.15 ms for bET and ET and -0.11 for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET. The areas under the curve for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET in the prediction of LVEF <50% were 0.771 and 0.765, respectively. Brachial STIs were good alternatives to STIs obtained from echocardiography and also helpful in prediction of LVEF <50%. Brachial STIs automatically obtained from an ABI-form device may be helpful for evaluation of left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  6. Endothelial dysfunction in the microcirculation of patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Brian T; Jarjoura, David; Haddad, Diane N; Sen, Chandan K; Roy, Sashwati; Flavahan, Nicholas A; Khayat, Rami N

    2010-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that patients with OSA and no cardiovascular disease have oxidant-related microcirculatory endothelial dysfunction. To evaluate the microcirculation in OSA. This study included seven patients with OSA and seven age- and weight-matched control subjects (mean age, 38 yr; mean body mass index, 32.5 kg/m²). All participants were free of cardiovascular risk factors. Participants received measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and forearm subcutaneous biopsy. Patients underwent repeated tests 12 weeks after treatment. Microcirculatory endothelial cells were isolated, and immunohistochemistry staining for peroxynitrite in the microcirculation was performed. Flow-mediated dilation was lower in patients than in control subjects at baseline (mean ± SEM: 5.7 ± 0.5 vs. 9.5 ± 0.6; P = 0.02) and increased after treatment (5.7-7.3; change, 1.7 ± 0.6; P = 0.04). Microcirculatory peroxynitrite deposit was higher in patients compared with control subjects (44.0 ± 1.6 vs. 21.8 ± 1.9 stain density units; P < 0.001) and decreased after treatment from 44.0 to 30.5 stain density units (change, -13.5 ± 2.9; P = 0.009). In patients, transcription of endothelial nitric oxide synthase decreased from 5.2 to -1.3 after treatment (change, 6.5 ± 2.5; P = 0.05), and transcription of superoxide dismutase1 decreased from -4.0 to -12.3 after treatment (change, -8.3 ± 2.1; P = 0.01). These changes persisted after adjustment for weight and underlying severity of OSA. This is the first direct evaluation of the microcirculation in OSA. Patients with OSA with low cardiovascular risk status had increased oxidant production in the microcirculation and endothelial dysfunction, both of which improved with treatment. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase transcription decreased with treatment.

  7. Advanced glycation end-products inhibition improves endothelial dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngle, Ashit; Vohra, Kanchan; Garg, Nidhi; Kaur, Ladbans; Chand, Prem

    2012-02-01

    Chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. The objective was to study the efficacy and safety of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibitor (benfotiamine 50 mg + pyridoxamine 50 mg + methylcobalamin 500 μg, Vonder(®) (ACME Lifescience, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India)) on endothelial function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-four patients with established active RA with high disease activity (Disease Activity Score of 28 joints [DAS28 score] > 5.1) despite treatment with stable doses of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were investigated. Inflammatory disease activity (DAS28 and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index [HAQ-DI] scores, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR] and C-reactive protein [CRP]), markers of endothelial dysfunction, serum nitrite concentration and endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation of the brachial artery were measured before and after 12 weeks therapy with twice a day oral AGEs inhibitor. After treatment, flow-mediated vasodilation improved from 9.64 ± 0.65% to 15.82 ± 1.02% (P < 0.01), whereas there was no significant change in endothelium-independent vasodilation with nitroglycerin and baseline diameter; serum nitrite concentration significantly reduced from 5.6 ± 0.13 to 5.1 ± 0.14 μmol/L (P = 0.004), ESR from 63.00 ± 3.5 to 28.08 ± 1.5 mm in the first h (P < 0.01) and CRP levels from 16.7 ± 4.1 to 10.74 ± 2.9 mg/dL (P < 0.01). DAS28 and HAQ-DI scores were significantly reduced, from 5.9 ± 0.17 to 3.9 ± 0.17 (P < 0.01) and 4.6 ± 0.17 to 1.7 ± 0.22 (P < 0.01), respectively. Advanced glycation end products inhibitor improves endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory disease activity in RA. In RA, endothelial dysfunction is part of the disease process and is mediated by AGEs-induced inflammation. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and

  8. Arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Quinn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of biomechanical properties of arteries have become an important surrogate outcome used in epidemiological and interventional cardiovascular research. Structural and functional differences of vessels in the arterial tree result in a dampening of pulsatility and smoothing of blood flow as it progresses to capillary level. A loss of arterial elastic properties results a range of linked pathophysiological changes within the circulation including increased pulse pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, subendocardial ischaemia, vessel endothelial dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. With increased arterial stiffness, the microvasculature of brain and kidneys are exposed to wider pressure fluctuations and may lead to increased risk of stroke and renal failure. Stiffening of the aorta, as measured by the gold-standard technique of aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (aPWV, is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes across many different patient groups and in the general population. Therefore, use of aPWV has been proposed for early detection of vascular damage and individual cardiovascular risk evaluation and it seems certain that measurement of arterial stiffness will become increasingly important in future clinical care. In this review we will consider some of the pathophysiological processes that result from arterial stiffening, how it is measured and factors that may drive it as well as potential avenues for therapy. In the face of an ageing population where mortality from atheromatous cardiovascular disease is falling, pathology associated with arterial stiffening will assume ever greater importance. Therefore, understanding these concepts for all clinicians involved in care of patients with cardiovascular disease will become vital.

  9. Use of short-radius centrifugation to augment ankle-brachial indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, S Marlene; Mateus, Jaime; Hsiang, York; Sidhu, Ravi; Young, Laurence; Gagnon, Joel

    2009-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is mainly caused by atherosclerosis and is characterized by decreased circulation, lower blood pressure, and insufficient tissue perfusion in the lower extremities. The hemodynamics of standing and altered gravity environments have been well studied relative to arm blood pressures but are less well understood for ankle pressures. Because regional blood pressure depends, in part, on the gravitational pressure gradient, we hypothesized that artificial gravity exposure on a short-arm centrifuge with the center of rotation above the head would increase blood pressure in the lower extremities. Cardiovascular parameters for 12 healthy subjects were measured during exposure to supine short-arm centrifugation at 20, 25, and 30 revolutions per minute (rpm), corresponding to centripetal accelerations of 0.94, 1.47, and 2.11 Gz at the foot level, respectively. Systolic ankle blood pressure significantly increased at all levels of centrifugation. Ankle-brachial indices (the ratio of systolic ankle to arm blood pressures) increased significantly from 1.17 +/- 0.03 to 1.58 +/- 0.03 at 0.94 Gz (P blood pressure significantly increased at 2.11 Gz, but heart rate did not change significantly. All parameters returned to normal after cessation of centrifugation. We demonstrated that short-radius centrifugation leads to an increase in ankle-brachial indices. This could have potential implications for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease.

  10. Aerobic exercise acutely prevents the endothelial dysfunction induced by mental stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome: the role of shear rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Allan R K; Fernandes, Igor A; Rocha, Natália G; Costa, Lucas S; Rocha, Helena N M; Mattos, João D M; Vianna, Lauro C; Silva, Bruno M; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2014-04-01

    Mental stress induces transient endothelial dysfunction, which is an important finding for subjects at cardiometabolic risk. Thus, we tested whether aerobic exercise prevents this dysfunction among subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether an increase in shear rate during exercise plays a role in this phenomenon. Subjects with MetS participated in two protocols. In protocol 1 (n = 16), endothelial function was assessed using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Subjects then underwent a mental stress test followed by either 40 min of leg cycling or rest across two randomized sessions. FMD was assessed again at 30 and 60 min after exercise or rest, with a second mental stress test in between. Mental stress reduced FMD at 30 and 60 min after the rest session (baseline: 7.7 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.5%, and 60 min: 3.9 ± 0.5%, P exercise prevented this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 7.2 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline). Protocol 2 (n = 5) was similar to protocol 1 except that the first period of mental stress was followed by either exercise in which the brachial artery shear rate was attenuated via forearm cuff inflation or exercise without a cuff. Noncuffed exercise prevented the reduction in FMD (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.7%, 30 min: 7.0 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline), whereas cuffed exercise failed to prevent this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.6%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.8%, and 60 min: 4.1 ± 0.9%, P exercise prevented mental stress-induced endothelial dysfunction among subjects with MetS, and an increase in shear rate during exercise mediated this effect.

  11. The effect of periodontal therapy on C-reactive protein, endothelial function, lipids and proinflammatory biomarkers in patients with stable coronary artery disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffi, Marco Aurélio Lumertz; Furtado, Mariana Vargas; Montenegro, Márlon Munhoz; Ribeiro, Ingrid Webb Josephson; Kampits, Cassio; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Haas, Alex Nogueira

    2013-09-06

    Scarce information exists regarding the preventive effect of periodontal treatment in the recurrence of cardiovascular events. Prevention may be achieved by targeting risk factors for recurrent coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with previous history of cardiovascular events. The aim of this trial is to compare the effect of two periodontal treatment approaches on levels of C-reactive protein, lipids, flow-mediated dilation and serum concentrations of proinflammatory and endothelial markers in stable CAD patients with periodontitis over a period of 12 months. This is a randomized, parallel design, examiner blinded, controlled clinical trial. Individuals from both genders, 35 years of age and older, with concomitant diagnosis of CAD and periodontitis will be included. CAD will be defined as the occurrence of at least one of the following events 6 months prior to entering the trial: documented history of myocardial infarction; surgical or percutaneous myocardial revascularization and lesion >50% in at least one coronary artery assessed by angiography; presence of angina and positive noninvasive testing of ischemia. Diagnosis of periodontitis will be defined using the CDC-AAP case definition (≥2 interproximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm and ≥1 interproximal site with probing depth ≥5 mm). Individuals will have to present at least ten teeth present to be included. One hundred individuals will be allocated to test (intensive periodontal treatment comprised by scaling and root planing) or control (community periodontal treatment consisting of one session of supragingival plaque removal only) treatment groups. Full-mouth six sites per tooth periodontal examinations and subgingival biofilm samples will be conducted at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. The primary outcome of this study will be C-reactive protein changes over time. Secondary outcomes include levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF

  12. High-intensity interval exercise attenuates but does not eliminate endothelial dysfunction after a fast food meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wesley J; Sawyer, Brandon J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2018-02-01

    We investigated whether two different bouts of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) could attenuate postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen young (27 ± 1 yr), nonexercise-trained men underwent three randomized conditions: 1) four 4-min intervals at 85-95% of maximum heart rate separated by 3 min of active recovery (HIIE 4 × 4), 2) 16 1-min intervals at 85-95% of maximum heart rate separated by 1 min of active recovery (HIIE 16 × 1), and 3) sedentary control. HIIE was performed in the afternoon, ~18 h before the morning fast food meal (1,250 kcal, 63g of fat). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was performed before HIIE ( baseline 1), during fasting before meal ingestion ( baseline 2), and 30 min, 2 h, and 4 h postprandial. Capillary glucose and triglycerides were assessed at fasting, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h (triglycerides only). Both HIIE protocols increased fasting FMD compared with control (HIIE 4 × 4: 6.1 ± 0.4%, HIIE 16 × 1: 6.3 ± 0.5%, and control: 5.1 ± 0.4%, P fast food meal can attenuate but not entirely eliminate postprandial decreases in FMD. This effect is not dependent on reductions in postprandial lipemia or glycemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Two similar high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) protocols performed ∼18 h before ingestion of a high-energy fast food meal attenuated but did not entirely eliminate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in young men largely by improving fasting endothelial function. Both HIIE protocols produced essentially identical results, suggesting high reproducibility of HIIE effects.

  13. Electroacupuncture prevents endothelial dysfunction induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury via a cyclooxygenase-2-dependent mechanism: A randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Min Kathy Lee

    Full Text Available Exploring clinically effective methods to reduce ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in humans is critical. Several drugs have shown protective effects, but studies using other interventions have been rare. Electroacupuncture (EA has induced similar protection in several animal studies but no study has investigated how the effects could be translated and reproduced in humans. This study aimed to explore the potential effect and mechanisms of EA in IR-induced endothelial dysfunction in humans.This is a prospective, randomized, crossover, sham-controlled trial consisting of two protocols. Protocol 1 was a crossover study to investigate the effect of EA on IR-induced endothelial dysfunction. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to EA or sham EA (sham. Flow mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery (BA, nitroglycerin-mediated endothelial independent dilation, blood pressure before and after IR were measured. In protocol 2, seven volunteers were administered COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (200 mg orally twice daily for five days. After consumption, volunteers underwent FMD before and after IR identical to protocol 1.In protocol 1, baseline BA diameter, Pre-IR BA diameter and FMD were similar between the two groups (p = NS. After IR, sham group showed significantly blunted FMD (Pre-IR: 11.41 ± 3.10%, Post-IR: 4.49 ± 2.04%, p < 0.001. However, EA protected this blunted FMD (Pre-IR: 10.96 ± 5.30%, Post-IR: 9.47 ± 5.23%, p = NS, p < 0.05 compared with sham EA after IR. In protocol 2, this protective effect was completely abolished by pre-treatment with celecoxib (Pre-IR: 11.05 ± 3.27%; Post-IR: 4.20 ± 1.68%, p = 0.001.EA may prevent IR-induced endothelial dysfunction via a COX-2 dependent mechanism.

  14. Electroacupuncture prevents endothelial dysfunction induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury via a cyclooxygenase-2-dependent mechanism: A randomized controlled crossover trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jimin; Woo, Jong Shin; Leem, Jungtae; Park, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Sanghoon; Chung, Hyemoon; Lee, Jung Myung; Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam; Kim, Weon

    2017-01-01

    Objective Exploring clinically effective methods to reduce ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in humans is critical. Several drugs have shown protective effects, but studies using other interventions have been rare. Electroacupuncture (EA) has induced similar protection in several animal studies but no study has investigated how the effects could be translated and reproduced in humans. This study aimed to explore the potential effect and mechanisms of EA in IR-induced endothelial dysfunction in humans. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, crossover, sham-controlled trial consisting of two protocols. Protocol 1 was a crossover study to investigate the effect of EA on IR-induced endothelial dysfunction. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to EA or sham EA (sham). Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (BA), nitroglycerin-mediated endothelial independent dilation, blood pressure before and after IR were measured. In protocol 2, seven volunteers were administered COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (200 mg orally twice daily) for five days. After consumption, volunteers underwent FMD before and after IR identical to protocol 1. Results In protocol 1, baseline BA diameter, Pre-IR BA diameter and FMD were similar between the two groups (p = NS). After IR, sham group showed significantly blunted FMD (Pre-IR: 11.41 ± 3.10%, Post-IR: 4.49 ± 2.04%, p < 0.001). However, EA protected this blunted FMD (Pre-IR: 10.96 ± 5.30%, Post-IR: 9.47 ± 5.23%, p = NS, p < 0.05 compared with sham EA after IR). In protocol 2, this protective effect was completely abolished by pre-treatment with celecoxib (Pre-IR: 11.05 ± 3.27%; Post-IR: 4.20 ± 1.68%, p = 0.001). Conclusion EA may prevent IR-induced endothelial dysfunction via a COX-2 dependent mechanism. PMID:28591155

  15. Prevention of age-related endothelial dysfunction by habitual aerobic exercise in healthy humans: possible role of nuclear factor κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ashley E; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Pierce, Gary L; Nowlan, Molly J; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Habitual aerobic exercise prevents age-related impairments in endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD). We have hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) impairs EDD with sedentary aging, and habitual aerobic exercise prevents this age-related suppression of EDD by NF-κB. To test this hypothesis, we have inhibited NF-κB signalling via oral salsalate administration in healthy older aerobic exercise-trained adults (OT, n=14, 58 ± 2 years), older non-exercising adults (ON, n=16, 61 ± 1 years) and young non-exercising controls (YN, n=8, 23 ± 1 years). Salsalate reduced endothelial cell expression of NF-κB p65 by ~25% in ON (P0.05). EDD, assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), was improved by salsalate in ON (4.0 ± 0.7% compared with 6.8 ± 0.7%, placebo compared with salsalate, P0.05). Endothelium-independent dilation was not affected by salsalate in any group (P>0.05). In ON, vitamin C infusion improved FMD by ~30% during placebo (P0.05). In OT and YN, vitamin C infusion did not affect FMD during either placebo or salsalate (P>0.05). Salsalate reduced endothelial cell nitrotyrosine content by ~25% and NADPH oxidase p47phox expression by ~30% in ON (P0.05). Our results suggest that endothelial NF-κB signalling is associated with oxidative stress-related impairment of EDD in healthy non-exercising but not aerobically exercising older adults. This may be a key mechanism by which regular aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function and reduces cardiovascular risk with aging.

  16. Insulin resistance adds to endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients and in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, B; Poredos, P

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate whether endothelium-dependent (nitric oxide-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA) is impaired in patients being treated for essential hypertension (EH), and whether this abnormality can be detected in normotensive offspring of subjects with EH (familial trait, FT); and to investigate the interrelationship between flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance. Cross-sectional study. Angiology department at a teaching hospital. The study encompassed 172 subjects, of whom 46 were treated hypertonics aged 40-55 (49) years, and 44 age-matched, normotensive volunteers as controls. We also investigated 41 normotonics with FT aged 20-30 (25) years and 41 age-and sex-matched controls without FT. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest, during reactive hyperaemia (endothelium-dependent dilation) and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) application (endothelium-independent dilation) were measured. In hypertonics FMD was significantly lower than in controls [2.4 (2.9) vs. 7.4 (2.5)%; P < 0.00005], as was GTN-induced dilation [12.1 (4.3) vs. 16.1 (4.6)%; P=0.0007]. In subjects with FT, FMD was also decreased compared with the control group [5.8 (4.1) vs. 10.0 (3.0)%; P < 0.00005]. The response to GTN was comparable in both groups of young subjects. FMD was negatively related to insulin concentration in all subjects studied (P < 0.00005). In treated patients with EH, flow-mediated dilation of the BA as well as endothelium-independent dilation are decreased. In individuals with FT the endothelial function of the peripheral arteries is also altered in the absence of elevated blood pressure. Endothelial dysfunction is related to hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance, which could be one of the pathogenetic determinants of EH and its complications.

  17. Role of ultrasound-guided continuous brachial plexus block in the management of neonatal ischemia in upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali C Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal upper limb ischemia due to accidental arterial damage remains a major concern, which can lead to devastating complications if untreated. The primary objective of this case report is to emphasize the role of continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block, the issues related with block performance in an ischemic hand, and the importance of ultrasound guidance in this particular case scenario. A 1.1 kg infant suffered from distal forearm ischemia due to accidental arterial damage, which was treated with brachial plexus block. An ultrasound-guided single shot block with 0.5 mL/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine was followed by ultrasound-guided catheter placement in the target area. A continuous infusion of 0.03% of bupivacaine at the rate of 0.5 mL/kg/hr (approx. 0.15 mg/kg/h of bupivacaine was administered for 36 h. This treatment resulted in reversal of ischemia. Permanent ischemic damage was eventually confined to the tips of 4 fingers. We conclude that ultrasound-guided continuous infraclavicular block has a therapeutic role to play in the treatment of hand ischemia due to arterial damage and subsequent arterial spasm in neonates with added benefits.

  18. Neurotization of elements of the brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, A H

    1991-01-01

    Satisfactory therapy for an avulsion injury of the brachial plexus has yet to be described. Dorsal root entry zone lesions will usually mitigate the searing pain which is so disabling in some of these patients. Neurotization procedures are effective in restoring limited function to these patients. The most useful isolated movement of the upper extremity is elbow flexion, which is thus the primary target of neurotization procedures. Intercostal nerves and elements of the cervical plexus are the most commonly used donor nerves for neurotization procedures. From our experience and from a review of the literature, it appears that these procedures will be successful in approximately 50% of cases. It must be stressed that before performing a nerve transfer, the surgeon must be certain that the patient is not a candidate for a simple nerve graft.

  19. Effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes on endothelial function and glycemic variability in overweight and in obese adult patients at increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Silvio; Cosentino, Loretta; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Morgana, Manuela; Mattina, Alessandro; Sprini, Delia; Verga, Salvatore; Rini, Giovam Battista

    2013-06-01

    The role of glycemic index of the diet in glucose control and cardiovascular prevention is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes and glycemic loads on endothelial function and glycemic variability in nondiabetic participants at increased cardiovascular risk. Forty nondiabetic obese participants were randomly assigned to a three-month treatment with either a low glycemic index (LGI; n=19) or high glycemic index (HGI; n=21) hypocaloric diet with similar macronutrient and fiber content. Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery before and after dieting. In addition, 48-h continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring was done before and after dieting in a subgroup of 24 participants. The amount of weight loss after dieting was similar in both groups. The glycemic index of the diet significantly influenced the FMD (Pdiet, and -0.9±3.6% after the HGI diet (Pdiet on results was observed. The glycemic index of the diet significantly influenced the 48-h glycemic variability measured as coefficient of variability (CV%; Pdiet (from 23.5 to 20.0%) and increased after the HGI diet (from 23.6 to 26.6%). The change in percentage of FMD was inversely correlated with the change in the 48-h glycemic CV% (r=-0.45; Phypocaloric diet in nondiabetic obese persons. ISRCTN56834511. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved endothelial function and lipid profile compensate for impaired hemostatic and inflammatory status in iatrogenic chronic subclinical hyperthyroidism of thyroid cancer patients on L-t4 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdag, A; Nagy, E V; Burman, K D; Paragh, G; Jenei, Z

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to compare the changes of endothelial function and haemostatic, inflammatory and metabolic parameters of short-term iatrogenic hypothyroidism to the characteristics of subclinical hyperthyroidism in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Twenty four women (mean age 42.4+/-8.1 years) had undergone total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation in treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer. We measured serum thyroglobulin, thyroid function, plasma levels of lipid parameters, homocystine, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, von Willebrandt factor activity (vWF), nitric oxide, as well as flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery during iatrogenic hypothyroidism (TSH 89.82+/-29.36 mU/L) and again in the same patients during subclinical hyperthyroidism secondary to exogenous levothyroxine administration (TSH 0.24+/-0.11 mU/L). In hypothyroidism, FMD was markedly lower than in subclinical hyperthyroidism (6.79+/-4.44 vs. 14.37+/-8.33%, phyperthyroidism was associated with improved endothelial function and lipid profile, while haemostatic and inflammatory parameters were impaired. The two opposite mechanisms may well compensate for each other at the level of the vessel wall. (c) J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  1. Olfactory evaluation in Mild Cognitive Impairment: correlation with neurocognitive performance and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacci, Alessandro; Bruno, Rosa M; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Pratali, Lorenza; Berardi, Nicoletta; Tognoni, Gloria; Cintoli, Simona; Volpi, Leda; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Sicari, Rosa; Taddei, Stefano; Maffei, Lamberto; Picano, Eugenio

    2017-05-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an intermediate condition between normal aging and dementia, associated with an increased risk of progression into the latter within months or years. Olfactory impairment, a well-known biomarker for neurodegeneration, might be present in the condition early, possibly representing a signal for future pathological onset. Our study aimed at evaluating olfactory function in MCI and healthy controls in relation to neurocognitive performance and endothelial function. A total of 85 individuals with MCI and 41 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited. Olfactory function was assessed by Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test (Burghart, Medizintechnik, GmbH, Wedel, Germany). A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment was performed. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery by ultrasound. MCI individuals showed an impaired olfactory function compared to controls. The overall olfactory score is able to predict MCI with a good sensitivity and specificity (70.3 and 77.4% respectively). In MCI, olfactory identification score is correlated with a number of neurocognitive abilities, including overall cognitive status, dementia rating, immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial ability and verbal fluency. FMD was reduced in MCI (2.90 ± 2.15 vs. 3.66 ± 1.96%, P = 0.016) and was positively associated with olfactory identification score (ρ s =0.219, P = 0.025). The association remained significant after controlling for age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, olfactory evaluation is able to discriminate between MCI and healthy individuals. Systemic vascular dysfunction might be involved, at least indirectly, in olfactory dysfunction in MCI. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Characterisation of hypertensive patients with improved endothelial function after dark chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Burlá, Adriana; Burlá, Marcelo; Oigman, Wille; Neves, Mario Fritsch; Virdis, Agostino; Medeiros, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings indicate an inverse relationship between cardiovascular disease and consumption of flavonoids. We aimed to identify clinical and vascular parameters of treated hypertensive who present beneficial effects of dark chocolate for one-week period on vascular function. Twenty-one hypertensive subjects, aged 40-65 years, were included in a prospective study with measurement of blood pressure (BP), brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral arterial tonometry, and central hemodynamic parameters. These tests were repeated after seven days of eating dark chocolate 75 g/day. Patients were divided according to the response in FMD: responders (n = 12) and nonresponders (n = 9). The responder group presented lower age (54 ± 7 versus 61 ± 6 years, P = 0.037), Framingham risk score (FRS) (2.5 ± 1.8 versus 8.1 ± 5.1%, P = 0.017), values of peripheral (55 ± 9 versus 63 ± 5 mmHg, P = 0.041), and central pulse pressure (PP) (44 ± 10 versus 54 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.021). FMD response showed negative correlation with FRS (r = -0.60, P = 0.014), baseline FMD (r = -0.54, P = 0.011), baseline reactive hyperemia index (RHI; r = -0.56, P = 0.008), and central PP (r = -0.43, P = 0.05). However, after linear regression analysis, only FRS and baseline RHI were associated with FMD response. In conclusion, one-week dark chocolate intake significantly improved endothelial function and reduced BP in younger hypertensive with impaired endothelial function in spite of lower cardiovascular risk.

  3. Characterisation of Hypertensive Patients with Improved Endothelial Function after Dark Chocolate Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer d'El-Rei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings indicate an inverse relationship between cardiovascular disease and consumption of flavonoids. We aimed to identify clinical and vascular parameters of treated hypertensive who present beneficial effects of dark chocolate for one-week period on vascular function. Twenty-one hypertensive subjects, aged 40–65 years, were included in a prospective study with measurement of blood pressure (BP, brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD, peripheral arterial tonometry, and central hemodynamic parameters. These tests were repeated after seven days of eating dark chocolate 75 g/day. Patients were divided according to the response in FMD: responders (n=12 and nonresponders (n=9. The responder group presented lower age (54 ± 7 versus 61 ± 6 years, P=0.037, Framingham risk score (FRS (2.5 ± 1.8 versus 8.1 ± 5.1%, P=0.017, values of peripheral (55 ± 9 versus 63 ± 5 mmHg, P=0.041, and central pulse pressure (PP (44 ± 10 versus 54 ± 6 mmHg, P=0.021. FMD response showed negative correlation with FRS (r=−0.60, P=0.014, baseline FMD (r=−0.54, P=0.011, baseline reactive hyperemia index (RHI; r=−0.56, P=0.008, and central PP (r=−0.43, P=0.05. However, after linear regression analysis, only FRS and baseline RHI were associated with FMD response. In conclusion, one-week dark chocolate intake significantly improved endothelial function and reduced BP in younger hypertensive with impaired endothelial function in spite of lower cardiovascular risk.

  4. Characterisation of Hypertensive Patients with Improved Endothelial Function after Dark Chocolate Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Burlá, Adriana; Burlá, Marcelo; Oigman, Wille

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings indicate an inverse relationship between cardiovascular disease and consumption of flavonoids. We aimed to identify clinical and vascular parameters of treated hypertensive who present beneficial effects of dark chocolate for one-week period on vascular function. Twenty-one hypertensive subjects, aged 40–65 years, were included in a prospective study with measurement of blood pressure (BP), brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral arterial tonometry, and central hemodynamic parameters. These tests were repeated after seven days of eating dark chocolate 75 g/day. Patients were divided according to the response in FMD: responders (n = 12) and nonresponders (n = 9). The responder group presented lower age (54 ± 7 versus 61 ± 6 years, P = 0.037), Framingham risk score (FRS) (2.5 ± 1.8 versus 8.1 ± 5.1%, P = 0.017), values of peripheral (55 ± 9 versus 63 ± 5 mmHg, P = 0.041), and central pulse pressure (PP) (44 ± 10 versus 54 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.021). FMD response showed negative correlation with FRS (r = −0.60, P = 0.014), baseline FMD (r = −0.54, P = 0.011), baseline reactive hyperemia index (RHI; r = −0.56, P = 0.008), and central PP (r = −0.43, P = 0.05). However, after linear regression analysis, only FRS and baseline RHI were associated with FMD response. In conclusion, one-week dark chocolate intake significantly improved endothelial function and reduced BP in younger hypertensive with impaired endothelial function in spite of lower cardiovascular risk. PMID:23533716

  5. Brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana revisited: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kachlik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews in detail the superficial brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana superficialis, a very rare variant of the main arterial trunks of the upper limb. It branches either from the axillary artery or the brachial artery, descends superficially in the arm (similar to the course of the superficial brachial artery and continues across the cubital fossa, runs superficially in the forearm, approaches the median nerve and enters the carpal canal to reach the hand. It usually terminates in the superficial palmar arch. The first drawing was published, in 1830, and the first description was published, in 1844. Altogether, to our knowledge, only 31 cases of a true, superficial brachiomedian artery have been reported (Some cases are incorrectly reported as superficial brachioradiomedian artery or superficial brachioulnomedian artery. Based on a meta-analysis of known, available studies, the incidence is 0.23% in Caucasians and 1.48% in Mongolians. Knowing whether or not this arterial variant is present is important in clinical medicine and relevant for: The catheterization via the radial or ulnar artery; harvesting the vascular pedicle for a forearm flap based on the radial, ulnar or superficial brachiomedian arteries; the possible collateral circulation in cases of the arterial closure; and the surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Its presence can elevate the danger of an injury to the superficially located variant artery or of an accidental injection.

  6. Brachial plexus endoscopic dissection and correlation with open dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, T; Masmejean, E; Bihel, T; Lafosse, L

    2015-12-01

    Shoulder endoscopy is evolving and becoming extra-articular. More and more procedures are taking place in the area of the brachial plexus (BP). We carried out an anatomical study to describe the endoscopic anatomy of the BP and the technique used to dissect and expose the BP endoscopically. Thirteen fresh cadavers were dissected. We first performed an endoscopic dissection of the BP, using classical extra-articular shoulder arthroscopy portals. Through each portal, we dissected as many structures as possible and identified them. We then did an open dissection to corroborate the endoscopic findings and to look for damage to the neighboring structures. In the supraclavicular area, we were able to expose the C5, C6 and C7 roots, and the superior and middle trunks in 11 of 13 specimens through two transtrapezial portals by following the suprascapular nerve. The entire infraclavicular portion of the BP (except the medial cord and its branches) was exposed in 11 of 13 specimens. The approach to the infraclavicular portion of the BP led directly to the lateral and posterior cords, but the axillary artery hid the medial cord. The musculocutaneous nerve was the first nerve encountered when dissecting medially from the anterior aspect of the coracoid process. The axillary nerve was the first nerve encountered when following the anterior border of the subscapularis medially from the posterior aspect of the coracoid process. Knowledge of the endoscopic anatomy of the BP is mandatory to expose and protect this structure while performing advanced arthroscopic shoulder procedures. Copyright © 2015 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a cervicomediastinal ... Her voice was hoarse but there was no eye signs suggestive of thyrotoxicosis. ... A presumptive diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with retrosternal extension was made.

  8. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function of arteries in type-2 diabetes patients; a randomized double blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghardashi Afousi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity, characterized with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes, is a pro- Background: Considering the importance of exercise intensity in training, the present study aimed to compare the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on endothelial function of arteries in type-2 diabetes patients. Methods: In the present randomized double blind parallel clinical trial, 36 T2D patients were allocated to 3 groups of control (without regular training, MICT, and HIIT. Anthropometric indices, Biochemical evaluation, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak, resting NOx, and resting ET-1, and insulin resistance index was calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR method were measured and compared. Results: Both MICT and HIIT reduced haemoglobin A1c [F (2, 33 = 80.2; p < 0.0001], insulin [F (2, 33 = 57.7; p < 0.0001], and HOMA-IR [F (2, 33 = 99.1; p < 0.0001]. However, the effect of HIIT (p = 0.004 was more than MICT (p < 0.001 in reducing the 3 mentioned factors. Both MICT (p < 0.0001 and HIIT (p = 0.0002 led to a significant increase in NOx [F (2, 33 = 57.7; p < 0.0001] in diabetic patients. This increase was significantly higher in HIIT group group (p < 0.0001. In addition, HIIT intervention caused a significant increase in VO2peak compared to control group (p < 0.0001 and MICT group (p < 0.0001 [F (2, 33 = 59.9; p < 0.0001]. ET-1 level was also reduced after training intervention in both MICT (p = 0.02 and HIIT (p = 0.02 groups compared to control group [F (2, 33 = 5.5; p = 0.009]. Conclusion: HIIT can lead to more improvements in endothelial function and controlling diabetes and lipid profile compared to MICT, by causing more increase in aerobic fitness, more decrease in insulin resistance, and more increase in NOx bioactivity.

  9. Nerve Transfers for Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury: Advantages and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hems, Tim

    2011-01-01

    In recent years nerve transfers have been increasingly used to broaden reconstructive options for brachial plexus reconstruction. Nerve transfer is a procedure where an expendable nerve is connected to a more important nerve in order to reinnervate that nerve. This article outlines the experience of the Scottish National Brachial Plexus Injury Service as our use of nerve transfers has increased. Outcomes have improved for reconstruction of the paralysed shoulder using transfer of the accessor...

  10. Transcutaneous measurement of the arterial input function in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litton, J.E.; Eriksson, L.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a powerful tool in medical research. Biochemical function can be both precisely localized and quantitatively measured. To achieve reliable quantitation it is necessary to know the time course of activity concentration in the arterial blood during the measurement. In this study the arterial blood curve from the brachial artery is compared to the activity measured in the internal carotid artery with a new transcutaneous detector

  11. Índice tornozelo-braço em pacientes hemodialíticos Ankle-brachial index in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Torres Uchôa

    2012-12-01

    . The ankle-brachial index was calculated for each artery of the lower limb. It was considered normal ankle-brachial index from 0.9 to 1.3. RESULTS: We diagnosed peripheral arterial disease and poorly compressible arteries in 26.9 and 30.8% of hemodialysis patients and in 33 and 22.7% of the Control Group. In hemodialysis patients, we found abnormal ankle-brachial index in 75% of symptomatic patients (p=0.005, in 67.3% of men and 31% of women (p<0.005, in 78.6% of the elderly, 34.8% of young adults (p<0.01, and 76.9% of diabetics (p<0.005 versus nondiabetic. These patients had a higher prevalence of severe peripheral arterial disease than the Control Group. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal ankle-brachial index was very prevalent in the groups studied; however, hemodialysis patients had more severe changes, when compared to the Control Group. Diabetes mellitus, male gender, and advanced age were important risk factors for abnormal ankle-brachial index in hemodialysis patients. The ankle-brachial index was a good method of screening for the studied changes; therefore, we suggest the routine use in the management of hemodialysis patients.

  12. Exercise-mediated changes in conduit artery wall thickness in humans: role of shear stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Munckhof, I.C. van den; Tinken, T.M.; Drijver, E. den; Hopkins, N.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Episodic increases in shear stress have been proposed as a mechanism that induces training-induced adaptation in arterial wall remodeling in humans. To address this hypothesis in humans, we examined bilateral brachial artery wall thickness using high-resolution ultrasound in healthy men across an

  13. Angioplasty in stenosis of the innominate artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobinia, G.S.; Bergmann, H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a successful percutaneous transluminal dilatation (PTD) of an innominate artery stenosis in a 40-year-old patient with aortic arch syndrome. Five years earlier both a left central carotid artery occlusion and an innominate and left subclavian artery stenosis were treated by grafting from the aorta to the distal vessels. At recurrence of the neurological symptoms, reocclusion of the graft to the innominate artery and subtotal stenosis of the left carotid anastomosis were noted. The prevent the hazards of a reoperation, the innominate artery stenosis was dilated by means of PTD via the right brachial artery. Success of the procedure was demonstrated by Doppler sonography and angiography. It appears that PTD serves as an excellent method of treating stenoses of the aortic arch branches in aortic arch syndrome. (orig.)

  14. Effect of Uric Acid-Lowering Agents on Endothelial Function: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Lea; McMullan, Ciaran; Wohlhueter, Ann; Curhan, Gary C; Fisher, Naomi D; Forman, John P

    2017-02-01

    Higher levels of serum uric acid are independently associated with endothelial dysfunction, a mechanism for incident hypertension. Overweight/obese individuals are more prone to endothelial dysfunction than their lean counterparts. However, the effect of lowering serum uric acid on endothelial dysfunction in these individuals has not been examined thoroughly. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nonhypertensive, overweight, or obese individuals with higher serum uric acid (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and serum uric acid ≥5.0 mg/dL), we assigned subjects to probenecid (500-1000 mg/d), allopurinol (300-600 mg/d), or matching placebo. The primary outcome was endothelium-dependent vasodilation measured by brachial artery ultrasound at baseline and 8 weeks. By the end of the trial, 47, 49, and 53 participants had been allocated to receive probenecid, allopurinol, and placebo, respectively. Mean serum uric acid levels significantly decreased in the probenecid (from 6.1 to 3.5 mg/dL) and allopurinol groups (from 6.1 to 2.9 mg/dL) but not in the placebo group (6.1 to 5.6 mg/dL). None of the interventions produced any significant change in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (probenecid, 7.4±5.1% at baseline and 8.3±5.1% at 8 weeks; allopurinol, 7.6±6.0% at baseline and 6.2±4.8% at 8 weeks; and placebo, 6.5±3.8% at baseline and 7.1±4.9% at 8 weeks). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, uric acid lowering did not affect endothelial function in overweight or obese nonhypertensive individuals. These data do not support the hypothesis that uric acid is causally related to endothelial dysfunction, a potential mechanism for development of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Risk Factors for Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Emily; Marcotte, Michael; Mehlman, Charles; Lippert, William; Huang, Bin; Paulson, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Over the course of decades, the incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) has increased despite advances in healthcare which would seem to assist in decreasing the rate. The aim of this study is to identify previously unknown risk factors for BPBI and the risk factors with potential to guide preventative measures. A case control study of 52 mothers who had delivered a child with a BPBI injury and 132 mothers who had delivered without BPBI injury was conducted. Univariate, multivariable and logistic regressions identified risk factors and their combinations. The odds of BPBI were 2.5 times higher when oxytocin was used and 3.7 times higher when tachysystole occurred. The odds of BPBI injury are increased when tachysystole and oxytocin occur during the mother’s labor. Logistic regression identified a higher risk for BPBI when more than three of the following variables (>30 lbs gained during the pregnancy, stage 2 labor >61.5 min, mother’s age >26.4 years, tachysystole, or fetal malpresentation) were present in any combination. PMID:29596309

  16. Risk Factors for Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Louden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of decades, the incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI has increased despite advances in healthcare which would seem to assist in decreasing the rate. The aim of this study is to identify previously unknown risk factors for BPBI and the risk factors with potential to guide preventative measures. A case control study of 52 mothers who had delivered a child with a BPBI injury and 132 mothers who had delivered without BPBI injury was conducted. Univariate, multivariable and logistic regressions identified risk factors and their combinations. The odds of BPBI were 2.5 times higher when oxytocin was used and 3.7 times higher when tachysystole occurred. The odds of BPBI injury are increased when tachysystole and oxytocin occur during the mother’s labor. Logistic regression identified a higher risk for BPBI when more than three of the following variables (>30 lbs gained during the pregnancy, stage 2 labor >61.5 min, mother’s age >26.4 years, tachysystole, or fetal malpresentation were present in any combination.

  17. Constriction of collateral arteries induced by "head-up tilt" in patients with occlusive arterial disease of the legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, K; Henriksen, O; Tønnesen, K H

    1981-01-01

    The effect of head-up tilt on leg blood flow and segmental arterial blood pressures was studied in 21 patients with occlusion or severe stenosis of the common or superficial femoral artery. Arterial pressure was measured directly in the brachial artery, common femoral artery and popliteal artery....... Relative change in blood flow in the leg during tilt was estimated by changes in arterio-venous oxygen differences and by the indicator dilution technique in nine patients. Head-up tilt caused a decrease in leg blood flow of 36% corresponding to an increase in total vascular resistance of 57%. Tilt did...... not change the pressure gradient from femoral to popliteal artery in the patients with occlusion of the superficial femoral artery, indicating that the flow resistance offered by the collateral arteries had increased. In a bilateral sympathectomised patient the increase in collateral resistance was almost...

  18. The effect of rowing on endothelial function and insulin action in healthy controls and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, D B; Scheede-Bergdahl, C; Reving, D

    2011-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the effects of 8 weeks of home-based rowing training (heart rate corresponding to 65-70% of VO(2 peak) ) on endothelial function and glucose clearance (local and systemic effects) in male subjects...... with T2DM (n=9) and matched controls (n=8). Before and after training (30 min every other day), all subjects underwent sequential graded brachial artery infusions of non-insulin vasodilators (acetylcholine; sodium nitroprusside; adenosine). Forearm blood flow was improved by training in controls (without...... and with insulin: P=0.003 and 0.05, respectively) but not in subjects with T2DM. Likewise, whole body glucose clearance increased in response to training in controls (P=0.05) but not in T2DM. However, in both groups, the capacity for local forearm glucose extraction (controls: P=0.001; T2DM: P=0.002) and clearance...

  19. Associations of Work Hours, Job Strain, and Occupation with Endothelial Function: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Luenda E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Landsbergis, Paul; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Baron, Sherry; Kaufman, Joel D.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Fujishiro, Kaori; Foy, Capri G.; Andrew, Michael E.; Roux, Ana V. Diez

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of work hours, job control, job demands, job strain, and occupational category with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 1,499 MESA participants. Methods FMD was obtained using high-resolution ultrasound. Mean values of FMD were examined across categories of occupation, work hours, and the other exposures using regression analyses. Results Occupational category was significantly associated with FMD overall, with blue-collar workers showing the lowest mean values: Management/professional=4.97±0.22%; sales/office=5.19±0.28%; services=4.73 ± 0.29%; and blue-collar workers=4.01±0.26% (adjusted P <0.001). There was evidence of effect modification by gender (interaction P=0.031): significant associations were observed among women (adjusted P =0.002) and nearly significant results among men (adjusted P=0.087). Other exposures were not significantly associated with FMD. Conclusions Differences in endothelial function may account for some of the variation in cardiovascular disease across occupational groups. PMID:25376409

  20. Comparison of arterial and venous blood biomarker levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/9x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer Kelly

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of novel biomarkers is an unmet need in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial blood comes directly from the lung and venous blood drains capillary beds of the organ or tissue supplied. We hypothesized that there would be a difference in levels of the biomarkers metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in arterial compared with venous blood.  Methods: Radial artery and brachial vein blood samples were taken simultaneously in each of 12 patients with COPD and seven controls with normal lung function. Circulating immunoreactive MMP-9, VEGF-A and IL-6 levels in serum were measured using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results were compared using a Student’s paired t test. The study was powered to determine whether significant differences in cytokine levels were present between paired arterial and venous blood samples.   Results: In the 12 patients with COPD, four were female, and age ranged 53-85 years, mean age 69 years. Three patients in the control group were female, with age range 46-84 years, mean age 64.7 years. In the COPD group, three patients had mild, five moderate and four severe COPD. No significant difference was found between arterial and venous levels of MMP-9, VEGF-A or IL-6.  Conclusions: In this pilot study, levels of the measured biomarkers in arterial compared with venous blood in both COPD patients and healthy controls did not differ. This suggests that as we continue to chase the elusive biomarker in COPD as a potential tool to measure disease activity, we should focus on venous blood for this purpose.

  1. Congenital Arterial Thrombosis in Newborn: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Özmert M. A.; Özdemir, Yavuz; Kılıç, İlknur; Güleç, Bülent; Sücüllü, İlker; Küçüktaşçı, Kazım; Filiz, Ali İlker; Gürses, Dolunay; Karaca, Abdullah; Oto, Murat; Çetin, Gökhan Ozan; Caner, Vildan

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal thrombosis is a serious event that can cause mortality or severe morbidity. Although catheters are the most common cause of neonatal thrombosis, spontaneous events can also occur. Arterial thrombosis is very rare and accounts for approximately half of all thrombotic events in neonates. Genetic prothrombotic risk factors may affect the occurence of neonatal thrombosis. In this report, a case of left brachial, radial, and ulnar arterial thrombosis associated with methylene-tetrahydrofo...

  2. Circulating osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand in polycystic ovary syndrome: relationships to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepene, Carmen Emanuela; Ilie, Ioana Rada; Marian, Ioan; Duncea, Ileana

    2011-01-01

    There is plenty of evidence that osteoprotegerin (OPG) is linked to subclinical vascular damage and predicts cardiovascular disease in high-risk populations. Our aim is to investigate the relationships of OPG/free soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (sRANKL) to insulin resistance, brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), and the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, impaired glucose control, and endothelial injury. A cross-sectional, observational study. Hormonal and metabolic profiles, FMD, CIMT, serum OPG, and ampli-sRANKL were assessed in 64 young PCOS patients and 20 controls of similar age. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. OPG was significantly lower in PCOS and related negatively to free testosterone and positively to estradiol (E(2)) levels. In multivariate analysis, OPG but not ampli-sRANKL correlated positively to fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity indices, and FMD. Neither OPG nor ampli-sRANKL was associated with CIMT. Significantly lower adjusted FMD values were demonstrated in women in the upper OPG quartile group (>2.65 pmol/l) compared with all other quartile groups together (P=0.012). In PCOS, multiple regression analysis retained E(2)/sex hormone-binding globulin ratio, fat mass, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance as independent predictors of OPG. In PCOS, circulating OPG is related to both endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, independent of obesity and androgen excess, suggesting OPG as a useful biomarker of these effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate OPG in relation to cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in PCOS.

  3. Prognostic value of thumb pain sensation in birth brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6. The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

  4. Reversible brachial plexopathy following primary radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salner, A.L.; Botnick, L.E.; Herzog, A.G.; Goldstein, M.A.; Harris, J.R.; Levene, M.B.; Hellman, S.

    1981-01-01

    Reversible brachial plexopathy has occurred in very low incidence in patients with breast carcinoma treated definitively with radiation therapy. Of 565 patients treated between January 1968 and December 1979 with moderate doses of supervoltage radiation therapy (average axillary dose of 5000 rad in 5 weeks), eight patients (1.4%) developed the characteristic symptoms at a median time of 4.5 months after radiation therapy. This syndrome consists of paresthesias in all patients, with weakness and pain less commonly seen. The symptom complex differs from other previously described brachial plexus syndromes, including paralytic brachial neuritis, radiation-induced injury, and carcinoma. A possible relationship to adjuvant chemotherapy exists, though the etiology is not well-understood. The cases described demonstrate temporal clustering. Resolution is always seen

  5. Tolerance of the Brachial Plexus to High-Dose Reirradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: achen5@kumc.edu; Yoshizaki, Taeko; Velez, Maria A.; Mikaeilian, Argin G.; Hsu, Sophia; Cao, Minsong

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To study the tolerance of the brachial plexus to high doses of radiation exceeding historically accepted limits by analyzing human subjects treated with reirradiation for recurrent tumors of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Data from 43 patients who were confirmed to have received overlapping dose to the brachial plexus after review of radiation treatment plans from the initial and reirradiation courses were used to model the tolerance of this normal tissue structure. A standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy believed to be related to brachial plexus injury was utilized to screen for toxicity. Cumulative dose was calculated by fusing the initial dose distributions onto the reirradiation plan, thereby creating a composite plan via deformable image registration. The median elapsed time from the initial course of radiation therapy to reirradiation was 24 months (range, 3-144 months). Results: The dominant complaints among patients with symptoms were ipsilateral pain (54%), numbness/tingling (31%), and motor weakness and/or difficulty with manual dexterity (15%). The cumulative maximum dose (Dmax) received by the brachial plexus ranged from 60.5 Gy to 150.1 Gy (median, 95.0 Gy). The cumulative mean (Dmean) dose ranged from 20.2 Gy to 111.5 Gy (median, 63.8 Gy). The 1-year freedom from brachial plexus–related neuropathy was 67% and 86% for subjects with a cumulative Dmax greater than and less than 95.0 Gy, respectively (P=.05). The 1-year complication-free rate was 66% and 87%, for those reirradiated within and after 2 years from the initial course, respectively (P=.06). Conclusion: The development of brachial plexus–related symptoms was less than expected owing to repair kinetics and to the relatively short survival of the subject population. Time-dose factors were demonstrated to be predictive of complications.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of chronic biomass fuel smoke exposure on peripheral endothelial functions: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buturak, Ali; Genç, Ahmet; Ulus, Ozden Sıla; Duygu, Egemen; Okmen, Arda Sanlı; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of chronic biomass fuel (BMF) smoke exposure on peripheral endothelial functions. Forty-seven healthy subjects who have been exposed to BMF smoke since birth (mean age 31.6±6.8 years, 21 male) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional observational study. The control group consisted of 32 healthy subjects (mean age 27.9±4.4 years, 11 male). The carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), flow associated dilatation (FAD %) and endothelium independent vasodilatation (GTN %) were assessed in all subjects. The carotid CIMT was defined as the distance between the leading edge of the lumen-intima and the media-adventitia interfaces. FAD % was defined as the percentage change in the internal diameter of the brachial artery during reactive hyperemia related to the baseline. GTN % was defined as the change in diameter in response to the application of 400 µg of glyceril trinitrate relative to the baseline scan at the end of the fourth minute. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, Chi-square test and Spearman rank order correlation analysis. The average exposure time of the subjects to biomass fuel smoke was 31.7±6.6 years. They have been exposed to dung inhalation products meanly 8.3±1.8 months in a year seasonally. The average daily exposure time was 15.7±3.3 hours. CIMT values of the two groups were not statistically different from each other (0.47±0.09 vs. 0.49±0.06 mm, p=0.138). However, a markedly reduced FAD % was determined in the study group (5.06±4.95 vs. 10.7±4.64, pinhalation products. Therefore, chronic BMF smoke exposure may be a risk factor for the development of endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Endothelial dysfunction and history of recurrent depression in postmenopausal women with Type 2 diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Tennen, Howard; Mansoor, George; Abbott, Gina

    2009-01-01

    This study of postmenopausal women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) investigated (1) history of depression as a predictor of endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD); (2) the relative associations of single and recurrent depressive disorders with FMD; and (3) cortisol as a potential mechanism. Participants were nonsmoking, naturally postmenopausal women with T2DM with no known vascular disease. All were free of current mood disorder. On average, the 44 participants were 63 years of age, White, diabetic for 6 years, and were in adequate glycemic control. Thirty-eight percent were never depressed, 19% had experienced one disorder, and 43% had experienced recurrent disorders. History of depression was assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV. Current depressive symptoms were measured with Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) scale. FMD was assessed by standard procedures and calculated as percent change in brachial artery diameter from baseline. Women with history of recurrent depression showed vasoconstriction (mean=-1%), which was significantly different from women with history of single depression (mean=+6) and never depressed women (mean=+5) (Pdiabetes, and glycemic control, history of recurrent depressive disorders predicted greater likelihood of vasoconstriction (P<.05, odds ratio=4.23) but history of single depressive disorder did not. Controlling for current depressive symptoms did not account for effects of past recurrent depressive disorders. Cortisol was not related to FMD. In postmenopausal women with T2DM, recurrent depressive disorders, even in full remission, are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Potential mechanisms of the relationship between depression and endothelial dysfunction other than cortisol warrant investigation.

  8. Complete Brachial Plexus Injury - An Amputation Dilemma. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong CYL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injuries with intact yet flail limb presents with problems of persistent neuropathic pain and recurrent shoulder dislocations, that render the flail limb a damn nuisance. As treating surgeons, we are faced with the dilemma of offering treatment options, bearing in mind the patient’s functional status and expectations. We present a case of a 55-year old housewife with complete brachial plexus injury begging for surgical amputation of her flail limb, 6 years post-injury. Here we discuss the outcome of transhumeral amputation and the possibility of offering early rather than delayed amputations in this group of patients.

  9. Surgical treatment of adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Siqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the brachial plexus in adults are severely debilitating. They generally affect young individuals. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, clinical evaluation, imaging and electrodiagnostic assessments, treatment options and proper timing of surgical interventions will enable nerve surgeons to offer optimal care to patients. Advances in microsurgical technique have improved the outcome for many of these patients. The treatment options offer patients with brachial plexus injuries the possibility of achieving elbow flexion, shoulder stability with limited abduction and the hope of limited but potentially useful hand function.

  10. Long-term results of obstetric brachial plexus surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kirjavainen , Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Background: Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) most often occurs as a result of foetal-maternal disproportion. The C5 and C6 nerve roots of the brachial plexus are most frequently affected. In contrast, roots from the C7 to Th1 that result in total injury together with C5 and C6 injury, are affected in fewer than half of the patients. BPBP was first described by Smellie in 1764. Erb published his classical description of the injury in 1874 and his name became linked with the paralysis that is...

  11. Endothelial microparticle-mediated transfer of MicroRNA-126 promotes vascular endothelial cell repair via SPRED1 and is abrogated in glucose-damaged endothelial microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hoelscher, Marion; Cattelan, Arianna; Schmitz, Theresa; Proebsting, Sebastian; Wenzel, Daniela; Vosen, Sarah; Franklin, Bernardo S; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2013-10-29

    Repair of the endothelium after vascular injury is crucial for preserving endothelial integrity and preventing the development of vascular disease. The underlying mechanisms of endothelial cell repair are largely unknown. We sought to investigate whether endothelial microparticles (EMPs), released from apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs), influence EC repair. Systemic treatment of mice with EMPs after electric denudation of the endothelium accelerated reendothelialization in vivo. In vitro experiments revealed that EMP uptake in ECs promotes EC migration and proliferation, both critical steps in endothelial repair. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA array was performed, and microRNA (miR)-126 was identified as the predominantly expressed miR in EMPs. The following experiments demonstrated that miR-126 was transported into recipient human coronary artery endothelial cells by EMPs and functionally regulated the target protein sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (SPRED1). Knockdown of miR-126 in EMPs abrogated EMP-mediated effects on human coronary artery endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro and reendothelialization in vivo. Interestingly, after simulating diabetic conditions, EMPs derived from glucose-treated ECs contained significantly lower amounts of miR-126 and showed reduced endothelial repair capacity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, expression analysis of miR-126 in circulating microparticles from 176 patients with stable coronary artery disease with and without diabetes mellitus revealed a significantly reduced miR-126 expression in circulating microparticles from diabetic patients. Endothelial microparticles promote vascular endothelial repair by delivering functional miR-126 into recipient cells. In pathological hyperglycemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-126-induced EC repair is altered.

  12. Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction in a general population: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Holtfreter

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence underlines an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In contrast, data on its relation with endothelial dysfunction as a marker of early subclinical atherosclerosis is inconclusive and limited to patient-cohort studies. We therefore investigated the association between periodontal disease and flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD as a measure of endothelial dysfunction in a general population, and also addressed a possible mediation via inflammation. The study population comprised 1,234 subjects (50.5% men aged 25-85 years from the 5-year follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania, a population-based cohort study. Clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket probing depth (PPD as measures of periodontal disease were assessed half-mouth at four sites per tooth. Subjects were classified according to the periodontitis case definition proposed by Tonetti and Claffey (2005. Measurements of FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD were performed using standardized ultrasound techniques. High-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and leukocyte count were measured. Fully adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses revealed significant associations of the percentage of sites with PPD ≥ 6 mm with FMD (p(trend=0.048, with subjects within the highest category having a 0.74% higher FMD compared to subjects within the lowest category (p<0.05. Consistently, FMD values increased significantly across categories of the percentage of sites with CAL ≥ 6 mm (p(trend=0.01 and the periodontitis case definition (p(trend=0.006. Restrictions to subjects without antihypertensive or statin medication or current non-smokers confirmed previous results. Systemic inflammation did not seem to mediate the relation. Both PPD and CAL were not consistently associated with NMD. In contrast to previous studies, high levels of periodontal disease were significantly associated with high FMD values. This

  13. Intima-media thickness and endothelial dysfunction in GCK and HNF1A-MODY patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Magdalena; Osmenda, Grzegorz; Wilk, Grzegorz; Matejko, Bartłomiej; Skupien, Jan; Zapala, Barbara; Młynarski, Wojciech; Guzik, Tomasz; Malecki, Maciej T

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in the glucokinase (GCK) gene, along with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A (HNF1A) gene mutations, are the most frequent cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). GCK-MODY patients are typically characterized by a moderate fasting hyperglycemia; however, little is known about atherosclerosis and intermediate-related phenotypes in these subjects. To examine carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in GCK gene mutations carriers and HNF1A-MODY. A total of 64 subjects with GCK gene mutations, and 52 HNF1A gene mutation carriers as well as 53 nondiabetic controls were examined. IMT and FMD were assessed by ultrasonography. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to assess differences between the groups, and multivariate linear regression was done for the association with IMT and FMD. The clinical characteristics of all groups were similar with the mean age at examination of 35.1, 41.1, and 39.5 years for GCK, HNF1A and the control group respectively. The highest mean IMT value was in the HNF1A-MODY group: 7.0±1.4 mm, whereas it reached 6.3±1.4 mm in GCK mutation carriers and 6.3±1.3 mm in controls (P=0.008). After adjustment for possible clinical and biochemical cofounders, IMT remained higher in HNF1A-MODY patients as compared with GCK-MODY patients (P=0.02) and controls (P=0.0003). FMD was significantly lower in HNF1A (9.9±4.6%) and GCK-MODY (11.1±4.6%) patients in comparison with controls (13.9±4.7%; P=0.0001). After adjustment, FMD remained lower in HNF1A-MODY (P=0.0005) and GCK-MODY patients (P=0.01) as compared with controls. Both examined MODY groups demonstrated evidence of endothelial dysfunction. In addition, HNF1-MODY patients seem to be more prone to an early atherosclerotic phenotype. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training decreases peripheral but not central artery wall thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Munckhof, I.C.L. van den; Poelkens, F.; Hopman, M.T.; Thijssen, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the impact of exercise training on conduit artery wall thickness in type 2 diabetes. We examined the local and systemic impact of exercise training on superficial femoral (SFA), brachial (BA), and carotid artery (CA) wall thickness in type 2 diabetes patients and

  15. The natural history and management of brachial plexus birth palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buterbaugh, Kristin L; Shah, Apurva S

    2016-12-01

    Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is an upper extremity paralysis that occurs due to traction injury of the brachial plexus during childbirth. Approximately 20 % of children with brachial plexus birth palsy will have residual neurologic deficits. These permanent and significant impacts on upper limb function continue to spur interest in optimizing the management of a problem with a highly variable natural history. BPBP is generally diagnosed on clinical examination and does not typically require cross-sectional imaging. Physical examination is also the best modality to determine candidates for microsurgical reconstruction of the brachial plexus. The key finding on physical examination that determines need for microsurgery is recovery of antigravity elbow flexion by 3-6 months of age. When indicated, both microsurgery and secondary shoulder and elbow procedures are effective and can substantially improve functional outcomes. These procedures include nerve transfers and nerve grafting in infants and secondary procedures in children, such as botulinum toxin injection, shoulder tendon transfers, and humeral derotational osteotomy.

  16. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  17. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  18. Brachial plexus injury in anterior dislocation of shoulder -case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brachial plexus injury in anterior dislocation of shoulder -case report and literature review. D Dhar. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Orthopaedics and Trauma Vol. 6 () 2007: pp. 37-38. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Lumbosacral Plexus Injury and Brachial Plexus Injury Following Prolonged Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lan Kao

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who developed right upper and lower limb paralysis with sensory deficit after sedative drug overdose with prolonged immobilization. Due to the initial motor and sensory deficit pattern, brachial plexus injury or C8/T1 radiculopathy was suspected. Subsequent nerve conduction study/electromyography proved the lesion level to be brachial plexus. Painful swelling of the right buttock was suggestive of gluteal compartment syndrome. Elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase and urinary occult blood indicated rhabdomyolysis. The patient received medical treatment and rehabilitation; 2 years after the injury, her right upper and lower limb function had recovered nearly completely. As it is easy to develop complications such as muscle atrophy and joint contracture during the paralytic period of brachial plexopathy and lumbosacral plexopathy, early intervention with rehabilitation is necessary to ensure that the future limb function of the patient can be recovered. Our patient had suspected gluteal compartment syndrome that developed after prolonged compression, with the complication of concomitant lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury, which is rarely reported in the literature. A satisfactory outcome was achieved with nonsurgical management.

  20. Posterior subscapular dissection: An improved approach to the brachial plexus for human anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Shaun; Backus, Timothy Charles; Futterman, Bennett; Solounias, Nikos; Mihlbachler, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Students of human anatomy are required to understand the brachial plexus, from the proximal roots extending from spinal nerves C5 through T1, to the distal-most branches that innervate the shoulder and upper limb. However, in human cadaver dissection labs, students are often instructed to dissect the brachial plexus using an antero-axillary approach that incompletely exposes the brachial plexus. This approach readily exposes the distal segments of the brachial plexus but exposure of proximal and posterior segments require extensive dissection of neck and shoulder structures. Therefore, the proximal and posterior segments of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, divisions, posterior cord and proximally branching peripheral nerves often remain unobserved during study of the cadaveric shoulder and brachial plexus. Here we introduce a subscapular approach that exposes the entire brachial plexus, with minimal amount of dissection or destruction of surrounding structures. Lateral retraction of the scapula reveals the entire length of the brachial plexus in the subscapular space, exposing the brachial plexus roots and other proximal segments. Combining the subscapular approach with the traditional antero-axillary approach allows students to observe the cadaveric brachial plexus in its entirety. Exposure of the brachial dissection in the subscapular space requires little time and is easily incorporated into a preexisting anatomy lab curriculum without scheduling additional time for dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Endothelial cell energy metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiling; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease characterized by impaired regulation of pulmonary hemodynamics and excessive growth and dysfunction of the endothelial cells that line the arteries in PAH lungs. Establishment of methods for culture of pulmonary artery endothelial cells from PAH lungs has provided the groundwork for mechanistic translational studies that confirm and extend findings from model systems and spontaneous pulmonary hypertension in animals. Endothelial cell hyperproliferation, survival, and alterations of biochemical-metabolic pathways are the unifying endothelial pathobiology of the disease. The hyperproliferative and apoptosis-resistant phenotype of PAH endothelial cells is dependent upon the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, a fundamental regulator of cell survival and angiogenesis. Animal models of PAH, patients with PAH, and human PAH endothelial cells produce low nitric oxide (NO). In association with the low level of NO, endothelial cells have reduced mitochondrial numbers and cellular respiration, which is associated with more than a threefold increase in glycolysis for energy production. The shift to glycolysis is related to low levels of NO and likely to the pathologic expression of the prosurvival and proangiogenic signal transducer, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, and the reduced mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). In this article, we review the phenotypic changes of the endothelium in PAH and the biochemical mechanisms accounting for the proliferative, glycolytic, and strongly proangiogenic phenotype of these dysfunctional cells, which consequently foster the panvascular progressive pulmonary remodeling in PAH. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  2. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: VASCULAR WALL AS THE TARGET ORGAN IN COMORBID PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of endothelial dysfunction in patients with respiratory diseases have become relevant in recent years. Perhaps endothelial dysfunction and high arterial stiffness bind bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular diseases.Aim. To reveal features of disturbances of arterial wall vasoregulatory function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the presence and absence of arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. The study included 50 patients with COPD with normal blood pressure (BP and 85 patients with COPD and HT. Control group was presented by 20 practically healthy men comparable in age with COPD patients. Tests with reactive hyperemia (endothelium-dependent dilation and nitroglycerin (endothelium-independent dilation were performed in order to evaluate endothelium function. The number of desquamated endotheliocytes in the blood was determined.Results. In patients with COPD and HT in comparison with COPD patients without HT and healthy individuals more pronounced damages of the vascular wall, endothelium vasoregulatory function disturbances and a tendency to the reduction in endothelium-dependent vasodilation were determined both during COPD exacerbation and remission. These differences were most pronounced during the COPD exacerbation. In patients with COPD and HT in comparison with COPD patients without HT the damage of the vascular wall was more pronounced during the remission and endothelium-dependent dilatation disorder – during the exacerbation. The revealed disorders in patients with COPD and HT were associated with smoking status (r=0.61, p<0.01, severity of bronchial obstruction (r=-0.49, p<0.05, and hypoxemia (r=-0.76, p<0.01. We noted relationships between the parameters of 24-hour BP monitoring and remodeling of the brachial artery (r=0.34, p<0.05, endothelium lesion (r=0.25, p<0.05, and impairment of its vasoregulating function (r=-0.58, p<0.05. At that, the following parameters were important: the

  3. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of canola oil on blood vessel function in peripheral arterial disease: rationale and design of the Canola-PAD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enns JE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer E Enns,1,2 Peter Zahradka,1–3 Randolph P Guzman,4,5 Alanna Baldwin,1 Brendon Foot,1 Carla G Taylor1–31Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, St Boniface Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada; 2Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 4IH Asper Clinical Research Institute, St Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, Canada; 5Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, St Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, CanadaBackground: Individuals with peripheral arterial disease (PAD are at high risk for cardiac events due to atherosclerosis. Dietary fatty acid composition has been shown to modulate blood vessel properties, but whether a diet enriched in conventional canola oil can improve clinical endpoints in PAD is not known.Purpose: To describe the rationale and design of a clinical trial testing the effect of canola oil consumption on vascular function and cardiovascular risk factors in an 8-week dietary intervention in individuals with PAD.Methods: The Canola-PAD Study was a single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 50 patients over 40 years old with PAD. Participants were randomized into two groups and consumed food items containing either conventional canola oil (25 g/day or an oil mixture representing the Western diet (25 g/day for 8 weeks as part of their usual diet. The primary outcome was vascular function (ankle-brachial index, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, walking capacity, and cognitive function. Secondary measurements included anthropometrics, serum lipid profile and fatty acid composition, markers of inflammation and glycemic control, and serum metabolite profile.Discussion: The Canola-PAD Study uses an innovative and noninvasive approach to evaluate the effect of canola oil on clinically relevant outcomes in individuals with PAD, including

  4. Ankle-brachial index and cardiovascular outcomes in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, J Dawn; Lombardero, Manuel S; Barsness, Gregory W; Pena-Sing, Ivan; Buitrón, L Virginia; Singh, Premranjan; Woodhead, Gail; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Kelsey, Sheryl F

    2012-10-01

    Peripheral arterial disease increases cardiovascular risk in many patient populations. The risks associated with an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) in patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease have not been well described with respect to thresholds and types of cardiovascular events. We examined 2,368 patients in the BARI 2D trial who underwent ABI assessment at baseline. Death and major cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction and stroke) during follow-up (average 4.3 years) were assessed across the ABI spectrum and by categorized ABI: low (≤0.90), normal (0.91-1.3), high (>1.3), or noncompressible. A total of 12,568 person-years were available for mortality analysis. During follow-up, 316 patients died, and 549 had major cardiovascular events. After adjustment for potential confounders, with normal ABI as the referent group, a low ABI conferred an increased risk of death (relative risk [RR] 1.6, CI 1.2-2.2, P = .0005) and major cardiovascular events (RR 1.4, CI 1.1-1.7, P = .004). Patients with a high ABI had similar outcomes as patients with a normal ABI, but risk again increased in patients with a noncompressible ABI with a risk of death (RR 1.9, CI 1.3-2.8, P = .001) and major cardiovascular event (RR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.1, P = .01). In patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes, ABI screening and identification of ABI abnormalities including a low ABI (<1.0) or noncompressible artery provide incremental prognostic information. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Pinto, John T; Ballabh, Praveen; Zhang, Hanrui; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Pearson, Kevin; de Cabo, Rafael; Pacher, Pal; Zhang, Cuihua; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2009-07-01

    Pathways that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the amelioration of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Resveratrol was shown to impact mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and the liver, but its role in mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells remains poorly defined. The present study determined whether resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured human coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs). In CAECs resveratrol increased mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA content, upregulated protein expression of electron transport chain constitu