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Sample records for brachial arteries embryological

  1. An anatomical study of variations in termination of brachial artery, with its embryological basis and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa T. K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial artery is the main artery of the arm. It begins as the continuation of 3rd part of axillary artery, at the level of inferior border of teres major muscle. It ends at the level of the neck of radius by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. In the present study we found higher division of brachial artery at mid arm level into its terminal branches with superficial course of radial artery. The present study was done on 51 cadavers from our dept. of Anatomy. The upper limbs of the cadaver were dissected and observed for any variations in the branching pattern of brachial artery. In the present study, a total number of 51 cadaver’s, 102 upper limbs were studied. In one male cadaver we found bilateral higher division of brachial artery, trifurcation on left side and bifurcation on right side brachial artery, with superficial course of radial artery. The knowledge of variation in origin and course of brachial artery is useful for orthopaedicians, physicians, radiologist, vascular and plastic surgeons.

  2. Brachial artery approach for outpatient arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jai Kyung; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun; Won, Jae Hwan

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of brachial approach arteriography for outpatients, with particular regard to safety and image quality. The angiographic findings and follow-up medical records of 131 brachial approach arteriographies in 121 outpatients were retrospectively analysed. 5 F pigtail catheters were used in 125 cases and 5-F OCU-A catheters were used in three cases of renal arteriography, and three of upper extremity arteriography without catheter. Except for three cases of brachial artery puncture failure, all procedures were performed successfully. One hundred and fifteen of 119 lower extremity arteriographies were visualized down to the level of the tibioperoneal artery. The non-visualized cases were three in which there was multiple obstruction at the distal common iliac artery and one with insufficient contrast amount due to renal failure In four cases there were complications : two involved arterial thrombosis, one was an intramuscular hematoma, and one an A-V fistula. For outpatients, brachial approach arteriography can replace the femoral approach. Its image quality is excellent, there are time-cost benefits, and the rate of complications is relatively low

  3. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Artery - Its Morphology, Embryogenesis and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    KS, Siddaraju; Venumadhav, Nelluri; Sharma, Ashish; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of variation pattern of the major arteries of upper limb is of considerable practical importance in the conduct of reparative surgery in the arm, forearm and hand however brachial artery and its terminal branches variations are less common. Aim: Accordingly the present study was designed to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial artery and its morphology, embryogenesis and clinical implications. Materials and Methods: In an anatomical study 140 upper limb specimens of 70 cadavers (35 males and 35 females) were used and anatomical variations of the brachial artery have been documented. Results: Accessory brachial artery was noted in eight female cadavers (11.43%). Out of eight cadavers in three cadavers (4.29%) an unusual bilateral accessory brachial artery arising from the axillary artery and it is continuing in the forearm as superficial accessory ulnar artery was noted. Rare unusual variant unilateral accessory brachial artery and its reunion with the main brachial artery in the cubital fossa and its variable course in relation to the musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve were also noted in five cadavers (7.14%). Conclusion: As per our knowledge such anatomical variations of brachial artery and its terminal branches with their relation to the surrounding structures are not reported in the modern medical literature. An awareness of such a presence is valuable for the surgeons and radiologists in evaluation of angiographic images, vascular and re-constructive surgery or appropriate treatment for compressive neuropathies. PMID:25653931

  4. Brachial artery aneurysm and thrombosis secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia

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    Julia Louise Jones, MBBS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibromuscular dysplasia is a pathologic process causing stenosis and dilation of medium-caliber arteries of unknown etiology. It most commonly affects the renal and carotid arteries; however, it has been described in virtually all anatomic areas, including, rarely, the brachial artery. We describe a case of brachial artery aneurysm and thrombosis in a 29-year-old man secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia, treated surgically with excision, embolectomy, interposed vein graft, and anticoagulation.

  5. Use of a Collagen-Based Device for Closure of Low Brachial Artery Punctures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belenky, A.; Aranovich, D.; Greif, F.; Bachar, G.; Bartal, G.; Atar, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To report our experience with the Angioseal vascular closure device for hemostasis of distal brachial artery puncture. Methods. Between September 2003 and August 2005, 64 Angioseal vascular closure devices were inserted in 64 patients (40 men, 24 women; mean age 65 years) immediately after diagnostic or therapeutic arterial angiographies performed through a 5 Fr to 7 Fr sheath via the distal brachial artery. Ultrasound examination of the brachial artery preceded the angiography in all cases and only arteries wider than 4 mm were closed by the Angioseal. In cases of a sonographically evident thin subcutaneous space of the cubital fossa, tissue tumescence, using 1% Lidocaine, was performed prior to the arterial closure. Results. The deployment success rate was 100%. No major complications were encountered; only 2 patients developed puncture site hematoma, and these were followed conservatively. Conclusions. Closure of low brachial artery punctures with the Angioseal is simple and safe. No additional manual compression is required. We recommend its use after brachial artery access interventions, through appropriately wide arteries, to improve early patient ambulation and potentially reduce possible puncture site complications

  6. Estimation of brachial artery volume flow by duplex ultrasound imaging predicts dialysis access maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sae Hee; Bandyk, Dennis F; Hodgkiss-Harlow, Kelley D; Barleben, Andrew; Lane, John

    2015-06-01

    This study validated duplex ultrasound measurement of brachial artery volume flow (VF) as predictor of dialysis access flow maturation and successful hemodialysis. Duplex ultrasound was used to image upper extremity dialysis access anatomy and estimate access VF within 1 to 2 weeks of the procedure. Correlation of brachial artery VF with dialysis access conduit VF was performed using a standardized duplex testing protocol in 75 patients. The hemodynamic data were used to develop brachial artery flow velocity criteria (peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity) predictive of three VF categories: low (800 mL/min). Brachial artery VF was then measured in 148 patients after a primary (n = 86) or revised (n = 62) upper extremity dialysis access procedure, and the VF category correlated with access maturation or need for revision before hemodialysis usage. Access maturation was conferred when brachial artery VF was >600 mL/min and conduit imaging indicated successful cannulation based on anatomic criteria of conduit diameter >5 mm and skin depth 800 mL/min was predicted when the brachial artery lumen diameter was >4.5 mm, peak systolic velocity was >150 cm/s, and the diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio was >0.4. Brachial artery velocity spectra indicating VF 800 mL/min. Duplex testing to estimate brachial artery VF and assess the conduit for ease of cannulation can be performed in 5 minutes during the initial postoperative vascular clinic evaluation. Estimation of brachial artery VF using the duplex ultrasound, termed the "Fast, 5-min Dialysis Duplex Scan," facilitates patient evaluation after new or revised upper extremity dialysis access procedures. Brachial artery VF correlates with access VF measurements and has the advantage of being easier to perform and applicable for forearm and also arm dialysis access. When brachial artery velocity spectra criteria confirm a VF >800 mL/min, flow maturation and successful hemodialysis are predicted if anatomic criteria

  7. Case report: Iatrogenic brachial artery dissection with complete anterograde occlusion during elective arterial line placement

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    Laurence Weinberg

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: We review our diagnostic pathway and treatment of this rare complication. Recommendations to minimise the risks of complications from brachial arterial line insertion are also overviewed. We recommend the routine utilization of ultrasound-guided technique and regular post-insertion neurovascular monitoring for the prevention and early recognition of complications from brachial artery catheter insertion.

  8. Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery

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    David Kachlik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the terminal segmentation of the axillary artery and to present four cases of anomalous branching of the axillary artery, the superficial brachial artery (arteria brachialis superficialis, which is defined as the brachial artery that runs superficially to the median nerve. Totally, 130 cadaveric upper arms embalmed by classical formaldehyde technique from collections of the Department of Anatomy, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, were macroscopically dissected with special focus on the branching arrangement of the axillary artery. The most distal part of the axillary artery (infrapectoral part terminated in four cases as a bifurcation into two terminal branches: the superficial brachial artery and profunda brachii artery, denominated according to their relation to the median nerve. The profunda brachii artery primarily gave rise to the main branches of the infrapectoral part of the axillary artery. The superficial brachial artery descended to the cubital fossa where it assumed the usual course of the brachial artery in two cases and in the other two cases its branches (the radial and ulnar arteries passed superficially to the flexors. The incidence of the superficial brachial artery in our study was 5% of cases. The reported incidence is a bit contradictory, from 0.12% to 25% of cases. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is of crucial importance for neurosurgeons and specialists using the radiodiagnostic techniques, particularly in cases involving traumatic injuries. The improved knowledge would allow more accurate diagnostic interpretations and surgical treatment.

  9. Brachial Artery Aneurysm as a Limb Threatening Condition: a Case Report

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    Farhad Heydari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery aneurysms are rare but potentially limb threatening condition. The presented case here is a 52-year old male referred to the emergency department complaining a sudden onset and progressive pain with coldness of his right upper extremity during brushing. The right upper extremity was pulseless and three-dimensional computed tomography showed an aneurysm of the proximal right brachial artery associated with arterial occlusion in its distal branch. Embolectomy was done, the aneurysm resected, and the artery successfully re-vascularised by interposing a saphenous vein graft. 

  10. Unilateral high bifurcation of brachial artery: a case report | Auwal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Profunda Brachii, Superior Ulnar Collateral and Inferior Ulnar Collateral arteries arose from the relatively short brachial arterial trunk. Although the documented incidence of this anatomical variation is low in Nigeria, its concomitant widespread documentation in other parts of the world makes it a sufficiently important ...

  11. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  12. Brachial artery protected by wrapped latissimus dorsi muscle flap in high voltage electrical injury

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    Gencel, E.; Eser, C.; Kokacya, O.; Kesiktas, E.; Yavuz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary High voltage electrical injury can disrupt the vascular system and lead to extremity amputations. It is important to protect main vessels from progressive burn necrosis in order to salvage a limb. The brachial artery should be totally isolated from the burned area by a muscle flap to prevent vessel disruption. In this study, we report the use of a wrap-around latissimus dorsi muscle flap to protect a skeletonized brachial artery in a high voltage electrical injury in order to salvage the upper extremity and restore function. The flap wrapped around the exposed brachial artery segment and luminal status of the artery was assessed using magnetic resonance angiography. No vascular intervention was required. The flap survived completely with good elbow function. Extremity amputation was not encountered. This method using a latissimus dorsi flap allows the surgeon to protect the main upper extremity artery and reconstruct arm defects, which contributes to restoring arm function in high voltage electrical injury. PMID:28149236

  13. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

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    Su T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than

  14. Delayed presentation of a traumatic brachial artery pseudoaneurysm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Forde, James C

    2009-09-01

    Delayed presentation of a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm following penetrating trauma is infrequently reported. We report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented three months following a penetrating trauma to his antecubital fossa with a sudden exacerbation of swelling and tenderness of his elbow. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography arteriography confirmed the presence of a large pseudoaneurysm. Surgical reconstruction was performed using the long saphenous vein as an interposition vein graft, restoring normal arterial circulation.

  15. Anatomic variations of the cerebral arteries and their embryology: a pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okahara, Mika; Kiyosue, Hiro; Mori, Hiromu; Tanoue, Shuichi; Sainou, Michihumi; Nagatomi, Hirohumi

    2002-01-01

    In the embryonic period, several developmental anomalies of the cerebral arteries occur. The knowledge of these anatomic variations of the cerebral artery is important to avoid the unnecessary surgery and to undergo surgery or interventional radiology with safety. We reviewed 3000 MR angiographies and 700 cerebral angiographies of the previous 5 years to assess cerebral arterial system, and to illustrate the embryological development, imaging findings, occurrence, and clinical significance of the anatomic variation of the cerebral arteries. The normal development and variations of the cerebral arteries are depicted. Knowledge of the anatomic variations is important since it can influence surgical and interventional procedure. (orig.)

  16. Ankle Brachial Index: simple non-invasive estimation of peripheral artery disease

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    Pieniak, Marcin; Cieślicki, Krzysztof; Żyliński, Marek; Górski, Piotr; Murgrabia, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Gerard

    2014-11-01

    According to international guidelines, patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) are burdened with high cardiovascular risk. One of the simplest, non-invasive methods for PAD detection is the ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement. The ABI is calculated as the ratio of systolic blood pressure at the ankle (pressure in the posterior tibial artery or the dorsal artery) to the systolic pressure in the arm (in the brachial artery) when the body is in a horizontal position. The physiological value of the ABI is assumed to be between 1 and 1.3; however, these limits vary from study to study. A value less than 0.9 indicates PAD. Some authors propose also measuring the ABI on both sides of the body to highlight possible differences in blood pressure between the opposite arterial segments. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ABI diagnostic criteria used in different publications. Additionally, ABI measurements were performed on 19 healthy patients in age ranged from 20 to 63 years. The results showed a slight dependence between age and the differences between the values obtained from left and right sides of the body.

  17. Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery: angiographic evaluation and embryologic explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Gyu; Chang, Ki Hyun; Kim, Eui Jong; Kim, Dae Ho

    1997-01-01

    To find and describe the cerebellar arteries arising from the internal carotid artery, explain them embryologically, and evaluate their clinical implication. To determine the point in the internal carotid artery from which the cereballar artery arose anomalously, consecutive angiographic studies performed in the last three years were reviewed. The distribution of such anomalous cerebellar arteries, the point in the internal carotid artery from which the anomalous vessels originated, and associated findings were analyzed. Five anomalous origins of cerebellar arteries arising arising directly from the internal carotid artery were found in five patients. Three anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) and one common trunk of an AICA and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were found to originate from the internal carotid artery at a point close to the origin of the primitive trigeminal artery. A PICA arose from an artery presenting a course similar to the proatlantal intersegmental artery. Intracranial aneurysms in two patients, Moyamoya disease in one, and facial arteriovenous malformation in one. In our series, AICAs supplied from the arteries considered to be persistent trigeminal artery variants were the most common type. A correlation between type of anomalous cerebellar artery and type of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis may exist. Cerebellar arteries originating anomalously from the internal carotid artery seem to occur as a result of the persistence of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses associated with incomplete fusion of the longitudinal neural arteries. An understanding of these anomalous cerebellar arteries may help prevent accidents during therapeutic embolization and surgical treatment, as well as misinterpretation

  18. Non-invasive assessment of peripheral arterial disease: Automated ankle brachial index measurement and pulse volume analysis compared to duplex scan.

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    Lewis, Jane Ea; Williams, Paul; Davies, Jane H

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to individually and cumulatively compare sensitivity and specificity of the (1) ankle brachial index and (2) pulse volume waveform analysis recorded by the same automated device, with the presence or absence of peripheral arterial disease being verified by ultrasound duplex scan. Patients (n=205) referred for lower limb arterial assessment underwent ankle brachial index measurement and pulse volume waveform recording using volume plethysmography, followed by ultrasound duplex scan. The presence of peripheral arterial disease was recorded if ankle brachial index 50% was evident with ultrasound duplex scan. Outcome measure was agreement between the measured ankle brachial index and interpretation of pulse volume waveform for peripheral arterial disease diagnosis, using ultrasound duplex scan as the reference standard. Sensitivity of ankle brachial index was 79%, specificity 91% and overall accuracy 88%. Pulse volume waveform sensitivity was 97%, specificity 81% and overall accuracy 85%. The combined sensitivity of ankle brachial index and pulse volume waveform was 100%, specificity 76% and overall accuracy 85%. Combining these two diagnostic modalities within one device provided a highly accurate method of ruling out peripheral arterial disease, which could be utilised in primary care to safely reduce unnecessary secondary care referrals.

  19. A pilot study of the relationship between Doppler-estimated carotid and brachial artery flow and cardiac index.

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    Weber, U; Glassford, N J; Eastwood, G M; Bellomo, R; Hilton, A K

    2015-10-01

    We measured carotid and brachial artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasound in 11 human volunteers, and related these to cardiac index and to each other. The median (IQR [range]) carotid arterial blood flow was 0.334 (0.223-0.381 [0.052-0.563]) l.min(-1) on the right and 0.315 (0.223-0.369 [0.061-0.690]) l.min(-1) on the left. The brachial arterial blood flow was 0.049 (0.033-0.062 [0.015-0.204]) l.min(-1) on the right and 0.039 (0.027-0.054 [0.011-0.116]) on the left. Cardiac index was 3.2 (2.8-3.5 [1.9-5.4]) l.min(-1) .m(-2) . There was a moderate to good correlation between right-and left-sided flows (brachial: ρ = 0.45; carotid: ρ = 0.567). Brachial and carotid flow had no or a negative correlation with cardiac index (right brachial: ρ = -0.145, left brachial: ρ = -0.349; right carotid: ρ = -0.376, left carotid: ρ = -0.285). In contrast to some previous studies, we found that Doppler-estimated peripheral arterial blood flows only show a weak correlation with cardiac index and cannot be used to provide non-invasive estimates of cardiac index in man. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Effects of iodinated contrast media on common carotid and brachial artery blood flow and wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irace, C.; Tamburini, S.; Bertucci, B.; Franceschi, M.S. de; Gnasso, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intravenous contrast media iomeprol on wall shear stress, blood flow and vascular parameters in the common carotid and brachial artery. Thirty outpatients undergoing thoracic or abdominal spiral CT scans were studied. The internal diameter and flow velocity of the common carotid and brachial artery were evaluated by ultrasound, and blood viscosity was measured before and after low osmolality iomeprol (Iomeron 350) injection. The wall shear stress, blood flow and pulsatility index were calculated. To test the differences between groups, the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney U test were applied. Blood viscosity decreased slightly, but significantly after contrast media (4.6±0.7 vs. 4.5±0.7 mPa.s, P=0.02). Contrarily, blood flow and wall shear stress did not change in the common carotid artery, but significantly decreased in the brachial artery (0.9±0.4 vs. 0.6±0.3 ml/s, P<0.0001, and 41.5±13.9 vs. 35.3±11.0 dynes/cm2, P<0.002, respectively), whereas the pulsatility index significantly increased in the brachial artery (5.0±3.3 vs. 7.5±5.3, P<0.001). Iomeprol injection causes blood flow and wall shear stress reduction of the brachial artery; the rise in the pulsatility index suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether these modifications can be clinically relevant. (orig.)

  1. Cardiac tamponade and coronary artery pseudoaneurysm after brachial arterial embolectomy, possible role for an aberrant origin of the right coronary artery

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    Irit Stessman-Lande, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient developed hemopericardium shortly after left brachial arterial embolectomy using an embolectomy catheter. Evaluation disclosed evolving pseudoaneurysm of the right coronary artery that was successfully managed by stenting. Misplacement of the embolectomy catheter within the coronary vessel was facilitated by an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery. This complication highlights the importance of correct insertion of the embolectomy catheter using the markers to avoid maladvancement and damage to central vessels.

  2. Hand-arm vibration syndrome with distal brachial artery occlusion

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    Vladyslava Bazylevska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract             Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS is a complex disorder of the peripheral extremities that is associated with occupational or recreational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. Digital artery occlusion in HAVS is a common finding; however, proximal involvement is less likely.  We present a case of HAVS with the initial presentation of acute limb ischemia and with thrombus burden extending from the distal brachial artery and into the ulnar and radial arteries. To our knowledge, no case of HAVS syndrome of similar severity has been previously described. This case emphasizes the potential dangers of HAVS and the necessity for proper prophylactic interventions at the workplace.

  3. Aortic-Brachial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio: A Measure of Arterial Stiffness Gradient Not Affected by Mean Arterial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Catherine; Desjardins, Marie-Pier; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is used for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. This mini-review describes the nonlinear relationship between cf-PWV and operational blood pressure, presents the proposed methods to adjust for this relationship, and discusses a potential place for aortic-brachial PWV ratio (a measure of arterial stiffness gradient) as a blood pressure-independent measure of vascular aging. PWV is inherently dependent on the operational blood pressure. In cross-sectional studies, PWV adjustment for mean arterial pressure (MAP) is preferred, but still remains a nonoptimal approach, as the relationship between PWV and blood pressure is nonlinear and varies considerably among individuals due to heterogeneity in genetic background, vascular tone, and vascular remodeling. Extrapolations from the blood pressure-independent stiffness parameter β (β 0 ) have led to the creation of stiffness index β, which can be used for local stiffness. A similar approach has been used for cardio-ankle PWV to generate a blood pressure-independent cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). It was recently demonstrated that stiffness index β and CAVI remain slightly blood pressure-dependent, and a more appropriate formula has been proposed to make the proper adjustments. On the other hand, the negative impact of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes is thought to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of the arterial stiffness gradient, which can also be influenced by a reduction in peripheral medium-sized muscular arteries in conditions that predispose to accelerate vascular aging. Arterial stiffness gradient, assessed by aortic-brachial PWV ratio, is emerging to be at least as good as cf-PWV for risk prediction, but has the advantage of not being affected by operating MAP. The negative impacts of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes are proposed to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of arterial stiffness gradient

  4. Percutaneous brachial artery catheterization for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions (pci): an encouraging experience of 100 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Z.U.; Maken, G.R.; Saif, M.; Khattak, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the practicability and safety of the percutaneous transbrachial approach (TBA) for diagnostic coronary angiography and therapeutic percutaneous coronary interventions. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology- National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD) from March 2009 to May 2011. Patients and Methods: We collected data of 100 consecutive patients who underwent coronary catheterization by the percutaneous transbrachial approach. Transbrachial catheterization was performed only if the radial access failed or radial pulse was feeble. Study endpoints included successful brachial artery catheterization, vascular and neurological complications at access site and procedure success rate. Results: Mean age of the patients was 54 years (range 33-79 yrs) and 65(65%) were males and 35 (35%) were females. The right brachial artery was used in all of the cases. Procedural success was achieved in 100% of the patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 70 patients and percutaneous coronary interventions were done in 30 cases. Out of these 30 cases, PCI to left coronary arteries (LAD and LCX) were performed in 19 patients while 11 patients had PCI to right coronary artery (RCA). No case of vascular complications such as major access site bleeding, vascular perforation, brachial artery occlusion causing forearm ischemia, compartment syndrome, vascular spasm or failure to catheterize coronary arteries requiring alternate vascular access were observed. Conclusion: Brachial artery is a safe and easily accessible approach for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions. (author)

  5. Brachial artery repair using the basilic vein as a reliable conduit in a 3-year-old child

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    Hyunyoung G. Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A supracondylar fracture of the humerus is the most common upper extremity fracture in children with concurrent neurovascular complications. However, bypass grafting in the management of a pediatric open elbow dislocation with an arterial injury has rarely been reported in the literature. Hence, an adequate conduit for a vessel graft interposition remains questionable when a primary anastomosis is limited in an arterial reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to present a brachial artery reconstruction in a 3-year-old patient with an open supracondylar fracture of the humerus. In the clinical and surgical examination of the patient, an open wound in the left antecubital fossa presented with accompanying brachial artery injury. To repair the artery, a reverse end-to-end anastomosis was conducted using basilic vein graft from the ipsilateral arm under general anesthesia. The patient had palpable radial pulses in the postoperative clinical examination and was discharged without complications. The great saphenous vein (GSV has proven to be the most common and the best conduit for arterial reconstruction of the upper extremity in the adult patients. However, the GSV graft is known to have the propensity for becoming aneurysmal in pediatric patients. Some studies have demonstrated the basilic vein as a suitable conduit in pediatric patients, in that it has durable patency, fewer branches, size compatibility for anastomosis, and proximity to the brachial artery. Our case confirms the safety of using this autogenous vein from within the zone of injury for arterial reconstruction, after a supracondylar humeral fracture. The management of pediatric elbow fractures accompanying vascular injuries can be technically demanding due to relatively small, delicate structures and concurrent neurovascular network. Nonetheless, a vascular injury should be treated with high level of suspicion and immediate intervention to avoid any limb ischemia or loss. In

  6. Brachial artery injury due to closed posterior elbow dislocation: case report☆

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    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An association between closed posterior elbow dislocation and traumatic brachial artery injury is rare. Absence of radial pulse on palpation is an important warning sign and arteriography is the gold-standard diagnostic test. Early diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment to be provided. This consists of joint reduction and immobilization, along with urgent surgical restoration of arterial flow. Here, a case (novel to the Brazilian literature of an association between these injuries (and the treatment implemented in a 27-year-old male patient is reported. These injuries were sustained through physical assault.

  7. Right retrograde brachial cerebral angiography with simultaneous compression of the left carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, K.; Mosskin, M.

    1981-01-01

    Right retrograde brachial angiography with simultaneous compression of the left common carotid artery was performed in 12 patients, invariably resulting in filling of the right vertebral and the basilar artery. In all but one patient, the right carotid artery and its branches were also filled. Retrograde filling of the left internal carotid artery occurred in 8 patients. Furthermore, retrograde filling of the intracranial part of the left vertebral artery was obtained in 5 of 12 patients. A complete four-vessel cranial angiography was thus obtained in one third of the patients. The method may be considered as a safe and valuable adjunct to other angiographic techniques. (Auth.)

  8. Changes of brachial arterial doppler waveform during immersion of the hand of young men in ice-cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Goo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of brachial arterial Doppler waveform during immersion of the hand of young men in ice-cold water. Doppler waveforms of brachial arteries in 11 young male patients were recorded before and during immersion of ipsilateral hand in ice-cold water(4-5 .deg. C). The procedure was repeated on separate days. Patterns of waveform during immersion were compared with the changes of pulsatility index. Four men showed high impedance waveforms, and 5 men showed low impedance waveforms during immersion both at the first and at the second study. Two men, however, showed high impedance waveforms at the first study and tow impedance waveforms at the second study. The pulsatility index rose and fell in high and low impedance waveforms, respectively. The changes of brachial arterial Doppler waveforms could be classified into high and low impedance patterns, probably reflecting the acute changes in downstream impedance during immersion of hand in ice-cold water

  9. Ankle-brachial index as indicator of chronic arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities and renal artery stenosis CT/DS angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.; Chervenkov, L.; Karadon, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The aim is to validate the measurements of ankle -brachial index (ABI), as part of routine examination algorithm in conducting CTA/DSA of the extremities in patients suffering from PAD. Correlations between ABI values and renal artery stenosis. The present study includes 200 patients (138 men and 62 women, aged between 60 and 75 years). 130 of them were examined by a computer- tomography angiography - 95 men and 32 women. 70 patients were examined by digital subtraction angiography - 50 men and 20 women. Measurements of ankle-brachial index (ABI) were performed on all patients by measuring the systolic blood pressure on both brachial arteries and determine the peak pressure in both aa. dorsalis pedis. Statistical data processing. There are no patients in the study with ABI values above 0.7 that have established renal artery stenosis. All patients with severe atherosclerotic changes have values of the ABI below 0.7, and those with the most severe changes below 0.5. This fully corresponds to global data showing that values below 0.9 ABI show mild engagement, below 0.7 average, and below 0.5 severe involvement. According to the results of this survey sensitivity of ABI for renal arteries below 0.7 equals 100% and its specificity = 67.5%. For values of ABI below 0.5: Sensitivity =100%; Specificity = 83.85%. By determining ABI values both symptomatic and asymptomatic form of a PAD can be diagnosed. the method is fast, non-invasive, inexpensive and applicable everywhere. No special preparation of the patient is needed. The method can be used not only to assess the degree of commitment of the vessels of the lower limbs, but also as an indicator for the state of renal arteries in those patients

  10. Asymmetric Bilateral Variations in the Musculocutaneous and Median Nerves with High Branching of Brachial Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial Plexus is formed by the union of the anterior rami of cervical 5, 6, 7, 8 and thoracic 1 nerves. These nerves unite and divide to form the key nerves innervating the upper limb. Variations in the course of these nerves are clinically important to anesthetists, neurologists and orthopedicians. We report bilateral variations in the arterial and neural structures in the upper limb of a 65 year old cadaver. The muscles of the arm on one side were innervated by the median nerve with absence of musculocutaneous. While on the other side the musculocutaneous nerve contributed to the formation of the median nerve. There was a presence of high bifurcation of brachial artery on both sides. Knowledge of such variations in the innervations of muscles and the arterial supply of the limbs are important to remember before performing any reconstructive procedures or interventions on the limb.

  11. Ultrasound-guided compression repair of pseudoaneurysms of brachial and femoral arteries - 2 cases-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Soo; Choi, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Myung A; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cho, Jae Min

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided compression repair of postcatherization pseudoaneurysm has been reported recently. We successfuly treated two cases of cardiac catherization-related pseudoaneurysms of brachial and femoral arteries with compression repair technique under color Doppler US-guidance. We regard US-guided compression repair as a saft and effective first-line treatment for catherization-related pseudoaneurysm

  12. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Theodore W.; Sultan, Laith R.; Sehgal, Chandra M., E-mail: sehgalc@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Reamer, Courtney B.; Mohler, Emile R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Section of Vascular Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging.

  13. Models of brachial to finger pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizdulich, P.; Prentza, A.; Wesseling, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To model the pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement occurring between brachial and finger arteries. Distortion reversion and decrement correction were also our aims. Methods: Brachial artery pressure was recorded intra-arterially and finger pressure was recorded non-invasively by

  14. Duplication of the superficial femoral artery: comprehensive review of imaging literature and insight into embryology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapugoda, Sachintha; Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Watkins, Trevor William; Rophael, John A

    2016-01-01

    An extremely rare case of duplicated superficial femoral artery (SFA) was incidentally observed on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the lower limbs for presurgical planning for an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap in a patient with T4a oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the imaging literature. We performed a comprehensive review of the English literature and discuss the underlying embryological origin underpinning this rare anatomical variant

  15. Brachial artery responses to ambient pollution, temperature, and humidity in people with type 2 diabetes: a repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Horton, Edward S; Cohen, Allison; Coull, Brent A; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schwartz, Joel D; Mittleman, Murray A; Li, Yongsheng; Stone, Peter H; de Souza, Celine; Lamparello, Brooke; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R

    2014-03-01

    Extreme weather and air pollution are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. In a population with diabetes, we conducted a novel assessment of vascular brachial artery responses both to ambient pollution and to weather (temperature and water vapor pressure, a measure of humidity). Sixty-four 49- to 85-year-old Boston residents with type 2 diabetes completed up to five study visits (279 repeated measures). Brachial artery diameter (BAD) was measured by ultrasound before and after brachial artery occlusion [i.e., flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] and before and after nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD). Ambient concentrations of fine particulate mass (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, particle number, and sulfate were measured at our monitoring site; ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were obtained from state monitors. Particle exposure in the home and during each trip to the clinic (home/trip exposure) was measured continuously and as a 5-day integrated sample. We used linear models with fixed effects for participants, adjusting for date, season, temperature, and water vapor pressure on the day of each visit, to estimate associations between our outcomes and interquartile range increases in exposure. Baseline BAD was negatively associated with particle pollution, including home/trip-integrated BC (-0.02 mm; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.003, for a 0.28 μg/m3 increase in BC), OC (-0.08 mm; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.03, for a 1.61 μg/m3 increase) as well as PM2.5, 5-day average ambient PM2.5, and BC. BAD was positively associated with ambient temperature and water vapor pressure. However, exposures were not consistently associated with FMD or NMD. Brachial artery diameter, a predictor of cardiovascular risk, decreased in association with particle pollution and increased in association with ambient temperature in our study population of adults with type 2 diabetes. Zanobetti A, Luttmann

  16. Pitfalls in the ankle-brachial index and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ato D

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dai Ato Gakujutsu Shien Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan Background: The ankle-brachial index (ABI and pulse wave velocity (PWV are indices of atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. The Japan-made measuring devices of those indices have spread widely because of their convenience and the significance of the parameters. However, studies that comprehensively discuss the various pitfalls in using these indices are not available.Methods: This study presents several representative pitfalls in using the ABI and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV by showing the result sheets of the device, “the Vascular Profiler”. Furthermore, some considerations when utilizing these indices in the future are also discussed.Results: Several diseases such as arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO, arterial calcification in the lower limb, arterial stenosis in the right upper-limb, aortic valve diseases, arterial stenosis in the upper-limb of the contralateral side of the hemodialysis access, are the representative pitfalls when evaluating ABI and baPWV. Moreover, a measurement error is found to actually exist. Furthermore, same phenomena are considered most likely to occur when using other similar indices and devices.Conclusion: The ABI and baPWV are the useful and significant biomarkers. Nevertheless, caution is sometimes necessary when interpreting them. Moreover, rigorous patient exclusion criteria should be considered when using those indices in the severely conditioned patient population. And the results of this study can be applied to enhance the literacy using other indices, such as the cardio-ankle vascular index and other similar devices. Keywords: ankle-brachial index, pulse wave velocity, peripheral arterial disease, aortic valve disease, hemodialysis

  17. Effect of mechanical behaviour of the brachial artery on blood pressure measurement during both cuff inflation and cuff deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Pan, Fan; Murray, Alan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different mechanical behaviour of the brachial artery on blood pressure (BP) measurements during cuff inflation and deflation. BP measurements were taken from each of 40 participants, with three repeat sessions under three randomized cuff deflation/inflation conditions. Cuff pressure was linearly deflated and inflated at a standard rate of 2-3 mmHg/s and also linearly inflated at a fast rate of 5-6 mmHg/s. Manual auscultatory systolic and diastolic BPs, and pulse pressure (SBP, DBP, PP) were measured. Automated BPs were determined from digitally recorded cuff pressures by fitting a polynomial model to the oscillometric pulse amplitudes. The BPs from cuff deflation and inflation were then compared. Repeatable measurements between sessions and between the sequential order of inflation/deflation conditions (all P > 0.1) indicated stability of arterial mechanical behaviour with repeat measurements. Comparing BPs obtained by standard inflation with those from standard deflation, manual SBP was 2.6 mmHg lower (P deflation suggest different arterial mechanical behaviour between arterial opening and closing during BP measurement. We have shown that the mechanical behaviour of the brachial artery during BP measurement differs between cuff deflation and cuff inflation.

  18. Association of particulate air pollution and secondhand smoke on endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the association of particulate matters with endothelial function, measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD of brachial artery, in children with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2011 in Isfahan, which is the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The areas of the city with lowest and highest air pollution were determined, and in each area, 25 prepubescent boys with or without exposure to daily tobacco smoke in home were selected, i.e. 100 children were studied in total. Results: FMD was significantly smaller in those living in high-polluted area and those exposed to secondhand smoke. Multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age and body mass index, showed that both passive smoking status and living area in terms of particulate air pollution were effective determinants of the brachial artery diameter. The standardized coefficient of passive smoking status was –0.36 (SD = 0.09, P < 0.0001 showing negative association with percent increase in FMD. Likewise, the percent increase in brachial artery diameter was lower in passive smoker children. Similar relationship was documented for PM 10 concentration with a regression coefficient of –0.32 (SD = 0.04, P < 0.0001. Without considering passive smoking variable, PM 10 concentration has significant independent effect on FMD level. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the association of environmental factors on endothelial dysfunction from early life. Studying such associations among healthy children may help identify the underlying mechanisms. The clinical implications of environmental factors on early stages of atherosclerosis should be confirmed in longitudinal studies.

  19. Brachial index does not reflect upper extremity functionality following surgery for vascular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Simsek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Vascular injuries to the upper extremities requiring surgical repair are common after accidents. However, neither postoperative functionality nor hemodynamic status of the extremity are routinely described. We evaluated the postoperative functional and hemodynamic status of patients with vascular traumas in the upper extremities. METHODS: 26 patients who suffered penetrating vascular traumas in the upper extremities from November 2008 to December 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. Data on first approach, surgical technique employed and early postoperative outcomes were recorded. Further data on the post-discharge period, including clinical functional status of the arm, Doppler ultrasonography and brachial-brachial index were also evaluated. RESULTS: Average follow up was 33.5±10.8 months. Right (1.05±0.09 and left (1.04±0.08 brachial indexes were measured during follow up,. Doppler ultrasonography showed arterial occlusion in 4 patients (15%. Near-normal brachial-brachial indexes was observed in all four of these patients with occlusion of one of the upper extremity arteries, even though they exhibited limited arm function for daily work. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of the postoperative outcomes of this small series of patients with penetrating vascular traumas in the upper extremity revealed that 15% of them suffered occlusion of one artery of the upper extremity. Artery occlusion did not correlate with brachial-brachial Doppler index, probably due to rich collateral circulation, but occlusion was associated with an extremity that was dysfunctional for the purposes of daily work. The result of the brachial-brachial index does not therefore correlate with functionality.

  20. Models of brachial to finger pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizdulich, P; Prentza, A; Wesseling, K H

    1997-03-01

    To model the pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement occurring between brachial and finger arteries. Distortion reversion and decrement correction were also our aims. Brachial artery pressure was recorded intra-arterially and finger pressure was recorded non-invasively by the Finapres technique in 53 adult human subjects. Mean pressure was subtracted from each pressure waveform and Fourier analysis applied to the pulsations. A distortion model was estimated for each subject and averaged over the group. The average inverse model was applied to the full finger pressure waveform. The pressure decrement was modelled by multiple regression on finger systolic and diastolic levels. Waveform distortion could be described by a general, frequency dependent model having a resonance at 7.3 Hz. The general inverse model has an anti-resonance at this frequency. It converts finger to brachial pulsations thereby reducing average waveform distortion from 9.7 (s.d. 3.2) mmHg per sample for the finger pulse to 3.7 (1.7) mmHg for the converted pulse. Systolic and diastolic level differences between finger and brachial arterial pressures changed from -4 (15) and -8 (11) to +8 (14) and +8 (12) mmHg, respectively, after inverse modelling, with pulse pressures correct on average. The pressure decrement model reduced both the mean and the standard deviation of systolic and diastolic level differences to 0 (13) and 0 (8) mmHg. Diastolic differences were thus reduced most. Brachial to finger pulse wave distortion due to wave reflection in arteries is almost identical in all subjects and can be modelled by a single resonance. The pressure decrement due to flow in arteries is greatest for high pulse pressures superimposed on low means.

  1. Anatomical variations in the origins of the celiac axis and the superior mesenteric artery: MDCT angiographic findings and their probable embryological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Lu; Li, Ran; Chen, Jin-hua; Gong, Shui-gen

    2014-08-01

    To identify the spectrum and prevalence of anatomical variations in the origin of the celiac axis (CA), the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and their major branches by using multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography. A retrospective evaluation was carried out on 1,500 abdominal MDCT angiography images. The aortic origins of the CA, the SMA and their major branch patterns were investigated. Normal aortic origins of CA and SMA were noted in 1,347 (89.8%) patients. Seven types of CA and SMA origin variants were identified in 153 (10.2%) patients. The three most common variations were hepatomesenteric trunk (67 patients, 4.47%), celiomesenteric trunk (CMT) (51 patients, 3.4%) and splenomesenteric trunk (18 patients, 1.2%). An evaluation of CMT was classified as long (34 patients, 66.7%) or short (17 patients, 33.3%) subtypes, compared with the length of the common trunk. Further CMT classification was based on the origin of the left gastric artery: subtype I, 26 patients (53.1%); subtype II, 5 patients (10.2%); subtype III, 15 patients (30.6%); subtype IV, 3 patients (6.1%). Dislocation interruption, incomplete interruption and persistence of the longitudinal anastomosis could be the embryological mechanisms of the variant origins of the CA, the SMA and their major branches. • Aortic origins of CA, SMA and their major branches were investigated. • Celiomesenteric trunk includes several different subtypes and configurations. • Probable embryological mechanisms of origin variants in these observed arteries were discussed. • Origin variants in these observed arteries have wide-ranging health implications.

  2. Occluded Brescia-Cimino Hemodialysis Fistulas: Endovascular Treatment with Both Brachial Arterial and Venous Access Using the Pull-Through Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyayama, Shiro; Matsui, Osamu; Taki, Keiichi; Minami, Tetsuya; Shinmura, Rieko; Ito, Chiharu; Takamatsu, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Miki; Ushiogi, Yashuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of both arterial and venous access with the pull-through technique in endovascular treatment of totally occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas. We treated 26 patients (17 men, 9 women; age range 43-82 years, mean age 66 years) with occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas. First, the occluded segment was traversed from the antegrade brachial arterial access using a microcatheter-guidewire system. Second, the vein was retrogradely punctured after confirmation of all diseased segments, and a 0.014- or 0.016-inch guidewire was pulled through the venous access when the occluded segment was long. All interventions including thrombolysis, thromboaspiration, angioplasty, and stent placement were performed via the venous access. The occlusion was successfully crossed via the brachial arterial access in 23 patients (88%). In 2 patients it was done from the venous approach. In the remaining patient it was not possible to traverse the occluded segment. The pull-through technique was successful in all 19 attempts. Clinical success was achieved in 96%, the primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 18 months were 83%, 78%, and 69%, the primary assisted patency rates were 92%, 92%, and 72%, and the secondary patency rates were 92%, 92%, and 92%, respectively. Minor complications in 5 patients included venous perforation in 2 (8%), venous rupture in 1 (4%), and regional hematoma in 2 (8%). Our study suggests that endovascular treatments with both arterial and venous access using the pull-through technique are highly effective in restoring function in totally occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas

  3. A Unique Branching Pattern of the Axillary Artery: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bagoji, Ishwar B.; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A.; Bannur, Balappa M.; Patil, B.G.; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in t...

  4. Peripheral artery questionnaire improves ankle brachial index screening in symptomatic patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B-H; Cho, K-I; Spertus, J; Park, Y-H; Je, H-G; Shin, M-S; Lee, J-H; Jang, J-S

    2014-12-01

    The peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) is a disease-specific health status measure of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Whether the PAQ scores are associated with a PAD diagnosis among patients with symptoms suspicious for PAD is unknown and could help increase the pretest probability of ankle brachial index (ABI) screening among patients with suspicious symptoms. The PAQ was completed by 567 patients evaluated for potential intermittent claudication at six tertiary centres. Demographics, medical history, physical examination findings and the PAQ domain scores were compared with ABI. A diagnostic threshold PAQ scores. The correlation between the PAQ Summary Score and ABI was also calculated. The PAQ Summary Score was significantly lower in patients with low ABI as compared with those having a normal ABI (37.6 ± 19.0 vs. 70.1 ± 22.7, p PAQ Summary Score and ABI were highly correlated (r = 0.56, p PAQ Summary Score for predicting low ABI was 50.3 (AUC = 0.86, sensitivity 80.3%, specificity 78.3%). The PAQ Summary Score was associated with an increased likelihood of PAD in patients with suspected PAD symptoms, and a low summary score (≤ 50.3) was an optimal threshold for predicting PAD among patients referred for ABI. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Congenital coronary artery anomalies: a bridge from embryology to anatomy and pathophysiology—a position statement of the development, anatomy, and pathology ESC Working Group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pérez-Pomares, J. M.; de la Pompa, J. L.; Franco, D.; Henderson, D.; Ho, S. Y.; Houyel, L.; Kelly, R. G.; Sedmera, David; Sheppard, M.; Sperling, S.; Thiene, G.; van den Hoff, M.; Basso, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 2 (2016), s. 204-216 ISSN 0008-6363 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-12412S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : coronary arteries * embryology * congenital heart disease * pathology * anatomy Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.878, year: 2016

  6. Association between temporal mean arterial pressure and brachial noninvasive blood pressure during shoulder surgery in the beach chair position during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplet, Jacob J; Lonetta, Christopher M; Everding, Nathan G; Moor, Molly A; Levy, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of cerebral perfusion pressure during elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position is regularly performed by noninvasive brachial blood pressure (NIBP) measurements. The relationship between brachial mean arterial pressure and estimated temporal mean arterial pressure (eTMAP) is not well established and may vary with patient positioning. Establishing a ratio between eTMAP and NIBP at varying positions may provide a more accurate estimation of cerebral perfusion using noninvasive measurements. This prospective study included 57 patients undergoing elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. All patients received an interscalene block and general anesthesia. After the induction of general anesthesia, values for eTMAP and NIBP were recorded at 0°, 30°, and 70° of incline. A statistically significant, strong, and direct correlation between NIBP and eTMAP was found at 0° (r = 0.909, P ≤ .001), 30° (r = 0.874, P Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Right brachial angiography with compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, G.; Dalbuono, S.; Tampieri, D.

    1982-01-01

    A technique for performing right brachial anigography by compressing the right anterior-inferior part of the neck is proposed, as a result of studying the left carotid circulation without puncturing the left carotid artery. A success was obtained in about 75% of cases. The success of the technique depends mainly on the anatomical nature of the innominate artery. When the technique is successful both left carotid arteries in the neck and their intracranial branches can be satisfactorily visualized. In some cases visualization of the left vertebral artery was also otbained. Attention is drawn also on the increased diagnostic possibilities of studying the vessels in the neck with a greater dilution of the contrast medium. (orig.)

  8. Clinical significance of inter-arm pressure difference and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yuko; Chikamori, Taishiro; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Nagao, Tadashi; Yamashina, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Although measuring blood pressure at the bilateral brachia is common in medical practice, its clinical significance in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been fully clarified. The method of this study was to define the significance of inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference in patients with suspected CAD, and to assess the relationship between inter-arm pressure difference and CAD, simultaneous brachial and ankle blood pressure measurements and stress myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 386 consecutive patients with suspected CAD, excluding those with previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization. Subclavian artery stenosis, defined as ≥15 mmHg inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference, was found in 27 patients (7%). Age (65±12 vs 65±11 years), male sex (21/27 vs 244/359), prevalence of hypertension (63% vs 56%), hypercholesterolemia (63% vs 62%), diabetes mellitus (33% vs 38%), cigarette smoking (44% vs 41%) and family history of CAD (15% vs 12%) were similar between patients with subclavian artery stenosis and those without. The incidence of decreased ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) was higher (37% vs 12%, p=0.001), and percentage ischemic myocardium as assessed by SPECT was greater (9.0±8.5% vs 5.6±6.6%, p=0.05) in patients with subclavian artery stenosis than in those without. Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between inter-arm pressure difference and percentage ischemic myocardium (r=0.13; p=0.01), and ABI (r=-0.26, p<0.0001). Among 386 patients, 283 underwent coronary angiography, and 63% of those who had inter-arm blood pressure difference had CAD. Furthermore, 83% of those CAD patients had multi-vessel CAD, which is regarded as a high-risk subset for subsequent cardiac events. Inter-arm pressure difference is often found in patients with suspected CAD, and is associated with significant CAD and peripheral artery disease. Thus, inter

  9. Impact of Age and Aerobic Exercise Training on Conduit Artery Wall Thickness: Role of the Shear Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kosaki, Keisei; Sawano, Yuriko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tagawa, Kaname; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Maeda, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamic shear stress is the frictional force of blood on the arterial wall. The shear pattern in the conduit artery affects the endothelium and may participate in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the role of the shear pattern in age- and aerobic exercise-induced changes in conduit artery wall thickness via cross-sectional and interventional studies. In a cross-sectional study, we found that brachial shear rate patterns and brachial artery intima-media thickness (IMT) correlated with age. Additionally, brachial artery shear rate patterns were associated with brachial artery IMT in 102 middle-aged and older individuals. In an interventional study, 39 middle-aged and older subjects were divided into 2 groups: control and exercise. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Aerobic exercise training significantly increased the antegrade shear rate and decreased the retrograde shear rate and brachial artery IMT. Moreover, changes in the brachial artery antegrade shear rate and the retrograde shear rate correlated with the change in brachial artery IMT. The results of the present study indicate that changes in brachial artery shear rate patterns may contribute to age- and aerobic exercise training-induced changes in brachial artery wall thickness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Coronary interventionism for dissection of the artery brachial right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde Cerdeira, Hector; Obregon Santos, Angel Gaspar; Aroche Aportela, Ronald; Dominguez Perez, Reyber Jesus

    2007-01-01

    A prospective, no controlled study was conducted from march 1 to December 31 of 2004. 23 patients were enrolled who made outpatients coronariography and were implanted coronary stents (25 lesions) by angioplasty with optimal results. Found 73,9% of male, stable angina 52,2%, mean age 55.1 + 8.9 years. Hypertension associates to smoke habits were most frequent risk factors. 80% receive 300 mg of clopidogrel during or immediately after procedure. Left anterior descending artery was most frequently treated (44%) and B2 type lessons (64%). The mid time procedure was 48 minutes. Reference diameter 2,87 + 0.42 mm, stenosis diameter 71,6 + 15.1 mm; minimal lumen diameter 0,97 + 0.64 mm; length lesson 14,72 + 5.6 mm; stent diameter 2,9 + 0.42 mm; stent length 16,8 + 5.44 mm; insufflation's time 36,4 + 7.3 seconds; atmospheres 13,56 + 1.7; acute gain 1,96 + 0.61 mm. Two patients had minor bleeding at dissection site (8.7%) and one a little haematoma (4,3%). The radial pulse from the arm's dissection was present in all patients event 24 hours after. We conclude brachial dissection ambulatory angioplasty stent in selected patients with optimal angiography results is feasible and safe

  11. The artery blood supply variant of the upper limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Variations of arterial patterns in the upper limb have represented the most common subject of vascular anatomy. Different types of artery branching pattern of the upper limb are very important for orthopedists in angiographic and microvascular surgical practice. The brachial artery (BA) is the most important vessel in the normal vascular anatomy of the upper limb. The classical pattern of the palmar hand region distribution shows the superficial palmar arch. Normally this arch is formed by the superficial branch of the ulnar artery and completed on the lateral side by one of these arteries: the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery, the princeps pollicis artery, the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery or the median artery. After the routine dissection of the right upper limb of an adult male cadaver, we found a very rare variant of the superficial arch artery – a division in a higher level brachial artery. We found this division at 10.4 cm from the beginning of the brachial artery. This superficial brachial artery became a radial artery and was not involved in the formation of the palm arch. In the forearm region, the artery variant was present with the median artery and the ulnar artery, which form the superficial palm arch. PMID:26733754

  12. Stenting-plasty with brachial puncture in the treatment of subclavian steal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Jing Zaiping; Zhao Zhiqing; Feng Xiang; Lu Qingsheng; Mei Zhijun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical effect of stenting-plasty with retrograde brachial puncture for subclavian steal syndrome patients. Methods: To analyze the clinical results of stenting-plasty with retrograde brachial puncture in 15 patients with subclavian steal syndrome. Results: MRA or DSA showed the subclavian arteries with different degrees of stenosis (80%-100%) in all patients. Stenting-plasty with retrograde brachia] puncture was used in all patients. After placement of wall or polmaz stent, the pulse recovered and the syndrome disappeared. Postoperative angiography showed patency of the artery and stent. The patients were followed up for 3-30 months without recurrence of symptoms. Conclusions: Stenting-plasty with retrograde brachial puncture is a rather proper method to treat subclavian steal syndrome with more coincidence to the vascular anatomy, decrease the maneuver trouble and increase the successful rate. (authors)

  13. A unique branching pattern of the axillary artery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagoji, Ishwar B; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A; Bannur, Balappa M; Patil, B G; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-12-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in the arm gave anterior circumflex humeral artery at the surgical neck of humerus, which terminated in the cubital fossa by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. The superficial brachial artery gave two profunda brachii arteries, both of which passed through spiral groove, along with radial nerve and three muscular branches, to brachialis muscle. This variation is very rare. As per our knowledge, we did not find any literature which explained variations which were similar to this. The normal and abnormal anatomy of the axillary region has practical importance among vascular radiologists and surgeons and it should be known for making an accurate diagnostic interpretation.

  14. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun; Spertus, John

    2015-05-18

    Improvement in quality of life (QoL) is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) and ankle-brachial index (ABI), and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p's PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  15. Differential identification of atypical pneumonia pathogens in aorta and internal mammary artery related to ankle brachial index and walking distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriz, Erkan; Cirak, Meltem Yalinay; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Engin, Doruk; Oktar, Levent; Unal, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    We studied the existence of agents in aorta biopsies, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, that are thought to have a role in atherosclerosis etiopathogenesis role, and their association with peripheral artery disease. We examined aorta wall and internal mammarian artery (IMA) biopsies taken from two different places in 63 patients in whom coronary artery bypass was performed. In these biopsies, we evaluated the deoxyribonuclease (DNA) of these microorganisms using polymerase chain reaction. From the same patients, we recorded the ankle brachial index, road walking distance information, lipid profile, C-reactive proteins, blood parameters such as fibrinogen, and the patient's operation data. In the nine aorta biopsies taken from 63 patients, we isolated C pneumoniae DNA. In IMA biopsies taken from the same patients, we detected no microorganism DNA (P artery disease. In the development of atherosclerosis with C pneumoniae, there may be a determinant pathogen in both the aorta and the peripheral arteries. The nonexistence of C pneumoniae DNA in the IMA biopsies may indicate infectious agents because of the predominant endothelial functions in this artery, and thus its resistance to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  17. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  18. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of selected parameters of the endothelial function in brachial arteries and IMT measurements in carotid arteries in children with diabetes type 1 using personal insulin pumps--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tołwińska, Joanna; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Urban, Mirosława; Florys, Bozena; Peczyńska, Jadwiga

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a known risk factor for arterial atherosclerosis. The first symptoms can be found even in childhood. The ultrasonographic measurements of intimal plus medial thickness in carotid arteries (IMT) and flow mediated dilatation (FMD) evaluated in brachial arteries, play a known role in the detection in these cases. The diabetes treatment intensification is an important factor in delaying early atherosclerotic changes. Currently, intensive treatment of children's diabetes with use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with personal insulin pumps is gaining more and more popularity. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY was the evaluation of IMT and FMD indexes in children suffering from type 1 diabetes in the context of treatment intensification (multidose insulin injections v. personal insulin pumps). We examined 64 children (29 boys and 35 girls) in the mean age 15.5 years treated with the multidose insulin injections method and 10 children using personal insulin pumps (4 girls and 6 boys) in the mean age 14.5 years. Using high resolution ultrasonography we evaluated IMT values in carotid arteries and FMD parameters in brachial arteries. In our analysis we estimated the blood concentration of lipid parameters, values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the age of diabetes onset, duration time of the illness and the values of HbA1c as a marker of metabolic control. We noticed significantly higher FMD values in patients treated with personal insulin pumps (13.7 vs. 5.5%, p=0.001). IMT values were similar in both groups (0.52 vs. 0.5 mm, p=0. 41). The level of HDL cholesterol was higher and triglycerides lower in the group with treatment intensification. The metabolic control was the same in both groups. In patients treated by the multidose insulin injections IMT correlated with systolic blood pressure values. We didn't notice any correlation between IMT and FMD in any group. 1. Treatment intensification (personal insulin pumps) influences better vascular

  19. Association between the severity of coronary artery stenosis and the combination of the difference in blood pressure between arms and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyase, Yuiko; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Yano, Masaya; Suematsu, Yasunori; Adachi, Sen; Norimatsu, Kenji; Nakamura, Ayumi; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-01-01

    A difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥10 mmHg between the arms is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality in high-risk patients. Four hundred and fourteen patients were divided into three groups according to the percent most severe luminal narrowing of a coronary artery as diagnosed by coronary computed tomography angiography: no or mild coronary stenosis (0-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (≥70%) groups. The relative difference in SBP between arms in the severe group was significantly lower than those in the no or mild and moderate groups. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) significantly increased as the severity of coronary stenosis increased. We confirmed that severe coronary stenosis was independently associated with both the relative difference in SBP between arms and baPWV, in addition to age, gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and ankle-brachial index by a logistic regression analysis. The group with a relative difference in SBP between arms of difference in SBP between arms and baPWV may be a more effective approach for the non-invasive assessment of the severity of CAD.

  20. Índice tornozelo-braço em pacientes hemodialíticos Ankle-brachial index in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Torres Uchôa

    2012-12-01

    . The ankle-brachial index was calculated for each artery of the lower limb. It was considered normal ankle-brachial index from 0.9 to 1.3. RESULTS: We diagnosed peripheral arterial disease and poorly compressible arteries in 26.9 and 30.8% of hemodialysis patients and in 33 and 22.7% of the Control Group. In hemodialysis patients, we found abnormal ankle-brachial index in 75% of symptomatic patients (p=0.005, in 67.3% of men and 31% of women (p<0.005, in 78.6% of the elderly, 34.8% of young adults (p<0.01, and 76.9% of diabetics (p<0.005 versus nondiabetic. These patients had a higher prevalence of severe peripheral arterial disease than the Control Group. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal ankle-brachial index was very prevalent in the groups studied; however, hemodialysis patients had more severe changes, when compared to the Control Group. Diabetes mellitus, male gender, and advanced age were important risk factors for abnormal ankle-brachial index in hemodialysis patients. The ankle-brachial index was a good method of screening for the studied changes; therefore, we suggest the routine use in the management of hemodialysis patients.

  1. The effect of α1 -adrenergic blockade on post-exercise brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation at sea level and high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Michael M; Tremblay, Joshua C; Hansen, Alex B; Howe, Connor A; Willie, Chris K; Stembridge, Mike; Green, Daniel J; Hoiland, Ryan L; Subedi, Prajan; Anholm, James D; Ainslie, Philip N

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to quantify endothelial function (via brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation) at sea level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m) at rest and following both maximal exercise and 30 min of moderate-intensity cycling exercise with and without administration of an α 1 -adrenergic blockade. Brachial endothelial function did not differ between sea level and high altitude at rest, nor following maximal exercise. At sea level, endothelial function decreased following 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and this decrease was abolished with α 1 -adrenergic blockade. At high altitude, endothelial function did not decrease immediately after 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and administration of α 1 -adrenergic blockade resulted in an increase in flow-mediated dilatation. Our data indicate that post-exercise endothelial function is modified at high altitude (i.e. prolonged hypoxaemia). The current study helps to elucidate the physiological mechanisms associated with high-altitude acclimatization, and provides insight into the relationship between sympathetic nervous activity and vascular endothelial function. We examined the hypotheses that (1) at rest, endothelial function would be impaired at high altitude compared to sea level, (2) endothelial function would be reduced to a greater extent at sea level compared to high altitude after maximal exercise, and (3) reductions in endothelial function following moderate-intensity exercise at both sea level and high altitude are mediated via an α 1 -adrenergic pathway. In a double-blinded, counterbalanced, randomized and placebo-controlled design, nine healthy participants performed a maximal-exercise test, and two 30 min sessions of semi-recumbent cycling exercise at 50% peak output following either placebo or α 1 -adrenergic blockade (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg  -1 ). These experiments were completed at both sea-level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m). Blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography

  2. Analysis of Arterial Mechanics During Head-Down-Tilt Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Morgan B.; Martin, David S.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Carotid, brachial, and tibial arteries reacted differently to HDTBR. Previous studies have not analyzed the mechanical properties of the human brachial or anterior tibial arteries. After slight variations during bed-rest, arterial mechanical properties and IMT returned to pre-bed rest values, with the exception of tibial stiffness and PSE, which continued to be reduced post-bed rest while the DC remained elevated. The tibial artery remodeling was probably due to decreased pressure and volume. Resulting implications for longer duration spaceflight are unclear. Arterial health may be affected by microgravity, as shown by increased thoracic aorta stiffness in other ground based simulations (Aubert).

  3. Persistent sciatic artery: clinical, embryologic, and angiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, V.S.; Jaques, P.F.; Delaney, D.J.; Oberheu, V.

    1985-01-01

    The persistent sciatic artery is a rare but interesting and clinically pertinent vascular anomaly that may present as a buttock aneurysm or as an ischemic or embolic disease. Its correct angiographic diagnosis depends on recognition of an abnormally large internal iliac artery, appropriate injection and adequate timing to fill and follow flow into the large vessel, and recognition and differentiation of the tapering superficial femoral artery from routine occlusive disease so that an accurate picture of lower leg runoff is provided

  4. The effect of α1‐adrenergic blockade on post‐exercise brachial artery flow‐mediated dilatation at sea level and high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Joshua C.; Hansen, Alex B.; Howe, Connor A.; Willie, Chris K.; Stembridge, Mike; Green, Daniel J.; Hoiland, Ryan L.; Subedi, Prajan; Anholm, James D.; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Our objective was to quantify endothelial function (via brachial artery flow‐mediated dilatation) at sea level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m) at rest and following both maximal exercise and 30 min of moderate‐intensity cycling exercise with and without administration of an α1‐adrenergic blockade.Brachial endothelial function did not differ between sea level and high altitude at rest, nor following maximal exercise.At sea level, endothelial function decreased following 30 min of moderate‐intensity exercise, and this decrease was abolished with α1‐adrenergic blockade. At high altitude, endothelial function did not decrease immediately after 30 min of moderate‐intensity exercise, and administration of α1‐adrenergic blockade resulted in an increase in flow‐mediated dilatation.Our data indicate that post‐exercise endothelial function is modified at high altitude (i.e. prolonged hypoxaemia). The current study helps to elucidate the physiological mechanisms associated with high‐altitude acclimatization, and provides insight into the relationship between sympathetic nervous activity and vascular endothelial function. Abstract We examined the hypotheses that (1) at rest, endothelial function would be impaired at high altitude compared to sea level, (2) endothelial function would be reduced to a greater extent at sea level compared to high altitude after maximal exercise, and (3) reductions in endothelial function following moderate‐intensity exercise at both sea level and high altitude are mediated via an α1‐adrenergic pathway. In a double‐blinded, counterbalanced, randomized and placebo‐controlled design, nine healthy participants performed a maximal‐exercise test, and two 30 min sessions of semi‐recumbent cycling exercise at 50% peak output following either placebo or α1‐adrenergic blockade (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg −1). These experiments were completed at both sea‐level (344 m) and high altitude (3800

  5. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Gon Je

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in quality of life (QoL is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD. The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ and ankle-brachial index (ABI, and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001. PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p’s < 0.001. As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001. ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15. Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  6. The pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine after four different techniques of brachial plexus blockade.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettig, H.C.; Lerou, J.G.C.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Boersma, E.; Burm, A.G.L.

    2007-01-01

    Arterial plasma concentrations of ropivacaine were measured after brachial plexus blockade using four different approaches: lateral interscalene (Winnie), posterior interscalene (Pippa), axillary and vertical infraclavicular. Four groups of 10 patients were given a single 3.75 mg.kg(-1) injection of

  7. Double profunda brachii artery

    OpenAIRE

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani; Jyoti V Hadimani; Ishwar B Bagoji; Shardha Bai Rathod; Balappa M Bannur

    2016-01-01

    Brachial artery (BA) is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii...

  8. [Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare but serious complication in hemodialysis patients with arteriovenous fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Andrea; Castriotta, Giuseppe; Angelini, Pernina; Bozzi, Michele; Giancaspro, Vincenzo; La Raia, Elvira; Nisi, Maria Teresa; Proscia, Anna Rita; Tarantino, Giuseppe; Vitale, Ottavia; Cuzzola, Cristoforo

    2017-06-01

    A pseudoaneurysm or false aneurysm of the brachial artery is an uncommon occurrence in patients receiving hemodialysis with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). We describe the case of a 76-year-old woman presenting with a large, tender, pulsatile mass in the right antecubital region 10 cm from the AVF. B-mode ultrasound examination revealed a saccular hematoma. Color doppler showed a recirculation movement of blood, creating a two colors image called "Korean flag". The patient was transferred to the surgical unit where she first underwent ultrasound-guided compression and then surgical repair of the pseudoaneurysm. Two weeks after surgery the AVF was used again as an access for hemodialysis. Differentiating between a false and a true aneurysm based on ultrasound is not always straightforward. Doppler ultrasound findings can be decisive for the early diagnosis of a pseudoaneurysm to ensure proper treatment planning given the dangerous complications of ruptures. Treatment options include: compression, percutaneous thrombin injection, endovascular exclusion with covered stents, aneurysmectomy and surgical repair. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  9. Central hemodynamics in risk assessment strategies: additive value over and above brachial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannoutsos, Alexandra; Rinaldi, Elisa R; Zhang, Yi; Protogerou, Athanassios D; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Although the clinical relevance of brachial blood pressure (BP) measurement for cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is nowadays widely accepted, this approach can nevertheless present several limitations. Pulse pressure (PP) amplification accounts for the notable increase in PP from central to peripheral arterial sites. Target organs are more greatly exposed to central hemodynamic changes than peripheral organs. The pathophysiological significance of local BP pulsatility, which has a role in the pathogenesis of target organ damage in both the macro- and the microcirculation, may therefore not be accurately captured by brachial BP as traditionally evaluated with cuff measurements. The predictive value of central systolic BP and PP over brachial BP for major clinical outcomes has been demonstrated in the general population, in elderly adults and in patients at high CV risk, irrespective of the invasive or non-invasive methods used to assess central BP. Aortic stiffness, timing and intensity of wave reflections, and cardiac performance appear as major factors influencing central PP. Great emphasis has been placed on the role of aortic stiffness, disturbed arterial wave reflections and their intercorrelation in the pathophysiological mechanisms of CV diseases as well as on their capacity to predict target organ damage and clinical events. Comorbidities and age-related changes, together with gender-related specificities of arterial and cardiac parameters, are known to affect the predictive ability of central hemodynamics on individual CV risk.

  10. Fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, J.; Washiyama, K.; Hong Kim, C.; Ibuchi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of angiographically demonstrated fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery are reported. Fenestration occurred at the medial half of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery in all cases. Its embryology and clinical significance are briefly discussed, and the anatomical and radiological literature on fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery is reviewed. (orig.)

  11. Relationship between resistant hypertension and arterial stiffness assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the older patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung CM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chang-Min Chung,1,2 Hui-Wen Cheng,2 Jung-Jung Chang,2 Yu-Sheng Lin,2 Ju-Feng Hsiao,2 Shih-Tai Chang,1 Jen-Te Hsu2,31School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 2Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, 3Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan County, TaiwanBackground: Resistant hypertension (RH is a common clinical condition associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in older patients. Several factors and conditions interfering with blood pressure (BP control, such as excess sodium intake, obesity, diabetes, older age, kidney disease, and certain identifiable causes of hypertension are common in patients resistant to antihypertensive treatment. Arterial stiffness, measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, is increasingly recognized as an important prognostic index and potential therapeutic target in hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between RH and arterial stiffness. Methods: This study included 1,620 patients aged ≥65 years who were referred or self-referred to the outpatient hypertension unit located at a single cardiovascular center. They were separated into normotensive, controlled BP, and resistant hypertension groups. Home BP, blood laboratory parameters, echocardiographic studies and baPWV all were measured. Results: The likelihood of diabetes mellitus was significantly greater in the RH group than in the group with controlled BP (odds ratio 2.114, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.194–3.744, P=0.010. Systolic BP was correlated in the RH group significantly more than in the group with controlled BP (odds ratio 1.032, 95% CI 1.012–1.053, P=0.001. baPWV (odds ratio 1.084, 95% CI 1.016–1.156, P=0.015 was significantly correlated with the presence of RH. The other factors were negatively correlated with the existence of RH.Conclusion: In

  12. OCT/PS-OCT imaging of brachial plexus neurovascular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, David T.; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoping; Chen, Zhongping; Miller, Carol; Zhou, Li

    2004-07-01

    Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows high-resolution imaging (less than 10 microns) of tissue structures. A pilot study with OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) was undertaken to image ex-vivo neurovascular structures (vessels, nerves) of the canine brachial plexus. Methods: OCT is an interferometry-based optical analog of B-mode ultrasound, which can image through non-transparent biological tissues. With approval of the USC Animal Care and Use Committee, segments of the supra- and infraclavicular brachial plexus were excised from euthanized adult dogs, and the ex-vivo specimens were placed in cold pH-buffered physiologic solution. An OCT beam, in micrometer translational steps, scanned the fixed-position bisected specimens in transverse and longitudinal views. Two-dimensional images were obtained from identified arteries and nerves, with specific sections of interest stained with hematoxylin-eosin for later imaging through a surgical microscope. Results: with the beam scan direction transverse to arteries, the resulting OCT images showed an identifiable arterial lumen and arterial wall tissue layers. By comparison, transverse beam OCT images of nerves revealed a multitude of smaller nerve bundles contained within larger circular-shaped fascicles. PS-OCT imaging was helpful in showing the characteristic birefringence exhibited by arrayed neural structures. Discussion: High-resolution OCT imaging may be useful in the optical identification of neurovascular structures during attempted regional nerve blockade. If incorporated into a needle-shaped catheter endoscope, such a technology could prevent intraneural and intravascular injections immediately prior to local anesthetic injection. The major limitation of OCT is that it can form a coherent image of tissue structures only to a depth of 1.5 - 2 mm.

  13. Five Roots Pattern of Median Nerve Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Natsis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual combination of median nerve’s variations has been encountered in a male cadaver during routine educational dissection. In particular, the median nerve was formed by five roots; three roots originated from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus joined individually the median nerve’s medial root. The latter (fourth root was united with the lateral (fifth root of the median nerve forming the median nerve distally in the upper arm and not the axilla as usually. In addition, the median nerve was situated medial to the brachial artery. We review comprehensively the relevant variants, their embryologic development and their potential clinical applications.

  14. Aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial após endocardite infecciosa de valva mitral Infected aneurysm of brachial artery after mitral valve infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Guedis Lobo Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial em paciente com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis. Homem de 49 anos de idade se apresentou com febre, dispnéia e sopro regurgitativo em foco mitral com irradiação para axila. O ecocardiograma demonstrou vegetação em valva mitral nativa. Após troca valvar mitral com implante de prótese biológica, observou-se massa pulsátil de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em fossa antecubital direita. Foi feito o diagnóstico de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial, e o tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado com sucesso. O objetivo desse relato de caso é apresentar uma complicação pouco comum após endocardite infecciosa.We present a case of brachial artery infected aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A 49-year-old man presented with fever dyspnea and a pansystolic murmur with irradiation to axilla. The echocardiogram revealed vegetation in native mitral valve. After mitral valve replacement with bioprosthesis, it was observed pulsatile mass of five centimeters in diameter at antecubital fossa of right upper limb. It was made the diagnosis of infected aneurysm of the brachial artery, and the surgery was performed successfully. The aim of this case report is to show a rare complication after infective endocarditis.

  15. Prevalencia de calcificación arterial y factores de riesgo cardiovascular asociados: Estudio multicéntrico poblacional ARTPER Prevalence of arterial calcification and related risk factors: The multicenter population-based ARTPER study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Alzamora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudiar la prevalencia de calcificación arterial (índice tobillo-brazo >1,4 y de factores de riesgo cardiovascular asociados en población general >49 años de edad. Métodos: Estudio transversal, 3786 sujetos seleccionados aleatoriamente en 28 centros. Para el cálculo de la prevalencia se usó toda la muestra, excluyendo los sujetos con arteriopatía periférica (índice tobillo-brazo Objective: To determine the prevalence of arterial calcification (ankle-brachial index >1.4 and its related factors among the general population aged >49 years. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 3,786 people randomly selected from 28 centers. To assess the factors associated with arterial calcification using a multivariate logistic model, the whole sample was used to compute prevalence, excluding persons with peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index <0.9. Results: Arterial calcification was found in 235 persons (prevalen 6.2%; 95% CI: 5.6-7.0, and was twice as frequent in men as in women. Patients with arterial calcification were older, had more previous cardiovascular events, diabetes and obesity, and were less able to perform physical activity than persons with a healthy ankle-brachial index. Conclusions: We recommend measurement of the ankle-brachial index in primary care centers to detect arterial calcification among men, persons with diabetes, overweight, obesity or difficulty in performing physical activity, and in those with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  16. The relation between ankle-brachial index (ABI and coronary artery disease severity and risk factors: an angiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study aims to determine the relation between ankle–brachialindex (ABI and angiographic findings and major cardiovascular risk factors in patients withsuspected coronary artery diseases (CAD in Isfahan.METHODS: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research, patients with suspected CADwere studied. Characteristics of studied subjects including demographics, familial history, pastmedical history and atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension,hyperlipidemia and smoking were obtained using a standard questionnaire. ABI was measuredin all studied patients. ABI ≤ 0.9 (ABI+ was considered as peripheral vessel disease and ABI >0.9 (ABI- was considered as normal. Then, all studied patients underwent coronary arteryangiography. The results of the questionnaire and angiographic findings were compared in ABI+and ABI- groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using ANOVA, t-test, Spearman's rankcorrelation coefficient, and discriminant analysis.RESULTS: In this study, 125 patients were investigated. ABI ≤ 0.9 was seen in 25 patients (20%.The prevalence of ABI+ among men and women was 25.9% and 7.5%, respectively (P = 0.01. Theprevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors was significantly higher in ABI+ patients than in ABIones(P < 0.05. ABI+ patients had more significant stenosis than ABI- ones. The mean ofocclusion was significantly higher in ABI+ patients with left main artery (LMA, right coronaryartery (RCA, left anterior descending artery (LAD, diagonal artery 1 (D1 and left circumflexartery (LCX involvements (P < 0.05.CONCLUSION: The findings of this research indicated that ABI could be a useful method inassessing both the atherosclerotic risk factors and the degree of coronary involvements insuspected patients. However, in order to make more accurate decisions for using this method indiagnosing and preventing CAD, we should plan further studies in large sample sizes of generalpopulation

  17. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brachial Plexus Injuries Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, ...

  18. Anatomical variations in the origins of the celiac axis and the superior mesenteric artery: MDCT angiographic findings and their probable embryological mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Lu; Li, Ran; Chen, Jin-hua; Gong, Shui-gen [Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Chongqing (China)

    2014-08-15

    To identify the spectrum and prevalence of anatomical variations in the origin of the celiac axis (CA), the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and their major branches by using multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography. A retrospective evaluation was carried out on 1,500 abdominal MDCT angiography images. The aortic origins of the CA, the SMA and their major branch patterns were investigated. Normal aortic origins of CA and SMA were noted in 1,347 (89.8 %) patients. Seven types of CA and SMA origin variants were identified in 153 (10.2 %) patients. The three most common variations were hepatomesenteric trunk (67 patients, 4.47 %), celiomesenteric trunk (CMT) (51 patients, 3.4 %) and splenomesenteric trunk (18 patients, 1.2 %). An evaluation of CMT was classified as long (34 patients, 66.7 %) or short (17 patients, 33.3 %) subtypes, compared with the length of the common trunk. Further CMT classification was based on the origin of the left gastric artery: subtype I, 26 patients (53.1 %); subtype II, 5 patients (10.2 %); subtype III, 15 patients (30.6 %); subtype IV, 3 patients (6.1 %). Dislocation interruption, incomplete interruption and persistence of the longitudinal anastomosis could be the embryological mechanisms of the variant origins of the CA, the SMA and their major branches. (orig.)

  19. Anatomical variations in the origins of the celiac axis and the superior mesenteric artery: MDCT angiographic findings and their probable embryological mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Lu; Li, Ran; Chen, Jin-hua; Gong, Shui-gen

    2014-01-01

    To identify the spectrum and prevalence of anatomical variations in the origin of the celiac axis (CA), the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and their major branches by using multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography. A retrospective evaluation was carried out on 1,500 abdominal MDCT angiography images. The aortic origins of the CA, the SMA and their major branch patterns were investigated. Normal aortic origins of CA and SMA were noted in 1,347 (89.8 %) patients. Seven types of CA and SMA origin variants were identified in 153 (10.2 %) patients. The three most common variations were hepatomesenteric trunk (67 patients, 4.47 %), celiomesenteric trunk (CMT) (51 patients, 3.4 %) and splenomesenteric trunk (18 patients, 1.2 %). An evaluation of CMT was classified as long (34 patients, 66.7 %) or short (17 patients, 33.3 %) subtypes, compared with the length of the common trunk. Further CMT classification was based on the origin of the left gastric artery: subtype I, 26 patients (53.1 %); subtype II, 5 patients (10.2 %); subtype III, 15 patients (30.6 %); subtype IV, 3 patients (6.1 %). Dislocation interruption, incomplete interruption and persistence of the longitudinal anastomosis could be the embryological mechanisms of the variant origins of the CA, the SMA and their major branches. (orig.)

  20. Elbow dislocation with ipsilateral fracture of the distal radius associated with a brachial artery injury: A new pathological condition of traumatic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo Lahoz, L; Lamas Gomez, C; Sarasquete Reiriz, J; de Caso Rodriguez, J; Proubasta Renart, I

    Elbow dislocation associated with ipsilateral fracture of the distal radius and a brachial artery injury is an uncommon traumatic entity. The two references of this injury combination appeared in 2015, although both authors did not realise that they were the first two cases published in the medical literature. Although mentioned in the text of the articles, no mention was made of the fracture of the distal radius in the titles. The purpose of this paper is to present three cases with this new traumatic pathological entity, explaining its pathogenetic mechanism, the treatment used, and the results obtained. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Condensing embryology teaching: alternative perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Hasan, Syed Maaz Tariq, Syed Ali Haider Department of MBBS, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, PakistanWe read the article “Condensing embryology teaching for medical students: can it be taught in 2 hours?” by Kazzazi and Bartlett quite attentively. The authors were successful in mentioning an effective mode of teaching embryology. Embryology is indeed an important subject that forms the base for appreciating anatomy and has immense practical implementations in different parts of medicine, for example, in pediatrics and ENT surgery. However, it is often neglected and is only taught in preclinical years.1 The authors proposed a method for teaching embryology splendidly from their perspective; therefore, we felt the need to expand the discussion from the perspective of third-year medical students who have just completed their preclinical years. Hence, we would like to mention few limitations to this study as well.Authors’ replyFawz Kazzazi, Jonathan Bartlett School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKWe read with interest the response letter by Hasan et al. We must first commend the editor and journal on their great ability to unify the medical community and extend topics for debate internationally.View the original paper by Kazzazi and Bartlett.

  2. Role of ultrasound-guided continuous brachial plexus block in the management of neonatal ischemia in upper limb

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    Vrushali C Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal upper limb ischemia due to accidental arterial damage remains a major concern, which can lead to devastating complications if untreated. The primary objective of this case report is to emphasize the role of continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block, the issues related with block performance in an ischemic hand, and the importance of ultrasound guidance in this particular case scenario. A 1.1 kg infant suffered from distal forearm ischemia due to accidental arterial damage, which was treated with brachial plexus block. An ultrasound-guided single shot block with 0.5 mL/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine was followed by ultrasound-guided catheter placement in the target area. A continuous infusion of 0.03% of bupivacaine at the rate of 0.5 mL/kg/hr (approx. 0.15 mg/kg/h of bupivacaine was administered for 36 h. This treatment resulted in reversal of ischemia. Permanent ischemic damage was eventually confined to the tips of 4 fingers. We conclude that ultrasound-guided continuous infraclavicular block has a therapeutic role to play in the treatment of hand ischemia due to arterial damage and subsequent arterial spasm in neonates with added benefits.

  3. Ankle Brachial Index <0.9 Underestimates the Prevalence of Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease Assessed with Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikstroem, J.; Hansen, T.; Johansson, L.; Lind, L.; Ahlstroem, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WBMRA) permits noninvasive vascular assessment, which can be utilized in epidemiological studies. Purpose: To assess the relation between a low ankle brachial index (ABI) and high-grade stenoses in the pelvic and leg arteries in the elderly. Material and Methods: WBMRA was performed in a population sample of 306 subjects aged 70 years. The arteries below the aortic bifurcation were graded after the most severe stenosis according to one of three grades: 0-49% stenosis, 50-99% stenosis, or occlusion. ABI was calculated for each side. Results: There were assessable WBMRA and ABI examinations in 268 (right side), 265 (left side), and 258 cases (both sides). At least one ≥50% stenosis was found in 19% (right side), 23% (left side), and 28% (on at least one side) of the cases. The corresponding prevalences for ABI <0.9 were 4.5%, 4.2%, and 6.6%. An ABI cut-off value of 0.9 resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 20%, 99%, 83%, and 84% on the right side, and 15%, 99%, 82%, and 80% on the left side, respectively, for the presence of a ≥ 50% stenosis in the pelvic or leg arteries. Conclusion: An ABI <0.9 underestimates the prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in the general elderly population

  4. Aberrant right vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch distal to the left subclavian artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Soo Heui; Baek, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We present a rare case of an aberrant right vertebral artery originated from the distal aortic arch. This issue has been incidentally detected on a preoperative CT angiography after a stabbing injury of the cervical spinal cord. Normally, the right vertebral artery originates from the right subclavian artery. Therefore, in this case report we will review the incidence and the embryological mechanism of this aberrant course of the right vertebral artery and we will discuss as well the clinical importance of this variation.

  5. Relation of Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution to Brachial Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation and Reactive Hyperemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Elissa H.; Ljungman, Petter L.; Rice, Mary B.; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Gold, Diane R.; Koutrakis, Petros; Vita, Joseph A.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Impaired vascular responses may in part explain these findings, but the association of such long-term exposure with measures of both conduit artery and microvascular function have not been widely reported. We evaluated the association between residential proximity to a major roadway (primary or secondary highway) and spatially resolved average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and baseline brachial artery diameter and mean flow velocity, flow mediated dilation % and hyperemic flow velocity, in the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts. We examined 5,112 participants (2,731 (53%) women, mean age 49±14 years). Spatially resolved average PM2.5 was associated with lower flow mediated dilation% and hyperemic flow velocity. An interquartile range difference in PM2.5 (1.99 μg/m3) was associated with −0.16% (95%CI: −0.27%, −0.05%) lower FMD% and −0.72 (95%CI: −1.38, −0.06) cm/s lower hyperemic flow velocity %. Residential proximity to a major roadway was negatively associated with flow mediated dilation %. Compared to living ≥400 m away, living <50 m from a major roadway was associated with 0.32% lower flow mediated dilation (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.58%, −0.06%), but results for hyperemic flow velocity had wide confidence intervals −0.68 cm/s (95%CI: −2.29, 0.93). In conclusion, residential proximity to a major roadway and higher levels of spatially resolved estimates of PM2.5 at participant residences are associated with impaired conduit artery and microvascular function in this large community-based cohort of middle-aged and elderly adults. PMID:24793676

  6. Relation between respiratory function and arterial stiffness assessed using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in healthy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi, Junko; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] Current studies report that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may also have arteriosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between respiratory function and arterial stiffness in healthy workers using the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). [Subjects and Methods] This study included 104 male Japanese workers without COPD. We collected participant information and measured hemodynamics, body composition, and respiratory function. [Results] In the correlation analysis, baPWV showed a significant positive correlation with age, smoking index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and a significant negative correlation with height, fat free mass, lower limb muscle mass, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). In multiple regression analysis using factors other than baPWV and respiratory function as adjustment variables, both FVC and FEV1 showed a significant negative relationship with baPWV (p=0.009 and p=0.027, respectively). FEV1/FVC was not significantly related to baPWV (p=0.704). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that FEV1/FVC and the proportion of FEV1 predicted, which are indicators of airflow limitation, are not predictors of baPWV in workers without airflow limitation. However, since baPWV showed a significant negative relationship with FVC and FEV 1, the reduction in respiratory function that does not cause airflow limitation, such as FVC or FEV1 decline, may be related to an increase in the risk of arterial stiffness.

  7. A Limb-Threatening Long Arterial Dissection Caused by Humerus Neck Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnaz R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humerus fracture is a common arm trauma and rarely occurs with vascular injury which however is a serious complication. In this case report, we present a long segment dissection of the axillary and brachial arteries as a rare complication due to fragmented proximal humerus fracture and shoulder dislocation. An 80-year old female patient was seen at the emergency department. Radiograph examination has revealed a fragmented proximal humerus fracture besides dislocation of the head of humerus towards the axillary area. On vascular examination, acute arterial occlusion such as absence of radial and ulnar pulses were observed in her left hand. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room. The dissection included the entire segment approximately 20cm between the distal subclavian artery and the distal brachial artery. This injured segment was removed and a 6mm Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE graft with rings was interpositoned between subclavian and brachial arteries. This case is a rarity because of such a significant complication after a small injury. Axillary artery injuries caused by humeral neck fractures are rare but should not be missed by the physician.

  8. Brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana revisited: a comprehensive review

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    David Kachlik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews in detail the superficial brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana superficialis, a very rare variant of the main arterial trunks of the upper limb. It branches either from the axillary artery or the brachial artery, descends superficially in the arm (similar to the course of the superficial brachial artery and continues across the cubital fossa, runs superficially in the forearm, approaches the median nerve and enters the carpal canal to reach the hand. It usually terminates in the superficial palmar arch. The first drawing was published, in 1830, and the first description was published, in 1844. Altogether, to our knowledge, only 31 cases of a true, superficial brachiomedian artery have been reported (Some cases are incorrectly reported as superficial brachioradiomedian artery or superficial brachioulnomedian artery. Based on a meta-analysis of known, available studies, the incidence is 0.23% in Caucasians and 1.48% in Mongolians. Knowing whether or not this arterial variant is present is important in clinical medicine and relevant for: The catheterization via the radial or ulnar artery; harvesting the vascular pedicle for a forearm flap based on the radial, ulnar or superficial brachiomedian arteries; the possible collateral circulation in cases of the arterial closure; and the surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Its presence can elevate the danger of an injury to the superficially located variant artery or of an accidental injection.

  9. Adult traumatic brachial plexus injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Injury to the brachial plexus in the adult is usually a closed injury and the result of considerable traction to the shoulder. Brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques have improved the outlook for patients with brachial plexus injuries. The choice of surgical procedure depends on the level of the injury and the radiologist has an important role in guiding the surgeon to the site of injury. This article will describe the anatomy and pathophysiology of traction brachial plexus injury in the adult. The neurosurgical options available will be described with emphasis on the information that the surgeon wants from imaging studies of the brachial plexus. The relative merits of MRI and CT myelography are discussed

  10. Double profunda brachii artery

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    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery (BA is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii artery 2 arises distal to the profunda brachii artery 1. Both the arteries run inferolaterally in the spiral groove along with radial nerve. Variations of profunda brachii artery are important during harvesting of the lateral arm flaps and may lead to inadvertent injury during percutaneous arterial catheterization or injection of drugs.

  11. Isolation of the right subclavian artery in a patient with d-transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunamata, Alisa; Perry, Stanton B; Kipps, Alaina K; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Axelrod, David M

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of the right subclavian artery (RSCA) is rare, and this finding in association with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) is extremely unusual. We present a case of an isolated RSCA in a newborn with d-TGA in whom the clinical presentation was diagnostic. We discuss the imaging modalities used to confirm the diagnosis, the embryological basis of the finding, and the surgical repair.

  12. EXERCISE-INDUCED ARTERIAL ADAPTATIONS IN ELITE JUDO ATHLETES

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    Panagiotis Karagounis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years, 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years, 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05 compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001 presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and brachial (p < 0.001 arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001 and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001 of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas

  13. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  14. Isolation of the right subclavian artery in a patient with d-transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Arunamata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of the right subclavian artery (RSCA is rare, and this finding in association with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA is extremely unusual. We present a case of an isolated RSCA in a newborn with d-TGA in whom the clinical presentation was diagnostic. We discuss the imaging modalities used to confirm the diagnosis, the embryological basis of the finding, and the surgical repair.

  15. Use of short-radius centrifugation to augment ankle-brachial indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, S Marlene; Mateus, Jaime; Hsiang, York; Sidhu, Ravi; Young, Laurence; Gagnon, Joel

    2009-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is mainly caused by atherosclerosis and is characterized by decreased circulation, lower blood pressure, and insufficient tissue perfusion in the lower extremities. The hemodynamics of standing and altered gravity environments have been well studied relative to arm blood pressures but are less well understood for ankle pressures. Because regional blood pressure depends, in part, on the gravitational pressure gradient, we hypothesized that artificial gravity exposure on a short-arm centrifuge with the center of rotation above the head would increase blood pressure in the lower extremities. Cardiovascular parameters for 12 healthy subjects were measured during exposure to supine short-arm centrifugation at 20, 25, and 30 revolutions per minute (rpm), corresponding to centripetal accelerations of 0.94, 1.47, and 2.11 Gz at the foot level, respectively. Systolic ankle blood pressure significantly increased at all levels of centrifugation. Ankle-brachial indices (the ratio of systolic ankle to arm blood pressures) increased significantly from 1.17 +/- 0.03 to 1.58 +/- 0.03 at 0.94 Gz (P blood pressure significantly increased at 2.11 Gz, but heart rate did not change significantly. All parameters returned to normal after cessation of centrifugation. We demonstrated that short-radius centrifugation leads to an increase in ankle-brachial indices. This could have potential implications for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease.

  16. Founding Editorial: Embryology — An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richardson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Embryology domain of TheScientificWorld and outline the scope and aims. We argue for an interdisciplinary approach to problems in develop-mental biology. Three areas are identified as being of particular relevance to this domain: evolutionary developmental biology, teratology, and descriptive or experimental embryology.

  17. Rare high origin of the radial artery: a bilateral, symmetrical case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arterial variations in the upper limb can occur at the level of the axillary, brachial, radial and ulnar arteries as well as the palmar arches. This is a report of bilateral, symmetrical high origin of the radial artery from the axillary artery. Knowledge of such variations is important in vascular and reconstructive surgery. (Nig J Surg ...

  18. Combined use of intraarterial digital subtraction angiography with conventional retrograde brachial vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Ogawa, Toshihide; Inugami, Atsushi; Kawata, Yasushi; Shishido, Fumio; Uemura, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    For 102 patients who had the examination of conventional bilaterally retrograde brachial vertebral angiography (retrograde VAG), intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was successively performed to investigate steno-occlusive lesions of proximal vertebral and subclavian arteries. All the patients had no complication due to the DSA procedure. In 50% of 72 ischemic stroke cases, positive findings were found either in the origin of the vertebral artery or in the subclavian artery. Stenosis of more than 50% of the lumen of the vertebral artery were found in 14% of the cases at the origin of the right one and also in 14% in the left one. Occlusion of the vertebral artery was found in 4% in the left side only. In 30 cases with non-ischemic brain diseases, positive findings were noted in 10%. Intraarterial DSA combined with retrograde VAG was thought to be useful, especially in the examination for ischemic stroke. (author)

  19. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Khoi D; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. A retrospective case-series study of 12 903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy. A literature review of the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health (PubMed) database was conducted to identify articles pertaining to brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery. In our total population of 12 903 patients, only 1 suffered from postoperative brachial plexopathy. The overall prevalence rate was thus 0.01%, but the prevalence rate at the site where this complication occurred was 0.07%. Previously reported risk factors for postoperative brachial plexopathy include age, anterior surgical procedures, and a diagnosis of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The condition can also be due to patient positioning during surgery, which can generally be detected via the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring. Brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery is rare and merits further study.

  20. Obesity and overweight associated with increased carotid diameter and decreased arterial function in young otherwise healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Fahs, Christopher A; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Agiovlasitis, Stomatis; Rossow, Lindy; Jae, Sae Y; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease, stroke, increased mortality and vascular remodeling. Although increased arterial diameter is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and obesity, it is unknown whether lumen enlargement is accompanied by unfavorable vascular changes in young and otherwise healthy obese individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare carotid and brachial artery diameter, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function in young, apparently healthy, normal-weight, overweight, and obese male subjects. One hundred sixty-five male subjects (27.39±0.59 years) were divided into 3 groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese) according to body mass index. Subjects underwent cardiovascular measurements to determine arterial diameter, function, and stiffness. After adjusting for age, the obese group had significantly greater brachial, carotid, and aortic pressures, brachial pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness, and carotid arterial diameter compared with both the overweight and normal-weight groups. Obesity is associated with a much worse arterial profile, as an increased carotid lumen size was accompanied by higher blood pressure, greater arterial stiffness, and greater carotid intima media thickness in obese compared with overweight or normal-weight individuals. These data suggest that although obesity may be a factor in arterial remodeling, such remodeling is also accompanied by other hemodynamic and arterial changes consistent with reduced arterial function and increased cardiovascular risk.

  1. The superficial ulnar artery: development and clinical significance Artéria ulnar superficial: desenvolvimento e relevância clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu Reddy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal arteries of the upper limb show a wide range of variation that is of considerable interest to orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons, radiologists and anatomists. We present here a case of superficial ulnar artery found during the routine dissection of right upper limb of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The superficial ulnar artery originated from the brachial artery, crossed the median nerve anteriorly and ran lateral to this nerve and the brachial artery. The superficial ulnar artery in the arm gave rise to a narrow muscular branch to the biceps brachii. At the elbow level the artery ran superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis where it was crossed by the median cubital vein. It then ran downward and medially superficial to the forearm flexor muscles, and then downward to enter the hand. At the palm, it formed the superficial and deep palmar arches together with the branches of the radial artery. The presence of a superficial ulnar artery is clinically important when raising forearm flaps in reconstructive surgery. The embryology and clinical significance of the variation are discussed.As principais artérias do membro superior apresentam uma ampla variação, que é relativamente importante a cirurgiões ortopédicos e plásticos, radiologistas e anatomistas.Apresentamosumcaso de artéria ulnar superficial encontrada durante dissecção de rotina de membro superior direito de um cadáver masculino de 50 anos de idade.Aartéria ulnar superficial originava-se da artéria braquial, cruzava o nervo mediano anteriormente e percorria lateralmente esse nervo e a artéria braquial. A artéria ulnar superficial no braço deu origem a um ramo muscular estreito do músculo bíceps braquial. Ao nível do cotovelo, a artéria percorria superficialmente a aponeurose bicipital, onde era cruzada pela veia cubital mediana. Percorria, então, em sentido descendente e medialmente superficial aos músculos flexores do antebraço, e então descendia para

  2. Cuff-Based Oscillometric Central and Brachial Blood Pressures Obtained Through ABPM are Similarly Associated with Renal Organ Damage in Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernández-Llama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Central blood pressure (BP has been suggested to be a better estimator of hypertension-associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-hour central BP, in comparison with 24-hour peripheral BP, with the presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. Methods: Brachial and central (calculated by an oscillometric system through brachial pulse wave analysis office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM data and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV were measured in 208 hypertensive patients. Renal organ damage was evaluated by means of the albumin to creatinine ratio and the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results: Fifty-four patients (25.9% were affected by renal organ damage, displaying either microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion ≥30 mg/g creatinine or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Compared to those without renal abnormalities, hypertensive patients with kidney damage had higher values of office brachial systolic BP (SBP and pulse pressure (PP, and 24-h, daytime, and nighttime central and brachial SBP and PP. They also had a blunted nocturnal decrease in both central and brachial BP, and higher values of aortic PWV. After adjustment for age, gender, and antihypertensive treatment, only ABPM-derived BP estimates (both central and brachial showed significant associations with the presence of renal damage. Odds ratios for central BP estimates were not significantly higher than those obtained for brachial BP. Conclusion: Compared with peripheral ABPM, cuff-based oscillometric central ABPM does not show a closer association with presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. More studies, however, need to be done to better identify the role of central BP in clinical practice.

  3. Cuff-Based Oscillometric Central and Brachial Blood Pressures Obtained Through ABPM are Similarly Associated with Renal Organ Damage in Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Pareja, Júlia; Yun, Sergi; Vázquez, Susana; Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Blanch, Pedro; Calero, Francesca; Sierra, Cristina; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) has been suggested to be a better estimator of hypertension-associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-hour central BP, in comparison with 24-hour peripheral BP, with the presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. Brachial and central (calculated by an oscillometric system through brachial pulse wave analysis) office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) data and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured in 208 hypertensive patients. Renal organ damage was evaluated by means of the albumin to creatinine ratio and the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Fifty-four patients (25.9%) were affected by renal organ damage, displaying either microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion ≥30 mg/g creatinine) or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Compared to those without renal abnormalities, hypertensive patients with kidney damage had higher values of office brachial systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP), and 24-h, daytime, and nighttime central and brachial SBP and PP. They also had a blunted nocturnal decrease in both central and brachial BP, and higher values of aortic PWV. After adjustment for age, gender, and antihypertensive treatment, only ABPM-derived BP estimates (both central and brachial) showed significant associations with the presence of renal damage. Odds ratios for central BP estimates were not significantly higher than those obtained for brachial BP. Compared with peripheral ABPM, cuff-based oscillometric central ABPM does not show a closer association with presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. More studies, however, need to be done to better identify the role of central BP in clinical practice. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-02-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention of endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we examined the effect of black tea consumption on endothelial function and the ability of tea to prevent IR injury. In a randomized, crossover study, 20 healthy subjects underwent 7 days of tea consumption (3 cups per day) or abstinence from tea. We examined brachial artery (BA) endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), using high resolution echo-Doppler, before and 90 min after tea or hot water consumption. Subsequently, we followed a 20-min ischaemia and 20-min reperfusion protocol of the BA after which we measured FMD to examine the potential of tea consumption to protect against IR injury. Tea consumption resulted in an immediate increase in FMD% (pre-consumption: 5.8 ± 2.5; post-consumption: 7.2 ± 3.2; p FMD (p FMD. However, the impact of the IR protocol on FMD was not influenced by tea consumption. Therefore, the cardioprotective association of tea ingestion relates to a direct effect of tea on the endothelium in humans in vivo.

  5. Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Marcello Bracale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. A 72-year-old female with a 6 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR.

  6. Transcutaneous measurement of the arterial input function in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litton, J.E.; Eriksson, L.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a powerful tool in medical research. Biochemical function can be both precisely localized and quantitatively measured. To achieve reliable quantitation it is necessary to know the time course of activity concentration in the arterial blood during the measurement. In this study the arterial blood curve from the brachial artery is compared to the activity measured in the internal carotid artery with a new transcutaneous detector

  7. Computer model analysis of the radial artery pressure waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwid, H A; Taylor, L A; Smith, N T

    1987-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of aortic and radial artery pressures are reviewed, and a model of the cardiovascular system is presented. The model is based on resonant networks for the aorta and axillo-brachial-radial arterial system. The model chosen is a simple one, in order to make interpretation of the observed relationships clear. Despite its simplicity, the model produces realistic aortic and radial artery pressure waveforms. It demonstrates that the resonant properties of the arterial wall significantly alter the pressure waveform as it is propagated from the aorta to the radial artery. Although the mean and end-diastolic radial pressures are usually accurate estimates of the corresponding aortic pressures, the systolic pressure at the radial artery is often much higher than that of the aorta due to overshoot caused by the resonant behavior of the radial artery. The radial artery dicrotic notch is predominantly dependent on the axillo-brachial-radial arterial wall properties, rather than on the aortic valve or peripheral resistance. Hence the use of the radial artery dicrotic notch as an estimate of end systole is unreliable. The rate of systolic upstroke, dP/dt, of the radial artery waveform is a function of many factors, making it difficult to interpret. The radial artery waveform usually provides accurate estimates for mean and diastolic aortic pressures; for all other measurements it is an inadequate substitute for the aortic pressure waveform. In the presence of low forearm peripheral resistance the mean radial artery pressure may significantly underestimate the mean aortic pressure, as explained by a voltage divider model.

  8. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Than, Khoi D.; Mummaneni, Praveen V.; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. Methods: A retrospective case-series study of 12?903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy....

  9. MR imaging of brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriero, A.; Ciccotosto, C.; Dragani, M.; Manes, L.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The brachial plexus is a difficult region to evaluate with radiological techniques. MR imaging has great potentials for the depiction of the various anatomical structures of the branchial plexus - i.e., spinal ganglion, ventral nerve rami root exit of the neural foramina, trunks an cordes. Moreover, MR imaging, thanks to its direct multiplanarity, to its excellent soft-tissue contrast, and to its lack of motion artifacts, allows good evaluation of pathologic conditions in the branchial plexus, especially traumas and cancers. On the contrary CT, in spite of its high spatial resolution and good contrast, cannot demonstrate the anatomical structures of the brachial plexus. US detects superficials structures, and conventional radiographs depict only indirect changes in the adjacent lung apex and skeletal structures. From November 1989 to May 1990, 20 normal volunteers (15 males and 5 females; average age: 35 years) were studied with MR imaging. Multisection technique was employed with a dedicated coil and a primary coil. The anatomical structures of the brachial plexus were clearly demonstrated by T1-weighted sequences on the sagittal and axial planes. T2-weighted pulse sequences on the coronal plane were useful for the anatomical definition of the brachial plexus and for eventual tissue characterization. The correct representation of the anatomical structures of the brachial plexus allowed by MR imaging with author's standard technique makes MR imaging the most appropriate exam for the diagnosis of pathologic conditions in the brachial plexus, although its use must be suggested by specific clinical questions

  10. Longitudinal fasting blood glucose patterns and arterial stiffness risk in a population without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuntao; Yu, Junxing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Yun; Su, Jinmei; Wei, Guoqing; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gao, Jingsheng; Gao, Wenyuan; Wu, Shouling

    2017-01-01

    To identify long-term fasting blood glucose trajectories and to assess the association between the trajectories and the risk of arterial stiffness in individuals without diabetes. We enrolled 16,454 non-diabetic participants from Kailuan cohort. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010 survey. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities were measured during 2011 to 2016. Multivariate regression model was used to estimate the difference of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of arterial stiffness risk, according to the fasting blood glucose trajectories. We identified five distinct fasting blood glucose trajectories and each of the trajectories was labeled according to its range and change over 2006-2010 survey: elevated-stable pattern (5.0% of participants), elevated-decreasing pattern (6.6%), moderate-increasing pattern (10.9%), moderate-stable pattern (59.3%), and low-stable pattern (18.2%). After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals with elevated-stable pattern had a 42.6 cm/s (95%CI: 24.7 to 60.6 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 37% (OR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.66) higher arterial stiffness risk, and individuals with moderate-increasing pattern had a 19.6 cm/s (95%CI: 6.9 to 32.3 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 17% (OR 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.33) higher arterial stiffness risk, related to individuals with moderate-stable pattern. We did not find significant associations of the elevated-decreasing or low-stable patterns with arterial stiffness. Consistently, the cumulative average, variability, and increased rate of fasting blood glucose during 2006-2010 survey were significantly associated with the arterial stiffness risk. Discrete fasting blood glucose trajectories were associated with the arterial stiffness risk in non-diabetic individuals.

  11. Brachial blood flow under relative levels of blood flow restriction is decreased in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, J Grant; Ade, Carl J; Black, Christopher D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2018-05-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR), the application of external pressure to occlude venous return and restrict arterial inflow, has been shown to increase muscular size and strength when combined with low-load resistance exercise. BFR in the research setting uses a wide range of pressures, applying a pressure based upon an individual's systolic pressure or a percentage of occlusion pressure; not a directly determined reduction in blood flow. The relationship between relative pressure and blood flow has not been established. To measure blood flow in the arm under relative levels of BFR. Forty-five people (18-40 years old) participated. Arterial occlusion pressure in the right arm was measured using a 5-cm pneumatic cuff. Blood flow in the brachial artery was measured at rest and at pressures between 10% and 90% of occlusion using ultrasound. Blood flow decreased in a nonlinear, stepped fashion. Blood flow decreased at 10% of occlusion and remained constant until decreasing again at 40%, where it remained until 90% of occlusion. The decrease in brachial blood flow is not proportional to the applied relative pressure. The prescription of blood flow restriction should take into account the stimulus provided at each relative level of blood flow. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Case of Duplicated Right Vertebral Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Mayuko; Watanabe, Koichi; Tabira, Yoko; Iwanaga, Joe; Matsuuchi, Wakako; Yoshida, Daichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2018-04-27

    We encountered a case of duplicated right vertebral artery during an anatomical dissection course for medical students in 2015. Two vertebral arteries were found in the right neck of a 91-year-old female cadaver. The proximal leg of the arteries arose from the area between the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery that diverged from the brachiocephalic artery. The distal leg arose from the right subclavian artery as expected. The proximal leg entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra and the distal leg entered the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra. The two right vertebral arteries joined to form one artery just after the origin of the right vertebral artery of the brachiocephalic artery entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra. This artery then traveled up in the transverse foramina and became the basilar artery, joining with the left vertebral artery. We discuss the embryological origin of this case and review previously reported cases.

  13. Separate origins of the internal and external carotid arteries depicted on CT angiography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwang Ho [Dept. of horacic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Beak, Hye Jin; Jung, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Agenesis of the common carotid artery (CCA) is a rare congenital anomaly. We presented a rare case of unilateral congenital absence of the right CCA with separate origins of the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries from the brachiocephalic artery. Further, we reviewed the embryological mechanism and clinical importance of this anomaly.

  14. Uric Acid Level Has a J-Shaped Association with Arterial Stiffness in Korean Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungbin; Jung, Young-Hyo; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Park, Byoungjin

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid has been reported to function both as an oxidant or antioxidant depending on the context. A previous study in the Korean population reported a positive linear association between serum uric acid level and arterial stiffness in men, but little is known about how serum uric acid level is related to the risk of increased arterial stiffness in Korean postmenopausal women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 293 subjects who participated in a health examination program run by the health promotion center of Gangnam Severance Hospital between October 2007 and July 2010. High brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was defined as a brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity of more than 1,450 cm/s. The odds ratios (ORs) for high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis across uric acid quartiles after adjusting for other indicators of cardiovascular risk. The 293 postmenopausal women were divided into quartiles according to uric acid level. The mean brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity values of each quartile were as follows: Q1, 1,474 cm/s; Q2, 1,375 cm/s; Q3, 1,422 cm/s; Q4, 1,528 cm/s. The second quartile was designated as the control group based on mean brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity value. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity across the uric acid quartiles were 2.642 (Q1, 1.095-6.3373), 1.00, 4.305 (Q3, 1.798-10.307), and 4.375 (Q4, 1.923-9.949), after adjusting for confounding variables. Serum uric acid level has a J-shaped association with arterial stiffness in Korean postmenopausal women.

  15. Endothelial dysfunction, carotid artery plaque burden, and conventional exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as predictors of coronary artery disease prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishihara Masayuki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While both flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD in the brachial artery (BA, which measures endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and intima-media thickness (IMT in the carotid artery are correlated with the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD, it is not clear which modality is a better predictor of CAD. Furthermore, it has not been fully determined whether either of these modalities is superior to conventional ST-segment depression on exercise stress electrocardiogram (ECG as a predictor. Thus, the goal of the present study was to compare the predictive value of FMD, IMT, and stress ECG for CAD prognosis. Methods and Results A total of 103 consecutive patients (62 ± 9 years old, 79 men with clinically suspected CAD had FMD and nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NTG-D in the BA, carotid artery IMT measurement using high-resolution ultrasound, and exercise treadmill testing. The 73 CAD patients and 30 normal coronary patients were followed for 50 ± 15 months. Fifteen patients had coronary events during this period (1 cardiac death, 2 non-fatal myocardial infarctions, 3 acute heart failures, and 9 unstable anginas. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, only FMD and stress ECG were significant predictors for cardiac events. Conclusion Brachial endothelial function as reflected by FMD and conventional exercise stress testing has comparable prognostic value, whereas carotid artery plaque burden appears to be less powerful for predicting future cardiac events.

  16. Enhancing the learning experience of embryology for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel CR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chandni Rajesh Patel, Aryan Maleki, Sagar KulkarniFaculty of Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UKWe read with great interest the paper by Kazzazi and Bartlett demonstrating the ability to successfully teach a 2-hour embryology program to first-year medical students in a chronological systems-based manner.1 Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality, accounting for around 25% of infant deaths,2 justifying the inclusion of embryological education into medical training. As medical students in our clinical years, we have experienced firsthand the use of text and static images to teach embryology in our increasingly crowded curriculum. However, unlike topics such as anatomy that require more factual recall, embryology necessitates a deeper understanding of the physiological processes. Accordingly, teaching styles should reflect this difference as students might struggle to adapt to an unfamiliar form of learning.View the original paper by Kazzazi and Bartlett.

  17. Hypertrophic remodeling and increased arterial stiffness in patients with intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltete, David; Bellien, Jeremy; Cabrejo, Lucie; Iacob, Michele; Proust, François; Mihout, Bruno; Thuillez, Christian; Guegan-Massardier, Evelyne; Joannides, Robinson

    2010-08-01

    Because an underlying arteriopathy might contribute to the development of intracranial aneurysms (IAs), we assessed the elastic properties of proximal conduit arteries in patients with IA. In 27 patients with previous ruptured IA and 27 control subjects matched for age, gender and BMI, we determined arterial pressure, internal diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT), circumferential wall stress (CWS) and elastic modulus (wall stiffness) in common carotid arteries using applanation tonometry and echotracking. Moreover, carotid augmentation index (AIx, arterial wave reflections) and carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic stiffness) were assessed. Compared with controls, patients with IA exhibited higher brachial and carotid systolic and diastolic blood pressures, with similar brachial but higher carotid artery pulse pressure (35 + or - 6mm Hg vs. 41 + or - 8mm Hg, P=0.014). Moreover, patients have higher PWV (7.8 + or - 1.2ms(-1) vs. 8.3 + or - 1.1ms(-1), P=0.048) and AIx (15.8 + or - 10.8% vs. 21.1 + or - 8.5%, PIA display a particular carotid artery phenotype with an exaggerated hypertrophic remodeling and altered elastic properties. Thus, a systemic arteriopathy might contribute, together with the arterial wall fatiguing effect of the increased pulsatile stress, to the pathogenesis of IA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Constriction of collateral arteries induced by "head-up tilt" in patients with occlusive arterial disease of the legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, K; Henriksen, O; Tønnesen, K H

    1981-01-01

    The effect of head-up tilt on leg blood flow and segmental arterial blood pressures was studied in 21 patients with occlusion or severe stenosis of the common or superficial femoral artery. Arterial pressure was measured directly in the brachial artery, common femoral artery and popliteal artery....... Relative change in blood flow in the leg during tilt was estimated by changes in arterio-venous oxygen differences and by the indicator dilution technique in nine patients. Head-up tilt caused a decrease in leg blood flow of 36% corresponding to an increase in total vascular resistance of 57%. Tilt did...... not change the pressure gradient from femoral to popliteal artery in the patients with occlusion of the superficial femoral artery, indicating that the flow resistance offered by the collateral arteries had increased. In a bilateral sympathectomised patient the increase in collateral resistance was almost...

  19. Blood urea level and diabetes duration are independently associated with ankle-brachial index in type 2 diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosevski, M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors of ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.

    Material and methods

    370 patients (mean age 60.3 ± 8.3 years and diabetes duration 8.6 ± 6.2 years) with type 2

  20. Exercise-mediated changes in conduit artery wall thickness in humans: role of shear stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Munckhof, I.C. van den; Tinken, T.M.; Drijver, E. den; Hopkins, N.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Episodic increases in shear stress have been proposed as a mechanism that induces training-induced adaptation in arterial wall remodeling in humans. To address this hypothesis in humans, we examined bilateral brachial artery wall thickness using high-resolution ultrasound in healthy men across an

  1. A control systems approach to quantify wall shear stress normalization by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C G van Bussel

    Full Text Available Flow-mediated dilation is aimed at normalization of local wall shear stress under varying blood flow conditions. Blood flow velocity and vessel diameter are continuous and opposing influences that modulate wall shear stress. We derived an index FMDv to quantify wall shear stress normalization performance by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery. In 22 fasting presumed healthy men, we first assessed intra- and inter-session reproducibilities of two indices pFMDv and mFMDv, which consider the relative peak and relative mean hyperemic change in flow velocity, respectively. Second, utilizing oral glucose loading, we evaluated the tracking performance of both FMDv indices, in comparison with existing indices [i.e., the relative peak diameter increase (%FMD, the peak to baseline diameter ratio (Dpeak/Dbase, and the relative peak diameter increase normalized to the full area under the curve of blood flow velocity with hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC or with area integrated to peak hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC_peak]. Inter-session and intra-session reproducibilities for pFMDv, mFMDv and %FMD were comparable (intra-class correlation coefficients within 0.521-0.677 range. Both pFMDv and mFMDv showed more clearly a reduction after glucose loading (reduction of ~45%, p≤0.001 than the other indices (% given are relative reductions: %FMD (~11%, p≥0.074; Dpeak/Dbase (~11%, p≥0.074; FMD/shearAUC_peak (~20%, p≥0.016 and FMD/shearAUC (~38%, p≤0.038. Further analysis indicated that wall shear stress normalization under normal (fasting conditions is already far from ideal (FMDv << 1, which (therefore does not materially change with glucose loading. Our approach might be useful in intervention studies to detect intrinsic changes in shear stress normalization performance in conduit arteries.

  2. Number of distal limb and brachial pressure measurements required when diagnosing peripheral arterial disease by laser Doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høyer, C; Biurrun Manresa, J A; Petersen, L J

    2013-01-01

    We examine the reliability of single and repeated blood pressure measurements at ankle, toe, and arm levels for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) by laser Doppler flowmetry. Segmental pressures were measured in 200 patients with known or suspected PAD. Segmental indices were calculated using (1) one measurement [M-1], two measurements [M-2], or by a predefined reproducibility criterion (RC) as well as (2) by using one brachial blood-pressure (BBP-one) or correspondent to each segmental pressure (BBP-all) as reference. The agreement in diagnosis of PAD by Cohen's Kappa was κ = 0.930 when comparing RC to M-1, and κ = 0.977 when comparing RC to M-2. The same comparison showed excellent relative reliability for segmental indices (all intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) ≥ 0.980). Diagnostic classification agreement for BBP-all versus BBP-one were κ = 0.831 for RC, κ = 0.804 for M-1, and κ = 0.847 for M-2. The relative reliability analysis showed excellent correlation in segmental indices (all ICC ≥ 0.957). The study shows minimal difference in segmental indices and diagnostic classification when comparing calculations based on the listed strategies. However, the study indicated that it is important to measure BBPs correspondent to each segmental pressure. (paper)

  3. Rare associations of tetralogy of Fallot with anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery and totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Supratim; Rao, Suresh G; Kulkarni, Snehal

    2016-06-01

    We describe the cases of two patients with tetralogy of Fallot, aged 4 years and 8 months, who were incidentally detected to have concomitant anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, respectively, on preoperative imaging. They underwent surgical correction with good mid-term outcomes. In this study, we discuss the embryological basis, physiological effects, and review the literature of these two unusual associations. Awareness of these rare associations will avoid missed diagnoses and consequent surgical surprises.

  4. The effect of an apple polyphenol extract rich in epicatechin and flavan-3-ol oligomers on brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatory function in volunteers with elevated blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarenhovi, Maria; Salo, Pia; Scheinin, Mika; Lehto, Jussi; Lovró, Zsófia; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Lehtinen, Markus J; Junnila, Jouni; Hasselwander, Oliver; Tarpila, Anneli; Raitakari, Olli T

    2017-10-27

    The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an orally ingested apple polyphenol extract rich in epicatechin and flavan-3-ol oligomers improves endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) in volunteers with borderline hypertension. The secondary aim of the study was to test whether the investigational product would improve endothelium-independent nitrate-mediated vasodilatation (NMD). This was a single centre, repeated-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 60 otherwise healthy subjects (26 men, 34 women; aged 40-65 years) with borderline hypertension (blood pressure 130-139/85-89 mmHg) or unmedicated mild hypertension (blood pressure 140-165/90-95 mmHg). The subjects were randomised to receive placebo or the apple polyphenol extract to provide a daily dose of 100 mg epicatechin for 4 weeks, followed by a four to five-week wash-out period, and then 4 weeks intake of the product that they did not receive during the first treatment period. FMD and NMD of the left brachial artery were investigated with ultrasonography at the start and end of both treatment periods, and the per cent increase of the arterial diameter (FMD% and NMD%) was calculated. With the apple extract treatment, a significant acute improvement was detected in the mean change of maximum FMD% at the first visit 1.16 (p = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.04; 2.28), last visit 1.37 (p = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.22; 2.52) and for both visits combined 1.29 (p effect of apple extract on FMD% was not different from placebo. No statistically significant differences between the apple extract and placebo treatments were observed for endothelium-independent NMD. A significant acute improvement in maximum FMD% with apple extract administration was found. However, superiority of apple extract over placebo was not statistically significant in our study subjects with borderline hypertension or mild hypertension. The study raised no safety concerns regarding the

  5. Rare variations in renal anatomy and blood supply: CT appearances and embryological background. A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocheteux, B.; Gaxotte, V.; Beregi, J.P.; Mounier-Vehier, C.; McFadden, E.P.; Francke, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Helical CT angiography is increasingly used for the evaluation of the kidneys and the renal vessels. Knowledge of the potential variants in renal and renal vascular anatomy and of their appearances on helical CT are thus indispensable for radiologists who perform and interpret such examinations. We report six cases of anatomic variants that we encountered in our tertiary referral centre over the past 5 years, during which time we have performed 4850 helical CT angiograms, including 1432 renal artery examinations. These represent rarer anomalies in renal vascularization, most of which were associated with renal malformations (horseshoe kidney with or without cortical torsion, renal malrotation, single kidney, and thoracic origin of a renal artery). We present the helical CT findings and discuss the possible embryological mechanisms and the practical implications of these abnormalities for the radiologist. (orig.)

  6. Rare variations in renal anatomy and blood supply: CT appearances and embryological background. A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheteux, B.; Gaxotte, V.; Beregi, J.P. [Dept. of Vascular Radiology, Hopital Cardiologique, CHRU de Lille (France); Mounier-Vehier, C. [Service d' Hypertension Arterielle et Medecine Interne, Hopital Cardiologique, CHRU de Lille (France); McFadden, E.P. [Service de Cardiologie B, Hopital Cardiologique, CHRU de Lille (France); Francke, J.P. [Lab. d' Anatomie, Faculte de Medecine, Lille (France)

    2001-05-01

    Helical CT angiography is increasingly used for the evaluation of the kidneys and the renal vessels. Knowledge of the potential variants in renal and renal vascular anatomy and of their appearances on helical CT are thus indispensable for radiologists who perform and interpret such examinations. We report six cases of anatomic variants that we encountered in our tertiary referral centre over the past 5 years, during which time we have performed 4850 helical CT angiograms, including 1432 renal artery examinations. These represent rarer anomalies in renal vascularization, most of which were associated with renal malformations (horseshoe kidney with or without cortical torsion, renal malrotation, single kidney, and thoracic origin of a renal artery). We present the helical CT findings and discuss the possible embryological mechanisms and the practical implications of these abnormalities for the radiologist. (orig.)

  7. Association Between Chromosome 9p21 Variants and the Ankle-Brachial Index Identified by a Meta-Analysis of 21 Genome-Wide Association Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murabito, Joanne M; White, Charles C; Kavousi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population-based coh...

  8. Association Between Chromosome 9p21 Variants and the Ankle-Brachial Index Identified by a Meta-Analysis of 21 Genome-Wide Association Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murabito, Joanne M.; White, Charles C.; Kavousi, Maryam; Sun, Yan V.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Nambi, Vijay; Lamina, Claudia; Schillert, Arne; Coassin, Stefan; Bis, Joshua C.; Broer, Linda; Crawford, Dana C.; Franceschini, Nora; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Haun, Margot; Holewijn, Suzanne; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Kiechl, Stefan; Kollerits, Barbara; Montasser, May E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Rudock, Megan E.; Senft, Andrea; Teumer, Alexander; van der Harst, Pim; Vitart, Veronique; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wood, Andrew R.; Wassel, Christina L.; Absher, Devin M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Amin, Najaf; Arnold, Alice; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barbalic, Maja; Boban, Mladen; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Couper, David J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Dehghan, Abbas; den Heijer, Martin; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Ding, Jingzhong; Doerr, Marcus; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Fraedrich, Gustav; Gibson, Quince; Goodloe, Robert; Gunjaca, Grgo; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Heiss, Gerardo; Hofman, Albert; Kieback, Arne; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Lackner, Karl J.; Li, Xiaohui; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lohman, Kurt; Meisinger, Christa; Melzer, David; Mohler, Emile R.; Mudnic, Ivana; Mueller, Thomas; Navis, Gerjan; Oberhollenzer, Friedrich; Olin, Jeffrey W.; O'Connell, Jeff; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmas, Walter; Penninx, Brenda W.; Petersmann, Astrid; Polasek, Ozren; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rantner, Barbara; Rice, Ken; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Stadler, Marietta; Summerer, Monika; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Wild, Sarah H.; Wild, Philipp S.; Willeit, Johann; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Campbell, Harry; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cooke, John P.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Herrington, David; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Anna; Muenzel, Thomas; Newman, Anne B.; Oostra, Ben A.; Rudan, Igor; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Snieder, Harold; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Voelker, Uwe; Wright, Alan F.; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Liu, Yongmei; Hayward, Caroline; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Ziegler, Andreas; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kronenberg, Florian; Dorr, M.; Munzel, T.; Volker, U.

    Background-Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population-based cohorts.

  9. Subintimal stent placement in patients with long segment occlusion of the iliac artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ho Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Si Hyung; Ko, Sung Min; Choi, Jin Soo; Lee, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyung Tae; Jo, Won Hyun [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Andong General Hospital, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    We evaluated the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of subintimal stent placement for long segment occlusion of the iliac artery. From March 2003 to February 2007, subintimal stent placement for long segment occlusion of the iliac artery of 24 limbs in 22 patients was analyzed retrospectively. Endovascular access was performed via the ipsilateral femoral artery in 7 cases, via the contralateral femoral artery in 6 cases, via both femoral arteries in 10 cases and via the brachial artery in one case. The SAFARI (subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention) technique using a microcatheter was performed to recannalize iliac artery occlusion in three cases. Medical records were reviewed for the collection of follow-up data. The stent patency rate was analyzed by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Subintimal stent placement was technically successful in 23 of 24 procedures (95.8%). The mean ankle-brachial index (ABI) increased form 0.26 to 0.82. The Fontaine classification was improved after stent placement in all patients. Major complications occurred in four procedures: three distal embolizations and one arterial rupture. All of the complications were successfully treated by endovascular intervention. The primary stent patency rates at 6-months, 1-, 2-and 3-years were 95%, 88%, 88% and 88%, respectively. Subintimal stent placement is a safe and effective treatment for long segment occlusion of the iliac artery.

  10. Gender differences in the relationships among obesity, adiponectin and brachial artery distensibility in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, E M; Khoury, P; Martin, L J; D'Alessio, D; Dolan, L M

    2009-10-01

    Obesity-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major cause of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Obesity-related reduction in vascular protective adipose-derived proteins, such as adiponectin (APN), has an important role. We compared brachial artery distensibility (BrachD) with APN, the level of adiposity and other CV risk factors (CVRFs) in 431 post-pubertal subjects (mean 17.9 years). Gender differences in average values were examined by t-tests. Correlations among BrachD, obesity and other CVRFs were examined. Regression analysis was performed to determine whether APN provided an independent contribution to BrachD, while controlling for obesity and other CVRFs. Male subjects had lower BrachD (5.72+/-1.37 vs 6.45+/-1.60% change per mm Hg, Pgender, APN*gender and BMI z-score predicted BrachD (r(2)=0.305). On the basis of gender difference, only BMI z-score was significant for male subjects (r(2)=0.080), whereas APN and BMI z-score contributed for female subjects (r(2)=0.242, all Pobesity in both male and female subjects. In female subjects, APN exerts an additional independent effect even after adjusting for blood pressure (BP), lipid levels and insulin. Differences in the effect of the APN-adiposity relationship on obesity-related vascular disease may be one reason for gender differences in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  11. Congenital Arterial Thrombosis in Newborn: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Özmert M. A.; Özdemir, Yavuz; Kılıç, İlknur; Güleç, Bülent; Sücüllü, İlker; Küçüktaşçı, Kazım; Filiz, Ali İlker; Gürses, Dolunay; Karaca, Abdullah; Oto, Murat; Çetin, Gökhan Ozan; Caner, Vildan

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal thrombosis is a serious event that can cause mortality or severe morbidity. Although catheters are the most common cause of neonatal thrombosis, spontaneous events can also occur. Arterial thrombosis is very rare and accounts for approximately half of all thrombotic events in neonates. Genetic prothrombotic risk factors may affect the occurence of neonatal thrombosis. In this report, a case of left brachial, radial, and ulnar arterial thrombosis associated with methylene-tetrahydrofo...

  12. Embryologic and anatomic basis of inguinal herniorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, J E; Colborn, G L; Androulakis, J A; Skandalakis, L J; Pemberton, L B

    1993-08-01

    The embryology and surgical anatomy of the inguinal area is presented with emphasis on embryologic and anatomic entities related to surgery. We have presented the factors, such as patent processus vaginalis and defective posterior wall of the inguinal canal, that may be responsible for the genesis of congenital inguinofemoral herniation. These, together with impaired collagen synthesis and trauma, are responsible for the formation of the acquired inguinofemoral hernia. Still, we do not have all the answers for an ideal repair. Despite the latest successes in repair, we, to paraphrase Ritsos, are awaiting the triumphant return of Theseus.

  13. Angioplasty in stenosis of the innominate artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobinia, G.S.; Bergmann, H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a successful percutaneous transluminal dilatation (PTD) of an innominate artery stenosis in a 40-year-old patient with aortic arch syndrome. Five years earlier both a left central carotid artery occlusion and an innominate and left subclavian artery stenosis were treated by grafting from the aorta to the distal vessels. At recurrence of the neurological symptoms, reocclusion of the graft to the innominate artery and subtotal stenosis of the left carotid anastomosis were noted. The prevent the hazards of a reoperation, the innominate artery stenosis was dilated by means of PTD via the right brachial artery. Success of the procedure was demonstrated by Doppler sonography and angiography. It appears that PTD serves as an excellent method of treating stenoses of the aortic arch branches in aortic arch syndrome. (orig.)

  14. A comparison between brachial and echocardiographic systolic time intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Su

    Full Text Available Systolic time interval (STI is an established noninvasive technique for the assessment of cardiac function. Brachial STIs can be automatically determined by an ankle-brachial index (ABI-form device. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether the STIs measured from ABI-form device can represent those measured from echocardiography and to compare the diagnostic values of brachial and echocardiographic STIs in the prediction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF <50%. A total of 849 patients were included in the study. Brachial pre-ejection period (bPEP and brachial ejection time (bET were measured using an ABI-form device and pre-ejection period (PEP and ejection time (ET were measured from echocardiography. Agreement was assessed by correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot. Brachial STIs had a significant correlation with echocardiographic STIs (r = 0.644, P<0.001 for bPEP and PEP; r  = 0.850, P<0.001 for bET and ET; r = 0.708, P<0.001 for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET. The disagreement between brachial and echocardiographic STIs (brachial STIs minus echocardiographic STIs was 28.55 ms for bPEP and PEP, -4.15 ms for bET and ET and -0.11 for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET. The areas under the curve for bPEP/bET and PEP/ET in the prediction of LVEF <50% were 0.771 and 0.765, respectively. Brachial STIs were good alternatives to STIs obtained from echocardiography and also helpful in prediction of LVEF <50%. Brachial STIs automatically obtained from an ABI-form device may be helpful for evaluation of left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  15. Evaluation of Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease by Ankle-brachial Index in Patients with Concomitant Coronary Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vakili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral arterial disease is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. As such, it is found that screening for peripheral arterial disease (PAD improves risk assessment. Thus, intensive risk factor modification and medical treatment in these patients are necessary. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with concomitant coronary arterial disease. Methods: Asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease was investigated in 400 patients (60% males, 40% females, aged 59.7± 11.3 with a documented coronary arterial disease. Results: Among patients with documented CAD, 12% had asymptomatic PAD with the ABI ratio of less than 0.9. Conclusions: It is advisable to screen for PAD not only as a disease but also as a risk assessment method for atherosclerosis.

  16. Balloon Occlusion of the Contralateral Iliac Artery to Assist Recanalization of the Ipsilateral Iliac Artery in Total Aortoiliac Occlusion: A Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Aziz A. Jaffan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular recanalization of chronic total aortoiliac occlusion is technically challenging. Inability to reenter the true aortic lumen, following retrograde iliac recanalization, is one of the most common causes of failure. We describe a case of a total aortoiliac occlusion where balloon occlusion of the right common iliac artery, following its recanalization from a brachial approach, was used to facilitate antegrade recanalization of the occluded contralateral left common iliac artery.

  17. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakobowchuk, M; McGowan, C L; de Groot, P C; Bruinsma, D; Hartman, J W; Phillips, S M; MacDonald, M J

    2005-07-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12 weeks, using a rotating 3-day split-body routine. Resting brachial blood pressure (BP), carotid pulse pressure, carotid cross-sectional compliance (CSC), carotid initima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular dimensions were evaluated before beginning exercise (PRE), after 6 weeks of exercise (MID) and at the end of 12 weeks of exercise (POST). CSC was measured using the pressure-sonography method. Results indicate reductions in brachial (61.1 +/- 1.4 versus 57.6 +/- 1.2 mmHg; P training and the mechanisms responsible for cardiac hypertrophy and reduced arterial compliance are either not inherent to all resistance-training programmes or may require a prolonged stimulus.

  18. Improved brachial artery shear patterns and increased flow-mediated dilation after low-volume high-intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshan, Kamran; Mafi, Farnoosh; Biglari, Soheil; Gandomkar Bagheri, Habibalah

    2018-06-22

    What is the central question of this study? Endothelial function is impaired because of increased oscillatory and retrograde shear in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous moderate intensity exercise can modulate oscillatory and retrograde shear, blood flow and flow-mediated arterial dilation in these patients. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that low-volume high-intensity interval training, by increasing anterograde shear and decreasing retrograde shear and oscillatory index, can increase nitric oxide production and consequently result in increased flow-mediated dilation and outward arterial remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes is characterized by endothelial dysfunction associated with impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increases retrograde and oscillatory shear. The present study investigated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and shear rate in patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline and follow-up after 12 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIIT) or continuous moderate intensity training (CMIT). Seventy five sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes and untreated pre- or stage I hypertension were randomly divided into LV-HIIT, CMIT and control groups. The LV-HIIT group intervention was 12 intervals of 1.5 min at 85%-90% HR max and 2 min at 55%-60% HR max . The CMIT group intervention was 42 min of exercise at 70% HR max for 3 sessions per week during 12 weeks. High-resolution Doppler ultrasound was used to measure FMD, arterial diameter, anterograde and retrograde blood flow and shear rate patterns. Brachial artery FMD increased significantly in the LV-HIIT group (3.83 ± 1.13 baseline, 7.39 ± 3.6% follow-up), whereas there were no significant increase in the CMIT group (3.45 ± 0.97 baseline, 4.81 ± 2.36% follow-up) compared to the control group (3.16 ± 0

  19. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic subjects in south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji O. Oyelade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is rarely sought for and generally underdiagnosed even in diabetics in developing countries like Nigeria. PAD is easily detected and diagnosed by the ankle-brachial index, a simple and reliable test. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of PAD in diabetic subjects aged 50–89 years and the value of ankle-brachial index measurement in the detection of PAD. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 219 diabetic subjects aged 50–89 years was carried out. The participants were administered a pre-tested questionnaire and measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI was done. The ankle-brachial index < 0.90 was considered equivalent to peripheral arterial disease. Results: The overall prevalence of PAD was 52.5%. The prevalence of symptomatic PAD was 28.7% whilst that of asymptomatic PAD was 71.3%. There were a number of associations with PAD which included, age (p < 0.05, sex (p < 0.05, and marital status (p < 0.05. The use of the ankle-brachial index in the detection of PAD was clearly more reliable than the clinical methods like history of intermittent claudication and absence or presence of pedal pulses. Conclusion: The prevalence of PAD is relatively high in diabetic subjects in the southwestern region of Nigeria. Notable is the fact that a higher proportion was asymptomatic. Also the use of ABI is of great value in the detection of PAD as evidenced by a clearly more objective assessment of PAD compared to both intermittent claudication and absent pedal pulses.

  20. Kidney transplantation improves arterial function measured by pulse wave analysis and endothelium-independent dilatation in uraemic patients despite deterioration of glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Clausen, Peter; Idorn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    for kidney transplantation (uraemic control group, age 47 ± 11 years). Arterial function was estimated by the pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the carotid-femoral pulse wave, aortic augmentation index (AIX), flow-mediated (FMD) and nitroglycerin-induced vasodilatation (NID) of the brachial artery performed......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of kidney transplantation on arterial function in relation to changes in glucose metabolism. METHODS: Included were 40 kidney recipients (Tx group, age 38 ± 13 years) and 40 patients without known diabetes remaining on the waiting list...... before transplantation and after 12 months. PWV recorded sequentially at the carotid and femoral artery is an estimate of arterial stiffness; AIX is an integrated index of vascular and ventricular function. FMD and NID are the dilatory capacities of the brachial artery after increased flow (endothelium...

  1. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  2. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound and transient arterial occlusion for quantification of arterial perfusion reserve in peripheral arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarteifio, E.; Wormsbecher, S.; Krix, M.; Demirel, S.; Braun, S.; Delorme, S.; Böckler, D.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Weber, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify muscular micro-perfusion and arterial perfusion reserve in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and transient arterial occlusion. Materials and methods: This study had local institutional review board approval and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. We examined the dominant lower leg of 40 PAD Fontaine stage IIb patients (mean age, 65 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (mean age, 54 years) with CEUS (7 MHz; MI, 0.28) during continuous intravenous infusion of 4.8 mL microbubbles. Transient arterial occlusion at mid-thigh level simulated physical exercise. With time–CEUS–intensity curves obtained from regions of interest within calf muscles, we derived the maximum CEUS signal after occlusion (max) and its time (t max ), slope to maximum (m), vascular response after occlusion (AUC post ), and analysed accuracy, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and correlations with ankle-brachial index (ABI) and walking distance. Results: All parameters differed in PAD and volunteers (p max was delayed (31.2 ± 13.6 vs. 16.7 ± 8.5 s, p post as optimal parameter combination for diagnosing PAD and therefore impaired arterial perfusion reserve. Conclusions: Dynamic CEUS with transient arterial occlusion quantifies muscular micro-perfusion and arterial perfusion reserve. The technique is accurate to diagnose PAD.

  3. Clinical research of comprehensive rehabilitation in treating brachial plexus injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun-Ming; Gu, Yu-Dong; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Shen-Yu; Zhao, Xin

    2012-07-01

    Brachial plexus injury is one of the difficult medical problems in the world. The aim of this study was to observe the clinical therapeutic effect of comprehensive rehabilitation in treating dysfunction after brachial plexus injury. Forty-three cases of dysfunction after brachial plexus injury were divided into two groups randomly. The treatment group, which totaled 21 patients (including 14 cases of total brachial plexus injury and seven cases of branch brachial plexus injury), was treated with comprehensive rehabilitation including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, mid-frequency electrotherapy, Tuina therapy, and occupational therapy. The control group, which totaled 22 patients (including 16 cases of total brachial plexus injury and six cases of branch brachial plexus injury), was treated with home-based electrical nerve stimulation and occupational therapy. Each course was of 30 days duration and the patients received four courses totally. After four courses, the rehabilitation effect was evaluated according to the brachial plexus function evaluation standard and electromyogram (EMG) assessment. In the treatment group, there was significant difference in the scores of brachial plexus function pre- and post-treatment (P injury. The scores of two "total injury" groups had statistical differences (P injury" groups had statistical differences (P brachial plexus injury than nonintegrated rehabilitation.

  4. Notch signaling in embryology and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichrath, J; Reichrath, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "The goal of this volume is to comprehensively cover a highly readable overview on our present knowledge of the role of Notch signalling for embryology and cancer, with a focus on new findings in molecular biology...

  5. Embryological study of Herminium monorchis (Orchidaceae) using confocal scanning laser microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrikson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The embryology of Herminium monorchis (Orchidaceae) was studied using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), a new technique for embryological studies. This technique may contribute new information to plant embryology. Herminium monorchis has a monosporic embryo sac development. The mature embryo sac is 8-nucleate. Two integuments, both 2-layered, are formed, but only the inner takes part in formation of the micropyle. Double fertilization takes place. The primary endosperm nucleus does not divide, but remains alive at least at the 3-celled stage of embryo development. The three antipodals do not show any sign of degeneration at this stage. (author)

  6. Ankle brachial index values, leg symptoms, and functional performance among community-dwelling older men and women in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence and significance of low normal and abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) values in a community dwelling population of sedentary, older individuals is unknown. We describe the prevalence of categories of definite peripheral artery disease (PAD), borderline ABI, low-normal ABI and no PAD...

  7. Severe brachial plexus injuries in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, F; Mannan, K; Bharania, P; Sewell, M D; Di Mascio, L; Sinisi, M

    2012-03-01

    We describe the mechanisms, pattern of injuries, management and outcomes of severe injuries to the brachial plexus sustained during the play of rugby. Thirteen cases of severe injury to the brachial plexus caused by tackles in rugby had detailed clinical assessment, and operative exploration of the brachial plexus. Seventeen spinal nerves were avulsed, two were ruptured and there were traction lesions in continuity of 24 spinal nerves. The pattern of nerve lesion was related to the posture of the neck and the forequarter at the moment of impact. Early repair by nerve transfer enabled some functional recovery, and decompression of lesions in continuity was followed by recovery of nerve function and relief of pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Femoral Artery Atherosclerosis Is Associated With Physical Function Across the Spectrum of the Ankle-Brachial Index: The San Diego Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassel, Christina L; Ellis, Alicia M; Suder, Natalie C; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Rifkin, Dena E; Forbang, Nketi I; Denenberg, Julie O; Marasco, Antoinette M; McQuaide, Belinda J; Jenny, Nancy S; Allison, Matthew A; Ix, Joachim H; Criqui, Michael H

    2017-07-20

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is inadequate to detect early-stage atherosclerotic disease, when interventions to prevent functional decline may be the most effective. We determined associations of femoral artery atherosclerosis with physical functioning, across the spectrum of the ABI, and within the normal ABI range. In 2007-2011, 1103 multiethnic men and women participated in the San Diego Population Study, and completed all components of the summary performance score. Using Doppler ultrasound, superficial and common femoral intima media thickness and plaques were ascertained. Logistic regression was used to assess associations of femoral atherosclerosis with the summary performance score and its individual components. Models were adjusted for demographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, lipids, and kidney function. In adjusted models, among participants with a normal-range ABI (1.00-1.30), the highest tertile of superficial intima media thickness was associated with lower odds of a perfect summary performance score of 12 (odds ratio=0.56 [0.36, 0.87], P =0.009), and lower odds of a 4-m walk score of 4 (0.34 [0.16, 0.73], P =0.006) and chair rise score of 4 (0.56 [0.34, 0.94], P =0.03). Plaque presence (0.53 [0.29, 0.99], P =0.04) and greater total plaque burden (0.61 [0.43, 0.87], P =0.006) were associated with worse 4-m walk performance in the normal-range ABI group. Higher superficial intima media thickness was associated with lower summary performance score in all individuals ( P =0.02). Findings suggest that use of femoral artery atherosclerosis measures may be effective in individuals with a normal-range ABI, especially, for example, those with diabetes mellitus or a family history of peripheral artery disease, when detection can lead to earlier intervention to prevent functional declines and improve quality of life. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Effect of dietary intervention and lipid-lowering treatment on brachial vasoreactivity in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Møller, Jacob E; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The "Mediterranean" diet and statin treatment have both independently been shown to improve survival and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but no studies have evaluated the effect of this combination on endothelial function. We...... factors and vessel size (P =.02; beta = -2.66 [-4.91; -0.41]). CONCLUSION: Dietary intervention with the Mediterranean diet and statin treatment improve FMD in the brachial artery in patients with IHD and hypercholesterolemia to a greater degree than statin treatment alone....... therefore sought to evaluate the effect of the combination dietary intervention and lipid-lowering treatment on brachial vasoreactivity. METHODS: A total of 131 consecutive patients with documented IHD and a serum cholesterol level > or =5 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) were randomized to receive Mediterranean dietary...

  10. Anomalies of radial and ulnar arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Singh

    Full Text Available Abstract During dissection conducted in an anatomy department of the right upper limb of the cadaver of a 70-year-old male, both origin and course of the radial and ulnar arteries were found to be anomalous. After descending 5.5 cm from the lower border of the teres major, the brachial artery anomalously bifurcated into a radial artery medially and an ulnar artery laterally. In the arm, the ulnar artery lay lateral to the median nerve. It followed a normal course in the forearm. The radial artery was medial to the median nerve in the arm and then, at the level of the medial epicondyle, it crossed from the medial to the lateral side of the forearm, superficial to the flexor muscles. The course of the radial artery was superficial and tortuous throughout the arm and forearm. The variations of radial and ulnar arteries described above were associated with anomalous formation and course of the median nerve in the arm. Knowledge of neurovascular anomalies are important for vascular surgeons and radiologists.

  11. Dysphagia lusoria: a late onset presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alice Louise; Cock, Charles; Heddle, Richard; Morcom, Russell Kym

    2013-04-21

    Dysphagia lusoria is a term used to describe dysphagia secondary to vascular compression of the oesophagus. The various embryologic anomalies of the arterial brachial arch system often remain unrecognised and asymptomatic, but in 30%-40% of cases can result in tracheo-oesophageal symptoms, which in the majority of cases manifest as dysphagia. Diagnosis of dysphagia lusoria is via barium swallow and chest Computed tomography scan. Manometric abnormalities are variable, but age-related manometric changes may contribute to clinically relevant dysphagia lusoria in patients who present later in life. Our report describes a case of late-onset dysphagia secondary to a right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery, which represents a rare variant of dysphagia lusoria. The patient had proven additional oesophageal dysmotility with solid bolus only and a clinical response to dietary modification.

  12. New Technique for the Preservation of the Left Common Carotid Artery in Zone 2a Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszkat, Robert; Kulesza, Jerzy; Zarzecka, Anna; Jemielity, Marek; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Majewski, Wacław

    2011-01-01

    To describe a technique for the preservation of the left common carotid artery (CCA) in zone 2 endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. This technique involves the placement of a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment to enable precise visualization and protection of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Of the 107 patients with thoracic endovascular aortic repair in our study, 32 (30%) had the left subclavian artery intentionally covered (landing zone 2). Eight (25%) of those 32 had landing zone 2a—the segment distally the origin of the left CCA, halfway between the origin of the left CCA and the left subclavian artery. In all patients, a guide wire was positioned into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment. It is a retrospective study in design. In seven patients, stent grafts were positioned precisely. In the remaining patient, the positioning was imprecise; the origin of the left CCA was partially covered by the graft. A stent was implanted into the left CCA to restore the flow into the vessel. All procedures were performed successfully. The technique of placing a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment is a safe and effective method that enables the precise visualization of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Moreover, in case of inadvertent complete or partial coverage of the origin of the left CCA, it supplies safe and quick access to the artery for stent implantation.

  13. Role of dexamethasone in brachial plexus block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to (lignocaine) on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from September 2009 to March 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients, who were scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were randomly allocated to group A in which patients received 40 ml 1.5% lidocaine with 2 ml of isotonic saline (0.9%) and group B in which patients received 40 ml 1.5% lidocaine with 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg). Nerve stimulator with insulated needle for multiple stimulations technique was used to locate the brachial plexus nerves. After the injection onset of action and duration of sensory blockade of brachial plexus were recorded at 5 minutes and 15 minutes interval. Results: Group A showed the onset of action of 21.64 ± 2.30 min and in group B it was 15.42 ± 1.44 min (p< 0.001). Duration of nerve block was 115.08 ± 10.92 min in group A and 265.42 ± 16.56 min in group B (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lignocaine solution in axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of sensory blockade significantly. (author)

  14. Hyperspectral imaging and ankle: brachial indices in peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Saraf, Lida; Gordon, Ian L

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the correlation between ankle:brachial indices (ABI) and visible light reflectance spectroscopy hyperspectral imaging (HSI) determinations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHgb and deoxyHgb) levels in the skin of the distal lower extremity. This is a prospective, open, comparator trial which took place at the Vascular laboratory of a Veterans Administration Hospital in Long Beach, USA. Fifty-eight patients (85 limbs) were referred for routine vascular laboratory studies including ABI had concomitant HSI. Limbs with noncompressible pedal signals were excluded from the analysis. ABI was determined with continuous wave Doppler ultrasound and leg blood pressure cuffs. A commercial HSI system (Oxu-Vu(R), Hypermed, Inc.) was used to measure oxyHgb, deoxyHgb, and percent oxygenated hemoglobin (%oxyHgb) in the dorsum of the foot and ankle. HSI measurements of volar forearm skin were also obtained to normalize the lower extremity HSI measurements in a manner comparable with ABI. For purposes of comparison, data sets were divided into 3 groups: ABI > 0.9 (n = 53), 0.45 failed to show a clinically useful correlation between HSI measurements of oxyHgb levels, further evaluation of this novel technology is warranted. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Impact of a systolic parameter, defined as the ratio of right brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time, on the relationship between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and left ventricular diastolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Chao; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Lee, Chee-Siong; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2011-04-01

    Arterial stiffness is correlated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function as well as susceptibility to LV systolic function. Therefore, if LV systolic function is not known, the relationship between arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function is difficult to determine. A total of 260 patients were included in the study. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and the ratio of right brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time (rbPEP/rbET) were measured using an ABI-form device. Patients were classified into four groups. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were patients with rbPEP/rbET and baPWV below the median, rbPEP/rbET above but baPWV below the median, rbPET/rbET below but baPWV above the median, and rbPET/rbET and baPWV above the median, respectively. The LV ejection fractions in groups 1 and 3 were higher than those in groups 2 and 4 (Pwave velocity to Ea that were comparable to those in groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, rbPEP/rbET had an impact on the relationship between baPWV and LV diastolic function. In patients with high rbPEP/rbET but low baPWV, low baPWV may not indicate good LV diastolic function but implies that cardiac dysfunction may precede vascular dysfunction in such patients. When interpreting the relationship between baPWV and LV diastolic function, the rbPEP/rbET value obtained from the same examination should be considered.

  16. Brachial Artery Flow-mediated Dilation Following Exercise with Augmented Oscillatory and Retrograde Shear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Blair D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute doses of elevated retrograde shear rate (SR appear to be detrimental to endothelial function in resting humans. However, retrograde shear increases during moderate intensity exercise which also enhances post-exercise endothelial function. Since SR patterns differ with the modality of exercise, it is important to determine if augmented retrograde SR during exercise influences post-exercise endothelial function. This study tested the hypothesis that (1 increased doses of retrograde SR in the brachial artery during lower body supine cycle ergometer exercise would attenuate post-exercise flow-mediated dilation (FMD in a dose-dependent manner, and (2 antioxidant vitamin C supplementation would prevent the attenuated post-exercise FMD response. Methods Twelve men participated in four randomized exercise sessions (90 W for 20 minutes on separate days. During three of the sessions, one arm was subjected to increased oscillatory and retrograde SR using three different forearm cuff pressures (20, 40, 60 mmHg (contralateral arm served as the control and subjects ingested placebo capsules prior to exercise. A fourth session with 60 mmHg cuff pressure was performed with 1 g of vitamin C ingested prior to the session. Results Post-exercise FMD following the placebo conditions were lower in the cuffed arm versus the control arm (arm main effect: P P > 0.05. Following vitamin C treatment, post-exercise FMD in the cuffed and control arm increased from baseline (P P > 0.05. Conclusions These results indicate that augmented oscillatory and retrograde SR in non-working limbs during lower body exercise attenuates post-exercise FMD without an evident dose–response in the range of cuff pressures evaluated. Vitamin C supplementation prevented the attenuation of FMD following exercise with augmented oscillatory and retrograde SR suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to the adverse effects of oscillatory and

  17. The educational and professional status of clinical embryology and clinical embryologists in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačič, B; Plas, C; Woodward, B J; Verheyen, G; Prados, F J; Hreinsson, J; De los Santos, M J; Magli, M C; Lundin, K; Plancha, C E

    2015-08-01

    What is the recognition of clinical embryology and the current status of clinical embryologists in European countries, regarding educational levels, responsibilities and workload, and need for a formal education in assisted reproductive technology (ART)? It is striking that the profession of clinical embryology, almost 40 years after the introduction of IVF, is still not officially recognized in most European countries. Reproductive medicine has developed into a sophisticated multidisciplinary medical branch since the birth of Louise Brown 37 years ago. The European Board & College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG) has recognized reproductive medicine as a subspeciality and has developed a subspeciality training for gynaecologists in collaboration with the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). However, nothing similar exists for the field of clinical embryology or for clinical embryologists. A questionnaire about the situation in clinical embryology in the period of 2012-2013 in the respective European country was sent to ESHRE National representatives (basic scientists only) in December 2013. At this time, 28 European countries had at least one basic scientist in the ESHRE Committee of National Representatives. The survey consisted of 46 numeric, dichotomous (yes/no) or descriptive questions. Answers were obtained from 27 out of 28 countries and the data were tabulated. Data about the numbers of 'ESHRE Certified Embryologists' were taken from the ESHRE Steering Committee for Embryologist Certification. In 2012, more than 7000 laboratory staff from 1349 IVF clinics in 27 European countries performed over 700 000 fresh and frozen ART cycles. Despite this, clinical embryology is only recognized as an official profession in 3 out of 27 national health systems. In most countries clinical embryologists need to be registered under another profession, and have limited possibilities for organized education in clinical embryology. Mostly they

  18. Three dimensional ultrasound and hdlive technology as possible tools in teaching embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Razvan; Pristavu, Anda; Sava, Anca

    2017-10-01

    Embryology is an important subject in order to gain an understanding of medicine and surgery; however, sometimes students find the subject difficult to grasp and apply to clinical practice. Modern imaging techniques can be useful aids in teaching and understanding embryology. Imaging techniques have very rapidly evolved over the last few years, advancing from two- to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. HDlive is an innovative ultrasound technique that generates near-realistic images of the human fetus. In order to evince the capabilities of 3D ultrasound and HDlive technology in teaching embryology, we evaluated using this technique the normal evolution of the embryo and fetus from the fifth to eleventh week of amenorrhea. Our conclusion is that by yielding clear and impressive images, 3D ultrasound and HDlive could be useful tools in teaching embryology to medical students. Clin. Anat. 30:953-957, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ultrasound-guided approach for axillary brachial plexus, femoral nerve, and sciatic nerve blocks in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Luis; Bezuidenhout, Abraham J; Gleed, Robin D; Martin-Flores, Manuel; Raw, Robert M; Santare, Carrie L; Jay, Ariane R; Wang, Annie L

    2010-03-01

    To describe an ultrasound-guided technique and the anatomical basis for three clinically useful nerve blocks in dogs. Prospective experimental trial. Four hound-cross dogs aged 2 +/- 0 years (mean +/- SD) weighing 30 +/- 5 kg and four Beagles aged 2 +/- 0 years and weighing 8.5 +/- 0.5 kg. Axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic combined ultrasound/electrolocation-guided nerve blocks were performed sequentially and bilaterally using a lidocaine solution mixed with methylene blue. Sciatic nerve blocks were not performed in the hounds. After the blocks, the dogs were euthanatized and each relevant site dissected. Axillary brachial plexus block Landmark blood vessels and the roots of the brachial plexus were identified by ultrasound in all eight dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the four ventral nerve roots (C6, C7, C8, and T1) and the axillary vessels. Three roots (C7, C8, and T1) were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Femoral nerve block Landmark blood vessels (femoral artery and femoral vein), the femoral and saphenous nerves and the medial portion of the rectus femoris muscle were identified by ultrasound in all dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the femoral vessels, femoral nerve, and the rectus femoris muscle. The femoral nerves were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Sciatic nerve block. Ultrasound landmarks (semimembranosus muscle, the fascia of the biceps femoris muscle and the sciatic nerve) could be identified in all of the dogs. In the four Beagles, anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the biceps femoris muscle, the semimembranosus muscle, and the sciatic nerve. In the Beagles, all but one of the sciatic nerves were stained adequately. Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is an accurate method for depositing local anesthetic for axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic nerve blocks.

  20. Sympathetic reflex control of resistance in collateral arteries in the lower extremities in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, K; Tønnesen, K H

    1982-01-01

    The vascular response in the lower extremities to 40 degrees head-up tilt was studied in 5 patients with occlusion of the superficial femoral artery and maturity onset diabetes mellitus with symptoms suggesting autonomic neuropathy. The pressure measurements were performed via catheters placed...... in the brachial artery, femoral artery and vein and popliteal artery and vein. Relative blood flow was calculated as the relative change in arterio-venous oxygen saturation. Absolute blood flow in the common femoral artery was measured by an indicator dilution technique. Resistance of the collateral arteries...

  1. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry...... of PAD was sufficiently high in subjects over the age of 60 years to warrant screening. The ankle brachial index based on measurements with an oscillometric device was shown reliable in the exclusion of PAD, thereby fulfilling an important criterion for the use in screening....

  2. Congenital pulmonary steal associated with Tetralogy of Fallot, right aortic arch and an isolated left carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozzi, R.; Kiley, R.; Doyle, E.; Hernanz-Schulman, M.; Genieser, N.; Ambrosino, M.; Pinto, R.

    1989-07-01

    In patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, collateral supply to the pulmonary artery from systemic arterial sources is frequently encountered. However, collateral blood flow arising from the cerebral circulation has, to our knowledge, not been reported in this condition. We describe a patient with Tetralogy of Fallot in whom the left pulmonary artery filled directly via retrograde flow from the left carotid artery. Review of the literature in search of a similar case was unrevealing. A theoretical embryologic basis for this anomaly is discussed. (orig.).

  3. Congenital pulmonary steal associated with Tetralogy of Fallot, right aortic arch and an isolated left carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozzi, R.; Kiley, R.; Doyle, E.; Hernanz-Schulman, M.; Genieser, N.; Ambrosino, M.; Pinto, R.

    1989-01-01

    In patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, collateral supply to the pulmonary artery from systemic arterial sources is frequently encountered. However, collateral blood flow arising from the cerebral circulation has, to our knowledge, not been reported in this condition. We describe a patient with Tetralogy of Fallot in whom the left pulmonary artery filled directly via retrograde flow from the left carotid artery. Review of the literature in search of a similar case was unrevealing. A theoretical embryologic basis for this anomaly is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Arterial Stiffness in Children: Pediatric Measurement and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Jonathan D.; Furth, Susan L.; Meyers, Kevin E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is a natural consequence of aging, accelerated in certain chronic conditions, and predictive of cardiovascular events in adults. Emerging research suggests the importance of arterial stiffness in pediatric populations. Methods There are different indices of arterial stiffness. The present manuscript focuses on carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis, although other methodologies are discussed. Also reviewed are specific measurement considerations for pediatric populations and the literature describing arterial stiffness in children with certain chronic conditions (primary hypertension, obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, hypercholesterolemia, genetic syndromes involving vasculopathy, and solid organ transplant recipients). Conclusions The measurement of arterial stiffness in children is feasible and, under controlled conditions, can give accurate information about the underlying state of the arteries. This potentially adds valuable information about the functionality of the cardiovascular system in children with a variety of chronic diseases well beyond that of the brachial artery blood pressure. PMID:26587447

  5. Muscle and joint sequelae in brachial plexus injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnisveld, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury is caused by traction on the brachial plexus during delivery or due to a high-energy road traffic accident in young adults. Muscle denervation and subsequent muscle degeneration results in functional limitations of the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand including contractures

  6. A rare variant of the ulnar artery with important clinical implications: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal Diogo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the major arteries of the upper limb are estimated to be present in up to one fifth of people, and may have significant clinical implications. Case presentation During routine cadaveric dissection of a 69-year-old fresh female cadaver, a superficial brachioulnar artery with an aberrant path was found bilaterally. The superficial brachioulnar artery originated at midarm level from the brachial artery, pierced the brachial fascia immediately proximal to the elbow, crossed superficial to the muscles that originated from the medial epicondyle, and ran over the pronator teres muscle in a doubling of the antebrachial fascia. It then dipped into the forearm fascia, in the gap between the flexor carpi radialis and the palmaris longus. Subsequently, it ran deep to the palmaris longus muscle belly, and superficially to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, reaching the gap between the latter and the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, where it assumed is usual position lateral to the ulnar nerve. Conclusion As far as the authors could determine, this variant of the superficial brachioulnar artery has only been described twice before in the literature. The existence of such a variant is of particular clinical significance, as these arteries are more susceptible to trauma, and can be easily confused with superficial veins during medical and surgical procedures, potentially leading to iatrogenic distal limb ischemia.

  7. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training decreases peripheral but not central artery wall thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Munckhof, I.C.L. van den; Poelkens, F.; Hopman, M.T.; Thijssen, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the impact of exercise training on conduit artery wall thickness in type 2 diabetes. We examined the local and systemic impact of exercise training on superficial femoral (SFA), brachial (BA), and carotid artery (CA) wall thickness in type 2 diabetes patients and

  8. Bilateral Superior Cerebellar Artery Embolic Occlusion with a Fetal-Type Posterior Cerebral Artery Providing Collateral Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor J. Bergman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches. The neurological exam revealed cerebellar signs, including dysmetria of the right upper extremity and a decreased level of consciousness. Computed tomography of the head and neck revealed decreased attenuation throughout most of the cerebellar hemispheres suggestive of ischemic injury with sparing of the rest of the brain. Further investigation with a computed tomography angiogram revealed a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery on the right side that was providing collateral circulation to the posterior brain. Due to this embryological anomaly, the patient was spared significant morbidity and mortality that would have likely occurred had the circulation been more typical of an adult male.

  9. Rhabdomyolysis resulting in concurrent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Susan C.; Geannette, Christian; Sneag, Darryl B.; Wolfe, Scott W.; Feinberg, Joseph H.

    2017-01-01

    This case report describes a 29-year-old male who presented with immediate onset of Horner's syndrome and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy after sleeping with his arm dangling outside a car window for 8 h. Outside workup and imaging revealed rhabdomyolysis of the left neck musculature. Subsequent electrodiagnostic testing and high-resolution brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging at the authors' institution attributed the Horner's syndrome and concurrent brachial plexopathy to rhabdomyolysis of the longus colli and scalene musculature, which had compressed - and consequently scar tethered - the cervical sympathetic trunk and brachial plexus. This case of co-existent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy demonstrates the role of high-resolution brachial plexus MRI in diagnosing plexopathy and the importance of being familiar with plexus and paravertebral muscle anatomy. (orig.)

  10. Rhabdomyolysis resulting in concurrent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susan C; Geannette, Christian; Wolfe, Scott W; Feinberg, Joseph H; Sneag, Darryl B

    2017-08-01

    This case report describes a 29-year-old male who presented with immediate onset of Horner's syndrome and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy after sleeping with his arm dangling outside a car window for 8 h. Outside workup and imaging revealed rhabdomyolysis of the left neck musculature. Subsequent electrodiagnostic testing and high-resolution brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging at the authors' institution attributed the Horner's syndrome and concurrent brachial plexopathy to rhabdomyolysis of the longus colli and scalene musculature, which had compressed-and consequently scar tethered-the cervical sympathetic trunk and brachial plexus. This case of co-existent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy demonstrates the role of high-resolution brachial plexus MRI in diagnosing plexopathy and the importance of being familiar with plexus and paravertebral muscle anatomy.

  11. Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: embryology, radiology and quandary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, N.A.; Pilling, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations (BPFM) are a heterogeneous group of pulmonary developmental anomalies that present at varying ages and with overlapping symptoms, signs and radiology. This article discusses the embryology of these lesions with reference to possible common origins and the link between aetiology and radiological appearance. The radiology of each lesion, both antenatally and postnatally, is described and illustrated. A number of quandaries exist in the prediction of prognosis and subsequent treatment of BPFM. We discuss the radiological features that may help to elucidate an individual prognosis and aid in the planning of treatment. The treatment options available for BPFM are briefly discussed. Finally, the link between BPFM, in particular cystic adenomatoid malformations and malignancy, is discussed. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the embryology, radiology, prognosis and treatment highlighting contentious issues of BPFM. (orig.)

  12. Paired anterior spinal arteries in a case of locked-in syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, J.; Matsubayashi, K.; Fukuyama, H.; Kitanaka, H.

    1981-01-01

    Paired anterior spinal arteries have rarely been demonstrated angiographically, although several anatomical studies have shown that they are not uncommonly observed. This report describes the angiographic and autopsy findings of such a variation, which was observed in a 65-year-old man with a locked-in syndrome. The paired trunks of the anterior spinal artery were visualized in a retrograde fashion through the left inferior thyroid artery and a radical branch at the 5th cervical level by left retrograde brachial angiography. The uppermost segments of either vertebral artery and the lower portion of the basilar artery were opacified through these channels. The autopsy confirmed the paired trunks of the anterior spinal artery, occlusion of the vertebral arteries just caudal to the origin of the main branches of the anterior spinal artery, and an old infarct involving the pontine tegmentum and cerebellum. (orig.)

  13. Embryology of the adrenal glands and its relevance to diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwick, T.D.; Malhotra, A.; Webb, J.A.W.; Savage, M.O.; Reznek, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of the embryology of the adrenal glands is necessary to appreciate the location of adrenal ectopic, or rest, tissue which can occur anywhere along the course of gonadal descent. This tissue usually has no clinical significance, but may become hyperplastic in patients with primary or secondary adrenal pathology. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hyperplastic rest tissue may present as a soft-tissue mass, particularly in the gonads and retroperitoneum, and may be mistaken for tumour. The adrenal in the neonate is proportionately much larger than in the adult; in renal ectopy or agenesis the ipsilateral adrenal is normally sited and may be mistaken for a kidney because of its size. This review article illustrates the embryology of the adrenal with particular emphasis on the relevance of embryology to pathology

  14. Concepts of nerve regeneration and repair applied to brachial plexus reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

    2006-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a serious condition that usually affects young adults. Progress in brachial plexus repair is intimately related to peripheral nerve surgery, and depends on clinical and experimental studies. We review the rat brachial plexus as an experimental model, together with its behavioral evaluation. Techniques to repair nerves, such as neurolysis, nerve coaptation, nerve grafting, nerve transfer, fascicular transfer, direct muscle neurotization, and end-to-side neurorraphy, are discussed in light of the authors' experimental studies. Intradural repair of the brachial plexus by graft implants into the spinal cord and motor rootlet transfer offer new possibilities in brachial plexus reconstruction. The clinical experience of intradural repair is presented. Surgical planning in root rupture or avulsion is proposed. In total avulsion, the authors are in favor of the reconstruction of thoraco-brachial and abdomino-antebrachial grasping, and on the transfer of the brachialis muscle to the wrist extensors if it is reinnervated. Surgical treatment of painful conditions and new drugs are also discussed.

  15. 3 T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: Structural and microstructural evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouhi, Ammar, E-mail: Ammar.Mallouhi@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Marik, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Marik@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela, E-mail: Daniela.Prayer@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kainberger, Franz, E-mail: Franz.Kainberger@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bodner, Gerd, E-mail: Gerd.Bodner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor, E-mail: Gregor.Kasprian@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-09-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus.

  16. Primary retroperitoneal seminoma - embryology, histopathology and treatment particularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gîngu, Constantin Virgil; Mihai, Mihaela; Baston, Cătălin; Crăsneanu, Mugurel Alexandru; Dick, Alexandru Vladimir; Olaru, Vlad; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology. The clinical examination revealed through deep abdominal palpation a mass in the left flank, and normal testes. Thoraco-abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large retroperitoneal tumor adjacent to the great vessels in the left lumbo-iliac region. The blood work revealed just a low hemoglobin and hematocrit. With the established diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, radical surgical removal was decided. During the surgery, we were required to dissect a large solid encapsulated tumor mass from the aorta and the common iliac artery, starting at the renal pedicle all the way to the left iliac bifurcation. The surgical access was obtained through a transperitoneal left subcostal incision prolonged pararectally. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies revealed a seminoma of the usual type. After the histological findings, the patient's tumor markers were investigated (LDH - lactate dehydrogenase, βHCG - beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, αFP - alpha-fetoprotein), all values being within normal ranges. In addition, the left testicle was thoroughly reexamined, clinically, through ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and no abnormalities were observed. After the surgery, the patient followed three courses of chemotherapy (BEP - Bleomycin, Etoposide and Cisplatin). The CT scan done 24 months after surgery found no signs of local or distant tumor recurrence. The patient entered a follow-up schedule

  17. Impact of acute caffeine ingestion on endothelial function in subjects with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Michael; Shalmon, Guy; Scheinowitz, Mickey; Koren-Morag, Nira; Feinberg, Micha S; Harats, Dror; Sela, Ben Ami; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Chouraqui, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    Although coffee is a widely used, pharmacologically active beverage, its impact on the cardiovascular system is controversial. To explore the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in subjects without coronary artery disease (CAD; controls) and patients with CAD, we prospectively assessed brachial artery FMD in 40 controls and 40 age- and gender-matched patients with documented stable CAD on 2 separate mornings 1 week to 2 weeks apart. After overnight fasting, discontinuation of all medications for ≥12 hours, and absence of caffeine for >48 hours, participants received capsules with caffeine 200 mg or placebo. One hour after drug ingestion, participants underwent brachial artery FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NTG) using high-resolution ultrasound. As expected, patients with CAD were more often diabetic, hypertensive, obese, dyslipidemic, and smoked more than controls (p <0.01 for all comparisons). Aspirin, Clopidogrel, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β blockers, and statins were significantly more common in patients with CAD than in controls (p <0.01 for all comparisons). At baseline, FMD, but not NTG, was significantly lower in patients with CAD compared to controls. Acute caffeine ingestion significantly increased FMD (patients with CAD 5.6 ± 5.0% vs 14.6 ± 5.0%, controls 8.4 ± 2.9% vs 18.6 ± 6.8%, p <0.001 for all comparisons) but not NTG (patients with CAD 13.0 ± 5.2% vs 13.8 ± 6.1%, controls 12.9 ± 3.9% vs 13.9 ± 5.8%, p = NS for all comparisons) and significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (patients with CAD 2.6 ± 1.4 vs 1.4 ± 1.2 mg/L, controls 3.4 ± 3.0 vs 1.2 ± 1.0 mg/L, p <0.001 for all comparisons) in the 2 groups compared to placebo. In conclusion, acute caffeine ingestion significantly improved endothelial function assessed by brachial artery FMD in subjects with and without CAD and was associated with lower plasma markers of inflammation. Copyright

  18. High Origin of Radial Arteries: A Report of Two Rare Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the arterial supply of the upper limb are relatively common, with reported prevalence rates ranging from 11 to 24.4%. Of these, the most commonly encountered variation in the arm is a high origin of the radial artery. However, after consecutively dissecting and examining 600 Singaporean Chinese cadavers (1,200 upper limbs, we found only two cases of this. In both cases, the brachioradial artery originated from the upper one-third of the brachial artery and continued distally as the radial artery in the forearm. The local prevalence of 0.33% of this variation is significantly lower compared against populations from other geographical regions. Although rare, recognition of the variation is of fundamental importance to clinical practice.

  19. Related anomalies of origin of left vertebral and left inferior thyroid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, K.; Freckmann, N.; Boeker, D.K.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Altona, Hamburg

    1981-01-01

    The known rare occurrence of related anomalies of origin of vertebral and inferior thyroid arteries appears not to be documented in the angiographic literature. Three cases with manifestation on the left side are presented. Embryology is discussed briefly. Knowledge of such anomalies is of importance to surgeons as well as angiographers. (orig.) [de

  20. Brachial edema after treatment of mammary carcinoma. Significance of phlebography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsch, H; Soerensen, R [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Physikalische Therapie

    1977-01-01

    The frequency of thromboses or of obstacles to the venous flow in brachial or axillary regions has been examined by a phlebographic survey of 102 patients who were treated surgically and radiotherapeutically because of cancers of the breast. Thromboses or venous obstruction were found in the 86 patients with brachial edema. Ten of the patients with brachial edema had thromboses. Further 15 suffered from an obstruction to the venous flow. The results are discussed in detail, and compared with the rather contradictory data in literature. As a consequence of this study an indication for brachial phlebography would be justified on a larger scale with patients having been treated surgically because of mammary carcinoma.

  1. MR evaluation of brachial plexus injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Jain, R.K.; Mehta, V.S.; Banerji, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Ten cases of brachial plexus injury were subjected to magnetic resonance (MR) to demonstrate the roots, trunks, divisions or cord abnormalities. Both normal and abnormal brachial plexuses were imaged in sagittal, axial, coronal and axial oblique planes. Myelography, using water soluble contrast agents, was performed in seven cases. MR demonstrated one traumatic meningocele, one extradural cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection, trunk and/or root neuromas in four, focal root fibrosis in two and diffuse fibrosis in the remaining two cases. Results of MR were confirmed at surgery in four cases with neuromas, while myelography was normal in two and was not carried out in the remaining two. In two cases, where MR demonstrated diffuse fibrosis of the brachial plexus, myelography showed C7 and T1 traumatic meningocele in one and was normal in the other. Both these patients showed excellent clinical and electrophysiological correlation with MR findings and in one of them surgical confirmation was also obtained. In the other two cases with focal nerve root fibrosis, myelography was normal in one and showed a traumatic meningocele in another. Operative findings in these cases confirmed focal root fibrosis but no root avulsion was observed although seen on one myelogram. Focal fibrosis, however, was noted at operation in more roots than was observed with MR. Initial experience suggests that MR may be the diagnostic procedure of choice for complete evaluation of brachial plexus injuries. (orig.)

  2. Screen or not to screen for peripheral arterial disease: Guidance from a decision model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vaidya (Anil); M.A. Joore (Manuela); A.J. Ten Cate-Hoek (Arina J); H. ten Cate (Hugo); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is associated with greater risk of acute cardiovascular events. This study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of one time only PAD screening using Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) test and subsequent anti

  3. The natural history and management of brachial plexus birth palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Buterbaugh, Kristin L.; Shah, Apurva S.

    2016-01-01

    Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is an upper extremity paralysis that occurs due to traction injury of the brachial plexus during childbirth. Approximately 20 % of children with brachial plexus birth palsy will have residual neurologic deficits. These permanent and significant impacts on upper limb function continue to spur interest in optimizing the management of a problem with a highly variable natural history. BPBP is generally diagnosed on clinical examination and does not typically req...

  4. Posterior subscapular dissection: An improved approach to the brachial plexus for human anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Shaun; Backus, Timothy Charles; Futterman, Bennett; Solounias, Nikos; Mihlbachler, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Students of human anatomy are required to understand the brachial plexus, from the proximal roots extending from spinal nerves C5 through T1, to the distal-most branches that innervate the shoulder and upper limb. However, in human cadaver dissection labs, students are often instructed to dissect the brachial plexus using an antero-axillary approach that incompletely exposes the brachial plexus. This approach readily exposes the distal segments of the brachial plexus but exposure of proximal and posterior segments require extensive dissection of neck and shoulder structures. Therefore, the proximal and posterior segments of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, divisions, posterior cord and proximally branching peripheral nerves often remain unobserved during study of the cadaveric shoulder and brachial plexus. Here we introduce a subscapular approach that exposes the entire brachial plexus, with minimal amount of dissection or destruction of surrounding structures. Lateral retraction of the scapula reveals the entire length of the brachial plexus in the subscapular space, exposing the brachial plexus roots and other proximal segments. Combining the subscapular approach with the traditional antero-axillary approach allows students to observe the cadaveric brachial plexus in its entirety. Exposure of the brachial dissection in the subscapular space requires little time and is easily incorporated into a preexisting anatomy lab curriculum without scheduling additional time for dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Lack of evidence of the effectiveness of primary brachial plexus surgery for infants (under the age of two years) diagnosed with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Gelding, Bronwyn

    2006-12-01

    Background  Obstetric brachial plexus palsy, which occurs in 1-3 per 1000 live births, results from traction and/or compression of the brachial plexus in utero, during descent through the birth canal or during delivery. This results in a spectrum of injuries that range in extent of damage and severity and can lead to a lifelong impairment and functional difficulties associated with the use of the affected upper limb. Most infants diagnosed with obstetric brachial plexus palsy receive treatment, such as surgery to the brachial plexus, physiotherapy or occupational therapy, within the first months of life. However, there is controversy regarding the most effective form of management. This review follows on from our previous systematic review which investigated the effectiveness of primary conservative management in infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. This systematic review focuses on the effects of primary surgery. Objectives  The objective of this review was to systematically assess and collate all available evidence on effectiveness of primary brachial plexus surgery for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Search strategy  A systematic literature search was performed using 13 databases: TRIP, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Proquest 5000, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Expanded Academic ASAP, Meditext, Science Direct, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Proquest Digital Dissertations, Open Archives Initiative Search Engine, the Australian Digital Thesis program. Those studies that were reported in English and published between July 1992 to June 2004 were included in this review. Selection criteria  Quantitative studies that investigated the effectiveness of primary brachial plexus surgery for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were eligible for inclusion into this review. This excluded studies where infants were solely managed conservatively or with pharmacological agents, or underwent surgery for the management of

  6. Hemoglobin A1c and arterial and ventricular stiffness in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Zieman

    Full Text Available Arterial and ventricular stiffening are characteristics of diabetes and aging which confer significant morbidity and mortality; advanced glycation endproducts (AGE are implicated in this stiffening pathophysiology. We examined the association between HbA(1c, an AGE, with arterial and ventricular stiffness measures in older individuals without diabetes.Baseline HbA(1c was measured in 830 participants free of diabetes defined by fasting glucose or medication use in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥ 65 years. We performed cross-sectional analyses using baseline exam data including echocardiography, ankle and brachial blood pressure measurement, and carotid ultrasonography. We examined the adjusted associations between HbA(1c and multiple arterial and ventricular stiffness measures by linear regression models and compared these results to the association of fasting glucose (FG with like measures.HbA(1c was correlated with fasting and 2-hour postload glucose levels (r = 0.21; p<0.001 for both and positively associated with greater body-mass index and black race. In adjusted models, HbA(1c was not associated with any measure of arterial or ventricular stiffness, including pulse pressure (PP, carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, end-arterial elastance, or left ventricular mass (LVM. FG levels were positively associated with systolic, diastolic and PP and LVM.In this sample of older adults without diabetes, HbA(1c was not associated with arterial or ventricular stiffness measures, whereas FG levels were. The role of AGE in arterial and ventricular stiffness in older adults may be better assessed using alternate AGE markers.

  7. The Use of "Kryptolebias marmoratus" Eggs as an Educational Tool for Embryology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genade, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Plastic embryological models lack the excitement of seeing real, live embryos. Chick embryos are often used to demonstrate embryological development and blood circulation to students but this necessitates the death of the organism. "Kryptolebias marmoratus" embryos are large and can be viewed by means of a light microscope without need…

  8. Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease: the value of a validated questionnaire and a clinical decision rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bendermacher, Bianca L. W.; Teijink, Joep A. W.; Willigendael, Edith M.; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; Büller, Harry R.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Boiten, Jelis; Langenberg, Machteld; Prins, Martin H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If a validated questionnaire, when applied to patients reporting with symptoms of intermittent claudication, could adequately discriminate between those with and without peripheral arterial disease, GPs could avoid the diagnostic measurement of the ankle brachial index. AIM: To

  9. Anatomical study of prefixed versus postfixed brachial plexuses in adult human cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guday, Edengenet; Bekele, Asegedech; Muche, Abebe

    2017-05-01

    The brachial plexus is usually formed by the fusion of anterior primary rami of the fifth to eighth cervical and the first thoracic spinal nerves. Variations in the formation of the brachial plexus may occur. Variations in brachial plexus anatomy are important to radiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists performing surgical procedures in the neck, axilla and upper limb regions. These variations may lead to deviation from the expected dermatome distribution as well as differences in the motor innervation of muscles of the upper limb. This study is aimed to describe the anatomical variations of brachial plexus in its formation among 20 Ethiopian cadavers. Observational based study was conducted by using 20 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy at University of Gondar, Bahir Dar, Addis Ababa, Hawasa, Hayat Medical College and St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College. Data analysis was conducted using thematic approaches. A total of 20 cadavers examined bilaterally for the formation of brachial plexus. Of the 40 sides, 30 sides (75%) were found normal, seven sides (17.5%) prefixed, three sides (7.5%) postfixed and one side of the cadaver lacks cord formation. The brachial plexus formation in most subjects is found to be normal. Among the variants, the numbers of the prefixed brachial plexuses are greater than the postfixed brachial plexuses. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. Bilateral Variations of the Testicular Vessels: Embryological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [4] The variations in the number, unusual course and atypical drainage of testicular veins are attributed to their embryologic origin.[1,3,5] The embryogenesis of IVC involves the development, regression, anastomosis and replacement of three pairs of venous channels: Posterior cardinal, subcardinal and supracardinal.[6].

  11. Association of Aortic Compliance and Brachial Endothelial Function with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: Assessment with High-Resolution MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the possible association of aortic compliance and brachial endothelial function with cerebral small vessel disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 patients by using 3.0 T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods. Sixty-two clinically confirmed DM2 patients (25 women and 37 men; mean age: 56.8±7.5 years were prospectively enrolled for noninvasive MR examinations of the aorta, brachial artery, and brain. Aortic arch pulse wave velocity (PWV, flow-mediated dilation (FMD of brachial artery, lacunar brain infarcts, and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities (WMHs were assessed. Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis were performed to analyze the association between PWV and FMD with clinical data and biochemical test results. Univariable logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between PWV and FMD with cerebral small vessel disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to find out the independent predictive factors of cerebral small vessel disease. Results. Mean PWV was 6.73±2.00 m/s and FMD was 16.67±9.11%. After adjustment for compounding factors, PWV was found significantly associated with lacunar brain infarcts (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.14–3.2; P<0.05 and FMD was significantly associated with periventricular WMHs (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71–0.95; P<0.05. Conclusions. Quantitative evaluation of aortic compliance and endothelial function by using high-resolution MRI may be potentially useful to stratify DM2 patients with risk of cerebral small vessel disease.

  12. Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary arteries: spectrum of findings on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, J; Flors, L; Mejía, M

    Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary arteries are uncommon. They can occur in isolation or in association with congenital heart defects. Isolated congenital anomalies remain undiscovered until they are reported as incidental findings on imaging tests, usually not until adolescence. We review the embryological development and normal anatomy of the pulmonary arteries as well as the spectrum of computed tomography findings for various congenital anomalies: unilateral interruption of the pulmonary artery, anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery (pulmonary artery sling), idiopathic aneurysm of the pulmonary artery, and other anomalies associated with congenital heart defects. Congenital anomalies of the pulmonary arteries represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Computed tomography is useful for their diagnosis, and general radiologists need to be familiar with their imaging appearance because they are often discovered incidentally. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Aberrant internal carotid artery presenting as a retrotympanic vascular mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolay, Simon; De Foer, Bert; Bernaerts, Anja; Van Dinther, Joost; Parizel, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a young woman with an aberrant right internal carotid artery (ICA) presenting as a retrotympanic reddish mass. This variant of the ICA represents the collateral pathway that is formed as a result of an embryological agenesis of the cervical segment of the ICA. The embryonic inferior tympanic artery is recruited to bypass the absent carotid segment. This hypertrophied vessel may be seen otoscopically and wrongfully considered to be a vascular middle ear tumor. Informing the otorhinolaryngologist of this important vascular variant not only obviates biopsy but also helps in careful preoperative planning of eventual middle ear procedures

  14. Primary benign brachial plexus tumors: an experience of 115 operated cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ketan I

    2012-01-01

    Primary benign brachial plexus tumors are rare. They pose a great challenge to the neurosurgeon, because the majority of patients present with minimal or no neurological deficits. Radical to complete excision of the tumor with preservation of neurological function of the involved nerve is an ideal surgical treatment option with benign primary brachial plexus tumor surgery. We present a review article of our 10-year experience with primary benign brachial plexus tumors surgically treated at King Edward Memorial Hospital and P.D. Hinduja National Hospital from 2000 to 2009. The clinical presentations, radiological features, surgical strategies, and the eventual outcome following surgery are analyzed, discussed, and compared with available series in the world literature. Various difficulties and problems faced in the management of primary benign brachial plexus tumors are analyzed. Irrespective of the tumor size, the indications for surgical intervention are also discussed. The goal of our study was to optimize the treatment of patients with benign brachial plexus tumors with minimal neurological deficits. It is of paramount importance that brachial plexus tumors be managed by a peripheral nerve surgeon with expertise and experience in this field to minimize the neurological insult following surgery.

  15. Crafting socialist embryology: dialectics, aquaculture and the diverging discipline in Maoist China, 1950-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijing

    2017-11-07

    In the 1950s, embryology in socialist China underwent a series of changes that adjusted the disciplinary apparatus to suit socialism and the national goal of self-reliance. As the Communist state called on scientists to learn from the Soviets, embryologists' comprehensive view on heredity, which did not contradict Trofim Lysenko (1898-1976)'s doctrines, provided a space for them to advance their discipline. Leading scientists, often trained abroad in the tradition of experimental embryology, rode on the tides of Maoist ideology and repositioned their research. Some of their creative realignment of previous research questions, materials, and traditions to Marxist philosophy and agricultural objectives generated productive programs. In particular, Tong Dizhou (1902-1979) translated Engels's dialectics of nature into a research question about cytoplasmic inheritance. His continuing investigation on it led to the first goldfish "clone" through a nuclear transplantation experiment; Zhu Xi and his associates transferred a goldfish model in embryology into studies on improving carp aquaculture, leading to a rare success in the Great Leap Forward of 1958. These directions for embryology continued well into the 1960s. At a time when global embryology was diversifying and began to be molecularized, eventually forming "developmental biology," socialist embryology took shape in China with a different set of epistemic and practical commitments. The history of its development challenges and enriches our understanding of the concrete process of change in one discipline under Mao, showing ways in which scientists creatively adapted state-sanctioned ideologies and visions to do productive work outside the framework of molecular biology during the Cold War.

  16. CT scans of giant aneurysms in the vertebro-basilar artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Toyofumi; Ohsugi, Tamotsu; Motozaki, Takahiko; Sakaki, Saburo; Matsuoka, Kenzo

    1980-01-01

    Clinical course and neurological and neuroradiological findings of giant aneurysms in the vertebro-basilar artery observed in two of our cases were discussed. The first case was a 66-year-old man. He complained of sensory disturbance over his left face and unstable gait for 2 years before admission. Neurological examinations on admission showed hypesthesia in the territory of the second branch of the left fifth cranial nerve, nystagmus, and a left cerebellar sign. No mental deterioration or pyramidal signs were noticed. Retrograde left brachial artery angiograms revealed a giant aneurysm with inferior pointing measuring 30 x 10 mm in diameter arising from the left superior cerebellar artery. Precontrast CT scans demonstrated a round, large, high-density area, cantaining a relatively low-density area within it, in the medioventral portion of the left cerebellum; a part of this high-density area was markedly enhanced in the postcontrast CT scan. No ventricular dilatations were noticed by CT scans. Direct surgery was abandoned due to the size and location of the aneurysm. No neurologically abnormal finding developed after discharge. The second case was a 61-year-old man. He complained of unstable gait for 2 years before admission. Neurological examinations on admission showed bilateral pyramidal sings (more pronounced on the left) and nystagmus. There were no cranial nerve palsy and no sensory disturbances. Precontrast CT scans showed a large, oval, high-density area in the medioventral portion of the right cerebellum, extending to the upper brainstem; a part of this high-density area was markedly enhanced in the postcontrast CT scans. Retrograde left brachial artery angiograms revealed that the fusiform aneurysm in the left vertebral, the basilar artery, and the dilated basilar artery ran 30 mm from the clivus, with a dorsal convex arch. (J.P.N.)

  17. Irradiation-induced changes in the subclavian and axillary arteries after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, G.; Niederle, B.; Polterauer, P.; Waneck, R.

    1986-01-01

    Three case reports are reviewed to illustrate the possibility of treating irradiation-induced lesions of the subclavian-brachial vascular segment (aneurysm and segmental occlusions) 14, 20, and 26 years after radical mastectomy and subsequent radiotherapy. All patients had an extraanatomic vein bypass graft from the carotid to the brachial artery crossing the shoulder near the acromioclavicular joint, with the advantage that the tissue changed by radiotherapy or infected by ulceration could be circumvented. There were no postoperative complications, with adequate function of the grafts (follow-up, 17, 24, and 20 months, respectively)

  18. Combined resistance and endurance exercise training improves arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Park, Song Y; Seo, Dae Y; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Baek, Yeong H

    2011-09-01

    Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscle strength. Combined resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise training can decrease brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, in young men. We tested the hypothesis that combined circuit RE and EE training would improve baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four postmenopausal women (age 47-68 y) were randomly assigned to a "no exercise" control (n = 12) or to combined exercise training (EX; n = 12) group. The EX group performed concurrent circuit RE training followed by EE training at 60% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HR) 3 days per week. Brachial systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, baPWV, HR, and dynamic and isometric muscle strength were measured before and after the 12-week study. Mean ± SE baPWV (-0.8 ± 0.2 meters/s), systolic BP (-6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg), diastolic BP (-4.8 ± 1.7 mm Hg), HR (-4.0 ± 1.0 beats/min), and mean arterial pressure (-5.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) decreased (P hypertension and frailty in postmenopausal women.

  19. Effect of cocoa/chocolate ingestion on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and its relevance to cardiovascular health and disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin D

    2012-11-15

    Prospective studies indicate that high intake of dietary flavanols, such as those contained in cocoa/chocolate, are associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in humans. Numerous mechanisms may underlie these associations such as favorable effects of flavanols on blood pressure, platelet aggregation, thrombosis, inflammation, and the vascular endothelium. The brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) technique has emerged as a robust method to quantify endothelial function in humans. Collectively, the preponderance of evidence indicates that FMD is a powerful surrogate measure for firm cardiovascular endpoints, such as cardiovascular-related mortality, in humans. Thus, literally thousands of studies have utilized this technique to document group differences in FMD, as well as to assess the effects of various interventions on FMD. In regards to the latter, numerous studies indicate that both acute and chronic ingestion of cocoa/chocolate increases FMD in humans. Increases in FMD after cocoa/chocolate ingestion appear to be dose-dependent such that greater increases in FMD are observed after ingestion of larger quantities. The mechanisms underlying these responses are likely diverse, however most data suggest an effect of increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, positive vascular effects of cocoa/chocolate on the endothelium may underlie (i.e., be linked mechanistically to) reductions in cardiovascular risk in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anomalous patterns of formation and distribution of the brachial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    block Background: Structural variations in the patterns of formation and distribution of the brachial plexus have drawn attentions both in anatomy and anaesthesia. Method: An observational study. Results: The brachial plexus was carefully inspected in both the right and left arms in 90 Nigerian cadavers, comprising of 74 ...

  1. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with concomitant posterior communicating artery fenestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gregory M; Grandhi, Ramesh; Zwagerman, Nathan T; Agarwal, Nitin; Friedlander, Robert M

    2015-02-01

    Fenestrations of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) are extremely rare. Associated aneurysms have only been documented three times in the literature, and none associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a 52-year-old female who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured saccular aneurysm at the proximal limb of a fenestrated right PCoA. The patient was also found to have bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Surgical management included surmising the etiology of the subarachnoid hemorrhage with subsequent clipping of both the right PCoA and MCA aneurysm. The potential embryological mechanisms leading to a PCoA fenestration are discussed.

  2. Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base.

  3. A STUDY ON THE RISK FACTORS FOR OBSTETRICAL BRACHIAL PLEXUS PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    Farah ASHRAFZADEH; Hasan BOSKABADI; Mohammad FARAJI RAD; Parisa SEYYED HOSSEINEE

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveConsiderable medical and legal debates have surrounded the prognosis and outcome of obstetrical brachial plexus injuries and obstetricians are oftenconsidered responsible for the injury. In this study, we assessed the factors related to the outcome of brachial plexus palsy.Material & MethodsDuring 24 months, 21 neonates with obstetrical brachial plexus injuries were enrolled.Electrophysiology studies were done at the age of three weeks. They received physiotherapy and occupational th...

  4. The mandible and its foramen: anatomy, anthropology, embryology and resulting clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, M; Tomaszewska, I M; Lipska, W; Lis, G J; Tomaszewski, K A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen and also to highlight the most important clinical implications of the current studies regarding anaesthesia performed in the region of the mandible. An electronic journal search was undertaken to identify all the relevant studies published in English. The search included MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and years from 1950 to 2012. The subject search used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text based on the search strategy for MEDLINE using key words: 'mandible', 'mandibular', 'foramen', 'anatomy', 'embryology', 'anthropology', and 'mental'. The reference lists of all the relevant studies and existing reviews were screened for additional relevant publications. Basing on relevant manuscripts, this short review about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen was written.

  5. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Economou, Emmanuel; Andreadou, Ioanna; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that high flavonoid intake confers a benefit on cardiovascular outcome. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections are important determinants of cardiovascular performance and are predictors of cardiovascular risk. The effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (100 g) on endothelial function, aortic stiffness, wave reflections, and oxidant status were studied for 3 h in 17 young healthy volunteers according to a randomized, single-blind, sham procedure-controlled, cross-over protocol. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, aortic augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were used as measures of endothelial function, wave reflections, and aortic stiffness, respectively. Plasma oxidant status was evaluated with measurement of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Chocolate led to a significant increase in resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter throughout the study (maximum increase by 0.15 mm and 0.18 mm, respectively, P chocolate throughout the study (maximum absolute decrease 7.8%, P chocolate, indicating no alterations in plasma oxidant status. Our study shows for the first time that consumption of dark chocolate acutely decreases wave reflections, that it does not affect aortic stiffness, and that it may exert a beneficial effect on endothelial function in healthy adults. Chocolate consumption may exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; further studies are warranted to assess any long-term effects.

  6. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in patients with stable peripheral or carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Sonia S; Bosch, Jackie; Eikelboom, John W

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral artery disease have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Antiplatelet agents are widely used to reduce these complications. METHODS: This was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial for which patients were...... recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community practices from 33 countries across six continents. Eligible patients had a history of peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities (previous peripheral bypass surgery or angioplasty, limb or foot amputation, intermittent claudication with objective...... evidence of peripheral artery disease), of the carotid arteries (previous carotid artery revascularisation or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of at least 50%), or coronary artery disease with an ankle-brachial index of less than 0·90. After a 30-day run-in period, patients were randomly assigned (1...

  7. Novel Axillary Approach for Brachial Plexus in Robotic Surgery: A Cadaveric Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Tetik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus surgery using the da Vinci surgical robot is a new procedure. Although the supraclavicular approach is a well known described and used procedure for robotic surgery, axillary approach was unknown for brachial plexus surgery. A cadaveric study was planned to evaluate the robotic axillary approach for brachial plexus surgery. Our results showed that robotic surgery is a very useful method and should be used routinely for brachial plexus surgery and particularly for thoracic outlet syndrome. However, we emphasize that new instruments should be designed and further studies are needed to evaluate in vivo results.

  8. Child neurology: Brachial plexus birth injury: what every neurologist needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Christina B; Kratz, Johannes R; Jelin, Angie C; Gelfand, Amy A

    2011-08-16

    While most often transient, brachial plexus birth injury can cause permanent neurologic injury. The major risk factors for brachial plexus birth injury are fetal macrosomia and shoulder dystocia. The degree of injury to the brachial plexus should be determined in the neonatal nursery, as those infants with the most severe injury--root avulsion--should be referred early for surgical evaluation so that microsurgical repair of the plexus can occur by 3 months of life. Microsurgical repair options include nerve grafts and nerve transfers. All children with brachial plexus birth injury require ongoing physical and occupational therapy and close follow-up to monitor progress.

  9. Tolerance of the Brachial Plexus to High-Dose Reirradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: achen5@kumc.edu; Yoshizaki, Taeko; Velez, Maria A.; Mikaeilian, Argin G.; Hsu, Sophia; Cao, Minsong

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To study the tolerance of the brachial plexus to high doses of radiation exceeding historically accepted limits by analyzing human subjects treated with reirradiation for recurrent tumors of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Data from 43 patients who were confirmed to have received overlapping dose to the brachial plexus after review of radiation treatment plans from the initial and reirradiation courses were used to model the tolerance of this normal tissue structure. A standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy believed to be related to brachial plexus injury was utilized to screen for toxicity. Cumulative dose was calculated by fusing the initial dose distributions onto the reirradiation plan, thereby creating a composite plan via deformable image registration. The median elapsed time from the initial course of radiation therapy to reirradiation was 24 months (range, 3-144 months). Results: The dominant complaints among patients with symptoms were ipsilateral pain (54%), numbness/tingling (31%), and motor weakness and/or difficulty with manual dexterity (15%). The cumulative maximum dose (Dmax) received by the brachial plexus ranged from 60.5 Gy to 150.1 Gy (median, 95.0 Gy). The cumulative mean (Dmean) dose ranged from 20.2 Gy to 111.5 Gy (median, 63.8 Gy). The 1-year freedom from brachial plexus–related neuropathy was 67% and 86% for subjects with a cumulative Dmax greater than and less than 95.0 Gy, respectively (P=.05). The 1-year complication-free rate was 66% and 87%, for those reirradiated within and after 2 years from the initial course, respectively (P=.06). Conclusion: The development of brachial plexus–related symptoms was less than expected owing to repair kinetics and to the relatively short survival of the subject population. Time-dose factors were demonstrated to be predictive of complications.

  10. Bipartite Anterior Extraperitoneal Teratoma: Evidence for the Embryological Origins of Teratomas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. B. Keene

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are thought to arise from totipotent primordial germ cells (PGCs Dehner (1983 which may miss their target destination Moore and Persaud (1984. Teratomas can occur anywhere from the brain to the coccygeal area but are usually in the midline close to the embryological position of the gonadal ridges Bale (1984, Nguyen and Laberge (2000. We report a case of a bipartite anterior extraperitoneal teratoma. This is an unusual position for a teratoma, but one which may support the “missed target” theory of embryology.

  11. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, S J; Keaney , J F; Holbrook, M; Gokce, N; Swerdloff, P L; Frei, B; Vita, J A

    2001-07-10

    Epidemiological studies suggest that tea consumption decreases cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms of benefit remain undefined. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with coronary artery disease and increased oxidative stress. Some antioxidants have been shown to reverse endothelial dysfunction, and tea contains antioxidant flavonoids. Methods and Results-- To test the hypothesis that tea consumption will reverse endothelial dysfunction, we randomized 66 patients with proven coronary artery disease to consume black tea and water in a crossover design. Short-term effects were examined 2 hours after consumption of 450 mL tea or water. Long-term effects were examined after consumption of 900 mL tea or water daily for 4 weeks. Vasomotor function of the brachial artery was examined at baseline and after each intervention with vascular ultrasound. Fifty patients completed the protocol and had technically suitable ultrasound measurements. Both short- and long-term tea consumption improved endothelium- dependent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, whereas consumption of water had no effect (Peffect on endothelium-independent nitroglycerin-induced dilation. An equivalent oral dose of caffeine (200 mg) had no short-term effect on flow-mediated dilation. Plasma flavonoids increased after short- and long-term tea consumption. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. This finding may partly explain the association between tea intake and decreased cardiovascular disease events.

  12. Evaluation of anatomy and variations of superficial palmar arch and upper extremity arteries with CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplanoglu, Hatice; Beton, Osman

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the abnormalities and variations of the arterial system of upper extremities and superficial palmar arch with computed tomography angiography and to guide the clinician during this procedure. A total of 156 upper extremities of 78 cases were retrospectively analyzed using computed tomography angiography. The study was approved by the local ethics committee of the hospital. From the analysis of the computed tomography angiography images, the following information was recorded; the diameters and abnormalities of radial, ulnar and brachial arteries in both upper extremities, the presence of atherosclerotic changes or stenosis in these arteries, whether the superficial palmar arch was complete or incomplete, and arterial dominance. Also, the computed tomography angiography classification of superficial palmar arch distribution and anatomic configuration was performed. The mean baseline diameters of the radial, ulnar and brachial arteries of the cases were; 2.8 ± 0.6, 2.5 ± 0.7, and 4.7 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. A complete superficial palmar arch was observed in 69.2 % of the right hands and 70.5 % of the left hands. For the superficial palmar arches on the right side, the radial artery was dominant in two and the ulnar artery was dominant in 47 with the remaining showing codominance. On the left side, the radial artery was dominant in one hand, with the ulnar artery being dominant in 49 cases, and in 28 cases, there was codominance. In the superficial palmar arch classification, four of the arches (A-D) were defined as complete and the remaining three (E-G) as incomplete. The current study clarified different variations in palmar circulation and forearm arteries to aid the surgeon during trans-radial or trans-ulnar catheterization, hemodialysis, or coronary artery bypass grafting.

  13. Obesity, arterial function and arterial structure – a systematic review and meta‐analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne, J. Y. A.; Cai, T. Y.; Celermajer, D. S.; Caterson, I. D.; Gill, T.; Lee, C. M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms by which obesity affects cardiovascular risk have not been fully elucidated. This paper reports a comprehensive systematic review and meta‐analysis on obesity and two key aspects of vascular health using gold‐standard non‐invasive measures – arterial endothelial function (brachial flow‐mediated dilatation) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima‐media thickness). Methods Electronic searches for ‘Obesity and flow‐mediated dilatation’ and ‘Obesity and intima‐media thickness’ were performed using Ovid Medline and Embase databases. A meta‐analysis was undertaken for brachial flow‐mediated dilatation and carotid intima‐media thickness to obtain pooled estimates for adults with obesity and those with healthy weight. Results Of the 5,810 articles retrieved, 19 studies on flow‐mediated dilatation and 19 studies on intima‐media thickness were included. Meta‐analysis demonstrated that obesity was associated with lower flow‐mediated dilatation (−1.92 % [95% CI −2.92, −0.92], P = 0.0002) and greater carotid intima‐media thickness (0.07 mm [95% CI 0.05, 0.08], P Obesity is associated with poorer arterial endothelial function and increased subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with these aspects of vascular health at least partially contributing to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in adults with obesity. These estimated effect sizes will enable vascular health benefits in response to weight loss treatment to be put in greater perspective, both in the research setting and potentially also clinical practice. PMID:28702212

  14. A combined third and fourth branchial arch anomaly: clinical and embryological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrzad, H; Georgalas, C; Huins, C; Tolley, N S

    2007-08-01

    Embryological abnormalities of the branchial apparatus present an interesting diagnostic and surgical challenge. Thymic cysts are a rare form of branchial apparatus anomaly, resulting from abnormal development of the third pharyngeal pouch. We present two cases of a thymic cyst coexisting with a non recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (NRILN), two anomalies that to our knowledge have not been associated previously. A possible embryological explication for this double abnormality is discussed, while the clinical implications of this association are presented.

  15. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury:pathological and biomechanical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yang; Min Luo; Peng Li; Hai Jin

    2014-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Imme-diately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were signiifcantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treat-ment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies.

  16. Rhabdomyolysis resulting in concurrent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Susan C.; Geannette, Christian; Sneag, Darryl B. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Wolfe, Scott W. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Hand and Upper Extremity, Department of Orthopedics, New York, NY (United States); Feinberg, Joseph H. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This case report describes a 29-year-old male who presented with immediate onset of Horner's syndrome and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy after sleeping with his arm dangling outside a car window for 8 h. Outside workup and imaging revealed rhabdomyolysis of the left neck musculature. Subsequent electrodiagnostic testing and high-resolution brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging at the authors' institution attributed the Horner's syndrome and concurrent brachial plexopathy to rhabdomyolysis of the longus colli and scalene musculature, which had compressed - and consequently scar tethered - the cervical sympathetic trunk and brachial plexus. This case of co-existent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy demonstrates the role of high-resolution brachial plexus MRI in diagnosing plexopathy and the importance of being familiar with plexus and paravertebral muscle anatomy. (orig.)

  17. Topographical anatomy of superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, and arteries at venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuni, Yuko; Chiba, Shoji; Tonosaki, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated correlations among the superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, arteries, and venous valves in 128 cadaveric arms in order to choose safe venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa. The running patterns of the superficial veins were classified into four types (I-IV) and two subtypes (a and b). In types I and II, the median cubital vein (MCV) was connected obliquely between the cephalic and basilic veins in an N-shape, while the median antebrachial vein (MAV) opened into the MCV in type I and into the basilic vein in type II. In type III, the MCV did not exist. In type IV, additional superficial veins above the cephalic and basilic veins were developed around the cubital fossa. In types Ib-IVb, the accessory cephalic vein was developed under the same conditions as seen in types Ia-IVa, respectively. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm descended deeply along the cephalic vein in 124 cases (97 %), while the medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm descended superficially along the basilic vein in 94 (73 %). A superficial brachial artery was found in 27 cases (21 %) and passed deeply under the ulnar side of the MCV. A median superficial antebrachial artery was found in 1 case (1 %), which passed deeply under the ulnar side of the MCV and ran along the MAV. Venous valves were found at 239 points in 28 cases with superficial veins, with a single valve seen at 79 points (33 %) and double valves at 160 points (67 %). At the time of intravenous injection, caution is needed regarding the locations of cutaneous nerves, brachial and superficial brachial arteries, and venous valves. The area ranging from the middle segment of the MCV to the confluence between the MCV and cephalic vein appears to be a relatively safe venipuncture site.

  18. Assessing the perceived quality of brachial artery Flow Mediated Dilation studies for inclusion in meta-analyses and systematic reviews: Description of data employed in the development of a scoring ;tool based on currently accepted guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Greyling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery Flow Mediated Dilation (FMD is widely used as a non-invasive measure of endothelial function. Adherence to expert consensus guidelines on FMD measurement has been found to be of vital importance to obtain reproducible data. This article lists the literature data which was considered in the development of a tool to aid in the objective judgement of the extent to which published studies adhered to expert guidelines for FMD measurement. Application of this tool in a systematic review of FMD studies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.03.011 (Greyling et al., 2016 [1] indicated that adherence to expert consensus guidelines is strongly correlated to the reproducibility of FMD data. Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Atherosclerosis, Endothelial function, Reproducibility, Methodology

  19. Embryology of Ageratum conyzoides L. and A. fastigiatum R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Franca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum has a complex circumscription, and recent studies have indicated its polyphyletism. The genus has been placed in the tribe Eupatorieae whose embryology is not fully known. Embryological data are conservative and important indicators of phylogenetic relationships and can improve family relationships. This study presents, for the first time in Eupatorieae, embryological data for Ageratum conyzoides and A. fastigiatum. Both species have common features of the family such as a unitegmic anatropous ovule, basal placentation, secretory tapetum, Polygonum megagametophyte, and Asterad embryogenesis. The data obtained reinforce the heterogeneity of the family embryology and show, for the first time, the anther wall development of the monocotyledonous type for Asteraceae. The species studied show also differences between themselves. A. conyzoides has bisporangiated and introrse anthers, conspicuous pappus, and cypselae with trichomes on the ribs, whereas A. fastigiatum has tetrasporangiate and latrorse anthers, pappus absent at maturity, and glabrous cypselae. The data presented support recent phylogenetic molecular studies, suggesting the replacement of A. fastigiatum to another genus along with Gyptidinae.

  20. The natural history and management of brachial plexus birth palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buterbaugh, Kristin L; Shah, Apurva S

    2016-12-01

    Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is an upper extremity paralysis that occurs due to traction injury of the brachial plexus during childbirth. Approximately 20 % of children with brachial plexus birth palsy will have residual neurologic deficits. These permanent and significant impacts on upper limb function continue to spur interest in optimizing the management of a problem with a highly variable natural history. BPBP is generally diagnosed on clinical examination and does not typically require cross-sectional imaging. Physical examination is also the best modality to determine candidates for microsurgical reconstruction of the brachial plexus. The key finding on physical examination that determines need for microsurgery is recovery of antigravity elbow flexion by 3-6 months of age. When indicated, both microsurgery and secondary shoulder and elbow procedures are effective and can substantially improve functional outcomes. These procedures include nerve transfers and nerve grafting in infants and secondary procedures in children, such as botulinum toxin injection, shoulder tendon transfers, and humeral derotational osteotomy.

  1. Imaging of vascular dynamics within the foot using dynamic diffuse optical tomography to diagnose peripheral arterial disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. A.; Kim, H. K.; Hoi, J. W.; Kim, I.; Dayal, R.; Shrikande, G.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is the narrowing of the functional area of the artery generally due to atherosclerosis. It affects between 8-12 million people in the United States and if untreated this can lead to ulceration, gangrene and ultimately amputation. The current diagnostic method for PAD is the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The ABI is a ratio of the patient's systolic blood pressure in the foot to that of the brachial artery in the arm, a ratio below 0.9 is indicative of affected vasculature. However, this method is ineffective in patients with calcified arteries (diabetic and end-stage renal failure patients), which falsely elevates the ABI recording resulting in a false negative reading. In this paper we present our results in a pilot study to deduce optical tomography's ability to detect poor blood perfusion in the foot. We performed an IRB approved 30 patient study, where we imaged the feet of the enrolled patients during a five stage dynamic imaging sequence. The patients were split up into three groups: 10 healthy subjects, 10 PAD patients and 10 PAD patients with diabetes and they were imaged while applying a pressure cuff to their thigh. Differences in the magnitude of blood pooling in the foot and rate at which the blood pools in the foot are all indicative of arterial disease.

  2. HIGH ORIGIN OF SUPERFICIAL ULNAR ARTERY- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Jayakumaran Nair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND High origin and superficially placed ulnar artery is a rare anatomical variant that usually arises either in the axilla or arm and runs a superficial course in the forearm, enters the hand and participates in the formation of superficial palmar arch. During routine dissection of cadavers in our department, we observed a unilateral case of high origin and superficial ulnar artery in a human male cadaver. It originated from the brachial artery in the lower third of arm 4 cm above its bifurcation. From its origin, it passed downwards along the medial aspect of forearm, superficial to the flexors, entered hand superficial to the flexor retinaculum and formed superficial palmar arch. The knowledge of existence of a superficial ulnar artery is important during vascular and reconstructive surgery and also in evaluation of angiographic images. Superficial position makes it more vulnerable to trauma and more accessible to cannulation.

  3. High resolution neurography of the brachial plexus by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, C; Rollán, C; Michelin, G; Nogués, M

    2016-01-01

    The study of the structures that make up the brachial plexus has benefited particularly from the high resolution images provided by 3T magnetic resonance scanners. The brachial plexus can have mononeuropathies or polyneuropathies. The mononeuropathies include traumatic injuries and trapping, such as occurs in thoracic outlet syndrome due to cervical ribs, prominent transverse apophyses, or tumors. The polyneuropathies include inflammatory processes, in particular chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, granulomatous diseases, and radiation neuropathy. Vascular processes affecting the brachial plexus include diabetic polyneuropathy and the vasculitides. This article reviews the anatomy of the brachial plexus and describes the technique for magnetic resonance neurography and the most common pathologic conditions that can affect the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. INSTRUMENTAL AND DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OF HEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS AND ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION CORRECTION IN PREGNANTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Heryak

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. It was found that the brachial artery ultrasound measuring and occlusive plethysmography procedure by Dietz is an early and safe method of endothelial dysfunction diagnostic in pregnants with hypertension. Doppler ultrasound of blood flow in uterine, umbilical arteries, and middle cerebral arteries of the fetus allows timely diagnosis of the side effect of antihypertensive drugs on the fetus. The therapy of choice for pregnants with Stage II Arterial Hypertension should be based on methyldopa and calcium channel antagonists or selective beta-blockers combination. Highly selective beta-blockers with vasodilative effect (nebivolol hydrochloride and L-arginine (Tivortin allow to prevent perinatal adverse effects of antihypertensive therapy, to correct hemodynamic disorders and endothelial dysfunction in pregnants with arterial hypertension. KEY WORDS: arterial hypertension, uterine-placental hemodynamics, endothelial dysfunction

  5. Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Arya; Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan; McBurney, Michelle L.; Erasmus, Jeremy; Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James; Dong, Lei; Welsh, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56–87.5 Gy; 1.5–2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade ≥2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4–37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512–67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm 3 of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966–24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267–17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future

  6. Genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W-M; Zhang, H-F; Zhu, Z-Y; Zhou, Y-L; Liang, N-X; Xu, D-J; Zhou, F; Sheng, Y-H; Yang, R; Gong, L; Yin, Z-J; Chen, F-K; Cao, K-J; Li, X-L

    2013-04-01

    Elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and increased arterial stiffness are associated with cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have reported an association between levels of circulating triglycerides and arterial stiffness. We used Mendelian randomization to test whether this association is causal. We investigated the association between circulating triglyceride levels, the apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA5) -1131T>C single nucleotide polymorphism and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) by examining data from 4421 subjects aged 18-74 years who were recruited from the Chinese population. baPWV was significantly associated with the levels of circulating triglycerides after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist-to-hip ratio, antihypertensive treatment and diabetes mellitus status. The -1131C allele was associated with a 5% (95% confidence interval 3-8%) increase in circulating triglycerides (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes mellitus and antihypertensive treatment). Instrumental variable analysis showed that genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides were not associated with increased baPWV. These results do not support the hypothesis that levels of circulating triglycerides have a causal role in the development of arterial stiffness.

  7. Brachial Plexus Injury from CT-Guided RF Ablation Under General Anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, Sridhar; Sonnenberg, Eric van; Silverman, Stuart G.; Tuncali, Kemal; Flanagan, Hugh L.; Whang, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury in a patient under general anesthesia (GA) is not uncommon, despite careful positioning and, particularly, awareness of the possibility. The mechanism of injury is stretching and compression of the brachial plexus over a prolonged period. Positioning the patient within the computed tomography (CT) gantry for abdominal or chest procedures can simulate a surgical procedure, particularly when GA is used. The potential for brachial plexus injury is increased if the case is prolonged and the patient's arms are raised above the head to avoid CT image degradation from streak artifacts. We report a case of profound brachial plexus palsy following a CT-guided radiofrequency ablation procedure under GA. Fortunately, the patient recovered completely. We emphasize the mechanism of injury and detail measures to combat this problem, such that radiologists are aware of this potentially serious complication

  8. Selective intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) in cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Akira; Satoh, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Masato

    1987-01-01

    Selective right transbrachial intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (transbrachial selective IADSA) was successfully performed for 24 of 26 patients with known or suspected cerebrovascular disease, four of whom were outpatients. Catheterization failed in two elderly hypertensive men because of tortuosity of their brachial arteries, and in one woman whose aberrant right subclavian artery (SCA) prevented bilateral common carotid arterial (CCA) catheterizations. No complications occurred. One-hundred and ten ''excellent'' images were obtained by means of 118 injections for the 24 patients. Iopamidol, the contrast medium, was diluted to 50 % concentration with saline, then warmed to 37 deg C. Nearly all the injections of both CCAs and right vertebral arteries (VAs) were completed using 10 ml injections and a 5 ml/sec flow rate. The mean examination time for the three-vessel study was 29.4 minutes. Transbrachial selective IADSA thus proved to be a safe, useful, and relatively easy means of diagnosing cerebrovascular disease. (author)

  9. Saviour Siblings and the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Acts 1990 and 2008 

    OpenAIRE

    Thorp, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the case of R (on the Application of Quintavalle) v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority1 dramatically brought into light the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 as outdated and inconsistent. Authorisations for saviour sibling treatment appeared futile as cases were decided illogically, leaving some patients having to seek treatment elsewhere. The procedure of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis alongside tissue typing embryos has been a huge breakthrough in treating c...

  10. Effects of early nerve repair on experimental brachial plexus injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Gráinne; McGrath, Aleksandra M; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikov, Lev N

    2018-03-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus injury refers to injury observed at the time of delivery, which may lead to major functional impairment in the upper limb. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of early nerve repair following complete brachial plexus injury in neonatal rats was examined. Brachial plexus injury induced 90% loss of spinal motoneurons and 70% decrease in biceps muscle weight at 28 days after injury. Retrograde degeneration in spinal cord was associated with decreased density of dendritic branches and presynaptic boutons and increased density of astrocytes and macrophages/microglial cells. Early repair of the injured brachial plexus significantly delayed retrograde degeneration of spinal motoneurons and reduced the degree of macrophage/microglial reaction but had no effect on muscle atrophy. The results demonstrate that early nerve repair of neonatal brachial plexus injury could promote survival of injured motoneurons and attenuate neuroinflammation in spinal cord.

  11. Nasopharyngeal bursitis: from embryology to clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE El-Shazly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AE El-Shazly, S Barriat, PP LefebvreDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Liege University Hospital, Liege, BelgiumAbstract: Nasopharyngeal bursitis is a relatively rare syndrome characterized by a collection of symptoms that multidisciplinary specialists should be aware of. Here we present an audit of cases presenting to a rhinology clinic over a two-year period, as well as an overview of the relevant embryology and different clinical presentations of nasopharyngeal bursitis. For 2008–2009, six patients were diagnosed to have nasopharyngeal bursitis, including four males and two females, of mean age 54 years. Two distinct pathologic types were observed, comprising three patients with classical Tornwaldt’s cyst and three with crust-type bursitis. This audit highlights the importance of recognition of the crust-type of nasopharyngeal bursitis and its anatomic and clinical features. A combined endonasal and transoral endoscopic approach is a minimally invasive procedure and an effective method of treating both types of the disease. Our findings are discussed in relation to the embryology of the disorder, with a clinical emphasis on crust-type nasopharyngeal bursitis.Keywords: nasopharyngeal bursitis, crust type, Tornwaldt’s cyst, endoscopic disruption

  12. Late unıon of the renal veıns wıth the ınterposed left renal artery

    OpenAIRE

    Çavdar, Safiye; Şehirli, Ümit; Malcic-Gürbüz, Jasna; Gümüşçü, Burak; Akalın, Aytül

    2003-01-01

    The complicated embryological development of the renal vein shows extensive variability in its anatomy. In this study, the rare bilateral late union of the renal veins with the interposed renal artery was observed during dissection for educational purposes. Its significance in different clinical conditions has been discussed.

  13. MDCT angiography of the major congenital anomalies of the extracranial arteries: pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saade, Charbel; Bourne, Roger; Brennan, Patrick C.; Wilkinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomographic angiography is becoming the modality of choice for evaluation of the supra-aortic circulation in acute stroke imaging. Variations of the supra-aortic circulation, in particular of the extracranial arteries, are common. This article aims to provide a pictorial description of the variant anatomy of the aortic arch and extracranial arteries. Knowledge of the presence and clinical relevance of normal variants such as anomalies, duplications and embryological persistence plays a clinically relevant role in the diagnosis and management of neurological and surgical conditions, particularly as we enter an era of increasing extracranial intervention.

  14. Salvage of bilateral renal artery occlusion after endovascular aneurysm repair with open splenorenal bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Jessula, MDCM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report renal salvage maneuvers after accidental bilateral renal artery coverage during endovascular aneurysm repair of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. A 79-year-old man with an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated with endovascular aneurysm repair. Completion angiography demonstrated coverage of the renal arteries. Several revascularization techniques were attempted, including endograft repositioning and endovascular stenting through the femoral and brachial approach. The patient eventually underwent open splenorenal bypass with a Y Gore-Tex graft (W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz. After 3 months, computed tomography showed no evidence of endoleak and patent renal arteries. Renal function was well maintained, and the patient did not require dialysis.

  15. Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy Treatment of Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    Full Text Available : Objective/Background: This report presents a superior mesenteric artery (SMA embolism managed by percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT. Methods: A 61 year old woman diagnosed with SMA embolism was admitted. Emboli were found in the middle and distal segments of the SMA on abdominal computed tomography angiography. Under local anaesthesia, a 6 F Rotarex system was used to remove the emboli via left brachial artery access. Emboli were successfully removed and patency was restored to the SMA and its branches. Results: Post-operatively, the patient's symptoms were significantly relieved. No post-operative complications were observed and no discomfort was documented during follow-up. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of SMA embolism using PMT is a feasible and alternative option. Keywords: Acute mesenteric ischaemia, Embolism, Endovascular treatment, Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy, Superior mesenteric artery

  16. MCA Vmean and the arterial lactate-to-pyruvate ratio correlate during rhythmic handgrip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Plomgaard, Peter; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    /P ratio at two plasma lactate levels. MCA Vmean was determined by ultrasound Doppler sonography at rest, during 10 min of rhythmic handgrip exercise at approximately 65% of maximal voluntary contraction force, and during 20 min of recovery in seven healthy male volunteers during control...... and a approximately 15 mmol/l hyperglycemic clamp. Cerebral arteriovenous differences for metabolites were obtained by brachial artery and retrograde jugular venous catheterization. Control resting arterial lactate was 0.78 +/- 0.09 mmol/l (mean +/- SE) and pyruvate 55.7 +/- 12.0 micromol/l (L/P ratio 16.4 +/- 1......Regulation of cerebral blood flow during physiological activation including exercise remains unknown but may be related to the arterial lactate-to-pyruvate (L/P) ratio. We evaluated whether an exercise-induced increase in middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean) relates to the arterial L...

  17. COMPLICATIONS DURING A SUPRACLAVICULAR ANESTHESIA OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS WITH INTERSCALENE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minko Minkov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A hemidiaphragmatic paresis is one of the most frequently observed complications following the supraclavicular anesthesia of the brachial plexus with interscalene approach. In patients, crucially dependant on adequate diaphragmatic function, hemidiaphragmatic paresis may provoke acute respiratory disturbances. The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical features the brachial plexus with regard of the anesthesia of specific areas of the shoulder and the upper limb.A dissection of the cervical and the brachial plexuses was done in human cadavers. We established that in some cases the phrenic nerve and the accessory phrenic nerve arise from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus. This type of anatomical arrangement significantly increases the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paresis during supraclavicular anesthesia with interscalene approach because the anesthetic tends to invade the supraclavicular space.

  18. Long-term results of obstetric brachial plexus surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kirjavainen , Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Background: Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) most often occurs as a result of foetal-maternal disproportion. The C5 and C6 nerve roots of the brachial plexus are most frequently affected. In contrast, roots from the C7 to Th1 that result in total injury together with C5 and C6 injury, are affected in fewer than half of the patients. BPBP was first described by Smellie in 1764. Erb published his classical description of the injury in 1874 and his name became linked with the paralysis that is...

  19. Accuracy of Physical Examination, Ankle-Brachial Index, and Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Arterial Injury in Patients With Penetrating Extremity Trauma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deSouza, Ian S; Benabbas, Roshanak; McKee, Sean; Zangbar, Bardiya; Jain, Ashika; Paladino, Lorenzo; Boudourakis, Leon; Sinert, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Penetrating Extremity Trauma (PET) may result in arterial injury, a rare but limb- and life-threatening surgical emergency. Timely, accurate diagnosis is essential for potential intervention in order to prevent significant morbidity. Using a systematic review/meta-analytic approach, we determined the utility of physical examination, Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), and Ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of arterial injury in emergency department (ED) patients who have sustained PET. We applied a test-treatment threshold model to determine which evaluations may obviate CT Angiography (CTA). We searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus from inception to November 2016 for studies of ED patients with PET. We included studies on adult and pediatric subjects. We defined the reference standard to include CTA, catheter angiography, or surgical exploration. When low-risk patients did not undergo the reference standard, trials must have specified that patients were observed for at least 24 hours. We used the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) to evaluate bias and applicability of the included studies. We calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) of physical examination ("hard signs" of vascular injury), US, and ABI. Using established CTA test characteristics (sensitivity = 96.2%, specificity = 99.2%) and applying the Pauker-Kassirer method, we developed a test-treatment threshold model (testing threshold = 0.14%, treatment threshold = 72.9%). We included eight studies (n = 2,161, arterial injury prevalence = 15.5%). Studies had variable quality with most at high risk for partial and double verification bias. Some studies investigated multiple index tests: physical examination (hard signs) in three studies (n = 1,170), ABI in five studies (n = 1,040), and US in four studies (n = 173). Due to high heterogeneity (I 2  > 75%) of the results, we could not calculate LR+ or LR- for hard signs or LR+ for ABI. The weighted

  20. Outcome of patients with reduced ankle brachial index undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyborg, Matthias; Abdi-Tabari, Zila; Hoffmeier, Andreas; Engelbertz, Christiane; Lüders, Florian; Freisinger, Eva; Malyar, Nasser M; Martens, Sven; Reinecke, Holger

    2016-05-01

    In open heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass, perfusion of the lower extremities is markedly reduced which may induce critical ischaemia in patients with pre-existing peripheral artery disease. Whether these patients have an increased risk for amputation and should better undergo peripheral revascularization prior to surgery remains unclear. From 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2010, 785 consecutive patients undergoing open heart surgery were retrospectively included. In 443 of these patients, preoperative ankle brachial index (ABI) measurements were available. The cohort was divided into four groups: (i) ABI heart surgery showed more wound-healing disturbances, and higher long-term mortality compared with those with normal ABIs. However, no perioperative ischaemia requiring amputation occurred. Thus, reduced ABIs were not associated with increased peripheral risks in open heart surgery but ABI may be helpful in selecting the site for saphenectomy to potentially avoid delayed healing of related wounds in legs with severely impaired arterial perfusion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  1. Carcinomatous versus radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, F.H.; Walsh, J.W.; Cady, B.; Salzman, F.A.; Oberfield, R.A.; Pazianos, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed of 18 women in whom ipsilateral brachial plexus neuropathy developed after treatment for carcinoma of the breast. In the absence of metastatic tumor elsewhere, the only distinguishing feature between carcinomatous neuropathy and radiation-induced neuropathy was the symptom-free interval after mastectomy and radiation therapy. Women with an interval of less than a year have radiation-induced neuropathy. Brachial plexus exploration in difficult diagnostic situations will permit early treatment and avoid debilitating loss of function. Brachial plexus exploration for biopsy is safe and free of complications if performed carefully. Treatment of carcinomatous neuropathy is most likely to succeed if the tumor is hormonally sensitive, but radiotherapy may also be effective. Treatment of radiation-induced neuropathy remains largely ineffective

  2. Prognostic value of thumb pain sensation in birth brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6. The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

  3. Reversible brachial plexopathy following primary radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salner, A.L.; Botnick, L.E.; Herzog, A.G.; Goldstein, M.A.; Harris, J.R.; Levene, M.B.; Hellman, S.

    1981-01-01

    Reversible brachial plexopathy has occurred in very low incidence in patients with breast carcinoma treated definitively with radiation therapy. Of 565 patients treated between January 1968 and December 1979 with moderate doses of supervoltage radiation therapy (average axillary dose of 5000 rad in 5 weeks), eight patients (1.4%) developed the characteristic symptoms at a median time of 4.5 months after radiation therapy. This syndrome consists of paresthesias in all patients, with weakness and pain less commonly seen. The symptom complex differs from other previously described brachial plexus syndromes, including paralytic brachial neuritis, radiation-induced injury, and carcinoma. A possible relationship to adjuvant chemotherapy exists, though the etiology is not well-understood. The cases described demonstrate temporal clustering. Resolution is always seen

  4. Ultrasound assessment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery in elite volleyball players: Aneurysm prevalence, anatomy, branching pattern and vessel characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Planken, R. Nils

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Methods Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ?150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. R...

  5. [Right-side aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and Kommerell's diverticulum. A cause of vascular ring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Espinosa, Tania; Erdmenger-Orellana, Julio; Becerra-Becerra, Rosario; Balderrabano-Saucedo, Norma; Segura-Standford, Begoña

    The right-side aortic arch may be associated with aberrant left subclavian artery, in some cases this artery originates from an aneurismal dilation of the aorta called Kommerell's diverticulum. A report is presented on 2 cases of vascular ring formed by a right-side aortic arch, anomalous left subclavian artery, Kommerell's diverticulum and left patent ductus arteriosus. A review the literature was also performed as regards the embryological development and the imaging methods used to help in the diagnosis of this rare vascular anomaly. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. [The ankle brachial index in type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumerová, B; Rosolová, H; Ferda, J; Sifalda, P; Sípová, I; Sefrna, F

    2011-03-01

    The ankle brachial index (ABI), i.e. the ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) on the ankle and on the arm, is diagnostic for peripheral occlusive artery disease and a marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk. The association between the low ABI 101) or according to the global CV Risk Score > or = 5% (SCORE). Wilcoxon's unpaired test, chi2 test, multiple logistic regression. The ABI homocystein (17.2 +/- 7.1 micromol/L) (p or = 0.9 (age 66 +/- 9 years, CAC 234 +/- 458, total cholesterol 5.0 +/- 0.9, total homocystein 14.3 +/- 78). Many CV risk factors correlated positively with the low ABI homocystein and CAC (p < 0.05). Low ABI < 0.9 predicted ischemic stroke in subjects with T2DM and manifest CV diseases in the further 3 years. There was no correlation between the ABI and the ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. Low ABI < 0.9 was in a strong association with the CV risk. The ABI measurement is a simple, noninvasive, time-nonconsuming and inexpensive method for subclinical atherosclerosis detection; the ABI can supply standard methods for the CV risk prediction.

  7. Anatomy of the Transverse Mesocolon Based on Embryology for Laparoscopic Complete Mesocolic Excision of Right-Sided Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Sumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Kanaji, Shingo; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2017-11-01

    To treat colon cancer via complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation (CVL), dissection along the embryologic fusion planes is required. However, this surgery is difficult, especially for right-sided colon cancer, because the anatomy and embryology of the transverse mesocolon are not familiar to gastrointestinal surgeons. In this video article, the anatomic details of the transverse mesocolon based on embryology are illustrated with a focus on the venous anatomy. Dissection of the transverse mesocolon along the embryologic planes using a cranial approach during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy also is presented. During the development of the primitive gastrointestinal tract, the transverse mesocolon locates between the terminal portion of the midgut and the beginning of the hindgut. After 270° counterclockwise rotation of the primary intestinal loop, the transverse mesocolon fuses with the frontal surface of the duodenum and pancreas. Simultaneously, the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach in front of the transverse colon and fuses with the transverse mesocolon. Moreover, the drainage vein of the right colon sometimes joins the right gastroepiploic vein, and the gastrocolic trunk is formed. Anatomic complexity of the transverse mesocolon is caused by rotation and fusion of the gastrointestinal tract during embryologic development. Knowledge concerning these embryologic peculiarities of the transverse mesocolon should be useful in the performance of laparoscopic CME with CVL for right-sided colon cancer.

  8. The prevalence and predictors of an abnormal ankle-brachial index in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Premranjan P; Abbott, J Dawn; Lombardero, Manuel S; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Woodhead, Gail; Venkitachalam, Lakshmi; Tsapatsaris, Nicholas P; Piemonte, Thomas C; Lago, Rodrigo M; Rutter, Martin K; Nesto, Richard W

    2011-02-01

    To examine ankle-brachial index (ABI) abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). An ABI was obtained in 2,240 patients in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial. ABIs were classified as: normal, 0.91-1.3; low, ≤ 0.9; high, >1.3; or noncompressible artery (NC). Baseline characteristics were examined according to ABI and by multivariate analysis. RESULTS ABI was normal in 66%, low in 19%, and high in 8% of patients, and 6% of patients had NC. Of the low ABI patients, 68% were asymptomatic. Using normal ABI as referent, low ABI was independently associated with smoking, female sex, black race, hypertension, age, C-reactive protein, diabetes duration, and lower BMI. High ABI was associated with male sex, nonblack race, and higher BMI; and NC artery was associated with diabetes duration, higher BMI, and hypertension. ABI abnormalities are common and often asymptomatic in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD.

  9. Lumbosacral Plexus Injury and Brachial Plexus Injury Following Prolonged Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lan Kao

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who developed right upper and lower limb paralysis with sensory deficit after sedative drug overdose with prolonged immobilization. Due to the initial motor and sensory deficit pattern, brachial plexus injury or C8/T1 radiculopathy was suspected. Subsequent nerve conduction study/electromyography proved the lesion level to be brachial plexus. Painful swelling of the right buttock was suggestive of gluteal compartment syndrome. Elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase and urinary occult blood indicated rhabdomyolysis. The patient received medical treatment and rehabilitation; 2 years after the injury, her right upper and lower limb function had recovered nearly completely. As it is easy to develop complications such as muscle atrophy and joint contracture during the paralytic period of brachial plexopathy and lumbosacral plexopathy, early intervention with rehabilitation is necessary to ensure that the future limb function of the patient can be recovered. Our patient had suspected gluteal compartment syndrome that developed after prolonged compression, with the complication of concomitant lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury, which is rarely reported in the literature. A satisfactory outcome was achieved with nonsurgical management.

  10. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Elmus G; Tarwater, Patrick M; Lee, Vaughan H

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology instruction model with four face-to-face classes that supplemented online recorded lectures was used. One instructor delivered the lectures face-to-face in 2007 and by online videos in 2008-2009, while a second instructor provided the supplemental face-to-face classes in 2008-2009. The same embryology learning objectives and selected examination questions were used for each of the three years. This allowed direct comparison of learning outcomes, as measured by examination performance, for students receiving only face-to-face embryology instruction versus the hybrid approach. Comparison of the face-to-face lectures to the hybrid approach showed no difference in overall class performance on embryology questions that were used all three years. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the delivery method on the examination scores for bottom quartile students. Students completed an end-of-course survey to assess their opinions. They rated the two forms of delivery similarly on a six-point Likert scale and reported that face-to-face lectures have the advantage of allowing them to interact with the instructor, whereas online lectures could be paused, replayed, and viewed at any time. These experiences suggest the need for well-designed prospective studies to determine whether online lectures can be used to enhance the efficacy of embryology instruction. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Association of Far-Infrared Radiation Therapy and Ankle-Brachial Index of Patients on Hemodialysis with Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Kuo, I-Ching; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recognized to be a good marker for atherosclerosis, and is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) which is prevalent among patients on hemodialysis (HD). Methods: This randomized trial aimed to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation (FIR) therapy on ABI in HD patients with PAOD. PAOD was defined as patients with ABI < 0.95. One hundred and eight HD patients were enrolled, including 50 in the control group and 58 in the FIR group. A WS TY101 FIR emitter was applied for 40 minutes during each HD session, three times per week for six months. The ABI was measured before and after the FIR therapy. Results: Regardless of FIR therapy, the bilateral ABI decreased (in the FIR group, left: 0.88±0.22 to 0.85±0.24, p = 0.188; right: 0.92±0.20 to 0.90±0.23, p = 0.372; in control group, left: 0.91±0.23 to 0.88±0.21, p = 0144; right: 0.93±0.17 to 0.89±0.21, p = 0.082). Multivariate logistic analysis of the FIR group revealed that high uric acid (odds ratio [OR]: 2.335; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-4.882; p =0.024) and aspirin use (OR: 16.463; 95% CI: 1.787-151.638; p =0.013) were independently associated with increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ABI is not increased after FIR therapy in HD patients with PAOD. However, in the FIR group, patients with higher uric acid level or those who used aspirin have increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy.

  12. The use of diameter distension waveforms as an alternative for tonometric pressure to assess carotid blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kips, Jan; Mahieu, Dries; Fabry, Isabelle; Van Bortel, Luc; Vanmolkot, Floris; De Hoon, Jan; Vermeersch, Sebastian; Segers, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Proper non-invasive assessment of carotid artery pressure ideally uses waveforms recorded at two anatomical locations: the brachial and the carotid artery. Calibrated diameter distension waveforms could provide a more widely applicable alternative for local arterial pressure assessment than applanation tonometry. This approach might be of particular use at the brachial artery, where the feasibility of a reliable tonometric measurement has been questioned. The aim of this study was to evaluate an approach based on distension waveforms obtained at the brachial and carotid arteries. This approach will be compared to traditional pulse pressures obtained through tonometry at both the carotid and brachial arteries (used as a reference) and the more recently proposed approach of combining tonometric readings at the brachial artery with linearly or exponentially calibrated distension curves at the carotid artery. Local brachial and carotid diameter distension and tonometry waveforms were recorded in 148 subjects (119 women; aged 19–59 years). The morphology of the waveforms was compared by the form factor and the root-mean-squared error. The difference between the reference carotid PP and the PP obtained from brachial and carotid distension waveforms was smaller (0.9 (4.9) mmHg or 2.3%) than the difference between the reference carotid PP and the estimates obtained using a tonometric and a distension waveform (−4.8 (2.5) mmHg for the approach using brachial tonometry and linearly scaled carotid distension, and 2.7 (6.8) mmHg when using exponentially scaled carotid distension waves). We therefore recommend to stick to one technique on both the brachial and the carotid artery, either tonometry or distension, when assessing carotid blood pressure non-invasively

  13. Nasopharyngeal bursitis: from embryology to clinical presentation

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shazly, Amr

    2010-01-01

    AE El-Shazly, S Barriat, PP LefebvreDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Liege University Hospital, Liege, BelgiumAbstract: Nasopharyngeal bursitis is a relatively rare syndrome characterized by a collection of symptoms that multidisciplinary specialists should be aware of. Here we present an audit of cases presenting to a rhinology clinic over a two-year period, as well as an overview of the relevant embryology and different clinical presentations of nasopharyngeal bu...

  14. Neurolymphomatosis of Brachial Plexus in Patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurolymphomatosis (NL is a rare clinical disease where neoplastic cells invade the cranial nerves and peripheral nerve roots, plexus, or other nerves in patients with hematologic malignancy. Most NL cases are caused by B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL. Diagnosis can be made by imaging with positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We experienced two cases of NL involving the brachial plexus in patients with NHL. One patient, who had NHL with central nervous system (CNS involvement, experienced complete remission after 8 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy but relapsed into NL of the brachial plexus 5 months later. The other patient, who suffered from primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, had been undergoing chemoradiotherapy but progressed to NL of the brachial plexus.

  15. Radiation-included brachial plexus injury; Follow-up of two different fractionation schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, S.; Cooke, J.; Parsons, C. (Royal Marsden Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-07-01

    All 449 breast cancer patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy to the breast and lymph nodes between 1982 and 1984 have been followed for 3-5.5 years. In this group two different fractionation schedules were used, one five times a fortnight and one daily, both over 6 weeks. The calculated dose to the brachial plexus was 45 Gy in 15 fractions or 5e Gy in 30 fractions. These schedules are equivalent doses using the standard NSD formula. The diagnosis of a brachial plexus injury was made clinically and computed tomography from recurrent disease. The actuarial incidence of a radiation-induced brachial plexus injury for the whole group was 4.9% at 5.5 years. No cases were seen in the first 10 months following radiotherapy. The incidence rises between 1 and 4 years and then starts to plateau. When the large fraction size group is compared with the small fraction size group the incidence at 5.5 years is 5.9% and 1.0%, respectively (p 0.09). Two different treatment techniques were used in this group but were not found to contribute to the probability of developing a brachial plexud injury. It is suggested that radiation using large doses per fraction are less well tolerated by the brachial plexus than small doses per fraction; a commonly used fractionation schedule such as 45 Gy in 15 fractions may give unacceptably high brachial plexus morbidity; and the of small doses per fraction or avoiding lymphatic irradiation is advocated. (author). 13 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab.

  16. Cystic Adventitial Disease of Popliteal Artery with Venous Aneurysm of Popliteal Vein: Two-Year Follow-Up after Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Takizawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of cystic adventitial disease of popliteal artery with venous aneurysm of popliteal vein. A 46-year-old woman had sudden-onset intermittent claudication and coldness in her right leg. The right-sided ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI was 1.01, but peripheral arterial pulsation was decreased at knee venting position. Computed tomography revealed simple cystic lesion of the popliteal artery and stenosis of the arterial lumen in this lesion. The patient was treated by complete resection of the cystic adventitial layer of popliteal artery. A venous aneurysm of popliteal vein was revealed by intraoperative echo and was simply ligated. The patient had uneventful postoperative course and no symptoms of relevance during the two years of follow-up.

  17. Reliability of palpation of the radial artery compared with auscultation of the brachial artery in measuring SBP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, Niels V.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.; van Montfrans, Gert A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Systolic blood pressure contributes more to cardiovascular disease than DBP, especially in elderly persons. Palpation of the radial artery to assess SBP - Riva-Rocci's technique-may be an attractive alternative for auscultatory SBP in these patients. Therefore, we investigated the

  18. Relationship of femoral artery ultrasound measures of atherosclerosis with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Simon; Rifkin, Dena E; Criqui, Michael H; Suder, Natalie C; Garimella, Pranav; Ginsberg, Charles; Marasco, Antoinette M; McQuaide, Belinda J; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma J; Allison, Matthew A; Wassel, Christina L; Ix, Joachim H

    2017-12-22

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Detection of subclinical PAD may allow early interventions for or prevention of PAD in persons with CKD. Whether the presence of atherosclerotic plaque and femoral intima-media thickness (IMT) are associated with kidney function is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of 1029 community-living adults. We measured superficial and common femoral artery IMT and atherosclerotic plaque presence by ultrasound. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; continuous) and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (binary) were evaluated as outcomes. Mean age was 70 ± 10 years, mean eGFR was 78 ± 17 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , and 156 (15%) individuals had eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; 260 (25%) had femoral artery plaque. In models adjusted for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors, individuals with femoral artery plaque had mean eGFR approximately 3.0 (95% confidence interval, -5.3 to -0.8) mL/min/1.73 m 2 lower than those without plaque (P < .01). The presence of plaque was also associated with a 1.7-fold higher odds of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.8; P < .02). Associations were similar in persons with normal ankle-brachial index. The directions of associations were similar for femoral IMT measures with eGFR and CKD but were rendered no longer statistically significant with adjustment for demographic variables and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Femoral artery plaque is significantly associated with CKD prevalence in community-living individuals, even among those with normal ankle-brachial index. Femoral artery ultrasound may allow evaluation of relationships and risk factors linking PAD and kidney disease earlier in its course. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Nerve Transfers for Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury: Advantages and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hems, Tim

    2011-01-01

    In recent years nerve transfers have been increasingly used to broaden reconstructive options for brachial plexus reconstruction. Nerve transfer is a procedure where an expendable nerve is connected to a more important nerve in order to reinnervate that nerve. This article outlines the experience of the Scottish National Brachial Plexus Injury Service as our use of nerve transfers has increased. Outcomes have improved for reconstruction of the paralysed shoulder using transfer of the accessor...

  20. Exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement has good sensitivity and specificity to detect lower extremity arterial stenosis assessed by computed tomography angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Caroline; Chauve, Emmanuel; Chaudru, S?gol?ne; Le Faucheur, Alexis; Jaquinandi, Vincent; Mah?, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a highly prevalent disease diagnosed by the use of ankle-brachial index (ABI) at rest. In some clinical conditions (diabetes, renal insufficiency, advanced age), ABI can be falsely normal and other tests are required for the PAD diagnosis (American Heart Association statement). This study was conducted to determine the accuracy of exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement (exercise-TcPo2) in detection of arterial stenosis ?50% using comput...

  1. Reasonable classical concepts in human lower limb anatomy from the viewpoint of the primitive persistent sciatic artery and twisting human lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of this review is (1) to introduce the two previous studies we published human lower limb anatomy based on the conventional macroscopic anatomical [corrected] criteria with hazardous recognition of this description, (2) to activate the discussion whether the limb homology exists, and (3) to contribute to future study filling the gap between the gross anatomy and embryology. One of the topics we discussed was the human persistent sciatic artery. To date, numerous human cases of persistent sciatic artery have been reported in which the anomalous artery was present in the posterior compartment of the thigh alongside the sciatic nerve. As one of the important criteria for assessing the human primitive sciatic artery, its ventral arterial position with respect to the sciatic nerve is reasonable based on the initial positional relationship between ventral arterial and dorsal nervous systems and comparative anatomical findings. We also discuss ways of considering the topography of muscles of the lower limb and their innervations compared to those of the upper limb. We propose a schema of the complex anatomical characteristics of the lower limb based on the vertebrate body plan. According to this reasonable schema, the twisted anatomy of the lower limb can be understood more easily. These two main ideas discussed in this paper will be useful for further understanding of the anatomy of the lower limb and as a first step for future. We hope that the future study in lower limb will be further developed by both viewpoints of the classical gross anatomy and recent embryology.

  2. Abnormal Congenital Location of Stapes’ Superstructure: Clinical and Embryological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Henriques

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital middle ear malformations are rare. Most part of them are usually associated with other malformations, such as aural atresia, microtia, and dysmorphic craniofacial features. A clinical case of a 24-year-old male with a right-sided conductive hearing loss since his childhood, without craniofacial malformation, is presented. He was proposed for exploratory tympanotomy under the suspicious diagnosis of otosclerosis. The surgery revealed an abnormal location of stapes’ superstructure, which was attached to the promontory and had an isolated and mobile osseous footplate in the oval window. A stapes prosthesis was inserted and resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 25 dB. A review of the literature was also performed using MEDLINE. Two theories diverge on the embryologic origin of the stapes. Our findings seem to be in favour of the theory that defines two different embryologic origins to the stapes.

  3. Ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block: a study on 30 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri HR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Successful brachial plexus blocks rely on proper techniques of nerve localization, needle placement, and local anesthetic injection. Standard approaches used today (elicitation of paresthesia or nerve-stimulated muscle contraction, unfortunately, are all "blind" techniques resulting in procedure-related pain and complications. Ultrasound guidance for brachial plexus blocks can potentially improve success and complication rates. This study presents the ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks for the first time in Iran in adults and pediatrics. "n"n Methods: In this study ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks in 30 patients (25 adults & 5 pediatrics scheduled for an elective upper extremity surgery, are introduced. Ultrasound imaging was used to identify the brachial plexus before the block, guide the block needle to reach target nerves, and visualize the pattern of local anesthetic spread. Needle position was further confirmed by nerve stimulation before injection. Besides basic variables, block approach, block time, postoperative analgesia duration (VAS<3 was considered as target pain control opioid consumption during surgery, patient satisfaction and block related complications were reported

  4. Ambulatory (24 h) blood pressure and arterial stiffness measurement in Marfan syndrome patients: a case control feasibility and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Matthias; Nouri, Ghazaleh; Hametner, Bernhard; Parragh, Stephanie; Köster, Jelena; Mortensen, Kai; Schwarz, Achim; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Wassertheurer, Siegfried

    2016-05-06

    The aim of this work is the investigation of measures of ambulatory brachial and aortic blood pressure and indices of arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection in Marfan patients. A case-control study was conducted including patients with diagnosed Marfan syndrome following Ghent2 nosology and healthy controls matched for sex, age and daytime brachial systolic blood pressure. For each subject a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and 24 h pulse wave analysis measurement was performed. All parameters showed a circadian pattern whereby pressure dipping was more pronounced in Marfan patients. During daytime only Marfan patients with aortic root surgery showed increased pulse wave velocity. In contrast, various nighttime measurements, wave reflection determinants and circadian patterns showed a significant difference. The findings of our study provide evidence that ambulatory measurement of arterial stiffness parameters is feasible and that these determinants are significantly different in Marfan syndrome patients compared to controls in particular at nighttime. Further investigation is therefore indicated.

  5. Cocoa intake and arterial stiffness in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recio-Rodríguez José

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the relationship of cocoa intake to central and peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with some cardiovascular risk factor. Findings Design: A cross-sectional study of 351 subjects (mean age 54.76 years, 62.4% males. Measurements: Intake of cocoa and other foods using a food frequency questionnaire, central and peripheral (ambulatory and office blood pressure, central and peripheral augmentation index, pulse wave velocity, ambulatory arterial stiffness index, carotid intima-media thickness, and ankle-brachial index. Results: Higher pulse wave velocity and greater cardiovascular risk were found in non-cocoa consumers as compared to high consumers (p Conclusions In subjects with some cardiovascular risk factors, cocoa consumption does not imply improvement in the arterial stiffness values. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01325064.

  6. Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed.

  7. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA. NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  8. Delivery factors for brachial plexus palsy by newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injuries represent a low percentage of delivery complications. Most newborns fully recover from the injury, very few retain a permanent neurological deficit whereas some remain unnoticed. An objective of this study was to establish delivery factors for brachial plexus palsy at the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics and relation between the deficits with length of delivery, the length of delivery periods, induction of delivery and surgical interventions at delivery. The analysed group involved 90 newborn babies with an injury of brachial plexus made at the delivery in the period between 01.01.1996 and 31.12.2005. The controlled group included 90 newborns randomly selected. The comparison was made using an χ2 test. The incidence of injuries of plexus brachialis was 1.72 per 1,000 newborns. Analysing the length of delivery there was no difference found between the analysed and controlled group (p > 0.05. In the group of newborns with the injury of brachial plexus it was found that the second delivery period was significantly shorter (p < 0.01. In the analysed group 89 (98.8% newborn babies were delivered vaginally and one (1.2% was delivered by the cesarean section. 13 newborns (14.4% from the analysed group were delivered with application of vacuum extractor and in the controlled group it was the case with one (1.2% newborn baby (p < 0.01. The delivery of 98.8% newborns from the analysed group started spontaneously and two deliveries (1.2% were induced. Risk factors for injuries of plexus brachialis in newborns at the Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetrics of the University Clinical Centre Tuzla include shortened second delivery period and completion of deliveries applying the vacuum extractor.

  9. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus....

  10. Under X-ray guidance stent implantation through retrograde popliteal artery puncturing for the treatment of superficial femoral artery occlusion: the initial results in nine cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xu; Gu Jianping; Lou Wensheng; Chen Liang; Chen Guoping; Su Haobo; Song Jinhua; Wang Tao; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the application of retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance in the interventional therapy for superficial femoral artery occlusion. Methods: Retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance was carried out in nine patients with long-segment occlusion of superficial femoral artery as antegrade recanalization via femoral artery approach had failed in them. After retrograde route was successfully established, the balloon dilation and subsequent stent placement for occluded vessel were performed. Results: The technical success was obtained in all patients. The occluded superficial femoral arteries were reopened and the symptoms of intermittent claudication disappeared. No serious complications such as injuries of adjacent nerves or vessels occurred. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) increased from preoperative (0.38±0.13) to postoperative (0.92±0.11) with the difference being statistically significant (P<0.01). A follow-up period lasting for 2-16 months was conducted. Eleven months after the treatment, intermittent claudication recurred in one case, and CT angiography showed that the distal part of the stent was narrowed. The symptoms were improved after percutaneous transcatheter angioplasty was performed again. Conclusion: Retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of superficial femoral artery long-segment occlusion with stent placement, especially for patients in whom antegrade recanalization via femoral artery approach fails. (authors)

  11. An animal model for instructing and the study of in situ arterial bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, J; Chang, B B; Paty, P S; Kaufman, J; Leather, R P; Shah, D M

    1990-11-01

    A canine model that used the cephalic vein to bypass from the brachial to the ulnar artery was designed for use in instructing and evaluating surgical technique needed for constructing an in situ arterial bypass. This model was used for instructing vascular residents in the in situ vein bypass technique. The use of this model enabled the resident to become more adept with the instruments for valve incision and construction of small vessel anastomosis. The improvement in the resident's operative technique was reflected by a decrease in the number of technical complications (missed valves, missed arteriovenous fistulas, poorly constructed anastomoses) and improved patency rate.

  12. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, Sine K.; Eiken, Ola; Kölegård, Roger

    2015-01-01

    by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171cm, n=8) and tall (194-203cm, n=10) healthy males (18-41yr), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output were measured during +2G...... centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22±2 mmHg, P 

  13. Treatment of a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ichirou; Harashina, Takao; Inoue, Takeo; Ueda, Kouichi; Hatoko, Mituo; Shidara, Yukinobu; Ito, Yoshiyasu.

    1990-01-01

    A radiation-induced brachial plexopathy after a mastectomy causes severe pain and numbness, as well as motor and sensory disorders. Severe pain is often resistant to analgesic blocks, and in most instances, the effect of neurolysis is only temporary. We have treated two such patients with microsurgical neurolysis and then have covered the nerve by transferred muscles. In one case, the exposed brachial plexus was covered with a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap, and in the other, with a free rectus abdominis muscle flap. Pain and numbness were markedly improved in these two patients soon after the surgery, and the improvement in the sensory function also was relatively satisfactory. In one case, the motor function also improved. These patients have had no recurrence of pain or numbness for 4 years and 2 months and 4 years and 7 months after surgery, respectively. Further, their sensory and motor disorders did not advance. Surgical indications for a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy remain controversial, since the operation does not always ensure a marked improvement in the sensory and motor functions. Further, the operation is ineffective for patients with advanced nerve degeneration. Taking these factors into consideration, the preoperative predication of beneficial effects from this surgery is difficult. Despite our limited experience, however, our surgical method has been thought to be effective because it achieves a marked improvement in the numbness and pain experienced in the arms, which are usually the patients' chief complaints. (author)

  14. Palpation- and ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Anderson F; Strain, George M; Rademacher, Nathalie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    To compare palpation-guided with ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Prospective randomized experimental trial. Eighteen adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) weighing 252-295 g. After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane, parrots received an injection of lidocaine (2 mg kg(-1)) in a total volume of 0.3 mL at the axillary region. The birds were randomly assigned to equal groups using either palpation or ultrasound as a guide for the brachial plexus block. Nerve evoked muscle potentials (NEMP) were used to monitor effectiveness of brachial plexus block. The palpation-guided group received the local anesthetic at the space between the pectoral muscle, triceps, and supracoracoideus aticimus muscle, at the insertion of the tendons of the caudal coracobrachial muscle, and the caudal scapulohumeral muscle. For the ultrasound-guided group, the brachial plexus and the adjacent vessels were located with B-mode ultrasonography using a 7-15 MHz linear probe. After location, an 8-5 MHz convex transducer was used to guide injections. General anesthesia was discontinued 20 minutes after lidocaine injection and the birds recovered in a padded cage. Both techniques decreased the amplitude of NEMP. Statistically significant differences in NEMP amplitudes, were observed within the ultrasound-guided group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection and within the palpation-guided group at 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. No effect on motor function, muscle relaxation or wing droop was observed after brachial plexus block. The onset of the brachial plexus block tended to be faster when ultrasonography was used. Brachial plexus injection can be performed in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and nerve evoked muscle potentials were useful to monitor the effects on nerve conduction in this avian species. Neither technique produced an effective block at the

  15. Impaired left ventricular systolic function and increased brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity are independently associated with rapid renal function progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chang, Jer-Ming; Lee, Chee-Siong; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2011-09-01

    Heart failure and increased arterial stiffness are associated with declining renal function. Few studies have evaluated the association between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV) and renal function progression. The aim of this study was to assess whether LVEFfunction was estimated by eGFR slope. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were compared and analyzed. After a multivariate analysis, serum hematocrit was positively associated with eGFR slope, and diabetes mellitus, baPWV (P=0.031) and LVEFfunction decline and progression to the renal end point.

  16. Preoperative estimation of run off in patients with multiple level arterial obstructions as a guide to partial reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Tønnesen, K H; Sager, P

    1978-01-01

    Preoperative measurements of direct femoral artery systolic pressure, indirect ankle systolic pressure and direct brachial artery systolic pressure were carried out in nine patients with severe ischemia and arterial occlusions both proximal and distal to the ingvinal ligament. The pressure......-rise at the ankle was estimated preoperatively by assuming that the ankle pressure would rise in proportion to the rise in femoral artery pressure. Thus it was predicted that reconstruction of the iliac obstruction with aorta-femoral pressure gradients from 44 to 96 mm Hg would result in a rise in ankle pressure...... of 16--54 mm Hg. The actual rise in ankle pressure one month after reconstruction of the iliac arteries ranged from 10 to 46 mm Hg and was well correlated to the preoperative estimations. In conclusion, by proper pressure measurements the run-off problem of multiple level arterial occlusions can...

  17. Repair of Multiple Subclavian and Axillary Artery Aneurysms in a 58-Year-Old Man with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolapoglu, Ahmet; de la Cruz, Kim I; Preventza, Ourania; Coselli, Joseph S

    2016-10-01

    Dilation of the ascending aorta and aortic dissections are often seen in Marfan syndrome; however, true aneurysms of the subclavian and axillary arteries rarely seem to develop in patients who have this disease. We present the case of a 58-year-old man with Marfan syndrome who had undergone a Bentall procedure and thoracoabdominal aortic repair for an aortic dissection and who later developed multiple aneurysmal dilations of his right subclavian and axillary arteries. The aneurysms were successfully repaired by means of a surgical bypass technique in which a Dacron graft was placed between the carotid and brachial arteries. We also discuss our strategy for determining the optimal surgical approach in these patients.

  18. Diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, L.S.; Yaylali, Ilker; Zurakowski, David; Ruiz, Jennifer; Altman, Nolan R.; Grossman, John A.I.

    2006-01-01

    Detailed evaluation of a brachial plexus birth injury is important for treatment planning. To determine the diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury. Included in the study were 31 children with perinatal brachial plexus injury who underwent surgical intervention. All patients had cervical and brachial plexus MRI. The standard of reference was the combination of intraoperative (1) surgical evaluation and (2) electrophysiological studies (motor evoked potentials, MEP, and somatosensory evoked potentials, SSEP), and (3) the evaluation of histopathological neuronal loss. MRI findings of cord lesion, pseudomeningocele, and post-traumatic neuroma were correlated with the standard of reference. Diagnostic performance characteristics including sensitivity and specificity were determined. From June 2001 to March 2004, 31 children (mean age 7.3 months, standard deviation 1.6 months, range 4.8-12.1 months; 19 male, 12 female) with a brachial plexus birth injury who underwent surgical intervention were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of an MRI finding of post-traumatic neuroma were 97% (30/31) and 100% (31/31), respectively, using the contralateral normal brachial plexus as the control. However, MRI could not determine the exact anatomic area (i.e. trunk or division) of the post-traumatic brachial plexus neuroma injury. Sensitivity and specificity for an MRI finding of pseudomeningocele in determining exiting nerve injury were 50% and 100%, respectively, using MEP, and 44% and 80%, respectively, using SSEP as the standard of reference. MRI in infants could not image well the exiting nerve roots to determine consistently the presence or absence of definite avulsion. In children younger than 18 months with brachial plexus injury, the MRI finding of pseudomeningocele has a low sensitivity and a high specificity for nerve root avulsion. MRI and MR myelography cannot image well the exiting nerve roots to determine

  19. Ankle-brachial index and cardiovascular outcomes in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, J Dawn; Lombardero, Manuel S; Barsness, Gregory W; Pena-Sing, Ivan; Buitrón, L Virginia; Singh, Premranjan; Woodhead, Gail; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Kelsey, Sheryl F

    2012-10-01

    Peripheral arterial disease increases cardiovascular risk in many patient populations. The risks associated with an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) in patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease have not been well described with respect to thresholds and types of cardiovascular events. We examined 2,368 patients in the BARI 2D trial who underwent ABI assessment at baseline. Death and major cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction and stroke) during follow-up (average 4.3 years) were assessed across the ABI spectrum and by categorized ABI: low (≤0.90), normal (0.91-1.3), high (>1.3), or noncompressible. A total of 12,568 person-years were available for mortality analysis. During follow-up, 316 patients died, and 549 had major cardiovascular events. After adjustment for potential confounders, with normal ABI as the referent group, a low ABI conferred an increased risk of death (relative risk [RR] 1.6, CI 1.2-2.2, P = .0005) and major cardiovascular events (RR 1.4, CI 1.1-1.7, P = .004). Patients with a high ABI had similar outcomes as patients with a normal ABI, but risk again increased in patients with a noncompressible ABI with a risk of death (RR 1.9, CI 1.3-2.8, P = .001) and major cardiovascular event (RR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.1, P = .01). In patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes, ABI screening and identification of ABI abnormalities including a low ABI (<1.0) or noncompressible artery provide incremental prognostic information. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical treatment of adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Siqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the brachial plexus in adults are severely debilitating. They generally affect young individuals. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, clinical evaluation, imaging and electrodiagnostic assessments, treatment options and proper timing of surgical interventions will enable nerve surgeons to offer optimal care to patients. Advances in microsurgical technique have improved the outcome for many of these patients. The treatment options offer patients with brachial plexus injuries the possibility of achieving elbow flexion, shoulder stability with limited abduction and the hope of limited but potentially useful hand function.

  1. The reliability of the ankle-brachial index in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catellier Diane J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low ankle-brachial index (ABI is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and death. Regression model parameter estimates may be biased due to measurement error when the ABI is included as a predictor in regression models, but may be corrected if the reliability coefficient, R, is known. The R for the ABI computed from DINAMAP™ readings of the ankle and brachial SBP is not known. Methods A total of 119 participants in both the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS had repeat ABIs taken within 1 year, using a common protocol, automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices, and technician pool. Results The estimated reliability coefficient for the ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.77 and for the brachial SBP was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.83. The reliability for the ABI based on single ankle and arm SBPs was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.70 and the reliability of the ABI computed as the ratio of the average of two ankle SBPs to two arm SBPs was estimated from simulated data as 0.70. Conclusion These reliability estimates may be used to obtain unbiased parameter estimates if the ABI is included in regression models. Our results suggest the need for repeated measures of the ABI in clinical practice, preferably within visits and also over time, before diagnosing peripheral artery disease and before making therapeutic decisions.

  2. Constraining the brachial plexus does not compromise regional control in oropharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Mutter W; Wolden, Suzanne L; Lee, Nancy Y; Lok, Benjamin H; Dutta, Pinaki R; Riaz, Nadeem; Setton, Jeremy; Berry, Sean L; Goenka, Anuj; Zhang, Zhigang; Rao, Shyam S

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that brachial plexopathy following head and neck cancer radiotherapy may be underreported and that this toxicity is associated with a dose–response. Our purpose was to determine whether the dose to the brachial plexus (BP) can be constrained, without compromising regional control. The radiation plans of 324 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were reviewed. We identified 42 patients (13%) with gross nodal disease <1 cm from the BP. Normal tissue constraints included a maximum dose of 66 Gy and a D 05 of 60 Gy for the BP. These criteria took precedence over planning target volume (PTV) coverage of nodal disease near the BP. There was only one regional failure in the vicinity of the BP, salvaged with neck dissection (ND) and regional re-irradiation. There have been no reported episodes of brachial plexopathy to date. In combined-modality therapy, including ND as salvage, regional control did not appear to be compromised by constraining the dose to the BP. This approach may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing the long-term risk of brachial plexopathy

  3. Malformação ílio-femoral Iliofemoral arterial malformation

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    Mangala M. Pai

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante uma dissecção de rotina realizada em um cadáver do sexo masculino com 65 anos de idade foi constatada malformação arterial iliofemoral. A aorta abdominal estava consideravelmente deslocada lateralmente e também bifurcava em nível mais alto. A artéria ilíaca comum dividia-se uma vértebra acima do nível normal e a artéria femoral dava origem à artéria femoral profunda aproximadamente l,2 cm abaixo do ligamento inguinal, o que é consideravelmente proximal ao seu nível normal. Aqui nós apresentamos uma breve revisão de literatura e base embriológica dessas anomalias.During routine dissection, an Iliofemoral arterial malformation was noticed in a 65 year old male cadaver. The abdominal aorta was considerably laterally displaced and also bifurcated higher up. The common iliac artery divided one vertebral level higher and the femoral artery gave the profunda femoris artery about 1.2 cm below the inguinal ligament, which is considerably proximal to its usual level of origin. A brief review of literature and embryological basis of the anomalies are discussed.

  4. Using embryology screencasts: a useful addition to the student learning experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Darrell J R

    2011-01-01

    Although podcasting has been a well used resource format in the last few years as a way of improving the student learning experience, the inclusion of enhanced audiovisual formats such as screencasts has been less used, despite the advantage that they work well for both visual and auditory learners. This study examines the use of and student reaction to a set of screencasts introduced to accompany embryology lectures within a second year module at Brighton and Sussex Medical School. Five mini-lecture screencasts and one review quiz screencast were produced as digital recordings of computer screen output with audio narration and released to students via the managed learning environment (MLE). Analysis of server log information from the MLE showed that the screencasts were accessed by many of the students in the cohort, although the exact numbers were variable depending on the screencast. Students accessed screencasts at different times of the day and over the whole of the access period, although maximum downloads were predictably recorded leading up to the written examination. Quantitative and qualitative feedback demonstrated that most students viewed the screencasts favorably in terms of usefulness to their learning, and end-of-module written examination scores suggest that the screencasts may have had a positive effect on student outcome when compared with previous student attainment. Overall, the development of a series of embryology screencasts to accompany embryology lecture sessions appears to be a useful addition to learning for most students and not simply an innovation that checks the box of "technology engagement." Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. A novel technique for teaching the brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefroy, Henrietta; Burdon-Bailey, Victoria; Bhangu, Aneel; Abrahams, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The brachial plexus has posed problems for both students and teachers throughout generations of medical education. The anatomy is intricate, and traditional pictorial representations can be difficult to understand and learn. Few innovative teaching methods have been reported. The basic anatomy of the brachial plexus is core knowledge required by medical students to aid clinical examination and diagnosis. A more detailed understanding is necessary for a variety of specialists, including surgeons, anaesthetists and radiologists. Here, we present a novel, cheap and interactive method of teaching the brachial plexus. Using coloured pipe cleaners, teachers and students can construct three-dimensional models using different colours to denote the origin and outflow of each nerve. The three-dimensional nature of the model also allows for a better understanding of certain intricacies of the plexus. Students may use these models as adjuncts for self study, didactic lectures and tutorials. Compared with traditional textbooks and whiteboards, the pipe-cleaner model was preferred by medical students, and provided a higher level of student satisfaction. This was demonstrated and analysed using student feedback forms. Our model could be incorporated into current curricula to provide an effective and enjoyable way of rapidly teaching a difficult concept. Other such novel methods for teaching complex anatomical principles should be encouraged and explored. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  6. Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannoma of the left brachial plexus mimicking a cervicomediastinal ... Her voice was hoarse but there was no eye signs suggestive of thyrotoxicosis. ... A presumptive diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with retrosternal extension was made.

  7. Postoperative peri-axillary seroma following axillary artery cannulation for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsanos Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The arterial cannulation site for optimal tissue perfusion and cerebral protection during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB for surgical treatment of acute type A aortic dissection remains controversial. Right axillary artery cannulation confers significant advantages, because it provides antegrade arterial perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, and allows continuous antegrade cerebral perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest, thereby minimizing global cerebral ischemia. However, right axillary artery cannulation has been associated with serious complications, including problems with systemic perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, problems with postoperative patency of the artery due to stenosis, thrombosis or dissection, and brachial plexus injury. We herein present the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian man with known Marfan syndrome and acute type A aortic dissection, who had direct right axillary artery cannulation for surgery of the ascending aorta. Postoperatively, the patient developed an axillary perigraft seroma. As this complication has, not, to our knowledge, been reported before in cardiothoracic surgery, we describe this unusual complication and discuss conservative and surgical treatment options.

  8. Hydration Status Is Associated with Aortic Stiffness, but Not with Peripheral Arterial Stiffness, in Chronically Hemodialysed Patients

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    Daniel Bia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adequate fluid management could be essential to minimize high arterial stiffness observed in chronically hemodialyzed patients (CHP. Aim. To determine the association between body fluid status and central and peripheral arterial stiffness levels. Methods. Arterial stiffness was assessed in 65 CHP by measuring the pulse wave velocity (PWV in a central arterial pathway (carotid-femoral and in a peripheral pathway (carotid-brachial. A blood pressure-independent regional arterial stiffness index was calculated using PWV. Volume status was assessed by whole-body multiple-frequency bioimpedance. Patients were first observed as an entire group and then divided into three different fluid status-related groups: normal, overhydration, and dehydration groups. Results. Only carotid-femoral stiffness was positively associated (P<0.05 with the hydration status evaluated through extracellular/intracellular fluid, extracellular/Total Body Fluid, and absolute and relative overhydration. Conclusion. Volume status and overload are associated with central, but not peripheral, arterial stiffness levels with independence of the blood pressure level, in CHP.

  9. 99mTc-HSA lymphoscintigraphy and leg edema after arterial reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O-hara, Masaki; Seyama, Atsushi; Akimoto, Fumikazu; Nakamura, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Takahumi; Zempo, Nobuya; Esato, Kensuke

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the etiology of lower limb edema after arterial reconstruction, 12 patients (16 limbs) who underwent arterial reconstruction due to atherosclerosis obliterans were observed. There was no relationship between the severity of limb edema and serum factors (serum total proteins, albumin, BUN, and creatinine), ankle/brachial arterial pressure ratio, peripheral venous pressure or RI lymphoscintigraphy in the supine position. The lymphatic flow in RI lymphoscintigraphy at 3∼4 weeks after operation increased with statistically significant difference compared to the preoperative flow whether the patient was in the supine or upright position. Though there was no significant relationship between the severity of leg edema and postoperative lymphatic flow in the supine position, postoperative lymphatic flow in the upright position decreased as the severity of leg edema increased. Increased lymphatic flow in the follow-up period was associated with increased severity of leg edema in the upright position. It is concluded that postoperative leg edema is due to the damage to the lymphatic vessels during operation, and then the lymphatic channels cannot adapt to the increased lymphatic flow after the arterial reconstruction. (author)

  10. Extraarticular variants of the long head of the biceps brachii: a reminder of embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, Emmanuel A; Barbaix, Erik J; Van Hoonacker, Petrus; Berghs, Bart M

    2008-01-01

    Developmental anomalies of the long head of the biceps tendon are rare and have been described in the literature mainly dealing with anatomy and embryology. Because most basic embryologic research on this topic was conducted before 1966, a literature search was performed from archived anatomy textbooks and manuscript references. These data were compared with the scarce case descriptions of developmental anomalies of the long head of the biceps tendon. An additional case illustration from our own experience was provided. From the literature, it appears that during the embryologic phase of development, a staged migration of the long head of the biceps tendon occurs from a position between the fibrous capsule and synovial layer to an intraarticular position. Recent anatomic and arthroscopic case reports have shown that interruption of this migration can occur in any of these stages. Given the recent increase in arthroscopic shoulder surgery, anomalies of the long head of the biceps tendon will be encountered more frequently. Knowledge of their existence and origin can help in evaluating unexpected anatomic variations or the absence of the biceps tendon in preoperative medical imaging or during an arthroscopic procedure.

  11. Sheath rendezvous method: a novel distal protection technique during endovascular treatment of subclavian artery occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Takuya; Urasawa, Kazushi; Nakama, Tatsuya; Nakagawa, Yuya; Tan, Michinao; Koshida, Ryoji; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To describe an innovative distal protection technique, "sheath rendezvous method", during endovascular treatment for subclavian arterial occlusions. 4.5F and 6F guiding sheath were inserted from left brachial and common femoral artery, respectively. 0.014″ guidewire retrogradely passed through occlusion and into antegrade sheath to establish a pull-through system. 3.0 mm balloon was used to expand occlusion and anchor to deliver retrograde sheath into antegrade one. Both sheaths locked by balloon dilatation crossed occlusion until antegrade sheath passed over lesion. Balloon expandable stent was delivered within antegrade sheath. Sheath was removed, and stent was implanted. We obtained an excellent outcome without complications.

  12. Effect of beta-1-blocker, nebivolol, on central aortic pressure and arterial stiffness in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soanker, Radhika; Naidu, M U R; Raju, Sree Bhushan; Prasad, A Krishna; Rao, T Ramesh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Blood pressure (BP) reduction is the major determinant of benefit provided by antihypertensive treatment. Although different drugs reduce peripheral BP to some extent, there may be a significant difference in their effect on central BP reduction. It has been shown that beta-blockers are efficient in reducing peripheral, but not central BP. This study was done to assess the effect of beta-1-blocker, nebivolol, in patients with essential hypertension on central aortic pressures and arterial stiffness. In this single arm, open-labeled study, 13 patients were given nebivolol, 5 mg orally once daily for 15 days. Primary outcome was change in central aortic pressure, and other measures of efficacy included changes in brachial BP, augmentation index (AIx%), AIx%@75 HR, augmentation pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf). Nebivolol 5 mg significantly reduced central aortic pressures [systolic BP, 131.5-111.6 mmHg; diastolic BP, 96.3-81.7 mmHg; Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), 111.3-94.0 mmHg (all PPressure (PP), 35.2-29.7 mmHg (Plost to followup. Nebivolol 5 mg demonstrated antihypertensive efficacy in patients with essential hypertension by reducing not only peripheral brachial pressures, but also significantly reducing central aortic pressures, augmentation index, and carotid femoral pulse wave velocity, which is the marker of arterial stiffness.

  13. COMPLICATIONS DURING A SUPRACLAVICULAR ANESTHESIA OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS WITH INTERSCALENE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Minko Minkov; Maria Vankova; Radoslav Minkov; Stefaniya Terzieva; Toni Dimitrov; Iskren Velikov

    2012-01-01

    A hemidiaphragmatic paresis is one of the most frequently observed complications following the supraclavicular anesthesia of the brachial plexus with interscalene approach. In patients, crucially dependant on adequate diaphragmatic function, hemidiaphragmatic paresis may provoke acute respiratory disturbances. The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical features the brachial plexus with regard of the anesthesia of specific areas of the shoulder and the upper limb.A dissection of the c...

  14. The Role of Embryologic Fusion Planes in the Invasiveness and Recurrence of Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Classic Mix-Up of Causation and Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Linus T D; Magnusson, Mark R; Guppy, Michelle P B

    2015-12-01

    The facial embryologic fusion planes as regions of mesenchymal and ectodermal fusion of the primordial facial processes during embryological development have been suggested to influence the spread, invasiveness, pathogenesis, and recurrence of cutaneous carcinoma. This study sought to establish whether basal cell carcinoma (BCC) originating in embryologic fusion planes has a greater propensity for earlier depth of invasion, leading to an increased rate of lesion recurrence. Facial BCCs excised in a single surgeon practice over 2 years were allocated into 2 anatomic domains according to their correlation with embryologic fusion planes. Lesion depth of invasion, surface area, and margins of excision were analyzed in conjunction with recurrence data over the following 70-80 months. Of the 331 lesions examined, 70 were located in embryologic fusion planes. No difference was found in the mean surface area and depth of invasion for lesions located in the 2 domains (P > 0.05). Ten lesion recurrences were identified, none of which were located in embryologic fusion planes. Recurrent lesions were excised with a significantly greater percentage of close and incomplete excision margins (P planes are not more invasive or at greater risk of recurrence. Excision margins seem to have the greatest influence on lesion recurrence. Because of the paucity of superfluous tissue and the cosmetic and functionally sensitive nature of these areas of embryologic fusion, specialist treatment of these lesions is recommended to ensure that adequacy of excision is not neglected at the cost of ease of closure and cosmesis.

  15. Treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive through retrograde access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xueqiang; Guo Pingfan; Zhang Jinchi; Cai Fanggang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of retrograde access for the interventional treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases when the occluded segment of lower extremity artery could not be reached through antegrade access. Methods: Twenty-seven cases (male 17, female 10; age range 32-89 years) were retrospectively investigated, including 18 with lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans, 7 with diabetic foot and 2 with thromboangiitis obliterans. According to the Fontaine staging, 6 cases were classified as Fontaine Ⅱ, 11 were classified as Fontaine Ⅲ and 10 were classified as Fontaine Ⅳ. All cases underwent endovascular operation through antegrade access first with an attempt to cross the occlusive segment, but in vain. So retrograde access was tried via puncture of pedis dorsalis or posterior tibial artery or exposure of lateral branches of posterior tibial artery, peroneal artery or dorsal artery by open surgery,which followed by Percutaneous transluminal angiography and (or) stenting. Results: The operation through retrograde access was successful in all cases with obvious improvement of ischemic symptoms. Hematoma at the puncture site occurred in 3 patients, and paresthesia of toes occurred in 1 after dorsalis pedis arteriotomy. No severe perioperative complication occurred. The average ankle brachial index increased from 0.37 ± 0.11 preoperatively to 0.85 ± 0.12 postoperatively. Conclusions: Retrograde access could be used as an alternative strategy in lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases when the occluded segment could not reach through antegrade access. (authors)

  16. Ankle-brachial index by automated method and renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The Ankle-brachial index (ABI is a non-invasive method used for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD. Aims To determine the clinical features of patients submitted to ABI measurement by automatic method. To investigate association between ABI and renal function. Methods The present is a cross-sectional study. The study was performed in a private clinic in the city of Fortaleza (Ce- Brazil. For ABI analysis, we utilized automatic methodology using a Microlife device. Data collection took place from March 2012 to January 2016. During this period, ABI was measured in 375 patients aged >50 years, who had a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes or vascular disease. Results Of the 375 patients, 18 were categorized as having abnormal ABI (4.8 per cent and 357 were normal ABI (95.2 per cent. Patients with abnormal ABI showed older mean age when compared to patients with normal ABI. Among patients with normal renal function, only 0.95 per cent showed abnormal ABI; among patients with abnormal renal function, 6 per cent showed abnormal ABI. Conclusion 1 No differences were observed when comparing the groups regarding gender or the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or CAD. 2 Group with abnormal ABI had renal function greater impairment.

  17. Complete Brachial Plexus Injury - An Amputation Dilemma. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong CYL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injuries with intact yet flail limb presents with problems of persistent neuropathic pain and recurrent shoulder dislocations, that render the flail limb a damn nuisance. As treating surgeons, we are faced with the dilemma of offering treatment options, bearing in mind the patient’s functional status and expectations. We present a case of a 55-year old housewife with complete brachial plexus injury begging for surgical amputation of her flail limb, 6 years post-injury. Here we discuss the outcome of transhumeral amputation and the possibility of offering early rather than delayed amputations in this group of patients.

  18. Complications of operative treatment of injuries of peripheral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velinovic, M M; Davidovic, B L; Lotina, I S; Vranes, R M; Djukic, L P; Arsov, J V; Ristic, V M; Kocica, J M; Petrovic, L P

    2000-06-01

    In 1991 and 1992, a total of 97 patients with 106 peripherial arterial injuries underwent surgery at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia. Civilian injuries accounted for 53 (54.6%) patients (94.3% males, age range: 16-63 yr, mean: 35.2), and 44 patients had war injuries (93.2% males, age range: 19-61 yr, mean: 34.8). The injuries affected the superfitial femoral artery in 31 (29.24%); the popliteal artery in 28 (26.41%); the brachial artery in 17 (16.04%); the posterior tibial artery in 6 (5.66%); the axillary artery in 5 (4.72%); the anterior tibial artery in 5 (4.72%); the tibioperoneal trunk in 4 (3. 77%); the common femoral artery in 4 (3.77%); the external iliac artery in 2 (1.89%); the profound femoral artery in 2 (1.89%); the radial artery in 1 (0.94%); and ulnar artery in 1 (0.94%).A total of 98 reconstructive procedures were used to treat these patients. Graft interposition carried out in 50 (51.02%); by pass in 25 (25. 51%); end-to-end anastomosis in 9 (9.18%); suture in 8 (8.16%); ligation in 4 (4.08%); and patch-angioplasty in 2 (2.04%). Primary reconstruction of injured arteries was performed in 72.2% and secondary repair in 27.8% cases. Infection developed in 51 (52.57%) patients, and it was significantly (P<0.05) more common in the war injuries (70.45%) and in secondary repairs (88.89%). The presence of associated lesions (69.56%) was also correlated with a greater rate of infection. Amputation was necessary in 21 (21.65%) of our patients, and was significantly (P<0.05) more often performed after secondary (44.44%) than primary operations (12.86%) and in the presence of associated injuries (32.61%).

  19. The Effect of Student Working Group Establishment on Teaching General Embryology Course to Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quantitative and qualitative enhancement of educational activities is an essential issue. Learners’ cooperation in the teaching process in order to increase teaching effectiveness and promotion is considered significant. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of establishment of student working group on the teaching general embryology course to medical students.Methods: Ten students (1% of medical embryology course were selected to analyze the topics to be taught before each session according to lesson plan, and observe the whole teaching process during lesson presentation. Then, having asked the other students’ viewpoints and discussing with one another, they provided the teacher with a written report on the strengths and weaknesses of the teaching and its problems. The teacher analyzed the problems proposed by the working group to improve teaching process in the next session. At the end of the semester, a questionnaire was administered to all the participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.Results: The mean of students’ scores was 74.26%. The most important findings obtained in this study included positive role of film projection in teaching the materials (95.34%, significance of presentation of various pictures from different books (88.4%, changing students’ attitude toward application of embryology in different diseases (86%, and repetition of previous session’s pictures (83.75%. The weak points mentioned, however, were physical problems of the classroom and deficiency of audio visual equipment.Conclusion: Student working group has a positive impact on the teaching medical general embryology.

  20. Threshold value of home pulse pressure predicting arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes: KAMOGAWA-HBP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Noriyuki; Ushigome, Emi; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Oyabu, Chikako; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Yokota, Isao; Asano, Mai; Tanaka, Muhei; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Fukui, Michiaki

    2018-03-01

    This cross-sectional multicenter study was designed to evaluate the threshold value of home pulse pressure (PP) and home systolic blood pressure (SBP) predicting the arterial stiffness in 876 patients with type 2 diabetes. We measured the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and estimated the ability of home PP to identify arterial stiffness using Youden-Index defined cut-off point. The arterial stiffness was measured using the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). AUC for arterial stiffness in morning PP was significantly greater than that in morning SBP (P AUC for arterial stiffness in evening PP was also significantly greater than that in evening SBP (P < .001). The optimal cut-off points for morning PP and evening PP, which predicted arterial stiffness, were 54.6 and 56.9 mm Hg, respectively. Our findings indicate that we should pay more attention to increased home PP in patients with type 2 diabetes. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Measurement of brachial artery endothelial function using a standard blood pressure cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F; Tison, Geoffrey H; Olgin, Jeffrey; Alley, Hugh F; Owens, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of endothelial function in major arteries (EFMA) is a powerful independent predictor of heart attack and stroke. Existing ultrasound-based non-invasive assessment methods are technically challenging and suitable only for laboratory settings. EFMA, like blood pressure (BP), is both acutely and chronically affected by factors such as lifestyle and medication. Consequently, laboratory-based measurements cannot fully gauge the effects of medical interventions on EFMA. EFMA and BP have, arguably, comparable (but complementary) value in the assessment of cardiovascular health. Widespread deployment of EFMA assessment is thus a desirable clinical goal. To this end, we propose a device based on modifying the measurement protocol of a standard electronic sphygmomanometer. The protocol involves inflating the cuff to sub-diastolic levels to enable recording of the pulse waveform before and after vasodilatory stimulus. The mechanical unloading of the arterial wall provided by the cuff amplifies the distension that occurs with each pulse, which is measured as a pressure variation in the cuff. We show that the height of the rising edge of each pulse is proportional to the change in lumen area between diastole and systole. This allows the effect of vasodilatory stimuli on the artery to be measured with high sensitivity. We compare the proposed cuff flow-mediated dilation (cFMD) method to ultrasound flow-mediated dilation (uFMD). We find significant correlation (r  =  0.55, p  =0.003, N  =  27) between cFMD- and uFMD-based metrics obtained when the release of a 5 min cuff occlusion is employed to induce endothelial stimulus via reactive hyperemia. cFMD is approximately proportional to the square of uFMD, representing a typical increase in sensitivity to vasodilation of 300–600%. This study illustrates the potential for an individual to conveniently measure his/her EFMA by using a low-cost reprogrammed home sphygmomanometer. (paper)

  2. The prognostic value of concurrent phrenic nerve palsy in newborn babies with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Kawabata, Hidehiko

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of concurrent phrenic nerve palsy for predicting spontaneous motor recovery in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. We reviewed the records of 366 neonates with brachial plexus palsy. The clinical and follow-up data of patients with and without phrenic nerve palsy were compared. Of 366 newborn babies with neonatal brachial plexus palsy, 21 (6%) had concurrent phrenic nerve palsy. Sixteen of these neonates had upper-type palsy and 5 had total-type palsy. Poor spontaneous motor recovery was observed in 13 neonates with concurrent phrenic nerve palsy (62%) and in 129 without concurrent phrenic nerve palsy (39%). Among neonates born via vertex delivery, poor motor recovery was observed in 7 of 9 (78%) neonates with concurrent phrenic nerve palsy and 115 of 296 (39%) without concurrent phrenic nerve palsy. Concurrent phrenic nerve palsy in neonates with brachial plexus palsy has prognostic value in predicting poor spontaneous motor recovery of the brachial plexus, particularly after vertex delivery. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Scientific revolution and embryology: rejection or transformation of antiquity? A comparison between the procreation teachings of Cesare Cremonini, William Harvey und René Descartes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I address the issue of the theoretical and epistemological status of embryology at the rise of the so-called "Scientific Revolution" (also in the first half of the seventeenth-century) and raise the question, in what sense and to what extent the historiographical concept of "Scientific Revolution" is applicable to the domain of embryology. To achieve this aim I compare the theories of three protagonists of the medical, scientific and philosophical debate of that age, namely Cesare Cremonini, William Harvey and René Descartes, who had very different views on the world structure and human nature and a very different concept of science, but who shared, as concerns embryological issues, an epigenetic conception of the development of the embryo. Their theories are discussed and compared in light of following questions: 1) What do Cremonini's, Harvey's and Descartes's embryological theories exactly aim to?; 2) In developing their theories, do these thinkers deal explicitly or implicitly with the Aristotelian and the Galenic embryological paradigm?; 3)Do they refer polemically to the Aristotelian and the Galenic tradition and what theoretical and/or rhetorical function have these polemical references?; 4) Do the embryological theories of Cremonini, Harvey and Descartes reflect the century-long dispute between "(Aristotelian) philosophers" and "(Galenic) doctors"?; 5) How is represented embryology as a 'scientific' and/or 'theoretical' domain? And what relationship between concepts of 'truth', 'research', 'tradition' and 'scientific progress' is implied or proposed in the embryological works of these three thinkers? What kind of use do Cremonini, Harvey and Descartes make of the argumenta ex ratione and of those ex experientia?

  4. Femoro-Supragenicular Popliteal Bypass with a Bridging Stent Graft in a Diffusely Diseased Distal Target Popliteal Artery: Alternative to Below-Knee Popliteal Polytetrafluoroethylene Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung Hun Byun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesions in distal target arteries hinder surgical bypass procedures in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Methods: Between April 2012 and October 2015, 16 patients (18 limbs with lifestyle- limiting claudication (n=12 or chronic critical limb ischemia (n=6 underwent femoral–above-knee (AK polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE bypass grafts with a bridging stent graft placement between the distal target popliteal artery and the PTFE graft. Ring-supported PTFE grafts were used in all patients with no available vein for graft material. Follow-up evaluations assessed clinical symptoms, the ankle-brachial index, ultrasonographic imaging and/or computed tomography angiography, the primary patency rate, and complications. Results: All procedures were successful. The mean follow-up was 12.6 months (range, 11 to 14 months, and there were no major complications. The median baseline ankle-brachial index of 0.4 (range, 0.2 to 0.55 significantly increased to 0.8 (range, 0.5 to 1.0 at 12 months (p<0.01. The primary patency rate at 12 months was 83.3%. The presenting symptoms resolved within 2 weeks. Conclusion: In AK bypasses with a diffusely diseased distal target popliteal artery or when below-knee (BK bypass surgery is impossible, this procedure could be clinically effective and safe when used as an alternative to femoral-BK bypass surgery.

  5. Neonatal brachial plexus palsy--management and prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lynda J-S

    2014-06-01

    Successful treatment of patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) begins with a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the brachial plexus and of the pathophysiology of nerve injury via which the brachial plexus nerves stretched in the perinatal period manifest as a weak or paralyzed upper extremity in the newborn. NBPP can be classified by systems that can guide the prognosis and the management as these systems are based on the extent and severity of nerve injury, anatomy of nerve injury, and clinical presentation. Serial physical examinations, supplemented by a thorough maternal and perinatal history, are critical to the formulation of the treatment plan that relies upon occupational/physical therapy and rehabilitation management but may include nerve reconstruction and secondary musculoskeletal surgeries. Adjunctive imaging and electrodiagnostic studies provide additional information to guide prognosis and treatment. As research improves not only the technical aspects of NBPP treatment but also the ability to assess the activity and participation as well as body structure and function of NBPP patients, the functional outcomes for affected infants have an overall optimistic prognosis, with the majority recovering adequate functional use of the affected arm. Of importance are (i) early referral to interdisciplinary specialty clinics that can provide up-to-date advances in clinical care and (ii) increasing research/awareness of the psychosocial and patient-reported quality-of-life issues that surround the chronic disablement of NBPP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Avaliação da função endotelial em pacientes com esclerose sistêmica limitada por meio do eco Doppler da artéria braquial Evaluation of endothelial function in patients with limited systemic sclerosis by use of brachial artery Doppler ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Melo Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a resposta dilatadora dependente e independente do endotélio em pacientes portadores de esclerose sistêmica limitada (ESL com aquela de indivíduos sadios de mesmo gênero, idade e cor. MÉTODOS: Vinte mulheres adultas, não obesas, não tabagistas, não diabéticas, não dislipidêmicas, não hipertensas, que preencheram os critérios para esclerose sistêmica (ES segundo o American College of Rheumatology, foram submetidas ao exame de Doppler de artéria braquial do membro superior direito. Foi analisada a resposta dilatadora, dependente do endotélio, após isquemia induzida com esfigmomanômetro por cinco minutos no braço direito, e a resposta dilatadora, independente do endotélio, após administração de 300 mcg de nitroglicerina (NTG sublingual. Esses resultados foram comparados com a resposta obtida em indivíduos sadios. RESULTADOS: O diâmetro longitudinal da artéria braquial (DAB foi significativamente menor na fase basal 1 nos pacientes com ESL (3,57 ± 0,52 mm e 3,93 ± 0,39 mm, respectivamente no grupo paciente (P e grupo-controle (C, P = 0,005. Não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a velocidade das hemácias (VH após isquemia/hiperemia reativa (HR e após NTG (110,2 ± 43,86 cm/s vs. 102,0 ± 25,89 cm/s e 63,80 ± 17,69 cm/s vs. 65,4 ± 12,90 cm/s nos grupos P e C, após HR e NTG, respectivamente. Também não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre o DAB após HR e após NTG (3,77 ± 0,59 mm vs. 4,14 ± 0,49 mm e 4,44 ± 0,64 mm vs. 4,70 ± 0,58 mm nos grupos P e C, após HR e NTG, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Embora o grupo de pacientes com ESL tenha apresentado menor DAB basal, a resposta dilatadora dependente e independente do endotélio se manteve preservada em ambos os grupos.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the brachial artery endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent dilating responses in patients with limited

  7. Correspondence in relation to the case report "Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note." published in May issue of Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta Pradipta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comment on 'Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note' Bhagat H, Agarwal A, Sharma MS Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 2008, 3:14 (22 May 2008

  8. Peripheral and central arterial pressure and its relationship to vascular target organ damage in carotid artery, retina and arterial stiffness. Development and validation of a tool. The Vaso risk study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patino-Alonso Maria C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM shows a better correlation to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality than office blood pressure. A loss of arterial elasticity and an increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity-mortality. Tools have been developed that allow estimation of the retinal arteriovenous index but not all studies coincide and there are contradictory results in relation to the evolution of the arteriosclerotic lesions and the caliber of the retinal vessels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between peripheral and central arterial pressure (clinic and ambulatory and vascular structure and function as evaluated by the carotid artery intima-media thickness, retina arteriovenous index, pulse wave velocity (PWV and ankle-brachial index in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. In turn, software is developed and validated for measuring retinal vessel thickness and automatically estimating the arteriovenous index. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study involving a control group will be made, with a posterior 4-year follow-up period in primary care. The study patients will be type 2 diabetics, with a control group of non-diabetic individuals. Consecutive sampling will be used to include 300 patients between 34-75 years of age and no previous cardiovascular disease, one-half being assigned to each group. Main measurements: age, gender, height, weight and abdominal circumference. Lipids, creatinine, microalbuminuria, blood glucose, HbA1c, blood insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and endothelial dysfunction markers. Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Carotid ultrasound to evaluate IMT, and retinography to evaluate the arteriovenous index. ECG to assess left ventricle hypertrophy, ankle-brachial index, and pulse wave analysis (PWA and pulse wave velocity (PWV with the Sphigmocor

  9. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Holbrook, Monika; Hamburg, Naomi M; Shenouda, Sherene M; Chung, William B; Titas, Megan; Kluge, Matthew A; Wang, Na; Palmisano, Joseph; Milbury, Paul E; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Vita, Joseph A

    2011-05-01

    Cranberry juice contains polyphenolic compounds that could improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The objective was to examine the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. We completed an acute pilot study with no placebo (n = 15) and a chronic placebo-controlled crossover study (n = 44) that examined the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. In the chronic crossover study, subjects with coronary heart disease consumed a research preparation of double-strength cranberry juice (54% juice, 835 mg total polyphenols, and 94 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo beverage (480 mL/d) for 4 wk each with a 2-wk rest period between beverages. Beverage order was randomly assigned, and participants refrained from consuming other flavonoid-containing beverages during the study. Vascular function was measured before and after each beverage, with follow-up testing ≥12 h after consumption of the last beverage. Mean (±SD) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a measure of central aortic stiffness, decreased after cranberry juice (8.3 ± 2.3 to 7.8 ± 2.2 m/s) in contrast with an increase after placebo (8.0 ± 2.0 to 8.4 ± 2.8 m/s) (P = 0.003). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, digital pulse amplitude tonometry, blood pressure, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity did not change. In the uncontrolled pilot study, we observed improved brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (7.7 ± 2.9% to 8.7 ± 3.1%, P = 0.01) and digital pulse amplitude tonometry ratio (0.10 ± 0.12 to 0.23 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) 4 h after consumption of a single 480-mL portion of cranberry juice. Chronic cranberry juice consumption reduced carotid femoral pulse wave velocity-a clinically relevant measure of arterial stiffness. The uncontrolled pilot study suggested an acute benefit; however, no chronic effect on measures of endothelial vasodilator function was found. This trial

  10. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

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    Hua Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C 6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 10 6 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C 6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  11. Human embryology and the holy quran: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Sabiha

    2009-01-01

    Man's quest to know about his origin has led him to search his roots and the best source for him has been religious scriptures. The greatest miracle is the Holy Quraan. There is an elegant description of origin, development and step by step developmental stages of intra-uterine life in Quraan. Muslims had this knowledge in 7th century and the Prophet Muhammad's Ahadeeth (sayings, deeds, approvals narrated by authentic narrators) had explained almost everything about natal and even postnatal events. These findings once presented to experts in the field of Anatomy and Embryology surprised them and they believed that the knowledge given to the Prophet Muhammad was indeed divine. Who else would provide this knowledge to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) except the Creator Himself.Modern embryology is a fairly recent development which has its beginning with the invention of microscope in the 17th century. However the concept of the human being developing in stages was not recognised until much later. But the scientists then and most Muslim and non-Muslim scholars do not even know that the holy Quran and Sunnah [words, deeds, approvals of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) collected by authentic narrators] had provided a detailed description of the significant events in human development from the stages of gametes and conception until the full term pregnancy and delivery or even post partum. Actually information in the Quran and Hadith corrected many superstitious and vague ideas about human development that were prevalent before.

  12. Brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging differentiates between inflammatory neuropathies and does not predict disease course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, BA; Bos, Jeroen W; Rutgers, Dirk; van der Pol, WL; van den Berg, Leonard H

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the distribution of brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities and clinical weakness, and to evaluate the value of brachial plexus MRI in predicting disease course and response to treatment in

  13. Correlation between ultrasound imaging, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the brachial plexus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Geert J; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Jörgen; Scheffer, Gert J; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanatomy is provided.

  14. Impaired growth of denervated muscle contributes to contracture formation following neonatal brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Sia; Peterson, Elizabeth; Kim, Annie; Wylie, Christopher; Cornwall, Roger

    2011-03-02

    The etiology of shoulder and elbow contractures following neonatal brachial plexus injury is incompletely understood. With use of a mouse model, the current study tests the novel hypothesis that reduced growth of denervated muscle contributes to contractures following neonatal brachial plexus injury. Unilateral brachial plexus injuries were created in neonatal mice by supraclavicular C5-C6 nerve root excision. Shoulder and elbow range of motion was measured four weeks after injury. Fibrosis, cross-sectional area, and functional length of the biceps, brachialis, and subscapularis muscles were measured over four weeks following injury. Muscle satellite cells were cultured from denervated and control biceps muscles to assess myogenic capability. In a comparison group, shoulder motion and subscapularis length were assessed following surgical excision of external rotator muscles. Shoulder internal rotation and elbow flexion contractures developed on the involved side within four weeks following brachial plexus injury. Excision of the biceps and brachialis muscles relieved the elbow flexion contractures. The biceps muscles were histologically fibrotic, whereas fatty infiltration predominated in the brachialis and rotator cuff muscles. The biceps and brachialis muscles displayed reduced cross-sectional and longitudinal growth compared with the contralateral muscles. The upper subscapularis muscle similarly displayed reduced longitudinal growth, with the subscapularis shortening correlating with internal rotation contracture. However, excision of the external rotators without brachial plexus injury caused no contractures or subscapularis shortening. Myogenically capable satellite cells were present in denervated biceps muscles despite impaired muscle growth in vivo. Injury of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus leads to impaired growth of the biceps and brachialis muscles, which are responsible for elbow flexion contractures, and impaired growth of the subscapularis

  15. Betel nut chewing associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang

    2017-11-01

    Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A combined third and fourth branchial arch anomaly: clinical and embryological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrzad, H.; Georgalas, C.; Huins, C.; Tolley, N. S.

    2007-01-01

    Embryological abnormalities of the branchial apparatus present an interesting diagnostic and surgical challenge. Thymic cysts are a rare form of branchial apparatus anomaly, resulting from abnormal development of the third pharyngeal pouch. We present two cases of a thymic cyst coexisting with a non

  17. Transcutaneous oximetry compared to ankle-brachial-index measurement in the evaluation of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgruber, Moritz; Wolf, Oliver; Weiss, Wolfgang; Berger, Hermann; Lutzenberger, Werner; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Heider, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate transcutaneous oximetry as parameter of the microcirculation is correlated to ankle-brachial-index as parameter of the macrocirculation after peripheral angioplasty procedures. Design: Prospective study. Materials and methods: 60 patients suffering from intermittent claudication were scheduled for angioplasty treatment. 45 patients were considered as eligible for angioplasty after angiographic evaluation, 15 patients underwent angiography only. Transcutaneous oximetry measurements were performed before the procedure, at the end of intervention, 24 h as well as 2 and 4 weeks after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Ankle-brachial-indices were obtained before intervention, 24 h as well as 2 and 4 weeks later. Results: Ankle-brachial-indices increased significantly at 24 h after angioplasty in patients being treated with angioplasty. Transcutaneous oximetry values dropped significantly at the end of the procedure and returned close to the baseline levels at 2 and 4 weeks after angioplasty. Ankle-brachial-indices and transcutaneous oximetry were positively correlated before (r = 0.3833, p = 0.009) as well as 4 weeks after angioplasty (r = 0.4596, p = 0.001). Immediately after radiological interventions, ankle-brachial-indices and transcutaneous oximetry are not positively correlated. In patients undergoing angiography only, transcutaneous oximetry levels drop significantly immediately after angiography and remain at decreased levels even at 4 weeks after intervention. Conclusion: Transcutaneous oximetry as parameter of the microcirculation is positively correlated with ankle-brachial-index as parameter of the macrocirculation before and at 4 weeks after angioplasty. Intraarterial angiography leads to a sudden decrease in skin microcirculation without affecting macrocirculation. As indicated by a lack of recovery in transcutaneous oximetry levels after 4 weeks, angiography alone results in a prolonged impaired microcirculation which may

  18. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and symptomatic cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

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    Muramatsu Chie

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently a new automatic device that measures brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity using an oscillometric method has been developed. However, the practical significance of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity measurement remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and symptomatic cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods One thousand sixty six patients with type 2 diabetes were studied cross-sectionally. Measurements of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity were made using the automatic device. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio for cerebral infarction. Results The presence of symptomatic cerebral infarction was confirmed in 86 patients. In these patients brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was found to be significantly higher than in patients without cerebral infarction (18.94 ± 4.95 versus 16.46 ± 3.62 m/s, p Conclusion Overall, we conclude that an increase in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with symptomatic cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxuan; Lyu, Peiyuan; Ren, Yanyan; An, Jin; Dong, Yanhong

    2017-09-15

    Arterial stiffness is one of the earliest indicators of changes in vascular wall structure and function and may be assessed using various indicators, such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), the augmentation index (AI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness index-β. Arterial stiffness is generally considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. To date, a significant number of studies have focused on the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment. To investigate the relationships between specific arterial stiffness parameters and cognitive impairment, elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment and determine how to interfere with arterial stiffness to prevent cognitive impairment, we searched PUBMED for studies regarding the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment that were published from 2000 to 2017. We used the following key words in our search: "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment" and "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment mechanism". Studies involving human subjects older than 30years were included in the review, while irrelevant studies (i.e., studies involving subjects with comorbid kidney disease, diabetes and cardiac disease) were excluded from the review. We determined that arterial stiffness severity was positively correlated with cognitive impairment. Of the markers used to assess arterial stiffness, a higher PWV, CAVI, AI, IMT and index-β and a lower ABI and FMD were related to cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between PP and cognitive impairment remained controversial. The potential mechanisms linking arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment may be associated with arterial pulsatility, as greater arterial pulsatility

  20. Effectiveness of primary conservative management for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Kurlowicz, Kirsty; Vladusic, Sharon; Grimmer, Karen

    2005-03-01

    Background  Obstetric brachial plexus palsy, a complication of childbirth, occurs in 1-3 per 1000 live births internationally. Traction and/or compression of the brachial plexus is thought to be the primary mechanism of injury and this may occur in utero, during the descent through the birth canal or during delivery. This results in a spectrum of injuries that vary in severity, extent of damage and functional use of the affected upper limb. Most infants receive treatment, such as conservative management (physiotherapy, occupational therapy) or surgery; however, there is controversy regarding the most appropriate form of management. To date, no synthesised evidence is available regarding the effectiveness of primary conservative management for obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Objectives  The objective of this review was to systematically assess the literature and present the best available evidence that investigated the effectiveness of primary conservative management for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Search strategy  A systematic literature search was performed using 14 databases: TRIP, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science, Proquest 5000, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Expanded Academic ASAP, Meditext, Science Direct, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Proquest Digital Dissertations, Open Archives Initiative Search Engine, Australian Digital Thesis Program. Those studies that were reported in English and published over the last decade (July 1992 to June 2003) were included in this review. Selection criteria  Quantitative studies that investigated the effectiveness of primary conservative management for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were eligible for inclusion in this review. This excluded studies that solely investigated the effect of primary surgery for these infants, management of secondary deformities and the investigation of the effects of pharmacological agents, such as botulinum toxin. Data collection and analysis

  1. Growth hormone (GH) and atherosclerosis: changes in morphology and function of major arteries during GH treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, M; Verhovec, R; Zizek, B

    1999-04-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and reduced arterial distensibility. The effect of 2 years of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on these parameters was studied in 11 GH-deficient men (age range, 24-49 years) with hypopituitarism and compared with 12 healthy, age-matched men with no evidence of pituitary or vascular disease. Before treatment the intima-media of the common carotid arteries and the carotid bifurcations were significantly thicker in patients (P < 0.001) than in the control group. Treatment with GH normalized the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery within 6 months and of the carotid bifurcation within 3 months. The changes in intima-media thickness of the carotid artery were negatively correlated with changes in serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I during treatment. There was a significant improvement in flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent dilation of the brachial artery at 3 months, which was sustained at 6, 18 and 24 months of GH treatment (P < 0.05). Thus, GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient men reverses early morphological and functional atherosclerotic changes in major arteries, and may reduce rates of vascular morbidity and mortality.

  2. Brachial plexus injury management through upper extremity amputation with immediate postoperative prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J M; Leal, J M; Underwood, J; Childers, S J

    1982-02-01

    Management of patients with brachial plexus injuries requires a team approach so that all aspects of their care are addressed simultaneously. This report examines elective amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation in a patient with brachial plexus avulsion of the left arm. The best possibility for good prosthetic rehabilitation is the early application of prosthetic devices with intensive occupational therapy. Using this type of approach, we have achieved significant improvement in amputation rehabilitation of upper extremity amputees treated with immediate postoperative conventional electric and myoelectric prostheses.

  3. Circulating matrix metalloproteinases are associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Stijn A.; Engelen, Lian; Buijs, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) may contribute to arterial stiffening. We investigated associations between circulating MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10 and TIMP-1, and carotid......). Linear regression analyses were used to investigate cross-sectional associations between circulating levels of MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10, and TIMP-1 and cfPWV (n = 614) as well as office PP (n = 1517). Data on 24-h brachial and 24-h central PP were available in 638 individuals from PROFIL. Analyses were...... was associated with cfPWV [β per 1 SD higher lnMMP3 0.29 m/s (0.02; 0.55)]. In addition, brachial and central 24-h PP measurements in PROFIL were significantly associated with MMP-2 [(1.40 (0.47:2.33) and 1.43 (0.63:2.23)]. Pooled data analysis showed significant associations of circulating levels of MMP-1...

  4. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  5. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  6. Bilateral brachial plexus blocks in a patient of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy with hypertensive crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini V Bhat Pai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM is a challenge to anesthesiologists due to the complex pathophysiology involved and various perioperative complications associated with it. We present a 50-year-old man, a known case of HOCM, who successfully underwent emergency haemostasis, and debridement of the traumatically amputated right upper limb and the contused lacerated wound on the left forearm under bilateral brachial plexus blocks. His co-morbidities included hypertension (in hypertensive crisis and diabetes mellitus. He was full stomach and also had an anticipated difficult airway. The management included invasive pressure monitoring and labetalol infusion for emergent control of blood pressure. The regional anaesthesia technique required careful consideration to the dosage of local anaesthetics and staggered performance of brachial plexus blocks on each of the upper limbs to avoid local anaesthetic toxicity. Even though bilateral brachial plexus blocks are rarely indicated, it seemed to be the most appropriate anaesthetic technique in our patient. With careful consideration of the local anaesthetic toxicity and meticulous technique, bilateral brachial plexus blocks can be successfully performed in those patients where general anaesthesia is deemed to be associated with higher risk.

  7. The impact of menstrual phase on brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation during handgrip exercise in healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urzo, Katrina A; King, Trevor J; Williams, Jennifer S; Silvester, Morgan D; Pyke, Kyra E

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase on flow-mediated dilatation in response to sustained, exercise-induced increases in shear stress. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed, for the first time, that in healthy, premenopausal women the flow-mediated dilatation stimulated by exercise-induced increases in shear stress did not fluctuate across two phases of the menstrual cycle, despite significant fluctuations in oestrogen. This suggests that endothelial function is not consistently augmented in the high-oestrogen phase. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in response to a sustained shear-stress stimulus (e.g. via handgrip exercise; HGEX) is emerging as a useful tool for assessing endothelial function; however, the impact of menstrual phase on HGEX-FMD is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HGEX-FMD fluctuates with cyclical changes in oestrogen concentrations over two discrete phases (low and high oestrogen) of the menstrual cycle. Brachial artery (BA) diameter and blood velocity were assessed with two-dimesional and Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Shear stress was estimated using shear rate (SR = BA blood velocity/BA diameter). Participants (12 healthy, regularly cycling women, 21 ± 2 years of age) completed two experimental visits: (i) low oestrogen (early follicular, EF); and (ii) high oestrogen (late follicular, LF). Reactive hyperaemia-stimulated FMD (RH-FMD) and HGEX-FMD (6 min of handgrip exercise) were assessed during each visit. Results are mean values ± SD. Oestrogen increased from the EF to LF phase (EF, 33 ± 9 pg ml -1 ; LF, 161 ± 113 pg ml -1 , P = 0.003). However, neither the SR stimuli (HGEX, P = 0.501; RH, P = 0.173) nor the FMD responses differed between phases (EF versus LF: HGEX-FMD, 4.8 ± 2.8 versus 4.6 ± 2.2%, P = 0.601; RH-FMD, 7.9 ± 4.3 versus 6.4 ± 3.1%, P = 0.071). These results extend

  8. Brachial and Cerebrovascular Functions Are Enhanced in Postmenopausal Women after Ingestion of Chocolate with a High Concentration of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Carter, Howard H; Guelfi, Kym J; Smith, Kurt J; Pike, Kerryn E; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    Background: Cocoa contains polyphenols that are thought to be beneficial for vascular health. Objective: We assessed the impact of chocolate containing distinct concentrations of cocoa on cerebrovascular function and cognition. Methods: Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, we compared the acute impact of consumption of energy-matched chocolate containing 80%, 35%, and 0% single-origin cacao on vascular endothelial function, cognition, and cerebrovascular function in 12 healthy postmenopausal women (mean ± SD age: 57.3 ± 5.3 y). Participants attended a familiarization session, followed by 3 experimental trials, each separated by 1 wk. Outcome measures included cerebral blood flow velocity (CBF v ) responses, recorded before and during completion of a computerized cognitive assessment battery (CogState); brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD); and hemodynamic responses (heart rate and blood pressure). Results: When CBF v data before and after chocolate intake were compared between conditions through the use of 2-factor ANOVA, an interaction effect ( P = 0.003) and main effects for chocolate ( P = 0.043) and time ( P = 0.001) were evident. Post hoc analysis revealed that both milk chocolate (MC; 35% cocoa; P = 0.02) and dark chocolate (DC; 80% cocoa; P = 0.003) induced significantly lower cerebral blood flow responses during the cognitive tasks, after normalizing for changes in arterial pressure. DC consumption also increased brachial FMD compared with the baseline value before chocolate consumption ( P = 0.002), whereas MC and white chocolate (0% cocoa) caused no change ( P- interaction between conditions = 0.034). Conclusions: Consumption of chocolate containing high concentrations of cocoa enhanced vascular endothelial function, which was reflected by improvements in FMD. Cognitive function outcomes did not differ between conditions; however, cerebral blood flow responses during these cognitive tasks were lower in those consuming MC and DC. These

  9. Decreased muscle oxygenation and increased arterial blood flow in the non-exercising limb during leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Shimomura, Kousuke; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise.

  10. Biomechanics of Ergometric Stress Test: regional and local effects on elastic, transitional and muscular human arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, G.; Torrado, J.; Farro, I.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Lluberas, S.; Craiem, D.; Armentano, Rl

    2011-09-01

    Ergometric exercise stress tests (EST) give important information about the cardiovascular (CV) response to increased demands. The expected EST-related changes in variables like blood pressure and heart rate are known, but those in the arterial biomechanics are controversial and incompletely characterized. In this context, this work aims were to characterize the regional and local arterial biomechanical behaviour in response to EST; to evaluate its temporal profile in the post-EST recovery phase; and to compare the biomechanical response of different to EST. Methods: In 16 non-trained healthy young subjects the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the carotid, femoral and brachial arterial distensibility were non-invasively evaluated before (Rest) and after EST. Main results: The EST resulted in an early increase in the arterial stiffness, evidenced by both, regional and local parameters (pulse wave velocity increase and distensibility reduction). When analyzing conjunctly the different post-EST recovery stages there were quali-quantitative differences among the arterial local stiffness response to EST. The biomechanical changes could not be explained only by blood pressure variations.

  11. Biomechanics of Ergometric Stress Test: regional and local effects on elastic, transitional and muscular human arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, G; Torrado, J; Farro, I; Bia, D; Zocalo, Y; Lluberas, S; Armentano, RL; Craiem, D

    2011-01-01

    Ergometric exercise stress tests (EST) give important information about the cardiovascular (CV) response to increased demands. The expected EST-related changes in variables like blood pressure and heart rate are known, but those in the arterial biomechanics are controversial and incompletely characterized. In this context, this work aims were to characterize the regional and local arterial biomechanical behaviour in response to EST; to evaluate its temporal profile in the post-EST recovery phase; and to compare the biomechanical response of different to EST. Methods: In 16 non-trained healthy young subjects the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the carotid, femoral and brachial arterial distensibility were non-invasively evaluated before (Rest) and after EST. Main results: The EST resulted in an early increase in the arterial stiffness, evidenced by both, regional and local parameters (pulse wave velocity increase and distensibility reduction). When analyzing conjunctly the different post-EST recovery stages there were quali-quantitative differences among the arterial local stiffness response to EST. The biomechanical changes could not be explained only by blood pressure variations.

  12. Types and severity of operated supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries caused by traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Radek; Waldauf, Petr; Haninec, Pavel

    2012-07-01

    Brachial plexus injuries occur in up to 5% of polytrauma cases involving motorcycle accidents and in approximately 4% of severe winter sports injuries. One of the criteria for a successful operative therapy is the type of lesion. Upper plexus palsy has the best prognosis, whereas lower plexus palsy is surgically untreatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group of patients with brachial plexus injury caused by traffic accidents, categorize the injuries according to type of accident, and look for correlations between type of palsy (injury) and specific accidents. A total of 441 brachial plexus reconstruction patients from our department were evaluated retrospectively(1993 to 2011). Sex, age, neurological status, and the type and cause of injury were recorded for each case. Patients with BPI caused by a traffic accident were assessed in detail. Traffic accidents were the cause of brachial plexus injury in most cases (80.7%). The most common type of injury was avulsion of upper root(s) (45.7%) followed by rupture (28.2%), complete avulsion (16.9%) and avulsion of lower root(s) (9.2%). Of the patients, 73.9% had an upper,22.7% had a complete and only 3.4% had a lower brachial plexus palsy. The main cause was motorcycle accidents(63.2%) followed by car accidents (23.5%), bicycle accidents(10.7%) and pedestrian collisions (3.1%) (paccidents had a higher percentage of lower avulsion (22.7%) and a lower percentage of upper avulsion (29.3%), whereas cyclists had a higher percentage of upper avulsion (68.6%) based on the data from the entire group of patients (paccidents (9.3%,paccidents),significantly more upper and fewer lower palsies were present. In the bicycle accident group, upper palsy was the most common (89%). Study results indicate that the most common injury was an upper plexus palsy. It was characteristic of bicycle accidents, and significantly more common in car and motorcycle accidents. The results also indicate that it is important to consider the

  13. Brachial Plexus Neuropraxia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Kelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuropraxia develops as a result of localized nerve compression. The anatomical structure of the nerve is protected. Motor loss and paresthesias may occur, pain sensation is rarely affected. The distal portion of the extremities are affected more often. Clinical symptoms respond well to treatments. In this case was presented brachial plexus neuropraxia which is a very rare situation und the literature was reviewed. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(4.000: 247-250

  14. The blind pushing technique for peripherally inserted central catheter placement through brachial vein puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Myeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Kim, Han Myun; Song, Myung Gyu; Song, Soon-Young; Yeon, Jae Woo; Yoon, Dae Young; Lee, Sam Yeol

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a prospective clinical trial evaluating the technical feasibility and short-term clinical outcome of the blind pushing technique for placement of pretrimmed peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) through brachial vein access. Patients requiring PICC placement at any of the three participating institutions were prospectively enrolled between January and December 2016. The review boards of all participating institutions approved this study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. PICC placement was performed using the blind pushing technique and primary brachial vein access. The following data were collected from unified case report forms: access vein, obstacles during PICC advancement, procedure time, and postprocedural complications. During the 12-month study period, 1380 PICCs were placed in 1043 patients. Of these, 1092 PICCs placed in 837 patients were enrolled, with 834 PICCs (76%) and 258 PICCs (34%) placed through brachial vein and nonbrachial vein access, respectively. In both arms, obstacles were most commonly noted in the subclavian veins (n = 220) and axillary veins (n = 94). Successful puncture of the access vein was achieved at first try in 1028 PICCs (94%). The technical success rate was 99%, with 1055 PICCs (97%) placed within 120 seconds of procedure time and 1088 PICCs (99%) having the tip located at the ideal position. Follow-up Doppler ultrasound detected catheter-associated upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT) for 18 PICCs in 16 patients and late symptomatic UEDVT for 16 PICCs in 16 patients (3.1%). Catheter-associated UEDVT was noted for 28 PICCs (82%) and 6 PICCs (18%) placed through brachial vein and nonbrachial vein access, respectively. The incidence of obstacles and the procedure time (pushing technique and primary brachial vein access is technically feasible and may represent an alternative to the conventional PICC placement technique, having low incidences of

  15. Bilateral Symmetrical Brachial Plexopathy in Association with Scrub Typhus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a commonly encountered rickettsial disease of the Indian subcontinent caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It can be associated with various neurological manifestations. We report a case of 50 year old man with bilateral symmetrical brachial plexopathy associated with scrub typhus from the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand state. The initial manifestations were fever, bodyaches and weakness in both upper limbs. Laboratory reports confirmed the diagnosis of scrub typhus. EMG and NCV were strongly suggestive of upper brachial plexopathy. Patient was discharged in satisfactory condition

  16. Assessment tools used by occupational therapists in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Thaianny Taís Dantas de Brito; Carolinne Linhares Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy (OBPP) is a result of brachial plexus injury at birth and may cause dysfunction of the affected upper limb, reflecting significantly in the child’s life. When evaluating a child with OBPP the occupational therapist can use evaluation tools, and has to have knowledge to choose and apply the most appropriate instrument. Objective: This review aimed to analyze the literature on the use of evaluation tools by occupational therapists in...

  17. Association of plasma fetuin-a levels with peripheral arterial disease and lower extremity arterial calcification in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Grigoropoulou, Pinelopi; Kokkinos, Alexander; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Perrea, Despoina; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Sfikakis, Petros P; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2017-03-01

    Fetuin-A is a hepatic glycoprotein that is involved in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Herein we examined the association of plasma fetuin-A levels with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 71 patients with T2DM and 57 non-diabetic individuals were recruited. Diagnosis of PAD was based on the absence of triphasic waveform at pedal arteries, while ankle-brachial index (ABI) was calculated. Radiographs of both feet and ankles were taken for the assessment of lower extremity arterial calcification (LEAC). Plasma fetuin-A levels were measured using ELISA. Patients with T2DM had higher fetuin-A levels than non-diabetic participants. Participants with diabetes and PAD had lower fetuin-A levels than non-PAD diabetic patients. In subjects with T2DM fetuin-A levels were associated with ABI. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that in patients with T2DM the odds of PAD increased with long diabetes duration, smoking, presence of arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia, as well as with lower fetuin-A levels. A trend towards higher fetuin-A levels in subjects with less severe LEAC was found. Plasma fetuin-A levels are lower in patients with T2DM and PAD and are associated with PAD, irrespective of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, fetuin-A may be involved in arterial calcification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the, hitherto comparatively unexplored, reception of Greek embryology by medieval Muslim jurists. The article elaborates on the views attributed to Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC), which received attention from both Muslim physicians, such as Avicenna (d. 1037), and their Jewish peers living in the Muslim world including Ibn Jumay' (d. ca. 1198) and Moses Maimonides (d. 1204). The religio-ethical implications of these Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryological views were fathomed out by the two medieval Muslim jurists Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (d. 1285) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350). By putting these medieval religio-ethical discussions into the limelight, the article aims to argue for a two-pronged thesis. Firstly, pre-modern medical ethics did exist in the Islamic tradition and available evidence shows that this field had a multidisciplinary character where the Islamic scriptures and the Graeco-Islamic-Jewish medical legacy were highly intertwined. This information problematizes the postulate claiming that medieval Muslim jurists were hostile to the so-called 'ancient sciences'. Secondly, these medieval religio-ethical discussions remain playing a significant role in shaping the nascent field of contemporary Islamic bioethics. However, examining the exact character and scope of this role still requires further academic ventures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Predictive value of auscultation of femoropopliteal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Carla; Jacomella, Vincenzo; Kovacicova, Ludmila; Husmann, Marc; Clemens, Robert K; Thalhammer, Christopf; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R

    2013-03-05

    Femoropopliteal bruits indicate flow turbulences and increased blood flow velocity, usually caused by an atherosclerotic plaque or stenosis. No data exist on the quality of bruits as a means for quantifying the degree of stenosis. We therefore conducted a prospective observational study to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of femoropopliteal auscultation, differentiated on the basis of bruit quality, to detect and quantify clinically relevant stenoses in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with known chronic and stable PAD were recruited in the outpatient clinic. We included patients with known PAD and an ankle-brachial index (ABI) Auscultation was performed independently by three investigators with varied clinical experience after a 10-minute period of rest. Femoropopliteal lesions were classified as follows: normal vessel wall or slight wall thickening (auscultation were low in all vascular regions and did not differ between investigators. Sensitivity was low in most areas with an increase after exercise. The highest sensitivity in detecting relevant (>50%) stenosis was found in the common femoral artery (86%). Vascular auscultation is known to be of great use in routine clinical practice in recognising arterial abnormalities. Diagnosis of PAD is based on various diagnostic tools (pulse palpation, ABI measurement) and auscultation can localise relevant stenosis. However, auscultation alone is of limited sensitivity and specificity in grading stenosis in femoropopliteal arteries. Where PAD is clinically suspected further diagnostic tools, especially colour-coded duplex ultrasound, should be employed to quantify the underlying lesion.

  20. Superior and inferior vena cavae: Embryology, variants, and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.S.; Mitty, H.; Janus, C.; Gendal, E.; Berson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The superior and inferior venae cavae may be involved in a host of disease processes. Knowledge of the normal anatomy and variants of these structures is valuable in interpreting plain films and the results of angiographic procedures and all cross-sectional modalities. The authors review the embryology of venae cavae and proceed to describe their normal anatomy and variants. An awareness of the variants can prevent mistaking variants for pathologic processes. Finally, the authors describe pathology involving these vessels and demonstrate the radiographic manifestations

  1. Brain nonoxidative carbohydrate consumption is not explained by export of an unknown carbon source: evaluation of the arterial and jugular venous metabolome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nyberg, Nils; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2010-01-01

    uptake is unknown, but it may be that brain metabolism is balanced by a yet-unidentified substance(s). This study used a nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics approach to plasma samples obtained from the brachial artery and the right internal jugular vein in 16 healthy young males to identify...... be accounted for by changes in the NMR-derived plasma metabolome across the brain....

  2. Measurement of blood pressure, ankle blood pressure and calculation of ankle brachial index in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Damsbo, Bent; Lund, Jens Otto

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values......BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values...

  3. Characteristics and Fate of Systemic Artery Aneurysm after Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Shinsuke; Tsuda, Etsuko; Yamada, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    To determine the long-term outcome of systemic artery aneurysms (SAAs) after Kawasaki disease (KD). We investigated the characteristics and the fate of SAAs in 20 patients using medical records and angiograms. The age of onset of KD ranged from 1 month to 20 months. The interval from the onset of KD to the latest angiogram ranged from 16 months to 24 years. The regression rate of peripheral artery aneurysm and the frequency of stenotic lesions were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method in 11 patients who had undergone initial angiography within 4 months. The mean duration of fever was 24 ± 12 days. All 20 patients had at least 1 symmetric pair of aneurysms in bilateral peripheral arteries, and 16 patients had multiple SAAs. The distributions of SAAs was as follows: brachial artery, 30; common iliac artery, 20; internal iliac artery, 21; abdominal aortic aneurysm, 7; and others, 29. The frequencies of regression of SAA and of the occurrence of stenotic lesions at 20 years after the onset of KD were 51% and 25%, respectively (n = 42). The diameter of all SAAs in the acute phase leading to stenotic lesions in the late period was >10 mm. SAAs occurred symmetrically and were multiple in younger infants and those with severe acute vasculitis. The fate of SAAs resembles that of coronary artery aneurysms, and depends on the diameter during the acute phase. Larger SAAs can lead to stenotic lesions in the late period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The right vertebral artery originating from the right occipital artery and the absence of the transverse foramen: a rare anatomical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, Zülal; Öner, Serkan; Kahraman, Ayşegül Sağır

    2017-12-01

    Variations in the origin of the vertebral artery (VA) is a congenital anomaly that occurs during embryological development. Multiple variations related to VA origin have been reported in the literature. Abnormal VA origin is usually determined as incidental findings during angiographic or postmortem anatomical studies. Although most of the cases are asymptomatic, in patients with VA anomaly symptoms such as dizziness have been described. The anomalous variation in the origin of the right VA is rare and separated into three categories: (1) originating from the aorta, (2) originating from the carotid arteries, (3) duplicated origin. In this case, we aimed to present the right VA originating from the right occipital artery and concomitant anomalies of the transverse foramen that have not been reported previously according to our knowledge in literature. In a 32-year-old female patient referred to our hospital because of dizziness, the right VA was not observed on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography angiography (CTA) examination was performed. CTA showed hypoplasia of the right transverse foramen at the levels of the C1, C5 and C6 vertebrae and aplasia of the right transverse foramen at the levels of the C2, C3 and C4 vertebrae. The right VA originating from the right occipital artery continues to its normal course by entering the cranium through the foramen magnum at the level of the atlantooccipital junction.

  5. Arterial and venous plasma levels of bupivacaine following peripheral nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D C; Mather, L E; Bridenbaugh, L D; Balfour, R I; Lysons, D F; Horton, W G

    1976-01-01

    Mean arterial plasma (MAP) and peripheral mean venous plasma (MVP) levels of bupivacaine were ascertained in 3 groups of 10 patients each for: (1) intercostal nerve block, 400 mg; (2) block of the sciatic, femoral, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves, with or without block of the obturator nerve, 400 mg; and (3) supraclavicular brachial plexus block, 300 mg. MAP levels were consistently higher than simultaneously sampled MVP levels, the highest levels occurring from bilateral intercostal nerve block. No evidence of systemic toxicity was observed. The results suggest that bupivacaine has a much wider margin of safety in humans than is now stated.

  6. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus. Using action-research techniques, with this simulator it was possible to validate that the human nerve response can be replicated, which will aid the training of health professionals, reducing possible risks in a surgical environment.

  7. Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After High-Dose Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Hall, William H.; Li, Judy; Beckett, Laurel; Farwell, D. Gregory; Lau, Derick H.; Purdy, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical and treatment-related predictors of brachial plexus–associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Three hundred thirty patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively screened using a standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from completion of radiation therapy was 56 months (range, 6–135 months). One-hundred fifty-five patients (47%) were treated by definitive radiation therapy, and 175 (53%) were treated postoperatively. Radiation doses ranged from 50 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was used in 62% of cases, and 133 patients (40%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Forty patients (12%) reported neuropathic symptoms, with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), motor weakness, and/or muscle atrophy (25%). When patients with <5 years of follow-up were excluded, the rate of positive symptoms increased to 22%. On univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with brachial plexus symptoms: prior neck dissection (p = 0.01), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both neck dissection (p < 0.001) and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001) were independently predictive of symptoms. Conclusion: The incidence of brachial plexus–associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer may be underreported. In view of the dose–response relationship identified, limiting radiation dose to the brachial plexus should be considered when possible.

  8. Fitness as a determinant of arterial stiffness in healthy adult men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinwook; Kim, Milyang; Jin, Youngsoo; Kim, Yonghwan; Hong, Jeeyoung

    2018-01-01

    Fitness is known to influence arterial stiffness. This study aimed to assess differences in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility according to arterial stiffness, based on sex and age. We enrolled 1590 healthy adults (men: 1242, women: 348) who were free of metabolic syndrome. We measured cardiorespiratory endurance in an exercise stress test on a treadmill, muscular strength by a grip test, and flexibility by upper body forward-bends from a standing position. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity test was performed to measure arterial stiffness before the fitness test. Cluster analysis was performed to divide the patients into groups with low (Cluster 1) and high (Cluster 2) arterial stiffness. According to the k-cluster analysis results, Cluster 1 included 624 men and 180 women, and Cluster 2 included 618 men and 168 women. Men in the middle-aged group with low arterial stiffness demonstrated higher cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility than those with high arterial stiffness. Similarly, among men in the old-aged group, the cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular strength, but not flexibility, differed significantly according to arterial stiffness. Women in both clusters showed similar cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility regardless of their arterial stiffness. Among healthy adults, arterial stiffness was inversely associated with fitness in men but not in women. Therefore, fitness seems to be a determinant for arterial stiffness in men. Additionally, regular exercise should be recommended for middle-aged men to prevent arterial stiffness.

  9. Origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla: Cervidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus is a set of nerves originated in the cervicothoracic medular region which innervates the thoracic limb and its surroundings. Its study in different species is important not only as a source of morphological knowledge, but also because it facilitates the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders resulting from various pathologies. This study aimed to describe the origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of Mazama gouazoubira. Three specimens were used, belonging to the scientific collection of the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU; they were fixed in 3.7% formaldehyde and dissected. In M. gouazoubira, the brachial plexus resulted from connections between the branches of the three last cervical spinal nerves, C6, C7, C8, and the first thoracic one, T1, and it had as derivations the nerves suprascapular, cranial and caudal subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, pectoral, thoracodorsal, long thoracic and lateral thoracic. The muscles innervated by the brachial plexus nerves were the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres major, teres minor, deltoid, cleidobrachial, coracobrachialis, biceps brachialis, brachial, triceps brachialis, anconeus, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, lateral ulnar, extensor carpi obliquus, extensor digitorum, superficial pectoral, deep pectoral, ventral serratus, and external oblique abdominal.

  10. Aneurysmatic dissection of an aberrant right subclavian artery; Disseziierendes Aneurysma einer aberranten Arteria subclavia dextra: Diagnose mittels Ultrafast-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, P. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria). Abt. fuer Allgemeine Radiologie; Stacher, R. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria). Abt. fuer Allgemeine Radiologie

    1996-01-01

    Diagnosis with Ultrafast-CT: An aneurysm of an aberrant right subclavian artery is a very rare cause for dysphagia. We describe such a case in a 67-year-old patient, diagnosed with Ultrafast-CT and discuss it together in concert with the embryology and the radiological findings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine aberrierende Arteria subclavia dextra ist eine seltene Ursache fuer Dysphagie. Anhand eines 67jaehrigen Patienten werden Embryologie und radiologische Charakteristika, diagnostiziert mittels Ultrafast-CT, diskutiert. (orig.)

  11. Transbrachial artery approach for selective cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Morisako, Toshitaka; Numazawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Keisuke; Nagai, Shigeki; Shibamoto, Kenji

    1990-01-01

    Transaxillary or transbrachial approaches to the cerebral vessels have been reported, but selective angiography of all four vessels has not been possible through one route. In this report, a new technique for selective cerebral angiography with transbrachial approach is described. One hundred and twenty three patients with cerebral infarction, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, intracerebral hemorrhage, epilepsy, or cerebral tumor were examined. Those patients consisted of 85 outpatients and 38 inpatients whose age ranged from 15 years old to 82 years old. The patients were examined via the transbrachial approach (97 cases via the right brachial, 29 cases via the left). Materials included a DSA system (Digital Fluorikon 5000, General Electric Co.), a 4 French tight J-curved Simmons 80-cm catheter, a 19-gauge extra-thin-wall Seldinger needle, and a J/Straight floppy 125-cm guide-wire. Generally, the volume of the contrast agent (300 mgI/ml iopamidol) used in the common carotid artery angiogram was 6 ml, while that used in the vertebral artery angiogram was 4 ml. If catheterization of the vertebral artery or right common carotid artery was unsuccessful, about 8 ml of the contrast agent was injected into the subclavian or branchiocephalic artery. Definitive diagnosis and a decision on proper treatment of the patients can be easily obtained, and the results were clinically satisfactory. Moreover, no complications were encountered in this study. This new technique making a transbrachial approach to the cerebral vessels using the DSA system is introduced here. Neurosurgeons can use this technique easily, and they will find that it provides them with all the information they need about the patient. (author)

  12. Effect of dexamethasone in low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A double-blinded randomized clinical study

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    Arun Kumar Alarasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: With the use of ultrasound, a minimal effective volume of 20 ml has been described for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. However achieving a long duration of analgesia with this minimal volume remains a challenge. We aimed to determine the effect of dexamethasone on onset and duration of analgesia in low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Material and Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Group C received saline (2 ml + 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine and Group D received dexamethasone (8 mg + 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Hemodynamic variables and visual analog scale (VAS score were noted at regular intervals until 450 min. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block were measured. The incidence of "Halo" around brachial plexus was observed. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The onset of sensory and motor block was significantly earlier in dexamethasone group (10.36 ± 1.99 and 12 ± 1.64 minutes compared to control group (12.9 ± 2.23 and 18.03 ± 2.41 minutes. The duration of sensory and motor block was significantly prolonged in dexamethasone group (366 ± 28.11 and 337.33 ± 28.75 minutes compared to control group (242.66 ± 26.38 and 213 ± 26.80 minutes. The VAS score was significantly lower in dexamethasone group after 210 min. "Halo" was present around the brachial plexus in all patients in both the groups. Conclusion: Dexamethasone addition significantly increases the duration of analgesia in patients receiving low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block. No significant side-effects were seen in patients receiving dexamethasone as an adjunct.

  13. Acute EGCG supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlansky, Michael E; Hamburg, Naomi M; Anter, Elad; Holbrook, Monika; Kahn, David F; Elliott, James G; Keaney, John F; Vita, Joseph A

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an inverse relation between dietary flavonoid intake and cardiovascular risk. Recent studies with flavonoid-containing beverages suggest that the benefits of these nutrients may relate, in part, to improved endothelial function. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in tea, would improve endothelial function in humans. We examined the effects of EGCG on endothelial function in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by vascular ultrasound at six time points: prior to treatment with EGCG or placebo, two hours after an initial dose of EGCG (300 mg) or placebo, and after two weeks of treatment with EGCG (150 mg twice daily) or placebo. The order of treatments (EGCG or placebo) was randomized and there was a one-week washout period between treatments. A total of 42 subjects completed the study, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation improved from 7.1 +/- 4.1 to 8.6 +/- 4.7% two hours after the first dose of 300 mg of EGCG (P = 0.01), but was similar to baseline (7.8 +/- 4.2%, P = 0.12) after two weeks of treatment with the final measurements made approximately 14 hours after the last dose. Placebo treatment had no significant effect, and there were no changes in reactive hyperemia or the response to sublingual nitroglycerin. The changes in vascular function paralleled plasma EGCG concentrations, which increased from 2.6 +/- 10.9 to 92.8 +/- 78.7 ng/ml after acute EGCG (P effects of flavonoid-rich food on endothelial function.

  14. Unusual association of congenital middle ear cholesteatoma and first branchial cleft anomaly: management and embryological concepts.

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    Nicollas, R; Tardivet, L; Bourlière-Najean, B; Sudre-Levillain, I; Triglia, J M

    2005-02-01

    To report two cases of an undescribed association of first branchial cleft fistula and middle ear congenital cholesteatoma and to discuss management and embryological hypothesis. Retrospective study and review of the literature Both patients were young girls free of past medical or surgical history. Surgical removal of the first cleft anomaly found in the two cases a fistula routing underneath the facial nerve. Both cholesteatomas were located in the hypotympanum, mesotympanum. In one case, an anatomical link between the two malformations was clearly identified with CT scan. The main embryological theories and classification are reviewed. A connection between Aimi's and Michaels' theories (congenital cholesteatoma) and Work classification might explain the reported clinical association.

  15. Segmental variants of the inferior vena cava - typical findings correlated with embryological development for differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.R.; Huggle, H.; Hueppe, T.; Friedrich, M.; Andresen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The vast variability of the overall rare congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are mostly detected by accident through different imaging modalities. These cannot be classed as pathological findings, and should not be confused with lymphomas and has to differ from secondary collateral venous pathways. Based on 656 CT examinations 10.5% known forms of IVC anomalies were found. According to the embryological development three main groups of IVC variants could be nosologically classified: agenesis of the suprarenal IVC, anomalies of the pars renalis and anomalies of the infrarenal IVC. Additionally three unusual anomaly complexes were found. For the understanding details of the embryology based on a simplified depiction are presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Ankle-brachial index and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity are risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients with Type 2 diabetes

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    Ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of ischemic stroke in patients with diabetes is increasing. While brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (BaPWV and ankle-brachial index (ABI are known to be associated with ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, whether these measures predict the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in diabetic patients remains unclear. 117 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study. According to the results of head magnetic resonance imaging, the patients were divided into a diabetes-only group (n = 55 and a diabetes and ischemic stroke group (n = 62. We then performed ABI and BaPWV examinations for all patients. Compared with the diabetes-only group, we found decreased ABI and increased BaPWV in the diabetes and ischemic stroke group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BaPWV and ABI were risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our findings indicate that decreased ABI and increased BaPWV are objective indicators of increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Peripheral artery disease in type II diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.; Ahmed, S.M.; Bhutto, A.R.; Chaudhry, A.; Munir, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in type 2 diabetic patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Diabetes Clinic, Medical Unit III, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January to June 2010. Methodology:Three hundred and eighty seven (387) type II diabetic patients of either gender and any age were included. Patients with a previous history of trauma to the arterial vasculature, pregnancy and those who underwent in the study arterial graft procedures were excluded. Non-purposive convenient sampling technique was used to enroll patients in the study. PAD was diagnosed when ankle-brachial index (ABI) was less than 0.9. Ap-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of 387 studied patients, 128 were males (33.1%) and 259 were females (66.9%). Mean age was 52.22 +- 6.39 years. PAD was detected in 152 9.671 (22 - 76) years in the entire cohort. Mean duration of diabetes was 9.38 +- (39.28%) of the total study subjects. Thirty-one of 128 male patients (24.22%) had PAD disease while 121 out of 259 female patients (46.71%) had evidence of PAD (p = 0.001). Hypertension was a significantly associated factor (p = 0.002). Conclusion: A high frequency of PAD was observed in the diabetic population particularly with hypertension and more prevalent in females. (author)

  18. Midterm results of endovascular treatment of iliac artery lesions: analysis of 59 cases

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    Leonardo Ghizoni Bez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease has become increasingly frequent in the past few years. Because it is a less invasive procedure, lower morbidity and mortality rates are associated with this form of treatment. OBJECTIVES: To describe the endovascular procedures performed in iliac arteries for the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. METHODS: This retrospective study assesses 59 cases of iliac artery angioplasty performed according to a specific protocol from January 2004 to February 2010. RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 62 years (minimum: 42, maximum: 89. Thirty seven were male (62.72% and 22 female (37.28%. The main indications for treatment were moderate to severe intermittent claudication in 30 cases (50.84% and rest pain or trophic lesions (critical ischemia in 29 cases (49.15%. Postoperative follow-up included ankle-brachial index measurements and a duplex ultrasound at 30 days, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and every 6 months thereafter. Minimum follow-up time was 3 months, and maximum, 72 months (6 years, with primary and secondary patency rates of 91.37 and 94.82%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case series, combined with literature review results, allow to conclude that the endovascular approach is an effective and safe option to treat peripheral arterial occlusive disease in iliac arteries.

  19. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

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    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  20. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Xun-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Li, Su-Rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yue

    2015-02-01

    Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering 'excellent' and 'good' muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  1. A peripheral artery disease screening study in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Osorio, Héctor; Franqui-Rivera, Hilton; García-Palmieri, Mario R; Díaz-Santana, Mary V; Alvarez, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) of the lower extremities is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated. The results of screening for PAD in adults attending outpatient clinics at different sites in Puerto Rico from 2007 to 2010 are presented. A total of 33 outpatients screening clinics were conducted at different sites throughout the Island. Following the ACC/AHA Guideline recommendations, asymptomatic patients who qualified were screened for PAD using the ankle-brachial index (ABI). An ABI diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia are known key factors in development of PAD. Practicing physicians must be aware of the importance of an early diagnosis of PAD, particularly in the asymptomatic patient, so as to institute preventive and management measures.

  2. Brachial plexopathy: recurrent cancer or radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, R.J.; Wilbourn, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed clinical and electrodiagnostic features of 16 patients with neoplastic brachial plexopathy (NBP) and 17 patients with radiation-induced plexopathy (RBP). The groups were similar in symptom-free interval after cancer diagnosis and location of the plexus lesions. NBP patients had pain and Horner's syndrome; RBP patients had paresthesias, but rarely Horner's. NBP patients presented earlier after symptom onset and had a shorter course. RBP patients more frequently had abnormal sensory and normal motor nerve conduction studies and characteristically had fasciculations or myokymia on EMG

  3. Neurolysis and myocutaneous flap for radiation induced brachial plexus neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirachi, Kazuhiko; Minami, Akio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Yasuhiko; Ohnishi, Nobuki

    1998-01-01

    Surgical treatment for radiation induced brachial plexus neuropathy is difficult. We followed 9 patients of radiation induced brachial plexus neuropathy who were surgically treated with neurolysis and myocutaneous flap coverage. Their ages ranged from 29 to 72 years old. Their diagnoses were breast cancer in 6 patients, lingual cancer in 1, thyroid cancer in 1 and malignant lymphoma in 1. Total dose of radiation ranged from 44 to 240 Gy. Interval from radiation therapy to our surgery ranged from 1 to 18 years (mean 6.7 years). Chief complaints were dysesthesia in 9 patients, motor weakness in 7 patients and dullach in scar formation of radiated skin in 7 patients. Preoperative neural functions were slight palsy in 1, moderate palsy in 5 and complete palsy in 3. In surgical treatment, neurolysis of the brachial plexus was done and it was covered by latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. We evaluated about dysesthesia and motor recovery after treatment for neuropathy. Follow up periods ranged from 1 to 11 years (average in 5 years). Dysesthesia improved in 6 patients and got worse in 3 patients. Motor weakness recovered in only 2 patients and got worse in 7 patients. From our results, intolerable dysesthesia which was first complaint of these patients improved. But motor function had not recovered. Our treatment was thought to be effective for extraneural factor like an compression neuropathy by scar formation and poor vascularity. But it was not effective for intraneural damage by radiation therapy. (author)

  4. Ulnar Artery Compression: A Feasible and Effective Approach to Prevent the Radial Artery Occlusion after Coronary Intervention

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    Jun Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radial artery (RA occlusion (RAO is not rare in patients undergoing coronary intervention by transradial approach (TRCI. Predictors of and prevention from RAO have not been systematically studied. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors of the weakness of RA pulsation (RAP and its predictive value for RAO after TRCI, and simultaneously to describe a feasible and effective approach to maintain RA patency. Methods: Between June 2006 and March 2010, all patients who underwent TRCI were classified according to the weakness of RAP after removing compression bandage with confirmation by Doppler ultrasound for the first 30 consecutive patients. Among a total of 2658 patients studied, 187 (7% patients having a weaker RAP were prospectively monitored. At 1 h after bandage removal, the ulnar artery in puncture side of all patients was blocked with manual compression to favor brachial and collateral artery blood flow through the RA until a good RAP was restored. The primary analysis was the occurrence of RAO. Results: Doppler ultrasound demonstrated the significant reduction of both systolic velocity (61.24 ± 3.95 cm/s vs. 72.31 ± 3.57 cm/s and diastolic velocity (1.83 ± 0.32 cm/s vs. 17.77 ± 3.97 cm/s in RA at access side as compared to the contralateral RA (all P < 0.001, but these velocities in ipsilateral ulnar artery (81.2 ± 2.16 cm/s and 13.1 ± 2.86 cm/s, respectively increased profoundly. The average time of ulnar artery compression was 4.1 ± 1.2 h (ranged 2.5-6.5 h. There were two patients experienced persistent RAO with a success rate of 98.9% and RAO in 0.075% of patients after ulnar artery compression was applied. The pulsation of the ulnar artery after compression was removed had not been influenced by the compression. Conclusions: After intervention using TRCI approach, the presence of a weaker RAP is an indicator of imminent RAO. The continuing compression of ipsilateral ulnar artery is an effective approach to

  5. Arterial stiffness and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Hyeon-Mi

    2014-03-01

    Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. ONE HUNDRED PATIENTS WERE ENROLLED WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE AND CATEGORIZED INTO TWO GROUPS: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS) or small vessel disease (SVD) subtype of Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Each group was divided into two sub-groups based on the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke, indicated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. Poor functional outcome group was defined as a mRS ≥ 3 at discharge. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare maximal brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) values. Twenty-four patients whose state was inadequate to assess baPWV or mRS were excluded. There were 38 patients with good functional outcome (mRS vs. 1,789.80 ± 421.91, p = 0.022), while there was no significant difference of baPWV among patients with LAAS subtype (2,071.76 ± 618.42 vs. 1,878.00 ± 365.35, p = 0.579). Arterial stiffness indicated by baPWV is associated with the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. This finding suggests that measurement of baPWV predicts functional outcome in patients with stroke especially those whose TOAST classification was confirmed as SVD subtype.

  6. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Holbrook, Monika; Hamburg, Naomi M; Shenouda, Sherene M; Chung, William B; Titas, Megan; Kluge, Matthew A; Wang, Na; Palmisano, Joseph; Milbury, Paul E; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Vita, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cranberry juice contains polyphenolic compounds that could improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. Design: We completed an acute pilot study with no placebo (n = 15) and a chronic placebo-controlled crossover study (n = 44) that examined the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease. Results: In the chronic crossover study, subjects with coronary heart disease consumed a research preparation of double-strength cranberry juice (54% juice, 835 mg total polyphenols, and 94 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo beverage (480 mL/d) for 4 wk each with a 2-wk rest period between beverages. Beverage order was randomly assigned, and participants refrained from consuming other flavonoid-containing beverages during the study. Vascular function was measured before and after each beverage, with follow-up testing ≥12 h after consumption of the last beverage. Mean (±SD) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a measure of central aortic stiffness, decreased after cranberry juice (8.3 ± 2.3 to 7.8 ± 2.2 m/s) in contrast with an increase after placebo (8.0 ± 2.0 to 8.4 ± 2.8 m/s) (P = 0.003). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, digital pulse amplitude tonometry, blood pressure, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity did not change. In the uncontrolled pilot study, we observed improved brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (7.7 ± 2.9% to 8.7 ± 3.1%, P = 0.01) and digital pulse amplitude tonometry ratio (0.10 ± 0.12 to 0.23 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) 4 h after consumption of a single 480-mL portion of cranberry juice. Conclusions: Chronic cranberry juice consumption reduced carotid femoral pulse wave velocity—a clinically relevant measure of arterial stiffness. The uncontrolled pilot study suggested an acute benefit; however, no chronic effect on measures of

  7. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and related risk factors in Turkish elders

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    Yesilkayali Teoman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that prevalence of peripheral arterial disease being a widespread atherosclerotic vascular disease increases by age. On the other hand, no comprehensive study showing the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in Turkish elders is seen. In this study, it is aimed to assess prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and related risk factors in Turkish elders in primary health center. Methods 507 elderly staying at Narlidere Geriatric Care Center and Residential Home and accepting to participate in the study were included in the study. Epidemiological data for diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease, risk factors, findings of physical examination and ankle brachial index measurements were assessed in the study. Data were analyzed in terms of prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, age and gender relation and other cardiovascular risk factors. Results Of the participants, 317 (62.5% were female. The mean age was 77.61 ± 6.93 years (62-102. The most wide-spread chronic diseases in elderly included hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia and Type 2 DM, respectively. On the other hand, only 7 (1.4% elderly were diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease. The number of elderly ABI of whom was measured as Conclusions Peripheral arterial disease is expected to be seen prevailing in elderly. However, it was determined at very low rate before the study due to the fact that the disease cannot be diagnosed clinically especially in early-period. Peripheral arterial disease determined in the study is lower than expected as per the age group. This can be associated with practices of geriatrics nursing and family practice including continuous care to reduce cardiovascular risk factors of patients staying at the unit.

  8. Severe upper extremity polyneuropathy due to inferior brachial plexus compression as a result of left subclavian artery pseudoaneurism

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    George Kosmadakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we describe the case of a 76-year-old hemodialysis patient who was admitted with clinical features of neurological thoracic exit syndrome due to subclavian artery pseudoaneurism following the insertion of a dual lumen vascular internal jugular catheter (vascath with excellent outcome after endo-arterial stent placement.

  9. Virtual embryology: a 3D library reconstructed from human embryo sections and animation of development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, M; Miura, T; Shiota, K; Minato, K; Takahashi, T

    1995-01-01

    The volumetric shape of a human embryo and its development is hard to comprehend as they have been viewed as a 2D schemes in a textbook or microscopic sectional image. In this paper, a CAI and research support system for human embryology using multimedia presentation techniques is described. In this system, 3D data is acquired from a series of sliced specimens. Its 3D structure can be viewed interactively by rotating, extracting, and truncating its whole body or organ. Moreover, the development process of embryos can be animated using a morphing technique applied to the specimen in several stages. The system is intended to be used interactively, like a virtual reality system. Hence, the system is called Virtual Embryology.

  10. CLINICAL IMPORTANCE OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION AND INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH GOUT ASSOCIATED WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

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    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the endothelium status and determine the correlation between endothelial dysfunction and glucose metabolism in men with gout associated with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Patients (n=175, all are males with gout were enrolled into the study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed in all patients. Endothelial function was studied in tests with reactive hyperemia (endothelium-dependent reaction and nitroglycerin (endothelium independent reaction in brachial artery by ultrasonic Doppler examination. The level of nitrite-nitrate and endothelin-1 in blood serum was determined by ELISA technique. Fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed as well as fasting insulin blood level was determined by immunoenzyme method. Insulin-resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated. Patients with HOMA- IR>2.77 were considered as insulin-resistant.Results. Patients with gout demonstrated endothelial deterioration associated with activation of nitroxid producing function, elevation in endothelin-1 serum level (1.36 fmol/ml [0.91; 2.32 fmol/ml] vs 0.19 fmol/ml [0.16; 0.27 fmol/ml] in controls, p<0.05 and impairments of endothelium-dependent vasodilation (6.4% [3.3; 7.3%] vs 17.8% [12.7; 23.9%] in controls, p<0.05. The revealed changes were the most marked in patients with gout associated with HT. The correlation between some endothelial dysfunction in- dices and glucose metabolism was observed.Conclusion. ABPM, brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation and glucose metabolism status should be studied in patients with gout. Complex treatment of cardiovascular diseases in patients with gout should include ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, angiotensin receptor antagonists should be used for antihypertensive therapy.

  11. Muscle mass decline, arterial stiffness, white matter hyperintensity, and cognitive impairment: Japan Shimanami Health Promoting Program study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Katsuhiko; Okada, Yoko; Ochi, Masayuki; Ohara, Maya; Nagai, Tokihisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Igase, Michiya

    2017-08-01

    There is a close association between frailty and cognitive impairment. However, the underlying contribution of sarcopenia to the development of cognitive impairment is unclear. We investigated the possible association between muscle mass decline and cognitive impairment in a cross-sectional study of 1518 subjects aged 55 years or above. We also evaluated arterial stiffness and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) as possible underlying mechanisms for this association. Two sarcopenic indices were measured: thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA; calculated by computed tomography) and skeletal muscle mass (bioelectric impedance). Muscle mass decline was defined as either the bottom 10% or 20% of participants for each sex. Cognitive function was assessed using the Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured as an index of arterial stiffness. Both sarcopenic indices were modestly but significantly associated with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in male and female subjects. The presence of WMHs was significantly associated with low thigh muscle CSA in men and with low skeletal muscle mass in women. The Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale score was modestly but significantly and positively associated with thigh muscle CSA in men and skeletal muscle mass in women. Muscle mass decline in the bottom 10% of participants on both sarcopenic indices was significantly and independently related to cognitive impairment in women. Lower sarcopenic indices are significantly related to lower cognitive scores. Arterial stiffness and WMHs could account, at least in part, for this association. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  12. The signature of fusion between the embryological derivatives of the first and second branchial arches within the ossicular chain in MDCT

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    Sherif Abdelmonem Shama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The embryological precursors of the ossicular chain of the middle ear in humans are still a matter of debate. Both classical interpretation and dual-arch interpretation are strong hypothesis. The Aim of the work was to use the MDCT in assessment of the sites of expected fusion between the embryological derivatives of the first and second branchial arches within the ossicular chain. This study was conducted on 200 normal ears. Results: The junctional zones were considered as near vertically oriented faint lines running within the malleous and incus in the axial MDCT cuts. Using fine manual manipulation of the scan planes and widow leveling, the presence of these junctional zones was confirmed in 174 sides (87%. Conclusions: The presence of the junctional zones between embryological derivatives of the first and second branchial arches within the ossicular chain at MDCT basis could support the dual arch interpretation at least in most of humans. Whatever the classical or dual arch interpretations or both are correct, the signature of such fusion between embryological derivatives of the first and second branchial arches within the ossicular chain, should be considered as normal variant and should not be mistaken with ossicular erosions, fractures or dislocations. Keywords: First branchial arch, Second branchial arch, Ossicular chain, MDCT

  13. Modelling and subject-specific validation of the heart-arterial tree system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, Andrea; Camporeale, Carlo; Tosello, Francesco; Canuto, Claudio; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    A modeling approach integrated with a novel subject-specific characterization is here proposed for the assessment of hemodynamic values of the arterial tree. A 1D model is adopted to characterize large-to-medium arteries, while the left ventricle, aortic valve and distal micro-circulation sectors are described by lumped submodels. A new velocity profile and a new formulation of the non-linear viscoelastic constitutive relation suitable for the {Q, A} modeling are also proposed. The model is firstly verified semi-quantitatively against literature data. A simple but effective procedure for obtaining subject-specific model characterization from non-invasive measurements is then designed. A detailed subject-specific validation against in vivo measurements from a population of six healthy young men is also performed. Several key quantities of heart dynamics-mean ejected flow, ejection fraction, and left-ventricular end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes-and the pressure waveforms (at the central, radial, brachial, femoral, and posterior tibial sites) are compared with measured data. Mean errors around 5 and 8%, obtained for the heart and arterial quantities, respectively, testify the effectiveness of the model and its subject-specific characterization.

  14. Ankle brachial index, C-reactive protein, and central augmentation index to identify individuals with severe atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Nikolaj; Sillesen, Henrik; Prescott, Eva

    2006-01-01

    We examined the ability of ankle brachial index, C-reactive protein and central augmentation index to identify individuals in the general population with severe atherosclerosis, diagnosed as those with ischaemic cardiovascular disease.......We examined the ability of ankle brachial index, C-reactive protein and central augmentation index to identify individuals in the general population with severe atherosclerosis, diagnosed as those with ischaemic cardiovascular disease....

  15. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis—their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark; Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. (topical review)

  16. Entrapment of Suprascapular Artery between Split Parts of Right Inferior Belly of Omohyoid Muscle - A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naina Santosh Wakode

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inferior belly of omohyoid is used as a landmark for endoscopic exploration of the brachial plexus. Variation of inferior belly of omohyoid muscle has immense clinical significance because of its relation to brachial plexus, external jugular vein, suprascapular nerve, vessels and phrenic nerve. The need to understand muscular variation is of greater importance because of the increased number of endoscopic surgeries and images for diagnosis. A number of variations of omohyoid muscle such as the absence of muscle, unusual sites of origin and insertion, and multiple bellies have been reported. Doubling or splitting of superior belly of the omohyoid has been reported several times. However, the splitting of the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle is rarely reported. Herein we report a case of unusual splitting of inferior belly of omohyoid muscle. During the dissection for undergraduate students at AIIMS Bhubaneswar, unusual morphology of inferior belly of omohyoid muscle was observed in formalin embalmed 60-year-old male cadaver. The inferior belly of omohyoid was split. Another important finding observed was suprascapular artery entrapment between the split upper and lower parts of belly of inferior omohyoid with slight indentation mark on the artery suggestive of chronic compression. This muscle is used for various important clinical procedures and is an important landmark for radical neck dissection. So, the knowledge of possible anomalies of omohyoid is important.

  17. Coexistence of bronchial atresia and bronchogenic cyst: diagnostic criteria and embryologic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, C.; Kuhn, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    We report a case in a neonate of concurrent bronchial atresia and bronchogenic cyst. An accurate, noninvasive, preoperative diagnosis of this unusual combination of anomalies was made by ultrafast computed tomography (UFCT). This case supports the hypothesis that bronchial atresia results from an event occurring in the 5th-6th week of embryological development, rather than after the 16th week as previously believed. (orig.)

  18. Clinical data for radiation embryology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.; Waesser, S.

    1985-01-01

    In 1967 a prospective clinical study was started with the aim of providing optimum counselling for married couples who desire continuation of a pregnancy despite radiation exposure at an early stage as a result of X-ray diagnostics. Recommendations were devised as to whether an interruption of pregnancy should be applied for or not. These results were discussed repeatedly. Within the framework of the prospective study, embryological examinations were made in cases of interruption of pregnancy, and clinical and genetic examinations in cases of children who had been subject to radiation stress in utero. Up to July 1st 1984 nearly 200 cases of consultations have been or are being surveyed. The children were subjected to selected longterm examinations of up to 13 years. The results of cytogenetic, biochemical -genetic, clinical, and other examinations are considered and special charactristics of interesting cases are discussed. The conclusion was drawn that the recommendation to our patients to continue pregnancy in cases of exposure to radiation in utero below 0.1 Sv, was right. Furthermore the question arose of whether this dose limit could be increased. The study will be continued. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence of fenestrated basilar artery with magnetic resonance angiography: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, L A; Villar-Martin, A; Poyatos-Ruiperez, C; Rodriguez-Boto, G; Arrazola-Garcia, J

    2013-08-01

    Fenestration of the basilar artery (BA) is a rare anatomical variation in comparison to those of the other intracranial arteries constituting the cerebral arterial circle. The incidence is difficult to ascertain and data vary according to type of series and modalities of detection. Basilar artery fenestration (BAF) has been reported in association with arteriovenous malformations, vascular variants, other developmental anomalies and neurovascular conflicts as a consequence of relations between the arterial branches of the BA and the nerves and other structures in the posterior cranial fossa. However, the real clinical interest of BAF is due to the possible formation of an aneurysm at the junction of the fenestrated segment and less frequently to the thrombosis of the vessels. With the aim to establish the prevalence of BAF in our population, we made a transversal pilot study of the first 200 MR angiographies performed on patients attending for the first time to control their base pathology (vascular or not). We have described three patients with this condition (representing a prevalence of 1.5 % on MR angiography) to shed additional light on this anomaly, two cases located at 1/3 proximal end (type 1-BAF) and one case located at joint 1/3 medium-1/3 distal end, locating distal to the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (type 4-BAF). In neither case was any other lesion found (i.e. aneurysm, infarctions, ischemia or thromboembolism). The pertinent clinical anatomy and embryological basis for this variation are reviewed, and the possible clinical implications and associated findings are discussed.

  20. Addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Recep; Bicer, Cihangir

    2017-06-26

    Research is ongoing to determine the lowest dose of local anesthetics in brachial plexus block that provides adequate anesthesia and postoperative analgesia and reduces complications related to local anesthetics. Patients 18-65 years of age who underwent upper limb surgery and who received ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block at the Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine Hospital between February 2014 and January 2015 were included in the study (n=50). Supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks were performed on Group B cases by adding 30 ml 0.33% bupivacaine and on Group BD cases by adding 15 ml 0.33% bupivacaine and 1 µg / kg dexmedetomidine. Block success was evaluated by the onset and block duration of motor and sensory block and the duration of analgesia. The block success of Group B and Group BD was 92.6% and 89.3%, respectively (P = 1.000). Onset time of sensory block, degree of sensory block, duration of sensory block, onset time of motor block, degree of motor block and duration of motor block were similar in both groups in the intergroup comparison (P > 0.05). Duration of analgesia and the operative conditions of groups were similar (P > 0.05). In the implementation of ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block, block success, sensory and motor block and analgesia duration were similar for patients anaesthetized with 30 ml of bupivacaine in comparison with dexmedetomidine+bupivacaine (when the bupivacaine dose was reduced by 50% by the addition of the adjuvant).

  1. The Use of Below-Knee Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Arterial Occlusive Disease Causing Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefberg, Ann-Marie; Loerelius, Lars-Erik; Karacagil, Sadettin; Westman, Bo; Almgren, Bo; Berqgvist, David

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy, safety and long-term results of crural artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in limbs with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI). Methods: Patients undergoing crural artery PTA due to CLI were followed at regular clinic visits with ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) measurements. PTA of the crural arteries was attempted either alone (n= 39) or in combination with PTA of the superficial and/or popliteal artery (n= 55) in 86 limbs (82 patients and 94 procedures) presenting with CLI. The ages of patients ranged from 37 to 94 years (mean 72 years). The indications for PTA were rest pain in 10 and ulcer/gangrene in 84 limbs.Results: A technically successful PTA with at least one crural level was achieved in 88% of cases (n= 83). Cumulative primary clinical success rates at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were 55%, 51%, 36%, and 36%, respectively. Cumulative secondary clinical success and limb salvage rates at 36 months were 44% and 72%, respectively. Conclusion: PTA of the crural arteries might be considered the primary choice of treatment in patients with CLI and distal lesions with localized stenosis or segmental short occlusions

  2. Dose–Volume Modeling of Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Findings From a Prospective Screening Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Daly, Megan E.; Cui, Jing; Hall, William H.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Phillips, Theodore L.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Purdy, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Data from a prospective screening protocol administered for patients previously irradiated for head-and-neck cancer was analyzed to identify dosimetric predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred fifty-two patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were prospectively screened from August 2007 to April 2013 using a standardized self-administered instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from radiation therapy was 40 months (range, 6-111 months). A total of 177 patients (50%) underwent neck dissection. Two hundred twenty-one patients (63%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Fifty-one patients (14%) reported brachial plexus-related neuropathic symptoms with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), and motor weakness and/or muscle atrophy (25%). The 3- and 5-year estimates of freedom from brachial plexus-associated neuropathy were 86% and 81%, respectively. Clinical/pathological N3 disease (P<.001) and maximum radiation dose to the ipsilateral brachial plexus (P=.01) were significantly associated with neuropathic symptoms. Cox regression analysis revealed significant dose–volume effects for brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. The volume of the ipsilateral brachial plexus receiving >70 Gy (V70) predicted for symptoms, with the incidence increasing with V70 >10% (P<.001). A correlation was also observed for the volume receiving >74 Gy (V74) among patients treated without neck dissection, with a cutoff of 4% predictive of symptoms (P=.038). Conclusions: Dose–volume guidelines were developed for radiation planning that may limit brachial plexus-related neuropathies

  3. Dose–Volume Modeling of Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Findings From a Prospective Screening Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: amchen@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Wang, Pin-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Daly, Megan E.; Cui, Jing; Hall, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson, Mississippi (United States); Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory [Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Data from a prospective screening protocol administered for patients previously irradiated for head-and-neck cancer was analyzed to identify dosimetric predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred fifty-two patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were prospectively screened from August 2007 to April 2013 using a standardized self-administered instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from radiation therapy was 40 months (range, 6-111 months). A total of 177 patients (50%) underwent neck dissection. Two hundred twenty-one patients (63%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Fifty-one patients (14%) reported brachial plexus-related neuropathic symptoms with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), and motor weakness and/or muscle atrophy (25%). The 3- and 5-year estimates of freedom from brachial plexus-associated neuropathy were 86% and 81%, respectively. Clinical/pathological N3 disease (P<.001) and maximum radiation dose to the ipsilateral brachial plexus (P=.01) were significantly associated with neuropathic symptoms. Cox regression analysis revealed significant dose–volume effects for brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. The volume of the ipsilateral brachial plexus receiving >70 Gy (V70) predicted for symptoms, with the incidence increasing with V70 >10% (P<.001). A correlation was also observed for the volume receiving >74 Gy (V74) among patients treated without neck dissection, with a cutoff of 4% predictive of symptoms (P=.038). Conclusions: Dose–volume guidelines were developed for radiation planning that may limit brachial plexus-related neuropathies.

  4. Brachial biceps tendon injuries in young female high-level tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, A; Gillson, S

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate brachial biceps tendon lesions in four young female tennis players who complained about anterior shoulder pain on their dominant side. Medical and sport's activity history, palpation of the painful zone, Ghilchrist (palm-up) test, and brachial biceps contraction against resistance were performed. The two girls who suffered from mild tenderness in the bicipital groove and over the anterior aspect of the upper arm and the shoulder joint, had tendinitis of the long biceps head. The two girls who suffered from severe tenderness just under the groove, had a partial tear in the long head of the biceps. Ghilchrist test was positive in all girls. Tennis players can have shoulder pain without clear history of trauma. Pain occurred probably as a result of technical errors or use of inadequate equipment.

  5. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with severe peripheral vascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Mirsharifi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of carotid artery stenosis (CAS in the  eneral population is not high enough to justify screening programs. This study was done to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS among patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD.
    • METHODS: Between March 2005 and February 2006, 54 consecutive  atients with severe PVD admitted at a vascular surgery unit and underwent carotid duplex scanning in a prospective study. A  uestionnaire was used to collect data concerning known risk factors. Significant CAS was defined as a stenosis of 70% or greater.
    • RESULTS: The mean age was 62.5 years (51-72. Out of 54 patients, 2 (3.7% had an occluded internal carotid artery. Significant CAS was found in 9 (16.7% and its presence was correlated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, coronary artery disease, severity of symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and carotid bruit. On multivariate analysis, only hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit seemed to have independent influence.
    • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of significant ACAS is higher among  atients with severe PVD. This patient population may indicate a  uitable subgroup for screening of ACAS, especially when hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit are present.
    • KEYWORDS: Carotid artery stenosis, duplex ultrasound scanning, peripheral vascular disease, carotid endarterectomy,
    • cerebrovascular accident.

  6. Continuous brachial plexus block at the cervical level using a posterior approach in the management of neuropathic cancer pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, J. H.; van der Vegt, M. H.; Zuurmond, W. W.; Pijl, A. J.; Dzoljic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropathic cancer pain due to tumor growth near the brachial plexus is often treated with a combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and oral or transdermal opioids. We propose placement of a catheter along the brachial plexus using a

  7. Bilateral segmental regression of the carotid and vertebral arteries with rete compensation in a Western patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, J.; Batista, L.; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P. [Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, Hopital de Bicetre, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre, 94275, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Bravo-Castro, E. [Instituto De Neurocirugia Asenjo, c/Jose Manuel Infante, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-06-01

    We report a case of symptomatic symmetrical, bilateral absence of the cavernous internal carotid (ICA) and transdural vertebral artery (VA) segments with formation of a rete mirabile. There have been similar reports in Asian patients; ours is the first in the Western population. A 29- year-old woman presented with recurrent temporary blindness and an episode of minor subarachnoid haemorrhage. Angiography demonstrated absence of the C5 and C6 segments of the ICA and the C1/2 segments of the VA bilaterally, with typical carotid rete mirabile formation to reconstitute the distal flow. Comparative anatomy and embryology show retia in several species and point to their secondary origin. The anomalies of the ICA cannot be called agenesis but rather absence since they are likely to result from perinatal disappearance of the artery rather its failure to develop. (orig.)

  8. Corpus callosum dysgenesis and lipoma: embryologic and magnetic resonance imaging aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Junior, Luiz de; Borri, Maria Lucia; Wolosker, Angela Maria Borri; Hartmann, Luiz Guilherme de Carvalho; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the major system of association fibers that permits communication of both cerebral hemispheres. Magnetic resonance imaging has improved the study of brain malformations, including the corpus callosum dysgenesis. Lipoma is a common finding in the spectrum of corpus callosum dysgenesis. The purpose of these study was to review the embryologic events and the magnetic resonance imaging aspects related to the corpus callosum dysgenesis and to the formation of the related lipoma. (author)

  9. Metformin, but not glimepiride, improves carotid artery diameter and blood flow in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Atroch Machado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of glimepiride and metformin on vascular reactivity, hemostatic factors and glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in 16 uncontrolled patients with diabetes previously treated with dietary intervention. The participants were randomized into metformin or glimepiride therapy groups. After four months, the patients were crossed over with no washout period to the alternative treatment for an additional four-month period on similar dosage schedules. The following variables were assessed before and after four months of each treatment: 1 fasting glycemia, insulin, catecholamines, lipid profiles and HbA1 levels; 2 t-PA and PAI-1 (antigen and activity, platelet aggregation and fibrinogen and plasminogen levels; and 3 the flow indices of the carotid and brachial arteries. In addition, at the end of each period, a 12-hour metabolic profile was obtained after fasting and every 2 hours thereafter. RESULTS: Both therapies resulted in similar decreases in fasting glucose, triglyceride and norepinephrine levels, and they increased the fibrinolytic factor plasminogen but decreased t-PA activity. Metformin caused lower insulin and pro-insulin levels and higher glucagon levels and increased systolic carotid diameter and blood flow. Neither metformin nor glimepiride affected endothelial-dependent or endothelial-independent vasodilation of the brachial artery. CONCLUSIONS: Glimepiride and metformin were effective in improving glucose and lipid profiles and norepinephrine levels. Metformin afforded more protection against macrovascular diabetes complications, increased systolic carotid artery diameter and total and systolic blood flow, and decreased insulin levels. As both therapies increased plasminogen levels but reduced t-PA activity, a coagulation process was likely still ongoing.

  10. Ankle brachial index and cognitive function among Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarraf, Wassim; Criqui, Michael H; Allison, Matthew A; Wright, Clinton B; Fornage, Myriam; Daviglus, Martha; Kaplan, Robert C; Davis, Sonia; Conceicao, Alan S; González, Hector M

    2018-04-01

    The Ankle-Brachial index (ABI) is a well-accepted measure of peripheral artery disease (arterial stenosis and stiffness) and has been shown to be associated with cognitive function and disorders; however, these associations have not been examined in Hispanics/Latinos. Therefore, we sought to examine relationships between ABI and cognitive function among diverse middle-age and older Hispanics/Latinos. We used cross-sectional data on n = 7991 participants aged 45-74 years, without stroke or coronary heart disease, from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Our primary outcome, global cognition (GC), was a continuous composite score of four cognitive domains (verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and mental status). Secondary outcomes were the individual tests representing these domains. The ABI was analyzed continuously and categorically with standard clinical cut-points. We tested associations using generalized survey regression models incrementally adjusting for confounding factors. Age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia moderations were examined through interactions with the primary exposure. In age, sex, and education adjusted models, continuous ABI had an inverse u-shape association with worse GC. We found similar associations with measures of verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, but not with low mental status. The associations were attenuated, but not completely explained, by accounting for the confounders and not modified by age, sex, education, and vascular disease risks. In addition to being a robust indicator of arterial compromise, our study suggests that abnormal ABI readings may also be useful for early signaling of subtle cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Brachial plexus injury in anterior dislocation of shoulder -case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brachial plexus injury in anterior dislocation of shoulder -case report and literature review. D Dhar. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Orthopaedics and Trauma Vol. 6 () 2007: pp. 37-38. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Does the Addition of Tramadol and Ketamine to Ropivacaine Prolong the Axillary Brachial Plexus Block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Can Senel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the effect of tramadol and ketamine, 50 mg, added to ropivacaine in brachial plexus anesthesia. Methods. Thirty-six ASA physical statuses I and II patients, between 18 and 60 years of age, scheduled for forearm and hand surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were allocated to 3 groups. Group R received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL, group RT received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg tramadol, and group RK received 0.375% ropivacaine in 40 mL with 50 mg ketamine for axillary brachial plexus block. The onset times and the duration of sensory and motor blocks, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, and adverse events (nausea, vomiting, and feeling uncomfortable were recorded. Results. The onset time of sensorial block was the fastest in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of sensorial and motor block was the shortest in the ropivacaine + tramadol group. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in ropivacaine + tramadol group. Conclusion. We conclude that when added to brachial plexus analgesia at a dose of 50 mg, tramadol extends the onset and duration time of the block and improves the quality of postoperative analgesia without any side effects.

  13. Effectiveness of percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy for acute or subacute thromboembolism in infrainguinal arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jung Guen; Kim, Chan Sun; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, See Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To report the feasibility and long-term clinical outcome of percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy for treating acute or subacute arterial thromboembolism in the infrainguinal arteries. Thirty limbs of 29 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study between January 2004 and March 2014. Nine limbs underwent overnight catheter-directed thrombolysis followed by percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy (PAT). Eighteen limbs underwent PAT with adjunctive selective intra-arterial thrombolysis in a single session. The remaining three limbs underwent PAT alone. Balloon angioplasty (n = 16) or stent placement (n = 3) was performed as required. In-hospital mortality and complications were estimated. The primary patency rate and the rate of freedom from reintervention were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Technical success was achieved in 28 limbs. Clinical success was achieved in 27 limbs. The mean ankle-brachial index increased from 0.17 ± 0.26 to 0.98 ± 0.19 after the procedure. Three in-hospital deaths and no major amputations were recorded. Distal embolization of crural arteries occurred as a minor complication in five limbs, but no major complications occurred. The primary patency rate and the rate of freedom from reintervention were 74.9% and 90.9% at 1 year, respectively, and 66.6% and 80.8% at 2 years, respectively. PAT is a rapid and effective method to remove a thrombus from occluded infrainguinal arteries.

  14. 24-hour aortic blood pressure variability showed a stronger association with carotid damage than 24-hour brachial blood pressure variability: The SAFAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shikai; Chi, Chen; Protogerou, Athanase D; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques; Argyris, Antonis A; Nasothimiou, Efthimia G; Sfikakis, Petros P; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Xu, Henry; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yawei

    2018-03-01

    We aim to compare 24-hour aortic blood pressure variability (BPV) with brachial BPV in relation to carotid damage as estimated by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cross-sectional area (CCSA). Four hundred and forty five individuals received brachial and aortic 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring with a validated device (Mobil-O-Graph). Systolic BPV was estimated by average real variability (ARV) and time-weighted standard deviation (wSD). In multiple logistic regression analysis, CIMT > 900 μm was significantly and independently associated with aortic ARV (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.04-1.84), aortic wSD (OR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.19-2.29) and brachial ARV (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.07-2.18), but not with brachial wSD. CCSA > 90th percentile was significantly and independently associated with aortic ARV (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.07-2.10) and wSD (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.12-2.56), but not with brachial BPVs. In receiver operator characteristics curve analysis, aortic wSD identified CCSA > 90th percentile better than brachial wSD (AUC: 0.73 vs 0.68, P < .01). In conclusion, aortic 24-hour systolic BPV showed a slightly stronger association with carotid damage than brachial BPV. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Relationship of Inflammatory Biomarkers with Severity of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Igari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The pentraxin family, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, serum amyloid P (SAP, and pentraxin 3 (PTX3, has been identified as playing a key role in inflammatory reactions such as in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examined the relationship between peripheral arterial disease (PAD and serum levels of pentraxins. Methods. This study was undertaken via a retrospective review of PAD patients with surgical intervention for lesions of the common femoral artery. We evaluated the preoperative patient conditions, hemodynamic status, such as ankle brachial index (ABI, and clinical ischemic conditions according to Rutherford classification. Preoperatively, we collected blood samples for determining the serum levels of hs-CRP, SAP, and PTX3. Results. Twelve PAD patients with common femoral arterial lesions were treated and examined. The hemodynamic severity of PAD was not negatively correlated with hs-CRP, SAP, or PTX3. The clinical severity evaluated by Rutherford classification was significantly positively correlated with the serum level of PTX3 (p=0.019. Conclusion. We demonstrated that PTX3 might be a better marker of PAD than hs-CRP and SAP. Furthermore, PTX3 might be a prognostic marker to evaluate the severity of PAD.

  16. Central Hemodynamics and Arterial Stiffness in Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Elena; Pucci, Giacomo; Cannarile, Francesca; Battista, Francesca; Alunno, Alessia; Giuliani, Marco; Cafaro, Giacomo; Gerli, Roberto; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease and a poorer related prognosis have been reported in SSc than in the general population. The simultaneous assessment of prognostically relevant functional properties of larger and smaller arteries, and their effects on central hemodynamics, has never been performed in SSc using the state-of-the-art techniques. Thirty-four women with SSc (aged 61±15 years, disease duration 17±12 years, and blood pressure 123/70±18/11 mm Hg) and 34 healthy women individually matched by age and mean arterial pressure underwent the determination of carotid-femoral (aortic) and carotid-radial (upper limb) pulse wave velocity (a direct measure of arterial stiffness), aortic augmentation (a measure of the contribution of reflected wave to central pulse pressure), and aortobrachial pulse pressure amplification (brachial/aortic pulse pressure) through applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor). Patients and controls did not differ by carotid-femoral or carotid-radial pulse wave velocity. Aortic augmentation index corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75) was higher in women with SSc (30.9±16% versus 22.2±12%; P=0.012). Patients also had a lower aortobrachial amplification of pulse pressure (1.22±0.18 versus 1.33±0.25; P=0.041). SSc was an independent predictor of AIx@75 (direct) and pulse pressure amplification (inverse). Among patients, age, mean arterial pressure, and C-reactive protein independently predicted carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Age and mean arterial pressure were the only predictors of AIx@75. Women with SSc have increased aortic augmentation and decreased pulse pressure amplification (both measures of the contribution of reflected wave to central waveform) but no changes in aortic or upper limb arterial stiffness. Microvascular involvement occurs earlier than large artery stiffening in SSc. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Valve-Like and Protruding Calcified Intimal Flap Complicating Common Iliac Arteries Kissing Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Georgiadis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular therapy for iliac artery chronic total occlusions is nowadays associated with low rates of procedure-related complications and improved clinical outcomes, and it is predominantly used as first-line therapy prior to aortobifemoral bypass grafting. Herein, we describe the case of a patient presenting with an ischemic left foot digit ulcer and suffering complex aortoiliac lesions, who received common iliac arteries kissing stents, illustrating at final antegrade and retrograde angiograms the early recognition of a blood flow obstructing valve-like calcified intimal flap protruding through the stent struts, which was obstructing antegrade but not retrograde unilateral iliac arterial axis blood flow. The problem was resolved by reconstructing the aortic bifurcation at a more proximal level. Completion angiogram verified normal patency of aorta and iliac vessels. Additionally, a severe left femoral bifurcation stenosis was also corrected by endarterectomy-arterioplasty with a bovine patch. Postintervention ankle brachial pressure indices were significantly improved. At the 6-month and 2-year follow-up, normal peripheral pulses were still reported without intermittent claudication suggesting the durability of the procedure. Through stent-protruding calcified intimal flap, is a very rare, but existing source of antegrade blood flow obstruction after common iliac arteries kissing stents.

  18. Balloon angioplasty of infrapopliteal artery in chronic lower limb ischemia with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianbo; Zhao Jungong; Zhu Yueqi; Li Minghua; Cheng Yingsheng; Cheng Yongde; Wang Jue

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the technique, successful rate and perioperative complications together with the therapy and prevention of using PTA in treating diabetic patients with infrapopliteal arterial diseases. Methods: Angiographic and clinical data of 27 patients with diabetic lower limb ischemia treated by PTA from January 2006 to May 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Rutherf0rd-Becker categories and ankle- brachial index(ABI)were evaluated before and after the treatment. The effects were compared between different lesion types (stenosis or occlusion)and between different ways of balloon technique. The complications were also analyzed, together with the primary, discussion of the therapy and prevention. Results: 24 patients showed improvement of ischemic symptoms, and 3 cases fell in failure. The intra-procedural main complications included acute thrombosis, vascular wall perforation, distal emboli resulting from plaque falling off and dissection. There were statistically significant differences between the effects of two type lesions and between different balloon methods. Conclusions: 1. The condition of lower limb arteries should be assessed carefully before operation. 2. PTA shows safe and good clinical result and ought to be recommended in treating diabetic patients with peripheral arterial diseases, especially the lower extremity ischemia. (authors)

  19. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini, Paolo; Casiglia, Edoardo; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Głuszek, Jerzy; Jankowski, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Saladini, Francesca; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Van Bortel, Luc; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP) measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP reduction. Although many methodological problems still hinder the wide clinical application of parameters of arterial stiffness, these will likely contribute to cardiovascular assessment and management in future clinical practice. Each of the abovementioned parameters reflects a different characteristic of the atherosclerotic process, involving functional and/or morphological changes in the vessel wall. Therefore, acquiring simultaneous measurements of different parameters of vascular function and structure could theoretically enhance the power to improve risk stratification. Continuous technological effort is necessary to refine our methods of investigation in order to detect early arterial abnormalities. Arterial stiffness and its consequences represent the great challenge of the twenty-first century for

  20. Brachial plexus surgery: the role of the surgical technique for improvement of the functional outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Pretto Flores

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study aims to demonstrate the techniques employed in surgery of the brachial plexus that are associated to evidence-based improvement of the functional outcome of these patients. METHOD: A retrospective study of one hundred cases of traumatic brachial plexus injuries. Comparison between the postoperative outcomes associated to some different surgical techniques was demonstrated. RESULTS: The technique of proximal nerve roots grafting was associated to good results in about 70% of the cases. Significantly better outcomes were associated to the Oberlin's procedure and the Sansak's procedure, while the improvement of outcomes associated to phrenic to musculocutaneous nerve and the accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer did not reach statistical significance. Reinnervation of the hand was observed in less than 30% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Brachial plexus surgery renders satisfactory results for reinnervation of the proximal musculature of the upper limb, however the same good outcomes are not usually associated to the reinnervation of the hand.

  1. Brachial Plexopathy in Apical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Corradetti, Michael N.; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Mitra, Nandita; Christodouleas, John P.; Grover, Surbhi; Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey L.; Stevenson, James; Rengan, Ramesh; Apisarnthanarax, Smith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Data are limited on the clinical significance of brachial plexopathy in patients with apical non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. We report the rates of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) and tumor-related brachial plexopathy (TRBP) and associated dosimetric parameters in apical NSCLC patients. Methods and Materials: Charts of NSCLC patients with primary upper lobe or superiorly located nodal disease who received ≥50 Gy of definitive conventionally fractionated radiation or chemoradiation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of brachial plexopathy and categorized as RIBP, TRBP, or trauma-related. Dosimetric data were gathered on ipsilateral brachial plexuses (IBP) contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group atlas guidelines. Results: Eighty patients were identified with a median follow-up and survival time of 17.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. The median prescribed dose was 66.6 Gy (range, 50.4-84.0), and 71% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RIBP occurred in 5 patients with an estimated 3-year rate of 12% when accounting for competing risk of death. Seven patients developed TRBP (estimated 3-year rate of 13%), comprising 24% of patients who developed locoregional failures. Grade 3 brachial plexopathy was more common in patients who experienced TRBP than RIBP (57% vs 20%). No patient who received ≤78 Gy to the IBP developed RIBP. On multivariable competing risk analysis, IBP V76 receiving ≥1 cc, and primary tumor failure had the highest hazard ratios for developing RIBP and TRBP, respectively. Conclusions: RIBP is a relatively uncommon complication in patients with apical NSCLC tumors receiving definitive doses of radiation, while patients who develop primary tumor failures are at high risk for developing morbid TRBP. These findings suggest that the importance of primary tumor control with adequate doses of radiation outweigh the risk of RIBP in this population of

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus: 3.0 T versus 1.5 T imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mürtz, P.; Kaschner, M.; Lakghomi, A.; Gieseke, J.; Willinek, W.A.; Schild, H.H.; Thomas, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •DW MRN of brachial and lumbosacral plexus at 1.5 T and at 3.0 T was compared. •For lumbosacral plexus, nerve conspicuity on MIP images was superior at 3.0 T, also visible length and mean sharpness of the nerves. •For brachial plexus, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T was rather inferior, nerve length was not significantly different, mean sharpness was superior at 3.0 T. -- Abstract: Purpose: To compare intraindividually the nerve conspicuity of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus on diffusion-weighted (DW) MR neurography (MRN) at two different field strengths. Materials and methods: 16 healthy volunteers were investigated at 3.0 T and 1.5 T applying optimized variants of a DW spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with short TI inversion recovery fat suppression. Full-volume (FV) and curved sub-volume (CSV) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were reconstructed and nerve conspicuity was visually assessed. Moreover, visible length and sharpness of the nerves were quantitatively analyzed. Results: On FV MIP images, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T was worse for brachial plexus (P = 0.00228), but better for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00666). On CSV MIP images, nerve conspicuity did not differ significantly for brachial plexus, but was better at 3.0 T for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00091). The visible length of the analyzed nerves did not differ significantly with the exception of some lumbosacral nerves, which were significantly longer at 3.0 T. The sharpness of all investigated nerves was significantly higher at 3.0 T by about 40–60% for cervical and 97–169% for lumbosacral nerves. Conclusion: DW MRN imaging at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T is superior for lumbosacral plexus, but not for brachial plexus

  3. Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus: 3.0 T versus 1.5 T imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mürtz, P., E-mail: petra.muertz@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Kaschner, M., E-mail: Marius.Kaschner@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Lakghomi, A., E-mail: Asadeh.Lakghomi@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, J., E-mail: juergen.gieseke@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Philips Healthcare, Lübeckertordamm 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Willinek, W.A., E-mail: winfried.willinek@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Schild, H.H., E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Thomas, D., E-mail: daniel.thomas@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •DW MRN of brachial and lumbosacral plexus at 1.5 T and at 3.0 T was compared. •For lumbosacral plexus, nerve conspicuity on MIP images was superior at 3.0 T, also visible length and mean sharpness of the nerves. •For brachial plexus, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T was rather inferior, nerve length was not significantly different, mean sharpness was superior at 3.0 T. -- Abstract: Purpose: To compare intraindividually the nerve conspicuity of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus on diffusion-weighted (DW) MR neurography (MRN) at two different field strengths. Materials and methods: 16 healthy volunteers were investigated at 3.0 T and 1.5 T applying optimized variants of a DW spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with short TI inversion recovery fat suppression. Full-volume (FV) and curved sub-volume (CSV) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were reconstructed and nerve conspicuity was visually assessed. Moreover, visible length and sharpness of the nerves were quantitatively analyzed. Results: On FV MIP images, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T was worse for brachial plexus (P = 0.00228), but better for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00666). On CSV MIP images, nerve conspicuity did not differ significantly for brachial plexus, but was better at 3.0 T for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00091). The visible length of the analyzed nerves did not differ significantly with the exception of some lumbosacral nerves, which were significantly longer at 3.0 T. The sharpness of all investigated nerves was significantly higher at 3.0 T by about 40–60% for cervical and 97–169% for lumbosacral nerves. Conclusion: DW MRN imaging at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T is superior for lumbosacral plexus, but not for brachial plexus.

  4. STUDY & EVALUATE THE COMPARISON OF PLAIN LIGNOCAINE AND LIGNACAINE WITH SODIUM BICARBONATE EFFECTS IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS : supraclavicular brachial plexus block is usually used to anaesthetize the upper limb for the purpose of upper limb surgeries. Drugs like Lignocaine , Bupiv a caine are used for this block and some additives are added to prolong the duration and quality of bl ockade. The present study is aimed to evaluate the comparison of plain lignocaine and lign o caine with sodium bicarbonate in supraclavicular brachial plexus block by means of the onset time of sensory and motor blockade, the quality of sensory and motor blo ckade , and the duration of blockade . METHODS : Sixty patients aged between 18 and 60 years of physical status ASA 1 and 2 undergoing upper limb surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block was performed after eliciting paraesthesia. The patients in Group I (n=30 received 25ml of 1% plain lignocaine (prepared by adding 12.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. The patients in th e Group II (study group received 25ml of 1% alkalinized lignocaine (prepared by adding 3ml of 7.5% sodium bicarbonate and 9.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. RESULTS : The present study entitled Comparison of effects of plain lignoc aine and lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate on brachial plexus block concludes that, the onset time of sensory and motor blockade is lesser with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine (4.13, 11.1minutes when compared to plain lignocaine(9.73, 21.1minutes in supraclavicular brachial plexus block, the quality of sensory and motor blockade is better with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine, the duration of motor and sensory blockade was significantly prolonged when lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate was used in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

  5. Technical note: the humeral canal approach to the brachial plexus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Frizelle, H P

    2012-02-03

    Many variations to the axillary approach to the brachial plexus have been described. However, the success rate varies depending on the approach used and on the definition of success. Recent work describes a new approach to regional anaesthesia of the upper limb at the humeral\\/brachial canal using selective stimulation of the major nerves. This report outlines initial experience with this block, describing the technique and results in 50 patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. All patients were assessed for completeness of motor and sensory block. The overall success rate was 90 percent. Motor block was present in 80 percent of patients. Completion of the block was necessary in 5 patients. Two patients required general anaesthesia. The preponderance of ulnar deficiencies agrees with previously published data on this technique. No complications were described. Initial experience confirms the high success rate described using the Dupre technique. This technically straightforward approach with minimal complications can be recommended for regional anaesthesia of the upper limb.

  6. Splenic Artery Syndrome After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: Treatment With the Amplatzer Vascular Plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, M. H.; Mogl, M. T.; Podrabsky, P.; Denecke, T.; Grieser, C.; Fröling, V.; Scheurig-Münkler, C.; Guckelberger, O.; Kroencke, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) for embolization of the splenic artery in patients with hepatic hypoperfusion after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients (9 men and 4 women) with a mean age of 56 years (range 22–70) who developed splenic artery syndrome after OLT with decreased liver perfusion and clinically relevant impairment of liver function (increased transaminase or serum bilirubin levels, thrombocytopenia, and/or therapy-refractory ascites) were treated by embolization of the proximal third of the splenic artery using the AVP. The plugs ranged in diameter from 6 to 16 mm, and they were introduced through femoral (n = 9), axillary (n = 3), or brachial (n = 1) access using a 5F or 8F guiding catheter. Results: The plugs were successfully placed, and complete occlusion of the splenic artery was achieved in all patients. Placement of two plugs was necessary for complete occlusion in 3 of the 13 patients. Occlusion took on average 10 min (range 4–35). There was no nontarget embolization or plug migration into more distal segments of the splenic artery. All patients showed improved arterial perfusion, including the liver periphery, on postinterventional angiogram. After embolization, liver function parameters (transaminase and bilirubin levels) improved with normalization of concomitant thrombocytopenia and a decrease in ascites volume. Conclusion: Our initial experience in a small patient population with SAS suggests that the AVP enables precise embolization of the proximal splenic artery, thus providing safe and effective treatment for poor liver perfusion after OLT due to SAS.

  7. Rehabilitation program for children with brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, L E; Zell, J P

    2000-03-01

    An aggressive and integrated physical and occupational therapy program is essential in the treatment of congenital brachial plexus injuries and other severe upper extremity nerve injuries. This article addresses the evaluation, identification of needs, establishment of goals, and the approaches to rehabilitation treatment for patients with brachial plexus palsy and other peripheral nerve injuries. Rehabilitative therapy can preserve and build on gains made possible by medical or surgical interventions; however, therapy is vital to these children regardless of whether surgery is indicated. The therapist uses a problem-solving approach to evaluate the patient and select appropriate occupational and physical therapy treatment modalities. Therapy is continually adjusted based on each child's unique needs. An understanding of the therapy principles aids in making appropriate referrals and prescriptions, and helps to coordinate care between the therapist, pediatrician, neurologist, and surgeon.

  8. Subscapularis slide correction of the shoulder internal rotation contracture after brachial plexus birth injury: technique and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerman, Igor; Valencia, Herbert; DiTaranto, Patricia; DelSole, Edward M; Glait, Sergio; Price, Andrew E; Grossman, John A I

    2013-03-01

    Internal rotation contracture is the most common shoulder deformity in patients with brachial plexus birth injury. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the indications, technique, and results of the subscapularis slide procedure. The technique involves the release of the subscapularis muscle origin off the scapula, with preservation of anterior shoulder structures. A standard postoperative protocol is used in all patients and includes a modified shoulder spica with the shoulder held in 60 degrees of external rotation and 30 degrees of abduction, aggressive occupational and physical therapy, and subsequent shoulder manipulation under anesthesia with botulinum toxin injections as needed. Seventy-one patients at 2 institutions treated with subscapularis slide between 1997 and 2010, with minimum follow-up of 39.2 months, were identified. Patients were divided into 5 groups based on the index procedure performed: subscapularis slide alone (group 1); subscapularis slide with a simultaneous microsurgical reconstruction (group 2); primary microsurgical brachial plexus reconstruction followed later by a subscapularis slide (group 3); primary microsurgical brachial plexus reconstruction followed later by a subscapularis slide combined with tendon transfers for shoulder external rotation (group 4); and subscapularis slide with simultaneous tendon transfers, with no prior brachial plexus surgery (group 5). Full passive external rotation equivalent to the contralateral side was achieved in the operating room in all cases. No cases resulted in anterior instability or internal rotation deficit. Internal rotation contracture of the shoulder after brachial plexus birth injury can be effectively managed with the technique of subscapularis slide.

  9. Non invasive diagnostic methods for better screening of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Neelamshobha; Periyasamy, R; Kumar, Awanish

    2018-05-16

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to extremities usually legs. It does not receive enough blood flow to keep up with demand. This causes symptoms, most notably leg pain while walking which is known as claudication. It is a common manifestation of type II Diabetes, but the relationship between other vascular diseases and lower limb (LL)-PAD has been poorly understood and investigated. When assessing a patient with clinically LLPAD, two questions are in order to establish a diagnosis: one is non-invasive testing and other is invasive. Invasive methods are painful and get so bad that some people need to have a leg surgery. People with Diabetes are at increased risk for amputation and it is used only when the damage is very severe. Diagnosis of LLPAD begins with a physical examination, patient history, certain questionnaire and non invasive mode of diagnosis is started for the screening of patients. Clinicians check for weak pulses in the legs and then decide for further diagnosis. Paper discusses the prevalence of LLPAD worldwide and in India along with the clinical effectiveness and limitations of these methods in case of Diabetes. The focus of this review is to discuss only those non invasive methods which are widely used for screening of LLPAD like Ankle brachial index (ABI), Toe brachial Index (TBI), and use of photoplethysmogram (PPG) specially in case of Diabetic patients. Also, this paper gives an overview of the work done using ABI, TBI, and PPG for detection of LLPAD. These tests are not painful and could be performed in a cost-effective manner to avoid delays in screening/diagnosis and also reduce costs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Fracture and Collapse of Balloon-Expandable Stents in the Bilateral Common Iliac Arteries Due to Shiatsu Massage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihashi, Shigeo, E-mail: shigeoichihashi@yahoo.co.jp; Higashiura, Wataru; Itoh, Hirofumi; Sakaguchi, Shoji; Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    We report a case of stent fracture and collapse of balloon-expandable stents caused by shiatsu massage. A 76-year-old man presented with complaints of intermittent claudication of the right lower extremity. Stenoses of the bilateral common iliac arteries (CIAs) were detected. Balloon-expandable stents were deployed in both CIAs, resulting in resolution of symptoms. Five months later, pelvis x-ray showed collapse of both stents. Despite the stent collapse, the patient was asymptomatic, and his ankle brachial index values were within the normal range. Further history showed that the patient underwent daily shiatsu therapy in the umbilical region, which may have triggered collapse of the stent. Physicians should advise patients to avoid compression of the abdominal wall after implantation of a stent in the iliac artery.

  11. Fracture and Collapse of Balloon-Expandable Stents in the Bilateral Common Iliac Arteries Due to Shiatsu Massage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, Shigeo; Higashiura, Wataru; Itoh, Hirofumi; Sakaguchi, Shoji; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of stent fracture and collapse of balloon-expandable stents caused by shiatsu massage. A 76-year-old man presented with complaints of intermittent claudication of the right lower extremity. Stenoses of the bilateral common iliac arteries (CIAs) were detected. Balloon-expandable stents were deployed in both CIAs, resulting in resolution of symptoms. Five months later, pelvis x-ray showed collapse of both stents. Despite the stent collapse, the patient was asymptomatic, and his ankle brachial index values were within the normal range. Further history showed that the patient underwent daily shiatsu therapy in the umbilical region, which may have triggered collapse of the stent. Physicians should advise patients to avoid compression of the abdominal wall after implantation of a stent in the iliac artery.

  12. From experimental imaging techniques to virtual embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, Wolfgang J; Tassy, Olivier; Darras, Sébastien; Geyer, Stefan H; Thieffry, Denis

    2004-01-01

    Modern embryology increasingly relies on descriptive and functional three dimensional (3D) and four dimensional (4D) analysis of physically, optically, or virtually sectioned specimens. To cope with the technical requirements, new methods for high detailed in vivo imaging, as well as the generation of high resolution digital volume data sets for the accurate visualisation of transgene activity and gene product presence, in the context of embryo morphology, were recently developed and are under construction. These methods profoundly change the scientific applicability, appearance and style of modern embryo representations. In this paper, we present an overview of the emerging techniques to create, visualise and administrate embryo representations (databases, digital data sets, 3-4D embryo reconstructions, models, etc.), and discuss the implications of these new methods on the work of modern embryologists, including, research, teaching, the selection of specific model organisms, and potential collaborators.

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene therapy improves nerve regeneration in a model of obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Matthias; Holzbach, Thomas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Schlegel, Jürgen; Giunta, Riccardo E

    2015-03-01

    The treatment of obstetric brachial plexus palsy has been limited to conservative therapies and surgical reconstruction of peripheral nerves. In addition to the damage of the brachial plexus itself, it also leads to a loss of the corresponding motoneurons in the spinal cord, which raises the need for supportive strategies that take the participation of the central nervous system into account. Based on the protective and regenerative effects of VEGF on neural tissue, our aim was to analyse the effect on nerve regeneration by adenoviral gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postpartum nerve injury of the brachial plexus in rats. In the present study, we induced a selective crush injury to the left spinal roots C5 and C6 in 18 rats within 24 hours after birth and examined the effect of VEGF-gene therapy on nerve regeneration. For gene transduction an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF165 (AdCMV.VEGF165) was used. In a period of 11 weeks, starting 3 weeks post-operatively, functional regeneration was assessed weekly by behavioural analysis and force measurement of the upper limb. Morphometric evaluation was carried out 8 months post-operatively and consisted of a histological examination of the deltoid muscle and the brachial plexus according to defined criteria of degeneration. In addition, atrophy of the deltoid muscle was evaluated by weight determination comparing the left with the right side. VEGF expression in the brachial plexus was quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore the motoneurons of the spinal cord segment C5 were counted comparing the left with the right side. On the functional level, VEGF-treated animals showed faster nerve regeneration. It was found less degeneration and smaller mass reduction of the deltoid muscle in VEGF-treated animals. We observed significantly less degeneration of the brachial plexus and a greater number of surviving motoneurons (P reason for these effects. The clinical use

  14. Ultra-endurance sports have no negative impact on indices of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Brugger, Nicolas; Schäfer, Daniela; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Marathon running has been linked with higher arterial stiffness. Blood pressure is a major contributor to pulse wave velocity (PWV). We examined indices of arterial stiffness with a blood pressure-independent method in marathon runners and ultra-endurance athletes. Male normotensive amateur runners were allocated to three groups according to former participation in competitions: group I (recreational athletes), group II (marathon runners) and group III (ultra-endurance athletes). Indices of arterial stiffness were measured with a non-invasive device (VaSera VS-1500N, Fukuda Denshi, Japan) to determine the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, primary endpoint) and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV). Lifetime training hours were calculated. Cumulative competitions were expressed as marathon equivalents. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine predictors for CAVI and baPWV. Measurements of arterial stiffness were performed in 51 subjects (mean age 44.6 ± 1.2 years): group I (n = 16), group II (n = 19) and group III (n = 16). No between-group differences existed in age, anthropometric characteristics and resting BP. CAVI and baPWV were comparable between all groups (P = 0.604 and P = 0.947, respectively). In linear regression analysis, age was the only independent predictor for CAVI (R(2) = 0.239, β = 0.455, P = 0.001). Systolic BP was significantly associated with baPWV (R(2) = 0.225, β = 0.403, P = 0.004). In middle-aged normotensive athletes marathon running and ultra-endurance sports had no negative impact on arterial stiffness.

  15. Effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, Yusuf; Altiparmak, Ibrahim Halil; Erkus, Muslihittin Emre; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kaya, Zekeriya; Gunebakmaz, Ozgur; Demirbag, Recep

    2016-12-01

    To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, arterial stiffness and resting heart rate. This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Cardiology, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, during Ramadan 2015, and comprised overweight and obese males. Body composition, arterial stiffness and echocardiography were assessed before and after Ramadan. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis using segmental body composition analyser. Arterial stiffness and haemodynamic parameters were also measured. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 100 subjects enrolled, 70(70%) were included. The overall mean age was 37±7 years. No significant changes were observed in blood pressures, resting heart rate, aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index-75, aortic pulse pressure, brachial pulse pressure, basal metabolic rate, total body water, fat-free mass, and echocardiographic parameters (p>0.05 each). Although aortic pulse wave velocity (m/s) and augmentation index-75 (%) decreased after fasting period compared to that of before Ramadan, these reductions did not reach statistically significant levels (8.6±1.8 vs. 8.9±1.9, and 13.6±6.6 vs. 14.7±9.3, respectively; p>0.05 each). Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body water rate, percentage of body fat mass, body fat mass, and visceral fat mass percentage were significantly reduced (pRamadan. Ramadan fasting had beneficial effects on body composition, but did not have any significant effect on arterial stiffness and resting heart rate.

  16. Dissociation of endothelial function and arterial stiffness in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussons, Andrea J; Watts, Gerald F; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A

    2009-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with cardiovascular risk but it is not clear if this is independent of obesity and insulin resistance. This study therefore investigates endothelial function and arterial stiffness in nonobese, noninsulin resistant women with PCOS. This is cross-sectional case-control study. A total of 19 young women with PCOS, with body mass index (BMI) PCOS and control subjects when assessing the following clinical and biochemical variables: blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment insulin-resistance index, lipids and oestradiol. Women with PCOS had higher free androgen index scores (5.14 ± 3.47 vs. 3.25 ± 1.42, P = 0.036). The PCOS subjects had significantly lower FMD of the brachial artery compared with the controls (6.5 ± 2.9%vs. 10.5 ± 4.0%, P insulin resistance, have abnormal vascular function, but normal arterial stiffness, when compared with age and weight matched control subjects. Whether this leads to a greater risk of cardiovascular disease requires further investigation. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. LB03.04: SPHYGMOMANOMETER CUFF CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS AFFECT TRANSMISSION OF PRESSURE FROM CUFF TO ARTERIAL WALL. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF HUMAN PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS AND DICOM DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P; Naqvi, S; Mandal, P; Potluri, P

    2015-06-01

    Sphygmomanometer cuff pressure during deflation is assumed to equal systolic arterial pressure at the point of resumption of flow. Previous studies demonstrated that pressure decreases with increasing depth of soft tissues whilst visco-elastic characteristics of the arm tissue cause spatial and temporal variation in pressure magnitude. These generally used non-anatomical axisymmetrical arm simulations without incorporating arterial pressure variation. We used data from a volunteer's Magnetic Resonance (MR) arm scan and investigated the effect of variations in cuff materials and construction on the simulated transmission of pressure from under the cuff to the arterial wall under sinusoidal flow conditions. Pressure was measured under 8 different cuffs using Oxford Pressure Monitor Sensors placed at 90 degrees around the mid upper arm of a healthy male. Each cuff was inflated 3 times to 155 mmHg and then deflated to zero with 90 seconds between inflations. Young's modulus, flexural rigidity and thickness of each cuff was measured.Using DICOM data from the MR scan of the arm, a 3D model was derived using ScanIP and imported into Abaqus for Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Published mechanical properties of arm tissues and geometric non-linearity were assumed. The measured sub-cuff pressures were applied to the simulated arm and pressure was calculated around the brachial arterial wall. which was loaded with a sinusoidal pressure of 125/85 mmHg. FEA estimates of pressure around the brachial artery cuffs varied by up to 27 mmHg SBP and 17 mmHg DBP with different cuffs. Pressures within the cuffs varied up to 27 mmHg. Pressure transmission from the cuff to the arterial surface achieved a 95% transmission ratio with one rubber-bladdered cuff but varied between 76 and 88% for the others. Non-uniform pressure distribution around the arterial wall was strongly related to cuff fabric elastic modulus. Identical size cuffs with a separate rubber bladder produced peri-arterial

  18. Comparison between angiographic and arterial duplex ultrasound assessment of tibial arteries in patients with peripheral arterial disease: on behalf of the Joint Endovascular and Non-Invasive Assessment of LImb Perfusion (JENALI) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Saab, Fadi; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry; Karenko, Barbara; McGoff, Theresa; Heaney, Carmen; Sevensma, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    Endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) involving the tibial arteries is becoming an increasingly important part of revascularization. The current anatomical description of vessel patency in tibial arteries does not contribute effectively to therapeutic strategies. The Joint Endovascular and Non-Invasive Assessment of Limb Perfusion (JENALI) score, is a novel scoring system developed to further assess patency of tibial arteries, via both angiography and arterial duplex ultrasonography. A comparison was made between the JENALI score obtained by ultrasound and by angiography. Angiography is currently considered the gold standard of tibial artery imaging. This prospective single-center study involved 49 patients undergoing peripheral angiography for evaluation of PAD, between November 2011 and November 2012. All patients underwent a detailed ultrasound assessment of the tibial arteries ± 7 days from diagnostic angiography. Eligible patients had a Rutherford score ≥ III or abnormal ankle-brachial index values. Angiography and ultrasound were evaluated in a blinded fashion. Average age of patients was 69.8 years. A total of 846 segments were assessed by both angiography and ultrasound. We found that 648 segments (76.6%) were deemed to be patent by angiography compared to 723 (85.5%) by ultrasound. Critical limb ischemia (CLI; Rutherford score ≥ 4) was described in 26 patients (53%). Average JENALI score for the right lower extremity was 7.0 by angiogram vs 7.7 by ultrasound. The average JENALI score of the left leg was 6.7 by angiogram vs 7.7 by ultrasound. A total of 94 lower extremities were assigned a JENALI score. Ultrasound was accurate in detecting tibial artery patency or occlusion in 80% of segments. The overall sensitivity/specificity of ultrasound detecting tibial artery patency was calculated at 93% and 40% (P<.05), respectively. Detection of patency via ultrasound was highest for the anterior tibial artery and the lowest for the

  19. [The mark of envy: metaphysics and embryology according to Descartes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudemard, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between medicine and metaphysics in modern natural philosophy and especially in Descartes' philosophy. I argue that Descartes hypothetical account of birthmarks in connection with his embryology provides an argumentative proof of the metaphysical necessity of a substantial union between mind and body, which however does not threaten his doctrine of the real distinction between these two substances. It would appear that his argument relies on a temporal conception of alethic modalities and provides a new answer to Henricus Regius who in 1641 claimed that, for Descartes, the human being is an ensper accidens.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder in children with brachial plexus birth palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudinchet, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Maeder, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Oberson, J.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Schnyder, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    Five patients suffering from Erb-Duchenne brachial plexus birth palsy were prospectively studied with MRI. A group of 11 healthy children was used as a control to understand the MRI anatomy of the normal growing glenohumeral joint. A hypoplastic and flattened posterior part of the glenoid fossa and a blunt posterior labrum were found in all patients. Four patients had a blunt anterior labrum and a flattened humeral head. Three patients presented with a posterior subluxation of the humeral head. These results suggest that MRI provides a non-ionising and non-invasive method of demonstrating the early abnormalities of the shoulder associated with obstetrical brachial plexus paralysis, which may prompt orthopaedic correction. (orig.)

  1. Glenohumeral abduction contracture in children with unresolved neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eismann, Emily A; Little, Kevin J; Laor, Tal; Cornwall, Roger

    2015-01-21

    Following neonatal brachial plexus palsy, the Putti sign-obligatory tilt of the scapula with brachiothoracic adduction-suggests the presence of glenohumeral abduction contracture. In the present study, we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify this glenohumeral abduction contracture and evaluate its relationship to shoulder joint deformity, muscle atrophy, and function. We retrospectively reviewed MRIs of the thorax and shoulders obtained before and after shoulder rebalancing surgery (internal rotation contracture release and external rotation tendon transfer) for twenty-eight children with unresolved neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Two raters measured the coronal positions of the scapula, thoracic spine, and humeral shaft bilaterally on coronal images, correcting trigonometrically for scapular protraction on axial images. Supraspinatus, deltoid, and latissimus dorsi muscle atrophy was assessed, blinded to other measures. Correlations between glenohumeral abduction contracture and glenoid version, humeral head subluxation, passive external rotation, and Mallet shoulder function before and after surgery were performed. MRI measurements were highly reliable between raters. Glenohumeral abduction contractures were present in twenty-five of twenty-eight patients, averaging 33° (range, 10° to 65°). Among those patients, abductor atrophy was present in twenty-three of twenty-five, with adductor atrophy in twelve of twenty-five. Preoperatively, greater abduction contracture severity correlated with greater Mallet global abduction and hand-to-neck function. Abduction contracture severity did not correlate preoperatively with axial measurements of glenohumeral dysplasia, but greater glenoid retroversion was associated with worse abduction contractures postoperatively. Surgery improved passive external rotation, active abduction, and hand-to-neck function, but did not change the abduction contracture. A majority of patients with persistent shoulder weakness

  2. Comparison Between Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular and Interscalene Brachial Plexus Blocks in Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Parallel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Taeha; Kil, Byung Tae; Kim, Jong Hae

    2015-10-01

    Although supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SCBPB) was repopularized by the introduction of ultrasound, its usefulness in shoulder surgery has not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to compare motor and sensory blockades, the incidence of side effects, and intraoperative opioid analgesic requirements between SCBPB and interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (ISBPB group: n = 47; SCBPB group: n = 46). The side effects of the brachial plexus block (Horner's syndrome, hoarseness, and subjective dyspnea), the sensory block score (graded from 0 [no cold sensation] to 100 [intact sensation] using an alcohol swab) for each of the 5 dermatomes (C5-C8 and T1), and the motor block score (graded from 0 [complete paralysis] to 6 [normal muscle force]) for muscle forces corresponding to the radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous nerves were evaluated 20 min after the brachial plexus block. Fentanyl was administered in 50 μg increments when the patients complained of pain that was not relieved by the brachial plexus block. There were no conversions to general anesthesia due to a failed brachial plexus block. The sensory block scores for the C5 to C8 dermatomes were significantly lower in the ISBPB group. However, the percentage of patients who received fentanyl was comparable between the 2 groups (27.7% [ISBPB group] and 30.4% [SCBPB group], P = 0.77). SCBPB produced significantly lower motor block scores for the radial, ulnar, and median nerves than did ISBPB. A significantly higher incidence of Horner's syndrome was observed in the ISBPB group (59.6% [ISBPB group] and 19.6% [SCBPB group], P shoulder surgery under both brachial plexus blocks. However, SCBPB produces a better motor blockade and a lower incidence of Horner's syndrome than ISBPB.

  3. Phrenic Nerve Transfer for Reconstruction of Elbow Extension in Severe Brachial Plexus Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Leandro P; Socolovsky, Mariano

    2016-09-01

    Background Restoring elbow extension is an important objective to pursue when repairing the brachial plexus in patients with a flail arm. Based upon the good results obtained using the phrenic nerve to restore elbow flexion and shoulder stability, we hypothesized that this nerve could also be employed to reconstruct elbow extension in patients with severe brachial plexus injuries. Methods A retrospective study of 10 patients in which the phrenic nerve targeted the radial nerve (7 patients) or the branch to the long head of the triceps (3 patients) as a surgical strategy for reconstruction of the brachial plexus. Results The mean postoperative follow-up time was 34 months. At final follow-up, elbow extension graded as M4 was measured in three patients, Medical Research Council MRC M3 in five patients, and M2 in one patient, while one patient experienced no measurable recovery (M0). No patient complained or demonstrated any signs of respiratory insufficiency postoperatively. Conclusions The phrenic nerve is a reliable donor for reanimation of elbow extension in such cases, and the branch to the long head of the triceps should be considered as a better target for the nerve transfer. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of the hemiplegic patient with brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, J; Taft, G; Kaplan, P

    1981-10-01

    Brachial plexus injury was observed as a complication in 5 of 12 hemiplegic patients admitted over a 5-week period to an inpatient unit of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. These patients exhibited unusual patterns of muscle atrophy and return of function in the impaired upper extremity. Occupational therapists may play an important part in the diagnosis and treatment of this complication of hemiplegia by promptly recognizing its subtle clinical signs and instituting appropriate therapy. Electromyography may be recommended to confirm this diagnosis. The treatment of choice is to maintain correct positioning of the limb both day and night, to use facilitation techniques for specific muscles in order to prevent atrophy, and to maintain passive range of motion as much as possible. Prevention of brachial plexus injury depends largely on the education of patient, family, and staff as to the potential hazards to a frail extremity that has no protective responses.

  5. Accuracy of the ankle-brachial index using the SCVL®, an arm and ankle automated device with synchronized cuffs, in a population with increased cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum D

    2012-04-01

    .272; 0.291] (r = –0.055. Reproducibility of ABI measurements with the SCVL showed a difference of mean equal to 0.009 (CI 0.95: [–0.203; 0.222], without heteroscedasticity (r = –0.003. Conclusion: The SCVL is a fast and easy to use automated oscillometric device for the determination of ABI. The use of this two-synchronized-cuff device correlates well with the gold standard Doppler ultrasound method and is reproducible. The SCVL may ease the screening for peripheral arterial disease in routine medical practice.Keywords: ankle brachial index, automated device, peripheral arterial disease screening

  6. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  7. Can bilateral bronchospasm be a sign of unilateral phrenic nerve palsy after supraclavicular brachial plexus block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Chaudhuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks facilitate ambulatory anesthesia for upper limb surgeries. Unilateral phrenic nerve blockade is a common complication after interscalene brachial plexus block, rather than the supraclavicular block. We report a case of severe respiratory distress and bilateral bronchospasm following ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Patient did not have clinical features of pneumothorax or drug allergy and was managed with oxygen therapy and salbutamol nebulization. Chest X-ray revealed elevated right hemidiaphragm confirming unilateral phrenic nerve paresis.

  8. Profile of children with new-born brachial plexus palsy managed in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: New-born Brachial Plexus Palsy (NBPP) is birth injury resulting from ... NBPP located from the database of the Physiotherapy department were retrieved in order to assess .... child and maternal characteristics and this were noted.

  9. A Rare Case of Esophageal Dysphagia in Children: Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia is an impairment of swallowing that may involve any structures from the mouth to the stomach. Esophageal dysphagia presents with the sensation of food sticking, pain with swallowing, substernal pressure, or chronic heartburn. There are many causes of esophageal dysphagia, such as motility disorders and mechanical and inflammatory diseases. Infrequently dysphagia arises from extrinsic compression of the esophagus from any vascular anomaly of the aortic arch. The most common embryologic abnormality of the aortic arch is aberrant right subclavian artery, clinically known as arteria lusoria. This abnormality is usually silent. Here, we report a case of six-year-old child presenting to us with a history of progressive dysphagia without respiratory symptoms. A barium esophagogram showed an increase of the physiological esophageal narrowing at the level of aortic arch, while at esophagogastroduodenoscopy there was an extrinsic pulsatile compression of the posterior portion of the esophagus suggesting an extrinsic compression by an aberrant vessel. Angio-CT (computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery.

  10. Relationship of left ventricular, elastic and muscular arteries remodeling in patients with uncontrolled arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ya. Dotsenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uncontrolled hypertension is observed in 65-92% of hypertensive patients. It plays an important role in the development of adverse cardiovascular events and survival, which depend on subclinical target organ damage. There are reports on the relationship between ineffective hypertension control and left ventricular (LV hypertrophy or large arteries stiffness. However, the nature of the remodeling in uncontrolled hypertension remains poorly understood. Objective: to study the character and relationship of left ventricular and arterial remodeling depending on effectiveness of hypertension control. Design and method. We performed a study of 363 hypertensive patients (160 men and 203 women aged 50,8 ± 1,2 years without comorbidities, which were divided into 3 groups according to the effectiveness of blood pressure (BP control: 160 patients with controlled hypertension, 142 patients with uncontrolled hypertension and 61 patients with resistant hypertension. Uncontrolled BP based on measured systolic BP≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP≥90 mmHg. Remodeling indexes of left ventricular, elastic (common carotid and muscular (brachial artery were evaluated by the ultrasonic method. The severity and character of diastolic dysfunction, hypertrophy, types of remodeling and stiffness were assessed. Statistical processing of the results was performed using Student's t criterion and Pearson correlation analysis. Results and discussion. According to the results of the study, uncontrolled hypertension affected the development of subclinical cardiovascular lesions negatively. Thus, LV hypertrophy was detected more frequently in the third group (91,8% in resistant hypertension versus 46,8% in controlled hypertension, p<0,05. Differences in LV geometry with increasing of concentric remodeling types were also observed more frequently in the third group, where concentric remodeling and concentric hypertrophy types were founded in 14,8% and 59

  11. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriacou, P A; Shafqat, K; Pal, S K

    2007-01-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO 2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  12. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  13. Cross-sectional study of the ankle-brachial index and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Paweł; Dereziński, Tadeusz; Migdalski, Arkadiusz; Woda, Łukasz; Wąsikowska, Beata; Jakubowski, Grzegorz; Jawień, Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and cardiovascular (CV) events in the female population has been on the increase. To analyse the risk factors of a CV event and PAD in women and to assess the usefulness of the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Evaluation of selected parameters in a cohort of 365 women living in the same district. The following data were prospectively recorded: weight, height, waist size, hip circumference, smoking, the intima-media complex, ABI value, and laboratory results. PAD symptoms, CV events and neurological events were noted. ABI was analysed assuming pathology for values: ≤ 0.9 or ≤ 1.0. Age, plasma glucose level, atrial fibrillation, and nicotine addiction were correlated independently with CV disease and stroke (p < 0.001). The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, height, and systolic blood pressure were correlated independently with ABI values (p < 0.05). There was no correlation between the occurrence of a CV event in the past and the ABI, irrespective of the cut-off point for the reference value (p = NS). There is no evidence that stricter criteria for the assessment of ABI better represent the vascular status in the female population.

  14. Neonatal brachial plexus injury: comparison of incidence and antecedents between 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2011-04-01

    We sought to compare the incidence and antecedents of neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI) in 2 different 5-year epochs a decade apart following the introduction of specific staff training in the management of shoulder dystocia.

  15. Accurate diagnosis of prenatal cleft lip/palate by understanding the embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarius, Bram; Loozen, Charlotte; Manten, Wendy; Bekker, Mireille; Pistorius, Lou; Breugem, Corstiaan

    2017-01-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CP) is one of the most common congenital malformations. Ultrasonographers involved in the routine 20-wk ultrasound screening could encounter these malformations. The face and palate develop in a very characteristic way. For ultrasonographers involved in screening these patients it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of the embryology of the face. This could help them to make a more accurate diagnosis and save time during the ultrasound. Subsequently, the current postnatal classification will be discussed to facilitate the communication with the CP teams. PMID:29026689

  16. Femoral artery plaque characteristics, lower extremity collaterals, and mobility loss in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mary M; Carroll, Timothy; Carr, James; Yuan, Chun; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Kibbe, Melina; Criqui, Michael H; Tian, Lu; Polonsky, Tamar; Zhao, Lihui; Gao, Ying; Hippe, Daniel S; Xu, Dongxiang; McCarthy, Walter; Kramer, Christopher M

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the prognostic significance of specific characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured plaque in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Associations of MRI-measured plaque quantity, lumen area, and plaque composition in the SFA with subsequent mobility loss were studied in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants with an ankle-brachial index (ABI) Mobility loss was defined as becoming unable to walk up and down a flight of stairs or walk one-quarter of a mile without assistance among participants without mobility impairment at baseline. Analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, comorbidities, ABI, physical activity, and other confounders. Of 308 PAD participants without baseline mobility impairment, 100 (32.5%) developed mobility loss during follow-up. Compared to the lowest mean plaque area tertile at baseline, participants in the highest (worst) plaque area tertile had a higher rate of mobility loss (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-3.79, p = 0.018). Compared to the highest mean lumen area tertile, the smallest (worst) mean lumen area tertile was associated with greater mobility loss (HR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.20-3.96, p = 0.011). Neither lipid rich necrotic core nor calcium in the SFA were associated with mobility loss. In conclusion, greater plaque quantity and smaller lumen area in the proximal SFA, but not lipid rich necrotic core or calcium, were associated with higher mobility loss in people with PAD.

  17. Delayed radiation-induced damage to the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, R J

    1978-01-01

    Three patients are described who developed a brachial plexus neuropathy following radiation treatment for cancer of the breast. The clinical features consisted of a painless, slowly progressive sensory motor disturbance, affecting especially the hand. The latent period between the radiation therapy and the onset of the neuropathy was exceptionally long, being 8, 15 and 15 years respectively. Two patients were initially incorrectly diagnosed as having a carpal tunnel syndrome. The possible mechanisms of the insidious neuropathy are discussed.

  18. Median artery of the forearm in human fetuses in northeastern Brazil: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; da Silva, Ana Caroline Ferreira; Anunciação, Caio Barretto; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2017-01-01

    A persistent median artery is a rare anomaly. It accompanies the median nerve along its course in the forearm and is of variable origin. It is associated with other local anatomical variations and may contribute significantly towards formation of the superficial palmar arch. In embryos, it is responsible mainly for the blood supply to the hand. The objective of this study was to research the frequency, type (forearm or palmar) and origin of the median artery in fetuses, correlating its presence with sex and body side. Red-colored latex was injected into 32 brachial arteries of human fetuses until its arrival in the hand could be seen. Twenty-four hours after the injection, the median arteries were dissected without the aid of optical instruments. Among the 32 forearms dissected, the median artery was present in 81.25 % (26) of the cases, and it was found more frequently in females and on the left side. Regarding origin, most of the median arteries originated in the common interosseous artery (38.5 %) and anterior interosseous artery (34.6 %). The mean length of the median arteries was 21.1 mm for the palmar type and 19.8 mm for the forearm type. The median artery has a high rate of persistence. It is important to be aware of this anatomical variation, since its presence may give rise to difficulties during routine surgical procedures on the wrist. Its presence may cause serious functional complications in the carpal tunnel, anterior interosseous nerve, round pronator syndromes, and ischemia of the hand.

  19. Gross anatomy of the brachial plexus in the giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, P R; Cardoso, J R; Araujo, L B M; Moreira, P C; Cruz, V S; Araujo, E G

    2014-10-01

    Ten forelimbs of five Myrmecophaga tridactyla were examined to study the anatomy of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexuses of the M. tridactyla observed in the present study were formed by the ventral rami of the last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, and the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1. These primary roots joined to form two trunks: a cranial trunk comprising ventral rami from C5-C7 and a caudal trunk receiving ventral rami from C8-T1. The nerves originated from these trunks and their most constant arrangement were as follows: suprascapular (C5-C7), subscapular (C5-C7), cranial pectoral (C5-C8), caudal pectoral (C8-T1), axillary (C5-C7), musculocutaneous (C5-C7), radial (C5-T1), median (C5-T1), ulnar (C5-T1), thoracodorsal (C5-C8), lateral thoracic (C7-T1) and long thoracic (C6-C7). In general, the brachial plexus in the M. tridactyla is similar to the plexuses in mammals, but the number of rami contributing to the formation of each nerve in the M. tridactyla was found to be larger than those of most mammals. This feature may be related to the very distinctive anatomical specializations of the forelimb of the anteaters. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Timing of rehabilitation in children with obstetric upper trunk brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Volkan; Umay, Ebru; Tezel, Nihal; Gundogdu, Ibrahim

    2018-06-01

    The initiation timing of rehabilitation in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy is controversial. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation timing to the functional outcomes of patients with obstetric upper trunk brachial plexus palsy. Twenty-nine patients, who did not previously received any rehabilitation programme but attended our outpatient clinic, were included for the study. The electrophysiological findings, obstetric characteristics, and demographic features of the patients were recorded. The range of motion (ROM) of shoulders, elbows, and wrists and the strength of the muscles associated with these joints were evaluated. Modified Mallet Scale (MMS) was used for functional evaluation. A 4-week rehabilitation programme was performed twice at 2-month intervals. Patients were divided into three groups according to their ages as follows: 1-3 years old (group 1), 3-5 years old (group 2), and 5-7 years old (group 3). The ROMs, muscle strengths, and MMS scores of the patients were all evaluated. Two out of 29 patients were female (6.9%) and 27 were male (93.1%). All 29 patients had right upper extremity palsy (100%). The MMS scores, ROMs, and muscle strength of the upper extremities had improved in all the groups following the standardized rehabilitation programme. A rehabilitation programme is the best choice of treatment before surgical procedures in patients with mild to moderate obstetric upper trunk brachial plexus palsy regardless of age and the initiation time.

  1. Brachial plexus endoscopic dissection and correlation with open dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, T; Masmejean, E; Bihel, T; Lafosse, L

    2015-12-01

    Shoulder endoscopy is evolving and becoming extra-articular. More and more procedures are taking place in the area of the brachial plexus (BP). We carried out an anatomical study to describe the endoscopic anatomy of the BP and the technique used to dissect and expose the BP endoscopically. Thirteen fresh cadavers were dissected. We first performed an endoscopic dissection of the BP, using classical extra-articular shoulder arthroscopy portals. Through each portal, we dissected as many structures as possible and identified them. We then did an open dissection to corroborate the endoscopic findings and to look for damage to the neighboring structures. In the supraclavicular area, we were able to expose the C5, C6 and C7 roots, and the superior and middle trunks in 11 of 13 specimens through two transtrapezial portals by following the suprascapular nerve. The entire infraclavicular portion of the BP (except the medial cord and its branches) was exposed in 11 of 13 specimens. The approach to the infraclavicular portion of the BP led directly to the lateral and posterior cords, but the axillary artery hid the medial cord. The musculocutaneous nerve was the first nerve encountered when dissecting medially from the anterior aspect of the coracoid process. The axillary nerve was the first nerve encountered when following the anterior border of the subscapularis medially from the posterior aspect of the coracoid process. Knowledge of the endoscopic anatomy of the BP is mandatory to expose and protect this structure while performing advanced arthroscopic shoulder procedures. Copyright © 2015 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The usefulness of MR myelography for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Yasumasa; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Miyauchi, Yukio; Niitsu, Mamoru

    2002-01-01

    Myelography has been the most popular and reliable method for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury. However, it is invasive because it requires the use of contrast medium, dural puncture and exposure to radiation. In addition, it has a fault. When a nerve rootlet is not filled with contrast medium, it is impossible to evaluate it. It has sometimes been a problem in the injury to upper roots. Recently, MRI also has been used for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. But it was not until recently that it has had a high resolution to detect affected nerve rootlets. We have used MR myelography with high resolution for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of it. MR myelography was preoperatively performed in 14 cases, consisting of 13 traumatic brachial plexus injuries and an obstetrical palsy. In them, 12 cases had root avulsion injuries and 2 cases had infraclavicular injuries. A 1.5 Tesla MR system (Philips) and a cervical coil were used. Coronal sections with 2 mm-overcontiguous thickness were obtained by heavily T2-weighted sequence fast spin echo (TR/TE=3000/450). The fat signal was suppressed by a presaturation inversion-pulse. The scanning time was about five minutes. The three-dimensional image was reconstructed by using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. MIP images and individual coronal images were used for evaluation for root avulsion. In evaluation the shape of a nerve sleeve and nerve rootlets was compared on both sides. The abnormal shape of a nerve sleeve or the defect of nerve rootlets was diagnosed as root avulsion. The brachial plexus lesions were exposed operatively and examined with electrophysiologic methods (SEP and/or ESCP) in all cases. Operative findings were compared with MR myelography. Twenty-four roots had been diagnosed as normal and 46 roots had been diagnosed as root avulsion with MR myelography preoperatively. In the former only one root was

  3. Effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A prospective, randomised, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant A Biradar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different additives have been used to prolong brachial plexus block. We performed a prospective, randomised, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block as this is the most common type of brachial block performed in our institute. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologist′s physical status I and II patients undergoing elective hand, forearm and elbow surgery under brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of normal saline (group C, n=30 or 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg (group D, n=30. The block was performed using a nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade were assessed. The sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves were evaluated and recorded at 5, 10, 20, 120 min, and at every 30 min thereafter. Results: Two patients were excluded from the study because of block failure. The onset of sensory and motor blockade (13.4±2.8 vs. 16.0±2.3 min and 16.0±2.7 vs. 18.7±2.8 min, respectively were significantly more rapid in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. The duration of sensory and motor blockade (326±58.6 vs. 159±20.1 and 290.6±52.7 vs. 135.5±20.3 min, respectively were significantly longer in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline in supraclavicular brachial plexus block speeds the onset and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Distributions of the Ankle-Brachial Index among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaruddoza Doza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of present study is to observe the association between the levels of ankle-brachial index (ABI and cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north India. A cross-sectional study was carried out at a centre for heart and diabetic clinic in the state of Punjab on 1121 subjects (671 males and 450 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. History of symptoms related to cardiovascular diseases was noted, and blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was measured using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector. Subjects with ABI ≤0.9 and ≥1.30 were classified as having low and high ABI, respectively. Females had a higher BMI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (<0.001. Whereas, males had higher diastolic blood pressure and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The differences of systolic blood pressure and ankle-brachial index were not found significant between the sexes. The prevalence of low ABI (<0.9 was 4.47% in men and 4.67% in women and high ABI (≥1.30 was prevalent in 14% of men and 10.45% of women. Age, BMI, baPWV, and blood pressures were significantly associated with ABI value in both sexes. The results suggested that the ABI might be used as a strong indicator for cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  5. Increased arterial stiffness parameters in panic disorder patients in long term treatment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanartas, Omer; Sunbul, Murat; Senkal, Zeynep; Durmus, Erdal; Kivrak, Tarik; Subasi, Nilufer; Karaer, Gulhan; Ergun, Serhat; Sari, Ibrahim; Sayar, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between mental stress and cardiovascular disease has been shown in several studies. Panic disorder (PD) is also associated with cardiovascular disease due to increased risk of myocardial infarction. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between arterial stiffness parameters and depression/anxiety scores in patients with PD. The study population consisted of 25 patients with PD and 25 age-sex-matched healthy controls. Depression and anxiety levels were evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), respectively. Determination of arterial stiffness parameters was conducted using a Mobil-O-Graph arteriograph system that detected signals from the brachial artery. While baseline characteristics were similar between two groups, BDI and BAI scores were significantly higher in patients with PD (p < 0.005). The pulse wave velocity (PWV) and Augmentation Index (AIx) were also significantly higher in patients with PD (p = 0.001, p = 0.006). There was a moderate correlation between PWV and AIx with BAI scores (r = 0.442, p = 0.001, r = 0.441, p = 0.001). AIx was also positively correlated with BDI scores (r = 0.415, p = 0.03). We demonstrated a significant relationship between arterial stiffness parameters and anxiety/depression scores in patients with PD who receive antidepressant treatment.

  6. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound guidance facilitates precise needle and injectate placement, increasing axillary block success rates, reducing onset times, and permitting local anesthetic dose reduction. The minimum effective volume of local anesthetic in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is unknown. The authors performed a study to estimate the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (2% LidoEpi) in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  7. Arterial stiffness &Sri Lankan chronic kidney disease of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Fiona; Kimmitt, Robert; Herath, Chula; Webb, David J; Melville, Vanessa; Siribaddana, Sisira; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-09-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial stiffness contributes to CVD risk in CKD. In many developing countries a considerable proportion of CKD remains unexplained, termed CKDu. We assessed arterial stiffness in subjects with Sri Lankan CKDu, in matched controls without CKD and in those with defined CKD. Aortic blood pressure (BP), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were assessed in 130 subjects (50 with CKDu, 45 with CKD and 35 without CKD) using the validated TensioMed™ Arteriograph monitor. Brachial and aortic BP was lower in controls than in CKDu and CKD subjects but no different between CKDu and CKD. Controls had a lower PWV compared to subjects with CKDu and CKD. Despite equivalent BP and renal dysfunction, CKDu subjects had a lower PWV than those with CKD (8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 9.9 ± 2.2 m/s, p CKDu vs. CKD: 6.7 ± 0.9 vs. 8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 10.4 ± 1.5 m/s, p CKDu is associated with less arterial stiffening than defined causes of CKD. Whether this translates to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality long term is unclear and should be the focus of future studies.

  8. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts decline in renal function and cardiovascular events in early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Shin, Dong Il; Kim, Sung Jun; Koh, Eun Sil; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Sungjin; Shin, Seok Joon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the predictive capacity of the brachial-ankle aortic pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, for the decline in renal function and for cardiovascular events in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent a comprehensive check-up were included and were divided into two groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR): patients with CKD categories G2, G3a and G3b (30 ≤ eGFR function, the eGFR change, was determined by the slope of eGFR against time. We analysed whether baPWV was associated with eGFR change or predicted cardiovascular events. baPWV was independently associated with eGFR change in a multivariate analysis of the total patients (β=-0.011, p=0.011) and remained significantly associated with eGFR change in a subgroup analysis of the eGFR function and short-term cardiovascular events.

  9. Mice embryology: a microscopic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Maria Letícia Baptista; Lessa, Thais Borges; Russo, Fabiele Baldino; Fernandes, Renata Avancini; Kfoury, José Roberto; Braga, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we studied the embryology of mice of 12, 14, and 18 days of gestation by gross observation, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Grossly, the embryos of 12 days were observed in C-shaped region of the brain, eye pigmentation of the retina, first, second, and third pharyngeal arches gill pit nasal region on the fourth ventricle brain, cervical curvature, heart, liver, limb bud thoracic, spinal cord, tail, umbilical cord, and place of the mesonephric ridge. Microscopically, the liver, cardiovascular system and spinal cord were observed. In the embryo of 14 days, we observed structures that make up the liver and heart. At 18 days of gestation fetuses, it was noted the presence of eyes, mouth, and nose in the cephalic region, chest and pelvic region with the presence of well-developed limbs, umbilical cord, and placenta. Scanning electron microscopy in 18 days of gestation fetuses evidenced head, eyes closed eyelids, nose, vibrissae, forelimb, heart, lung, kidney, liver, small bowel, diaphragm, and part of the spine. The results obtained in this work describe the internal and external morphology of mice, provided by an integration of techniques and review of the morphological knowledge of the embryonic development of this species, as this animal is of great importance to scientific studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Neurological recovery in obstetric brachial plexus injuries: an historical cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, Agnes F.; ter Steeg, Anne Marie; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J. R.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; de Jong, Bareld A.

    2004-01-01

    An historical cohort study was conducted to investigate the rate and extent of neurological recovery in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) and to identify possible prognostic factors in a cohort of children with OBPI from birth to 7 years. All children (n=56; 31 females, 25 males) with OBPI

  11. Branchial cleft anomalies: a pictorial review of embryological development and spectrum of imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ashok; Mankad, Kshitij; Offiah, Curtis; Childs, Lucy

    2016-02-01

    The branchial arches are the embryological precursors of the face, neck and pharynx. Anomalies of the branchial arches are the second most common congenital lesions of the head and neck in children, with second branchial arch anomalies by far the most common. Clinically, these congenital anomalies may present as cysts, sinus tracts, fistulae or cartilaginous remnants with typical clinical and radiological findings. We review the normal embryological development of the branchial arches and the anatomical structures of the head and neck that derive from each arch. The typical clinical and radiological appearances of both common and uncommon branchial arch abnormalities are discussed with an emphasis on branchial cleft anomalies. • Anomalies of the branchial arches usually present as cysts, sinuses or fistulae. • Second branchial arch anomalies account for approximately 95 % of cases. • There are no pathognomonic imaging features so diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion and knowledge of typical locations. • Persistent cysts, fistulae or recurrent localised infection may be due to branchial arch anomalies. • Surgical excision of the cyst or tract is the most common curative option.

  12. Explaining daily functioning in young adults with obstetric brachial plexus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Conny; Beckerman, Heleen; Groot, Vincent de

    2015-01-01

    To study the influence of obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL) on arm-hand function and daily functioning in adults, and to investigate the relationship of arm-hand function and pain to daily functioning. Adults with unilateral OBPL who consulted the brachial plexus team at the VU University Medical Center in the past were invited to participate. Daily functioning was measured with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and the SF36, pain with VAS Pain Scales and arm-hand function with the Nine Hole Peg Test (9-HP-test) and the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Scores of the affected arm were compared to those of the non-affected arm or norm values for healthy controls. Twenty-seven persons (mean age 22, SD 4.2 years), of whom 10 men, participated. The ARAT and 9-HP-test scores for the affected arm were significantly worse than those for the non-affected arm. Moderate to severe pain in the affected arm, the non-affected arm or the back was reported by 50% of the participants. The DASH general, sports/music and SF36 physical functioning scores were significantly worse than norm values. The ARAT/9-HP-test and daily functioning showed little association. Low to moderate associations were found between pain and daily functioning. Many young adults with OBPL experience limitations in daily functioning. Pain, rather than arm-hand function, seems to explain these limitations. Implications for Rehabilitation Obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL) is caused by traction to the brachial plexus during labour, resulting in denervation of the muscles of the arm and shoulder girdle. Adults with OBPL are hardly seen in rehabilitation medicine. This study shows that many young adults with OBPL experience limitations in daily functioning. Pain, rather than arm-hand function, seems to explain these limitations. Fifty percent of the participants complained about moderate or severe pain, which was located in the affected arm, the back and the non

  13. The phrenic nerve transfer in the treatment of a septuagenarian with brachial plexus avulsion injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ye; Lao, Jie

    2018-05-01

    Phrenic nerve transfer has been a well-established procedure for restoring elbow flexion function in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury. Concerning about probably detrimental respiratory effects brought by the operation, however, stirred up quite a bit of controversy. We present a case report of the successful application of phrenic nerve as donor to reinnervate the biceps in a septuagenarian with brachial plexus avulsion injury, not accompanied with significant clinical respiratory problem.

  14. Biceps brachii long head overactivity associated with elbow flexion contracture in brachial plexus birth palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Lindsey C; Lattanza, Lisa; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; James, Michelle A

    2012-02-15

    The etiology of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy remains unclear. We hypothesized that the long head of the biceps brachii muscle assists with shoulder stabilization in children with brachial plexus birth palsy and that overactivity of the long head during elbow and shoulder activity is associated with an elbow flexion contracture. Twenty-one patients with brachial plexus birth palsy-associated elbow flexion contracture underwent testing with surface electromyography. Twelve patients underwent repeat testing with fine-wire electromyography. Surface electrodes were placed on the muscle belly, and fine-wire electrodes were inserted bilaterally into the long and short heads of the biceps brachii. Patients were asked to perform four upper extremity tasks: elbow flexion-extension, hand to head, high reach, and overhead ball throw. The mean duration of muscle activity in the affected limb was compared with that in the contralateral, unaffected limb, which was used as a control. Three-dimensional motion analysis, surface dynamometry, and validated function measures were used to evaluate upper extremity kinematics, elbow flexor-extensor muscle imbalance, and function. The mean activity duration of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle was significantly higher in the affected limb as compared with the contralateral, unaffected limb during hand-to-head tasks (p = 0.02) and high-reach tasks (p = 0.03). No significant differences in mean activity duration were observed for the short head of the biceps brachii muscle between the affected and unaffected limbs. Isometric strength of elbow flexion was not significantly higher than that of elbow extension in the affected limb (p = 0.11). Overactivity of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle is associated with and may contribute to the development of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. Elbow flexion contracture may not be associated with an elbow

  15. A clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, S F

    2012-05-01

    Competency in anesthesia traditionally has been determined subjectively in practice. Optimal training in procedural skills requires valid and reliable forms of assessment. The objective was to examine a procedure-specific clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block for inter-rater reliability and construct validity in a clinical setting.

  16. A case study and literature review of surgical treatment for brachial plexus pain caused by Pancoast syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Hang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the diagnosis and treatment of brachial plexus-associated intractable pain caused by Pancoast syndrome, along with the associated literature review, based on a patient we attended to in April 2011. A full examination was performed after his admission, and neurolysis was conducted on the right brachial plexus of lower trunk. Follow-ups and treatment evaluations were carried out 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after the initial neurolysis procedure, which was followed by a radiation therapy two months later. The patient’s pain symptoms were relieved and he partially regained sense awareness and movement of his right hand. We found that early clinical manifestations of Pancoast syndrome are atypical and are sometimes difficult to detect. It is very similar to brachial plexus injury-related pain, and the patient must be referred to an orthopaedics or hand surgery specialist for treatment. Therefore, improving medical practitioners’ general understanding of this disease is essential in order to avoid potential misdiagnoses.

  17. Good sensory recovery of the hand in brachial plexus surgery using the intercostobrachial nerve as the donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Foroni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Restoration of the sensitivity to sensory stimuli in complete brachial plexus injury is very important. The objective of our study was to evaluate sensory recovery in brachial plexus surgery using the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN as the donor. Methods: Eleven patients underwent sensory reconstruction using the ICBN as a donor to the lateral cord contribution to the median nerve, with a mean follow-up period of 41 months. A protocol evaluation was performed. Results: Four patients perceived the 1-green filament. The 2-blue, 3-purple and 4-red filaments were perceptible in one, two and three patients, respectively. According to Highet's scale, sensation recovered to S3 in two patients, to S2+ in two patients, to S2 in six patients, and S0 in one patient. Conclusion: The procedure using the ICBN as a sensory donor restores good intensity of sensation and shows good results in location of perception in patients with complete brachial plexus avulsion.

  18. Unusual Branching Pattern of the Lateral Cord of the Brachial Plexus Associated with Neurovascular Compression; Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitendra K. Loh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus consists of a network of nerves that innervates the upper limbs and its musculature. We report a rare formation of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus observed during the dissection of a 47-year-old male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, India, in 2016. The lateral cord was exceptionally long with twin lateral pectoral nerves and twin lateral roots of the median nerve. The proximal lateral root of the median nerve was thin in comparison to the medial root of the median nerve. The distal lateral root of the median nerve was thicker and followed an unusual course through the coracobrachialis muscle. In the lower third of the arm, the median nerve and the brachial artery—along with its vena comitans—spanned through the brachialis muscle. Surgeons, anaesthesiologists, radiologists and anatomists should be aware of such anatomical variations as they may result in neurovascular compression.

  19. Asociación entre enfermedad periodontal y disfunción endotelial valorada por vasodilatación mediada por flujo en la arteria braquial: Estudio piloto Association between periodontal disease and endothelial dysfunction assessed by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro J Ruiz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar la disfunción endotelial a través de la vasodilatación mediada por flujo (VMF en la arteria braquial en pacientes fumadores con periodontitis crónica avanzada y compararla con pacientes fumadores sin enfermedad periodontal, para determinar si hay diferencias en cuando a disfunción endotelial entre quienes presentan o no periodontitis crónica avanzada. Métodos: se incluyeron 30 pacientes con hábito de tabaquismo, 15 con periodontitis crónica avanzada y 15 sin periodontitis. Se realizó historia clínica completa, exámenes de laboratorio y prueba de vasodilatación mediada por flujo de la arteria braquial. Resultados: el estudio mostró que había diferencias significativas en los diámetros finales, resultantes de vasodilatación mediada por flujo (p=0,0328, con menores valores finales para quienes tenían enfermedad periodontal. Las diferencias en las respuestas porcentuales y en el número de personas con disfunción determinada dicotómicamente, no alcanzaron significación estadística. Conclusión: se observó que el grupo de pacientes con periodontitis crónica avanzada tuvo diámetros resultantes luego de la prueba que fueron significativamente menores que los del grupo de controles. Aunque al evaluar las diferencias en porcentajes no se alcanzó significación estadística, el estudio mostró una respuesta claramente menor en vasodilatación en el grupo con enfermedad periodontal.Objective: To evaluate endothelial dysfunction through flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD in the brachial artery in smokers with advanced chronic periodontitis and compare it with smokers without periodontal disease, to determine whether there are differences in endothelial dysfunction among those with or without advanced chronic periodontitis. Methods: We included 30 patients with smoking habit, 15 with advanced chronic periodontitis and 15 without periodontal disease. We performed a complete medical history, laboratory tests and flow

  20. Daily blueberry consumption improves blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A; Figueroa, Arturo; Navaei, Negin; Wong, Alexei; Kalfon, Roy; Ormsbee, Lauren T; Feresin, Rafaela G; Elam, Marcus L; Hooshmand, Shirin; Payton, Mark E; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-03-01

    Postmenopausal women have a high prevalence of hypertension and often develop arterial stiffness thereby increasing cardiovascular disease risk. Although antihypertensive drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer natural therapies. In vivo studies and a limited number of clinical studies have demonstrated the antihypertensive and vascular-protective effects of blueberries. To examine the effects of daily blueberry consumption for 8 weeks on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension. This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Forty-eight postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension recruited from the greater Tallahassee, FL, area participated. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 22 g freeze-dried blueberry powder or 22 g control powder. Resting brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressures were evaluated and arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. C-reactive protein, nitric oxide, and superoxide dismutase were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using a split plot model of repeated measures analysis of variance. After 8 weeks, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (131±17 mm Hg [Pblueberry powder group, whereas there were no changes in the group receiving the control powder. Nitric oxide levels were greater (15.35±11.16 μmol/L; Pblueberry powder group at 8 weeks compared with baseline values (9.11±7.95 μmol/L), whereas there were no changes in the control group. Daily blueberry consumption may reduce blood pressure and arterial stiffness, which may be due, in part, to increased nitric oxide production. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; van Lotringen, Jaap H; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-09-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact of endothelin receptor blockade (bosentan) on exercise-induced blood flow in the brachial artery and on pre- and postexercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients (n = 9, 60 ± 7 years old) and control subjects (n = 10, 60 ± 5 years old). Subjects reported twice to the laboratory to perform hand-grip exercise in the presence of endothelin receptor blockade or placebo. We examined brachial artery endothelial function (via flow-mediated dilatation) before and after exercise, as well as blood flow during exercise. Endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.046), but not in control subjects (P = 0.309). Exercise increased shear rate across the exercise protocol, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Exercise did not alter brachial artery diameter in either group, but endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger brachial artery diameter in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.033). Exercise significantly increased brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in both groups, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Endothelin receptor blockade increased exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow in type 2 diabetes patients, but not in control subjects. Despite this effect of endothelin receptor blockade on blood flow, we found no impact on baseline or post-exercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients or control subjects, possibly related to normalization of the shear stimulus during exercise. The successful increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients through endothelin receptor blockade may have beneficial effects in

  2. The variability of ankle-arm blood pressure difference and ankle-brachial index in treated hypertensive patients.

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    Cao, Kaiwu; Xu, Jinsong; Sun, Hanjun; Li, Ping; Li, Juxiang; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Su, Hai

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ankle-arm blood pressure (BP) difference (An-a) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are consistent in treated hypertensive patients with obvious BP variation. This study enrolled 414 hypertensive patients (200 males; mean age, 61.3 ± 13.3 years) admitted to our hospital. BP of four limbs was simultaneously measured using four automatic BP measurement devices on the day of admission, and three and six day after admission. The An-a differences on systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean artery pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP) in both sides were calculated, respectively. The relative decrease amplitude (RDA) of BP was calculated using the formula: RDA = (BP1 - BPn)/BP1. The ABI of the right side was calculated. From the first to the third measurement, arm SBP and DBP levels of both arms significantly decreased (right arm: SBP: 163.7 ± 18.4, 147.7 ± 15.3 vs. 135.4 ± 11.7 mm Hg; P differences on SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP are generally consistent, but sABI is associated with underlying SBP levels.

  3. Simultaneous inter-arm and inter-leg systolic blood pressure differences to diagnose peripheral artery disease: a diagnostic accuracy study.

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    Herráiz-Adillo, Ángel; Soriano-Cano, Alba; Martínez-Hortelano, José Alberto; Garrido-Miguel, Miriam; Mariana-Herráiz, Julián Ángel; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca

    2018-04-01

    Inter-arm systolic blood pressure differences (IASBPD) and inter-leg systolic blood pressure differences (ILSBPD) have arisen as potential tools to detect peripheral artery disease (PAD) and individuals at high cardiovascular risk. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of IASBPD and ILSBPD to detect PAD, and whether IASBPD or ILSBPD improves diagnostic accuracy of the oscillometric ankle-brachial index (ABI). In this prospective study, eligible for inclusion were consecutive adults, with at least one of the following cardiovascular risk factors: diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking habit or age ≥65. IASBPD, ILSBPD and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were measured in all participants through four-limb simultaneous oscillometric measurements and compared with Doppler ABI (reference test, positive cut-off: ≤ 0.9). Of 171 subjects included, PAD was confirmed in 23 and excluded in 148. Thirteen and 38 subjects had IASBPD and ILSBPD ≥10 mmHg, respectively. Pearson correlation with Doppler ABI of IASBPD and ILSBPD was 0.073 (P = .343) and -0.628 (P blood pressure measurements in upper limbs are not possible.

  4. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African Americans versus Caucasians.

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    Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Fernhall, B O

    2016-01-01

    African Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared with their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 wk of moderate- to high-intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men, 28; women, 36) with mean age 24 yr underwent measures of arterial structure, function, and blood pressure (BP) variables at baseline, after the 4-wk control period, and 8 wk after training. There was a significant increase in VO2peak among both groups after exercise training. Brachial systolic BP decreased significantly after the control period in both groups but not after exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups after exercise training as compared with that in baseline. There was no change in any of the other BP variables. AA had higher intima-media thickness at baseline and after the control period but it significantly decreased after exercise training compared with that of CA. AA had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and reactive hyperemia compared with those of CA, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (central pulse wave velocity) and wave-reflection (augmentation index) between the two groups at any time point. This is the first study to show that 8 wk of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AA, making it comparable with the CA and with minimal effects on BP variables.

  5. Does aerobic exercise mitigate the effects of cigarette smoking on arterial stiffness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wonil; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2014-09-01

    The largest percentage of mortality from tobacco smoking is cardiovascular-related. It is not known whether regular participation in exercise mitigates the adverse influence of smoking on vasculature. Accordingly, the authors determined whether regular aerobic exercise is associated with reduced arterial stiffness in men who smoke cigarettes. Using a cross-sectional study design, 78 young men were studied, including sedentary nonsmokers (n=20), sedentary smokers (n=12), physically active nonsmokers (n=21), and physically active smokers (n=25). Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). There were no group differences in height, body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As expected, both physically active groups demonstrated greater maximal oxygen consumption and lower heart rate at rest than their sedentary peers. The sedentary smokers demonstrated greater baPWV than the sedentary nonsmokers (11.8±1 m/s vs 10.6±1 m/s, P=.036). baPWV values were not different between the physically active nonsmokers and the physically active smokers (10.8±1 m/s vs 10.7±1 m/s). Chronic smoking is associated with arterial stiffening in sedentary men but a significant smoking-induced increase in arterial stiffness was not observed in physically active adults. These results are consistent with the idea that regular participation in physical activity may mitigate the adverse effects of smoking on the vasculature. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ambulatory arterial stiffness indices and target organ damage in hypertension

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    Gómez-Marcos Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to evaluate which arterial stiffness parameter - AASI or the home arterial stiffness index (HASI - correlates best with vascular, cardiac and renal damage in hypertensive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 258 hypertensive patients. AASI and HASI were defined as the 1-regression slope of diastolic over systolic blood pressure readings obtained from 24-hour recordings and home blood pressure over 6 days. Renal damage was evaluated by glomerular filtration rate (GFR and microalbuminuria; vascular damage by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, pulse wave velocity (PWV and ankle/brachial index (ABI; and left ventricular hypertrophy by the Cornell voltage-duration product (VDP and the Novacode index. Results AASI and HASI were not correlated with microalbuminuria, however AASI and HASI- blood pressure variability ratio (BPVR showed negative correlation with GRF. The Cornell PDV was positively correlated with AASI- BPVR-Sleep (r = 0.15, p Conclusions After adjusting for age, gender and 24-hour heart, the variables that best associated with the variability of IMT, PWV and ABI were AASI and Awake-AASI, and with GFR was HASI-BPVR.

  7. Impaired blood rheology is associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary risk factors.

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    Yagi, Hideki; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Tsunekawa, Katsuhiko; Araki, Osamu; Kimura, Takao; Nara, Makoto; Ogiwara, Takayuki; Murakami, Masami

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood rheology and endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors, brachial arterial flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), an index of endothelial function and blood passage time (BPT), an index of blood rheology, and fasting blood cell count, glucose metabolism, and plasma fibrinogen, lipid, C-reactive protein, and whole blood viscosity levels were measured in 95 patients with coronary risk factors and 37 healthy controls. Brachial arterial FMD after reactive hyperemia was assessed by ultrasonography. BPT was assessed using the microchannel method. In healthy controls, BPT significantly correlated with FMD (r = - 0.325, p index (BMI; r = 0.530, p measurement of blood rheology using the microchannel method may be useful in evaluating brachial arterial endothelial function as a marker of atherosclerosis in these patients.

  8. Arterial alterations in severely obese children with obstructive sleep apnoea.

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    Dubern, Beatrice; Aggoun, Yacine; Boulé, Michèle; Fauroux, Brigitte; Bonnet, Damien; Tounian, Patrick

    2010-05-03

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in obese adults is associated with cardiovascular disease independently of obesity. Vascular alterations exist in children with obesity and may constitute the first stage in the development of adulthood cardiovascular disease. To investigate the relationship between OSA and early arterial alterations in obese children. Cross-sectional study of a prospective cohort. A total of 51 children with severe obesity managed at a teaching hospital outpatient clinic. Polysomnography was performed. We measured the intima-media thickness and incremental elastic modulus (Einc) to assess the mechanical characteristics of the common carotid artery. Arterial endothelial function was evaluated by measuring flow-mediated dilation and glyceryl trinitrate-mediated dilation (GTNMD) of the brachial artery. A total of 24 (47%) children had a desaturation index (DI) >10/h and 7 (14%) had a respiratory event index >10/h. DI >10/h was associated with significantly higher values of Einc (4.0 + or - 0.5 vs. 2.4 + or - 0.4 mm Hg(-1) x 10(3), p=0.003) and GTNMD (18.0 + or - 1.1 vs. 14.1 + or - 1.0 %, p=0.02) after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, fasting insulin, and leptin. In the univariate analysis, GTNMD correlated positively with DI (r=0.14, p=0.02) after adjustment for age, sex, fasting insulin and leptin. By multivariate analysis with BMI as an additional independent variable, both GTNMD and Einc correlated significantly with DI (beta=0.4, p=0.02 and beta=0.27, p=0.04, respectively). OSA in children is associated with arterial alterations independently from obesity. The increased vasodilation in response to glyceryl trinitrate reflects pre-existing vasoconstriction probably induced by intermittent hypoxia. OSA should be detected early in children with severe obesity.

  9. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of canola oil on blood vessel function in peripheral arterial disease: rationale and design of the Canola-PAD Study

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    Enns JE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer E Enns,1,2 Peter Zahradka,1–3 Randolph P Guzman,4,5 Alanna Baldwin,1 Brendon Foot,1 Carla G Taylor1–31Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, St Boniface Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada; 2Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 4IH Asper Clinical Research Institute, St Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, Canada; 5Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, St Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, CanadaBackground: Individuals with peripheral arterial disease (PAD are at high risk for cardiac events due to atherosclerosis. Dietary fatty acid composition has been shown to modulate blood vessel properties, but whether a diet enriched in conventional canola oil can improve clinical endpoints in PAD is not known.Purpose: To describe the rationale and design of a clinical trial testing the effect of canola oil consumption on vascular function and cardiovascular risk factors in an 8-week dietary intervention in individuals with PAD.Methods: The Canola-PAD Study was a single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 50 patients over 40 years old with PAD. Participants were randomized into two groups and consumed food items containing either conventional canola oil (25 g/day or an oil mixture representing the Western diet (25 g/day for 8 weeks as part of their usual diet. The primary outcome was vascular function (ankle-brachial index, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, walking capacity, and cognitive function. Secondary measurements included anthropometrics, serum lipid profile and fatty acid composition, markers of inflammation and glycemic control, and serum metabolite profile.Discussion: The Canola-PAD Study uses an innovative and noninvasive approach to evaluate the effect of canola oil on clinically relevant outcomes in individuals with PAD, including

  10. Congenital absence of the bilateral internal carotid artery: a review of the associated (ab)normalities from a newborn status to the eighth decade of life.

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    Vasović, Ljiljana; Trandafilović, Milena; Vlajković, Slobodan; Radenković, Goran

    2018-01-01

    Due to the fact that the internal carotid artery (ICA) is responsible for nourishing two thirds of the brain volume, our aim was to inspect the morphofunctional consequences of the bilateral lack of this artery. In order to examine this condition, we referred to both the library archive of our Faculty of Medicine and electronic databases of anatomical and clinical reports that included the following keywords: "absence," "aplasia," or "agenesis" in combination with "internal carotid artery," "common carotid artery," or only "carotid artery." We found 60 recorded cases of the bilateral ICA absence in the subjects of newborn status to the eighth decade of life, which had been discovered in 20 countries. The following ten parameters were described: the embryological base, terminology, history, incidence, general data, differential diagnosis, collateral circulation, the associated vascular aplasia and/or other variants, pathophysiology, and the importance in praxis. This review noted all the cases of the bilateral ICA aplasia published for the past 104 years. Although there were 11.6% of cases of the associated cerebral aneurysms and 1-4 cases of 16 other diseases, approximately one quarter of the cases was without any pathology.

  11. A study of the formation and branching pattern of brachial plexus and its variations in adult human cadavers of north Karnataka

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    Sheetal V Pattanshetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: The brachial plexus is highly variable, in its formation and branching pattern thus, knowledge of its anatomical patterns, may be insufficient for the surgeon operating on or around these nerves or for the regional anesthesiologist working in this area. Therefore, the present study was an attempt to study further about variations of brachial plexus encountered during routine dissection classes. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out by dissection of 60 upper limbs of 30 cadavers, in the age group of 18 to 85 years, obtained during a study period of 2 years from the Department of Anatomy. The plexus was studied in its entire course commencing from the formation in cervical region, course through root of the neck and axilla, up to the main terminal branches of the upper extremity. During the dissection, variations of brachial plexus pertaining to its formation from the roots, trunks, divisions and cords and the branching pattern were observed and data was collected. Results: Out of the 60 cadaveric upper limbs studied for the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus, 2 limbs (3.33% were pre-fixed plexuses. Fusion of adjacent trunks was detected in 2 limbs (3.33%. Variations in branches of lateral cord were detected in 8 limbs (13.33%. Among Posterior cord variations 2-thoracodorsal nerves were detected in 2 limbs (3.33%. All the other branches from brachial plexus had been found to have no anatomical variations. Conclusion: In the present study, an attempt has been made to know the possible variations of the brachial plexus. Though the variations mentioned may not alter the normal functioning of the limb of the individual, but knowledge of the variations is of prime importance to be kept in mind, during anaesthetic and surgical procedures.

  12. [Activities and responsibilities of workers in embryologic and andrologic laboratories in assisted reproduction centers].

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    Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.

  13. Favorable effects of concord grape juice on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in healthy smokers.

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    Siasos, Gerasimos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Kokkou, Eleni; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Kollia, Maria-Eleni; Verveniotis, Aleksis; Gouliopoulos, Nikolaos; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Plastiras, Aris; Maniatis, Konstantinos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is associated with impaired vascular function. Concord grape juice (CGJ), a rich source of flavonoids, can modify cardiovascular risk factors. Endothelial function and arterial stiffness are surrogate markers of arterial health. We examined the impact of CGJ on arterial wall properties in healthy smokers. We studied the effect of a 2-week oral treatment with CGJ in 26 healthy smokers on 3 occasions (day 0 (baseline), day 7, and day 14) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Measurements were taken before (pSm), immediately after (Sm0), and 20 minutes after (Sm20) cigarette smoking. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured as an index of aortic stiffness. Compared with placebo, treatment with CGJ resulted in a significant improvement in pSm values of FMD (P = 0.02) and PWV (P = 0.04). At baseline, smoking decreased FMD in both the CGJ group (P FMD on day 7 (P = 0.02) and day 14 (P < 0.001). Moreover, at baseline, smoking induced a significant elevation in PWV in both the CGJ group (P = 0.02) and the placebo group (P = 0.04). Treatment with CGJ prevented the smoking-induced elevation in PWV on day 7 (P = 0.003) and day 14 (P < 0.001). CGJ consumption improved endothelial function and vascular elastic properties of the arterial tree in healthy smokers and attenuated acute smoking-induced impairment of arterial wall properties.

  14. Derivation and validation of REASON: a risk score identifying candidates to screen for peripheral arterial disease using ankle brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rafel; Baena-Díez, Jose Miguel; Quesada, Miquel; Solanas, Pascual; Subirana, Isaac; Sala, Joan; Alzamora, Maite; Forès, Rosa; Masiá, Rafel; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Cordón, Ferran; Pera, Guillem; Rigo, Fernando; Martí, Ruth; Ponjoan, Anna; Cerezo, Carlos; Brugada, Ramon; Marrugat, Jaume

    2011-02-01

    The recommendation of screening with ankle brachial index (ABI) in asymptomatic individuals is controversial. The aims of the present study were to develop and validate a pre-screening test to select candidates for ABI measurement in the Spanish population 50-79 years old, and to compare its predictive capacity to current Inter-Society Consensus (ISC) screening criteria. Two population-based cross-sectional studies were used to develop (n = 4046) and validate (n = 3285) a regression model to predict ABI guidelines, and similar sensitivity. This resulted in fewer patients screened per diagnosis of ABI < 0.9 (10.6 vs. 8.75) and a lower proportion of the population aged 50-79 years candidate to ABI screening (63.3% vs. 55.0%). This model provides accurate ABI < 0.9 risk estimates for ages 50-79, with a better predictive capacity than that of ISC criteria. Its use could reduce possible harms and unnecessary work-ups of ABI screening as a risk stratification strategy in primary prevention of peripheral vascular disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison between isotropic linear-elastic law and isotropic hyperelastic law in the finite element modeling of the brachial plexus.

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    Perruisseau-Carrier, A; Bahlouli, N; Bierry, G; Vernet, P; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2017-12-01

    Augmented reality could help the identification of nerve structures in brachial plexus surgery. The goal of this study was to determine which law of mechanical behavior was more adapted by comparing the results of Hooke's isotropic linear elastic law to those of Ogden's isotropic hyperelastic law, applied to a biomechanical model of the brachial plexus. A model of finite elements was created using the ABAQUS ® from a 3D model of the brachial plexus acquired by segmentation and meshing of MRI images at 0°, 45° and 135° of shoulder abduction of a healthy subject. The offset between the reconstructed model and the deformed model was evaluated quantitatively by the Hausdorff distance and qualitatively by the identification of 3 anatomical landmarks. In every case the Hausdorff distance was shorter with Ogden's law compared to Hooke's law. On a qualitative aspect, the model deformed by Ogden's law followed the concavity of the reconstructed model whereas the model deformed by Hooke's law remained convex. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that the behavior of Ogden's isotropic hyperelastic mechanical model was more adapted to the modeling of the deformations of the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Acupuncture therapy improves vascular hemodynamics and stiffness in middle-age hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenteva, Nina; Chernykh, Oksana; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Wong, Alexei

    2018-02-01

    Acupuncture (ACU) is becoming a more common practice among hypertensive individuals. However, the reported therapeutic effects of ACU in lowering brachial blood pressure (BP) are ambiguous. Therefore, evaluating more sensitive markers of arterial functioning might unveil the protective effects of ACU on hypertension. We examined the effects of an 8-week ACU therapy intervention on vascular hemodynamics and stiffness in middle-age hypertensive individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to either ACU (n = 23) or a control group (n = 22). Brachial and aortic BP, wave reflection (AIx) and arterial stiffness (SI) were measured before and after 8 weeks. There was a significant group x time interaction (P < 0.05) for brachial and aortic BP, AIx and SI which significantly decreased (P < 0.05) following ACU but not after control. ACU led to reductions in brachial and aortic BP, wave reflection and arterial stiffness in middle-age hypertensive individuals. ACU might be effective in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual health is vital to overall well-being. Orgasm is a normal psycho-physiological function of human beings and every woman has the right to feel sexual pleasure. The anatomy of the vulva and of the female erectile organs (trigger of orgasm) is described in human anatomy textbooks. Female sexual physiology was first described in Dickinson's textbook in 1949 and subsequently by Masters and Johnson in 1966. During women's sexual response, changes occur in the congestive structures that are essential to the understanding of women's sexual response and specifically of their orgasm. Female and male external genital organs arise from the same embryologic structures, i.e. phallus, urogenital folds, urogenital sinus and labioscrotal swellings. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and vestibule, with its erectile apparatus: clitoris (glans, body, crura), labia minora, vestibular bulbs and corpus spongiosum. Grafenberg, in 1950, discovered no "G-spot" and did not report an orgasm of the intraurethral glands. The hypothetical area named "G-spot" should not be defined with Grafenberg's name. The female orgasm should be a normal phase of the sexual response cycle, which is possible to achieve by all healthy women with effective sexual stimulation. Knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs are important in the field of women's sexual health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Case of Horner's Syndrome following Ultrasound-Guided Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walid, Trabelsi; Mondher, Belhaj Amor; Mohamed Anis, Lebbi; Mustapha, Ferjani

    2012-01-01

    Horner's syndrome results from paralysis of the ipsilateral sympathetic cervical chain (stellate ganglion) caused by surgery, drugs (mainly high concentrations of local anesthetics), local compression (hematoma or tumor), or inadequate perioperative positioning of the patient. It occurs in 100% of the patients with an interscalene block of the brachial plexus and can also occur in patients with other types of supraclavicular blocks.In this case report, we presented a case of Horner's syndrome after performing an ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block with 15 mL of bupivacaine 0.5%. It appeared 40 minutes after the block with specific triad (ptosis, miosis, and exophtalmia) and quickly disappears within 2 hours and a half without any sequelae. Horner's syndrome may be described as an unpleasant side effect because it has no clinical consequences in itself. For this reason anesthesiologists should be aware of this syndrome, and if it occurs patients should be reassured and monitored closely.

  19. Association between triglyceride glucose index and arterial stiffness in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bae; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Kang, Shinae; Nam, Ji Sun; You, Ji Hong; Kim, Min Jin; Kim, Min Kyung; Park, Jong Suk

    2018-03-21

    The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index has been suggested as a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance. However, there are limited data regarding the association between the TyG index and arterial stiffness in adults. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the TyG index and arterial stiffness as measured based on brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in Korean adults. A total of 3587 subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors were measured. The TyG index was calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides(mg/dl) × fasting glucose(mg/dl)/2], and the insulin resistance index of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was estimated. Arterial stiffness was determined by measuring baPWV. The subjects were stratified into four groups based on the TyG index. There were significant differences in cardiovascular parameters among the groups; the mean baPWV increased significantly with increasing TyG index. According to the logistic regression analysis after adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds ratio (95% CI) for increased baPWV (> 75th percentile) for the highest and lowest quartiles of the TyG index was 2.92 (1.92-4.44) in men and 1.84 (1.15-2.96) in women, and the odds ratio for increased baPWV for the highest and lowest quartiles of the HOMA-IR was 1.80 (1.17-2.78) in men and 1.46 (1.06-2.47) in women, respectively. The TyG index is more independently associated with increased arterial stiffness than HOMA-IR in Korean adults.

  20. Use of multidetector computed tomography angiography of upper limb circulation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

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    Hasan B Altinsoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the bilateral forehand circulation using a 64-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT as a noninvasive method to define criteria for an upper extremity arterial anatomy and pathology prior to the use of arterial conduits. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with coronary artery disease who underwent total arterial coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG were randomly selected for this prospective study. MDCT angiography was performed for 110 examinations of forearm and hand arterial anatomy. Prior to MDCT, Allen tests were performed in all patients with a normal result, except four. Thirteen patients had diabetes mellitus (DM, 8 had peripheral artery occlusive disease, and 19 had a history of smoking. Results: All arteries, including axillary, ulnar artery (UA and radial artery (RA, were clearly visualized in all patients. Upper extremity anatomical and pathological results were examined in 16 patients (29.1%. Severely calcified RA and/or UA were found in 6 patients who had a moderate renal failure. Nearly total occlusion of the RA was detected in another two patients. Focal intimal RA calcification was recorded in 1 female and 3 male patients. Ten patients who had severe calcification or intimal sclerosis of the upper extremity arteries had DM. The remaining patients had normal forehand arterial circulation. A persistent median artery with the absence of radial and ulnar arteries and a high bifurcation of RA from the brachial artery was detected as an anatomic variation in seven patients (12.7%. Conclusions: The major advantages of MDCT angiography are its non-invasiveness and the ability to detect calcific subadventitial plaques, which are difficult to diagnose using conventional angiography. MDCT may be used as a safe and non-invasive method to assess RA and UA prior to harvesting the upper limb artery. Preoperative imaging of forehand arteries is a means to avoid unnecessary forearm

  1. Ingesting a small amount of beer reduces arterial stiffness in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Masato; Kora, Naoki; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological studies reveal a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and arterial stiffness, with arterial stiffening lower among mild-to-moderate drinkers than heavy drinkers or nondrinkers. This study aimed to examine the effects of ingesting a small amount of beer, corresponding to the amount consumed per day by a mild drinker, on arterial stiffness. Eleven men (20-22 years) participated, in random order and on different days, in four separate trials. The participants each drank 200 or 350 mL of alcohol-free beer (AFB200 and AFB350) or beer (B200 and B350), and were monitored for 90 min postingestion. There were no significant changes in arterial stiffness among trials that ingested AF200 or AF350. However, among trials ingesting B200 and B350, breath alcohol concentrations increased significantly, while indexes of arterial stiffness decreased significantly for approximately 60 min: carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (B200: -0.6 ± 0.2 m/sec; B350: -0.6 ± 0.2 m/sec); brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (B200: -53 ± 18 cm/sec; B350: -57 ± 19 cm/sec); and cardio-ankle vascular index (B200: -0.4 ± 0.1 unit; B350: -0.3 ± 0.1 unit). Furthermore, AFB showed no effect on arterial stiffness, regardless of whether or not it contained sugar, and no significant difference in antioxidant capacity was found between AFB and B. This is the first study to demonstrate that acute ingestion of relatively small amounts of beer reduces arterial stiffness (for approximately 60 min). Our data also suggest that the reduction in arterial stiffness induced by ingestion of beer is largely attributable to the effects of alcohol. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic synd